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Sample records for nadph-dependent oxidoreductase genes

  1. Silencing of NADPH-Dependent Oxidoreductase Genes (yqhD and dkgA) in Furfural-Resistant Ethanologenic Escherichia coli▿

    PubMed Central

    Miller, E. N.; Jarboe, L. R.; Yomano, L. P.; York, S. W.; Shanmugam, K. T.; Ingram, L. O.

    2009-01-01

    Low concentrations of furfural are formed as a side product during the dilute acid hydrolysis of hemicellulose. Growth is inhibited by exposure to furfural but resumes after the complete reduction of furfural to the less toxic furfuryl alcohol. Growth-based selection was used to isolate a furfural-resistant mutant of ethanologenic Escherichia coli LY180, designated strain EMFR9. Based on mRNA expression levels in the parent and mutant in response to furfural challenge, genes encoding 12 oxidoreductases were found to vary by more than twofold (eight were higher in EMFR9; four were higher in the parent). All 12 genes were cloned. When expressed from plasmids, none of the eight genes in the first group increased furfural tolerance in the parent (LY180). Expression of three of the silenced genes (yqhD, dkgA, and yqfA) in EMFR9 was found to decrease furfural tolerance compared to that in the parent. Purified enzymes encoded by yqhD and dkgA were shown to have NADPH-dependent furfural reductase activity. Both exhibited low Km values for NADPH (8 μM and 23 μM, respectively), similar to those of biosynthetic reactions. Furfural reductase activity was not associated with yqfA. Deleting yqhD and dkgA in the parent (LY180) increased furfural tolerance, but not to the same extent observed in the mutant EMFR9. Together, these results suggest that the process of reducing furfural by using an enzyme with a low Km for NADPH rather than a direct inhibitory action is the primary cause for growth inhibition by low concentrations of furfural. PMID:19429550

  2. Molecular cloning and characterization of two YGL039w genes encoding broad specificity NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductases from Kluyveromyces marxianus strain DMB1.

    PubMed

    Akita, Hironaga; Watanabe, Masahiro; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Nakashima, Nobutaka; Hoshino, Tamotsu

    2015-08-01

    Two genes from Kluyveromyces marxianus strain DMB1, YGL039w1 and YGL039w2, encode putative uncharacterized oxidoreductases that respectively share 42 and 44% identity with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c NADPH-dependent methylglyoxal reductase (EC 1.1.1.283). To determine the enzymatic characteristics of their products, the two genes were expressed in recombinant Escherichia coli cells, after which the YGL039w1 and YGL039w2 proteins were purified to homogeneity. In the presence of NADPH, both enzymes showed reductive activities toward at least nine aldehyde substrates, but no NADP(+)-dependent oxidative activities. These two YGL039w proteins thus appear to be aldehyde reductases. In addition, although both enzymes retained more than 70% of their activities after incubation for 30 min at temperatures below 40°C or at pHs between 5.5 and 11.3, YGL039w2 was slightly more thermostable than YGL039w1. PMID:26223585

  3. NADPH-dependent reductive biotransformation with Escherichia coli and its pfkA deletion mutant: influence on global gene expression and role of oxygen supply.

    PubMed

    Siedler, Solvej; Bringer, Stephanie; Polen, Tino; Bott, Michael

    2014-10-01

    An Escherichia coli ΔpfkA mutant lacking the major phosphofructokinase possesses a partially cyclized pentose phosphate pathway leading to an increased NADPH per glucose ratio. This effect decreases the amount of glucose required for NADPH regeneration in reductive biotransformations, such as the conversion of methyl acetoacetate (MAA) to (R)-methyl 3-hydroxybutyrate (MHB) by an alcohol dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus brevis. Here, global transcriptional analyses were performed to study regulatory responses during reductive biotransformation. DNA microarray analysis revealed amongst other things increased expression of soxS, supporting previous results indicating that a high NADPH demand contributes to the activation of SoxR, the transcriptional activator of soxS. Furthermore, several target genes of the ArcAB two-component system showed a lower mRNA level in the reference strain than in the ΔpfkA mutant, pointing to an increased QH2 /Q ratio in the reference strain. This prompted us to analyze yields and productivities of MAA reduction to MHB under different oxygen regimes in a bioreactor. Under anaerobic conditions, the specific MHB production rates of both strains were comparable (7.4 ± 0.2 mmolMHB  h(-1)  gcdw (-1) ) and lower than under conditions of 15% dissolved oxygen, where those of the reference strain (12.8 mmol h(-1)  gcdw (-1) ) and of the ΔpfkA mutant (11.0 mmol h(-1)  gcdw (-1) ) were 73% and 49% higher. While the oxygen transfer rate (OTR) of the reference strain increased after the addition of MAA, presumably due to the oxidation of the acetate accumulated before MAA addition, the OTR of the ΔpfkA strain strongly decreased, indicating a very low respiration rate despite sufficient oxygen supply. The latter effect can likely be attributed to a restricted conversion of NADPH into NADH via the soluble transhydrogenase SthA, as the enzyme is outcompeted in the presence of MAA by the recombinant NADPH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase. The differences in respiration rates can explain the suggested higher ArcAB activity in the reference strain. PMID:24771245

  4. Identification and characterization of NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 reductase gene and cytochrome b₅ gene from Plutella xylostella: possible involvement in resistance to beta-cypermethrin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi'en; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-03-10

    NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) and cytochrome b5 (b5) are essential for cytochrome P450 mediated biological reactions. CPR and b5 in several insects have been found to be associated with insecticide resistance. However, CPR and b5 in the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, are not characterized and their roles remain undefined. A full-length cDNA of CPR encoding 678 amino acids and a full-length cDNA of b5 encoding 127 amino acids were cloned from DBM. Their deduced amino acid sequences shared high identities with those of other insects and showed characteristics of classical CPRs and b5s, respectively. The mRNAs of both genes were detectable in all developmental stages with the highest expression levels occurring in the 4th instar larvae. Tissue-specific expression analysis showed that their transcripts were most abundant in gut. Transcripts of CPR and b5 in the beta-cypermethrin resistant DBM strain were 13.2- and 2.84-fold higher than those in the beta-cypermethrin susceptible strain, respectively. The expression levels of CPR and b5 were enhanced by beta-cypermethrin at the concentration of 12 mg L(-1) (~LC10). The results indicate that CPR and b5 may play essential roles in the P450 mediated resistance of DBM to beta-cypermethrin or even other insecticides. PMID:25550052

  5. No associations between Parkinson's disease and polymorphisms of the quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1, NQO2) genes.

    PubMed

    Okada, Starlyn; Farin, Federico M; Stapleton, Patricia; Viernes, Hanna; Quigley, Sean D; Powers, Karen M; Smith-Weller, Terri; Franklin, Gary M; Longstreth, W T; Swanson, Phillip D; Checkoway, Harvey

    2005-03-01

    Reactive oxygen species derived from dopamine metabolism can induce oxidative stress and thus may contribute to Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis. The quinone oxidoreductases, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) (NAD[P]H): quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and dihydronicotinamide riboside (NRH): quinone oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2) detoxify quinones and quinonoid compounds. We investigated associations of genetic polymorphisms of NQO1 (C609T) and NQO2 (I/D, 29 base pairs) with PD in a population-based case-control study of 190 idiopathic PD cases and 305 unrelated controls matched on age and sex. No associations were detected for either gene variant or for any allele combinations. PMID:15694256

  6. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ALKANE-INDUCIBLE NADPH-CYTOCHROME P-450 OXIDOREDUCTASE GENE FROM CANDIDA TROPICALIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The gene coding for the Candida tropicalis NADPH-cytochrome P-450 oxidoreductase (CPR, NADPH: ferricytochrome oxidoreductase, EC 1.6.2.4) was isolated by immunoscreening of a C. tropicalis gtll expression library and colony hybridization of a C. tropicalis genomic library. he C. ...

  7. Catalog of 320 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 20 quinone oxidoreductase and sulfotransferase genes.

    PubMed

    Iida, A; Sekine, A; Saito, S; Kitamura, Y; Kitamoto, T; Osawa, S; Mishima, C; Nakamura, Y

    2001-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes, transporters, receptors, and other drug targets have been widely implicated as contributors to differences among individuals as regards the efficacy and toxicity of many medications, as well as the susceptibility to complex diseases. By combining the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique with direct sequencing, we screened genomic DNAs from 48 Japanese volunteers for SNPs in genes encoding three quinone oxidoreductases (NQO1, NQO2, and PIG3) and 17 sulfotransferases (SULT1A1, SULT1A2, SULT1A3, SULT1C1, SULT1C2, SULT2A1, SULT2B1, ST1B2, TPST1, TPST2, SULTX3, STE, CST, HNK-1 ST, CHST2, CHST4, and CHST5). In all, we identified 320 SNPs from these 20 loci: 22 within coding elements, 21 in 5' flanking regions, 10 in 5' untranslated regions, 223 in introns, 19 in 3' untranslated regions, and 25 in 3' flanking regions. The ratio of transitions to transversions was approximately 2.3 to 1. Of the 22 coding SNPs, 6 were nonsynonymous substitutions that resulted in amino-acid substitutions. The high-density SNP maps we constructed from this data for each of the quinone oxidoreductases and sulfotransferases examined here should provide useful information for investigations designed to detect association(s) between genetic variations and common diseases or responsiveness to drug therapy. PMID:11322664

  8. A survey of genes encoding H2O2-producing GMC oxidoreductases in 10 Polyporales genomes.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Patricia; Carro, Juan; Serrano, Ana; Martínez, Angel T

    2015-01-01

    The genomes of three representative Polyporales (Bjerkandera adusta, Phlebia brevispora and a member of the Ganoderma lucidum complex) recently were sequenced to expand our knowledge on the diversity and distribution of genes involved in degradation of plant polymers in this Basidiomycota order, which includes most wood-rotting fungi. Oxidases, including members of the glucose-methanol-choline (GMC) oxidoreductase superfamily, play a central role in the above degradative process because they generate extracellular H2O2 acting as the ultimate oxidizer in both white-rot and brown-rot decay. The survey was completed by analyzing the GMC genes in the available genomes of seven more species to cover the four Polyporales clades. First, an in silico search for sequences encoding members of the aryl-alcohol oxidase, glucose oxidase, methanol oxidase, pyranose oxidase, cellobiose dehydrogenase and pyranose dehydrogenase families was performed. The curated sequences were subjected to an analysis of their evolutionary relationships, followed by estimation of gene duplication/reduction history during fungal evolution. Second, the molecular structures of the near one hundred GMC oxidoreductases identified were modeled to gain insight into their structural variation and expected catalytic properties. In contrast to ligninolytic peroxidases, whose genes are present in all white-rot Polyporales genomes and absent from those of brown-rot species, the H2O2-generating oxidases are widely distributed in both fungal types. This indicates that the GMC oxidases provide H2O2 for both ligninolytic peroxidase activity (in white-rot decay) and Fenton attack on cellulose (in brown-rot decay), after the transition between both decay patterns in Polyporales occurred. PMID:26297778

  9. Paraquat and NADPH-dependent lipid peroxidation in lung microsomes

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, H.P.; Gorsky, L.D.

    1981-10-10

    Since there exists some controversy in the literature as to whether paraquat augments microsomal lipid peroxidation via superoxide anion (O/sub 2//sup -/), the role of paraquat and active oxygen species in NADPH-dependent lung microsomal lipid peroxidation was investigated. Incubation of buffered aerobic mixture of bovine lung microsome and NADPH, in the presence or absence of exogenously added iron, resulted in a progressive formation of lipid peroxides whose accumulation could be followed at 535 nm as malondialdehyde. Paraquat strongly inhibited this lipid peroxidation, Thus, malondialydehyde formation was 50% inhibited by 4 X 10/sup -5/ M paraquat in the reaction mixture. The malondialdehyde color development by lipid peroxides was not affected by this concentration of paraquat. Lipid peroxidation was also strongly inhibited by singlet oxygen scavengers, e.g. dimethylfuran and diphenylfuran, and by catalase. Hydroxyl radical scavengers, e.g. mannitol, benzoate, and ethanol, had little effect in malondialydehyde production. Superoxide dismutase, which removes O/sub 2//sup -/ efficiently, did not inhibit malondialdehyde production by lung microsomes and rather enhanced its formation. A scheme in which paraquat and active O/sub 2/ species may be involved with microsomal lipid peroxidation is presented.

  10. Tissue- and cell-specific expression of mouse xanthine oxidoreductase gene in vivo: regulation by bacterial lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Kurosaki, M; Li Calzi, M; Scanziani, E; Garattini, E; Terao, M

    1995-01-01

    The expression of the xanthine oxidoreductase gene was studied in various mouse organs and tissues, under basal conditions and on treatment with bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Levels of xanthine oxidoreductase protein and mRNA were compared in order to understand the molecular mechanisms regulating the expression of this enzyme system. The highest amounts of xanthine oxidoreductase and the respective mRNA are observed in the duodenum and jejunum, where the protein is present in an unusual form because of a specific proteolytic cleavage of the primary translation product present in all locations. Under basal conditions, multiple tissue-specific mechanisms of xanthine oxidoreductase regulation are evident. Lipopolysaccharide increases enzyme activity in some, but not all tissues, mainly via modulation of the respective transcript, although translational and post-translational mechanisms are also active. In situ hybridization studies on tissue sections obtained from mice under control conditions or with lipopolysaccharide treatment demonstrate that xanthine oxidoreductase is present in hepatocytes, predominantly in the proximal tubules of the kidney, epithelial layer of the gastrointestinal mucosa, the alveolar compartment of the lung, the pulpar region of the spleen and the vascular component of the heart. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7864814

  11. Cloning and molecular characterization of a flavin-dependent oxidoreductase gene from barley.

    PubMed

    Al-Momany, Bayan; Abu-Romman, Saeid

    2014-11-01

    Oxophytodienoate reductases (OPRs) are a small group of flavin-dependent oxidoreductases in plants. In this study, a new member of the OPR gene family (HvOPR2) was cloned from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The full-length cDNA of HvOPR2 was 1,206 bp with an open reading frame of 1,101 bp, encoding a 366 amino acids long polypeptide with a predicted molecular weight of 40.52 and a theoretical isoelectric point of 6.21. The corresponding genomic clone of HvOPR2 was isolated using the PCR amplification technique and was found to consist of five exons and four introns. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that the deduced HvOPR2 has a considerable homology with other plant OPRs and possessed the flavin oxidoreductase/NADH oxidase substrate-binding domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that HvOPR2 codes for the OPR of subgroup I, which contains enzymes that are not required for jasmonic acid biosynthesis. Time-course transcriptional profiling of HvOPR2 was analyzed in response to a variety of abiotic stresses and hormonal treatments by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The HvOPR2 gene was induced in response to drought, hydrogen peroxide, and wounding. Moreover, the corresponding mRNA transcripts were increased in response to jasmonic acid and salicylic acid, but not in response to abscisic acid. These results strongly suggested a role for HvOPR2 in barley defense/response to abiotic stresses and signaling molecules. PMID:24961571

  12. Cloning and characterization of the cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase gene from the zygomycete fungus Cunninghamella.

    PubMed

    Yadav, J S; Loper, J C

    2000-02-16

    The filamentous fungus Cunninghamella utilizes cytochrome P450 system(s) in the metabolism of a broad range of polyaromatic and aliphatic pollutants and a variety of drugs, but prior attempts at isolation of P450 system components of this fungus have been generally unsuccessful. We report upon the cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CPR) gene from two widely studied species, C. elegans and C. echinulata. The C. elegans CPR gene was obtained by screening a genomic library using as probe a PCR amplicon obtained with degenerate primers based on known CPRs. The 2420 bp coding region contained two apparent introns (149 bp and 138 bp). Northern blot analysis showed that the CPR gene is transcriptionally expressed in C. elegans and appears to be inducible by an alkane substrate, n-tetradecane. Phylogenetic comparison of the deduced C. elegans CPR (710 aa) suggested that it is more closely related to animal CPRs (41-42%) than to yeast (38-41%) and plant (35-36%) forms. A 2074 bp sequence containing most of the CPR gene homolog from C. echinulata was also isolated. PMID:10679206

  13. Coregulated Genes Link Sulfide:Quinone Oxidoreductase and Arsenic Metabolism in Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC6803

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Csaba I.; Vass, Imre; Rákhely, Gábor; Vass, István Zoltán; Tóth, András; Duzs, Ágnes; Peca, Loredana; Kruk, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Although the biogeochemistry of the two environmentally hazardous compounds arsenic and sulfide has been extensively investigated, the biological interference of these two toxic but potentially energy-rich compounds has only been hypothesized and indirectly proven. Here we provide direct evidence for the first time that in the photosynthetic model organism Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803 the two metabolic pathways are linked by coregulated genes that are involved in arsenic transport, sulfide oxidation, and probably in sulfide-based alternative photosynthesis. Although Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803 is an obligate photoautotrophic cyanobacterium that grows via oxygenic photosynthesis, we discovered that specific genes are activated in the presence of sulfide or arsenite to exploit the energy potentials of these chemicals. These genes form an operon that we termed suoRSCT, located on a transposable element of type IS4 on the plasmid pSYSM of the cyanobacterium. suoS (sll5036) encodes a light-dependent, type I sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase. The suoR (sll5035) gene downstream of suoS encodes a regulatory protein that belongs to the ArsR-type repressors that are normally involved in arsenic resistance. We found that this repressor has dual specificity, resulting in 200-fold induction of the operon upon either arsenite or sulfide exposure. The suoT gene encodes a transmembrane protein similar to chromate transporters but in fact functioning as an arsenite importer at permissive concentrations. We propose that the proteins encoded by the suoRSCT operon might have played an important role under anaerobic, reducing conditions on primordial Earth and that the operon was acquired by the cyanobacterium via horizontal gene transfer. PMID:25022856

  14. Biochemical and physiological analyses of NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase isozymes in Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Shun; Maruta, Takanori; Sawa, Yoshihiro; Shigeoka, Shigeru; Ishikawa, Takahiro

    2015-07-01

    At least four peroxiredoxins that are coupled with the thioredoxin (Trx) system have been shown to play a key role in redox metabolism in the unicellular phytoflagellate Euglena gracilis. In order to clarify Trx-mediated redox regulation in this alga, we herein identified three NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductases (NTRs) using a homologous search and characterized their enzymatic properties and physiological roles. Each Euglena NTR protein belonged to the small, large, and NTRC types, and were named EgNTR1, EgNTR2, and EgNTRC, respectively. EgNTR2 was phylogenetically different from the known NTRs in eukaryotic algae. EgNTR1 was predicted to be localized in mitochondria, EgNTR2 in the cytosol, and EgNTRC in plastids. The catalytic efficiency of EgNTR2 for NADPH was 30-46-fold higher than those of EgNTR1 and truncated form of EgNTRC, suggested that large type EgNTR2 reduced Trx more efficiently. The silencing of EgNTR2 gene expression resulted in significant growth inhibition and cell hypertrophy in Euglena cells. These results suggest that EgNTRs function in each cellular compartment and are physiologically important, particularly in the cytosol. PMID:26025518

  15. Transcriptional Regulation of the Human P450 Oxidoreductase Gene: Hormonal Regulation and Influence of Promoter Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Tee, Meng Kian; Huang, Ningwu; Damm, Izabella

    2011-01-01

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the flavoprotein that acts as the obligatory electron donor to all microsomal P450 enzymes, including those involved in hepatic drug metabolism as well as three steroidogenic P450 enzymes. The untranslated first exon of human POR was located recently, permitting analysis of human POR transcription. Expression of deletional mutants containing up to 3193 bp of the human POR promoter in human adrenal NCI-H295A and liver Hep-G2 cells located the proximal promoter at −325/−1 bp from the untranslated exon. Common human POR polymorphisms at −208 and −173 had little influence on transcription, but the polymorphism at −152 reduced transcription significantly in both cell lines. EMSA and supershift assays identified binding of Smad3/Smad4 between −249 and −261 and binding of thyroid hormone receptor-β (TRβ) at −240/−245. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that Smad3, Smad4, TRα, TRβ, and estrogen receptor-α were bound between −374 and −149. Cotransfection of vectors for these transcription factors and POR promoter-reporter constructs into both cell types followed by hormonal treatment showed that T3 exerts major tropic effects via TRβ, with TRα, estrogen receptor-α, Smad3, and Smad4 exerting lesser, modulatory effects. T3 also increased POR mRNA in both cell lines. Thyroid hormone also is essential for rat liver POR expression but acts via different transcription factor complexes. These are the first data on human POR gene transcription, establishing roles for TRβ and Smad3/4 in its expression and indicating that the common polymorphism at −152 may play a role in genetic variation in steroid biosynthesis and drug metabolism. PMID:21393444

  16. Dramatic down-regulation of oxidoreductases in human hepatocellular carcinoma hepG2 cells: proteomics and gene ontology unveiling new frontiers in cancer enzymology

    PubMed Central

    Ngoka, Lambert CM

    2008-01-01

    Background Oxidoreductases are enzymes that catalyze many redox reactions in normal and neoplastic cells. Their actions include catalysis of the transformation of free, neutral oxygen gas into oxygen free radicals, superoxide, hydroperoxide, singlet oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. These activated forms of oxygen contribute to oxidative stress that modifies lipids, proteins, DNA and carbohydrates. On the other hand, oxidoreductases constitute one of the most important free radical scavenger systems typified by catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. In this work, proteomics, Gene Ontology mapping and Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAG) are employed to detect and quantify differential oxidoreductase enzyme expressions between HepG2 cells and normal human liver tissues. Results For the set of bioinformatics calculations whose BLAST searches are performed using the BLAST program BLASTP 2.2.13 [Nov-27-2005], DAG of the Gene Ontology's Molecular Function annotations show that oxidoreductase activity parent node of the liver proteome contains 331 annotated protein sequences, 7 child nodes and an annotation score of 188.9, whereas that of HepG2 cells has 188 annotated protein sequences, 3 child nodes and an annotation score of only 91.9. Overwhelming preponderance of oxidoreductases in the liver is additionally supported by the isomerase DAGs: nearly all the reactions described in the normal liver isomerase DAG are oxidoreductase isomerization reactions, whereas only one of the three child nodes in the HepG2 isomerase DAG is oxidoreductase. Upon normalization of the annotation scores to the parent Molecular Function nodes, oxidoreductases are down-regulated in HepG2 cells by 58%. Similarly, for the set of bioinformatics calculations whose BLAST searches are carried out using BLASTP 2.2.15 [Oct-15-2006], oxidoreductases are down-regulated in HepG2 cells by 56%. Conclusion Proteomics and Gene Ontology reveal, for the first time, differential enzyme activities between HepG2 cells and normal human liver tissues, which may be a promising new prognostic marker of Hepatocellular carcinoma. Two independent sets of bioinformatics calculations that employ two BLAST program versions, and searched different databases, arrived at essentially the same conclusion: oxidoreductases are down-regulated in HepG2 cells by approximately 57%, when compared to normal human liver tissues. Down-regulation of oxidoreductases in hepatoma is additionally supported by Gene Ontology analysis of isomerises. PMID:18950483

  17. Posttranslational influence of NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase C on enzymes in tetrapyrrole synthesis.

    PubMed

    Richter, Andreas S; Peter, Enrico; Rothbart, Maxi; Schlicke, Hagen; Toivola, Jouni; Rintamäki, Eevi; Grimm, Bernhard

    2013-05-01

    The NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase C (NTRC) is involved in redox-related regulatory processes in chloroplasts and nonphotosynthetic active plastids. Together with 2-cysteine peroxiredoxin, it forms a two-component peroxide-detoxifying system that acts as a reductant under stress conditions. NTRC stimulates in vitro activity of magnesium protoporphyrin IX monomethylester (MgPMME) cyclase, most likely by scavenging peroxides. Reexamination of tetrapyrrole intermediate levels of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) knockout ntrc reveals lower magnesium protoporphyrin IX (MgP) and MgPMME steady-state levels, the substrate and the product of MgP methyltransferase (CHLM) preceding MgPMME cyclase, while MgP strongly accumulates in mutant leaves after 5-aminolevulinic acid feeding. The ntrc mutant has a reduced capacity to synthesize 5-aminolevulinic acid and reduced CHLM activity compared with the wild type. Although transcript levels of genes involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis are not significantly altered in 2-week-old ntrc seedlings, the contents of glutamyl-transfer RNA reductase1 (GluTR1) and CHLM are reduced. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay confirms a physical interaction of NTRC with GluTR1 and CHLM. While ntrc contains partly oxidized CHLM, the wild type has only reduced CHLM. As NTRC also stimulates CHLM activity in vitro, it is proposed that NTRC has a regulatory impact on the redox status of conserved cysteine residues of CHLM. It is hypothesized that a deficiency of NTRC leads to a lower capacity to reduce cysteine residues of GluTR1 and CHLM, affecting the stability and, thereby, altering the activity in the entire tetrapyrrole synthesis pathway. PMID:23569108

  18. Sulfolobus tokodaii ST2133 is characterized as a thioredoxin reductase-like ferredoxin:NADP+ oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhen; Nam, Young-Woo; Fushinobu, Shinya; Wakagi, Takayoshi

    2014-01-01

    The putative gene (st2133) for ferredoxin:NADP(+) oxidoreductase (FNR) from Sulfolobus tokodaii, a thermoacidophilic crenarchaeon, was heterologously expressed. About 90% of the purified product was a homodimer containing 0.46 mol FAD/mol subunit, and showing NADPH:DCPIP oxidoreductase activity, V max being 1.38 and 21.8 U/mg (70 °C) in the absence and presence of 1 mM FMN. NADPH was a much better electron donor than NADH with various electron acceptors, such as oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, DCPIP, cytochrome c, and dithiobisnitrobenzoate. Most of the reactions were activated by 15- to 140-fold on addition of FMN, while FAD was 5-10 times less effective. Ferredoxin (Fd) from S. tokodaii served as an electron carrier in both Fd-dependent NADPH formation and NADPH-dependent Fd reduction. ST2133 belongs to the thioredoxin reductase-like protein family, which is slightly distantly related to FNR family proteins from bacteria, plants and man. This is the first report on FNR from a crenarchaeon, providing a clue to the recycling of Fd during archaeal metabolism. PMID:24292509

  19. Diversity and Spatial Distribution of Hydrazine Oxidoreductase (hzo) Gene in the Oxygen Minimum Zone Off Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Liangliang; Jing, Hongmei; Kataoka, Takafumi; Buchwald, Carolyn; Liu, Hongbin

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox) as an important nitrogen loss pathway has been reported in marine oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), but the community composition and spatial distribution of anammox bacteria in the eastern tropical North Pacific (ETNP) OMZ are poorly determined. In this study, anammox bacterial communities in the OMZ off Costa Rica (CRD-OMZ) were analyzed based on both hydrazine oxidoreductase (hzo) genes and their transcripts assigned to cluster 1 and 2. The anammox communities revealed by hzo genes and proteins in CRD-OMZ showed a low diversity. Gene quantification results showed that hzo gene abundances peaked in the upper OMZs, associated with the peaks of nitrite concentration. Nitrite and oxygen concentrations may therefore colimit the distribution of anammox bacteria in this area. Furthermore, transcriptional activity of anammox bacteria was confirmed by obtaining abundant hzo mRNA transcripts through qRT-PCR. A novel hzo cluster 2x clade was identified by the phylogenetic analysis and these novel sequences were abundant and widely distributed in this environment. Our study demonstrated that both cluster 1 and 2 anammox bacteria play an active role in the CRD-OMZ, and the cluster 1 abundance and transcriptional activity were higher than cluster 2 in both free-living and particle-attached fractions at both gene and transcriptional levels. PMID:24205176

  20. Clostridium scindens baiCD and baiH genes encode stereo-specific 7alpha/7beta-hydroxy-3-oxo-delta4-cholenoic acid oxidoreductases.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dae-Joong; Ridlon, Jason M; Moore, Doyle Ray; Barnes, Stephen; Hylemon, Phillip B

    2008-01-01

    Secondary bile acids, formed by intestinal bacteria, are suggested to play a significant role in cancers of the gastrointestinal tract in humans. Bile acid 7alpha/beta-dehydroxylation is carried out by a few species of intestinal clostridia which harbor a multi-gene bile acid inducible (bai) operon. Several genes encoding enzymes in this pathway have been cloned and characterized. However, no gene product(s) has yet been assigned to the production of 3-oxo-Delta4-cholenoic acid intermediates of cholic acid (CA), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) or ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). We previously reported that the baiH gene encodes an NADH:flavin oxidoreductase (NADH:FOR); however, the role of this protein in bile acid 7-dehydroxylation is unclear. Homology searches and secondary structural alignments suggest this protein to be similar to flavoproteins which reduce alpha/beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. The baiH gene product was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and discovered to be a stereo-specific NAD(H)-dependent 7beta-hydroxy-3-oxo-Delta4-cholenoic acid oxidoreductase. Additionally, high sequence similarity between the baiH and baiCD gene products suggests the baiCD gene may encode a 3-oxo-Delta4-cholenoic acid oxidoreductase specific for CDCA and CA. We tested this hypothesis using cell extracts prepared from E. coli overexpressing the baiCD gene and discovered that it encodes a stereo-specific NAD(H)-dependent 7alpha-hydroxy-3-oxo-Delta4-cholenoic acid oxidoreductase. PMID:18047844

  1. Cloning, sequencing, and analysis of a gene cluster from Chelatobacter heintzii ATCC 29600 encoding nitrilotriacetate monooxygenase and NADH:flavin mononucleotide oxidoreductase.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Y; Mortimer, M W; Fisher, T S; Kahn, M L; Brockman, F J; Xun, L

    1997-01-01

    Nitrilotriacetate (NTA) is an important chelating agent in detergents and has also been used extensively in processing radionuclides. In Chelatobacter heintzii ATCC 29600, biodegradation of NTA is initiated by NTA monooxygenase that oxidizes NTA to iminodiacetate and glyoxylate. The NTA monooxygenase activity requires two component proteins, component A and component B, but the function of each component is unclear. We have cloned and sequenced a gene cluster encoding components A and B (nmoA and nmoB) and two additional open reading frames, nmoR and nmoT, downstream of nmoA. Based on sequence similarities, nmoR and nmoT probably encode a regulatory protein and a transposase, respectively. The NmoA sequence was similar to a monooxygenase that uses reduced flavin mononucleotide (FMNH2) as reductant; NmoB was similar to an NADH:flavin mononucleotide (FMN) oxidoreductase. On the basis of this information, we tested the function of each component. Purified component B was shown to be an NADH:FMN oxidoreductase, and its activity could be separated from that of component A. When the Photobacterium fischeri NADH:FMN oxidoreductase was substituted for component B in the complete reaction, NTA was oxidized, showing that the substrate specificity of the reaction resides in component A. Component A is therefore an NTA monooxygenase that uses FMNH2 and O2 to oxidize NTA, and component B is an NADH:FMN oxidoreductase that provides FMNH2 for NTA oxidation. PMID:9023192

  2. Evolution of NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductases (POR) in Apiales - POR 1 is missing.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Trine Bundgaard; Hansen, Niels Bjørn; Laursen, Tomas; Weitzel, Corinna; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2016-05-01

    The NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the obligate electron donor to eukaryotic microsomal cytochromes P450 enzymes. The number of PORs within plant species is limited to one to four isoforms, with the most common being two PORs per plant. These enzymes provide electrons to a huge number of different cytochromes P450s (from 50 to several hundred within one plant). Within the eudicotyledons, PORs can be divided into two major clades, POR 1 and POR 2. Based on our own sequencing analysis and publicly available data, we have identified 45 PORs from the angiosperm order Apiales. These were subjected to a phylogenetic analysis along with 237 other publicly available (NCBI and oneKP) POR sequences found within the clade Asterids. Here, we show that the order Apiales only harbor members of the POR 2 clade, which are further divided into two distinct subclades. This is in contrast to most other eudicotyledon orders that have both POR 1 and POR 2. This suggests that through gene duplications and one gene deletion, Apiales only contain members of the POR 2 clade. Three POR 2 isoforms from Thapsia garganica L., Apiaceae, were all full-length in an Illumina root transcriptome dataset (available from the SRA at NCBI). All three genes were shown to be functional upon reconstitution into nanodiscs, confirming that none of the isoforms are pseudogenes. PMID:26854662

  3. Resistance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to High Concentrations of Furfural Is Based on NADPH-Dependent Reduction by at Least Two Oxireductases ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Heer, Dominik; Heine, Daniel; Sauer, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    Biofuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass hold promises for a sustainable fuel economy, but several problems hamper their economical feasibility. One important problem is the presence of toxic compounds in processed lignocellulosic hydrolysates, with furfural as a key toxin. While Saccharomyces cerevisiae has some intrinsic ability to reduce furfural to the less-toxic furfuryl alcohol, higher resistance is necessary for process conditions. By comparing an evolved, furfural-resistant strain and its parent in microaerobic, glucose-limited chemostats at increasing furfural challenge, we elucidate key mechanism and the molecular basis of both natural and high-level furfural resistance. At lower concentrations of furfural, NADH-dependent oxireductases are the main defense mechanism. At furfural concentrations above 15 mM, however, 13C-flux and global array-based transcript analysis demonstrated that the NADPH-generating flux through the pentose phosphate pathway increases and that NADPH-dependent oxireductases become the major resistance mechanism. The transcript analysis further revealed that iron transmembrane transport is upregulated in response to furfural. While these responses occur in both strains, high-level resistance in the evolved strain was based on strong induction of ADH7, the uncharacterized open reading frame (ORF) YKL071W, and four further, likely NADPH-dependent, oxireductases. By overexpressing the ADH7 gene and the ORF YKL071W, we inversely engineered significantly increased furfural resistance in the parent strain, thereby demonstrating that these two enzymes are key elements of the resistance phenotype. PMID:19854918

  4. Stress defense mechanisms of NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductases (NTRs) in plants

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Joon-Yung; Barman, Dhirendra Nath; Kim, Min Gab; Kim, Woe-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Plants establish highly and systemically organized stress defense mechanisms against unfavorable living conditions. To interpret these environmental stimuli, plants possess communication tools, referred as secondary messengers, such as Ca2+ signature and reactive oxygen species (ROS) wave. Maintenance of ROS is an important event for whole lifespan of plants, however, in special cases, toxic ROS molecules are largely accumulated under excess stresses and diverse enzymes played as ROS scavengers. Arabidopsis and rice contain 3 NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductases (NTRs) which transfer reducing power to Thioredoxin/Peroxiredoxin (Trx/Prx) system for scavenging ROS. However, due to functional redundancy between cytosolic and mitochondrial NTRs (NTRA and NTRB, respectively), their functional involvements under stress conditions have not been well characterized. Recently, we reported that cytosolic NTRA confers the stress tolerance against oxidative and drought stresses via regulation of ROS amounts using NTRA-overexpressing plants. With these findings, mitochondrial NTRB needs to be further elucidated. PMID:26039478

  5. Stress defense mechanisms of NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductases (NTRs) in plants.

    PubMed

    Cha, Joon-Yung; Barman, Dhirendra Nath; Kim, Min Gab; Kim, Woe-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Plants establish highly and systemically organized stress defense mechanisms against unfavorable living conditions. To interpret these environmental stimuli, plants possess communication tools, referred as secondary messengers, such as Ca(2+) signature and reactive oxygen species (ROS) wave. Maintenance of ROS is an important event for whole lifespan of plants, however, in special cases, toxic ROS molecules are largely accumulated under excess stresses and diverse enzymes played as ROS scavengers. Arabidopsis and rice contain 3 NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductases (NTRs) which transfer reducing power to Thioredoxin/Peroxiredoxin (Trx/Prx) system for scavenging ROS. However, due to functional redundancy between cytosolic and mitochondrial NTRs (NTRA and NTRB, respectively), their functional involvements under stress conditions have not been well characterized. Recently, we reported that cytosolic NTRA confers the stress tolerance against oxidative and drought stresses via regulation of ROS amounts using NTRA-overexpressing plants. With these findings, mitochondrial NTRB needs to be further elucidated. PMID:26039478

  6. Randomly selected suppressor mutations in genes for NADH : quinone oxidoreductase-1, which rescue motility of a Salmonella ubiquinone-biosynthesis mutant strain

    PubMed Central

    Meshcheryakova, Irina V.; Sasaki, Toshio; Roy, Michael C.; Sinha, Prem Kumar; Yagi, Takao

    2014-01-01

    The primary mobile electron-carrier in the aerobic respiratory chain of Salmonella is ubiquinone. Demethylmenaquinone and menaquinone are alternative electron-carriers involved in anaerobic respiration. Ubiquinone biosynthesis was disrupted in strains bearing deletions of the ubiA or ubiE genes. In soft tryptone agar both mutant strains swam poorly. However, the ubiA deletion mutant strain produced suppressor mutant strains with somewhat rescued motility and growth. Six independent suppressor mutants were purified and comparative genome sequence analysis revealed that they each bore a single new missense mutation, which localized to genes for subunits of NADH : quinone oxidoreductase-1. Four mutants bore an identical nuoG(Q297K) mutation, one mutant bore a nuoM(A254S) mutation and one mutant bore a nuoN(A444E) mutation. The NuoG subunit is part of the hydrophilic domain of NADH : quinone oxidoreductase-1 and the NuoM and NuoN subunits are part of the hydrophobic membrane-embedded domain. Respiration was rescued and the suppressed mutant strains grew better in Luria–Bertani broth medium and could use l-malate as a sole carbon source. The quinone pool of the cytoplasmic membrane was characterized by reversed-phase HPLC. Wild-type cells made ubiquinone and menaquinone. Strains with a ubiA deletion mutation made demethylmenaquinone and menaquinone and the ubiE deletion mutant strain made demethylmenaquinone and 2-octaprenyl-6-methoxy-1,4-benzoquinone; the total quinone pool was reduced. Immunoblotting found increased NADH : quinone oxidoreductase-1 levels for ubiquinone-biosynthesis mutant strains and enzyme assays measured electron transfer from NADH to demethylmenaquinone or menaquinone. Under certain growth conditions the suppressor mutations improved electron flow activity of NADH : quinone oxidoreductase-1 for cells bearing a ubiA deletion mutation. PMID:24692644

  7. Reconstruction of an acetogenic 2,3-butanediol pathway involving a novel NADPH-dependent primary-secondary alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Köpke, Michael; Gerth, Monica L; Maddock, Danielle J; Mueller, Alexander P; Liew, FungMin; Simpson, Séan D; Patrick, Wayne M

    2014-06-01

    Acetogenic bacteria use CO and/or CO2 plus H2 as their sole carbon and energy sources. Fermentation processes with these organisms hold promise for producing chemicals and biofuels from abundant waste gas feedstocks while simultaneously reducing industrial greenhouse gas emissions. The acetogen Clostridium autoethanogenum is known to synthesize the pyruvate-derived metabolites lactate and 2,3-butanediol during gas fermentation. Industrially, 2,3-butanediol is valuable for chemical production. Here we identify and characterize the C. autoethanogenum enzymes for lactate and 2,3-butanediol biosynthesis. The putative C. autoethanogenum lactate dehydrogenase was active when expressed in Escherichia coli. The 2,3-butanediol pathway was reconstituted in E. coli by cloning and expressing the candidate genes for acetolactate synthase, acetolactate decarboxylase, and 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase. Under anaerobic conditions, the resulting E. coli strain produced 1.1 ± 0.2 mM 2R,3R-butanediol (23 μM h(-1) optical density unit(-1)), which is comparable to the level produced by C. autoethanogenum during growth on CO-containing waste gases. In addition to the 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase, we identified a strictly NADPH-dependent primary-secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (CaADH) that could reduce acetoin to 2,3-butanediol. Detailed kinetic analysis revealed that CaADH accepts a range of 2-, 3-, and 4-carbon substrates, including the nonphysiological ketones acetone and butanone. The high activity of CaADH toward acetone led us to predict, and confirm experimentally, that C. autoethanogenum can act as a whole-cell biocatalyst for converting exogenous acetone to isopropanol. Together, our results functionally validate the 2,3-butanediol pathway from C. autoethanogenum, identify CaADH as a target for further engineering, and demonstrate the potential of C. autoethanogenum as a platform for sustainable chemical production. PMID:24657865

  8. Reconstruction of an Acetogenic 2,3-Butanediol Pathway Involving a Novel NADPH-Dependent Primary-Secondary Alcohol Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Köpke, Michael; Gerth, Monica L.; Maddock, Danielle J.; Mueller, Alexander P.; Liew, FungMin

    2014-01-01

    Acetogenic bacteria use CO and/or CO2 plus H2 as their sole carbon and energy sources. Fermentation processes with these organisms hold promise for producing chemicals and biofuels from abundant waste gas feedstocks while simultaneously reducing industrial greenhouse gas emissions. The acetogen Clostridium autoethanogenum is known to synthesize the pyruvate-derived metabolites lactate and 2,3-butanediol during gas fermentation. Industrially, 2,3-butanediol is valuable for chemical production. Here we identify and characterize the C. autoethanogenum enzymes for lactate and 2,3-butanediol biosynthesis. The putative C. autoethanogenum lactate dehydrogenase was active when expressed in Escherichia coli. The 2,3-butanediol pathway was reconstituted in E. coli by cloning and expressing the candidate genes for acetolactate synthase, acetolactate decarboxylase, and 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase. Under anaerobic conditions, the resulting E. coli strain produced 1.1 ± 0.2 mM 2R,3R-butanediol (23 μM h−1 optical density unit−1), which is comparable to the level produced by C. autoethanogenum during growth on CO-containing waste gases. In addition to the 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase, we identified a strictly NADPH-dependent primary-secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (CaADH) that could reduce acetoin to 2,3-butanediol. Detailed kinetic analysis revealed that CaADH accepts a range of 2-, 3-, and 4-carbon substrates, including the nonphysiological ketones acetone and butanone. The high activity of CaADH toward acetone led us to predict, and confirm experimentally, that C. autoethanogenum can act as a whole-cell biocatalyst for converting exogenous acetone to isopropanol. Together, our results functionally validate the 2,3-butanediol pathway from C. autoethanogenum, identify CaADH as a target for further engineering, and demonstrate the potential of C. autoethanogenum as a platform for sustainable chemical production. PMID:24657865

  9. Electron Transfer Pathways and Dynamics of Chloroplast NADPH-dependent Thioredoxin Reductase C (NTRC)*

    PubMed Central

    Bernal-Bayard, Pilar; Hervás, Manuel; Cejudo, Francisco J.; Navarro, José A.

    2012-01-01

    NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductases (NTRs) contain a flavin cofactor and a disulfide as redox-active groups. The catalytic mechanism of standard NTR involves a large conformational change between two configurations. Oxygenic photosynthetic organisms possess a plastid-localized NTR, called NTRC, with a thioredoxin module fused at the C terminus. NTRC is an efficient reductant of 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (2-Cys Prxs) and thus is involved in the protection against oxidative stress, among other functions. Although the mechanism of electron transfer of canonical NTRs is well established, it is not yet known in NTRC. By employing stopped-flow spectroscopy, we have carried out a comparative kinetic study of the electron transfer reactions involving NTRC, the truncated NTR module of NTRC, and NTRB, a canonical plant NTR. Whereas the three NTRs maintain the conformational change associated with the reductive cycle of catalysis, NTRC intramolecular electron transfer to the thioredoxin module presents two kinetic components (kET of ∼2 and 0.1 s−1), indicating the occurrence of additional dynamic motions. Moreover, the dynamic features associated with the electron transfer to the thioredoxin module are altered in the presence of 2-Cys Prx. NTRC shows structural constraints that may locate the thioredoxin module in positions with different efficiencies for electron transfer, the presence of 2-Cys Prx shifting the conformational equilibrium of the thioredoxin module to a specific position, which is not the most efficient. PMID:22833674

  10. Light driven CO2 fixation by using cyanobacterial photosystem I and NADPH-dependent formate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Masaki; Kawano, Yusuke; Urano, Miho; Okabe, Ayako

    2013-01-01

    The ultimate goal of this research is to construct a new direct CO2 fixation system using photosystems in living algae. Here, we report light-driven formate production from CO2 by using cyanobacterial photosystem I (PS I). Formate, a chemical hydrogen carrier and important industrial material, can be produced from CO2 by using the reducing power and the catalytic function of formate dehydrogenase (FDH). We created a bacterial FDH mutant that experimentally switched the cofactor specificity from NADH to NADPH, and combined it with an in vitro-reconstituted cyanobacterial light-driven NADPH production system consisting of PS I, ferredoxin (Fd), and ferredoxin-NADP(+)-reductase (FNR). Consequently, light-dependent formate production under a CO2 atmosphere was successfully achieved. In addition, we introduced the NADPH-dependent FDH mutant into heterocysts of the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 and demonstrated an increased formate concentration in the cells. These results provide a new possibility for photo-biological CO2 fixation. PMID:23936519

  11. Light Driven CO2 Fixation by Using Cyanobacterial Photosystem I and NADPH-Dependent Formate Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Ihara, Masaki; Kawano, Yusuke; Urano, Miho; Okabe, Ayako

    2013-01-01

    The ultimate goal of this research is to construct a new direct CO2 fixation system using photosystems in living algae. Here, we report light-driven formate production from CO2 by using cyanobacterial photosystem I (PS I). Formate, a chemical hydrogen carrier and important industrial material, can be produced from CO2 by using the reducing power and the catalytic function of formate dehydrogenase (FDH). We created a bacterial FDH mutant that experimentally switched the cofactor specificity from NADH to NADPH, and combined it with an in vitro-reconstituted cyanobacterial light-driven NADPH production system consisting of PS I, ferredoxin (Fd), and ferredoxin-NADP+-reductase (FNR). Consequently, light-dependent formate production under a CO2 atmosphere was successfully achieved. In addition, we introduced the NADPH-dependent FDH mutant into heterocysts of the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 and demonstrated an increased formate concentration in the cells. These results provide a new possibility for photo-biological CO2 fixation. PMID:23936519

  12. Structure of Hordeum vulgare NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase 2. Unwinding the reaction mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkensgaard, Kristine G.; Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte; Henriksen, Anette

    2009-09-01

    The first crystal structure of a cereal NTR, a protein involved in seed development and germination, has been determined. The structure is in a conformation that excludes NADPH binding and indicates that a domain reorientation facilitated by Trx binding precedes NADPH binding in the reaction mechanism. Thioredoxins (Trxs) are protein disulfide reductases that regulate the intracellular redox environment and are important for seed germination in plants. Trxs are in turn regulated by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductases (NTRs), which provide reducing equivalents to Trx using NADPH to recycle Trxs to the active form. Here, the first crystal structure of a cereal NTR, HvNTR2 from Hordeum vulgare (barley), is presented, which is also the first structure of a monocot plant NTR. The structure was determined at 2.6 Å resolution and refined to an R{sub cryst} of 19.0% and an R{sub free} of 23.8%. The dimeric protein is structurally similar to the structures of AtNTR-B from Arabidopsis thaliana and other known low-molecular-weight NTRs. However, the relative position of the two NTR cofactor-binding domains, the FAD and the NADPH domains, is not the same. The NADPH domain is rotated by 25° and bent by a 38% closure relative to the FAD domain in comparison with AtNTR-B. The structure may represent an intermediate between the two conformations described previously: the flavin-oxidizing (FO) and the flavin-reducing (FR) conformations. Here, analysis of interdomain contacts as well as phylogenetic studies lead to the proposal of a new reaction scheme in which NTR–Trx interactions mediate the FO to FR transformation.

  13. Synergistic effect of NADH on NADPH-dependent acetaminophen activation in liver microsomes and its inhibition by cyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Chifumi; Marumo, Fumiaki )

    1991-01-01

    The effects of NADH and cyanide on NADPH-dependent acetaminophen activation in rat and mouse liver microsomes were studied. In both rat and mouse microsomes, NADPH-dependent acetaminophen-glutathione conjugate production was synergistically enhanced by the addition of NADH, whereas NADH alone did not initiate this reaction. The data suggest that the second electron in this reaction may be transferred from NADH. The present findings are different from a previous report in a reconstituted system that NADH decreases covalent binding of acetaminophen to proteins. This reaction was inhibited by low concentrations of sodium cyanide. The role of the cyanide sensitive factor in this reaction in liver microsomes remains to be further clarified.

  14. Comparative study of the tissue distribution of NADH and NADPH-dependent chloral hydrate reducing enzymes in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Ogino, Keiki; Hobara, Tatsuya; Kobayashi, Haruo; Iwamoto, Susumu )

    1990-03-01

    Chloral hydrate (CH), an intermediate metabolite of trichloroethylene, is reduced to trichloroethanol (TCE) by alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde reductase. Alcohol dehydrogenase requires reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), and aldehyde reductase requires reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). No reports have appeared concerning comparative studies of the tissue distribution of CH-reducing enzymes. In this report, NADH and NADPH-dependent CH-reducing activities were investigated in various organs of the rat.

  15. 1,4-Naphthoquinones and Others NADPH-Dependent Glutathione Reductase-Catalyzed Redox Cyclers as Antimalarial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Belorgey, Didier; Lanfranchi, Don Antoine; Davioud-Charvet, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    The homodimeric flavoenzyme glutathione reductase catalyzes NADPH-dependent glutathione disulfide reduction. This reaction is important for keeping the redox homeostasis in human cells and in the human pathogen Plasmodium falciparum. Different types of NADPH-dependent disulfide reductase inhibitors were designed in various chemical series to evaluate the impact of each inhibition mode on the propagation of the parasites. Against malaria parasites in cultures the most potent and specific effects were observed for redox-active agents acting as subversive substrates for both glutathione reductases of the Plasmodium-infected red blood cells. In their oxidized form, these redox-active compounds are reduced by NADPH-dependent flavoenzyme-catalyzed reactions in the cytosol of infected erythrocytes. In their reduced forms, these compounds can reduce molecular oxygen to reactive oxygen species, or reduce oxidants like methemoglobin, the major nutrient of the parasite, to indigestible hemoglobin. Furthermore, studies on a fluorinated suicide-substrate of the human glutathione reductase indicate that the glutathione reductase-catalyzed bioactivation of 3-benzylnaphthoquinones to the corresponding reduced 3-benzoyl metabolites is essential for the observed antimalarial activity. In conclusion, the antimalarial lead naphthoquinones are suggested to perturb the major redox equilibria of the targeted cells. These effects result in development arrest of the parasite and contribute to the removal of the parasitized erythrocytes by macrophages. PMID:23116403

  16. Vibrio harveyi NADPH-flavin oxidoreductase: cloning, sequencing and overexpression of the gene and purification and characterization of the cloned enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Lei, B; Liu, M; Huang, S; Tu, S C

    1994-01-01

    NAD(P)H-flavin oxidoreductases (flavin reductases) from luminous bacteria catalyze the reduction of flavin by NAD(P)H and are believed to provide the reduced form of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) for luciferase in the bioluminescence reaction. By using an oligonucleotide probe based on the partial N-terminal amino acid sequence of the Vibrio harveyi NADPH-FMN oxidoreductase (flavin reductase P), a recombinant plasmid, pFRP1, was obtained which contained the frp gene encoding this enzyme. The DNA sequence of the frp gene was determined; the deduced amino acid sequence for flavin reductase P consists of 240 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 26,312. The frp gene was overexpressed, apparently through induction, in Escherichia coli JM109 cells harboring pFRP1. The cloned flavin reductase P was purified to homogeneity by following a new and simple procedure involving FMN-agarose chromatography as a key step. The same chromatography material was also highly effective in concentrating diluted flavin reductase P. The purified enzyme is a monomer and is unusual in having a tightly bound FMN cofactor. Distinct from the free FMN, the bound FMN cofactor showed a diminished A375 peak and a slightly increased 8-nm red-shifted A453 peak and was completely or nearly nonfluorescent. The Kms for FMN and NADPH and the turnover number of this flavin reductase were determined. In comparison with other flavin reductases and homologous proteins, this flavin reductase P shows a number of distinct features with respect to primary sequence, redox center, and/or kinetic mechanism. Images PMID:8206832

  17. Three-dimensional Structure and Enzymatic Function of Proapoptotic Human p53-inducible Quinone Oxidoreductase PIG3*

    PubMed Central

    Porté, Sergio; Valencia, Eva; Yakovtseva, Evgenia A.; Borràs, Emma; Shafqat, Naeem; Debreczeny, Judit É.; Pike, Ashley C. W.; Oppermann, Udo; Farrés, Jaume; Fita, Ignacio; Parés, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    Tumor suppressor p53 regulates the expression of p53-induced genes (PIG) that trigger apoptosis. PIG3 or TP53I3 is the only known member of the medium chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily induced by p53 and is used as a proapoptotic marker. Although the participation of PIG3 in the apoptotic pathway is proven, the protein and its mechanism of action were never characterized. We analyzed human PIG3 enzymatic function and found NADPH-dependent reductase activity with ortho-quinones, which is consistent with the classification of PIG3 in the quinone oxidoreductase family. However, the activity is much lower than that of ζ-crystallin, a better known quinone oxidoreductase. In addition, we report the crystallographic structure of PIG3, which allowed the identification of substrate- and cofactor-binding sites, with residues fully conserved from bacteria to human. Tyr-59 in ζ-crystallin (Tyr-51 in PIG3) was suggested to participate in the catalysis of quinone reduction. However, kinetics of Tyr/Phe and Tyr/Ala mutants of both enzymes demonstrated that the active site Tyr is not catalytic but may participate in substrate binding, consistent with a mechanism based on propinquity effects. It has been proposed that PIG3 contribution to apoptosis would be through oxidative stress generation. We found that in vitro activity and in vivo overexpression of PIG3 accumulate reactive oxygen species. Accordingly, an inactive PIG3 mutant (S151V) did not produce reactive oxygen species in cells, indicating that enzymatically active protein is necessary for this function. This supports that PIG3 action is through oxidative stress produced by its enzymatic activity and provides essential knowledge for eventual control of apoptosis. PMID:19349281

  18. Toxic-Selenium and Low-Selenium Transcriptomes in Caenorhabditis elegans: Toxic Selenium Up-Regulates Oxidoreductase and Down-Regulates Cuticle-Associated Genes

    PubMed Central

    Boehler, Christopher J.; Raines, Anna M.; Sunde, Roger A.

    2014-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an element that in trace quantities is both essential in mammals but also toxic to bacteria, yeast, plants and animals, including C. elegans. Our previous studies showed that selenite was four times as toxic as selenate to C. elegans, but that deletion of thioredoxin reductase did not modulate Se toxicity. To characterize Se regulation of the full transcriptome, we conducted a microarray study in C. elegans cultured in axenic media supplemented with 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mM Se as selenite. C. elegans cultured in 0.2 and 0.4 mM Se displayed a significant delay in growth as compared to 0, 0.05, or 0.1 mM Se, indicating Se-induced toxicity, so worms were staged to mid-L4 larval stage for these studies. Relative to 0.1 mM Se treatment, culturing C. elegans at these Se concentrations resulted in 1.9, 9.7, 5.5, and 2.3%, respectively, of the transcriptome being altered by at least 2-fold. This toxicity altered the expression of 295 overlapping transcripts, which when filtered against gene sets for sulfur and cadmium toxicity, identified a dataset of 182 toxic-Se specific genes that were significantly enriched in functions related to oxidoreductase activity, and significantly depleted in genes related to structural components of collagen and the cuticle. Worms cultured in low Se (0 mM Se) exhibited no signs of deficiency, but low Se was accompanied by a transcriptional response of 59 genes changed ≥2-fold when compared to all other Se concentrations, perhaps due to decreases in Se-dependent TRXR-1 activity. Overall, these results suggest that Se toxicity in C. elegans causes an increase in ROS and stress responses, marked by increased expression of oxidoreductases and reduced expression of cuticle-associated genes, which together underlie the impaired growth observed in these studies. PMID:24971995

  19. Cloning and expression of the gene encoding the thermophilic NAD(P)H-FMN oxidoreductase coupling with the desulfurization enzymes from Paenibacillus sp. A11-2.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Y; Konishi, J; Suzuki, M; Maruhashi, K

    2000-01-01

    The gene encoding the NAD(P)H-flavin oxidoreductase (flavin reductase) which couples with the thermophilic dibenzothiophene (DBT)-desulfurizing monooxygenases of Paenibacillus sp. A11-2 was cloned in Escherichia coli and designated tdsD. Nucleotide sequence analysis suggested that the gene product consisted of 200 amino acids and showed about 30%, 27% and 26% amino acid sequence similarity to the major flavin reductase of Vibrio fischeri, the NADH dehydrogenase of Thermus thermophilus and several oxygen-insensitive NAD(P)H nitroreductases in the Enterobacteriaceae family, respectively. Both the growing and resting recombinant E. coli, in which tdsD was coexpressed with a set of desulfurizing genes, showed a rate of DBT removal about 5 times higher than the recombinants lacking tdsD. Maximal desulfurization was observed close to 45 degrees C and 55 degrees C in the resting cells and in the cell-free extraction reaction with the tdsD-coexpressing recombinants, respectively. In an organic/aqueous biphasic system, the coexpression of tdsD also markedly enhanced the rate of DBT removal. PMID:16232917

  20. Interindividual Variability of CYP2C19-Catalyzed Drug Metabolism Due to Differences in Gene Diplotypes and Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase Content

    PubMed Central

    Shirasaka, Yoshiyuki; Chaudhry, Amarjit S.; McDonald, Matthew; Prasad, Bhagwat; Wong, Timothy; Calamia, Justina C.; Fohner, Alie; Thornton, Timothy A.; Isoherranen, Nina; Unadkat, Jashvant D.; Rettie, Allan E.; Schuetz, Erin G.; Thummel, Kenneth E.

    2015-01-01

    Large interindividual variability has been observed in the metabolism of CYP2C19 substrates in vivo. The study aimed to evaluate sources of this variability in CYP2C19 activity, focusing on CYP2C19 diplotypes and the cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR). CYP2C19 gene analysis was carried out on 347 human liver samples. CYP2C19 activity assayed using human liver microsomes (HLMs) confirmed a significant a priori predicted rank order for (S)-mephenytoin hydroxylase activity of CYP2C19*17/*17 > *1B/*17 > *1B/*1B > *2A/*17 > *1B/*2A > *2A/*2A diplotypes. In a multivariate analysis, the CYP2C19*2A allele and POR protein content were associated with CYP2C19 activity. Further analysis indicated a strong effect of the CYP2C19*2A, but not the *17, allele on both metabolic steps in the conversion of clopidogrel to its active metabolite. The present study demonstrates that interindividual variability in CYP2C19 activity is due to differences in both CYP2C19 protein content associated with gene diplotypes and the POR concentration. PMID:26323597

  1. Identification and cloning of an NADPH-dependent hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA double bond reductase involved in dihydrochalcone formation in Malus×domestica Borkh.

    PubMed

    Ibdah, Mwafaq; Berim, Anna; Martens, Stefan; Valderrama, Andrea Lorena Herrera; Palmieri, Luisa; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Gang, David R

    2014-11-01

    The apple tree (Malus sp.) is an agriculturally and economically important source of food and beverages. Many of the health beneficial properties of apples are due to (poly)phenolic metabolites that they contain, including various dihydrochalcones. Although many of the genes and enzymes involved in polyphenol biosynthesis are known in many plant species, the specific reactions that lead to the biosynthesis of the dihydrochalcone precursor, p-dihydrocoumaroyl-CoA (3), are unknown. To identify genes involved in the synthesis of these metabolites, existing genome databases of the Rosaceae were screened for apple genes with significant sequence similarity to Arabidopsis alkenal double bond reductases. Herein described are the isolation and characterization of a Malus hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA double bond reductase, which catalyzed the NADPH-dependent reduction of p-coumaroyl-CoA and feruloyl-CoA to p-dihydrocoumaroyl-CoA and dihydroferuloyl-CoA, respectively. Its apparent Km values for p-coumaroyl-CoA, feruloyl-CoA and NADPH were 96.6, 92.9 and 101.3μM, respectively. The Malus double bond reductase preferred feruloyl-CoA to p-coumaroyl-CoA as a substrate by a factor of 2.1 when comparing catalytic efficiencies in vitro. Expression analysis of the hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA double bond reductase gene revealed that its transcript levels showed significant variation in tissues of different developmental stages, but was expressed when expected for involvement in dihydrochalcone formation. Thus, the hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA double bond reductase appears to be responsible for the reduction of the α,β-unsaturated double bond of p-coumaroyl-CoA, the first step of dihydrochalcone biosynthesis in apple tissues, and may be involved in the production of these compounds. PMID:25152451

  2. Overexpression of chloroplast NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase in Arabidopsis enhances leaf growth and elucidates in vivo function of reductase and thioredoxin domains

    PubMed Central

    Toivola, Jouni; Nikkanen, Lauri; Dahlström, Käthe M.; Salminen, Tiina A.; Lepistö, Anna; Vignols, hb Florence; Rintamäki, Eevi

    2013-01-01

    Plant chloroplasts have versatile thioredoxin systems including two thioredoxin reductases and multiple types of thioredoxins. Plastid-localized NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase (NTRC) contains both reductase (NTRd) and thioredoxin (TRXd) domains in a single polypeptide and forms homodimers. To study the action of NTRC and NTRC domains in vivo, we have complemented the ntrc knockout line of Arabidopsis with the wild type and full-length NTRC genes, in which 2-Cys motifs either in NTRd, or in TRXd were inactivated. The ntrc line was also transformed either with the truncated NTRd or TRXd alone. Overexpression of wild-type NTRC promoted plant growth by increasing leaf size and biomass yield of the rosettes. Complementation of the ntrc line with the full-length NTRC gene containing an active reductase but an inactive TRXd, or vice versa, recovered wild-type chloroplast phenotype and, partly, rosette biomass production, indicating that the NTRC domains are capable of interacting with other chloroplast thioredoxin systems. Overexpression of truncated NTRd or TRXd in ntrc background did not restore wild-type phenotype. Modeling of the three-dimensional structure of the NTRC dimer indicates extensive interactions between the NTR domains and the TRX domains further stabilize the dimeric structure. The long linker region between the NTRd and TRXd, however, allows flexibility for the position of the TRXd in the dimer. Supplementation of the TRXd in the NTRC homodimer model by free chloroplast thioredoxins indicated that TRXf is the most likely partner to interact with NTRC. We propose that overexpression of NTRC promotes plant biomass yield both directly by stimulation of chloroplast biosynthetic and protective pathways controlled by NTRC and indirectly via free chloroplast thioredoxins. Our data indicate that overexpression of chloroplast thiol redox-regulator has a potential to increase biofuel yield in plant and algal species suitable for sustainable bioenergy production. PMID:24115951

  3. Lack of Association between NADPH Quinone Oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) Gene C609T Polymorphism and Lung Cancer: A Case-Control Study and a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shujie; Gao, Min; Li, Xiaobo; Li, Yuqiong; Chu, Shaoli; Zhu, Dingliang; Niu, Wenquan

    2012-01-01

    Background The association between NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) gene C609T polymorphism (rs1800566) and lung cancer has been widely evaluated, and a definitive answer so far is lacking. We first conducted a case-control study to assess this association in northeastern Han Chinese, and then performed a meta-analysis to further address this issue. Methodology/Principal Findings This case-control study involved 684 patients clinically diagnosed as lung cancer and 602 age-matched cancer-free controls from Harbin city, Heilongjiang province, China. Genotyping was conducted using the PCR-LDR (ligase detection reactions) method. Meta-analysis was managed by STATA software. Data and study quality were assessed in duplicate. Our case-control association study indicated no significant difference in the genotype and allele distributions of C609T polymorphism between lung cancer patients and controls, consistent with the results of the further meta-analysis involving 7286 patients and 9167 controls under both allelic (odds ratio (OR) = 0.99; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.92–1.06; P = 0.692) and dominant (OR = 0.98; 95% CI: 0.89–1.08; P = 0.637) models. However, there was moderate evidence of between-study heterogeneity and low probability of publication bias. Further subgroup analyses by ethnicity, source of controls and sample size detected no positive associations in this meta-analysis. Conclusions Our study in northeastern Han Chinese, along with the meta-analysis, failed to confirm the association of NQO1 gene C609T polymorphism with lung cancer risk, even across different ethnic populations. PMID:23110137

  4. Highly stereoselective reductions of alpha-alkyl-1,3-diketones and alpha-alkyl-beta-keto esters catalyzed by isolated NADPH-dependent ketoreductases.

    PubMed

    Kalaitzakis, Dimitris; Rozzell, J David; Kambourakis, Spiros; Smonou, Ioulia

    2005-10-27

    [reaction: see text] The biocatalytic reduction of alpha-alkyl-1,3-diketones and alpha-alkyl-beta-keto esters employing 1 of 20 different isolated NADPH-dependent ketoreductases proved to be a highly efficient method for the preparation of optically pure keto alcohols or hydroxy esters. PMID:16235892

  5. The effect of allopurinol administration on mitochondrial respiration and gene expression of xanthine oxidoreductase, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and inflammatory cytokines in selected tissues of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Settle, T; Falkenstein, E; Klandorf, H

    2015-10-01

    Birds have a remarkable longevity for their body size despite an increased body temperature, higher metabolic rate, and increased blood glucose concentrations compared to most mammals. As the end-product of purine degradation, uric acid (UA) is generated in the xanthine/hypoxanthine reactions catalyzed by xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR). In the first study, Cobb × Cobb broilers (n = 12; 4 weeks old) were separated into 2 treatments (n = 6); control (CON) and allopurinol (AL) 35 mg/kg BW (ALLO). The purpose of this study was to assess mitochondrial function in broiler chickens in response to potential oxidative stress generated from the administration of AL for 1 wk. There was a significant reduction in state 3 respiration (P = 0.01) and state 4 respiration (P = 0.007) in AL-treated birds compared to the controls. The purpose of the second study was to assess the effect of AL on gene expression of inflammatory cytokines interferon-γ (IFN)-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12p35, as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase and XOR in liver tissue. Cobb × Cobb broilers were separated into two groups at 4 wk age (n = 10); CON and ALLO. After 1 wk AL treatment, half of the birds in each group (CON 1 and ALLO 1) were euthanized while the remaining birds continued on AL treatment for an additional week (CON 2 and ALLO 2). A significant increase in gene expression of XOR, IFN-γ, IL-1β, and IL-12p35 in ALLO 2 birds as compared to birds in CON 2 was detected. Liver UA content was significantly decreased in both ALLO 1(P = 0.003) and ALLO 2 (P = 0.012) birds when compared to CON 1 and CON 2, respectively. The AL reduced liver UA concentrations and increased expression of inflammatory cytokines. Additional studies are needed to determine if AL causes a direct effect on mitochondria or if mitochondrial dysfunction observed in liver mitochondria was due indirectly through increased oxidative stress or increased inflammation. PMID:26316336

  6. NADPH-dependent reductases in dog thyroid: comparison of a third enzyme "glyceraldehyde reductase" to dog thyroid aldehyde reductase.

    PubMed

    Schaffhauser, M A; Sato, S; Kador, P F

    1996-03-01

    The increased incidence of thyroiditis reported to occur in diabetes has also been observed in long-term galactose-fed dogs where it is reduced by the administration of aldose reductase inhibitors. Since this suggests that thyroidal changes are linked to the abnormal accumulation of sugar alcohols (polyols), present studies were conducted to confirm the presence of aldose and aldehyde reductases in dog thyroid through isolation and characterization. Aldose and aldehyde reductases were isolated from dog thyroid by a series of chromatographic steps which included gel filtration on Sephadex G-100, affinity chromatography on Matrex Gel Orange A and chromatofocusing on Mono P. A third, labile NADPH-reductase was partially purified by gel filtration on Sephadex G-100, affinity chromatography on Matrex Green A and hydroxylapatite chromatography on BIO-GEL HT. The kinetic properties of aldose and aldehyde reductases and their susceptibility to inhibition by aldose reductase inhibitors are similar to those of dog kidney aldose and aldehyde reductases. However, the levels of aldose reductase present in thyroid are extremely low compared to the levels of aldehyde reductase. A third NADPH-dependent reductase, tentatively identified as glyceraldehyde reductase, is also present in dog thyroid. This novel enzyme utilizes NADPH to reduce DL-glyceraldehyde and is clearly distinct from the other aldo-keto reductases in molecular weight, substrate specificity, inhibition by aldose reductase inhibitors and immunological properties. In summary aldose reductase, aldehyde reductase and a third novel glyceraldehyde reductase, all of which can utilize glyceraldehyde as substrate, have been identified and characterized in dog thyroid. Only aldose and aldehyde reductases, which can catalyze the production of polyols and were inhibited by aldose reductase inhibitors, appear to be linked to thyroiditis. PMID:8920636

  7. The superoxide-generating oxidase of leucocytes. NADPH-dependent reduction of flavin and cytochrome b in solubilized preparations.

    PubMed Central

    Cross, A R; Parkinson, J F; Jones, O T

    1984-01-01

    An NADPH-dependent O2.- -generating oxidase was solubilized from phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-activated pig neutrophils by using a mixture of detergents. Recovery of oxidase was approx. 40%. The extract contained cytochrome b-245 (331 pmol/mg of protein) and FAD (421 pmol/mg of protein); approx. 30% of each was reduced within 60s when NADPH was added to anaerobic incubations. Three different additives, quinacrine, p-chloromercuribenzoate and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, strongly inhibited O2.- generation; they also inhibited the reduction by NADPH of cytochrome b at the same low concentrations. In the presence of p-chloromercuribenzoate cytochrome b reduction was strongly inhibited and flavin reduction was less inhibited. A detergent extract prepared from non-stimulated neutrophils also contained flavin and cytochrome b, but its rate of O2.- production was less than 1% of that from activated cells; its initial rate of cytochrome b and flavin reduction was low, although the state of reduction at equilibrium was similar to that of extracts of activated cells. Even in the non-activated cell extract the reduction of flavin and cytochrome was made fast and complete when Methyl Viologen was added to the anaerobic incubations. The oxidase was temperature-sensitive, with a sharp maximum at 25 degrees C; temperatures above this caused loss of O2.- generation, and this coincided with loss of the characteristic cytochrome b spectrum, indicate of denaturation of the cytochrome. The cytochrome b formed a complex with butyl isocyanide (close to 100% binding at 10mM); butyl isocyanide also inhibited the oxidase activity of stimulated whole neutrophils (22.5% inhibition at 10mM). Photoreduced FMN stimulated O2 uptake by the oxidase. The results support a scheme of electron transport within the oxidase complex involving NADPH, FAD, cytochrome b-245 and O2 in that sequence. PMID:6497852

  8. Identification of the gene encoding a NAD(P)H-flavin oxidoreductase coupling with dibenzothiophene (DBT)-desulfurizing enzymes from the DBT-nondesulfurizing bacterium Paenibacillus polymyxa A-1.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Y; Ohshiro, T; Aoi, Y; Suzuki, M; Izumi, Y

    2000-01-01

    The gene encoding NAD(P)H-flavin oxidoreductase (flavin reductase), which couples efficiently with dibenzothiophene (DBT)-desulfurizing monooxygenases of Rhodococci, was cloned from a DBT-non-desulfurizing bacterium Paenibacillus polymyxa A-1 in Escherichia coli, and designated as flv. Cell-free extracts from the recombinant exhibited a flavin reductase activity about forty times higher than that of the E. coli carrying the vector DNA only. Nucleotide sequence analysis reveals that the gene product consists of 208 amino acids and showed about 27%, 32% and 21% identity in amino acid sequence with FRase I, the major flavin reductase of Vibrio fischeri, the NADH dehydrogenase of Thermus thermophilus and several members of the nitroreductase family, respectively. The coexpression of flv with two kinds of desulfurizing genes, dszABC and tdsABC, in E. coli enhanced the rate of DBT degradation by about 10 and 5 times as high as in the case without flv, respectively. PMID:16232847

  9. Conformational changes of the NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 reductase in the course of electron transfer to cytochromes P450.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Tomas; Jensen, Kenneth; Mller, Birger Lindberg

    2011-01-01

    The NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) is a key electron donor to eucaryotic cytochromes P450 (CYPs). CPR shuttles electrons from NADPH through the FAD and FMN-coenzymes into the iron of the prosthetic heme-group of the CYP. In the course of these electron transfer reactions, CPR undergoes large conformational changes. This mini-review discusses the new evidence provided for such conformational changes involving a combination of a "swinging" and "rotating" model and highlights the molecular mechanisms by which formation of these conformations are controlled and thereby enables CPR to serve as an effective electron transferring "nano-machine". PMID:20624491

  10. Thioredoxin f1 and NADPH-Dependent Thioredoxin Reductase C Have Overlapping Functions in Regulating Photosynthetic Metabolism and Plant Growth in Response to Varying Light Conditions.

    PubMed

    Thormählen, Ina; Meitzel, Tobias; Groysman, Julia; Öchsner, Alexandra Bianca; von Roepenack-Lahaye, Edda; Naranjo, Belén; Cejudo, Francisco J; Geigenberger, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Two different thiol redox systems exist in plant chloroplasts, the ferredoxin-thioredoxin (Trx) system, which depends on ferredoxin reduced by the photosynthetic electron transport chain and, thus, on light, and the NADPH-dependent Trx reductase C (NTRC) system, which relies on NADPH and thus may be linked to sugar metabolism in the dark. Previous studies suggested, therefore, that the two different systems may have different functions in plants. We now report that there is a previously unrecognized functional redundancy of Trx f1 and NTRC in regulating photosynthetic metabolism and growth. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants, combined, but not single, deficiencies of Trx f1 and NTRC led to severe growth inhibition and perturbed light acclimation, accompanied by strong impairments of Calvin-Benson cycle activity and starch accumulation. Light activation of key enzymes of these pathways, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, was almost completely abolished. The subsequent increase in NADPH-NADP(+) and ATP-ADP ratios led to increased nitrogen assimilation, NADP-malate dehydrogenase activation, and light vulnerability of photosystem I core proteins. In an additional approach, reporter studies show that Trx f1 and NTRC proteins are both colocalized in the same chloroplast substructure. Results provide genetic evidence that light- and NADPH-dependent thiol redox systems interact at the level of Trx f1 and NTRC to coordinately participate in the regulation of the Calvin-Benson cycle, starch metabolism, and growth in response to varying light conditions. PMID:26338951

  11. Thioredoxin f1 and NADPH-Dependent Thioredoxin Reductase C Have Overlapping Functions in Regulating Photosynthetic Metabolism and Plant Growth in Response to Varying Light Conditions1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Thormählen, Ina; Meitzel, Tobias; Groysman, Julia; Öchsner, Alexandra Bianca; von Roepenack-Lahaye, Edda; Naranjo, Belén; Cejudo, Francisco J.; Geigenberger, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Two different thiol redox systems exist in plant chloroplasts, the ferredoxin-thioredoxin (Trx) system, which depends on ferredoxin reduced by the photosynthetic electron transport chain and, thus, on light, and the NADPH-dependent Trx reductase C (NTRC) system, which relies on NADPH and thus may be linked to sugar metabolism in the dark. Previous studies suggested, therefore, that the two different systems may have different functions in plants. We now report that there is a previously unrecognized functional redundancy of Trx f1 and NTRC in regulating photosynthetic metabolism and growth. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants, combined, but not single, deficiencies of Trx f1 and NTRC led to severe growth inhibition and perturbed light acclimation, accompanied by strong impairments of Calvin-Benson cycle activity and starch accumulation. Light activation of key enzymes of these pathways, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, was almost completely abolished. The subsequent increase in NADPH-NADP+ and ATP-ADP ratios led to increased nitrogen assimilation, NADP-malate dehydrogenase activation, and light vulnerability of photosystem I core proteins. In an additional approach, reporter studies show that Trx f1 and NTRC proteins are both colocalized in the same chloroplast substructure. Results provide genetic evidence that light- and NADPH-dependent thiol redox systems interact at the level of Trx f1 and NTRC to coordinately participate in the regulation of the Calvin-Benson cycle, starch metabolism, and growth in response to varying light conditions. PMID:26338951

  12. Soil oxidoreductases and FDA hydrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The oxidoreductases (E.C. 1.) comprise the largest enzyme group and consist of enzymes that catalyze reactions between two compounds, one of which is oxidized (the donor) while reducing the other (the acceptor) (Dixon and Webb, 1979). In common with all redox reactions, the reaction mechanism involv...

  13. Meta-Analyses of Dehalococcoides mccartyi Strain 195 Transcriptomic Profiles Identify a Respiration Rate-Related Gene Expression Transition Point and Interoperon Recruitment of a Key Oxidoreductase Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Mansfeldt, Cresten B.; Rowe, Annette R.; Heavner, Gretchen L. W.; Zinder, Stephen H.

    2014-01-01

    A cDNA-microarray was designed and used to monitor the transcriptomic profile of Dehalococcoides mccartyi strain 195 (in a mixed community) respiring various chlorinated organics, including chloroethenes and 2,3-dichlorophenol. The cultures were continuously fed in order to establish steady-state respiration rates and substrate levels. The organization of array data into a clustered heat map revealed two major experimental partitions. This partitioning in the data set was further explored through principal component analysis. The first two principal components separated the experiments into those with slow (1.6 ± 0.6 μM Cl−/h)- and fast (22.9 ± 9.6 μM Cl−/h)-respiring cultures. Additionally, the transcripts with the highest loadings in these principal components were identified, suggesting that those transcripts were responsible for the partitioning of the experiments. By analyzing the transcriptomes (n = 53) across experiments, relationships among transcripts were identified, and hypotheses about the relationships between electron transport chain members were proposed. One hypothesis, that the hydrogenases Hup and Hym and the formate dehydrogenase-like oxidoreductase (DET0186-DET0187) form a complex (as displayed by their tight clustering in the heat map analysis), was explored using a nondenaturing protein separation technique combined with proteomic sequencing. Although these proteins did not migrate as a single complex, DET0112 (an FdhB-like protein encoded in the Hup operon) was found to comigrate with DET0187 rather than with the catalytic Hup subunit DET0110. On closer inspection of the genome annotations of all Dehalococcoides strains, the DET0185-to-DET0187 operon was found to lack a key subunit, an FdhB-like protein. Therefore, on the basis of the transcriptomic, genomic, and proteomic evidence, the place of the missing subunit in the DET0185-to-DET0187 operon is likely filled by recruiting a subunit expressed from the Hup operon (DET0112). PMID:25063656

  14. Beta Hydroxylation of Glycolipids from Ustilago maydis and Pseudozyma flocculosa by an NADPH-Dependent β-Hydroxylase▿

    PubMed Central

    Teichmann, Beate; Lefebvre, François; Labbé, Caroline; Bölker, Michael; Linne, Uwe; Bélanger, Richard R.

    2011-01-01

    Flocculosin and ustilagic acid (UA), two highly similar antifungal cellobiose lipids, are respectively produced by Pseudozyma flocculosa, a biocontrol agent, and Ustilago maydis, a plant pathogen. Both glycolipids contain a short-chain fatty acid hydroxylated at the β position but differ in the long fatty acid, which is hydroxylated at the α position in UA and at the β position in flocculosin. In both organisms, the biosynthesis genes are arranged in large clusters. The functions of most genes have already been characterized, but those of the P. flocculosa fhd1 gene and its homolog from U. maydis, uhd1, have remained undefined. The deduced amino acid sequences of these genes show homology to those of short-chain dehydrogenases and reductases (SDR). We disrupted the uhd1 gene in U. maydis and analyzed the secreted UA. uhd1 deletion strains produced UA lacking the β-hydroxyl group of the short-chain fatty acid. To analyze the function of P. flocculosa Fhd1, the corresponding gene was used to complement U. maydis Δuhd1 mutants. Fhd1 was able to restore wild-type UA production, indicating that Fhd1 is responsible for β hydroxylation of the flocculosin short-chain fatty acid. We also investigated a P. flocculosa homolog of the U. maydis long-chain fatty-acid alpha hydroxylase Ahd1. The P. flocculosa ahd1 gene, which does not reside in the flocculosin gene cluster, was introduced into U. maydis Δahd1 mutant strains. P. flocculosa Ahd1 neither complemented the U. maydis Δahd1 phenotype nor resulted in the production of β-hydroxylated UA. This suggests that P. flocculosa Ahd1 is not involved in flocculosin hydroxylation. PMID:21926207

  15. Identification of the genes encoding NAD(P)H-flavin oxidoreductases that are similar in sequence to Escherichia coli Fre in four species of luminous bacteria: Photorhabdus luminescens, Vibrio fischeri, Vibrio harveyi, and Vibrio orientalis.

    PubMed Central

    Zenno, S; Saigo, K

    1994-01-01

    Genes encoding NAD(P)H-flavin oxidoreductases (flavin reductases) similar in both size and sequence to Fre, the most abundant flavin reductase in Escherichia coli, were identified in four species of luminous bacteria, Photorhabdus luminescens (ATCC 29999), Vibrio fischeri (ATCC 7744), Vibrio harveyi (ATCC 33843), and Vibrio orientalis (ATCC 33934). Nucleotide sequence analysis showed Fre-like flavin reductases in P. luminescens and V. fischeri to consist of 233 and 236 amino acids, respectively. As in E. coli Fre, Fre-like enzymes in luminous bacteria preferably used riboflavin as an electron acceptor when NADPH was used as an electron donor. These enzymes also were good suppliers of reduced flavin mononucleotide (FMNH2) to the bioluminescence reaction. In V. fischeri, the Fre-like enzyme is a minor flavin reductase representing < 10% of the total FMN reductase. That the V. fischeri Fre-like enzyme has no appreciable homology in amino acid sequence to the major flavin reductase in V. fischeri, FRase I, indicates that at least two different types of flavin reductases supply FMNH2 to the luminescence system in V. fischeri. Although Fre-like flavin reductases are highly similar in sequence to luxG gene products (LuxGs), Fre-like flavin reductases and LuxGs appear to constitute two separate groups of flavin-associated proteins. Images PMID:8206831

  16. Peroxiredoxins and NADPH-Dependent Thioredoxin Systems in the Model Legume Lotus japonicus1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Tovar-Méndez, Alejandro; Matamoros, Manuel A.; Bustos-Sanmamed, Pilar; Dietz, Karl-Josef; Cejudo, Francisco Javier; Rouhier, Nicolas; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Becana, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Peroxiredoxins (Prxs), thioredoxins (Trxs), and NADPH-thioredoxin reductases (NTRs) constitute central elements of the thiol-disulfide redox regulatory network of plant cells. This study provides a comprehensive survey of this network in the model legume Lotus japonicus. The aims were to identify and characterize these gene families and to assess whether the NTR-Trx systems are operative in nodules. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunological and proteomic approaches were used for expression profiling. We identified seven Prx, 14 Trx, and three NTR functional genes. The PrxQ1 gene was found to be transcribed in two alternative spliced variants and to be expressed at high levels in leaves, stems, petals, pods, and seeds and at low levels in roots and nodules. The 1CPrx gene showed very high expression in the seed embryos and low expression in vegetative tissues and was induced by nitric oxide and cytokinins. In sharp contrast, cytokinins down-regulated all other Prx genes, except PrxQ1, in roots and nodules, but only 2CPrxA and PrxQ1 in leaves. Gene-specific changes in Prx expression were also observed in response to ethylene, abscisic acid, and auxins. Nodules contain significant mRNA and protein amounts of cytosolic PrxIIB, Trxh1, and NTRA and of plastidic NTRC. Likewise, they express cytosolic Trxh3, Trxh4, Trxh8, and Trxh9, mitochondrial PrxIIF and Trxo, and plastidic Trxm2, Trxm4, and ferredoxin-Trx reductase. These findings reveal a complex regulation of Prxs that is dependent on the isoform, tissue, and signaling molecule and support that redox NTR-Trx systems are functional in the cytosol, mitochondria, and plastids of nodules. PMID:21562331

  17. A novel cytosolic NADH:quinone oxidoreductase from Methanothermobacter marburgensis

    PubMed Central

    Ullmann, Eva; Tan, Tien Chye; Gundinger, Thomas; Herwig, Christoph; Divne, Christina; Spadiut, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Methanothermobacter marburgensis is a strictly anaerobic, thermophilic methanogenic archaeon that uses methanogenesis to convert H2 and CO2 to energy. M. marburgensis is one of the best-studied methanogens, and all genes required for methanogenic metabolism have been identified. Nonetheless, the present study describes a gene (Gene ID 9704440) coding for a putative NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase that has not yet been identified as part of the metabolic machinery. The gene product, MmNQO, was successfully expressed, purified and characterized biochemically, as well as structurally. MmNQO was identified as a flavin-dependent NADH:quinone oxidoreductase with the capacity to oxidize NADH in the presence of a wide range of electron acceptors, whereas NADPH was oxidized with only three acceptors. The 1.50 Å crystal structure of MmNQO features a homodimeric enzyme where each monomer comprises 196 residues folding into flavodoxin-like α/β domains with non-covalently bound FMN (flavin mononucleotide). The closest structural homologue is the modulator of drug activity B from Streptococcus mutans with 1.6 Å root-mean-square deviation on 161 Cα atoms and 28% amino-acid sequence identity. The low similarity at sequence and structural level suggests that MmNQO is unique among NADH:quinone oxidoreductases characterized to date. Based on preliminary bioreactor experiments, MmNQO could provide a useful tool to prevent overflow metabolism in applications that require cells with high energy demand. PMID:25372605

  18. Escherichia coli 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase aids in tellurite resistance by reducing the toxicant in a NADPH-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, J M; Arenas, F A; García, J A; Díaz-Vásquez, W A; Valdivia-González, M; Sabotier, M; Vásquez, C C

    2015-08-01

    Exposure to the tellurium oxyanion tellurite (TeO3(2-)) results in the establishment of an oxidative stress status in most microorganisms. Usually, bacteria growing in the presence of the toxicant turn black because of the reduction of tellurite (Te(4+)) to the less-toxic elemental tellurium (Te(0)). In vitro, at least part of tellurite reduction occurs enzymatically in a nicotinamide dinucleotide-dependent reaction. In this work, we show that TeO3(2-) reduction by crude extracts of Escherichia coli overexpressing the zwf gene (encoding glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) takes place preferentially in the presence of NADPH instead of NADH. The enzyme responsible for toxicant reduction was identified as 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (Gnd). The gnd gene showed a subtle induction at short times after toxicant exposure while strains lacking gnd were more susceptible to the toxicant. These results suggest that both NADPH-generating enzymes from the pentose phosphate shunt may be involved in tellurite detoxification and resistance in E. coli. PMID:26211962

  19. Oxidoreductase behavior in ionic liquids: a review.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Paula C A G; Saraiva, M Lúcia M F S; Lima, José L F C

    2008-10-01

    Due to their unique characteristics ionic liquids (ILs) have been extensively used as solvents in enzymatic procedures, proving to be advantageous alternatives to conventional organic solvents. The studies of enzyme behavior in ILs have increased exponentially in the last years and oxidoreductases particularly have recently started to be studied. The association of oxidoreductases with IL is very promising due to the large field of application of these enzymes. The materials are very interesting not only from the analytical point of view but also in the biocatalytic perspective. In this review, we discuss the behavior of oxidoreductases in the presence of ILs, the mechanisms involved in this association and the immobilization of oxidoreductases in composite materials with IL. The performance of proteins with peroxidase activity in ILs is also reviewed. Future trends and perspectives related with the development of biocatalytic studies involving oxidoreductases and ILs are also considered. PMID:18845879

  20. The NADH-binding subunit of the energy-transducing NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase of Paracoccus denitrificans: Gene cloning and deduced primary structure

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Xuemin; Matsuno-Yagi, Akemi; Yagi, Takao )

    1991-07-02

    The NADH dehydrogenase complex isolated from Paracoccus denitrificans is composed of approximately 10 unlike polypeptides and contains noncovalently bound FMN, non-heme iron, and acid-labile sulfide. The NADH-binding subunit of this enzyme complex was identified by direct photoaffinity labeling with ({sup 32}P)NADH. primers were synthesized on the basis of the N-terminal amino acid sequency of this polypeptide, and these primers were used to synthesize an oligonucleotide probe by the polymerase chain reaction. This probe was utilized to isolate the gene encoding the NADH-binding subunit from a genomic library of P. denitrificans. The nucleotide sequence of the gene and the deduced amino acid sequence of the entire NADH-binding subunit were determined. The NADH-binding subunit has 431 amino acid residues and a calculated molecular weight of 47 191. The encoded protein contains a putative NAD(H)-binding and an iron-sulfur cluster-binding consensus sequence. The deduced amino acid sequence of the Paracoccus NADH-binding subunit shows remarkable similarity to the {alpha} subunit of the NAD-linked hydrogenase of Alcaligenes eutrophus H16. When partial DNA sequencing of the regions surrounding the gene encoding the NADH-binding subunit was carried out, sequences homologous to the 24-, 49-, and 75-kDa polypeptides of bovine complex 1 were detected, suggesting that the structural genes of the Paracoccus NADH dehydrogenase complex constitute a gene cluster.

  1. NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase C plays a role in nonhost disease resistance against Pseudomonas syringae pathogens by regulating chloroplast-generated reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Ishiga, Takako; Ikeda, Yoko; Matsuura, Takakazu; Mysore, Kirankumar S.

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplasts are cytoplasmic organelles for photosynthesis in eukaryotic cells. In addition, recent studies have shown that chloroplasts have a critical role in plant innate immunity against invading pathogens. Hydrogen peroxide is a toxic by-product from photosynthesis, which also functions as a signaling compound in plant innate immunity. Therefore, it is important to regulate the level of hydrogen peroxide in response to pathogens. Chloroplasts maintain components of the redox detoxification system including enzymes such as 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (2-Cys Prxs), and NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase C (NTRC). However, the significance of 2-Cys Prxs and NTRC in the molecular basis of nonhost disease resistance is largely unknown. We evaluated the roles of Prxs and NTRC using knock-out mutants of Arabidopsis in response to nonhost Pseudomonas syringae pathogens. Plants lacking functional NTRC showed localized cell death (LCD) accompanied by the elevated accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in response to nonhost pathogens. Interestingly, the Arabidopsis ntrc mutant showed enhanced bacterial growth and disease susceptibility of nonhost pathogens. Furthermore, the expression profiles of the salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA)-mediated signaling pathways and phytohormone analyses including SA and JA revealed that the Arabidopsis ntrc mutant shows elevated JA-mediated signaling pathways in response to nonhost pathogen. These results suggest the critical role of NTRC in plant innate immunity against nonhost P. syringae pathogens. PMID:27168965

  2. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae YMR315W Gene Encodes an NADP(H)-Specific Oxidoreductase Regulated by the Transcription Factor Stb5p in Response to NADPH Limitation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Engineered xylose-metabolizing cells grown on xylose show increased expression of YMR315W at both the mRNA and protein levels. Additionally, the YMR315W promoter contains a putative binding site for the transcription factor Stb5p, which has been shown to regulate genes involved in nicotinamide aden...

  3. Purification and characterization of NADPH-dependent cytosolic 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine binding protein in rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, K; Miyamoto, T; Ichikawa, K; Yamauchi, K; Kobayashi, M; Sakurai, A; Ohtsuka, H; Nishii, Y; Yamada, T

    1989-03-25

    The NADPH-dependent cytosolic 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine(T3)-binding protein (CTBP) has been purified over 30,000-fold from rat kidney by using charcoal extraction, Mono Q-Sepharose, Blue Sepharose CL-6B, and Sephacryl S-200 column chromatography. Purified CTBP had a sedimentation coefficient of 4.7 S, Stokes radius of 32.5A, and calculated molecular weight of 58,000. The apparently homogeneous protein consisted of a single polypeptide chain with Mr of 58,000 as estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Scatchard analysis of T3 binding showed that NADPH increases maximal binding capacity without changes in the affinity constant (Ka = 2.43 X 10(9) M-1). Double reciprocal analysis of NADPH and binding capacity gave maximal binding capacity of 16,400 pmol/mg of CTBP, Mr = 58,000. The order of affinity of iodothyronine analogues to purified CTBP was as follows: L-T3 = D-T3 greater than triiodothyroacetic acid greater than L-thyroxine. [125I]T3 bound to purified CTBP spontaneously dissociated from CTBP at 20 degrees C (t 1/2 = 22 min) in the absence of NADPH, whereas the dissociation was not observed in the presence of NADPH. The optimal pH for T3 binding was 7.2-7.5 Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ (0-200 mM) did not influence T3 binding to CTBP. The purified CTBP did not bind to DNA and was not adsorbed to concanavalin A-Sepharose. PMID:2925671

  4. Lactic acid-producing yeast cells having nonfunctional L- or D-lactate:ferricytochrome C oxidoreductase cells

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Matthew; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Hause, Benjamin Matthew; Van Hoek, Pim; Dundon, Catherine Asleson

    2012-03-20

    Yeast cells having an exogenous lactate dehydrogenase gene ae modified by reducing L- or D-lactate:ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase activity in the cell. This leads to reduced consumption of lactate by the cell and can increase overall lactate yields in a fermentation process. Cells having the reduced L- or D-lactate:ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase activity can be screened for by resistance to organic acids such as lactic or glycolic acid.

  5. A Novel NADPH-Dependent Aldehyde Reductase Gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y-12632 Involved in the Detoxification of Aldehyde Inhibitors Derived from Lignocellulosic Biomass Conversion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aldehyde inhibitors such as furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), anisaldehyde, benzaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde, and phenylaldehyde are commonly generated during lignocellulosic biomass conversion process for low-cost cellulosic ethanol production that interferes with subsequent microbial growth and...

  6. Increased Furfural Tolerance Due to Overexpression of NADH-Dependent Oxidoreductase FucO in Escherichia coli Strains Engineered for the Production of Ethanol and Lactate▿

    PubMed Central

    Wang, X.; Miller, E. N.; Yomano, L. P.; Zhang, X.; Shanmugam, K. T.; Ingram, L. O.

    2011-01-01

    Furfural is an important fermentation inhibitor in hemicellulose sugar syrups derived from woody biomass. The metabolism of furfural by NADPH-dependent oxidoreductases, such as YqhD (low Km for NADPH), is proposed to inhibit the growth and fermentation of xylose in Escherichia coli by competing with biosynthesis for NADPH. The discovery that the NADH-dependent propanediol oxidoreductase (FucO) can reduce furfural provided a new approach to improve furfural tolerance. Strains that produced ethanol or lactate efficiently as primary products from xylose were developed. These strains included chromosomal mutations in yqhD expression that permitted the fermentation of xylose broths containing up to 10 mM furfural. Expression of fucO from plasmids was shown to increase furfural tolerance by 50% and to permit the fermentation of 15 mM furfural. Product yields with 15 mM furfural were equivalent to those of control strains without added furfural (85% to 90% of the theoretical maximum). These two defined genetic traits can be readily transferred to enteric biocatalysts designed to produce other products. A similar strategy that minimizes the depletion of NADPH pools by native detoxification enzymes may be generally useful for other inhibitory compounds in lignocellulosic sugar streams and with other organisms. PMID:21685167

  7. Occurrence of ferredoxin:NAD+ oxidoreductase activity and its ion specificity in several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Verena; Gallegos, Rene; Jones, J Andrew; Barquera, Blanca; Malamy, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    A ferredoxin:NAD+ oxidoreductase was recently discovered as a redox-driven ion pump in the anaerobic, acetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium woodii. The enzyme is assumed to be encoded by the rnf genes. Since these genes are present in the genomes of many bacteria, we tested for ferredoxin:NAD+ oxidoreductase activity in cytoplasmic membranes from several different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria that have annotated rnf genes. We found this activity in Clostridium tetanomorphum, Clostridium ljungdahlii, Bacteroides fragilis, and Vibrio cholerae but not in Escherichia coli and Rhodobacter capsulatus. As in A. woodii, the activity was Na+-dependent in C. tetanomorphum and B. fragilis but Na+-independent in C. ljungdahlii and V. cholerae. We deleted the rnf genes from B. fragilis and demonstrated that the mutant has greatly reduced ferredoxin:NAD+ oxidoreductase activity. This is the first genetic proof that the rnf genes indeed encode the reduced ferredoxin:NAD+ oxidoreductase activity. PMID:26793417

  8. The chloroplast membrane associated ceQORH putative quinone oxidoreductase reduces long-chain, stress-related oxidized lipids.

    PubMed

    Curien, Gilles; Giustini, Cécile; Montillet, Jean-Luc; Mas-Y-Mas, Sarah; Cobessi, David; Ferrer, Jean-Luc; Matringe, Michel; Grechkin, Alexander; Rolland, Norbert

    2016-02-01

    Under oxidative stress conditions the lipid constituents of cells can undergo oxidation whose frequent consequence is the production of highly reactive α,β-unsaturated carbonyls. These molecules are toxic because they can add to biomolecules (such as proteins and nucleic acids) and several enzyme activities cooperate to eliminate these reactive electrophile species. CeQORH (chloroplast envelope Quinone Oxidoreductase Homolog, At4g13010) is associated with the inner membrane of the chloroplast envelope and imported into the organelle by an alternative import pathway. In the present study, we show that the recombinant ceQORH exhibits the activity of a NADPH-dependent α,β-unsaturated oxoene reductase reducing the double bond of medium-chain (C⩾9) to long-chain (18 carbon atoms) reactive electrophile species deriving from poly-unsaturated fatty acid peroxides. The best substrates of ceQORH are 13-lipoxygenase-derived γ-ketols. γ-Ketols are spontaneously produced in the chloroplast from the unstable allene oxide formed in the biochemical pathway leading to 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, a precursor of the defense hormone jasmonate. In chloroplasts, ceQORH could detoxify 13-lipoxygenase-derived γ-ketols at their production sites in the membranes. This finding opens new routes toward the understanding of γ-ketols role and detoxification. PMID:26678323

  9. An oxidoreductase from 'Alphonso' mango catalyzing biosynthesis of furaneol and reduction of reactive carbonyls.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Ram; Chidley, Hemangi; Deshpande, Ashish; Schmidt, Axel; Pujari, Keshav; Giri, Ashok; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Gupta, Vidya

    2013-01-01

    Two furanones, furaneol (4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone) and mesifuran (2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-3(2H)-furanone), are important constituents of flavor of the Alphonso cultivar of mango (Mangifera indica). To get insights into the biosynthesis of these furanones, we isolated an enone oxidoreductase gene from the Alphonso mango. It has high sequence similarity to an alkenal/one oxidoreductase from cucumber (79% identity) and enone oxidoreductases from tomato (73% identity) and strawberry (72% identity). The complete open reading frame was expressed in E. coli and the (his)6-tagged recombinant protein was purified by affinity chromatography. The purified protein assayed with NADH as a reducing agent converted D-fructose-1,6-diphosphate into furaneol, the immediate precursor of mesifuran. The enzyme was also able to convert two highly reactive carbonyls, 3-buten-2-one and 1-penten-3-one, produced by lipid peroxidation in plants, into their saturated derivatives. Expression profiling in various ripening stages of Alphonso fruits depicted an expression maxima at 10 days after harvest stage, shortly before the appearance of the maximum amount of furanones (completely ripe stage, 15 days after harvest). Although no furanones were detected at the 0 day after harvest stage, significant expression of this gene was detected in the fruits at this stage. Overall, the results suggest that this oxidoreductase plays important roles in Alphonso mango fruits. PMID:24133645

  10. The Study of NADPH-Dependent Flavoenzyme-Catalyzed Reduction of Benzo[1,2-c]1,2,5-oxadiazole N-Oxides (Benzofuroxans)

    PubMed Central

    Šarlauskas, Jonas; Misevičienė, Lina; Marozienė, Audronė; Karvelis, Laimonas; Stankevičiūtė, Jonita; Krikštopaitis, Kastis; Čėnas, Narimantas; Yantsevich, Aleksey; Laurynėnas, Audrius; Anusevičius, Žilvinas

    2014-01-01

    The enzymatic reactivity of a series of benzo[1,2-c]1,2,5-oxadiazole N-oxides (benzofuroxans; BFXs) towards mammalian single-electron transferring NADPH:cytochrome P-450 reductase (P-450R) and two-electron (hydride) transferring NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) was examined in this work. Since the =N+ (→O)O− moiety of furoxan fragments of BFXs bears some similarity to the aromatic nitro-group, the reactivity of BFXs was compared to that of nitro-aromatic compounds (NACs) whose reduction mechanisms by these and other related flavoenzymes have been extensively investigated. The reduction of BFXs by both P-450R and NQO1 was accompanied by O2 uptake, which was much lower than the NADPH oxidation rate; except for annelated BFXs, whose reduction was followed by the production of peroxide. In order to analyze the possible quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) of the enzymatic reactivity of the compounds, their electron-accepting potency and other reactivity indices were assessed by quantum mechanical methods. In P-450R-catalyzed reactions, both BFXs and NACs showed the same reactivity dependence on their electron-accepting potency which might be consistent with an “outer sphere” electron transfer mechanism. In NQO1-catalyzed two-electron (hydride) transferring reactions, BFXs acted as more efficient substrates than NACs, and the reduction efficacy of BFXs by NQO1 was in general higher than by single-electron transferring P-450R. In NQO1-catalyzed reactions, QSARs obtained showed that the reduction efficacy of BFXs, as well as that of NACs, was determined by their electron-accepting potency and could be influenced by their binding mode in the active center of NQO1 and by their global softness as their electronic characteristic. The reductive conversion of benzofuroxan by both flavoenzymes yielded the same reduction product of benzofuroxan, 2,3-diaminophenazine, with the formation of o-benzoquinone dioxime as a putative primary reductive intermediate, which undergoes a further reduction process. Overall, the data obtained show that by contrast to NACs, the flavoenzyme-catalyzed reduction of BFXs is unlikely to initiate their redox-cycling, which may argue for a minor role of the redox-cycling-type action in the cytotoxicity of BFXs. PMID:25517035

  11. Functional Analysis of Paralogous Thiol-disulfide Oxidoreductases in Streptococcus gordonii*

    PubMed Central

    Davey, Lauren; Ng, Crystal K. W.; Halperin, Scott A.; Lee, Song F.

    2013-01-01

    Disulfide bonds are important for the stability of many extracellular proteins, including bacterial virulence factors. Formation of these bonds is catalyzed by thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases (TDORs). Little is known about their formation in Gram-positive bacteria, particularly among facultative anaerobic Firmicutes, such as streptococci. To investigate disulfide bond formation in Streptococcus gordonii, we identified five putative TDORs from the sequenced genome. Each of the putative TDOR genes was insertionally inactivated with an erythromycin resistance cassette, and the mutants were analyzed for autolysis, extracellular DNA release, biofilm formation, bacteriocin production, and genetic competence. This analysis revealed a single TDOR, SdbA, which exhibited a pleiotropic mutant phenotype. Using an in silico analysis approach, we identified the major autolysin AtlS as a natural substrate of SdbA and showed that SdbA is critical to the formation of a disulfide bond that is required for autolytic activity. Analysis by BLAST search revealed homologs to SdbA in other Gram-positive species. This study provides the first in vivo evidence of an oxidoreductase, SdbA, that affects multiple phenotypes in a Gram-positive bacterium. SdbA shows low sequence homology to previously identified oxidoreductases, suggesting that it may belong to a different class of enzymes. Our results demonstrate that SdbA is required for disulfide bond formation in S. gordonii and indicate that this enzyme may represent a novel type of oxidoreductase in Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:23615907

  12. Post-transcriptional control of L-1,2-propanediol oxidoreductase in the L-fucose pathway of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y M; Lin, E C

    1984-01-01

    During anaerobic growth on L-fucose, Escherichia coli excretes L-1,2-propanediol formed by an inducible NAD-linked oxidoreductase. The activity of this enzyme is highly induced by L-fucose only anaerobically. However, in strains bearing a hybrid operon with the promoter of fucO (the propanediol oxidoreductase gene) fused to lacZYA, the beta-galactosidase activity is inducible by fucose both anaerobically and aerobically. In merodiploids bearing both fucO+ and phi(fucO-lac), propanediol oxidoreductase is inducible only anaerobically, but beta-galactosidase remains inducible both aerobically and anaerobically. Thus, the absence of respiratory control in the expression of phi(fucO-lac) cannot be attributed to a polarity effect of the fusion on a gene encoding a protein with autogenous regulatory function in transcription. The respiratory effect on the induced propanediol oxidoreductase activity is therefore post-transcriptional. PMID:6418721

  13. An Oxidoreductase Is Involved in Cercosporin Degradation by the Bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. zinniae

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Tanya V.; Mitchell, Thomas K.; Daub, Margaret E.

    2006-01-01

    The polyketide toxin cercosporin plays a key role in pathogenesis by fungal species of the genus Cercospora. The bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. zinniae is able to rapidly degrade this toxin. Growth of X. campestris pv. zinniae strains in cercosporin-containing medium leads to the breakdown of cercosporin and to the formation of xanosporic acid, a nontoxic breakdown product. Five non-cercosporin-degrading mutants of a strain that rapidly degrades cercosporin (XCZ-3) were generated by ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis and were then transformed with a genomic library from the wild-type strain. All five mutants were complemented with the same genomic clone, which encoded a putative transcriptional regulator and an oxidoreductase. Simultaneous expression of these two genes was necessary to complement the mutant phenotype. Sequence analysis of the mutants showed that all five mutants had point mutations in the oxidoreductase gene and no mutations in the regulator. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) showed that the expression of both of these genes in the wild-type strain is upregulated after exposure to cercosporin. Both the oxidoreductase and transcriptional regulator genes were transformed into three non-cercosporin-degrading bacteria to determine if they are sufficient for cercosporin degradation. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed that the oxidoreductase was expressed in all transconjugants. However, none of the transconjugants were able to degrade cercosporin, suggesting that additional factors are required for cercosporin degradation. Further study of cercosporin degradation in X. campestris pv. zinniae may allow for the engineering of Cercospora-resistant plants by using a suite of genes. PMID:16957231

  14. Expression of WW domain–containing oxidoreductase WWOX in pterygium

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yi-Hsun; Chang, Nan-Shan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Pterygium was traditionally regarded as a degenerative disease, but certain characteristics suggest that pterygium is probably premalignant tissue. The human WWOX gene, encoding the WW domain containing oxidoreductase (WWOX, FOR, or WOX1), is a candidate tumor suppressor gene. In this study, we investigated the WWOX gene and protein expression in pterygium. Methods Pterygium tissues were obtained from patients (n=16, primary=8, recurrent=8) who received surgical excisions. Each tissue sample was further divided into head and body regions. The WWOX gene and protein expression were examined with immunohistochemistry, western blot, and quantitative PCR. For comparison, normal superior temporal bulbar conjunctivas were used as controls. Results Compared to the controls, upregulation of WWOX and its Tyr33 phosphorylation was observed in the head region of all pterygium specimens. In the head and body of the pterygium specimens, WWOX expression was significantly higher than in the controls. In addition, WWOX expression was stronger in recurrent pterygia than in primary pterygia. Conclusions Increased WWOX expression, especially in the head region, is probably due to the invasiveness of the pterygium. Our results indicate that WWOX may play a role in pterygium progression and recurrence. PMID:26120275

  15. Thioredoxin-thioredoxin reductase system of Streptomyces clavuligerus: sequences, expression, and organization of the genes.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, G; Yanko, M; Mislovati, M; Argaman, A; Schreiber, R; Av-Gay, Y; Aharonowitz, Y

    1993-01-01

    The genes that encode thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase of Streptomyces clavuligerus were cloned, and their DNA sequences were determined. Previously, we showed that S. clavuligerus possesses a disulfide reductase with broad substrate specificity that biochemically resembles the thioredoxin oxidoreductase system and may play a role in the biosynthesis of beta-lactam antibiotics. It consists consists of two components, a 70-kDa NADPH-dependent flavoprotein disulfide reductase with two identical subunits and a 12-kDa heat-stable protein general disulfide reductant. In this study, we found, by comparative analysis of their predicted amino acid sequences, that the 35-kDa protein is in fact thioredoxin reductase; it shares 48.7% amino acid sequence identity with Escherichia coli thioredoxin reductase, the 12-kDa protein is thioredoxin, and it shares 28 to 56% amino acid sequence identity with other thioredoxins. The streptomycete thioredoxin reductase has the identical cysteine redox-active region--Cys-Ala-Thr-Cys--and essentially the same flavin adenine dinucleotide- and NADPH dinucleotide-binding sites as E. coli thioredoxin reductase and is partially able to accept E. coli thioredoxin as a substrate. The streptomycete thioredoxin has the same cysteine redox-active segment--Trp-Cys-Gly-Pro-Cys--that is present in virtually all eucaryotic and procaryotic thioredoxins. However, in vivo it is unable to donate electrons to E. coli methionine sulfoxide reductase and does not serve as a substrate in vitro for E. coli thioredoxin reductase. The S. clavuligerus thioredoxin (trxA) and thioredoxin reductase (trxB) genes are organized in a cluster. They are transcribed in the same direction and separated by 33 nucleotides. In contrast, the trxA and trxB genes of E. coli, the only other organism in which both genes have been characterized, are physically widely separated. Images PMID:8349555

  16. Esculetin-induced protection of human hepatoma HepG2 cells against hydrogen peroxide is associated with the Nrf2-dependent induction of the NAD(P)H: Quinone oxidoreductase 1 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Subramaniam, Sudhakar R.; Ellis, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-15

    Esculetin (6,7-dihydroxy coumarin), is a potent antioxidant that is present in several plant species. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of protection of esculetin in human hepatoma HepG2 cells against reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by hydrogen peroxide. Cell viability, cell integrity, intracellular glutathione levels, generation of reactive oxygen species and expression of antioxidant enzymes were used as markers to measure cellular oxidative stress and response to ROS. The protective effect of esculetin was compared to a well-characterized chemoprotective compound quercetin. Pre-treatment of HepG2 cells with sub-lethal (10-25 {mu}M) esculetin for 8 h prevented cell death and maintained cell integrity following exposure to 0.9 mM hydrogen peroxide. An increase in the generation of ROS following hydrogen peroxide treatment was significantly attenuated by 8 h pre-treatment with esculetin. In addition, esculetin ameliorated the decrease in intracellular glutathione caused by hydrogen peroxide exposure. Moreover, treatment with 25 {mu}M esculetin for 8 h increased the expression of NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) at both protein and mRNA levels significantly, by 12-fold and 15-fold, respectively. Esculetin treatment also increased nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 by 8-fold indicating that increased NQO1 expression is Nrf2-mediated. These results indicate that esculetin protects human hepatoma HepG2 cells from hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative injury and that this protection is provided through the induction of protective enzymes as part of an adaptive response mediated by Nrf2 nuclear accumulation.

  17. The P450 oxidoreductase, RedA, controls development beyond the mound stage in Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Kristeller, Daniela C; Farage, Layla; Fiorini, Leonardo C; Loomis, William F; da Silva, Aline M

    2008-01-01

    Background NADPH-cytochrome-P450 oxidoreductase (CPR) is a ubiquitous enzyme that belongs to a family of diflavin oxidoreductases and is required for activity of the microsomal cytochrome-P450 monooxygenase system. CPR gene-disruption experiments have demonstrated that absence of this enzyme causes developmental defects both in mouse and insect. Results Annotation of the sequenced genome of D. discoideum revealed the presence of three genes (redA, redB and redC) that encode putative members of the diflavin oxidoreductase protein family. redA transcripts are present during growth and early development but then decline, reaching undetectable levels after the mound stage. redB transcripts are present in the same levels during growth and development while redC expression was detected only in vegetative growing cells. We isolated a mutant strain of Dictyostelium discoideum following restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) mutagenesis in which redA was disrupted. This mutant develops only to the mound stage and accumulates a bright yellow pigment. The mound-arrest phenotype is cell-autonomous suggesting that the defect occurs within the cells rather than in intercellular signaling. Conclusion The developmental arrest due to disruption of redA implicates CPR in the metabolism of compounds that control cell differentiation. PMID:18218133

  18. Antioxidant Defense by Thioredoxin Can Occur Independently of Canonical Thiol-Disulfide Oxidoreductase Enzymatic Activity.

    PubMed

    Song, Miryoung; Kim, Ju-Sim; Liu, Lin; Husain, Maroof; Vázquez-Torres, Andrés

    2016-03-29

    The thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase CXXC catalytic domain of thioredoxin contributes to antioxidant defense in phylogenetically diverse organisms. We find that although the oxidoreductase activity of thioredoxin-1 protects Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium from hydrogen peroxide in vitro, it does not appear to contribute to Salmonella's antioxidant defenses in vivo. Nonetheless, thioredoxin-1 defends Salmonella from oxidative stress resulting from NADPH phagocyte oxidase macrophage expression during the innate immune response in mice. Thioredoxin-1 binds to the flexible linker, which connects the receiver and effector domains of SsrB, thereby keeping this response regulator in the soluble fraction. Thioredoxin-1, independently of thiol-disulfide exchange, activates intracellular SPI2 gene transcription required for Salmonella resistance to both reactive species generated by NADPH phagocyte oxidase and oxygen-independent lysosomal host defenses. These findings suggest that the horizontally acquired virulence determinant SsrB is regulated post-translationally by ancestrally present thioredoxin. PMID:26997275

  19. The protein inhibitor of nNOS (PIN/DLC1/LC8) binding does not inhibit the NADPH-dependent heme reduction in nNOS, a key step in NO synthesis.

    PubMed

    Parhad, Swapnil S; Jaiswal, Deepa; Ray, Krishanu; Mazumdar, Shyamalava

    2016-03-25

    The neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is an essential enzyme involved in the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO), a potent neurotransmitter. Although previous studies have indicated that the dynein light chain 1 (DLC1) binding to nNOS could inhibit the NO synthesis, the claim is challenged by contradicting reports. Thus, the mechanism of nNOS regulation remained unclear. nNOS has a heme-bearing, Cytochrome P450 core, and the functional enzyme is a dimer. The electron flow from NADPH to Flavin, and finally to the heme of the paired nNOS subunit within a dimer, is facilitated upon calmodulin (CaM) binding. Here, we show that DLC1 binding to nNOS-CaM complex does not affect the electron transport from the reductase to the oxygenase domain. Therefore, it cannot inhibit the rate of NADPH-dependent heme reduction in nNOS, which results in l-Arginine oxidation. Also, the NO release activity does not decrease with increasing DLC1 concentration in the reaction mix, which further confirmed that DLC1 does not inhibit nNOS activity. These findings suggest that the DLC1 binding may have other implications for the nNOS function in the cell. PMID:26923072

  20. Protein Method for Investigating Mercuric Reductase Gene Expression in Aquatic Environments

    PubMed Central

    Ogunseitan, O. A.

    1998-01-01

    A colorimetric assay for NADPH-dependent, mercuric ion-specific oxidoreductase activity was developed to facilitate the investigation of mercuric reductase gene expression in polluted aquatic ecosystems. Protein molecules extracted directly from unseeded freshwater and samples seeded with Pseudomonas aeruginosa PU21(Rip64) were quantitatively assayed for mercuric reductase activity in microtiter plates by stoichiometric coupling of mercuric ion reduction to a colorimetric redox chain through NADPH oxidation. Residual NADPH was determined by titration with phenazine methosulfate-catalyzed reduction of methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium to produce visible formazan. Spectrophotometric determination of formazan concentration showed a positive correlation with the amount of NADPH remaining in the reaction mixture (r2 = 0.99). Mercuric reductase activity in the protein extracts was inversely related to the amount of NADPH remaining and to the amount of formazan produced. A qualitative nitrocellulose membrane-based version of the method was also developed, where regions of mercuric reductase activity remained colorless against a stained-membrane background. The assay detected induced mercuric reductase activity from 102 CFU, and up to threefold signal intensity was detected in seeded freshwater samples amended with mercury compared to that in mercury-free samples. The efficiency of extraction of bacterial proteins from the freshwater samples was (97 ± 2)% over the range of population densities investigated (102 to 108 CFU/ml). The method was validated by detection of enzyme activity in protein extracts of water samples from a polluted site harboring naturally occurring mercury-resistant bacteria. The new method is proposed as a supplement to the repertoire of molecular techniques available for assessing specific gene expression in heterogeneous microbial communities impacted by mercury pollution. PMID:9464410

  1. Molecular and phylogenetic characterization of pyruvate and 2-ketoisovalerate ferredoxin oxidoreductases from Pyrococcus furiosus and pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase from Thermotoga maritima.

    PubMed Central

    Kletzin, A; Adams, M W

    1996-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus contains four distinct cytoplasmic 2-ketoacid oxidoreductases (ORs) which differ in their substrate specificities, while the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima contains only one, pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (POR). These enzymes catalyze the synthesis of the acyl (or aryl) coenzyme A derivative in a thiamine PPi-dependent oxidative decarboxylation reaction with reduction of ferredoxin. We report here on the molecular analysis of the POR (por) and 2-ketoisovalerate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (vor) genes from P. furiosus and of the POR gene from T. maritima, all of which comprise four different subunits. The operon organization for P. furiosus POR and VOR was porG-vorDAB-porDAB, wherein the gamma subunit is shared by the two enzymes. The operon organization for T. maritima POR was porGDAB. The three enzymes were 46 to 53% identical at the amino acid level. Their delta subunits each contained two ferredoxin-type [4Fe-4S] cluster binding motifs (CXXCXXCXXXCP), while their beta subunits each contained four conserved cysteines in addition to a thiamine PPi-binding domain. Amino-terminal sequence comparisons show that POR, VOR, indolepyruvate OR, and 2-ketoglutarate OR of P. furiosus all belong to a phylogenetically homologous OR family. Moreover, the single-subunit pyruvate ORs from mesophilic and moderately thermophilic bacteria and from an amitochondriate eucaryote each contain four domains which are phylogenetically homologous to the four subunits of the hyperthermophilic ORs (27% sequence identity). Three of these subunits are also homologous to the dimeric POR from a mesophilic archaeon, Halobacterium halobium (21% identity). A model is proposed to account for the observed phenotypes based on genomic rearrangements of four ancestral OR subunits. PMID:8550425

  2. Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperones and Oxidoreductases: Critical Regulators of Tumor Cell Survival and Immunorecognition

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Tomás; Simmen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones and oxidoreductases are abundant enzymes that mediate the production of fully folded secretory and transmembrane proteins. Resisting the Golgi and plasma membrane-directed “bulk flow,” ER chaperones and oxidoreductases enter retrograde trafficking whenever they are pulled outside of the ER by their substrates. Solid tumors are characterized by the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), combined with reduced blood flow that leads to low oxygen supply and ER stress. Under these conditions, hypoxia and the unfolded protein response upregulate their target genes. When this occurs, ER oxidoreductases and chaperones become important regulators of tumor growth. However, under these conditions, these proteins not only promote the folding of proteins, but also alter the properties of the plasma membrane and hence modulate tumor immune recognition. For instance, high levels of calreticulin serve as an “eat-me” signal on the surface of tumor cells. Conversely, both intracellular and surface BiP/GRP78 promotes tumor growth. Other ER folding assistants able to modulate the properties of tumor tissue include protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), Ero1α and GRP94. Understanding the roles and mechanisms of ER chaperones in regulating tumor cell functions and immunorecognition will lead to important insight for the development of novel cancer therapies. PMID:25386408

  3. Origin and Evolution of the Sodium -Pumping NADH: Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Prieto, Adrian; Barquera, Blanca; Juárez, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    The sodium -pumping NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR) is the main ion pump and the primary entry site for electrons into the respiratory chain of many different types of pathogenic bacteria. This enzymatic complex creates a transmembrane gradient of sodium that is used by the cell to sustain ionic homeostasis, nutrient transport, ATP synthesis, flagellum rotation and other essential processes. Comparative genomics data demonstrate that the nqr operon, which encodes all Na+-NQR subunits, is found in a large variety of bacterial lineages with different habitats and metabolic strategies. Here we studied the distribution, origin and evolution of this enzymatic complex. The molecular phylogenetic analyses and the organizations of the nqr operon indicate that Na+-NQR evolved within the Chlorobi/Bacteroidetes group, after the duplication and subsequent neofunctionalization of the operon that encodes the homolog RNF complex. Subsequently, the nqr operon dispersed through multiple horizontal transfer events to other bacterial lineages such as Chlamydiae, Planctomyces and α, β, γ and δ -proteobacteria. Considering the biochemical properties of the Na+-NQR complex and its physiological role in different bacteria, we propose a detailed scenario to explain the molecular mechanisms that gave rise to its novel redox- dependent sodium -pumping activity. Our model postulates that the evolution of the Na+-NQR complex involved a functional divergence from its RNF homolog, following the duplication of the rnf operon, the loss of the rnfB gene and the recruitment of the reductase subunit of an aromatic monooxygenase. PMID:24809444

  4. Light-Dependent Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase: Phylogeny, Regulation, and Catalytic Properties.

    PubMed

    Gabruk, Michal; Mysliwa-Kurdziel, Beata

    2015-09-01

    This Current Topic focuses on light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR, EC 1.3.1.33). POR catalyzes the penultimate reaction of chlorophyll biosynthesis, i.e., the light-triggered reduction of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide. In this reaction, the chlorin ring of the chlorophyll molecule is formed, which is crucial for photosynthesis. POR is one of very few enzymes that are driven by light; however, it is unique in the need for its substrate to absorb photons to induce the conformational changes in the enzyme, which are required for its catalytic activation. Moreover, the enzyme is also involved in the negative feedback of the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway and controls chlorophyll content via its light-dependent activity. Even though it has been almost 70 years since the first isolation of active POR complexes, our knowledge of them has markedly advanced in recent years. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge of POR, including the phylogenetic roots of POR, the mechanisms of the regulation of POR genes expression, the regulation of POR activity, the import of POR into plastids, the role of POR in PLB formation, and the molecular mechanism of protochlorophyllide reduction by POR. To the best of our knowledge, no previous review has compiled such a broad set of recent findings about POR. PMID:26230427

  5. Efficient production of 1,3-propanediol from glycerol upon constitutive expression of the 1,3-propanediol oxidoreductase gene in engineered Klebsiella pneumoniae with elimination of by-product formation.

    PubMed

    Oh, Baek-Rock; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Heo, Sun-Yeon; Luo, Lian Hua; Hong, Won-Kyung; Park, Don-Hee; Kim, Chul-Ho

    2013-06-01

    In the present study, we developed an efficient method of 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) production from glycerol by genetic engineering of Klebsiella pneumoniae AK mutant strains. The proposed approach eliminated by-product formation and IPTG induction resulted in maximal production of 1,3-PD. A series of recombinant strains was designed to constitutively express the dhaB and/or dhaT genes, using the bacteriophage T5 P(DE20) promoter and the rho-independent transcription termination signal of the Rahnella aquatilis levansucrase gene. Among these strains, AK/pConT expressing dhaT alone gave the highest yield of 1,3-PD. Fed-batch fermentation resulted in efficient production of 1,3-PD from either pure or crude glycerol, without by-product formation. PMID:23361186

  6. Menaquinol-nitrate oxidoreductase of Bacillus halodenitrificans.

    PubMed Central

    Ketchum, P A; Denariaz, G; LeGall, J; Payne, W J

    1991-01-01

    When grown anaerobically on nitrate-containing medium, Bacillus halodenitrificans exhibited a membrane-bound nitrate reductase (NR) that was solubilized by 2% Triton X-100 but not by 1% cholate or deoxycholate. Purification on columns of DE-52, hydroxylapatite, and Sephacryl S-300 yielded reduced methyl viologen NR (MVH-NR) with specific activities of 20 to 35 U/mg of protein that was stable when stored in 40% sucrose at -20 degrees C for 6 weeks. 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-2-hydroxypropone-1-sulfonat e (CHAPSO) and dodecyl-beta-D-maltoside stimulated enzyme activity three- to fourfold. Membrane extractions yielded purified NR that separated after electrophoresis into a 145-kDa alpha subunit, a 58-kDa beta subunit, and a 23-kDa gamma subunit. The electronic spectrum of dithionite-reduced, purified NR displayed peaks at 424.6, 527, and 557 nm, indicative of the presence of a cytochrome b, an interpretation consistent with the pyridine hemochrome spectrum formed. Analyses revealed a molybdenum-heme-non-heme iron ratio of 1:1:8 for the NR and the presence of molybdopterin. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signals characteristic of iron-sulfur centers were detected at low temperature. EPR also revealed a minor signal centered in the g = 2 region of the spectra. Upon reduction with dithionite, the enzyme displayed signals at g = 2.064, 2.026, 1.906, and 1.888, indicative of the presence of low-potential iron-sulfur centers, which resolve most probably as two [4Fe-4S]+1 clusters. With menadiol as the substrate for nitrate reduction, the Km for nitrate was 50-fold less than that seen when MVH was the electron donor. The cytochrome b557-containing enzyme from B. halodenitrificans is characterized as a menaquinol-nitrate:oxidoreductase. Images PMID:2013572

  7. NAD(P)H: Quinone Oxidoreductase 1 and NRH:Quinone Oxidoreductase 2 Polymorphisms in Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma: Correlation with Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Junguee; Kim, Koon Soon; Lee, Min Ho; Kim, Yeon Soo; Lee, Min Hee; Lee, Seong Eun; Kim, Yong Kyung; Ryu, Min Jeong; Kim, Soung Jung; Choi, Min Jeong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose NAD(P)H:Quinone Oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) C609T missense variant (NQO1*2) and 29 basepair (bp)-insertion/deletion (I29/D) polymorphism of the NRH:Quinone Oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2) gene promoter have been proposed as predictive and prognostic factors for cancer development and progression. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between NQO1/NQO2 genotype and clinico-pathological features of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). Materials and Methods Genomic DNA was isolated from 243 patients; and clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. NQO1*2 and tri-allelic polymorphism of NQO2 were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Results PTMC with NQO1*2 frequently exhibited extra-thyroidal extension as compared to PTMC with wild-type NQO1 (p=0.039). There was a significant relationship between I29/I29 homozygosity of NQO2 and lymph node metastasis (p=0.042). Multivariate analysis showed that the I29/I29 genotype was associated with an increased risk of lymph node metastasis (OR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.10-4.56; p=0.026). Conclusion NQO1*2 and I29 allele of the NQO2 are associated with aggressive clinical phenotypes of PTMC, and the I29 allele represents a putative prognostic marker for PTMC. PMID:23918565

  8. A structural model for FOXRED1, an FAD-dependent oxidoreductase necessary for NADH: Ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) assembly.

    PubMed

    Lemire, Bernard D

    2015-05-01

    The biogenesis of mitochondrial respiratory chain components is complex. Mammalian complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) contains 44 different subunits, an FMN and seven iron-sulfur centers. Its assembly involves at least twelve additional proteins, called assembly factors. One of these is FOXRED1, a 486-amino acid FAD-dependent oxidoreductase. FOXRED1 is a member of the d-amino acid oxidase (DAO) family. A structural model of FOXRED1 reveals a large substrate-binding cavity and a putative oxygen-binding site. These features strongly suggest that FOXRED1 is catalytically active as an oxidoreductase. A metabolic role for FOXRED1 in the biogenesis of complex I should be considered. PMID:25765152

  9. Regulation of MUC5AC expression by NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Shuo; Byrd, Angela S.; Fischer, Bernard M.; Grover, Amy R.; Ghio, Andrew J.; Voynow, Judith A.

    2007-01-01

    Neutrophil elastase (NE), a potent neutrophil inflammatory mediator, increases MUC5AC mucin gene expression through undefined pathways involving reactive oxygen species. To determine the source of NE-generated reactive oxygen species, we used pharmacologic inhibitors of oxidoreductases to test whether they blocked NE-regulated MUC5AC mRNA expression. We found that dicumarol, an inhibitor of the NADP(H) quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), inhibited MUC5AC mRNA expression in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells and primary normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells. We further tested the role of NQO1 in mediating NE-induced MUC5AC expression by inhibiting NQO1 expression using siRNA. Transfection with short interfering RNA (siRNA) specific for NQO1 suppressed NQO1 expression and significantly abrogated MUC5AC mRNA expression. NE treatment caused lipid peroxidation in A549 cells; this effect was inhibited by pretreatment with dicumarol, suggesting that NQO1 also regulates oxidant stress in A549 cells following NE exposure. NE exposure increased NQO1 protein and activity levels; NQO1 expression and activity were limited to the cytosol and did not translocate to the plasma membrane. Our results indicate that NQO1 has an important role as a key mediator of NE-regulated oxidant stress and MUC5AC mucin gene expression. PMID:17395013

  10. The in vitro NADPH-dependent inhibition by CCl sub 4 of the ATP-dependent calcium uptake of hepatic microsomes from male rats. Studies on the mechanism of the inactivation of the hepatic microsomal calcium pump by the CCl sub 3 radical

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, S.P.; Chen, N.Q.; Holtzman, J.L. )

    1990-05-25

    The hepatotoxicity of CCl4 is mediated through its initial reduction by cytochrome P-450 to the CCl3 radical. This radical then damages important metabolic systems such as the ATP-dependent microsomal Ca2+ pump. Previous studies from our laboratory on isolated microsomes have shown that NADPH in the absence of toxic agents inhibits this pump. We have now found in in vitro incubations that CCl4 (0.5-2.5 mM) enhanced the NADPH-dependent inhibition of Ca2+ uptake from 28% without CCl4 to a maximum of 68%. These concentrations are in the range found in the livers and blood of lethally intoxicated animals and are toxic to cultured hepatocytes. The inhibition of Ca2+ uptake was due both to a decrease in the Ca2(+)-dependent ATPase and to an enhanced release of Ca2+ from the microsomes. The NADPH-dependent CCl4 inhibition was greater under N2 and was totally prevented by CO. GSH (1-10 mM) added during the incubation with CCl4 prevented the inhibition. This protection was also seen when the incubations were performed under nitrogen. When samples were preincubated with CCl4, the CCl4 metabolism was stopped, and then the Ca2+ uptake was determined; GSH reversed the CCl4 inhibition of Ca2+ uptake. This reversal showed saturation kinetics for GSH with two Km values of 0.315 and 93 microM when both the preincubation and the Ca2+ uptake were performed under air, and 0.512 and 31 microM when both were performed under nitrogen. Cysteine did not prevent the NADPH-dependent CCl4 inhibition of Ca2+ uptake. CCl4 increased lipid peroxidation in air, but no lipid peroxidation was seen under nitrogen. Lipid peroxidation was only modestly reversed by GSH. GSH did not remove 14C bound to samples preincubated with the 14CCl4.

  11. Hepatic catecholestrogen synthases: differential effect of sex, inducers of cytochromes P-450 and of antibody to the glucocorticoid inducible cytochrome P-450 on NADPH-dependent estrogen-2-hydroxylase and on organic hydroperoxide-dependent estrogen-2/4-hydroxylase activity of rat hepatic microsomes.

    PubMed

    Bui, Q D; Weisz, J; Wrighton, S A

    1990-10-01

    Formation of catecholestrogens (CE) by rat hepatic microsomes was re-examined because as recently shown; (1) CE formation can be catalyzed by an NADPH-dependent estrogen-4-hydroxylase (E-4-H(NADPH)) and by a peroxidatic, organic hydroperoxide-dependent estrogen-2/4-hydroxylase (E-2/4-H(OHP)), in addition to the established NADPH-dependent estrogen 2-hydroxylase (E-2-H(NADPH)); and (2) the indirect radiometric and the COMT-coupled radioenzymatic assays, used in many previous studies, may fail to provide an accurate measure, in particular, of 4-OH-CE. Using a direct product isolation assay, hepatic microsomes of both male and female rats were shown to express E-2/4-H(OHP) activity with properties similar to those of peroxidatic activity in other tissues. The activities of E-2/4-H(OHP) and E-2-H(NADPH) were affected differently by 5 out of 7 inducers of cytochromes P-450 administered in vivo. Phenobarbital and dexamethasone caused a 4- and 2-3-fold increase in E-2-H(NADPH) activity, respectively, but only a 38 and 20% increase in E-2/4-H(OHP) activity. Ketoconazol and beta-naphtoflavone caused a modest increase in E-2-H(NADPH) activity but a decrease in OHP-dependent activity. Clofibrate decreased peroxidatic activity by 50% and NADPH-dependent activity by approximately 20%. Both activities were increased by ethanol but decreased by isoniazide, an agent which induces the same form of cytochromes P-450 as ethanol. Polyclonal antibody against P-450p, a form of P-450 induced by glucocorticoids, inhibited E-2-H(NADPH) but not E-2/4-H(OHP) activity of untreated and of dexamethasone- and phenobarbital-treated rats. This study establishes that CE formation may occur in liver via the peroxidatic pathway and indicates that this pathway depends on forms of P-450 different from those mediating E-2-H(NADPH) activity. It also confirms and extends previous observations of the involvement of multiple, constitutive and induced forms of cytochrome P-450 in NADPH-dependent 2-hydroxylation in liver. PMID:2176538

  12. The Bifunctional Pyruvate Decarboxylase/Pyruvate Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase from Thermococcus guaymasensis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus guaymasensis produces ethanol as a metabolic end product, and an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) catalyzing the reduction of acetaldehyde to ethanol has been purified and characterized. However, the enzyme catalyzing the formation of acetaldehyde has not been identified. In this study an enzyme catalyzing the production of acetaldehyde from pyruvate was purified and characterized from T. guaymasensis under strictly anaerobic conditions. The enzyme had both pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) and pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (POR) activities. It was oxygen sensitive, and the optimal temperatures were 85°C and >95°C for the PDC and POR activities, respectively. The purified enzyme had activities of 3.8 ± 0.22 U mg−1 and 20.2 ± 1.8 U mg−1, with optimal pH-values of 9.5 and 8.4 for each activity, respectively. Coenzyme A was essential for both activities, although it did not serve as a substrate for the former. Enzyme kinetic parameters were determined separately for each activity. The purified enzyme was a heterotetramer. The sequences of the genes encoding the subunits of the bifunctional PDC/POR were determined. It is predicted that all hyperthermophilic β-keto acids ferredoxin oxidoreductases are bifunctional, catalyzing the activities of nonoxidative and oxidative decarboxylation of the corresponding β-keto acids. PMID:24982594

  13. Archaeal Mo-Containing Glyceraldehyde Oxidoreductase Isozymes Exhibit Diverse Substrate Specificities through Unique Subunit Assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Miyake, Masayuki; Fushinobu, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    Archaea use glycolytic pathways distinct from those found in bacteria and eukaryotes, where unique enzymes catalyze each reaction step. In this study, we isolated three isozymes of glyceraldehyde oxidoreductase (GAOR1, GAOR2 and GAOR3) from the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus tokodaii. GAOR1–3 belong to the xanthine oxidoreductase superfamily, and are composed of a molybdo-pyranopterin subunit (L), a flavin subunit (M), and an iron-sulfur subunit (S), forming an LMS hetero-trimer unit. We found that GAOR1 is a tetramer of the STK17810/STK17830/STK17820 hetero-trimer, GAOR2 is a dimer of the STK23390/STK05620/STK05610 hetero-trimer, and GAOR3 is the STK24840/STK05620/STK05610 hetero-trimer. GAOR1–3 exhibited diverse substrate specificities for their electron donors and acceptors, due to their different L-subunits, and probably participate in the non-phosphorylative Entner-Doudoroff glycolytic pathway. We determined the crystal structure of GAOR2, as the first three-dimensional structure of an archaeal molybdenum-containing hydroxylase, to obtain structural insights into their substrate specificities and subunit assemblies. The gene arrangement and the crystal structure suggested that the M/S-complex serves as a structural scaffold for the binding of the L-subunit, to construct the three enzymes with different specificities. Collectively, our findings illustrate a novel principle of a prokaryotic multicomponent isozyme system. PMID:26808202

  14. Identification of P450 Oxidoreductase as a Major Determinant of Sensitivity to Hypoxia-Activated Prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Francis W; Young, Richard J; Shalev, Zvi; Vellanki, Ravi N; Wang, Jingli; Gu, Yongchuan; Joshi, Naveen; Sreebhavan, Sreevalsan; Weinreb, Ilan; Goldstein, David P; Moffat, Jason; Ketela, Troy; Brown, Kevin R; Koritzinsky, Marianne; Solomon, Benjamin; Rischin, Danny; Wilson, William R; Wouters, Bradly G

    2015-10-01

    Hypoxia is a prevalent feature of many tumors contributing to disease progression and treatment resistance, and therefore constitutes an attractive therapeutic target. Several hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAP) have been developed, including the phase III candidate TH-302 (evofosfamide) and the preclinical agent SN30000, which is an optimized analogue of the well-studied HAP tirapazamine. Experience with this therapeutic class highlights an urgent need to identify biomarkers of HAP sensitivity, including enzymes responsible for prodrug activation during hypoxia. Using genome-scale shRNA screens and a high-representation library enriched for oxidoreductases, we identified the flavoprotein P450 (cytochrome) oxidoreductase (POR) as the predominant determinant of sensitivity to SN30000 in three different genetic backgrounds. No other genes consistently modified SN30000 sensitivity, even within a POR-negative background. Knockdown or genetic knockout of POR reduced SN30000 reductive metabolism and clonogenic cell death and similarly reduced sensitivity to TH-302 under hypoxia. A retrospective evaluation of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas showed heterogeneous POR expression and suggested a possible relationship between human papillomavirus status and HAP sensitivity. Taken together, our study identifies POR as a potential predictive biomarker of HAP sensitivity that should be explored during the clinical development of SN30000, TH-302, and other hypoxia-directed agents. PMID:26297733

  15. Archaeal Mo-Containing Glyceraldehyde Oxidoreductase Isozymes Exhibit Diverse Substrate Specificities through Unique Subunit Assemblies.

    PubMed

    Wakagi, Takayoshi; Nishimasu, Hiroshi; Miyake, Masayuki; Fushinobu, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    Archaea use glycolytic pathways distinct from those found in bacteria and eukaryotes, where unique enzymes catalyze each reaction step. In this study, we isolated three isozymes of glyceraldehyde oxidoreductase (GAOR1, GAOR2 and GAOR3) from the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus tokodaii. GAOR1-3 belong to the xanthine oxidoreductase superfamily, and are composed of a molybdo-pyranopterin subunit (L), a flavin subunit (M), and an iron-sulfur subunit (S), forming an LMS hetero-trimer unit. We found that GAOR1 is a tetramer of the STK17810/STK17830/STK17820 hetero-trimer, GAOR2 is a dimer of the STK23390/STK05620/STK05610 hetero-trimer, and GAOR3 is the STK24840/STK05620/STK05610 hetero-trimer. GAOR1-3 exhibited diverse substrate specificities for their electron donors and acceptors, due to their different L-subunits, and probably participate in the non-phosphorylative Entner-Doudoroff glycolytic pathway. We determined the crystal structure of GAOR2, as the first three-dimensional structure of an archaeal molybdenum-containing hydroxylase, to obtain structural insights into their substrate specificities and subunit assemblies. The gene arrangement and the crystal structure suggested that the M/S-complex serves as a structural scaffold for the binding of the L-subunit, to construct the three enzymes with different specificities. Collectively, our findings illustrate a novel principle of a prokaryotic multicomponent isozyme system. PMID:26808202

  16. A unifying kinetic framework for modeling oxidoreductase-catalyzed reactions

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ivan; Baldi, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: Oxidoreductases are a fundamental class of enzymes responsible for the catalysis of oxidation–reduction reactions, crucial in most bioenergetic metabolic pathways. From their common root in the ancient prebiotic environment, oxidoreductases have evolved into diverse and elaborate protein structures with specific kinetic properties and mechanisms adapted to their individual functional roles and environmental conditions. While accurate kinetic modeling of oxidoreductases is thus important, current models suffer from limitations to the steady-state domain, lack empirical validation or are too specialized to a single system or set of conditions. Results: To address these limitations, we introduce a novel unifying modeling framework for kinetic descriptions of oxidoreductases. The framework is based on a set of seven elementary reactions that (i) form the basis for 69 pairs of enzyme state transitions for encoding various specific microscopic intra-enzyme reaction networks (micro-models), and (ii) lead to various specific macroscopic steady-state kinetic equations (macro-models) via thermodynamic assumptions. Thus, a synergistic bridge between the micro and macro kinetics can be achieved, enabling us to extract unitary rate constants, simulate reaction variance and validate the micro-models using steady-state empirical data. To help facilitate the application of this framework, we make available RedoxMech: a Mathematica™ software package that automates the generation and customization of micro-models. Availability: The Mathematica™ source code for RedoxMech, the documentation and the experimental datasets are all available from: http://www.igb.uci.edu/tools/sb/metabolic-modeling. Contact: pfbaldi@ics.uci.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:23613486

  17. A novel electrochemical approach to the characterization of oxidoreductase reactions.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Tokuji

    2004-01-01

    Electrochemical methods based on enzyme-electrochemical reactions have been developed for studying oxidoreductase reactions. The methods measure a current resulting from an oxidoreductase reaction with an electrode serving as a final electron acceptor (or donor) in the reaction. A theoretical equation for the enzyme-electrochemical reaction, called bioelectrocatalysis, is derived, which enables kinetic analysis of the reaction. In combination with spectrophotometry, the electrochemical method provides a method for determining the redox potentials of proteins and enzymes. An alternative method based on bulk electrolysis in a quartz cell for UV-vis spectroscopy has been developed for the measurements of protein redox potentials on a conventional spectrophotometer. The electrochemical methods are applied to kinetic and thermodynamic analyses for the reactions of a variety of enzymes including a newly discovered enzyme, quinohemoprotein amine dehydrogenase (QH-AmDH), and bilirubin oxidase (BOD) [EC 1.3.3.5, from Myrothecium verrucaria], a copper-containing enzyme useful for bioelectrocatalytic O(2) reduction in biofuel cells. The electrochemical method for kinetic analysis has been successfully applied to the analysis of oxidoreductase reactions in vivo, as demonstrated by the reaction of glucose dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli. The advantages of the electrochemical methods are discussed. PMID:15293339

  18. Hepatocyte circadian clock controls acetaminophen bioactivation through NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Brian P; Walisser, Jacqueline A; Liu, Yan; Shen, Anna L; McDearmon, Erin L; Moran, Susan M; McIntosh, Brian E; Vollrath, Aaron L; Schook, Andrew C; Takahashi, Joseph S; Bradfield, Christopher A

    2014-12-30

    The diurnal variation in acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity (chronotoxicity) reportedly is driven by oscillations in metabolism that are influenced by the circadian phases of feeding and fasting. To determine the relative contributions of the central clock and the hepatocyte circadian clock in modulating the chronotoxicity of APAP, we used a conditional null allele of brain and muscle Arnt-like 1 (Bmal1, aka Mop3 or Arntl) allowing deletion of the clock from hepatocytes while keeping the central and other peripheral clocks (e.g., the clocks controlling food intake) intact. We show that deletion of the hepatocyte clock dramatically reduces APAP bioactivation and toxicity in vivo and in vitro because of a reduction in NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase gene expression, protein, and activity. PMID:25512522

  19. Functional characterization of enone oxidoreductases from strawberry and tomato fruit.

    PubMed

    Klein, Dorothée; Fink, Barbara; Arold, Beate; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Schwab, Wilfried

    2007-08-01

    Fragaria x ananassa enone oxidoreductase (FaEO), earlier putatively assigned as quinone oxidoreductase, is a ripening-induced, negatively auxin-regulated enzyme that catalyzes the formation of 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDMF), the key flavor compound in strawberry fruit by the reduction of the alpha,beta-unsaturated bond of the highly reactive precursor 4-hydroxy-5-methyl-2-methylene-3(2H)-furanone (HMMF). Here we show that recombinant FaEO does not reduce the double bond of straight-chain 2-alkenals or 2-alkenones but rather hydrogenates previously unknown HMMF derivatives substituted at the methylene functional group. The furanones were prepared from 4-hydroxy-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone with a number of aldehydes and a ketone. The kinetic data for the newly synthesized aroma-active substrates and products are similar to the values obtained for an enone oxidoreductase from Arabidopsis thaliana catalyzing the alpha,beta-hydrogenation of 2-alkenals. HMMF, the substrate of FaEO that is formed during strawberry fruit ripening, was also detected in tomato and pineapple fruit by HPLC-ESI-MSn and became 13C-labeled when d-[6-13C]-glucose was applied to the fruits, which suggested that a similar HDMF biosynthetic pathway occurs in the different plant species. With a database search (http://ted.bti.cornell.edu/ and http://genet.imb.uq.edu.au/Pineapple/), we identified a tomato and pineapple expressed sequence tag that shows significant homology to FaEO. Solanum lycopersicon EO (SlEO) was cloned from cDNA, and the protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Biochemical studies confirmed the involvement of SlEO in the biosynthesis of HDMF in tomato fruit. PMID:17636940

  20. Structural Basis of Biological NO Generation by Octaheme Oxidoreductases*

    PubMed Central

    Maalcke, Wouter J.; Dietl, Andreas; Marritt, Sophie J.; Butt, Julea N.; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Keltjens, Jan T.; Barends, Thomas R. M.; Kartal, Boran

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide is an important molecule in all domains of life with significant biological functions in both pro- and eukaryotes. Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria that contribute substantially to the release of fixed nitrogen into the atmosphere use the oxidizing power of NO to activate inert ammonium into hydrazine (N2H4). Here, we describe an enzyme from the anammox bacterium Kuenenia stuttgartiensis that uses a novel pathway to make NO from hydroxylamine. This new enzyme is related to octaheme hydroxylamine oxidoreductase, a key protein in aerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria. By a multiphasic approach including the determination of the crystal structure of the K. stuttgartiensis enzyme at 1.8 Å resolution and refinement and reassessment of the hydroxylamine oxidoreductase structure from Nitrosomonas europaea, both in the presence and absence of their substrates, we propose a model for NO formation by the K. stuttgartiensis enzyme. Our results expand the understanding of the functions that the widespread family of octaheme proteins have. PMID:24302732

  1. CRYSTAL STRUCTURE ANALYSIS OF A PUTATIVE OXIDOREDUCTASE FROM KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE

    SciTech Connect

    Baig, M.; Brown, A.; Eswaramoorthy, S.; Swaminathan, S.

    2009-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae, a gram-negative enteric bacterium, is found in nosocomial infections which are acquired during hospital stays for about 10% of hospital patients in the United States. The crystal structure of a putative oxidoreductase from K. pneumoniae has been determined. The structural information of this K. pneumoniae protein was used to understand its function. Crystals of the putative oxidoreductase enzyme were obtained by the sitting drop vapor diffusion method using Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350, Bis-Tris buffer, pH 5.5 as precipitant. These crystals were used to collect X-ray data at beam line X12C of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The crystal structure was determined using the SHELX program and refi ned with CNS 1.1. This protein, which is involved in the catalysis of an oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction, has an alpha/beta structure. It utilizes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) or nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to perform its function. This structure could be used to determine the active and co-factor binding sites of the protein, information that could help pharmaceutical companies in drug design and in determining the protein’s relationship to disease treatment such as that for pneumonia and other related pathologies.

  2. Electron transfer by human wild-type and A287P mutant P450 oxidoreductase assessed by transient kinetics: functional basis of P450 oxidoreductase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yi; Chen, Mo; Penning, Trevor M; Miller, Walter L

    2015-05-15

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is a 2-flavin protein that transfers electrons from NADPH via its FAD and FMN moieties to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, including steroidogenic and drug-metabolizing P450s. Defects in the POR gene can cause POR deficiency (PORD), manifested clinically by disordered steroidogenesis, genital anomalies and skeletal malformations. We examined the POR mutant A287P, which is the most frequent cause of PORD in patients of European ancestry and partially disrupts most P450 activities in vitro. Flavin content analysis showed that A287P is deficient in FAD and FMN binding, although the mutation site is distant from the binding sites of both flavins. Externally added flavin partially restored the cytochrome c reductase activity of A287P, suggesting that flavin therapy may be useful for this frequent form of PORD. Transient kinetic dissection of the reaction of POR with NADPH and the reduction in cytochrome c by POR using stopped-flow techniques revealed defects in individual electron transfer steps mediated by A287P. A287P had impaired ability to accept electrons from NADPH, but was capable of a fast FMN → cytochrome c electron donation reaction. Thus the reduced rates of P450 activities with A287P may be due to deficient flavin and impaired electron transfer from NADPH. PMID:25728647

  3. Oxidoreductase regulation of Kv currents in rat ventricle.

    PubMed

    Liang, Huixu; Li, Xun; Li, Shumin; Zheng, Ming-Qi; Rozanski, George J

    2008-06-01

    Oxidative stress contributes to the arrhythmogenic substrate created by myocardial ischemia-reperfusion partly through a shift in cell redox state, a key modulator of protein function. The activity of many oxidation-sensitive proteins is controlled by oxidoreductase systems that regulate the redox state of cysteine thiol groups, but the impact of these systems on ion channel function is not well defined. Thus, we examined the roles of the thioredoxin and glutaredoxin systems in controlling K(+) channels in the ventricle. An oxidative shift in redox state was elicited in isolated rat ventricular myocytes by brief exposure to diamide, a thiol-specific, membrane-permeable oxidant. Voltage-clamp studies showed that diamide decreased peak outward K(+) current (I(peak)) evoked by depolarizing test pulses by 41% (+60 mV; p<0.05) while steady-state outward current (I(ss)) measured at the end of the test pulse was decreased by 45% (p<0.05). These electrophysiological effects were not prevented by protein kinase C blockers, but the tyrosine kinase inhibitors genistein or lavendustin A blocked the suppression of both K(+) currents by diamide. Moreover, inhibition of I(peak) and I(ss) by diamide was reversed by dichloroacetate and an insulin-mimetic. The effect of dichloroacetate to normalize I(peak) after diamide was blocked by the thioredoxin system inhibitors auranofin or 13-cis-retinoic acid, but I(ss) was not affected by either compound. A pan-specific inhibitor of glutaredoxin and thioredoxin systems, 1,3-bis-(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea, also blocked the dichloroacetate effect on I(peak) but only partially inhibited the recovery of I(ss). These data suggest that acute regulation of cardiac K(+) channels by oxidoreductase systems is mediated by redox-sensitive tyrosine kinase/phosphatase pathways. The pathways controlling I(peak) channels are targets of the thioredoxin system whereas those regulating I(ss) channels are likely controlled by the glutaredoxin system. Thus, cardiac oxidoreductase systems may be important regulators of ion channels affected by pathogenic oxidative stress. PMID:18455732

  4. An NAD(P)H-Nicotine Blue Oxidoreductase Is Part of the Nicotine Regulon and May Protect Arthrobacter nicotinovorans from Oxidative Stress during Nicotine Catabolism▿

    PubMed Central

    Mihasan, Marius; Chiribau, Calin-Bogdan; Friedrich, Thorsten; Artenie, Vlad; Brandsch, Roderich

    2007-01-01

    An NAD(P)H-nicotine blue (quinone) oxidoreductase was discovered as a member of the nicotine catabolic pathway of Arthrobacter nicotinovorans. Transcriptional analysis and electromobility shift assays showed that the enzyme gene was expressed in a nicotine-dependent manner under the control of the transcriptional activator PmfR and thus was part of the nicotine regulon of A. nicotinovorans. The flavin mononucleotide-containing enzyme uses NADH and, with lower efficiency, NADPH to reduce, by a two-electron transfer, nicotine blue to the nicotine blue leuco form (hydroquinone). Besides nicotine blue, several other quinones were reduced by the enzyme. The NAD(P)H-nicotine blue oxidoreductase may prevent intracellular one-electron reductions of nicotine blue which may lead to semiquinone radicals and potentially toxic reactive oxygen species. PMID:17293530

  5. Structure and function of Caulobacter crescentus aldose-aldose oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Taberman, Helena; Andberg, Martina; Koivula, Anu; Hakulinen, Nina; Penttilä, Merja; Rouvinen, Juha; Parkkinen, Tarja

    2015-12-15

    Aldose-aldose oxidoreductase (Cc AAOR) is a recently characterized enzyme from the bacterial strain Caulobacter crescentus CB15 belonging to the glucose-fructose oxidoreductase/inositol dehydrogenase/rhizopine catabolism protein (Gfo/Idh/MocA) family. Cc AAOR catalyses the oxidation and reduction of a panel of aldose monosaccharides using a tightly bound NADP(H) cofactor that is regenerated in the catalytic cycle. Furthermore, Cc AAOR can also oxidize 1,4-linked oligosaccharides. In the present study, we present novel crystal structures of the dimeric Cc AAOR in complex with the cofactor and glycerol, D-xylose, D-glucose, maltotriose and D-sorbitol determined to resolutions of 2.0, 1.8, 1.7, 1.9 and 1.8 Å (1 Å=0.1 nm), respectively. These complex structures allowed for a detailed analysis of the ligand-binding interactions. The structures showed that the C1 carbon of a substrate, which is either reduced or oxidized, is close to the reactive C4 carbon of the nicotinamide ring of NADP(H). In addition, the O1 hydroxy group of the substrate, which is either protonated or deprotonated, is unexpectedly close to both Lys(104) and Tyr(189), which may both act as a proton donor or acceptor. This led us to hypothesize that this intriguing feature could be beneficial for Cc AAOR to catalyse the reduction of a linear form of a monosaccharide substrate and the oxidation of a pyranose form of the same substrate in a reaction cycle, during which the bound cofactor is regenerated. PMID:26438878

  6. Recent progress on the characterization of aldonolactone oxidoreductases.

    PubMed

    Aboobucker, Siddique I; Lorence, Argelia

    2016-01-01

    L-Ascorbic acid (ascorbate, AsA, vitamin C) is essential for animal and plant health. Despite our dependence on fruits and vegetables to fulfill our requirement for this vitamin, the metabolic network leading to its formation in plants is just being fully elucidated. There is evidence supporting the operation of at least four biosynthetic pathways leading to AsA formation in plants. These routes use D-mannose/L-galactose, L-gulose, D-galacturonate, and myo-inositol as the main precursors. This review focuses on aldonolactone oxidoreductases, a subgroup of the vanillyl alcohol oxidase (VAO; EC 1.1.3.38) superfamily, enzymes that catalyze the terminal step in AsA biosynthesis in bacteria, protozoa, animals, and plants. In this report, we review the properties of well characterized aldonolactone oxidoreductases to date. A shared feature in these proteins is the presence of a flavin cofactor as well as a thiol group. The flavin cofactor in many cases is bound to the N terminus of the enzymes or to a recently discovered HWXK motif in the C terminus. The binding between the flavin moiety and the protein can be either covalent or non-covalent. Substrate specificity and subcellular localization differ among the isozymes of each kingdom. All oxidases among these enzymes possess dehydrogenase activity, however, exclusive dehydrogenases are also found. We also discuss recent evidence indicating that plants have both L-gulono-1,4-lactone oxidases and L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenases involved in AsA biosynthesis. PMID:26696130

  7. Impact of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 on pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Tae-Young; Sohn, Kyung-Cheol; Kim, Jin-Hwa; Kim, Seong-Min; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Hwang, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jeung-Hoon; Kim, Chang Deok; Yoon, Tae-Jin

    2010-03-01

    We obtained metastasized melanoma tissue from a primary acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) patient and established a melanoma cell line named primary culture of melanoma cell derived from lymph node (PML)-1. PML-1 cells had a light brown color and decreased the expression of melanogenesis markers, including tyrosinase (TYR), microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, and tyrosinase-related protein-1. To identify genes differentially regulated in PML-1 melanoma cells, we performed DNA microarray and two-dimensional matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry analyses. Among the candidate genes identified, we chose NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1) for further study. Reverse transcription-PCR and western blot analyses showed that NQO1 was markedly decreased in PML-1 cells and in several amelanotic melanoma cell lines. To investigate whether NQO1 affects the melanogenesis, we treated the cultured normal human melanocytes (NHMC) and zebrafish with NQO1 inhibitors, ES936 and dicoumarol. Interestingly, melanogenesis was significantly decreased by the addition of NQO1 inhibitors in both NHMC and zebrafish models. In contrast, overexpression of NQO1 using a recombinant adenovirus clearly induced melanogenesis, concomitantly with an increase of TYR protein level. These results suggest that NQO1 is a positive regulator of the pigmentation process. PMID:19759547

  8. Arabidopsis light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase A (PORA) is essential for normal plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Paddock, Troy; Lima, Daniel; Mason, Mary E; Apel, Klaus; Armstrong, Gregory A

    2012-03-01

    During skotomorphogenesis in angiosperms, NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) forms an aggregate of photolabile NADPH-POR-protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) ternary complexes localized to the prolamellar bodies within etioplasts. During photomorphogenesis, POR catalyzes the light-dependent reduction of Pchlide a to chlorophyllide (Chlide) a, which is subsequently converted to chlorophyll (Chl). In Arabidopsis there are three structurally related POR genes, denoted PORA, PORB and PORC. The PORA and PORB proteins accumulate during skotomorphogenesis. During illumination, PORA is only transiently expressed, whereas PORB and PORC persist and are responsible for bulk Chl synthesis throughout plant development. Here we have tested whether PORA is important for skotomorphogenesis by assisting in etioplast development, and normal photomorphogenic development. Using reverse genetic approaches, we have identified the porA-1 null mutant, which contains an insertion of the maize Dissociation transposable element in the PORA gene. Additionally, we have characterized PORA RNAi lines. The porA-1 and PORA RNAi lines display severe photoautotrophic growth defects, which can be partially rescued on sucrose-supplemented growth media. Elimination of PORA during skotomorphogenesis results in reductions in the volume and frequency of prolamellar bodies, and in photoactive Pchlide conversion. The porA-1 mutant characterization thus establishes a quantitative requirement for PORA in etioplast development by demonstrating significant membrane ultrastructural and biochemical defects, in addition to suggesting PORA-specific functions in photomorphogenesis and plant development. PMID:22278767

  9. Thiol-disulfide Oxidoreductases TRX1 and TMX3 Decrease Neuronal Atrophy in a Lentiviral Mouse Model of Huntington's Disease.

    PubMed

    Fox, Jonathan; Lu, Zhen; Barrows, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by a trinucleotide CAG repeat in the huntingtin gene (HTT) that results in expression of a polyglutamine-expanded mutant huntingtin protein (mHTT). N-terminal fragments of mHTT accumulate in brain neurons and glia as soluble monomeric and oligomeric species as well as insoluble protein aggregates and drive the disease process. Decreasing mHTT levels in brain provides protection and reversal of disease signs in HD mice making mHTT a prime target for disease modification. There is evidence for aberrant thiol oxidation within mHTT and other proteins in HD models. Based on this, we hypothesized that a specific thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase exists that decreases mHTT levels in cells and provides protection in HD mice. We undertook an in-vitro genetic screen of key thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases then completed secondary screens to identify those with mHTT decreasing properties. Our in-vitro experiments identified thioredoxin 1 and thioredoxin-related transmembrane protein 3 as proteins that decrease soluble mHTT levels in cultured cells. Using a lentiviral mouse model of HD we tested the effect of these proteins in striatum. Both proteins decreased mHTT-induced striatal neuronal atrophy. Findings provide evidence for a role of dysregulated protein-thiol homeostasis in the pathogenesis of HD. PMID:26664998

  10. Neuronal expression of a single-subunit yeast NADH–ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Ndi1) extends Drosophila lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Bahadorani, Sepehr; Cho, Jaehyoung; Lo, Thomas; Contreras, Heidy; Lawal, Hakeem O.; Krantz, David E.; Bradley, Timothy J; Walker, David W.

    2010-01-01

    The ‘rate of living’ theory predicts that longevity should be inversely correlated with the rate of mitochondrial respiration. However, recent studies in a number of model organisms, including mice, have reported that interventions that retard the aging process are, in fact, associated with an increase in mitochondrial activity. To better understand the relationship between energy metabolism and longevity, we supplemented the endogenous respiratory chain machinery of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster with the alternative single-subunit NADH–ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Ndi1) of the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we report that expression of Ndi1 in fly mitochondria leads to an increase in NADH–ubiquinone oxidoreductase activity, oxygen consumption and ATP levels. In addition, exogenous Ndi1 expression results in increased CO2 production in living flies. Using an inducible gene expression system, we expressed Ndi1 in different cells and tissues and examined the impact on longevity. In doing so, we discovered that targeted expression of Ndi1 in fly neurons significantly increases lifespan without compromising fertility or physical activity. These findings are consistent with the idea that enhanced respiratory chain activity in neuronal tissue can prolong fly lifespan. PMID:20089120

  11. A Single-Electron Reducing Quinone Oxidoreductase Is Necessary to Induce Haustorium Development in the Root Parasitic Plant Triphysaria[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Bandaranayake, Pradeepa C.G.; Filappova, Tatiana; Tomilov, Alexey; Tomilova, Natalya B.; Jamison-McClung, Denneal; Ngo, Quy; Inoue, Kentaro; Yoder, John I.

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic plants in the Orobanchaceae develop haustoria in response to contact with host roots or chemical haustoria-inducing factors. Experiments in this manuscript test the hypothesis that quinolic-inducing factors activate haustorium development via a signal mechanism initiated by redox cycling between quinone and hydroquinone states. Two cDNAs were previously isolated from roots of the parasitic plant Triphysaria versicolor that encode distinct quinone oxidoreductases. QR1 encodes a single-electron reducing NADPH quinone oxidoreductase similar to ζ-crystallin. The QR2 enzyme catalyzes two electron reductions typical of xenobiotic detoxification. QR1 and QR2 transcripts are upregulated in a primary response to chemical-inducing factors, but only QR1 was upregulated in response to host roots. RNA interference technology was used to reduce QR1 and QR2 transcripts in Triphysaria roots that were evaluated for their ability to form haustoria. There was a significant decrease in haustorium development in roots silenced for QR1 but not in roots silenced for QR2. The infrequent QR1 transgenic roots that did develop haustoria had levels of QR1 similar to those of nontransgenic roots. These experiments implicate QR1 as one of the earliest genes on the haustorium signal transduction pathway, encoding a quinone oxidoreductase necessary for the redox bioactivation of haustorial inducing factors. PMID:20424175

  12. Purification and characterization of malate:quinone oxidoreductase from thermophilic Bacillus sp. PS3.

    PubMed

    Kabashima, Yoshiki; Sone, Nobuhito; Kusumoto, Tomoichirou; Sakamoto, Junshi

    2013-02-01

    Several bacteria possess membrane-bound dehydrogenases other than cytosolic dehydrogenases in their respiratory chains. In many cases, the membrane-bound malate:quinone oxidoreductases (MQOs) are essential for growth. However, these MQOs are absent in mammalian mitochondria, and therefore may be a potential drug target for pathogenic bacteria. To characterize the kinetic properties of MQOs, we purified MQO from Bacillus sp. PS3, which is a gram-positive and thermophilic bacterium, and cloned the gene encoding MQO based on the obtained partial N-terminus sequence. Purified MQOs showed a molecular mass of ~90 kDa, which was estimated using gel filtration, and it consists of two subunits with a molecular mass of ~50 kDa. Phylogenetic analysis showed a high similarity to the MQO of the Geobacillus group rather than the Bacillus group. Additionally, the purified enzyme was thermostable and it retained menaquinol reduction activity at high temperatures. Although it is difficult to conduct experiments using menaquinol because of its instability, we were able to measure the oxidase activity of cytochrome bd-type quinol oxidase by using menaquinol-1 by coupling this molecule with the menaquinol reduction reaction using purified MQOs. PMID:23143325

  13. REVEILLE1 promotes NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase A expression and seedling greening in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gang; Guo, Haiyan; Zhang, Dong; Chen, Dongqin; Jiang, Zhimin; Lin, Rongcheng

    2015-12-01

    Chlorophyll biosynthesis plays a crucial role in the greening process and survival of etiolated seedlings and yet the mechanism underlying the regulation of this process is poorly understood. Upon light stimulation, NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) catalyzes the reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to chlorophyllide. Whereas this represents a key step in the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway, the regulation of POR remains largely unknown. Three POR isoforms exist in Arabidopsis thaliana, i.e., PORA, PORB, and PORC. In this study, we identified a transcription factor, REVEILLE1 (RVE1), that binds directly to the PORA promoter through the EE-box cis-regulatory element. Analysis of PORA expression in RVE1 loss-of-function (rve1) and overexpression (RVE1-OX) Arabidopsis plants showed that RVE1 positively regulates the transcription of PORA. We found that Pchlide levels were reduced in RVE1-OX seedlings. Furthermore, rve1 etiolated seedlings had lower greening rates than the wild type when exposed to light, whereas RVE1-OX seedlings had higher greening rates. In addition, when etiolated seedlings were exposed to light, RVE1-OX plants had less reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and cell death than the wild type, and had reduced levels of ROS-responsive gene expression. Taken together, our study reveals an important role for RVE1 in regulating chlorophyll biosynthesis and promoting seedling greening during early plant growth and development. PMID:25910753

  14. Assembly of the Escherichia coli NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (respiratory complex I).

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Thorsten; Dekovic, Doris Kreuzer; Burschel, Sabrina

    2016-03-01

    Energy-converting NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, respiratory complex I, couples the electron transfer from NADH to ubiquinone with the translocation of four protons across the membrane. The Escherichia coli complex I is made up of 13 different subunits encoded by the so-called nuo-genes. The electron transfer is catalyzed by nine cofactors, a flavin mononucleotide and eight iron-sulfur (Fe/S)-clusters. The individual subunits and the cofactors have to be assembled together in a coordinated way to guarantee the biogenesis of the active holoenzyme. Only little is known about the assembly of the bacterial complex compared to the mitochondrial one. Due to the presence of so many Fe/S-clusters the assembly of complex I is intimately connected with the systems responsible for the biogenesis of these clusters. In addition, a few other proteins have been reported to be required for an effective assembly of the complex in other bacteria. The proposed role of known bacterial assembly factors is discussed and the information from other bacterial species is used in this review to draw an as complete as possible model of bacterial complex I assembly. In addition, the supramolecular organization of the complex in E. coli is briefly described. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Organization and dynamics of bioenergetic systems in bacteria, edited by Prof. Conrad Mullineaux. PMID:26682761

  15. Dual targeted poplar ferredoxin NADP(+) oxidoreductase interacts with hemoglobin 1.

    PubMed

    Jokipii-Lukkari, Soile; Kastaniotis, Alexander J; Parkash, Vimal; Sundström, Robin; Leiva-Eriksson, Nélida; Nymalm, Yvonne; Blokhina, Olga; Kukkola, Eija; Fagerstedt, Kurt V; Salminen, Tiina A; Läärä, Esa; Bülow, Leif; Ohlmeier, Steffen; Hiltunen, J Kalervo; Kallio, Pauli T; Häggman, Hely

    2016-06-01

    Previous reports have connected non-symbiotic and truncated hemoglobins (Hbs) to metabolism of nitric oxide (NO), an important signalling molecule involved in wood formation. We have studied the capability of poplar (Populus tremula×tremuloides) Hbs PttHb1 and PttTrHb proteins alone or with a flavin-protein reductase to relieve NO cytotoxicity in living cells. Complementation tests in a Hb-deficient, NO-sensitive yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Δyhb1 mutant showed that neither PttHb1 nor PttTrHb alone protected cells against NO. To study the ability of Hbs to interact with a reductase, ferredoxin NADP(+) oxidoreductase PtthFNR was characterized by sequencing and proteomics. To date, by far the greatest number of the known dual-targeted plant proteins are directed to chloroplasts and mitochondria. We discovered a novel variant of hFNR that lacks the plastid presequence and resides in cytosol. The coexpression of PttHb1 and PtthFNR partially restored NO resistance of the yeast Δyhb1 mutant, whereas PttTrHb coexpressed with PtthFNR failed to rescue growth. YFP fusion proteins confirmed the interaction between PttHb1 and PtthFNR in plant cells. The structural modelling results indicate that PttHb1 and PtthFNR are able to interact as NO dioxygenase. This is the first report on dual targeting of central plant enzyme FNR to plastids and cytosol. PMID:27095407

  16. Elementary tetrahelical protein design for diverse oxidoreductase functions.

    PubMed

    Farid, Tammer A; Kodali, Goutham; Solomon, Lee A; Lichtenstein, Bruce R; Sheehan, Molly M; Fry, Bryan A; Bialas, Chris; Ennist, Nathan M; Siedlecki, Jessica A; Zhao, Zhenyu; Stetz, Matthew A; Valentine, Kathleen G; Anderson, J L Ross; Wand, A Joshua; Discher, Bohdana M; Moser, Christopher C; Dutton, P Leslie

    2013-12-01

    Emulating functions of natural enzymes in man-made constructs has proven challenging. Here we describe a man-made protein platform that reproduces many of the diverse functions of natural oxidoreductases without importing the complex and obscure interactions common to natural proteins. Our design is founded on an elementary, structurally stable 4-?-helix protein monomer with a minimalist interior malleable enough to accommodate various light- and redox-active cofactors and with an exterior tolerating extensive charge patterning for modulation of redox cofactor potentials and environmental interactions. Despite its modest size, the construct offers several independent domains for functional engineering that targets diverse natural activities, including dioxygen binding and superoxide and peroxide generation, interprotein electron transfer to natural cytochrome c and light-activated intraprotein energy transfer and charge separation approximating the core reactions of photosynthesis, cryptochrome and photolyase. The highly stable, readily expressible and biocompatible characteristics of these open-ended designs promise development of practical in vitro and in vivo applications. PMID:24121554

  17. Posttranslational modifications of FERREDOXIN-NADP+ OXIDOREDUCTASE in Arabidopsis chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Lehtimäki, Nina; Koskela, Minna M; Dahlström, Käthe M; Pakula, Eveliina; Lintala, Minna; Scholz, Martin; Hippler, Michael; Hanke, Guy T; Rokka, Anne; Battchikova, Natalia; Salminen, Tiina A; Mulo, Paula

    2014-12-01

    Rapid responses of chloroplast metabolism and adjustments to photosynthetic machinery are of utmost importance for plants' survival in a fluctuating environment. These changes may be achieved through posttranslational modifications of proteins, which are known to affect the activity, interactions, and localization of proteins. Recent studies have accumulated evidence about the crucial role of a multitude of modifications, including acetylation, methylation, and glycosylation, in the regulation of chloroplast proteins. Both of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaf-type FERREDOXIN-NADP(+) OXIDOREDUCTASE (FNR) isoforms, the key enzymes linking the light reactions of photosynthesis to carbon assimilation, exist as two distinct forms with different isoelectric points. We show that both AtFNR isoforms contain multiple alternative amino termini and undergo light-responsive addition of an acetyl group to the α-amino group of the amino-terminal amino acid of proteins, which causes the change in isoelectric point. Both isoforms were also found to contain acetylation of a conserved lysine residue near the active site, while no evidence for in vivo phosphorylation or glycosylation was detected. The dynamic, multilayer regulation of AtFNR exemplifies the complex regulatory network systems controlling chloroplast proteins by a range of posttranslational modifications, which continues to emerge as a novel area within photosynthesis research. PMID:25301888

  18. Purification and partial characterisation of camel milk xanthine oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Baghiani, A; Harrison, R; Benboubetra, M

    2003-12-01

    Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) was purified in the presence of dithiothrietol from camel milk with yields of up to 22.2mg/l that were comparable to those obtained from bovine and human milk sources. On SDS-PAGE, the freshly purified camel milk XOR had a protein flavin (A280/A450) ratio of 5.3 +/- 0.4 and appeared homogenous with a single major band of approximately Mr 145.3 KDa. Surprisingly, in all the batches (n = 8) purified camel milk XOR showed no detectable activity towards xanthine or NADH. The molybdenum content of camel XOR was comparable to human and goat milk enzymes. After resulphuration, camel milk XOR gave a specific activity of 1.1 nmol/min/mg and 13.0 nmol/min/mg enzyme towards pterin (fluorimetric assay) and xanthine (spectrophotometric assay) respectively. This activity was markedly lower than that of human, bovine and goat enzymes obtained under the same conditions. These findings suggest that the molybdo-form of camel enzyme is totally under desulpho inactive form. It is possible that camel neonates are equipped with an enzymic system that reactivates XOR in their gut and consequently generates antibacterial reactive oxygen species. PMID:16026028

  19. Xanthine Oxidoreductase-Derived Reactive Species: Physiological and Pathological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Bortolotti, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is the enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine and xanthine to uric acid and is widely distributed among species. In addition to this housekeeping function, mammalian XOR is a physiological source of superoxide ion, hydrogen peroxide, and nitric oxide, which can function as second messengers in the activation of various pathways. This review intends to address the physiological and pathological roles of XOR-derived oxidant molecules. The cytocidal action of XOR products has been claimed in relation to tissue damage, in particular damage induced by hypoxia and ischemia. Attempts to exploit this activity to eliminate unwanted cells via the construction of conjugates have also been reported. Moreover, different aspects of XOR activity related to phlogosis, endothelial activation, leukocyte activation, and vascular tone regulation, have been taken into consideration. Finally, the positive and negative outcomes concerning cancer pathology have been analyzed because XOR products may induce mutagenesis, cell proliferation, and tumor progression, but they are also associated with apoptosis and cell differentiation. In conclusion, XOR activity generates free radicals and other oxidant reactive species that may result in either harmful or beneficial outcomes. PMID:26823950

  20. Elementary tetrahelical protein design for diverse oxidoreductase functions

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenstein, Bruce R; Sheehan, Molly M; Fry, Bryan A; Bialas, Chris; Ennist, Nathan M; Siedlecki, Jessica A; Zhao, Zhenyu; Stetz, Matthew A; Valentine, Kathleen G; Anderson, J L Ross; Wand, A Joshua; Discher, Bohdana M; Moser, Christopher C; Dutton, P Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Emulating functions of natural enzymes in man-made constructs has proven challenging. Here we describe a man-made protein platform that reproduces many of the diverse functions of natural oxidoreductases without importing the complex and obscure interactions common to natural proteins. Our design is founded on an elementary, structurally stable 4-α-helix protein monomer with a minimalist interior malleable enough to accommodate various light- and redox-active cofactors and with an exterior tolerating extensive charge patterning for modulation of redox cofactor potentials and environmental interactions. Despite its modest size, the construct offers several independent domains for functional engineering that targets diverse natural activities, including dioxygen binding and superoxide and peroxide generation, interprotein electron transfer to natural cytochrome c and light-activated intraprotein energy transfer and charge separation approximating the core reactions of photosynthesis, cryptochrome and photolyase. The highly stable, readily expressible and biocompatible characteristics of these open-ended designs promise development of practical in vitro and in vivo applications. PMID:24121554

  1. Xanthine oxidoreductase in atherosclerosis pathogenesis: not only oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Battelli, Maria Giulia; Polito, Letizia; Bolognesi, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    Endothelial xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) together with NAD(P)H oxidase and nitric oxide (NO) synthase plays a physiologic role in inflammatory signalling, the regulation of NO production and vascular function. The oxidative stress generated by these enzymes may induce endothelial dysfunction, leading to atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome. XOR activity creates both oxidant and anti-oxidant products that are implicated in the development of hypertension, smoking vascular injury, dyslipidemia and diabetes, which are the main risk factors of atherosclerosis. In particular, uric acid may have a protective as well as a detrimental role in vascular alterations, thus justifying the multi-directional effects of XOR inhibition. Moreover, XOR products are associated with cell differentiation, leading to adipogenesis and foam cell formation, as well as to the production of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 from arterial smooth muscle cells, after proliferation and migration. The role of XOR in adipogenesis is also connected with insulin resistance and obesity, two main features of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25463089

  2. œNADPH: Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase-Structure, Catalytic Function, and Role in Prolamellar Body Formation and Morphogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Michael P. Timko

    2013-02-01

    The biosynthesis of chlorophyll is a critical biochemical step in the development of photosynthetic vascular plants and green algae. From photosynthetic bacteria (cyanobacteria) to algae, non-vascular plants, gymnosperms and vascular plants, mechanisms have evolved for protochlorophyllide reduction a key step in chlorophyll synthesis. Protochlorophyllide reduction is carried out by both a light-dependent (POR) and light-independent (LIPOR) mechanisms. NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (EC 1.3.1.33, abbreviated POR) catalyzes the light-dependent reduction of protochlorophyllide (PChlide) to chlorophyllide (Chlide). In contrast, a light-independent protochlorophyllide reductase (LIPOR) involves three plastid gene products (chlL, chlN, and chlB) and several nuclear factors. Our work focused on characterization of both the POR and LIPOR catalyzed processes.

  3. Protein Conformational Gating of Enzymatic Activity in Xanthine Oxidoreductase

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikita, Hiroshi; Eger, Bryan T.; Okamoto, Ken; Nishino, Takeshi; Pai, Emil F.

    2012-05-24

    In mammals, xanthine oxidoreductase can exist as xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) and xanthine oxidase (XO). The two enzymes possess common redox active cofactors, which form an electron transfer (ET) pathway terminated by a flavin cofactor. In spite of identical protein primary structures, the redox potential difference between XDH and XO for the flavin semiquinone/hydroquinone pair (E{sub sq/hq}) is {approx}170 mV, a striking difference. The former greatly prefers NAD{sup +} as ultimate substrate for ET from the iron-sulfur cluster FeS-II via flavin while the latter only accepts dioxygen. In XDH (without NAD{sup +}), however, the redox potential of the electron donor FeS-II is 180 mV higher than that for the acceptor flavin, yielding an energetically uphill ET. On the basis of new 1.65, 2.3, 1.9, and 2.2 {angstrom} resolution crystal structures for XDH, XO, the NAD{sup +}- and NADH-complexed XDH, E{sub sq/hq} were calculated to better understand how the enzyme activates an ET from FeS-II to flavin. The majority of the E{sub sq/hq} difference between XDH and XO originates from a conformational change in the loop at positions 423-433 near the flavin binding site, causing the differences in stability of the semiquinone state. There was no large conformational change observed in response to NAD{sup +} binding at XDH. Instead, the positive charge of the NAD{sup +} ring, deprotonation of Asp429, and capping of the bulk surface of the flavin by the NAD{sup +} molecule all contribute to altering E{sub sq/hq} upon NAD{sup +} binding to XDH.

  4. Genome-wide profile of oxidoreductases in viruses, prokaryotes, and eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Kho, Richard; Newman, Joseph V; Jack, Richard M; Villar, Hugo O; Hansen, Mark R

    2003-01-01

    Enzymes that utilize nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) or its 2'-phosphate derivative (NADP) are found throughout the kingdoms of life. These enzymes are fundamental to many biochemical pathways, including central intermediary metabolism and mechanisms for cell survival and defense. The complete genomes of 25 organisms representing bacteria, protists, fungi, plants, and animals, and 811 viruses, were mined to identify and classify NAD(P)-dependent enzymes. An average of 3.4% of the proteins in these genomes was categorized as NAD(P)-utilizing proteins, with highest prevalence in the medium-chain oxidoreductase and short-chain oxidoreductase families. In general, the distribution of these enzymes by oxidoreductase family was correlated to the number of different catalytic mechanisms in each family. Organisms with smaller genomes encoded a larger proportion of NAD(P)-dependent enzymes in their proteome (approximately 6%) as compared to the larger genomes of eukaryotes (approximately 3%). Among viruses, those with large, double-strand DNA genomes were shown to encode oxidoreductases. Gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria showed some differences in the distribution of NAD(P)-dependent proteins. Several organisms such as M. tuberculosis, P. falciparum, and A. thaliana showed unique distributions of oxidoreductases corresponding to some phenotypic features. PMID:14692456

  5. Combinatorial application of two aldehyde oxidoreductases on isobutanol production in the presence of furfural.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyung-Min; Jeon, Jong-Min; Lee, Ju Hee; Song, Hun-Suk; Joo, Han-Byul; Park, Sung-Hee; Choi, Kwon-Young; Kim, Yong Hyun; Park, Kyungmoon; Ahn, Jungoh; Lee, Hongweon; Yang, Yung-Hun

    2016-01-01

    Furfural is a toxic by-product formulated from pretreatment processes of lignocellulosic biomass. In order to utilize the lignocellulosic biomass on isobutanol production, inhibitory effect of the furfural on isobutanol production was investigated and combinatorial application of two oxidoreductases, FucO and YqhD, was suggested as an alternative strategy. Furfural decreased cell growth and isobutanol production when only YqhD or FucO was employed as an isobutyraldehyde oxidoreductase. However, combinatorial overexpression of FucO and YqhD could overcome the inhibitory effect of furfural giving higher isobutanol production by 110% compared with overexpression of YqhD. The combinatorial oxidoreductases increased furfural detoxification rate 2.1-fold and also accelerated glucose consumption 1.4-fold. When it compares to another known system increasing furfural tolerance, membrane-bound transhydrogenase (pntAB), the combinatorial aldehyde oxidoreductases were better on cell growth and production. Thus, to control oxidoreductases is important to produce isobutanol using furfural-containing biomass and the combinatorial overexpression of FucO and YqhD can be an alternative strategy. PMID:26660478

  6. Cooperative Protein Folding by Two Protein Thiol Disulfide Oxidoreductases and ERO1 in Soybean1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Okuda, Aya; Masuda, Taro; Koishihara, Katsunori; Mita, Ryuta; Iwasaki, Kensuke; Hara, Kumiko; Naruo, Yurika; Hirose, Akiho; Tsuchi, Yuichiro

    2016-01-01

    Most proteins produced in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of eukaryotic cells fold via disulfide formation (oxidative folding). Oxidative folding is catalyzed by protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and PDI-related ER protein thiol disulfide oxidoreductases (ER oxidoreductases). In yeast and mammals, ER oxidoreductin-1s (Ero1s) supply oxidizing equivalent to the active centers of PDI. In this study, we expressed recombinant soybean Ero1 (GmERO1a) and found that GmERO1a oxidized multiple soybean ER oxidoreductases, in contrast to mammalian Ero1s having a high specificity for PDI. One of these ER oxidoreductases, GmPDIM, associated in vivo and in vitro with GmPDIL-2, was unable to be oxidized by GmERO1a. We therefore pursued the possible cooperative oxidative folding by GmPDIM, GmERO1a, and GmPDIL-2 in vitro and found that GmPDIL-2 synergistically accelerated oxidative refolding. In this process, GmERO1a preferentially oxidized the active center in the a′ domain among the a, a′, and b domains of GmPDIM. A disulfide bond introduced into the active center of the a′ domain of GmPDIM was shown to be transferred to the active center of the a domain of GmPDIM and the a domain of GmPDIM directly oxidized the active centers of both the a or a′ domain of GmPDIL-2. Therefore, we propose that the relay of an oxidizing equivalent from one ER oxidoreductase to another may play an essential role in cooperative oxidative folding by multiple ER oxidoreductases in plants. PMID:26645455

  7. Clinical, Genetic, and Enzymatic Characterization of P450 Oxidoreductase Deficiency in Four Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sahakitrungruang, Taninee; Huang, Ningwu; Tee, Meng Kian; Agrawal, Vishal; Russell, William E.; Crock, Patricia; Murphy, Nuala; Migeon, Claude J.; Miller, Walter L.

    2009-01-01

    Context: P450 oxidoreductase (POR) deficiency causes disordered steroidogenesis; severe mutations cause genital ambiguity in both sexes plus the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome, whereas mild mutations can cause adult infertility. Objective: We describe four patients with POR deficiency and identify and characterize the activities of their mutations. A 46,XY male with micropenis and two 46,XX female infants with genital ambiguity presented with skeletal malformations, and a 46,XX adolescent presented with primary amenorrhea, elevated 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, and low sex steroids. Methods: The coding regions of the POR gene were sequenced, and the identified mutations were recreated in human POR cDNA expression vectors lacking 27 N-terminal residues. POR and human P450c17 were expressed in bacteria. POR activity was measured by four assays: reduction of cytochrome c, oxidation of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, and support of the 17α-hydroxylase and 17,20 lyase activities of P450c17. Results: All four patients were compound heterozygotes for POR mutations, including five novel mutations: L577R, N185K, delE217, and frameshift mutations 1363delC and 697–698insGAAC. N185K and delE217 lacked measurable activity in the assays based on P450c17 but retained partial activity in the assays based on cytochrome c. As assessed by Vmax/Km, L577R supported 46% of 17α-hydroxylase activity but only 27% of 17,20 lyase activity. Computational modeling of these novel mutants revealed the structural basis for their reduced or absent activities. Conclusion: These patients illustrate the broad clinical spectrum of POR deficiency, including amenorrhea and infertility as the sole manifestation. POR assays based on P450c17 correlate well with hormonal and clinical phenotypes. PMID:19837910

  8. NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 regulates host susceptibility to ozone via isoprostane generation.

    PubMed

    Kummarapurugu, Apparao B; Fischer, Bernard M; Zheng, Shuo; Milne, Ginger L; Ghio, Andrew J; Potts-Kant, Erin N; Foster, W Michael; Soderblom, Erik J; Dubois, Laura G; Moseley, M Arthur; Thompson, J Will; Voynow, Judith A

    2013-02-15

    NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is recognized as a major susceptibility gene for ozone-induced pulmonary toxicity. In the absence of NQO1 as can occur by genetic mutation, the human airway is protected from harmful effects of ozone. We recently reported that NQO1-null mice are protected from airway hyperresponsiveness and pulmonary inflammation following ozone exposure. However, NQO1 regenerates intracellular antioxidants and therefore should protect the individual from oxidative stress. To explain this paradox, we tested whether in the absence of NQO1 ozone exposure results in increased generation of A(2)-isoprostane, a cyclopentenone isoprostane that blunts inflammation. Using GC-MS, we found that NQO1-null mice had greater lung tissue levels of D(2)- and E(2)-isoprostanes, the precursors of J(2)- and A(2)-isoprostanes, both at base line and following ozone exposure compared with congenic wild-type mice. We confirmed in primary cultures of normal human bronchial epithelial cells that A(2)-isoprostane inhibited ozone-induced NF-κB activation and IL-8 regulation. Furthermore, we determined that A(2)-isoprostane covalently modified the active Cys(179) domain in inhibitory κB kinase in the presence of ozone in vitro, thus establishing the biochemical basis for A(2)-isoprostane inhibition of NF-κB. Our results demonstrate that host factors may regulate pulmonary susceptibility to ozone by regulating the generation of A(2)-isoprostanes in the lung. These observations provide the biochemical basis for the epidemiologic observation that NQO1 regulates pulmonary susceptibility to ozone. PMID:23275341

  9. NADPH:Quinone Oxidoreductase 1 Regulates Host Susceptibility to Ozone via Isoprostane Generation*

    PubMed Central

    Kummarapurugu, Apparao B.; Fischer, Bernard M.; Zheng, Shuo; Milne, Ginger L.; Ghio, Andrew J.; Potts-Kant, Erin N.; Foster, W. Michael; Soderblom, Erik J.; Dubois, Laura G.; Moseley, M. Arthur; Thompson, J. Will; Voynow, Judith A.

    2013-01-01

    NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is recognized as a major susceptibility gene for ozone-induced pulmonary toxicity. In the absence of NQO1 as can occur by genetic mutation, the human airway is protected from harmful effects of ozone. We recently reported that NQO1-null mice are protected from airway hyperresponsiveness and pulmonary inflammation following ozone exposure. However, NQO1 regenerates intracellular antioxidants and therefore should protect the individual from oxidative stress. To explain this paradox, we tested whether in the absence of NQO1 ozone exposure results in increased generation of A2-isoprostane, a cyclopentenone isoprostane that blunts inflammation. Using GC-MS, we found that NQO1-null mice had greater lung tissue levels of D2- and E2-isoprostanes, the precursors of J2- and A2-isoprostanes, both at base line and following ozone exposure compared with congenic wild-type mice. We confirmed in primary cultures of normal human bronchial epithelial cells that A2-isoprostane inhibited ozone-induced NF-κB activation and IL-8 regulation. Furthermore, we determined that A2-isoprostane covalently modified the active Cys179 domain in inhibitory κB kinase in the presence of ozone in vitro, thus establishing the biochemical basis for A2-isoprostane inhibition of NF-κB. Our results demonstrate that host factors may regulate pulmonary susceptibility to ozone by regulating the generation of A2-isoprostanes in the lung. These observations provide the biochemical basis for the epidemiologic observation that NQO1 regulates pulmonary susceptibility to ozone. PMID:23275341

  10. Structural basis for human NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Chuanwu; Panda, Satya P.; Marohnic, Christopher C.; Martásek, Pavel; Masters, Bettie Sue; Kim, Jung-Ja P.

    2012-03-15

    NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CYPOR) is essential for electron donation to microsomal cytochrome P450-mediated monooxygenation in such diverse physiological processes as drug metabolism (approximately 85-90% of therapeutic drugs), steroid biosynthesis, and bioactive metabolite production (vitamin D and retinoic acid metabolites). Expressed by a single gene, CYPOR's role with these multiple redox partners renders it a model for understanding protein-protein interactions at the structural level. Polymorphisms in human CYPOR have been shown to lead to defects in bone development and steroidogenesis, resulting in sexual dimorphisms, the severity of which differs significantly depending on the degree of CYPOR impairment. The atomic structure of human CYPOR is presented, with structures of two naturally occurring missense mutations, V492E and R457H. The overall structures of these CYPOR variants are similar to wild type. However, in both variants, local disruption of H bonding and salt bridging, involving the FAD pyrophosphate moiety, leads to weaker FAD binding, unstable protein, and loss of catalytic activity, which can be rescued by cofactor addition. The modes of polypeptide unfolding in these two variants differ significantly, as revealed by limited trypsin digestion: V492E is less stable but unfolds locally and gradually, whereas R457H is more stable but unfolds globally. FAD addition to either variant prevents trypsin digestion, supporting the role of the cofactor in conferring stability to CYPOR structure. Thus, CYPOR dysfunction in patients harboring these particular mutations may possibly be prevented by riboflavin therapy in utero, if predicted prenatally, or rescued postnatally in less severe cases.

  11. 40 CFR 174.524 - Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247 in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or... REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.524 Glyphosate... Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247 enzyme in all plants are exempt from the requirement of a...

  12. 40 CFR 174.524 - Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247 in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or... REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.524 Glyphosate... Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247 enzyme in all plants are exempt from the requirement of a...

  13. 40 CFR 174.524 - Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247 in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or... REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.524 Glyphosate... Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247 enzyme in all plants are exempt from the requirement of a...

  14. 40 CFR 174.524 - Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247 in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or... REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.524 Glyphosate... Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247 enzyme in all plants are exempt from the requirement of a...

  15. 40 CFR 174.524 - Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247 in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or... REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.524 Glyphosate... Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247 enzyme in all plants are exempt from the requirement of a...

  16. Preliminary crystallographic data of the three homologues of the thiol–disulfide oxidoreductase DsbA in Neisseria meningitidis

    SciTech Connect

    Lafaye, Céline; Griat, Mickael; Serre, Laurence

    2008-02-01

    The Neisseria meningitidis genome possesses three genes encoding active DsbAs. To throw light on the reason for this genetic multiplicity, the three enzymes have been purified and crystallized. Bacterial virulence depends on the correct folding of surface-exposed proteins, a process that is catalyzed by the thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase DsbA, which facilitates the synthesis of disulfide bonds in Gram-negative bacteria. Uniquely among bacteria, the Neisseria meningitidis genome possesses three genes encoding active DsbAs: DsbA1, DsbA2 and DsbA3. DsbA1 and DsbA2 have been characterized as lipoproteins involved in natural competence and in host-interactive biology, while the function of DsbA3 remains unknown. In an attempt to shed light on the reason for this multiplicity of dsbA genes, the three enzymes from N. meningitidis have been purified and crystallized in the presence of high concentrations of ammonium sulfate. The best crystals were obtained using DsbA1 and DsbA3; they belong to the orthorhombic and tetragonal systems and diffract to 1.5 and 2.7 Å resolution, respectively.

  17. Similarity of Escherichia coli propanediol oxidoreductase (fucO product) and an unusual alcohol dehydrogenase from Zymomonas mobilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, T. ); Ingram, L.O. )

    1989-07-01

    The gene that encodes 1,2-propanediol oxidoreductase (fucO) from Escherichia coli was sequenced. The reading frame specified a protein of 383 amino acids (including the N-terminal methionine), with an aggregate molecular weight of 40,642. The induction of fucO transcription, which occurred in the presence of fucose, was confirmed by Northern blot analysis. In E. coli, the primary fucO transcript was approximately 2.1 kilobases in length. The 5{prime} end of the transcript began more than 0.7 kilobase upstream of the fucO start codon within or beyond the fucA gene. Propanediol oxidoreductase exhibited 41.7% identity with the iron-containing alcohol dehydrogenase II from Zymomonas mobilis and 39.5% identity with ADH4 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These three proteins did not share homology with either short-chain or long-chain zinc-containing alcohol dehydrogenase enzymes. We propose that these three unusual alcohol dehydrogenases define a new family of enzymes.

  18. The Effects of Xanthine Oxidoreductase Inhibitors on Oxidative Stress Markers following Global Brain Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Okamoto, Ken; Kusano, Teruo; Matsuda, Yoko; Suzuki, Go; Fuse, Akira; Yokota, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrated that 3-nitrotyrosine and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal levels in mouse brain were elevated from 1 h until 8 h after global brain ischemia for 14 min induced with the 3-vessel occlusion model; this result indicates that ischemia reperfusion injury generated oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species production was observed not only in the hippocampal region, but also in the cortical region. We further evaluated the neuroprotective effect of xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitors in the mouse 3-vessel occlusion model by analyzing changes in the expression of genes regulated by the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (including pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), matrix metalloproteinase-9 and intercellular adhesion molecules-1). Administration of allopurinol resulted in a statistically significant decrease in IL-1β and TNF-α mRNA expression, whereas febuxostat had no significant effect on expression of these genes; nevertheless, both inhibitors effectively reduced serum uric acid concentration. It is suggested that the neuroprotective effect of allopurinol is derived not from inhibition of reactive oxygen species production by xanthine oxidoreductase, but rather from a direct free-radical-scavenging effect. PMID:26230326

  19. Specificity of human aldo-keto reductases, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase, and carbonyl reductases to redox-cycle polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon diones and 4-hydroxyequilenin-o-quinone.

    PubMed

    Shultz, Carol A; Quinn, Amy M; Park, Jong-Heum; Harvey, Ronald G; Bolton, Judy L; Maser, Edmund; Penning, Trevor M

    2011-12-19

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are suspect human lung carcinogens and can be metabolically activated to remote quinones, for example, benzo[a]pyrene-1,6-dione (B[a]P-1,6-dione) and B[a]P-3,6-dione by the action of either P450 monooxygenase or peroxidases, and to non-K region o-quinones, for example B[a]P-7,8-dione, by the action of aldo keto reductases (AKRs). B[a]P-7,8-dione also structurally resembles 4-hydroxyequilenin o-quinone. These three classes of quinones can redox cycle, generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), and produce the mutagenic lesion 8-oxo-dGuo and may contribute to PAH- and estrogen-induced carcinogenesis. We compared the ability of a complete panel of human recombinant AKRs to catalyze the reduction of PAH o-quinones in the phenanthrene, chrysene, pyrene, and anthracene series. The specific activities for NADPH-dependent quinone reduction were often 100-1000 times greater than the ability of the same AKR isoform to oxidize the cognate PAH-trans-dihydrodiol. However, the AKR with the highest quinone reductase activity for a particular PAH o-quinone was not always identical to the AKR isoform with the highest dihydrodiol dehydrogenase activity for the respective PAH-trans-dihydrodiol. Discrete AKRs also catalyzed the reduction of B[a]P-1,6-dione, B[a]P-3,6-dione, and 4-hydroxyequilenin o-quinone. Concurrent measurements of oxygen consumption, superoxide anion, and hydrogen peroxide formation established that ROS were produced as a result of the redox cycling. When compared with human recombinant NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) and carbonyl reductases (CBR1 and CBR3), NQO1 was a superior catalyst of these reactions followed by AKRs and last CBR1 and CBR3. In A549 cells, two-electron reduction of PAH o-quinones causes intracellular ROS formation. ROS formation was unaffected by the addition of dicumarol, suggesting that NQO1 is not responsible for the two-electron reduction observed and does not offer protection against ROS formation from PAH o-quinones. PMID:21910479

  20. Specificity of Human Aldo-Keto Reductases, NAD(P)H: Quinone Oxidoreductase and Carbonyl Reductases to Redox-Cycle Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Diones and 4-Hydroxyequilenin-o-Quinone

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, Carol A.; Quinn, Amy M.; Park, Jong-Heum; Harvey, Ronald G.; Bolton, Judy L; Maser, Edmund; Penning, Trevor M.

    2011-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are suspect human lung carcinogens and can be metabolically activated to remote quinones, e.g. benzo[a]pyrene-1,6-dione (B[a]P-1,6-dione) and B[a]P-3,6-dione by the action of either P450 monooxygenase or peroxidases and to non-K region o-quinones by aldo-keto reductases (AKRs). B[a]P-7,8-dione also structurally resembles 4-hydroxyequilenin o-quinone. These three classes of quinones can redox cycle, generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and produce the mutagenic lesion 8-oxo-dGuo, and may contribute to PAH- and estrogen-induced carcinogenesis. We compared the ability of a complete panel of human recombinant AKRs to catalyze reduction of PAH o-quinones in the phenanthrene, chrysene, pyrene and anthracene series. The specific activities for NADPH-dependent quinone reduction were often 100-1,000 times greater than the ability of the same AKR isoform to oxidize the cognate PAH-trans-dihydrodiol. However, the AKR with the highest quinone reductase activity for a particular PAH o-quinone was not always identical to the AKR isoform with the highest dihydrodiol dehydrogenase activity for the respective PAH-trans-dihydrodiol. Discrete AKRs also catalyzed the reduction of B[a]P-1,6-dione, B[a]P-3,6-dione and 4-hydroxyequilenin o-quinone. Concurrent measurements of oxygen consumption, superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide formation established that ROS were produced as a result of the redox-cycling. When compared with human recombinant NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) and carbonyl reductases (CBR1 and CBR3), NQO1 was a superior catalyst of these reactions followed by AKRs and lastly CBR1 and CBR3. In A549 cells two-electron reduction of PAH o-quinones causes intracellular ROS formation. ROS formation was unaffected by the addition of dicumarol suggesting that NQO1 is not responsible for the two-electron reduction observed and does not offer protection against ROS formation from PAH o-quinones. PMID:21910479

  1. Thiol-disulphide oxidoreductase modules in the low-GC Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kouwen, Thijs R H M; van der Goot, Annemieke; Dorenbos, Ronald; Winter, Theresa; Antelmann, Haike; Plaisier, Marie-Claire; Quax, Wim J; van Dijl, January Maarten; Dubois, Jean-Yves F

    2007-05-01

    Disulphide bond formation catalysed by thiol-disulphide oxidoreductases (TDORs) is a universally conserved mechanism for stabilizing extracytoplasmic proteins. In Escherichia coli, disulphide bond formation requires a concerted action of distinct TDORs in thiol oxidation and subsequent quinone reduction. TDOR function in other bacteria has remained largely unexplored. Here we focus on TDORs of low-GC Gram-positive bacteria, in particular DsbA of Staphylococcus aureus and BdbA-D of Bacillus subtilis. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that the homologues DsbA and BdbD cluster in distinct groups typical for Staphylococcus and Bacillus species respectively. To compare the function of these TDORs, DsbA was produced in various bdb mutants of B. subtilis. Next, we assessed the ability of DsbA to sustain different TDOR-dependent processes, including heterologous secretion of E. coli PhoA, competence development and bacteriocin (sublancin 168) production. The results show that DsbA can function in all three processes. While BdbD needs a quinone oxidoreductase for activity, DsbA activity appears to depend on redox-active medium components. Unexpectedly, both quinone oxidoreductases of B. subtilis are sufficient to sustain production of sublancin. Moreover, DsbA can functionally replace these quinone oxidoreductases in sublancin production. Taken together, our unprecedented findings imply that TDOR systems of low-GC Gram-positive bacteria have a modular composition. PMID:17501922

  2. Regulation of P450 oxidoreductase by gonadotropins in rat ovary and its effect on estrogen production

    PubMed Central

    Inaoka, Yoshihiko; Yazawa, Takashi; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Kokame, Koichi; Kangawa, Kenji; Uesaka, Miki; Umezawa, Akihiro; Miyamoto, Kaoru

    2008-01-01

    Background P450 oxidoreductase (POR) catalyzes electron transfer to microsomal P450 enzymes. Its deficiency causes Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS), and about half the patients with ABS have ambiguous genitalia and/or impaired steroidogenesis. POR mRNA expression is up-regulated when mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiate into steroidogenic cells, suggesting that the regulation of POR gene expression is important for steroidogenesis. In this context we examined the regulation of POR expression in ovarian granulosa cells by gonadotropins, and its possible role in steroidogenesis. Methods Changes in gene expression in MSCs during differentiation into steroidogenic cells were examined by DNA microarray analysis. Changes in mRNA and protein expression of POR in the rat ovary or in granulosa cells induced by gonadotropin treatment were examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Effects of transient expression of wild-type or mutant (R457H or V492E) POR proteins on the production of estrone in COS-7 cells were examined in vitro. Effects of POR knockdown were also examined in estrogen producing cell-line, KGN cells. Results POR mRNA was induced in MSCs following transduction with the SF-1 retrovirus, and was further increased by cAMP treatment. Expression of POR mRNA, as well as Cyp19 mRNA, in the rat ovary were induced by equine chorionic gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin. POR mRNA and protein were also induced by follicle stimulating hormone in primary cultured rat granulosa cells, and the induction pattern was similar to that for aromatase. Transient expression of POR in COS-7 cells, which expressed a constant amount of aromatase protein, greatly increased the rate of conversion of androstenedione to estrone, in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of mutant POR proteins (R457H or V492E), such as those found in ABS patients, had much less effect on aromatase activity than expression of wild-type POR proteins. Knockdown of endogenous POR protein in KGN human granulosa cells led to reduced estrone production, indicating that endogenous POR affected aromatase activity. Conclusion We demonstrated that the expression of POR, together with that of aromatase, was regulated by gonadotropins, and that its induction could up-regulate aromatase activity in the ovary, resulting in a coordinated increase in estrogen production. PMID:19077323

  3. NAD(P)H: Quinone oxidoreductase 1, glutathione S-transferase M1, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, and childhood asthma.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Fen; Tseng, Pei-Jung; Lin, Che-Chen; Hung, Chiao-Ling; Lin, Sheng-Che; Su, Wan-Cing; Huang, Yi-Ling; Sung, Fung-Chang; Tai, Chien-Kuo

    2009-08-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure might increase the risk for childhood asthma, and we hypothesized the effect may be modified by the phase II genes NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1. To investigate the genetic and environmental associations with asthma, GSTM1 and NQO1 functional polymorphisms and ETS were analyzed in a two-staged cross-sectional study among elementary schoolchildren in Taiwan. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a significant association between the Ser allele of the NQO1 Pro187Ser polymorphism and asthma (OR=1.6, 95% CI 1.3-1.8). Although GSTM1 genotype itself was not significantly associated with asthma (OR=1.0, 95% CI 0.8-1.1), the GSTM1 genotype modified the association between the NQO1 polymorphism and asthma in children exposed to ETS (p=0.0002). The NQO1 gene might be involved in the development of asthma, especially in children carrying the GSTM1 null genotype who are exposed to ETS. PMID:19591959

  4. The human B22 subunit of the NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase maps to the region of chromosome 8 involved in Branchio-oto-renal syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, J.Z.; Lin, Xin; Wells, D.E.

    1996-07-01

    To identify candidate genes for Branchio-oto-renal (BOR) syndrome, we have made use of a set of cosmids that map to 8q13.3, which has previously been shown to be involved in this syndrome. These cosmids were used as genomic clones in the attempts to isolate corresponding cDNAs using a modified hybrid selection technique. cDNAs using a modified hybrid selection technique. cDNAs from the region were identified and used to search for sequence similarity in human or other species. One cDNA clone was found to have 89% sequence similarity to the bovine B22 subunit of NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase, a mitochondrial protein in the respiratory electron transport chain. Given the history of other mitochondrial mutations being involved in hearing loss syndromes, this gene should be considered a strong candidate for involvement in BOR.

  5. Thiol-disulfide Oxidoreductases TRX1 and TMX3 Decrease Neuronal Atrophy in a Lentiviral Mouse Model of Huntingtons Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Jonathan; Lu, Zhen; Barrows, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    Huntingtons disease (HD) is caused by a trinucleotide CAG repeat in the huntingtin gene (HTT) that results in expression of a polyglutamine-expanded mutant huntingtin protein (mHTT). N-terminal fragments of mHTT accumulate in brain neurons and glia as soluble monomeric and oligomeric species as well as insoluble protein aggregates and drive the disease process. Decreasing mHTT levels in brain provides protection and reversal of disease signs in HD mice making mHTT a prime target for disease modification. There is evidence for aberrant thiol oxidation within mHTT and other proteins in HD models. Based on this, we hypothesized that a specific thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase exists that decreases mHTT levels in cells and provides protection in HD mice. We undertook an in-vitro genetic screen of key thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases then completed secondary screens to identify those with mHTT decreasing properties. Our in-vitro experiments identified thioredoxin 1 and thioredoxin-related transmembrane protein 3 as proteins that decrease soluble mHTT levels in cultured cells. Using a lentiviral mouse model of HD we tested the effect of these proteins in striatum. Both proteins decreased mHTT-induced striatal neuronal atrophy. Findings provide evidence for a role of dysregulated protein-thiol homeostasis in the pathogenesis of HD. PMID:26664998

  6. Role for Ferredoxin:NAD(P)H Oxidoreductase (FprA) in Sulfate Assimilation and Siderophore Biosynthesis in Pseudomonads

    PubMed Central

    Glassing, Angela; Harper, Justin; Franklin, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Pyridine-2,6-bis(thiocarboxylate) (PDTC), produced by certain pseudomonads, is a sulfur-containing siderophore that binds iron, as well as a wide range of transition metals, and it affects the net hydrolysis of the environmental contaminant carbon tetrachloride. The pathway of PDTC biosynthesis has not been defined. Here, we performed a transposon screen of Pseudomonas putida DSM 3601 to identify genes necessary for PDTC production (Pdt phenotype). Transposon insertions within genes for sulfate assimilation (cysD, cysNC, and cysG [cobA2]) dominated the collection of Pdt mutations. In addition, two insertions were within the gene for the LysR-type transcriptional activator FinR (PP1637). Phenotypic characterization indicated that finR mutants were cysteine bradytrophs. The Pdt phenotype of finR mutants could be complemented by the known target of FinR regulation, fprA (encoding ferredoxin:NADP+ oxidoreductase), or by Escherichia coli cysJI (encoding sulfite reductase). These data indicate that fprA is necessary for effective sulfate assimilation by P. putida and that the effect of finR mutation on PDTC production was due to deficient expression of fprA and sulfite reduction. fprA expression in both P. putida and P. aeruginosa was found to be regulated by FinR, but in a manner dependent upon reduced sulfur sources, implicating FinR in sulfur regulatory physiology. The genes and phenotypes identified in this study indicated a strong dependence upon intracellular reduced sulfur/cysteine for PDTC biosynthesis and that pseudomonads utilize sulfite reduction enzymology distinct from that of E. coli and possibly similar to that of chloroplasts and other proteobacteria. PMID:23794620

  7. Purification and partial characterization of a pyruvate oxidoreductase from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum grown under nitrogen-fixing conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Brostedt, E; Nordlund, S

    1991-01-01

    A pyruvate oxidoreductase with the capacity to support pyruvate-dependent nitrogenase activity in vitro has been purified from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum. The enzyme requires CoA for activity and is irreversibly inactivated by oxygen. The molecular properties and Km values for the substrates have been studied. In supporting nitrogenase activity addition of ferredoxin is required. Overall the enzyme is similar to the nif-specific pyruvate: flavodoxin oxidoreductase purified from Klebsiella pneumoniae. PMID:1930134

  8. Quinone reduction by Rhodothermus marinus succinate:menaquinone oxidoreductase is not stimulated by the membrane potential

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandes, Andreia S.; Konstantinov, Alexander A.; Teixeira, Miguel; Pereira, Manuela M. . E-mail: mpereira@itqb.unl.pt

    2005-05-06

    Succinate:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR), a di-haem enzyme purified from Rhodothermus marinus, reveals an HQNO-sensitive succinate:quinone oxidoreductase activity with several menaquinone analogues as electron acceptors that decreases with lowering the redox midpoint potential of the quinones. A turnover with the low-potential 2,3-dimethyl-1,4-naphthoquinone that is the closest analogue of menaquinone, although low, can be detected in liposome-reconstituted SQR. Reduction of the quinone is not stimulated by an imposed K{sup +}-diffusion membrane potential of a physiological sign (positive inside the vesicles). Nor does the imposed membrane potential increase the reduction level of the haems in R. marinus SQR poised with the succinate/fumarate redox couple. The data do not support a widely discussed hypothesis on the electrogenic transmembrane electron transfer from succinate to menaquinone catalysed by di-haem SQRs. The role of the membrane potential in regulation of the SQR activity is discussed.

  9. Plant science. Morphinan biosynthesis in opium poppy requires a P450-oxidoreductase fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Winzer, Thilo; Kern, Marcelo; King, Andrew J; Larson, Tony R; Teodor, Roxana I; Donninger, Samantha L; Li, Yi; Dowle, Adam A; Cartwright, Jared; Bates, Rachel; Ashford, David; Thomas, Jerry; Walker, Carol; Bowser, Tim A; Graham, Ian A

    2015-07-17

    Morphinan alkaloids from the opium poppy are used for pain relief. The direction of metabolites to morphinan biosynthesis requires isomerization of (S)- to (R)-reticuline. Characterization of high-reticuline poppy mutants revealed a genetic locus, designated STORR [(S)- to (R)-reticuline] that encodes both cytochrome P450 and oxidoreductase modules, the latter belonging to the aldo-keto reductase family. Metabolite analysis of mutant alleles and heterologous expression demonstrate that the P450 module is responsible for the conversion of (S)-reticuline to 1,2-dehydroreticuline, whereas the oxidoreductase module converts 1,2-dehydroreticuline to (R)-reticuline rather than functioning as a P450 redox partner. Proteomic analysis confirmed that these two modules are contained on a single polypeptide in vivo. This modular assembly implies a selection pressure favoring substrate channeling. The fusion protein STORR may enable microbial-based morphinan production. PMID:26113639

  10. The reconstitution of L-3-glycerophosphate-cytochrome c oxidoreductase from L-3-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, ubiquinone-10 and ubiquinol-cytochrome c oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Cottingham, I R; Ragan, C I

    1980-10-15

    Purified L-3-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase from pig brain mitochondria interacts with ubiquinone-10 and ubiquinol-cytochrome c oxidoreductase (Complex III) from bovine heart mitochondria to reconstitute antimycin-sensitive L-3-glycerophosphate- cytochrome c oxidoreductase. This activity is completely dependent on the two enzymes and largely dependent on ubiquinone-10. Reconstitution requires that the two enzymes should be simultaneously present in the same membranous aggregate produced by removal of detergent from the enzymes. Reconstitution by removing detergent by dialysis or dilution is inefficient because of self-aggregation of the dehydrogenase. Highly efficient reconstitution can be achieved if the enzymes are co-precipitated by addition of ethanol. The rate with reconstituted enzyme approaches that expected from the turnover of the dehydrogenase with ubiquinone-1 as acceptor. The behaviour of the reconstituted system shows some of the characteristics expected for a stoicheiometric association of one molecule of dehydrogenase with one molecule of Complex III. On raising the phospholipid/protein ratio, the dehydrogenase and Complex III appear to operate as independent enzymes acting in sequence. These effects are very similar to those observed for the interaction of NADH dehydrogenase and Complex III and are explained in terms of the model proposed by Heron, Ragan & Trumpower [(1978) biochem. J. 174, 791-800]. PMID:6272693

  11. Coupling of voltage-dependent potassium channel inactivation and oxidoreductase active site of Kvbeta subunits.

    PubMed

    Bähring, R; Milligan, C J; Vardanyan, V; Engeland, B; Young, B A; Dannenberg, J; Waldschutz, R; Edwards, J P; Wray, D; Pongs, O

    2001-06-22

    The accessory beta subunits of voltage-dependent potassium (Kv) channels form tetramers arranged with 4-fold rotational symmetry like the membrane-integral and pore-forming alpha subunits (Gulbis, J. M., Mann, S., and MacKinnon, R. (1999) Cell. 90, 943-952). The crystal structure of the Kvbeta2 subunit shows that Kvbeta subunits are oxidoreductase enzymes containing an active site composed of conserved catalytic residues, a nicotinamide (NADPH)-cofactor, and a substrate binding site. Also, Kvbeta subunits with an N-terminal inactivating domain like Kvbeta1.1 (Rettig, J., Heinemann, S. H., Wunder, F., Lorra, C., Parcej, D. N., Dolly, O., and Pongs, O. (1994) Nature 369, 289-294) and Kvbeta3.1 (Heinemann, S. H., Rettig, J., Graack, H. R., and Pongs, O. (1996) J. Physiol. (Lond.) 493, 625-633) confer rapid N-type inactivation to otherwise non-inactivating channels. Here we show by a combination of structural modeling and electrophysiological characterization of structure-based mutations that changes in Kvbeta oxidoreductase activity may markedly influence the gating mode of Kv channels. Amino acid substitutions of the putative catalytic residues in the Kvbeta1.1 oxidoreductase active site attenuate the inactivating activity of Kvbeta1.1 in Xenopus oocytes. Conversely, mutating the substrate binding domain and/or the cofactor binding domain rescues the failure of Kvbeta3.1 to confer rapid inactivation to Kv1.5 channels in Xenopus oocytes. We propose that Kvbeta oxidoreductase activity couples Kv channel inactivation to cellular redox regulation. PMID:11294861

  12. Reduction of extracellular potassium ferricyanide by transmembrane NADH: (acceptor) oxidoreductase of human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Schipfer, W; Neophytou, B; Trobisch, R; Groiss, O; Goldenberg, H

    1985-01-01

    Reduction of extracellular ferricyanide by intact erythrocytes proceeds by a membrane bound, NADH-dependent reaction. It is depressed by a glycolysis inhibitor and a non penetrable sulfhydryl reagent, and activated by dehydroascorbate. Dehydroascorbate activation cannot be accounted for by release of reducing equivalents from the cells. It is concluded that the observed reaction is brought about by transmembrane NADH-acceptor oxidoreductase with donor binding at the inner and acceptor binding at the outer cell surface. PMID:4054423

  13. NAD(P)H cytochrome b5 oxidoreductase deficiency in Leishmania major results in impaired linoleate synthesis followed by increased oxidative stress and cell death.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Supratim; Sen Santara, Sumit; Das, Shantanabha; Bose, Moumita; Roy, Jayasree; Adak, Subrata

    2012-10-12

    NAD(P)H cytochrome b(5) oxidoreductase (Ncb5or), comprising cytochrome b(5) and cytochrome b(5) reductase domains, is widely distributed in eukaryotic organisms. Although Ncb5or plays a crucial role in lipid metabolism of mice, so far no Ncb5or gene has been reported in the unicellular parasitic protozoa Leishmania species. We have cloned, expressed, and characterized Ncb5or gene from Leishmania major. Steady state catalysis and spectral studies show that NADH can quickly reduce the ferric state of the enzyme to the ferrous state and is able to donate an electron(s) to external acceptors. To elucidate its exact physiological role in Leishmania, we attempted to create NAD(P)H cytochrome b(5) oxidoreductase from L. major (LmNcb5or) knock-out mutants by targeted gene replacement technique. A free fatty acid profile in knock-out (KO) cells reveals marked deficiency in linoleate and linolenate when compared with wild type (WT) or overexpressing cells. KO culture has a higher percentage of dead cells compared with both WT and overexpressing cells. Increased O(2) uptake, uncoupling and ATP synthesis, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential are evident in KO cells. Flow cytometric analysis reveals the presence of a higher concentration of intracellular H(2)O(2), indicative of increased oxidative stress in parasites lacking LmNcb5or. Cell death is significantly reduced when the KO cells are pretreated with BSA bound linoleate. Real time PCR studies demonstrate a higher Δ12 desaturase, superoxide dismutase, and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) mRNA with a concomitant fall in Δ9 desaturase mRNA expression in LmNcb5or null cell line. Together these findings suggest that decreased linoleate synthesis, and increased oxidative stress and apoptosis are the major consequences of LmNcb5or deficiency in Leishmania. PMID:22923617

  14. ArxA, a new clade of arsenite oxidase within the DMSO reductase family of molybdenum oxidoreductases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zargar, Kamrun; Conrad, Alison; Bernick, David L.; Lowe, Todd M.; Stolc, Viktor; Hoeft, Shelley; Oremland, Ronald S.; Stolz, John; Saltikov, Chad W.

    2012-01-01

    Arsenotrophy, growth coupled to autotrophic arsenite oxidation or arsenate respiratory reduction, occurs only in the prokaryotic domain of life. The enzymes responsible for arsenotrophy belong to distinct clades within the DMSO reductase family of molybdenum-containing oxidoreductases: specifically arsenate respiratory reductase, ArrA, and arsenite oxidase, AioA (formerly referred to as AroA and AoxB). A new arsenite oxidase clade, ArxA, represented by the haloalkaliphilic bacterium Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii strain MLHE-1 was also identified in the photosynthetic purple sulfur bacterium Ectothiorhodospira sp. strain PHS-1. A draft genome sequence of PHS-1 was completed and an arx operon similar to MLHE-1 was identified. Gene expression studies showed that arxA was strongly induced with arsenite. Microbial ecology investigation led to the identification of additional arxA-like sequences in Mono Lake and Hot Creek sediments, both arsenic-rich environments in California. Phylogenetic analyses placed these sequences as distinct members of the ArxA clade of arsenite oxidases. ArxA-like sequences were also identified in metagenome sequences of several alkaline microbial mat environments of Yellowstone National Park hot springs. These results suggest that ArxA-type arsenite oxidases appear to be widely distributed in the environment presenting an opportunity for further investigations of the contribution of Arx-dependent arsenotrophy to the arsenic biogeochemical cycle.

  15. Rhodobacter sphaeroides mutants overexpressing chlorophyllide a oxidoreductase of Blastochloris viridis elucidate functions of enzymes in late bacteriochlorophyll biosynthetic pathways.

    PubMed

    Tsukatani, Yusuke; Harada, Jiro; Nomata, Jiro; Yamamoto, Haruki; Fujita, Yuichi; Mizoguchi, Tadashi; Tamiaki, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    In previous studies we have demonstrated that chlorophyllide a oxidoreductases (CORs) from bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) a-producing Rhodobacter species and BChl b-producing Blastochloris viridis show distinct substrate recognition and different catalytic hydrogenation reactions, and that these two types of CORs therefore cause committed steps for BChls a and b biosynthesis. In this study, COR genes from B. viridis were incorporated and overexpressed in a series of Rhodobacter sphaeroides mutants. We found that the following two factors are essential in making R. sphaeroides produce BChl b: the loss of functions of both intrinsic COR and 8-vinyl reductase (BciA) in the host R. sphaeroides strain; and expression of the BchYZ catalytic components of COR from B. viridis, not the complete set of COR (BchXYZ), in the host strain. In addition, we incorporated bchYZ of B. viridis into the R. sphaeroides mutant lacking BchJ and BciA, resulting in the strain accumulating both BChl a and BChl b. This is the first example of an anoxygenic photosynthetic bacterium producing BChls a and b together. The results suggest that BchJ enhances activity of the intrinsic COR. The physiological significance of BchJ in pigment biosynthetic pathways will be discussed. PMID:25978726

  16. Association of the NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 609C-->T polymorphism with a decreased lung cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Chen, H; Lum, A; Seifried, A; Wilkens, L R; Le Marchand, L

    1999-07-01

    The NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase gene, NQO1, often carries a C-->T transition at bp 609, which has been associated with a reduced enzymatic activity and which may result in altered metabolic activation of tobacco smoke procarcinogens. We tested the association of this polymorphism with lung cancer risk in a population-based case-control study of 327 cases and 440 controls of Caucasian, Japanese, or Native Hawaiian ancestry in Hawaii. We found a notable difference in the frequency of the variant allele among Japanese (38%), Caucasians (20%), and Hawaiians (22%). Overall, the variant allele was less frequent in cases than in controls (P = 0.03). A significant inverse association was found in Japanese, with adjusted odds ratios of 0.8 (95% confidence interval, 0.4-1.5) and 0.3 (0.1-0.7) for the heterozygous and homozygous variant genotypes, respectively, compared with the homozygous wild-type genotype (P for genetic trend, 0.02). The association did not reach statistical significance in Caucasians and Hawaiians but was in the same direction. PMID:10397241

  17. Role of the Na(+)-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase in voltage generation and Na(+) extrusion in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Vorburger, Thomas; Nedielkov, Ruslan; Brosig, Alexander; Bok, Eva; Schunke, Emina; Steffen, Wojtek; Mayer, Sonja; Götz, Friedrich; Möller, Heiko M; Steuber, Julia

    2016-04-01

    For Vibrio cholerae, the coordinated import and export of Na(+) is crucial for adaptation to habitats with different osmolarities. We investigated the Na(+)-extruding branch of the sodium cycle in this human pathogen by in vivo (23)Na-NMR spectroscopy. The Na(+) extrusion activity of cells was monitored after adding glucose which stimulated respiration via the Na(+)-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na(+)-NQR). In a V. cholerae deletion mutant devoid of the Na(+)-NQR encoding genes (nqrA-F), rates of respiratory Na(+) extrusion were decreased by a factor of four, but the cytoplasmic Na(+) concentration was essentially unchanged. Furthermore, the mutant was impaired in formation of transmembrane voltage (ΔΨ, inside negative) and did not grow under hypoosmotic conditions at pH8.2 or above. This growth defect could be complemented by transformation with the plasmid encoded nqr operon. In an alkaline environment, Na(+)/H(+) antiporters acidify the cytoplasm at the expense of the transmembrane voltage. It is proposed that, at alkaline pH and limiting Na(+) concentrations, the Na(+)-NQR is crucial for generation of a transmembrane voltage to drive the import of H(+) by electrogenic Na(+)/H(+) antiporters. Our study provides the basis to understand the role of the Na(+)-NQR in pathogenicity of V. cholerae and other pathogens relying on this primary Na(+) pump for respiration. PMID:26721205

  18. ArxA, a new clade of arsenite oxidase within the DMSO reductase family of molybdenum oxidoreductases.

    PubMed

    Zargar, Kamrun; Conrad, Alison; Bernick, David L; Lowe, Todd M; Stolc, Viktor; Hoeft, Shelley; Oremland, Ronald S; Stolz, John; Saltikov, Chad W

    2012-07-01

    Arsenotrophy, growth coupled to autotrophic arsenite oxidation or arsenate respiratory reduction, occurs only in the prokaryotic domain of life. The enzymes responsible for arsenotrophy belong to distinct clades within the DMSO reductase family of molybdenum-containing oxidoreductases: specifically arsenate respiratory reductase, ArrA, and arsenite oxidase, AioA (formerly referred to as AroA and AoxB). A new arsenite oxidase clade, ArxA, represented by the haloalkaliphilic bacterium Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii strain MLHE-1 was also identified in the photosynthetic purple sulfur bacterium Ectothiorhodospira sp. strain PHS-1. A draft genome sequence of PHS-1 was completed and an arx operon similar to MLHE-1 was identified. Gene expression studies showed that arxA was strongly induced with arsenite. Microbial ecology investigation led to the identification of additional arxA-like sequences in Mono Lake and Hot Creek sediments, both arsenic-rich environments in California. Phylogenetic analyses placed these sequences as distinct members of the ArxA clade of arsenite oxidases. ArxA-like sequences were also identified in metagenome sequences of several alkaline microbial mat environments of Yellowstone National Park hot springs. These results suggest that ArxA-type arsenite oxidases appear to be widely distributed in the environment presenting an opportunity for further investigations of the contribution of Arx-dependent arsenotrophy to the arsenic biogeochemical cycle. PMID:22404962

  19. NxrB encoding the beta subunit of nitrite oxidoreductase as functional and phylogenetic marker for nitrite-oxidizing Nitrospira.

    PubMed

    Pester, Michael; Maixner, Frank; Berry, David; Rattei, Thomas; Koch, Hanna; Lücker, Sebastian; Nowka, Boris; Richter, Andreas; Spieck, Eva; Lebedeva, Elena; Loy, Alexander; Wagner, Michael; Daims, Holger

    2014-10-01

    Nitrospira are the most widespread and diverse known nitrite-oxidizing bacteria and key nitrifiers in natural and engineered ecosystems. Nevertheless, their ecophysiology and environmental distribution are understudied because of the recalcitrance of Nitrospira to cultivation and the lack of a molecular functional marker, which would allow the detection of Nitrospira in the environment. Here we introduce nxrB, the gene encoding subunit beta of nitrite oxidoreductase, as a functional and phylogenetic marker for Nitrospira. Phylogenetic trees based on nxrB of Nitrospira were largely congruent to 16S ribosomal RNA-based phylogenies. By using new nxrB-selective polymerase chain reaction primers, we obtained almost full-length nxrB sequences from Nitrospira cultures, two activated sludge samples, and several geographically and climatically distinct soils. Amplicon pyrosequencing of nxrB fragments from 16 soils revealed a previously unrecognized diversity of terrestrial Nitrospira with 1801 detected species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (using an inferred species threshold of 95% nxrB identity). Richness estimates ranged from 10 to 946 coexisting Nitrospira species per soil. Comparison with an archaeal amoA dataset obtained from the same soils [Environ. Microbiol. 14: 525-539 (2012)] uncovered that ammonia-oxidizing archaea and Nitrospira communities were highly correlated across the soil samples, possibly indicating shared habitat preferences or specific biological interactions among members of these nitrifier groups. PMID:24118804

  20. Vitamin D affects Krebs cycle NAD-linked oxidoreductases from chick intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Pérez, A; Díaz de Barboza, G; Pereira, R; Tolosa de Talamoni, N

    1995-07-01

    Vitamin D3 administration affects the NAD-linked oxidoreductase activities of Krebs cycle from intestinal mucosa of vitamin D-deficient chicks. Vmax values were increased in all of them, while K0.5 for substrate remained unchanged except for 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, which showed lower affinity for oxoglutarate. Addition of Ca2+ to the incubation medium increased the affinity of 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase and NAD-isocitrate dehydrogenase for their substrates either in the vitamin D3 treated group or in the control one. The activity of succinate dehydrogenase, a FMN-dependent oxidoreductase, was not modified by vitamin D3 administration. The oxygen consumption of the intestinal mitochondria was not altered by cholecalciferol treatment to vitamin D-deficient chicks. The reason why vitamin D3 selectively affects the NAD-linked oxidoreductase activities of the Krebs cycle remains unknown. The vitamin D hormone, 1,25(OH)2D3, appears to be the mediator of the response. PMID:7549952

  1. Molybdenum Incorporation in Tungsten Aldehyde Oxidoreductase Enzymes from Pyrococcus furiosus▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Sevcenco, Ana-Maria; Bevers, Loes E.; Pinkse, Martijn W. H.; Krijger, Gerard C.; Wolterbeek, Hubert T.; Verhaert, Peter D. E. M.; Hagen, Wilfred R.; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon

    2010-01-01

    The hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus expresses five aldehyde oxidoreductase (AOR) enzymes, all containing a tungsto-bispterin cofactor. The growth of this organism is fully dependent on the presence of tungsten in the growth medium. Previous studies have suggested that molybdenum is not incorporated in the active site of these enzymes. Application of the radioisotope 99Mo in metal isotope native radioautography in gel electrophoresis (MIRAGE) technology to P. furiosus shows that molybdenum can in fact be incorporated in all five AOR enzymes. Mo(V) signals characteristic for molybdopterin were observed in formaldehyde oxidoreductase (FOR) in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-monitored redox titrations. Our finding that the aldehyde oxidation activity of FOR and WOR5 (W-containing oxidoreductase 5) correlates only with the residual tungsten content suggests that the Mo-containing AORs are most likely inactive. An observed W/Mo antagonism is indicative of tungstate-dependent negative feedback of the expression of the tungstate/molybdate ABC transporter. An intracellular selection mechanism for tungstate and molybdate processing has to be present, since tungsten was found to be preferentially incorporated into the AORs even under conditions with comparable intracellular concentrations of tungstate and molybdate. Under the employed growth conditions of starch as the main carbon source in a rich medium, no tungsten- and/or molybdenum-associated proteins are detected in P. furiosus other than the high-affinity transporter, the proteins of the metallopterin insertion machinery, and the five W-AORs. PMID:20562313

  2. The Structure of an Oxalate Oxidoreductase Provides Insight into Microbial 2-Oxoacid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Marcus I; Brignole, Edward J; Pierce, Elizabeth; Can, Mehmet; Ragsdale, Stephen W; Drennan, Catherine L

    2015-07-01

    Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), a derivative of vitamin B1, is a versatile and ubiquitous cofactor. When coupled with [4Fe-4S] clusters in microbial 2-oxoacid:ferredoxin oxidoreductases (OFORs), TPP is involved in catalyzing low-potential redox reactions that are important for the synthesis of key metabolites and the reduction of N2, H(+), and CO2. We have determined the high-resolution (2.27 ) crystal structure of the TPP-dependent oxalate oxidoreductase (OOR), an enzyme that allows microbes to grow on oxalate, a widely occurring dicarboxylic acid that is found in soil and freshwater and is responsible for kidney stone disease in humans. OOR catalyzes the anaerobic oxidation of oxalate, harvesting the low-potential electrons for use in anaerobic reduction and fixation of CO2. We compare the OOR structure to that of the only other structurally characterized OFOR family member, pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase. This side-by-side structural analysis highlights the key similarities and differences that are relevant for the chemistry of this entire class of TPP-utilizing enzymes. PMID:26061898

  3. Transcriptional regulation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate: quinone oxidoreductase in murine hepatoma cells by 6-(methylsufinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate, an active principle of wasabi (Eutrema wasabi Maxim).

    PubMed

    Hou, D X; Fukuda, M; Fujii, M; Fuke, Y

    2000-12-20

    Wasabi is a very popular pungent spice in Japan. This study examined the ability of 6-(methylsufinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MITC), an active principle of wasabi, to induce the cellular expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate: quinone oxidoreductase (QR) in Hepa 1c1c7 cells. The cells were treated with various concentrations of 6-MITC, and were then assessed for cell growth, QR activity and QR mRNA expression. The induction of QR activity and QR mRNA expression was time- and dose-responsive over a narrow range of 0.1-5 microM, with declining induction at higher concentrations due to cell toxicity. Furthermore, transfection studies demonstrated that the induction of transcription of the QR gene by 6-MITC involved an antioxidant/electrophile-responsive element (ARE/EpRE) activation. Our results suggest a novel mechanism by which dietary wasabi 6-MITC may be implicated in cancer chemoprevention. PMID:11090969

  4. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a ferredoxin/flavodoxin-NADP(H) oxidoreductase (Bc0385) from Bacillus cereus

    PubMed Central

    Skråmo, Silje; Hersleth, Hans-Petter; Hammerstad, Marta; Andersson, K. Kristoffer; Røhr, Åsmund K.

    2014-01-01

    Ferredoxin/flavodoxin-NADP(H) oxidoreductases (FNRs) are key enzymes involved in catalysing electron transfer between ferredoxins/flavodoxins and NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+. In Bacillus cereus there are three genes that may encode FNRs, and the Bc0385 FNR has been cloned, overexpressed, purified and successfully crystallized in its NADPH/NADP+-free form. Diffraction data have been collected to 2.5 Å resolution from crystals belonging to the orthorhombic space group P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 57.2, b = 164.3, c = 95.0 Å, containing two FNR molecules in the asymmetric unit. The structure of the Bc0385 FNR has been solved by molecular replacement, and is a member of the homodimeric thioredoxin reductase-like class of FNRs. PMID:24915092

  5. A Structure-Based Approach for Detection of Thiol Oxidoreductases and Their Catalytic Redox-Active Cysteine Residues

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Stefano M.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2009-01-01

    Cysteine (Cys) residues often play critical roles in proteins, for example, in the formation of structural disulfide bonds, metal binding, targeting proteins to the membranes, and various catalytic functions. However, the structural determinants for various Cys functions are not clear. Thiol oxidoreductases, which are enzymes containing catalytic redox-active Cys residues, have been extensively studied, but even for these proteins there is little understanding of what distinguishes their catalytic redox Cys from other Cys functions. Herein, we characterized thiol oxidoreductases at a structural level and developed an algorithm that can recognize these enzymes by (i) analyzing amino acid and secondary structure composition of the active site and its similarity to known active sites containing redox Cys and (ii) calculating accessibility, active site location, and reactivity of Cys. For proteins with known or modeled structures, this method can identify proteins with catalytic Cys residues and distinguish thiol oxidoreductases from the enzymes containing other catalytic Cys types. Furthermore, by applying this procedure to Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins containing conserved Cys, we could identify the majority of known yeast thiol oxidoreductases. This study provides insights into the structural properties of catalytic redox-active Cys and should further help to recognize thiol oxidoreductases in protein sequence and structure databases. PMID:19424433

  6. Gene replacement in Penicillium roqueforti.

    PubMed

    Goarin, Anne; Silar, Philippe; Malagnac, Fabienne

    2015-05-01

    Most cheese-making filamentous fungi lack suitable molecular tools to improve their biotechnology potential. Penicillium roqueforti, a species of high industrial importance, would benefit from functional data yielded by molecular genetic approaches. This work provides the first example of gene replacement by homologous recombination in P. roqueforti, demonstrating that knockout experiments can be performed in this fungus. To do so, we improved the existing transformation method to integrate transgenes into P. roqueforti genome. In the meantime, we cloned the PrNiaD gene, which encodes a NADPH-dependent nitrate reductase that reduces nitrate to nitrite. Then, we performed a deletion of the PrNiaD gene from P. roqueforti strain AGO. The ΔPrNiaD mutant strain is more resistant to chlorate-containing medium than the wild-type strain, but did not grow on nitrate-containing medium. Because genomic data are now available, we believe that generating selective deletions of candidate genes will be a key step to open the way for a comprehensive exploration of gene function in P. roqueforti. PMID:25315520

  7. Identification of NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases A and B: a branched pathway for light-dependent chlorophyll biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, G A; Runge, S; Frick, G; Sperling, U; Apel, K

    1995-01-01

    Illumination releases the arrest in chlorophyll (Chl) biosynthesis in etiolated angiosperm seedlings through the enzymatic photoreduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to chlorophyllide (Chlide), the first light-dependent step in chloroplast biogenesis. NADPH: Pchlide oxidoreductase (POR, EC 1.3.1.33), a nuclear-encoded plastid-localized enzyme, mediates this unique photoreduction. Paradoxically, light also triggers a drastic decrease in the amounts of POR activity and protein before the Chl accumulation rate reaches its maximum during greening. While investigating this seeming contradiction, we identified two distinct Arabidopsis thaliana genes encoding POR, in contrast to previous reports of only one gene in angiosperms. The genes, designated PorA and PorB, by analogy to the principal members of the phytochrome photoreceptor gene family, display dramatically different patterns of light and developmental regulation. PorA mRNA disappears within the first 4 h of greening, whereas PorB mRNA persists even after 16 h of illumination, mirroring the behavior of two distinct POR protein species. Experiments designed to help define the functions of POR A and POR B demonstrate exclusive expression of PorA in young seedlings and of PorB both in seedlings and in adult plants. Accordingly, we propose the existence of a branched light-dependent Chl biosynthesis pathway in which POR A performs a specialized function restricted to the initial stages of greening and POR B maintains Chl levels throughout angiosperm development. PMID:7659751

  8. Selenoprotein T Exerts an Essential Oxidoreductase Activity That Protects Dopaminergic Neurons in Mouse Models of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Boukhzar, Loubna; Hamieh, Abdallah; Cartier, Dorthe; Tanguy, Yannick; Alsharif, Ifat; Castex, Matthieu; Arabo, Arnaud; Hajji, Sana El; Bonnet, Jean-Jacques; Errami, Mohammed; Falluel-Morel, Anthony; Chagraoui, Abdeslam; Lihrmann, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Oxidative stress is central to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), but the mechanisms involved in the control of this stress in dopaminergic cells are not fully understood. There is increasing evidence that selenoproteins play a central role in the control of redox homeostasis and cell defense, but the precise contribution of members of this family of proteins during the course of neurodegenerative diseases is still elusive. Results: We demonstrated first that selenoprotein T (SelT) whose gene disruption is lethal during embryogenesis, exerts a potent oxidoreductase activity. In the SH-SY5Y cell model of dopaminergic neurons, both silencing and overexpression of SelT affected oxidative stress and cell survival. Treatment with PD-inducing neurotoxins such as 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) or rotenone triggered SelT expression in the nigrostriatal pathway of wild-type mice, but provoked rapid and severe parkinsonian-like motor defects in conditional brain SelT-deficient mice. This motor impairment was associated with marked oxidative stress and neurodegeneration and decreased tyrosine hydroxylase activity and dopamine levels in the nigrostriatal system. Finally, in PD patients, we report that SelT is tremendously increased in the caudate putamen tissue. Innovation: These results reveal the activity of a novel selenoprotein enzyme that protects dopaminergic neurons against oxidative stress and prevents early and severe movement impairment in animal models of PD. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that selenoproteins such as SelT play a crucial role in the protection of dopaminergic neurons against oxidative stress and cell death, providing insight into the molecular underpinnings of this stress in PD. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 557–574. PMID:26866473

  9. Cell growth defect factor 1 is crucial for the plastid import of NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase A in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Reinbothe, Steffen; Gray, John; Rustgi, Sachin; von Wettstein, Diter; Reinbothe, Christiane

    2015-05-01

    Tetrapyrroles such as chlorophyll, heme, and bacteriochlorophyll play fundamental roles in the energy absorption and transduction of all photosynthetic organisms. They are synthesized via a complex pathway taking place in chloroplasts. Chlorophyll biosynthesis in angiosperms involves 16 steps of which only one is light-requiring and driven by the NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR). Three POR isoforms have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana--designated PORA, PORB, and PORC--that are differentially expressed in etiolated, light-exposed, and light-adapted plants. All three isoforms are encoded by nuclear genes, are synthesized as larger precursors in the cytosol (pPORs), and are imported posttranslationally into the plastid compartment. Import of the precursor to the dark-specific isoform PORA (pPORA) is protochlorophyllide (Pchlide)-dependent and due to the operation of a unique translocon complex dubbed PTC (Pchlide-dependent translocon complex) in the plastid envelope. Here, we identified a ∼30-kDa protein that participates in pPORA import. The ∼30-kDa protein is identical to the previously identified CELL GROWTH DEFECT FACTOR 1 (CDF1) in Arabidopsis that is conserved in higher plants and Synechocystis. CDF1 operates in pPORA import and stabilization and hereby acts as a chaperone for PORA protein translocation. CDF1 permits tight interactions between Pchlide synthesized in the plastid envelope and the importing PORA polypeptide chain such that no photoexcitative damage occurs through the generation of singlet oxygen operating as a cell death inducer. Together, our results identify an ancient mechanism dating back to the endosymbiotic origin of chloroplasts as a key element of Pchlide-dependent pPORA import. PMID:25901327

  10. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Chloroplasts Contain a Homodimeric Pyruvate:Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase That Functions with FDX11[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    van Lis, Robert; Baffert, Carole; Couté, Yohann; Nitschke, Wolfgang; Atteia, Ariane

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic algae have long been known to live in anoxic environments, but interest in their anaerobic energy metabolism has only recently gained momentum, largely due to their utility in biofuel production. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii figures remarkably in this respect, because it efficiently produces hydrogen and its genome harbors many genes for anaerobic metabolic routes. Central to anaerobic energy metabolism in many unicellular eukaryotes (protists) is pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFO), which decarboxylates pyruvate and forms acetyl-coenzyme A with concomitant reduction of low-potential ferredoxins or flavodoxins. Here, we report the biochemical properties of the homodimeric PFO of C. reinhardtii expressed in Escherichia coli. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of the recombinant enzyme (Cr-rPFO) showed three distinct [4Fe-4S] iron-sulfur clusters and a thiamine pyrophosphate radical upon reduction by pyruvate. Purified Cr-rPFO exhibits a specific decarboxylase activity of 12 µmol pyruvate min−1 mg−1 protein using benzyl viologen as electron acceptor. Despite the fact that the enzyme is very oxygen sensitive, it localizes to the chloroplast. Among the six known chloroplast ferredoxins (FDX1–FDX6) in C. reinhardtii, FDX1 and FDX2 were the most efficient electron acceptors from Cr-rPFO, with comparable apparent Km values of approximately 4 µm. As revealed by immunoblotting, anaerobic conditions that lead to the induction of CrPFO did not increase levels of either FDX1 or FDX2. FDX1, being by far the most abundant ferredoxin, is thus likely the partner of PFO in C. reinhardtii. This finding postulates a direct link between CrPFO and hydrogenase and provides new opportunities to better study and engineer hydrogen production in this protist. PMID:23154536

  11. Simultaneous involvement of a tungsten-containing aldehyde:ferredoxin oxidoreductase and a phenylacetaldehyde dehydrogenase in anaerobic phenylalanine metabolism.

    PubMed

    Debnar-Daumler, Carlotta; Seubert, Andreas; Schmitt, Georg; Heider, Johann

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic phenylalanine metabolism in the denitrifying betaproteobacterium Aromatoleum aromaticum is initiated by conversion of phenylalanine to phenylacetate, which is further metabolized via benzoyl-coenzyme A (CoA). The formation of phenylacetate is catalyzed by phenylalanine transaminase, phenylpyruvate decarboxylase, and a phenylacetaldehyde-oxidizing enzyme. The presence of these enzymes was detected in extracts of cells grown with phenylalanine and nitrate. We found that two distinct enzymes are involved in the oxidation of phenylacetaldehyde to phenylacetate, an aldehyde:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (AOR) and a phenylacetaldehyde dehydrogenase (PDH). Based on sequence comparison, growth studies with various tungstate concentrations, and metal analysis of the enriched enzyme, AOR was shown to be a tungsten-containing enzyme, necessitating specific cofactor biosynthetic pathways for molybdenum- and tungsten-dependent enzymes simultaneously. We predict from the genome sequence that most enzymes of molybdopterin biosynthesis are shared, while the molybdate/tungstate uptake systems are duplicated and specialized paralogs of the sulfur-inserting MoaD and the metal-inserting MoeA proteins seem to be involved in dedicating biosynthesis toward molybdenum or tungsten cofactors. We also characterized PDH biochemically and identified both NAD(+) and NADP(+) as electron acceptors. We identified the gene coding for the enzyme and purified a recombinant Strep-tagged PDH variant. The homotetrameric enzyme is highly specific for phenylacetaldehyde, has cooperative kinetics toward the substrate, and shows considerable substrate inhibition. Our data suggest that A. aromaticum utilizes PDH as the primary enzyme during anaerobic phenylalanine degradation, whereas AOR is not essential for the metabolic pathway. We hypothesize a function as a detoxifying enzyme if high aldehyde concentrations accumulate in the cytoplasm, which would lead to substrate inhibition of PDH. PMID:24214948

  12. Simultaneous Involvement of a Tungsten-Containing Aldehyde:Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase and a Phenylacetaldehyde Dehydrogenase in Anaerobic Phenylalanine Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Debnar-Daumler, Carlotta; Seubert, Andreas; Schmitt, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic phenylalanine metabolism in the denitrifying betaproteobacterium Aromatoleum aromaticum is initiated by conversion of phenylalanine to phenylacetate, which is further metabolized via benzoyl-coenzyme A (CoA). The formation of phenylacetate is catalyzed by phenylalanine transaminase, phenylpyruvate decarboxylase, and a phenylacetaldehyde-oxidizing enzyme. The presence of these enzymes was detected in extracts of cells grown with phenylalanine and nitrate. We found that two distinct enzymes are involved in the oxidation of phenylacetaldehyde to phenylacetate, an aldehyde:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (AOR) and a phenylacetaldehyde dehydrogenase (PDH). Based on sequence comparison, growth studies with various tungstate concentrations, and metal analysis of the enriched enzyme, AOR was shown to be a tungsten-containing enzyme, necessitating specific cofactor biosynthetic pathways for molybdenum- and tungsten-dependent enzymes simultaneously. We predict from the genome sequence that most enzymes of molybdopterin biosynthesis are shared, while the molybdate/tungstate uptake systems are duplicated and specialized paralogs of the sulfur-inserting MoaD and the metal-inserting MoeA proteins seem to be involved in dedicating biosynthesis toward molybdenum or tungsten cofactors. We also characterized PDH biochemically and identified both NAD+ and NADP+ as electron acceptors. We identified the gene coding for the enzyme and purified a recombinant Strep-tagged PDH variant. The homotetrameric enzyme is highly specific for phenylacetaldehyde, has cooperative kinetics toward the substrate, and shows considerable substrate inhibition. Our data suggest that A. aromaticum utilizes PDH as the primary enzyme during anaerobic phenylalanine degradation, whereas AOR is not essential for the metabolic pathway. We hypothesize a function as a detoxifying enzyme if high aldehyde concentrations accumulate in the cytoplasm, which would lead to substrate inhibition of PDH. PMID:24214948

  13. Tenebrionid secretions and a fungal benzoquinone oxidoreductase form competing components of an arms race between a host and pathogen.

    PubMed

    Pedrini, Nicolás; Ortiz-Urquiza, Almudena; Huarte-Bonnet, Carla; Fan, Yanhua; Juárez, M Patricia; Keyhani, Nemat O

    2015-07-14

    Entomopathogenic fungi and their insect hosts represent a model system for examining invertebrate-pathogen coevolutionary selection processes. Here we report the characterization of competing components of an arms race consisting of insect protective antimicrobial compounds and evolving fungal mechanisms of detoxification. The insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has a remarkably wide host range; however, some insects are resistant to fungal infection. Among resistant insects is the tenebrionid beetle Tribolium castaneum that produces benzoquinone-containing defensive secretions. Reduced fungal germination and growth was seen in media containing T. castaneum dichloromethane extracts or synthetic benzoquinone. In response to benzoquinone exposure, the fungus expresses a 1,4-benzoquinone oxidoreductase, BbbqrA, induced >40-fold. Gene knockout mutants (ΔBbbqrA) showed increased growth inhibition, whereas B. bassiana overexpressing BbbqrA (Bb::BbbqrA(O)) displayed increased resistance to benzoquinone compared with wild type. Increased benzoquinone reductase activity was detected in wild-type cells exposed to benzoquinone and in the overexpression strain. Heterologous expression and purification of BbBqrA in Escherichia coli confirmed NAD(P)H-dependent benzoquinone reductase activity. The ΔBbbqrA strain showed decreased virulence toward T. castaneum, whereas overexpression of BbbqrA increased mortality versus T. castaneum. No change in virulence was seen for the ΔBbbqrA or Bb::BbbqrA(O) strains when tested against the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella or the beetle Sitophilus oryzae, neither of which produce significant amounts of cuticular quinones. The observation that artificial overexpression of BbbqrA results in increased virulence only toward quinone-secreting insects implies the lack of strong selection or current failure of B. bassiana to counteradapt to this particular host defense throughout evolution. PMID:26056261

  14. Tenebrionid secretions and a fungal benzoquinone oxidoreductase form competing components of an arms race between a host and pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Pedrini, Nicolás; Ortiz-Urquiza, Almudena; Huarte-Bonnet, Carla; Fan, Yanhua; Juárez, M. Patricia; Keyhani, Nemat O.

    2015-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi and their insect hosts represent a model system for examining invertebrate-pathogen coevolutionary selection processes. Here we report the characterization of competing components of an arms race consisting of insect protective antimicrobial compounds and evolving fungal mechanisms of detoxification. The insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has a remarkably wide host range; however, some insects are resistant to fungal infection. Among resistant insects is the tenebrionid beetle Tribolium castaneum that produces benzoquinone-containing defensive secretions. Reduced fungal germination and growth was seen in media containing T. castaneum dichloromethane extracts or synthetic benzoquinone. In response to benzoquinone exposure, the fungus expresses a 1,4-benzoquinone oxidoreductase, BbbqrA, induced >40-fold. Gene knockout mutants (ΔBbbqrA) showed increased growth inhibition, whereas B. bassiana overexpressing BbbqrA (Bb::BbbqrAO) displayed increased resistance to benzoquinone compared with wild type. Increased benzoquinone reductase activity was detected in wild-type cells exposed to benzoquinone and in the overexpression strain. Heterologous expression and purification of BbBqrA in Escherichia coli confirmed NAD(P)H-dependent benzoquinone reductase activity. The ΔBbbqrA strain showed decreased virulence toward T. castaneum, whereas overexpression of BbbqrA increased mortality versus T. castaneum. No change in virulence was seen for the ΔBbbqrA or Bb::BbbqrAO strains when tested against the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella or the beetle Sitophilus oryzae, neither of which produce significant amounts of cuticular quinones. The observation that artificial overexpression of BbbqrA results in increased virulence only toward quinone-secreting insects implies the lack of strong selection or current failure of B. bassiana to counteradapt to this particular host defense throughout evolution. PMID:26056261

  15. Legionella pneumophila utilizes a Single Player Disulfide-Bond Oxidoreductase System to Manage Disulfide Bond Formation and Isomerization

    PubMed Central

    Kpadeh, Zegbeh Z.; Day, Shandra R.; Mills, Brandy W.; Hoffman, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila uses a single homodimeric disulfide bond (DSB) oxidoreductase DsbA2 to catalyze extracytoplasmic protein folding and to correct DSB errors through protein-disulfide isomerase (PDI) activity. In Escherichia coli, these functions are separated to avoid futile cycling. In L. pneumophila, DsbA2 is maintained as a mixture of disulfides (S-S) and free thiols (SH), but when expressed in E. coli, only the SH form is observed. We provide evidence to suggest that structural differences in DsbB oxidases (LpDsbB1 and LpDsbB2) and DsbD reductases (LpDsbD1 and LpDsbD2) (compared to E. coli) permit bifunctional activities without creating a futile cycle. LpdsbB1 and LpdsbB2 partially complemented an EcdsbB mutant while neither LpdsbD1 nor LpdsbD2 complemented an EcdsbD mutant unless DsbA2 was also expressed. When the dsb genes of E. coli were replaced with those of L. pneumophila, motility was restored and DsbA2 was present as a mixture of redox forms. A dominant-negative approach to interfere with DsbA2 function in L. pneumophila determined that DSB oxidase activity was necessary for intracellular multiplication and assembly/function of the Dot/Icm Type IVb secretion system. Our studies show that a single-player system may escape the futile cycle trap by limiting transfer of reducing equivalents from LpDsbDs to DsbA2. PMID:25534767

  16. Cell growth defect factor 1 is crucial for the plastid import of NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase A in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Reinbothe, Steffen; Gray, John; Rustgi, Sachin; von Wettstein, Diter; Reinbothe, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Tetrapyrroles such as chlorophyll, heme, and bacteriochlorophyll play fundamental roles in the energy absorption and transduction of all photosynthetic organisms. They are synthesized via a complex pathway taking place in chloroplasts. Chlorophyll biosynthesis in angiosperms involves 16 steps of which only one is light-requiring and driven by the NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR). Three POR isoforms have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana—designated PORA, PORB, and PORC—that are differentially expressed in etiolated, light-exposed, and light-adapted plants. All three isoforms are encoded by nuclear genes, are synthesized as larger precursors in the cytosol (pPORs), and are imported posttranslationally into the plastid compartment. Import of the precursor to the dark-specific isoform PORA (pPORA) is protochlorophyllide (Pchlide)-dependent and due to the operation of a unique translocon complex dubbed PTC (Pchlide-dependent translocon complex) in the plastid envelope. Here, we identified a ∼30-kDa protein that participates in pPORA import. The ∼30-kDa protein is identical to the previously identified CELL GROWTH DEFECT FACTOR 1 (CDF1) in Arabidopsis that is conserved in higher plants and Synechocystis. CDF1 operates in pPORA import and stabilization and hereby acts as a chaperone for PORA protein translocation. CDF1 permits tight interactions between Pchlide synthesized in the plastid envelope and the importing PORA polypeptide chain such that no photoexcitative damage occurs through the generation of singlet oxygen operating as a cell death inducer. Together, our results identify an ancient mechanism dating back to the endosymbiotic origin of chloroplasts as a key element of Pchlide-dependent pPORA import. PMID:25901327

  17. Structure modeling and inhibitor prediction ofNADP oxidoreductase enzyme from Methanobrevibacter smithii.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ashwani; Chaudhary, Prem Prashant; Sirohi, Sunil Kumar; Saxena, Jyoti

    2011-01-01

    The F420-dependent NADP oxidoreductase enzyme from Methanobrevibacter smithii catalyzes the important electron transfer step during methanogenesis. Therefore, it may act as potential target for blocking the process of methane formation. Its protein sequence is available in GenBank (accession number: ABQ86254.1) however no report has been found about its 3D protein structure. In this work, we first time claim 3D model structure of F420-dependent NADP oxidoreductase enzyme from Methanobrevibacter smithii by comparative homology modeling method. Swiss model and ESyPred3d (via Modeller 6v2) software's were generated the 3D model by detecting 1JAX (A) as template along with sequence identities of 34.272% and 35.40%. Furthermore, PROCHECK with Ramachandran plot and ProSA analysis revealed that swiss model produced better model than Modeller6v2 with 98.90% of residues in favored and additional allowed regions (RM plot) as well as with ProSA Z score of -7.26. In addition, we investigated that the substrate F420 bound at the cavity of the model. Subsequently, inhibitor prediction study revealed that Lovastatin (-22.07 Kcal/mol) and Compactin (Mevastatin) (-21.91 Kcal/mol) produced more affinity for model structure of NADP oxidoreducatse as compared to F420 (-14.40 Kcal/mol). It indicates that the Lovastatin and Compactin (Mevastatin) compounds (Negative regulator) may act as potential inhibitor of F420 dependent NADP oxidoreducatse protein. PMID:21464839

  18. NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase activity in the kinetoplasts of the plant trypanosomatid Phytomonas serpens.

    PubMed

    González-Halphen, Diego; Maslov, Dmitri A

    2004-03-01

    NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase activity is present in mitochondrial lysates of Phytomonas serpens. Rotenone at 2-10 microM inhibited the activity 50-75%, indicating that it belongs to respiratory complex I. The activity was also inhibited 50-60% in the presence of 10-30 nM atovaquone suggesting that inhibition of complex I represents a likely mechanism of the known antileishmanial activity of this drug. The complex was partially purified by chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B and gel-filtration on Sepharose CL-2B. The NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase activity in this preparation was completely inactivated by 20 nM atovaquone. The partially purified complex was present in a low amount and its subunits could not be discerned by staining with Coomassie. However, one of its components, a homologue of the 39 kDa subunit of the bovine complex I, was identified immunochemically in the original lysate and in the partially purified material. PMID:14727190

  19. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae quinone oxidoreductase Lot6p: stability, inhibition and cooperativity.

    PubMed

    Megarity, Clare F; Looi, Hong Keat; Timson, David J

    2014-08-01

    Lot6p (EC 1.5.1.39; Ylr011wp) is the sole quinone oxidoreductase in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using hexahistidine tagged, recombinant Lot6p, we determined the steady-state enzyme kinetic parameters with both NADH and NADPH as electron donors; no cooperativity was observed with these substrates. The NQO1 inhibitor curcumin, the NQO2 inhibitor resveratrol, the bacterial nitroreductase inhibitor nicotinamide and the phosphate mimic vanadate all stabilise the enzyme towards thermal denaturation as judged by differential scanning fluorimetry. All except vanadate have no observable effect on the chemical cross-linking of the two subunits of the Lot6p dimer. These compounds all inhibit Lot6p's oxidoreductase activity, and all except nicotinamide exhibit negative cooperativity. Molecular modelling suggests that curcumin, resveratrol and nicotinamide all bind over the isoalloxazine ring of the FMN cofactor in Lot6p. Resveratrol was predicted to contact an α-helix that links the two active sites. Mutation of Gly-142 (which forms part of this helix) to serine does not greatly affect the thermal stability of the enzyme. However, this variant shows less cooperativity towards resveratrol than the wild type. This suggests a plausible hypothesis for the transmission of information between the subunits and, thus, the molecular mechanism of negative cooperativity in Lot6p. PMID:24866129

  20. Another Unusual Type of Citric Acid Cycle Enzyme in Helicobacter pylori: the Malate:Quinone Oxidoreductase

    PubMed Central

    Kather, Birgit; Stingl, Kerstin; van der Rest, Michel E.; Altendorf, Karlheinz; Molenaar, Douwe

    2000-01-01

    The only enzyme of the citric acid cycle for which no open reading frame (ORF) was found in the Helicobacter pylori genome is the NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase. Here, it is shown that in this organism the oxidation of malate to oxaloacetate is catalyzed by a malate:quinone oxidoreductase (MQO). This flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent membrane-associated enzyme donates electrons to quinones of the electron transfer chain. Similar to succinate dehydrogenase, it is part of both the electron transfer chain and the citric acid cycle. MQO activity was demonstrated in isolated membranes of H. pylori. The enzyme is encoded by the ORF HP0086, which is shown by the fact that expression of the HP0086 sequence from a plasmid induces high MQO activity in mqo deletion mutants of Escherichia coli or Corynebacterium glutamicum. Furthermore, this plasmid was able to complement the phenotype of the C. glutamicum mqo deletion mutant. Interestingly, the protein predicted to be encoded by this ORF is only distantly related to known or postulated MQO sequences from other bacteria. The presence of an MQO shown here and the previously demonstrated presence of a 2-ketoglutarate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase and a succinyl-coenzyme A (CoA):acetoacetyl-CoA transferase indicate that H. pylori possesses a complete citric acid cycle, but one which deviates from the standard textbook example in three steps. PMID:10809701

  1. Energization of Bacillus subtilis membrane vesicles increases catalytic activity of succinate:menaquinone oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Azarkina, N V; Konstantinov, A A

    2010-01-01

    In this work, high DeltamicroH+-dependent succinate oxidase activity has been demonstrated for the first time with membrane vesicles isolated from Bacillus subtilis. The maximal specific rate of succinate oxidation by coupled inside-out membrane vesicles isolated from a B. subtilis strain overproducing succinate:menaquinone oxidoreductase approaches the specific rate observed with the intact cells. Deenergization of the membrane vesicles with ionophores or alamethicin brings about an almost complete inhibition of succinate oxidation. An apparent K(m) for succinate during the energy-dependent succinate oxidase activity of the vesicles (2.2 mM) is higher by an order of magnitude than the K(m) value measured for the energy-independent reduction of 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol. The data reveal critical importance of DeltamicroH+ for maintaining active electron transfer by succinate:menaquinone oxidoreductase. The role of DeltamicroH+ might consist in providing energy for thermodynamically unfavorable menaquinone reduction by succinate by virtue of transmembrane electron transport within the enzyme down the electric field; alternatively, DeltamicroH+ could play a regulatory role by maintaining the electroneutrally operating enzyme in a catalytically active conformation. PMID:20331424

  2. Transient Kinetic Analysis of Hydrogen Sulfide Oxidation Catalyzed by Human Sulfide Quinone Oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Mishanina, Tatiana V; Yadav, Pramod K; Ballou, David P; Banerjee, Ruma

    2015-10-01

    The first step in the mitochondrial sulfide oxidation pathway is catalyzed by sulfide quinone oxidoreductase (SQR), which belongs to the family of flavoprotein disulfide oxidoreductases. During the catalytic cycle, the flavin cofactor is intermittently reduced by sulfide and oxidized by ubiquinone, linking H2S oxidation to the electron transfer chain and to energy metabolism. Human SQR can use multiple thiophilic acceptors, including sulfide, sulfite, and glutathione, to form as products, hydrodisulfide, thiosulfate, and glutathione persulfide, respectively. In this study, we have used transient kinetics to examine the mechanism of the flavin reductive half-reaction and have determined the redox potential of the bound flavin to be -123 ± 7 mV. We observe formation of an unusually intense charge-transfer (CT) complex when the enzyme is exposed to sulfide and unexpectedly, when it is exposed to sulfite. In the canonical reaction, sulfide serves as the sulfur donor and sulfite serves as the acceptor, forming thiosulfate. We show that thiosulfate is also formed when sulfide is added to the sulfite-induced CT intermediate, representing a new mechanism for thiosulfate formation. The CT complex is formed at a kinetically competent rate by reaction with sulfide but not with sulfite. Our study indicates that sulfide addition to the active site disulfide is preferred under normal turnover conditions. However, under pathological conditions when sulfite concentrations are high, sulfite could compete with sulfide for addition to the active site disulfide, leading to attenuation of SQR activity and to an alternate route for thiosulfate formation. PMID:26318450

  3. Crystal structures of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 quinone oxidoreductase and its complex with NADPH

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Xiaowei; Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 ; Zhang, Hongmei; Gao, Yu; Li, Mei; Chang, Wenrui

    2009-12-18

    Zeta-crystallin-like quinone oxidoreductase is NAD(P)H-dependent and catalyzes one-electron reduction of certain quinones to generate semiquinone. Here we present the crystal structures of zeta-crystallin-like quinone oxidoreductase from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (PtoQOR) and its complexes with NADPH determined at 2.4 and 2.01 A resolutions, respectively. PtoQOR forms as a homologous dimer, each monomer containing two domains. In the structure of the PtoQOR-NADPH complex, NADPH locates in the groove between the two domains. NADPH binding causes obvious conformational changes in the structure of PtoQOR. The putative substrate-binding site of PtoQOR is wider than that of Escherichia coli and Thermus thermophilus HB8. Activity assays show that PtoQOR has weak 1,4-benzoquinone catalytic activity, and very strong reduction activity towards large substrates such as 9,10-phenanthrenequinone. We propose a model to explain the conformational changes which take place during reduction reactions catalyzed by PtoQOR.

  4. Evaluation of Neuronal Protective Effects of Xanthine Oxidoreductase Inhibitors on Severe Whole-brain Ischemia in Mouse Model and Analysis of Xanthine Oxidoreductase Activity in the Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    SUZUKI, Go; OKAMOTO, Ken; KUSANO, Teruo; MATSUDA, Yoko; FUSE, Akira; YOKOTA, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) often result in high mortality. Free radicals play an important role in global cerebral I/R. Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) inhibitors, such as allopurinol, have been reported to protect tissues from damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) by inhibiting its production through XOR inhibition. The recently introduced XOR inhibitor febuxostat, which is a more potent inhibitor than allopurinol, is expected to decrease free radical production more effectively. Here, we analyzed the effects of allopurinol and febuxostat in decreasing global severe cerebral I/R damage in mice. Mice were divided into three groups: a placebo group, an allopurinol group, and a febuxostat group. Pathological examinations, which were performed in each group in the CA1 and CA2 regions of the hippocampus 4 days after I/R surgery, revealed that there was a decrease in the number of neuronal cells in the 14-min occlusion model in both regions and that drugs that were administered to prevent this damage were not effective. The enzymatic activity was extremely low in the mouse brain, and XOR could not be detected in the nonischemic and ischemic mice brains with western blot analyses. Thus, one of the reasons for the decreased effectiveness of XOR inhibitors in controlling severe whole-brain ischemia in a mouse model was the low levels of expression of XOR in the mouse brain. PMID:25744353

  5. Towards a systematic analysis of human short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR): Ligand identification and structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Chitra; Oerum, Stephanie; Bray, James; Kavanagh, Kathryn L; Shafqat, Naeem; Yue, Wyatt; Oppermann, Udo

    2015-06-01

    Short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs) constitute a large, functionally diverse branch of enzymes within the class of NAD(P)(H) dependent oxidoreductases. In humans, over 80 genes have been identified with distinct metabolic roles in carbohydrate, amino acid, lipid, retinoid and steroid hormone metabolism, frequently associated with inherited genetic defects. Besides metabolic functions, a subset of atypical SDR proteins appears to play critical roles in adapting to redox status or RNA processing, and thereby controlling metabolic pathways. Here we present an update on the human SDR superfamily and a ligand identification strategy using differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) with a focused library of oxidoreductase and metabolic ligands to identify substrate classes and inhibitor chemotypes. This method is applicable to investigate structure-activity relationships of oxidoreductases and ultimately to better understand their physiological roles. PMID:25526675

  6. Disulfide bond oxidoreductase DsbA2 of Legionella pneumophila exhibits protein disulfide isomerase activity.

    PubMed

    Kpadeh, Zegbeh Z; Jameson-Lee, Max; Yeh, Anthony J; Chertihin, Olga; Shumilin, Igor A; Dey, Rafik; Day, Shandra R; Hoffman, Paul S

    2013-04-01

    The extracytoplasmic assembly of the Dot/Icm type IVb secretion system (T4SS) of Legionella pneumophila is dependent on correct disulfide bond (DSB) formation catalyzed by a novel and essential disulfide bond oxidoreductase DsbA2 and not by DsbA1, a second nonessential DSB oxidoreductase. DsbA2, which is widely distributed in the microbial world, is phylogenetically distinct from the canonical DsbA oxidase and the DsbC protein disulfide isomerase (PDI)/reductase of Escherichia coli. Here we show that the extended N-terminal amino acid sequence of DsbA2 (relative to DsbA proteins) contains a highly conserved 27-amino-acid dimerization domain enabling the protein to form a homodimer. Complementation tests with E. coli mutants established that L. pneumophila dsbA1, but not the dsbA2 strain, restored motility to a dsbA mutant. In a protein-folding PDI detector assay, the dsbA2 strain, but not the dsbA1 strain, complemented a dsbC mutant of E. coli. Deletion of the dimerization domain sequences from DsbA2 produced the monomer (DsbA2N), which no longer exhibited PDI activity but complemented the E. coli dsbA mutant. PDI activity was demonstrated in vitro for DsbA2 but not DsbA1 in a nitrocefin-based mutant TEM β-lactamase folding assay. In an insulin reduction assay, DsbA2N activity was intermediate between those of DsbA2 and DsbA1. In L. pneumophila, DsbA2 was maintained as a mixture of thiol and disulfide forms, while in E. coli, DsbA2 was present as the reduced thiol. Our studies suggest that DsbA2 is a naturally occurring bifunctional disulfide bond oxidoreductase that may be uniquely suited to the majority of intracellular bacterial pathogens expressing T4SSs as well as in many slow-growing soil and aquatic bacteria. PMID:23435972

  7. Disulfide Bond Oxidoreductase DsbA2 of Legionella pneumophila Exhibits Protein Disulfide Isomerase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kpadeh, Zegbeh Z.; Jameson-Lee, Max; Yeh, Anthony J.; Chertihin, Olga; Shumilin, Igor A.; Dey, Rafik; Day, Shandra R.

    2013-01-01

    The extracytoplasmic assembly of the Dot/Icm type IVb secretion system (T4SS) of Legionella pneumophila is dependent on correct disulfide bond (DSB) formation catalyzed by a novel and essential disulfide bond oxidoreductase DsbA2 and not by DsbA1, a second nonessential DSB oxidoreductase. DsbA2, which is widely distributed in the microbial world, is phylogenetically distinct from the canonical DsbA oxidase and the DsbC protein disulfide isomerase (PDI)/reductase of Escherichia coli. Here we show that the extended N-terminal amino acid sequence of DsbA2 (relative to DsbA proteins) contains a highly conserved 27-amino-acid dimerization domain enabling the protein to form a homodimer. Complementation tests with E. coli mutants established that L. pneumophila dsbA1, but not the dsbA2 strain, restored motility to a dsbA mutant. In a protein-folding PDI detector assay, the dsbA2 strain, but not the dsbA1 strain, complemented a dsbC mutant of E. coli. Deletion of the dimerization domain sequences from DsbA2 produced the monomer (DsbA2N), which no longer exhibited PDI activity but complemented the E. coli dsbA mutant. PDI activity was demonstrated in vitro for DsbA2 but not DsbA1 in a nitrocefin-based mutant TEM β-lactamase folding assay. In an insulin reduction assay, DsbA2N activity was intermediate between those of DsbA2 and DsbA1. In L. pneumophila, DsbA2 was maintained as a mixture of thiol and disulfide forms, while in E. coli, DsbA2 was present as the reduced thiol. Our studies suggest that DsbA2 is a naturally occurring bifunctional disulfide bond oxidoreductase that may be uniquely suited to the majority of intracellular bacterial pathogens expressing T4SSs as well as in many slow-growing soil and aquatic bacteria. PMID:23435972

  8. Na(+) translocation by bacterial NADH:quinone oxidoreductases: an extension to the complex-I family of primary redox pumps.

    PubMed

    Steuber, J

    2001-05-01

    The current knowledge on the Na(+)-translocating NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase of the Na(+)-NQR type from Vibrio alginolyticus, and on Na(+) transport by the electrogenic NADH:Q oxidoreductases from Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae (complex I, or NDH-I) is summarized. A general mode of redox-linked Na(+) transport by NADH:Q oxidoreductases is proposed that is based on the electrostatic attraction of a positively charged Na(+) towards a negatively charged, enzyme-bound ubisemiquinone anion in a medium of low dielectricity. A structural model of the [2Fe-2S]- and FAD-carrying NqrF subunit of the Na(+)-NQR from V. alginolyticus based on ferredoxin and ferredoxin:NADP(+) oxidoreductase suggests that a direct participation of the Fe/S center in Na(+) transport is rather unlikely. A ubisemiquinone-dependent mechanism of Na(+) translocation is proposed that results in the transport of two Na(+) ions per two electrons transferred. Whereas this stoichiometry of the pump is in accordance with in vivo determinations of Na(+) transport by the respiratory chain of V. alginolyticus, higher (Na(+) or H(+)) transport stoichiometries are expected for complex I, suggesting the presence of a second coupling site. PMID:11248188

  9. Identification and cloning of two immunogenic Clostridium perfringens proteins, elongation factor Tu and pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase of C. perfringens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clostridium-related poultry diseases such as necrotic enteritis (NE) and gangrenous dermatitis (GD) cause substantial economic losses on a global scale. Two antigenic Clostridium perfringens proteins, elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFO), were identified by react...

  10. Oxidoreductases provide a more generic response to metallic stressors (Cu and Cd) than hydrolases in soil fungi: new ecotoxicological insights.

    PubMed

    Lebrun, Jérémie D; Demont-Caulet, Nathalie; Cheviron, Nathalie; Laval, Karine; Trinsoutrot-Gattin, Isabelle; Mougin, Christian

    2016-02-01

    The present study investigates the effect of metals on the secretion of enzymes from12 fungal strains maintained in liquid cultures. Hydrolases (acid phosphatase, β-glucosidase, β-galactosidase, and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase) and ligninolytic oxidoreductases (laccase, Mn, and lignin peroxidases) activities, as well as biomass production, were measured in culture fluids from fungi exposed to Cu or Cd. Our results showed that all fungi secreted most of the selected hydrolases and that about 50 % of them produced a partial oxidative system in the absence of metals. Then, exposure of fungi to metals led to the decrease in biomass production. At the enzymatic level, Cu and Cd modified the secretion profiles of soil fungi. The response of hydrolases to metals was contrasted and complex and depended on metal, enzyme, and fungal strain considered. By contrast, the metals always stimulated the activity of ligninolytic oxidoreductases in fungal strains. In some of them, oxidoreductases were specifically produced following metal exposure. Fungal oxidoreductases provide a more generic response than hydrolases, constituting thus a physiological basis for their use as biomarkers of metal exposure in soils. PMID:26310699

  11. A novel aldose-aldose oxidoreductase for co-production of D-xylonate and xylitol from D-xylose with Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Wiebe, Marilyn G; Nygård, Yvonne; Oja, Merja; Andberg, Martina; Ruohonen, Laura; Koivula, Anu; Penttilä, Merja; Toivari, Mervi

    2015-11-01

    An open reading frame CC1225 from the Caulobacter crescentus CB15 genome sequence belongs to the Gfo/Idh/MocA protein family and has 47 % amino acid sequence identity with the glucose-fructose oxidoreductase from Zymomonas mobilis (Zm GFOR). We expressed the ORF CC1225 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and used a yeast strain expressing the gene coding for Zm GFOR as a reference. Cell extracts of strains overexpressing CC1225 (renamed as Cc aaor) showed some Zm GFOR type of activity, producing D-gluconate and D-sorbitol when a mixture of D-glucose and D-fructose was used as substrate. However, the activity in Cc aaor expressing strain was >100-fold lower compared to strains expressing Zm gfor. Interestingly, C. crescentus AAOR was clearly more efficient than the Zm GFOR in converting in vitro a single sugar substrate D-xylose (10 mM) to xylitol without an added cofactor, whereas this type of activity was very low with Zm GFOR. Furthermore, when cultured in the presence of D-xylose, the S. cerevisiae strain expressing Cc aaor produced nearly equal concentrations of D-xylonate and xylitol (12.5 g D-xylonate l(-1) and 11.5 g D-xylitol l(-1) from 26 g D-xylose l(-1)), whereas the control strain and strain expressing Zm gfor produced only D-xylitol (5 g l(-1)). Deletion of the gene encoding the major aldose reductase, Gre3p, did not affect xylitol production in the strain expressing Cc aaor, but decreased xylitol production in the strain expressing Zm gfor. In addition, expression of Cc aaor together with the D-xylonolactone lactonase encoding the gene xylC from C. crescentus slightly increased the final concentration and initial volumetric production rate of both D-xylonate and D-xylitol. These results suggest that C. crescentus AAOR is a novel type of oxidoreductase able to convert the single aldose substrate D-xylose to both its oxidized and reduced product. PMID:26264136

  12. Adaptive hepatic and intestinal alterations in mice after deletion of NADPH-cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase (Cpr) in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xingguo; Gu, Jun; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2014-11-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450) play an important role in first-pass metabolism in both the intestine and liver. NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (Cpr) is an essential electron transfer protein required for microsomal P450 activity. Mice with conditional knockout of Cpr in hepatocytes develop normally and survive even with complete loss of liver microsomal P450 activity. Our current studies were performed to determine whether alternative drug-metabolizing pathways increase in an attempt to maintain whole-body homeostasis. In addition to the liver, Cpr is mainly expressed in tissues such as lung, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract. In livers of H-Cpr-null mice, there is a marked increase in mRNA expression of phase I enzymes (Aldh1a1, 1a7, 3a2; Ces1b2, 2a6, and 2a12), antioxidant enzymes (Ho-1, Nqo1, and epoxide hydrolase), phase II enzymes (Ugt1a9; Gsta1/2, m3, m4, m6, t1, and t3; and Sult1a1 and 1d1), and drug transporters (Oatp1a4, Oct3, Mate1, Mdr1a, and Mrp3 and 4). In addition, glucuronide-conjugated bilirubin concentrations are doubled in serum of H-Cpr-null mice. Both constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein in nuclei are higher in the livers of H-Cpr-null mice, indicating that CAR and Nrf2 are activated. In the small intestine of H-Cpr-null mice, mRNA expression of Cyp3a11 and Mdr1a, two genes critical for intestinal first-pass metabolism, are markedly up-regulated. In addition, nutrient (Pept1) and cholesterol (Npc1l1) transporters are induced in the small intestine of H-Cpr-null mice. In conclusion, in H-Cpr-null mice, adaptive regulation of alternative detoxification genes in liver and small intestine appear to partially compensate for the loss of microsomal P450 function in liver. PMID:25147274

  13. Molybdenum(VI) salts convert the xanthine oxidoreductase apoprotein into the active enzyme in mouse L929 fibroblastic cells.

    PubMed Central

    Falciani, F; Terao, M; Goldwurm, S; Ronchi, A; Gatti, A; Minoia, C; Li Calzi, M; Salmona, M; Cazzaniga, G; Garattini, E

    1994-01-01

    The mouse L929 fibroblastic cell line presents low, but detectable, levels of the mRNA encoding xanthine oxidoreductase under basal conditions, and it responds to type I and type II interferons by inducing the expression of the transcript [Falciani, Ghezzi, Terao, Cazzaniga, and Garattini (1992) Biochem. J. 285, 1001-1008]. This cell line, however, does not show any detectable amount of xanthine oxidoreductase enzymic activity, either before or after treatment with the cytokines. Molybdenum(VI) salts, in the millimolar range, are capable of activating xanthine oxidoreductase in L929 cells both under basal conditions and after treatment with interferon-alpha. The increase is observed in mouse L929 as well as in clones derived from it, but not in many other human and mouse cell lines. The induction observed in L929 cells is post-translational in nature and it is insensitive to cycloheximide, indicating that the molybdenum ion converts a pool of inactive xanthine oxidoreductase apoenzyme into its holoenzymic form. When grown in the absence of sodium molybdate, the L929 cell line has undetectable intracellular levels of the molybdenum cofactor, since the cell extracts are unable to complement the nitrate reductase defect of the nit-1 mutant of Neurospora crassa. L929 cells grown in the presence of millimolar concentrations of sodium molybdate, however, become competent to complement the nit-1 defect. L929 cells accumulate molybdenum ion inside the intracellular compartment as efficiently as TEnd cells, a mouse endothelial cell line that expresses xanthine oxidoreductase activity both under basal conditions and after treatment with interferon-gamma, suggesting that L929 cells have a defect in one or more of the metabolic steps leading to the synthesis of the molybdenum cofactor. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:8129733

  14. Pyruvate Oxidoreductases Involved in Glycolytic Anaerobic Metabolism of Polychaetes from the Continental Shelf off Central-South Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, R. R.; Quiñones, R. A.

    2000-10-01

    The presence of low oxygen conditions in extensive areas of the continental shelf off central-south Chile has important effects on the biochemical adaptations of the organisms living in this ecosystem. Polychaetes assemblages cohabit on the shelf with an extensively distributed prokaryotic community made up of giant filamentous sulfur bacteria (mainly Thioploca sp.). The aim of this research was to characterize the pyruvate oxidoreductases enzymes involved in the biochemical adaptation of these benthic polychaetes. Nine polychaete species ( Paraprionospio pinnata, Nephtys ferruginea, Glycera americana, Haploscoloplos sp., Lumbrineris composita, Sigambra bassi, Aricidea pigmentata , Cossura chilensis, and Pectinaria chilensis) were assayed for lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), octopine dehydrogenase (OPDH), strombine dehydrogenase (STRDH) and alanopine dehydrogenase (ALPDH). Each species had a characteristic number of the pyruvate oxidoreductases assayed ranging from 4 in Paraprionospio pinnata to 1 in Pectinaria chilensis . The pyruvate saturation curves obtained for the enzymes from all species analysed, except L. composita, suggest that NADH can be oxidized at different rates depending on the amino acid used in the reaction with pyruvate. Our results indicate that organisms having more that one pyruvate oxidoreductase present a greater metabolic capacity to cope with functional and environmental hypoxia because these enzymes would better regulate the pyruvate consumption rate during the transition period. Thus, the dominance of Paraprionospio pinnata in the study area and its worldwide distribution is consistent with its higher number of pyruvate oxidoreductases with different pyruvate consumption rates involved in anaerobic metabolism. Finally, a positive allometric relationship was found between body size and the specific activity of ALPDH, STRDH, and maximum pyruvate oxidoreductase specific activity. This latter result suggests a positive scaling of the specific anaerobic metabolism in polychaetes.

  15. Characterization of the NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) in the trypanosomatid Phytomonas serpens (Kinetoplastida).

    PubMed

    Cermáková, Petra; Verner, Zdenek; Man, Petr; Lukes, Julius; Horváth, Anton

    2007-06-01

    NADH dehydrogenase activity was characterized in the mitochondrial lysates of Phytomonas serpens, a trypanosomatid flagellate parasitizing plants. Two different high molecular weight NADH dehydrogenases were characterized by native PAGE and detected by direct in-gel activity staining. The association of NADH dehydrogenase activities with two distinct multisubunit complexes was revealed in the second dimension performed under denaturing conditions. One subunit present in both complexes cross-reacted with the antibody against the 39 kDa subunit of bovine complex I. Out of several subunits analyzed by MS, one contained a domain characteristic for the LYR family subunit of the NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductases. Spectrophotometric measurement of the NADH:ubiquinone 10 and NADH:ferricyanide dehydrogenase activities revealed their different sensitivities to rotenone, piericidin, and diphenyl iodonium. PMID:17521330

  16. Tethering of ferredoxin:NADP+ oxidoreductase to thylakoid membranes is mediated by novel chloroplast protein TROL.

    PubMed

    Jurić, Snjezana; Hazler-Pilepić, Kroata; Tomasić, Ana; Lepedus, Hrvoje; Jelicić, Branka; Puthiyaveetil, Sujith; Bionda, Tihana; Vojta, Lea; Allen, John F; Schleiff, Enrico; Fulgosi, Hrvoje

    2009-12-01

    Working in tandem, two photosystems in the chloroplast thylakoid membranes produce a linear electron flow from H(2)O to NADP(+). Final electron transfer from ferredoxin to NADP(+) is accomplished by a flavoenzyme ferredoxin:NADP(+) oxidoreductase (FNR). Here we describe TROL (thylakoid rhodanese-like protein), a nuclear-encoded component of thylakoid membranes that is required for tethering of FNR and sustaining efficient linear electron flow (LEF) in vascular plants. TROL consists of two distinct modules; a centrally positioned rhodanese-like domain and a C-terminal hydrophobic FNR binding region. Analysis of Arabidopsis mutant lines indicates that, in the absence of TROL, relative electron transport rates at high-light intensities are severely lowered accompanied with significant increase in non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). Thus, TROL might represent a missing thylakoid membrane docking site for a complex between FNR, ferredoxin and NADP(+). Such association might be necessary for maintaining photosynthetic redox poise and enhancement of the NPQ. PMID:19682289

  17. Ion translocation by the Escherichia coli NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I).

    PubMed

    Friedrich, T; Stolpe, S; Schneider, D; Barquera, B; Hellwig, P

    2005-08-01

    The energy-converting NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, also known as respiratory complex I, couples the transfer of electrons from NADH to ubiquinone with the translocation of ions across the membrane. It was assumed that the complex exclusively works as a proton pump. Recently, it has been proposed that complex I from Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli work as Na+ pumps. We have used an E. coli complex I preparation to determine the type of ion(s) translocated by means of enzyme activity, generation of a membrane potential and redox-induced Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. We did not find any indications for Na+ translocation by the E. coli complex I. PMID:16042610

  18. Structural domains in NADPH: Protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases involved in catalysis and substrate binding. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Timko, Michael P.

    1999-09-24

    Until recently little direct information was available about specific structural determinants within the light-dependent NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases (PORs) required for substrate and cofactor binding, catalytic activity, and thylakoid membrane localization. Based on our previous DOE-funded studies, during the past year we brought to fruition a number of ongoing experiments, initiated several new avenues of investigations, and overall have made considerable progress towards establishing the basic structural parameters governing POR function. Our studies to date have defined residues and domains involved in substrate and cofactor binding and catalysis, and elaborated on the mechanism for membrane localization of POR in developing plastids. Our results and their significance, as well as our work in progress, are detailed.

  19. Enantiocomplementary Yarrowia lipolytica Oxidoreductases: Alcohol Dehydrogenase 2 and Short Chain Dehydrogenase/Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Napora-Wijata, Kamila; Strohmeier, Gernot A.; Sonavane, Manoj N.; Avi, Manuela; Robins, Karen; Winkler, Margit

    2013-01-01

    Enzymes of the non-conventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica seem to be tailor-made for the conversion of lipophilic substrates. Herein, we cloned and overexpressed the Zn-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase ADH2 from Yarrowia lipolytica in Escherichia coli. The purified enzyme was characterized in vitro. The substrate scope for YlADH2 mediated oxidation and reduction was investigated spectrophotometrically and the enzyme showed a broader substrate range than its homolog from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A preference for secondary compared to primary alcohols in oxidation direction was observed for YlADH2. 2-Octanone was investigated in reduction mode in detail. Remarkably, YlADH2 displays perfect (S)-selectivity and together with a highly (R)-selective short chain dehydrogenase/ reductase from Yarrowia lipolytica it is possible to access both enantiomers of 2-octanol in >99% ee with Yarrowia lipolytica oxidoreductases. PMID:24970175

  20. Substrate-Protein Interactions of Type II NADH:Quinone Oxidoreductase from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Salewski, Johannes; Batista, Ana P; Sena, Filipa V; Millo, Diego; Zebger, Ingo; Pereira, Manuela M; Hildebrandt, Peter

    2016-05-17

    Type II NADH:quinone oxidoreductases (NDH-2s) are membrane proteins involved in respiratory chains and responsible for the maintenance of NADH/NAD(+) balance in cells. NDH-2s are the only enzymes with NADH dehydrogenase activity present in the respiratory chain of many pathogens, and thus, they were proposed as suitable targets for antimicrobial therapies. In addition, NDH-2s were also considered key players for the treatment of complex I-related neurodegenerative disorders. In this work, we explored substrate-protein interaction in NDH-2 from Escherichia coli (EcNDH-2) combining surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopic studies with electrochemical experiments, fluorescence spectroscopy assays, and quantum chemical calculations. Because of the specific stabilization of substrate complexes of EcNDH-2 immobilized on electrodes, it was possible to demonstrate the presence of two distinct substrate binding sites for NADH and the quinone and to identify a bound semiprotonated quinol as a catalytic intermediate. PMID:27109164

  1. Cytosolic localization of NADH cytochrome b5 oxidoreductase (Ncb5or).

    PubMed

    Zmb, Veronika; Tth, Mnika; Schlachter, Krisztina; Szelnyi, Pter; Sarnyai, Farkas; Lotz, Gbor; Csala, Mikls; Kereszturi, va

    2016-03-01

    Acyl-CoA desaturation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane depends on cytosolic NADH or NADPH, whereas NADPH in the ER lumen is utilized by prereceptor glucocorticoid production. It was assumed that NADH cytochrome b5 oxidoreductase (Ncb5or) might connect Acyl-CoA desaturation to ER luminal redox. We aimed to clarify the ambiguous compartmentalization of Ncb5or and test the possible effect of stearoyl-CoA on microsomal NADPH level. Amino acid sequence analysis, fluorescence microscopy of GFP-tagged protein, immunocytochemistry, and western blot analysis of subcellular fractions unequivocally demonstrated that Ncb5or, either endogenous or exogenous, is localized in the cytoplasm and not in the ER lumen in cultured cells and liver tissue. Moreover, the involvement of ER-luminal reducing equivalents in stearoyl-CoA desaturation was excluded. PMID:26878259

  2. Characterization of a unique Caulobacter crescentus aldose-aldose oxidoreductase having dual activities.

    PubMed

    Andberg, Martina; Maaheimo, Hannu; Kumpula, Esa-Pekka; Boer, Harry; Toivari, Mervi; Penttilä, Merja; Koivula, Anu

    2016-01-01

    We describe here the characterization of a novel enzyme called aldose-aldose oxidoreductase (Cc AAOR; EC 1.1.99) from Caulobacter crescentus. The Cc AAOR exists in solution as a dimer, belongs to the Gfo/Idh/MocA family and shows homology with the glucose-fructose oxidoreductase from Zymomonas mobilis. However, unlike other known members of this protein family, Cc AAOR is specific for aldose sugars and can be in the same catalytic cycle both oxidise and reduce a panel of monosaccharides at the C1 position, producing in each case the corresponding aldonolactone and alditol, respectively. Cc AAOR contains a tightly-bound nicotinamide cofactor, which is regenerated in this oxidation-reduction cycle. The highest oxidation activity was detected on D-glucose but significant activity was also observed on D-xylose, L-arabinose and D-galactose, revealing that both hexose and pentose sugars are accepted as substrates by Cc AAOR. The configuration at the C2 and C3 positions of the saccharides was shown to be especially important for the substrate binding. Interestingly, besides monosaccharides, Cc AAOR can also oxidise a range of 1,4-linked oligosaccharides having aldose unit at the reducing end, such as lactose, malto- and cello-oligosaccharides as well as xylotetraose. (1)H NMR used to monitor the oxidation and reduction reaction simultaneously, demonstrated that although D-glucose has the highest affinity and is also oxidised most efficiently by Cc AAOR, the reduction of D-glucose is clearly not as efficient. For the overall reaction catalysed by Cc AAOR, the L-arabinose, D-xylose and D-galactose were the most potent substrates. PMID:26428243

  3. A suite of de novo c-type cytochromes for functional oxidoreductase engineering.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Daniel W; Armstrong, Craig T; Beesley, Joseph L; Marsh, Jane E; Jenkins, Jonathan M X; Sessions, Richard B; Mann, Stephen; Ross Anderson, J L

    2016-05-01

    Central to the design of an efficient de novo enzyme is a robust yet mutable protein scaffold. The maquette approach to protein design offers precisely this, employing simple four-α-helix bundle scaffolds devoid of evolutionary complexity and with proven tolerance towards iterative protein engineering. We recently described the design of C2, a de novo designed c-type cytochrome maquette that undergoes post-translational modification in E. coli to covalently graft heme onto the protein backbone in vivo. This de novo cytochrome is capable of reversible oxygen binding, an obligate step in the catalytic cycle of many oxygen-activating oxidoreductases. Here we demonstrate the flexibility of both the maquette platform and the post-translational machinery of E. coli by creating a suite of functional de novo designed c-type cytochromes. We explore the engineering tolerances of the maquette by selecting alternative binding sites for heme C attachment and creating di-heme maquettes either by appending an additional heme C binding motif to the maquette scaffold or by binding heme B through simple bis-histidine ligation to a second binding site. The new designs retain the essential properties of the parent design but with significant improvements in structural stability. Molecular dynamics simulations aid the rationalization of these functional improvements while providing insight into the rules for engineering heme C binding sites in future iterations. This versatile, functional suite of de novo c-type cytochromes shows significant promise in providing robust platforms for the future engineering of de novo oxygen-activating oxidoreductases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biodesign for Bioenergetics-the design and engineering of electron transfer cofactors, proteins and protein networks, edited by Ronald L. Koder and J.L. Ross Anderson. PMID:26556173

  4. Genotype-Phenotype Analysis in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to P450 Oxidoreductase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Krone, Nils; Reisch, Nicole; Idkowiak, Jan; Dhir, Vivek; Ivison, Hannah E.; Hughes, Beverly A.; Rose, Ian T.; O'Neil, Donna M.; Vijzelaar, Raymon; Smith, Matthew J.; MacDonald, Fiona; Cole, Trevor R.; Adolphs, Nicolai; Barton, John S.; Blair, Edward M.; Braddock, Stephen R.; Collins, Felicity; Cragun, Deborah L.; Dattani, Mehul T.; Day, Ruth; Dougan, Shelley; Feist, Miriam; Gottschalk, Michael E.; Gregory, John W.; Haim, Michaela; Harrison, Rachel; Haskins Olney, Ann; Hauffa, Berthold P.; Hindmarsh, Peter C.; Hopkin, Robert J.; Jira, Petr E.; Kempers, Marlies; Kerstens, Michiel N.; Khalifa, Mohamed M.; Köhler, Birgit; Maiter, Dominique; Nielsen, Shelly; O'Riordan, Stephen M.; Roth, Christian L.; Shane, Kate P.; Silink, Martin; Stikkelbroeck, Nike M. M. L.; Sweeney, Elizabeth; Szarras-Czapnik, Maria; Waterson, John R.; Williamson, Lori; Hartmann, Michaela F.; Taylor, Norman F.; Wudy, Stefan A.; Malunowicz, Ewa M.; Shackleton, Cedric H. L.

    2012-01-01

    Context: P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD) is a unique congenital adrenal hyperplasia variant that manifests with glucocorticoid deficiency, disordered sex development (DSD), and skeletal malformations. No comprehensive data on genotype-phenotype correlations in Caucasian patients are available. Objective: The objective of the study was to establish genotype-phenotype correlations in a large PORD cohort. Design: The design of the study was the clinical, biochemical, and genetic assessment including multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) in 30 PORD patients from 11 countries. Results: We identified 23 P450 oxidoreductase (POR) mutations (14 novel) including an exonic deletion and a partial duplication detected by MLPA. Only 22% of unrelated patients carried homozygous POR mutations. p.A287P was the most common mutation (43% of unrelated alleles); no other hot spot was identified. Urinary steroid profiling showed characteristic PORD metabolomes with variable impairment of 17α-hydroxylase and 21-hydroxylase. Short cosyntropin testing revealed adrenal insufficiency in 89%. DSD was present in 15 of 18 46,XX and seven of 12 46,XY individuals. Homozygosity for p.A287P was invariably associated with 46,XX DSD but normal genitalia in 46,XY individuals. The majority of patients with mild to moderate skeletal malformations, assessed by a novel scoring system, were compound heterozygous for missense mutations, whereas nearly all patients with severe malformations carried a major loss-of-function defect on one of the affected alleles. Conclusions: We report clinical, biochemical, and genetic findings in a large PORD cohort and show that MLPA is a useful addition to POR mutation analysis. Homozygosity for the most frequent mutation in Caucasians, p.A287P, allows for prediction of genital phenotype and moderate malformations. Adrenal insufficiency is frequent, easily overlooked, but readily detected by cosyntropin testing. PMID:22162478

  5. (The interaction of ferredoxin:NADP sup + oxidoreductase and ferredoxin:thioredoxin reductase with substrates)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    We seek to map the ferredoxin-binding sites on three soluble enzymes located in spinach chloroplasts which utilize ferredoxin as an electron donor:Ferredoxin:NADP{sup +}oxidoreductase (FNR); ferredoxin:thioredoxin reductase (FTR) and glutamate synthase. As the availability of amino acid sequences for the enzymes are important in such studies, that the amino acid sequence of glutamate synthase needs be determined, the amino acid sequences of FNR, FTR and ferredoxin are already known. Related to an aim elucidate the binding sites for ferredoxin to determine whether there is a common binding site on all of these ferredoxin-dependent chloroplast enzymes and, if so, to map it. Additionally thioredoxin binding by FTR needs be determine to resolve whether the same site on FTR is involved in binding both ferredoxin and thioredoxin. Considerable progress is reported on the prosthetic groups of glutamate synthase, in establishing the role of arginine and lysine residues in ferredoxin binding by, ferredoxin:nitrite oxidoreductase nitrite reductase, labelling carboxyl groups on ferredoxin with taurine and labelling lysine residues biotinylation, and low potential heme proteins have been isolated and characterized from a non-photosynthetic plant tissue. Although the monoclonal antibodies raised against FNR turned out not to be useful for mapping the FNR/ferredoxin or FNR/NADPinteraction domains, good progress has been made on mapping the FNR/ferredoxin interaction domains by an alternative technique. The techniques developed for differential chemical modification of these two proteins - taurine modification of aspartate and glutamate residues and biotin modification of lysine residues - should be useful for mapping the interaction domains of many proteins that associate through electrostatic interactions.

  6. Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Caused by P450 Oxidoreductase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Reisch, Nicole; Idkowiak, Jan; Hughes, Beverly A.; Ivison, Hannah E.; Abdul-Rahman, Omar A.; Hendon, Laura G.; Olney, Ann Haskins; Nielsen, Shelly; Harrison, Rachel; Blair, Edward M.; Dhir, Vivek; Krone, Nils; Shackleton, Cedric H. L.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Mutations in the electron donor enzyme P450 oxidoreductase (POR) result in congenital adrenal hyperplasia with apparent combined 17?-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase and 21-hydroxylase deficiencies, also termed P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD). Major clinical features present in PORD are disordered sex development in affected individuals of both sexes, glucocorticoid deficiency, and multiple skeletal malformations. Objective: The objective of the study was to establish a noninvasive approach to prenatal diagnosis of PORD including assessment of malformation severity to facilitate optimized prenatal diagnosis and timely treatment. Design: We analyzed 20 pregnancies with children homozygous or compound heterozygous for disease-causing POR mutations and 1 pregnancy with a child carrying a heterozygous POR mutation by recording clinical and biochemical presentations and fetal ultrasound findings. In 4 of the pregnancies (3 homozygous and 1 heterozygous for disease-causing POR mutations), prenatal analysis of steroid metabolite excretion in maternal urine was carried out by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry during gestational weeks 1123. Results: Pregnancy complications in our cohort included maternal virilization (6 of 20) with onset in the second trimester. Seven pregnant women presented with low unconjugated estriol at prenatal screening (triple or quadruple antenatal screening test). Overt dysmorphic features were noted in 19 of the 20 babies at birth but observed in only 5 by prenatal ultrasound. These 5 had the most severe malformation phenotypes and poor outcome, whereas the other babies showed normal development. Steroid profiling of maternal urine revealed significantly increased steroids of fetal origin, namely the pregnenolone metabolite epiallopregnanediol and the androgen metabolite androsterone, with concomitant low values for estriol. Diagnostic steroid ratios conclusively indicated PORD as early as gestational week 12. In the heterozygous pregnancy, steroid ratios were only slightly elevated and estriol excretion was normal. Conclusion: Prenatal diagnosis in PORD is readily established via urinary steroid metabolite analysis of maternal urine. Visible malformations at prenatal ultrasound predict a severe malformation phenotype. PMID:23365120

  7. Regulation of gap junction function and Connexin 43 expression by cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CYPOR)

    SciTech Connect

    Polusani, Srikanth R.; Kar, Rekha; Riquelme, Manuel A.; Masters, Bettie Sue; Panda, Satya P.

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} Humans with severe forms of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CYPOR) mutations show bone defects as observed in Antley-Bixler Syndrome. {yields} First report showing knockdown of CYPOR in osteoblasts decreased Connexin 43 (Cx43) protein levels. Cx43 is known to play an important role in bone modeling. {yields} Knockdown of CYPOR decreased Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication and hemichannel activity. {yields} Knockdown of CYPOR decreased Cx43 in mouse primary calvarial osteoblasts. {yields} Decreased Cx43 expression was observed at the transcriptional level. -- Abstract: Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CYPOR) is a microsomal electron-transferring enzyme containing both FAD and FMN as co-factors, which provides the reducing equivalents to various redox partners, such as cytochromes P450 (CYPs), heme oxygenase (HO), cytochrome b{sub 5} and squalene monooxygenase. Human patients with severe forms of CYPOR mutation show bone defects such as cranio- and humeroradial synostoses and long bone fractures, known as Antley-Bixler-like Syndrome (ABS). To elucidate the role of CYPOR in bone, we knocked-down CYPOR in multiple osteoblast cell lines using RNAi technology. In this study, knock-down of CYPOR decreased the expression of Connexin 43 (Cx43), known to play a critical role in bone formation, modeling, and remodeling. Knock-down of CYPOR also decreased Gap Junction Intercellular Communication (GJIC) and hemichannel activity. Promoter luciferase assays revealed that the decrease in expression of Cx43 in CYPOR knock-down cells was due to transcriptional repression. Primary osteoblasts isolated from bone specific Por knock-down mice calvariae confirmed the findings in the cell lines. Taken together, our study provides novel insights into the regulation of gap junction function by CYPOR and suggests that Cx43 may play an important role(s) in CYPOR-mediated bone defects seen in patients.

  8. Iron-Sulfur Cluster-dependent Catalysis of Chlorophyllide a Oxidoreductase from Roseobacter denitrificans*

    PubMed Central

    Kiesel, Svenja; Wätzlich, Denise; Lange, Christiane; Reijerse, Edward; Bröcker, Markus J.; Rüdiger, Wolfhart; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Scheer, Hugo; Moser, Jürgen; Jahn, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Bacteriochlorophyll a biosynthesis requires the stereo- and regiospecific two electron reduction of the C7-C8 double bond of chlorophyllide a by the nitrogenase-like multisubunit metalloenzyme, chlorophyllide a oxidoreductase (COR). ATP-dependent COR catalysis requires interaction of the protein subcomplex (BchX)2 with the catalytic (BchY/BchZ)2 protein to facilitate substrate reduction via two redox active iron-sulfur centers. The ternary COR enzyme holocomplex comprising subunits BchX, BchY, and BchZ from the purple bacterium Roseobacter denitrificans was trapped in the presence of the ATP transition state analog ADP·AlF4−. Electron paramagnetic resonance experiments revealed a [4Fe-4S] cluster of subcomplex (BchX)2. A second [4Fe-4S] cluster was identified on (BchY/BchZ)2. Mutagenesis experiments indicated that the latter is ligated by four cysteines, which is in contrast to the three cysteine/one aspartate ligation pattern of the closely related dark-operative protochlorophyllide a oxidoreductase (DPOR). In subsequent mutagenesis experiments a DPOR-like aspartate ligation pattern was implemented for the catalytic [4Fe-4S] cluster of COR. Artificial cluster formation for this inactive COR variant was demonstrated spectroscopically. A series of chemically modified substrate molecules with altered substituents on the individual pyrrole rings and the isocyclic ring were tested as COR substrates. The COR enzyme was still able to reduce the B ring of substrates carrying modified substituents on ring systems A, C, and E. However, substrates with a modification of the distantly located propionate side chain were not accepted. A tentative substrate binding mode was concluded in analogy to the related DPOR system. PMID:25422320

  9. Biochemical characterization of NfsA, the Escherichia coli major nitroreductase exhibiting a high amino acid sequence homology to Frp, a Vibrio harveyi flavin oxidoreductase.

    PubMed Central

    Zenno, S; Koike, H; Kumar, A N; Jayaraman, R; Tanokura, M; Saigo, K

    1996-01-01

    We identified the nfsA gene, encoding the major oxygen-insensitive nitroreductase in Escherichia coli, and determined its position on the E. coli map to be 19 min. We also purified its gene product, NfsA, to homogeneity. It was suggested that NfsA is a nonglobular protein with a molecular weight of 26,799 and is associated tightly with a flavin mononucleotide. Its amino acid sequence is highly similar to that of Frp, a flavin oxidoreductase from Vibrio harveyi (B. Lei, M. Liu, S. Huang, and S.-C. Tu, J. Bacteriol. 176:3552-3558, 1994), an observation supporting the notion that E. coli nitroreductase and luminescent-bacterium flavin reductase families are intimately related in evolution. Although no appreciable sequence similarity was detected between two E. coli nitroreductases, NfsA and NfsB, NfsA exhibited a low level of the flavin reductase activity and a broad electron acceptor specificity similar to those of NfsB. NfsA reduced nitrofurazone by a ping-pong Bi-Bi mechanism possibly to generate a two-electron transfer product. PMID:8755878

  10. Suppression of Immune Response to Adenovirus Serotype 5 Vector by Immunization with Peptides Containing an MHC Class II Epitope and a Thio-Oxidoreductase Motif.

    PubMed

    Miao, Wei; Roohi Ahangarani, Roxana; Carlier, Vincent; Vander Elst, Luc; Saint-Remy, Jean-Marie

    2016-03-01

    The main obstacle to viral vector-mediated gene therapy remains the elicitation of an immune response to the vector, resulting in clearance of transgene and resistance to further transgenesis. Specific antibody production contributes to such immune responses. A single class II-restricted epitope of adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vector hexon-6 capsid protein containing a thiol-oxidoreductase motif was used in an attempt to prevent specific antibody production in response to Ad5 vectors. We demonstrate here that such immunization carried out before intravenous administration of Ad5 vectors prevents antibody production to the ensemble of Ad5 vector proteins in both BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. The antibody response to Ad5 is dependent on innate immune activation, seemingly involving natural killer T (NKT) cells. We observed that immunization with a class II-restricted Ad5 peptide prevents such NKT cell activation. Increased transgenesis and prolonged transgene expression result from such immunization, providing a simple protocol for improving gene therapy. PMID:26711172

  11. Cytokinin stimulates and abscisic acid inhibits greening of etiolated Lupinus luteus cotyledons by affecting the expression of the light-sensitive protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Kusnetsov, V; Herrmann, R G; Kulaeva, O N; Oelmüller, R

    1998-07-01

    Plastid biogenesis in etiolated lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) cotyledons is highly sensitive to cytokinins and abscisic acid. In the presence of the synthetic cytokinin N6-benzylaminopurine, greening and plastid biogenesis is substantially promoted as compared to untreated controls, whereas abscisic acid has an inhibitory effect. Faster greening in cytokinin-treated cotyledons is accompanied by a higher level and slower degradation of the light-sensitive protochlorophyllide-oxidoreductase (POR); while ABA has the opposite effect. The phytohormones appear to modulate POR gene expression, since the steady-state levels of POR mRNA, as well as transcripts of other nuclear genes for plastid proteins, are strongly increased by cytokinin and reduced by abscisic acid treatment. When etiolated lupine cotyledons were illuminated with far-red light prior to phytohormone application, the POR level substantially decreased; this was accompanied by the loss of the phytohormone's effect on greening. Based on these findings it is concluded that the level of POR and the integrity of the prolamellar body is crucial for cytokinin- and abscisic acid-controlled greening following transfer of etiolated lupine cotyledons into the light. PMID:9738876

  12. Metabolic activities of metronidazole-sensitive and -resistant strains of Helicobacter pylori: repression of pyruvate oxidoreductase and expression of isocitrate lyase activity correlate with resistance.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, P S; Goodwin, A; Johnsen, J; Magee, K; Veldhuyzen van Zanten, S J

    1996-01-01

    In this study, we compared metronidazole (Mtz)-sensitive and -resistant strains of Helicobacter pylori for metabolic differences that might correlate with drug resistance. Included in this study was an isogenic Mtz(r) strain, HP1107, that was constructed by transforming genomic DNA from Mtz(r) strain HP439 into Mtz(s) strain HP500. Enzyme activities were also measured for Mtz(r) strains grown in the presence or absence of 18 micrograms of metronidazole per ml (ca. one-half of the MIC). These studies confirmed the presence of the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas, Entner-Doudoroff, and pentose pathways. H. pylori strains expressed enzymatic activities indicative of a complete and active Krebs cycle. All strains expressed pyruvate oxidoreductase (POR) and alpha-ketoglutarate oxidoreductase (KOR) as measured with the redox-active dye benzyl viologen (30 to 96 nmol/min/mg of protein for POR and 30 nmol/min/mg of protein for KOR). When grown in the presence of Mtz at > or = 3.5 micrograms/ml, Mtz(r) strains expressed no detectable POR or KOR activity. The apparent repression of POR and KOR activities by Mtz affected bacterial growth as manifest by extended lag periods and growth yield reductions of > 30%. A dose-dependent relationship was demonstrated between the metronidazole concentration in the growth medium and the specific activity of POR measured in bacterial cell extracts. The observed repression was not due to inactivation of POR by Mtz. In addition to repression of POR and KOR activities, growth in the presence of Mtz also led to decreases in the activities of various Krebs cycle enzymes, including aconitase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase. All of the Mtz(r) strains examined expressed isocitrate lyase and malate synthase activities indicative of the glyoxylate bypass. No isocitrate lyase activity was detected in Mtz(s) strain HP500. Isocitrate lyase activity was expressed by HP500 following transformation to Mtz resistance (Mtz(r) strain HP1107) with DNA from an Mtz(r) strain. The results of this study suggest that Mtz resistance may be a recessive trait, possibly involving inactivation of a regulatory gene, that results in constitutive expression of isocitrate lyase. Repression of POR and KOR activities in response to low levels of Mtz may be a general response of H. pylori strains to Mtz, but only resistant strains manage to survive via activation of compensatory metabolic pathways. PMID:8759844

  13. Over-expression of NADH-dependent oxidoreductase (fucO) for increasing furfural or 5-hydroxymethylfurfural tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Elliot N.; Zhang, Xueli; Yomano, Lorraine P.; Wang, Xuan; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T.; Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal

    2015-10-13

    The subject invention pertains to the discovery that the NADH-dependent propanediol oxidoreductase (FucO) can reduce furfural. This allows for a new approach to improve furfural tolerance in bacterial and/or yeast cells used to produce desired products. Thus, novel biocatalysts (bacterial, fungal or yeast cells) exhibiting increased tolerance to furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) are provided as are methods of making and using such biocatalysts for the production of a desired product.

  14. Over-expression of a putative oxidoreductase (UcpA) for increasing furfural or 5-hydroxymethylfurfural tolerance

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Xuan; Miller, Elliot N.; Yomano, Lorraine P.; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T.; Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal

    2016-05-24

    The subject invention pertains to overexpression of a putative oxidoreductase (ucpA) for increasing furfural tolerance in genetically modified microorganisms. Genetically modified microorganisms capable of overexpressing UcpA are also provided. Increased expression of ucpA was shown to increase furfural tolerance by 50%, and to permit the fermentation of sugars to products in the presence of 15 mM furfural.

  15. Immunodetection of the Ferredoxin-NADP+ Oxidoreductase-Binding Protein Complex in Thylakoids of Different Higher Plant Species 1

    PubMed Central

    Soncini, Fernando C.; Vallejos, Rubén H.

    1989-01-01

    Monospecific polyclonal antibodies against thylakoid ferredoxin-NADP+ oxidoreductase and its binding protein from Spinacia oleracea were used to detect the presence of these proteins in different higher plants, including C3, C4, and Crassulacean acid metabolism species. A remarkable conservation of antigenic determinants in all the species analyzed was demonstrated for both the reductase and its binding protein. The association of these polypeptides in a complex was detected by immunoprecipitation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:16666777

  16. Failure to detect delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase activity in the preimplantation rabbit embryo

    SciTech Connect

    Bleau, G.

    1981-02-01

    Preimplantation rabbit embryos were incubated with pregnenolone and dehydroisoandrosterone under conditions which gave formazan precipitation by the histochemical technique. The metabolic fate of the labeled steroids were assessed simultaneously. There was no concomitant transformation of pregnenolone to progesterone and dehydroisoandrosterone was not transformed to androstenedione. It is concluded that the formazan precipitation is coupled with an activity other than delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase.

  17. Role of cysteine-58 and cysteine-95 residues in the thiol di-sulfide oxidoreductase activity of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor-2 of Wuchereria bancrofti.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Nikhil; Hoti, S L

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) is the first human cytokine reported and was thought to have a central role in the regulation of inflammatory responses. Homologs of this molecule have been reported in bacteria, invertebrates and plants. Apart from cytokine activity, it also has two catalytic activities viz., tautomerase and di-sulfide oxidoreductase, which appear to be involved in immunological functions. The CXXC catalytic site is responsible for di-sulfide oxidoreductase activity of MIF. We have recently reported thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase activity of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor-2 of Wuchereria bancrofti (Wba-MIF-2), although it lacks the CXXC motif. We hypothesized that three conserved cysteine residues might be involved in the formation of di-sulfide oxidoreductase catalytic site. Homology modeling of Wba-MIF-2 showed that among the three cysteine residues, Cys58 and Cys95 residues came in close proximity (3.23Å) in the tertiary structure with pKa value 9, indicating that these residues might play a role in the di-sulfide oxidoreductase catalytic activity. We carried out site directed mutagenesis of these residues (Cys58Ser & Cys95Ser) and expressed mutant proteins in Escherichia coli. The mutant proteins did not show any oxidoreductase activity in the insulin reduction assay, thus indicating that these two cysteine residues are vital for the catalytic activity of Wba-MIF-2. PMID:26432350

  18. Discovery of a Eukaryotic Pyrroloquinoline Quinone-Dependent Oxidoreductase Belonging to a New Auxiliary Activity Family in the Database of Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Naohisa; Ishida, Takuya; Samejima, Masahiro; Ohno, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Makoto; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Nakamura, Nobuhumi

    2014-01-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a redox cofactor utilized by a number of prokaryotic dehydrogenases. Not all prokaryotic organisms are capable of synthesizing PQQ, even though it plays important roles in the growth and development of many organisms, including humans. The existence of PQQ-dependent enzymes in eukaryotes has been suggested based on homology studies or the presence of PQQ-binding motifs, but there has been no evidence that such enzymes utilize PQQ as a redox cofactor. However, during our studies of hemoproteins, we fortuitously discovered a novel PQQ-dependent sugar oxidoreductase in a mushroom, the basidiomycete Coprinopsis cinerea. The enzyme protein has a signal peptide for extracellular secretion and a domain for adsorption on cellulose, in addition to the PQQ-dependent sugar dehydrogenase and cytochrome domains. Although this enzyme shows low amino acid sequence homology with known PQQ-dependent enzymes, it strongly binds PQQ and shows PQQ-dependent activity. BLAST search uncovered the existence of many genes encoding homologous proteins in bacteria, archaea, amoebozoa, and fungi, and phylogenetic analysis suggested that these quinoproteins may be members of a new family that is widely distributed not only in prokaryotes, but also in eukaryotes. PMID:25121592

  19. Coordination between BrlA regulation and secretion of the oxidoreductase FmqD directs selective accumulation of fumiquinazoline C to conidial tissues in Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Fang Yun; Ames, Brian; Walsh, Christopher; Keller, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Aerial spores, crucial for propagation and dispersal of the Kingdom Fungi, are commonly the initial inoculum of pathogenic fungi. Natural products (secondary metabolites) have been correlated with fungal spore development and enhanced virulence in the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus but mechanisms for metabolite deposition in the spore are unknown. Metabolomic profiling of A. fumigatus deletion mutants of fumiquinazoline (Fq) cluster genes reveal that the first two products of the Fq cluster, FqF and FqA, are produced to comparable levels in all fungal tissues but the final enzymatically-derived product, FqC, predominantly accumulates in the fungal spore. Loss of the sporulation-specific transcription factor, BrlA, yields a strain unable to produce FqA or FqC. Fluorescence microscopy showed FmqD, the oxidoreductase required to generate FqC, was secreted via the Golgi apparatus to the cell wall in an actin-dependent manner. In contrast, all other members of the Fq pathway including the putative transporter, FmqE – which had no effect on Fq biosynthesis – were internal to the hyphae. The coordination of BrlA-mediated tissue specificity with FmqD secretion to the cell wall presents a previously undescribed mechanism to direct localization of specific secondary metabolites to spores of the differentiating fungus. PMID:24612080

  20. DnaK dependence of mutant ethanol oxidoreductases evolved for aerobic function and protective role of the chaperone against protein oxidative damage in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Echave, Pedro; Esparza-Cerón, M. Angel; Cabiscol, Elisa; Tamarit, Jordi; Ros, Joaquim; Membrillo-Hernández, Jorge; Lin, E. C. C.

    2002-01-01

    The adhE gene of Escherichia coli encodes a multifunctional ethanol oxidoreductase (AdhE) that catalyzes successive reductions of acetyl-CoA to acetaldehyde and then to ethanol reversibly at the expense of NADH. Mutant JE52, serially selected for acquired and improved ability to grow aerobically on ethanol, synthesized an AdhEA267T/E568K with two amino acid substitutions that sequentially conferred improved catalytic properties and stability. Here we show that the aerobic growth ability on ethanol depends also on protection of the mutant AdhE against metal-catalyzed oxidation by the chaperone DnaK (a member of the Hsp70 family). No DnaK protection of the enzyme is evident during anaerobic growth on glucose. Synthesis of DnaK also protected E. coli from H2O2 killing under conditions when functional AdhE is not required. Our results therefore suggest that, in addition to the known role of protecting cells against heat stress, DnaK also protects numerous kinds of proteins from oxidative damage. PMID:11917132

  1. Arabidopsis protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase A (PORA) restores bulk chlorophyll synthesis and normal development to a porB porC double mutant.

    PubMed

    Paddock, Troy N; Mason, Mary E; Lima, Daniel F; Armstrong, Gregory A

    2010-03-01

    In angiosperms the strictly light-dependent reduction of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide is catalyzed by NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR). The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes three structurally related but differentially regulated POR genes, PORA, PORB and PORC. PORA is expressed primarily early in development-during etiolation, germination and greening. In contrast, PORB and PORC are not only expressed during seedling development but also throughout the later life of the plant, during which they are responsible for bulk chlorophyll synthesis. The Arabidopsis porB-1 porC-1 mutant displays a severe xantha (highly chlorophyll-deficient) phenotype characterized by smaller prolamellar bodies in etioplasts and decreased thylakoid stacking in chloroplasts. Here we have demonstrated the ability of an ectopic PORA overexpression construct to restore prolamellar body formation in the porB-1 porC-1 double mutant background. In response to illumination, light-dependent chlorophyll production, thylakoid stacking and photomorphogenesis are also restored in PORA-overexpressing porB-1 porC-1 seedlings and adult plants. An Arabidopsis porB-1 porC-1 double mutant can therefore be functionally rescued by the addition of ectopically expressed PORA, which suffices in the absence of either PORB or PORC to direct bulk chlorophyll synthesis and normal plant development. PMID:20012672

  2. Mechanical stress activates xanthine oxidoreductase through MAP kinase-dependent pathways.

    PubMed

    Abdulnour, Raja-Elie E; Peng, Xinqi; Finigan, Jay H; Han, Eugenia J; Hasan, Emile J; Birukov, Konstantin G; Reddy, Sekhar P; Watkins, James E; Kayyali, Usamah S; Garcia, Joe G N; Tuder, Rubin M; Hassoun, Paul M

    2006-09-01

    Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) plays a prominent role in acute lung injury because of its ability to generate reactive oxygen species. We investigated the role of XOR in ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Male C57BL/6J mice were assigned to spontaneous ventilation (sham) or mechanical ventilation (MV) with low (7 ml/kg) and high tidal volume (20 ml/kg) for 2 h after which lung XOR activity and expression were measured and the effect of the specific XOR inhibitor allopurinol on pulmonary vascular leakage was examined. In separate experiments, rat pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (RPMECs) were exposed to cyclic stretch (5% and 18% elongation, 20 cycles/min) for 2 h before intracellular XOR activity measurement. Lung XOR activity was significantly increased at 2 h of MV without changes in XOR expression. There was evidence of p38 MAP kinase, ERK1/2, and ERK5 phosphorylation, but no change in JNK phosphorylation. Evans blue dye extravasation and bronchoalveolar lavage protein concentration were significantly increased in response to MV, changes that were significantly attenuated by pretreatment with allopurinol. Cyclic stretch of RPMECs also caused MAP kinase phosphorylation and a 1.7-fold increase in XOR activity, which was completely abrogated by pretreatment of the cells with specific MAP kinase inhibitors. We conclude that XOR enzymatic activity is significantly increased by mechanical stress via activation of p38 MAP kinase and ERK and plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary edema associated with VILI. PMID:16632522

  3. Staphylococcus aureus lactate- and malate-quinone oxidoreductases contribute to nitric oxide resistance and virulence.

    PubMed

    Spahich, Nicole A; Vitko, Nicholas P; Thurlow, Lance R; Temple, Brenda; Richardson, Anthony R

    2016-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive pathogen that resists many facets of innate immunity including nitric oxide (NO·). Staphylococcus aureus NO-resistance stems from its ability to evoke a metabolic state that circumvents the negative effects of reactive nitrogen species. The combination of l-lactate and peptides promotes S. aureus growth at moderate NO-levels, however, neither nutrient alone suffices. Here, we investigate the staphylococcal malate-quinone and l-lactate-quinone oxidoreductases (Mqo and Lqo), both of which are critical during NO-stress for the combined utilization of peptides and l-lactate. We address the specific contributions of Lqo-mediated l-lactate utilization and Mqo-dependent amino acid consumption during NO-stress. We show that Lqo conversion of l-lactate to pyruvate is required for the formation of ATP, an essential energy source for peptide utilization. Thus, both Lqo and Mqo are essential for growth under these conditions making them attractive candidates for targeted therapeutics. Accordingly, we exploited a modelled Mqo/Lqo structure to define the catalytic and substrate-binding residues.We also compare the S. aureus Mqo/Lqo enzymes to their close relatives throughout the staphylococci and explore the substrate specificities of each enzyme. This study provides the initial characterization of the mechanism of action and the immunometabolic roles for a newly defined staphylococcal enzyme family. PMID:26851155

  4. One-carbon chemistry of oxalate oxidoreductase captured by X-ray crystallography.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Marcus I; Chen, Percival Yang-Ting; Johnson, Aileen C; Pierce, Elizabeth; Can, Mehmet; Ragsdale, Stephen W; Drennan, Catherine L

    2016-01-12

    Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP)-dependent oxalate oxidoreductase (OOR) metabolizes oxalate, generating two molecules of CO2 and two low-potential electrons, thus providing both the carbon and reducing equivalents for operation of the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway of acetogenesis. Here we present structures of OOR in which two different reaction intermediate bound states have been trapped: the covalent adducts between TPP and oxalate and between TPP and CO2. These structures, along with the previously determined structure of substrate-free OOR, allow us to visualize how active site rearrangements can drive catalysis. Our results suggest that OOR operates via a bait-and-switch mechanism, attracting substrate into the active site through the presence of positively charged and polar residues, and then altering the electrostatic environment through loop and side chain movements to drive catalysis. This simple but elegant mechanism explains how oxalate, a molecule that humans and most animals cannot break down, can be used for growth by acetogenic bacteria. PMID:26712008

  5. Functional Characterization of the FoxE Iron Oxidoreductase from the Photoferrotroph Rhodobacter ferrooxidans SW2*

    PubMed Central

    Saraiva, Ivo H.; Newman, Dianne K.; Louro, Ricardo O.

    2012-01-01

    Photoferrotrophy is presumed to be an ancient type of photosynthetic metabolism in which bacteria use the reducing power of ferrous iron to drive carbon fixation. In this work the putative iron oxidoreductase of the photoferrotroph Rhodobacter ferrooxidans SW2 was cloned, purified, and characterized for the first time. This protein, FoxE, was characterized using spectroscopic, thermodynamic, and kinetic techniques. It is a c-type cytochrome that forms a trimer or tetramer in solution; the two hemes of each monomer are hexacoordinated by histidine and methionine. The hemes have positive reduction potentials that allow downhill electron transfer from many geochemically relevant ferrous iron forms to the photosynthetic reaction center. The reduction potentials of the hemes are different and are cross-assigned to fast and slow kinetic phases of ferrous iron oxidation in vitro. Lower reactivity was observed at high pH and may contribute to prevent ferric iron precipitation inside or at the surface of the cell. These results help fill in the molecular details of a metabolic process that likely contributed to the deposition of precambrian banded iron formations, globally important sedimentary rocks that are found on every continent today. PMID:22661703

  6. Identification of the NADH-binding subunit of NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase of Paracoccus denitrificans

    SciTech Connect

    Yagi, Takao; Dinh, T.M. )

    1990-06-12

    The NADH dehydrogenase complex isolated from Paracoccus denitrificans is composed of approximately 10 unlike polypeptides and contains noncovalently bound FMN, non-heme iron, and acid-labile sulfide. When the Paracoccus NADH dehydrogenase complex was irradiated by UV light in the presence of (adenylate-{sup 32}P)NAD, radioactivity was incorporated exclusively into one of three polypeptides of M{sub r} {approximately}50,000. Similar results were obtained when (adenylate-{sup 32}P)NADH was used. The labeling of the M{sub r} 50,000 polypeptide was diminished when UV irradiation of the enzyme with (adenylate-{sup 32}P)NAD was performed in the presence of NADH, but not in the presence of NADP(H). The labeled polypeptide was isolated by preparative sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis and was shown to cross-react with antiserum to the NADH-binding subunit of bovine NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase. Its amino acid composition was also very similar to that of the bovine NADH-binding subunit. These chemical and immunological results indicate that the M{sub r} 50,000 polypeptide is an NADH-binding subunit of the Paracoccus NADH dehydrogenase complex.

  7. Iron (III) reduction: A novel activity of the human NAD(P)H:oxidoreductase

    SciTech Connect

    Onyenwoke, Rob U.; Wiegel, Juergen . E-mail: jwiegel@uga.edu

    2007-02-09

    NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1; EC 1.6.99.2) catalyzes a two-electron transfer involved in the protection of cells from reactive oxygen species. These reactive oxygen species are often generated by the one-electron reduction of quinones or quinone analogs. We report here on the previously unreported Fe(III) reduction activity of human NQO1. Under steady state conditions with Fe(III) citrate, the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (K{sub m}{sup app}) was {approx}0.3nM and the apparent maximum velocity (V{sub max}{sup app}) was 16Umg{sup -1}. Substrate inhibition was observed above 5nM. NADH was the electron donor, K{sub m}{sup app}=340{mu}M and V{sub max}{sup app}=46Umg{sup -1}. FAD was also a cofactor with a K{sub m}{sup app} of 3.1{mu}M and V{sub max}{sup app} of 89Umg{sup -1}. The turnover number for NADH oxidation was 25s{sup -1}. Possible physiological roles of the Fe(III) reduction by this enzyme are discussed.

  8. Suicide inactivation of xanthine oxidoreductase during reduction of inorganic nitrite to nitric oxide.

    PubMed Central

    Godber, B L; Doel, J J; Goult, T A; Eisenthal, R; Harrison, R

    2001-01-01

    Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is progressively inactivated while catalysing the reduction of inorganic nitrite to NO by xanthine. Inactivation results from conversion of the enzyme into its desulpho-form. The rate of inactivation increases with nitrite concentration. Similar behaviour was shown when NADH replaced xanthine as reducing substrate. A kinetic model is proposed incorporating a 'suicide' inactivation involving an enzyme-substrate (product) complex, rather than inactivation by free NO. The model provides a good fit to progress curves of the reaction of xanthine or NADH with nitrite in the presence of the oxidase or dehydrogenase forms of the enzyme. Inorganic nitrate, like nitrite, was shown to be reduced at the molybdenum site of XOR. With xanthine as reducing substrate, nitrite was produced in essentially a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio with respect to urate. Unlike the case of nitrite, the enzyme was not significantly inactivated, implying that inactivation during nitrite reduction depends on the presence of nascent NO in its enzyme complex. PMID:11513730

  9. Purification and Characterization of Cinnamoyl-Coenzyme A:NADP Oxidoreductase in Eucalyptus gunnii.

    PubMed Central

    Goffner, D.; Campbell, M. M.; Campargue, C.; Clastre, M.; Borderies, G.; Boudet, A.; Boudet, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    Cinnamoyl-coenzyme A:NADP oxidoreductase (CCR, EC 1.2.1.44), the entry-point enzyme into the monolignol biosynthetic pathway, was purified to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity from differentiating xylem of Eucalyptus gunnii Hook. The purified protein is a monomer of 38 kD and has an isoelectric point of 7. Although Eucalyptus gunnii CCR has approximately equal affinities for all possible substrates (p-coumaroyl-coenzyme A, feruloyl-coenzyme A, and sinapoyl-coenzyme A), it is approximately three times more effective at converting feruloyl-coenzyme A than the other substrates. To gain a better understanding of the catalytic regulation of Eucalyptus CCR, a variety of compounds were tested to determine their effect on CCR activity. CCR activity is inhibited by NADP and coenzyme A. Effectors that bind lysine and cysteine residues also inhibit CCR activity. As a prerequisite to the study of the regulation of CCR at the molecular level, polyclonal antibodies were obtained. PMID:12232355

  10. Determination of oxidoreductase activity using a high-throughput microplate respiratory measurement.

    PubMed

    Hommes, Gregor; Gasser, Christoph A; Ammann, Erik M; Corvini, Philippe F-X

    2013-01-01

    High-throughput multiparallel activity profiling for oxygen consuming cell layers has been recently developed for extracellular flux analysis. This technology has great potential for determining the enzymatic activity of oxidoreductases (i.e., laccase) both in vivo and in vitro, which is usually measured using photometrical tests monitoring the colored oxidation products. Improvements in terms of sample throughput, comparability, and gain of information (i.e., stoichiometry, electron transfer rate) can be achieved by means of a multiwell plate-based fluorimetric oxygen sensor. In the present study, various laccases have been applied to develop protocols that allow the multiparallel measurement of O(2)-consumption by enzymatic reactions. The developed and validated method enables the comparative quantitation of laccase characteristics (i.e., profiles of activity at various pH values) and minimizes the time it usually takes to collect respiratory data of oxygen-consuming enzymes. Furthermore, the possibility to assess differences between single and multisubstrate kinetics of laccases has been demonstrated. PMID:23181606

  11. A sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase from Chlorobaculum tepidum displays unusual kinetic properties.

    PubMed

    Shuman, Kevin E; Hanson, Thomas E

    2016-06-01

    Sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) is the primary sulfide-oxidizing enzyme found in all three domains of life. Of the six phylogenetically distinct types of SQR, four have representatives that have been biochemically characterized. The genome of Chlorobaculum tepidum encodes three SQR homologs. One of these, encoded by CT1087, is a type VI SQR that has been previously shown to be required for growth at high sulfide concentrations and to be expressed in sulfide-dependent manner. Therefore, CT1087 was hypothesized to be a high sulfide adapted SQR. CT1087 was expressed in Escherichia coli with an N-terminal His-tag (CT1087NHis6) and purified by Ni-NTA chromatography. CT1087NHis6 was active and contained FAD as a strongly bound cofactor. The measured kinetic parameters for CT1087NHis6 indicate a low affinity for sulfide and a high enzymatic turnover rate consistent with the hypothesis for its function inferred from genetic and expression data. These are the first kinetic data for a type VI SQR and have implications for structure-function analyses of all SQR's. PMID:27190141

  12. Mitochondrial Sulfide Quinone Oxidoreductase Prevents Activation of the Unfolded Protein Response in Hydrogen Sulfide.

    PubMed

    Horsman, Joseph W; Miller, Dana L

    2016-03-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenously produced gaseous molecule with important roles in cellular signaling. In mammals, exogenous H2S improves survival of ischemia/reperfusion. We have previously shown that exposure to H2S increases the lifespan and thermotolerance in Caenorhabditis elegans, and improves protein homeostasis in low oxygen. The mitochondrial SQRD-1 (sulfide quinone oxidoreductase) protein is a highly conserved enzyme involved in H2S metabolism. SQRD-1 is generally considered important to detoxify H2S. Here, we show that SQRD-1 is also required to maintain protein translation in H2S. In sqrd-1 mutant animals, exposure to H2S leads to phosphorylation of eIF2α and inhibition of protein synthesis. In contrast, global protein translation is not altered in wild-type animals exposed to lethally high H2S or in hif-1(ia04) mutants that die when exposed to low H2S. We demonstrate that both gcn-2 and pek-1 kinases are involved in the H2S-induced phosphorylation of eIF2α. Both ER and mitochondrial stress responses are activated in sqrd-1 mutant animals exposed to H2S, but not in wild-type animals. We speculate that SQRD-1 activity in H2S may coordinate proteostasis responses in multiple cellular compartments. PMID:26677221

  13. Determining the Origins of Superoxide and Hydrogen Peroxide in the Mammalian NADH: Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase

    PubMed Central

    Bazil, Jason N.; Pannala, Venkat R.; Dash, Ranjan K.; Beard, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I) is a proton pump in the electron transport chain that can produce a significant amounts of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. While the flavin mononucleotide (FMN) is the putative site for hydrogen peroxide generation, sites responsible for superoxide are less certain. Here, data on Complex I kinetics and ROS generation are analyzed using a computational model to determine the sites responsible for superoxide. The analysis includes all the major redox centers: the FMN, iron-sulfur cluster N2, and semiquinone. Analysis reveals that the fully reduced FMN and semiquinone are the primary sources of superoxide, and the iron-sulfur cluster N2 produces none. The FMN radical only produces ROS when the quinone reductase site is blocked. Model simulations reveal ROS generation is maximized during reverse electron transport with both the FMN and semiquin one producing similar amounts of superoxide. In addition, the model successfully predicts the increase in ROS generation when the membrane potential is high and matrix pH is alkaline. Of the total ROS produced by Complex I, the majority originates from the FMN. PMID:25236739

  14. Sequence-Structure-Function Classification of a Catalytically Diverse Oxidoreductase Superfamily in Mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, F Hafna; Carr, Paul D; Lee, Brendon M; Afriat-Jurnou, Livnat; Mohamed, A Elaaf; Hong, Nan-Sook; Flanagan, Jack; Taylor, Matthew C; Greening, Chris; Jackson, Colin J

    2015-11-01

    The deazaflavin cofactor F420 enhances the persistence of mycobacteria during hypoxia, oxidative stress, and antibiotic treatment. However, the identities and functions of the mycobacterial enzymes that utilize F420 under these conditions have yet to be resolved. In this work, we used sequence similarity networks to analyze the distribution of the largest F420-dependent protein family in mycobacteria. We show that these enzymes are part of a larger split β-barrel enzyme superfamily (flavin/deazaflavin oxidoreductases, FDORs) that include previously characterized pyridoxamine/pyridoxine-5'-phosphate oxidases and heme oxygenases. We show that these proteins variously utilize F420, flavin mononucleotide, flavin adenine dinucleotide, and heme cofactors. Functional annotation using phylogenetic, structural, and spectroscopic methods revealed their involvement in heme degradation, biliverdin reduction, fatty acid modification, and quinone reduction. Four novel crystal structures show that plasticity in substrate binding pockets and modifications to cofactor binding motifs enabled FDORs to carry out a variety of functions. This systematic classification and analysis provides a framework for further functional analysis of the roles of FDORs in mycobacterial pathogenesis and persistence. PMID:26434506

  15. Dextran causes aggregation of mitochondria and influences their oxidoreductase activities and light scattering.

    PubMed

    Lemeshko, Victor V; Solano, Sigifredo; López, Luis F; Rendón, Dairo A; Ghafourifar, Pedram; Gómez, Luis A

    2003-04-15

    It has been reported that dextrans diminish the intermembrane space of mitochondria, increase the number of contact sites between the inner and the outer mitochondrial membranes, decrease the outer membrane permeability to adenosine 5(')-diphosphate, and change the kinetic properties of mitochondrial kinases. In the present work the influence of dextran M40 (5% w/v) on the oxidoreductase activities of the inner and outer membranes of mitochondria, the interaction of cytochrome c with mitochondrial membranes, and the light scattering by rat liver mitochondria were studied. No influence of dextran on the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria or its interaction with mitochondrial membranes was observed. Decreases in the NADH-oxidase (to 80+/-2% of the control), NADH-cytochrome c reductase (to 26+/-2%), succinate-cytochrome c reductase (to 70+/-5%), and NADH-ferricyanide reductase (to 75+/-3%) activities induced by dextran, which may be due to the mitochondrial aggregation, were observed. The formation of aggregates was registered by light scattering, confirmed by light microscopy, and explained within the framework of the Gouy-Chapman theory of the electrical double layer. The observed mitochondrial aggregation seems to be useful also for understanding the mechanisms of mitochondrial condensation and perinuclear clustering during apoptosis. PMID:12667481

  16. Localization of Ubiquinone-8 in the Na+-pumping NADH:Quinone Oxidoreductase from Vibrio cholerae*

    PubMed Central

    Casutt, Marco S.; Nedielkov, Ruslan; Wendelspiess, Severin; Vossler, Sara; Gerken, Uwe; Murai, Masatoshi; Miyoshi, Hideto; Möller, Heiko M.; Steuber, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Na+ is the second major coupling ion at membranes after protons, and many pathogenic bacteria use the sodium-motive force to their advantage. A prominent example is Vibrio cholerae, which relies on the Na+-pumping NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR) as the first complex in its respiratory chain. The Na+-NQR is a multisubunit, membrane-embedded NADH dehydrogenase that oxidizes NADH and reduces quinone to quinol. Existing models describing redox-driven Na+ translocation by the Na+-NQR are based on the assumption that the pump contains four flavins and one FeS cluster. Here we show that the large, peripheral NqrA subunit of the Na+-NQR binds one molecule of ubiquinone-8. Investigations of the dynamic interaction of NqrA with quinones by surface plasmon resonance and saturation transfer difference NMR reveal a high affinity, which is determined by the methoxy groups at the C-2 and C-3 positions of the quinone headgroup. Using photoactivatable quinone derivatives, it is demonstrated that ubiquinone-8 bound to NqrA occupies a functional site. A novel scheme of electron transfer in Na+-NQR is proposed that is initiated by NADH oxidation on subunit NqrF and leads to quinol formation on subunit NqrA. PMID:21885438

  17. Excited state dynamics and catalytic mechanism of the light-driven enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Scrutton, Nigel S; Groot, Marie Louise; Heyes, Derren J

    2012-07-01

    The reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to chlorophyllide, catalysed by the enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR), is the penultimate step in the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway and is a key light-driven reaction that triggers a profound transformation in plant development. As POR is light-activated it can provide new information on the way in which light energy can be harnessed to power enzyme reactions. Consequently, POR presents a unique opportunity to study catalysis at low temperatures and on ultrafast timescales, which are not usually accessible for the majority of enzymes. Recent advances in our understanding of the catalytic mechanism of POR illustrate why it is an important model for studying enzyme catalysis and reaction dynamics. The reaction involves the addition of one hydride and one proton, and catalysis is initiated by the absorption of light by the Pchlide substrate. As the reaction involves the Pchlide excited state, a variety of ultrafast spectroscopic measurements have shown that significant parts of the reaction occur on the picosecond timescale. A number of excited state Pchlide species, including an intramolecular charge transfer complex and a hydrogen bonded intermediate, are proposed to be required for the subsequent hydride and proton transfers, which occur on the microsecond timescale. Herein, we review spectroscopic investigations, with a particular focus on time-resolved transient absorption and fluorescence experiments that have been used to study the excited state dynamics and catalytic mechanism of POR. PMID:22419074

  18. Xanthine oxidoreductase activation is implicated in the onset of metabolic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Aibibula, Zulipiya; Ailixiding, Maierhaba; Iwata, Munetaka; Piao, Jinying; Hara, Yasushi; Okawa, Atsushi; Asou, Yoshinori

    2016-03-25

    A metabolic syndrome (MetS) is accompanied by hyperuricemia, during which xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) catalyzes the production of uric acid. In the cohort study, a correlation between uric acid concentration in the synovial fluid and osteoarthritis (OA) incidence is observed. The purpose of our study was to elucidate XOR function in terms of correlation between MetS and OA. Seven week-old male C57BL6J mice were fed normal diet (ND) or high fat diet (HFD) with or without febuxostat (FEB), a XOR inhibitor. HFD stimulated xanthine oxidase activity in the IPFP and the visceral fat. OA changes at the site of the knee joints had progressed due to HFD, but these changes were reduced upon FEB administration. IL-1β expression in the HFD group was increased in accordance with the enhancement of NLRP3 or iNOS expression in the IPFP, whereas it was inhibited by FEB administration. In the organ culture system, when the IPFP was stimulated with insulin, IL-1β expression was increased in accordance with the increase of NLRP3 expression; however, they were reduced by FEB administration. Based on the above results, we showed that inflammasome activation accompanied by an increase in XOR activity contributed to IPFP inflammation followed by OA progression. PMID:26903297

  19. Influence of 120 kDa Pyruvate:Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase on Pathogenicity of Trichomonas vaginalis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hyun-Ouk

    2016-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellate protozoan parasite and commonly infected the lower genital tract in women and men. Iron is a known nutrient for growth of various pathogens, and also reported to be involved in establishment of trichomoniasis. However, the exact mechanism was not clarified. In this study, the author investigated whether the 120 kDa protein of T. vaginalis may be involved in pathogenicity of trichomonads. Antibodies against 120 kDa protein of T. vaginalis, which was identified as pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) by peptide analysis of MALDI-TOF-MS, were prepared in rabbits. Pretreatment of T. vaginalis with anti-120 kDa Ab decreased the proliferation and adherence to vaginal epithelial cells (MS74) of T. vaginalis. Subcutaneous tissue abscess in anti-120 kDa Ab-treated T. vaginalis-injected mice was smaller in size than that of untreated T. vaginalis-infected mice. Collectively, the 120 kDa protein expressed by iron may be involved in proliferation, adhesion to host cells, and abscess formation, thereby may influence on the pathogenicity of T. vaginalis. PMID:26951982

  20. Reaction of electron-transfer flavoprotein with electron-transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase

    SciTech Connect

    Beckmann, J.D.; Frerman, F.E.

    1985-07-16

    The oxidative half-reaction of electron-transfer flavoprotein (ETF), electron transfer from ETF to electron-transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF-QO), is dependent on complementary surface charges on the two proteins. ETF is the positively charged member of the redox pair. The evidence is based on the pH and ionic strength dependencies of the comproportionation of oxidized ETF and ETF hydroquinone catalyzed by ETF-QO and on the effects of chemical modification of ETF on the comproportionation reaction. Acetylation of one and five epsilon-amino groups of lysyl residues results in 3- and 13-fold increases, respectively, in the K/sub m/ of ETF-QO for ETF but no change in V/sub max/. Amidination, which maintains positive charge at modified loci, has no effect on steady-state kinetic constants. These chemical modifications have no effect on the equilibrium constant for equilibration of ETF redox states. The K/sub m/ of ETF-QO for ETF is pH dependent above pH 8.5, suggesting titration of lysyl residues. The ionic strength dependence of TN/KmETF for the reaction follows the limiting Bronsted equation. The ETF-QO-catalyzed comproportionation reaction exhibits a primary deuterium isotope effect in D2O, perhaps indicating the participation of solvent water in the electron-transfer reaction.

  1. Characterization of two-step deglycosylation via oxidation by glycoside oxidoreductase and defining their subfamily

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Mi; Seo, Joo-Hyun; Baek, Kiheon; Kim, Byung-Gee

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report a two-step deglycosylation mediated by the oxidation of glycoside which is different from traditional glycoside hydrolase (GH) mechanism. Previously, we reported a novel flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent glycoside oxidoreductase (FAD-GO) having deglycosylation activity. Various features of the reaction of FAD-GO such as including mechanism and catalytic residue and substrate specificity were studied. In addition, classification of novel FAD-GO subfamily was attempted. Deglycosylation of glycoside was performed spontaneously via oxidation of 3-OH of glycone moiety by FAD-GO mediated oxidation reaction. His493 residue was identified as a catalytic residue for the oxidation step. Interestingly, this enzyme has broad glycone and aglycon specificities. For the classification of FAD-GO enzyme subfamily, putative FAD-GOs were screened based on the FAD-GO from Rhizobium sp. GIN611 (gi 365822256) using BLAST search. The homologs of R. sp. GIN611 included the putative FAD-GOs from Stenotrophomonas strains, Sphingobacterium strains, Agrobacterium tumefaciens str. C58, and etc. All the cloned FAD-GOs from the three strains catalyzed the deglycosylation via enzymatic oxidation. Based on their substrate specificities, deglycosylation and oxidation activities to various ginsenosides, the FAD-GO subfamily members can be utilized as novel biocatalysts for the production of various aglycones. PMID:26057169

  2. Purification and characterization of pyruvate oxidoreductase from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus.

    PubMed

    Yakunin, A F; Hallenbeck, P C

    1998-11-01

    Pyruvate:ferredoxin (flavodoxin) oxidoreductase (POR) was purified 3050-fold to apparent homogeneity from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus using ion-exchange, Reactive Red, and gel filtration chromatography. The isolated enzyme was sensitive to dilution and oxygen (especially when in dilute solution). The molecular mass of the native enzyme was determined by high performance liquid chromatography gel filtration to be 270+/-20 kDa. Since a subunit molecular mass of 130+/-5 kDa was found by denaturing gel electrophoresis, POR from R. capsulatus thus appears to be a homodimer. Electron paramagnetic resonance analysis showed that a free radical was formed upon the addition of pyruvate. This POR is shown to be an indiscriminate electron donor causing the full reduction of R. capsulatus flavodoxin (Fld), R. capsulatus ferredoxin I (FdI), R. capsulatus ferredoxin II (FdII), as well as the major plant-type ferredoxin (FdI) from Anabaena variabilis. The purified enzyme can couple the oxidation of pyruvate to the reduction of nitrogenase in a coupled system with either R. capsulatus ferredoxins or nif-specific flavodoxin, NifF; (Fld>FdI>FdII). Immunoblot analysis shows that R. capsulatus POR is constitutively synthesized, with synthesis augmented under nitrogen-fixing conditions (34+/-13%) and decreased in acetate and aerobically grown cells. PMID:9804883

  3. Posttranslational Modifications of FERREDOXIN-NADP+ OXIDOREDUCTASE in Arabidopsis Chloroplasts1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lehtimäki, Nina; Koskela, Minna M.; Dahlström, Käthe M.; Pakula, Eveliina; Lintala, Minna; Scholz, Martin; Hippler, Michael; Hanke, Guy T.; Rokka, Anne; Battchikova, Natalia; Salminen, Tiina A.; Mulo, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Rapid responses of chloroplast metabolism and adjustments to photosynthetic machinery are of utmost importance for plants’ survival in a fluctuating environment. These changes may be achieved through posttranslational modifications of proteins, which are known to affect the activity, interactions, and localization of proteins. Recent studies have accumulated evidence about the crucial role of a multitude of modifications, including acetylation, methylation, and glycosylation, in the regulation of chloroplast proteins. Both of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaf-type FERREDOXIN-NADP+ OXIDOREDUCTASE (FNR) isoforms, the key enzymes linking the light reactions of photosynthesis to carbon assimilation, exist as two distinct forms with different isoelectric points. We show that both AtFNR isoforms contain multiple alternative amino termini and undergo light-responsive addition of an acetyl group to the α-amino group of the amino-terminal amino acid of proteins, which causes the change in isoelectric point. Both isoforms were also found to contain acetylation of a conserved lysine residue near the active site, while no evidence for in vivo phosphorylation or glycosylation was detected. The dynamic, multilayer regulation of AtFNR exemplifies the complex regulatory network systems controlling chloroplast proteins by a range of posttranslational modifications, which continues to emerge as a novel area within photosynthesis research. PMID:25301888

  4. Determining the origins of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide in the mammalian NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Bazil, Jason N; Pannala, Venkat R; Dash, Ranjan K; Beard, Daniel A

    2014-12-01

    NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is a proton pump in the electron transport chain that can produce a significant amounts of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. While the flavin mononucleotide (FMN) is the putative site for hydrogen peroxide generation, sites responsible for superoxide are less certain. Here, data on complex I kinetics and ROS generation are analyzed using a computational model to determine the sites responsible for superoxide. The analysis includes all the major redox centers: the FMN, iron-sulfur cluster N2, and semiquinone. Analysis reveals that the fully reduced FMN and semiquinone are the primary sources of superoxide, and the iron-sulfur cluster N2 produces none. The FMN radical only produces ROS when the quinone reductase site is blocked. Model simulations reveal that ROS generation is maximized during reverse electron transport with both the FMN and the semiquinone producing similar amounts of superoxide. In addition, the model successfully predicts the increase in ROS generation when the membrane potential is high and matrix pH is alkaline. Of the total ROS produced by complex I, the majority originates from the FMN. PMID:25236739

  5. NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase: roles in physiology, pharmacology, and toxicology.

    PubMed

    Riddick, David S; Ding, Xinxin; Wolf, C Roland; Porter, Todd D; Pandey, Amit V; Zhang, Qing-Yu; Gu, Jun; Finn, Robert D; Ronseaux, Sebastien; McLaughlin, Lesley A; Henderson, Colin J; Zou, Ling; Flück, Christa E

    2013-01-01

    This is a report on a symposium sponsored by the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics and held at the Experimental Biology 2012 meeting in San Diego, California, on April 25, 2012. The symposium speakers summarized and critically evaluated our current understanding of the physiologic, pharmacological, and toxicological roles of NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR), a flavoprotein involved in electron transfer to microsomal cytochromes P450 (P450), cytochrome b(5), squalene mono-oxygenase, and heme oxygenase. Considerable insight has been derived from the development and characterization of mouse models with conditional Por deletion in particular tissues or partial suppression of POR expression in all tissues. Additional mouse models with global or conditional hepatic deletion of cytochrome b(5) are helping to clarify the P450 isoform- and substrate-specific influences of cytochrome b(5) on P450 electron transfer and catalytic function. This symposium also considered studies using siRNA to suppress POR expression in a hepatoma cell-culture model to explore the basis of the hepatic lipidosis phenotype observed in mice with conditional deletion of Por in liver. The symposium concluded with a strong translational perspective, relating the basic science of human POR structure and function to the impacts of POR genetic variation on human drug and steroid metabolism. PMID:23086197

  6. Influence of 120 kDa Pyruvate:Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase on Pathogenicity of Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyun-Ouk

    2016-02-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellate protozoan parasite and commonly infected the lower genital tract in women and men. Iron is a known nutrient for growth of various pathogens, and also reported to be involved in establishment of trichomoniasis. However, the exact mechanism was not clarified. In this study, the author investigated whether the 120 kDa protein of T. vaginalis may be involved in pathogenicity of trichomonads. Antibodies against 120 kDa protein of T. vaginalis, which was identified as pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) by peptide analysis of MALDI-TOF-MS, were prepared in rabbits. Pretreatment of T. vaginalis with anti-120 kDa Ab decreased the proliferation and adherence to vaginal epithelial cells (MS74) of T. vaginalis. Subcutaneous tissue abscess in anti-120 kDa Ab-treated T. vaginalis-injected mice was smaller in size than that of untreated T. vaginalis-infected mice. Collectively, the 120 kDa protein expressed by iron may be involved in proliferation, adhesion to host cells, and abscess formation, thereby may influence on the pathogenicity of T. vaginalis. PMID:26951982

  7. Regulation of Gap Junction Function and Connexin 43 Expression by Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase (CYPOR)

    PubMed Central

    Polusani, Srikanth R.; Kar, Rekha; Riquelme, Manuel A.; Masters, Bettie Sue; Panda, Satya P.

    2011-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CYPOR) is a microsomal electron-transferring enzyme containing both FAD and FMN as co-factors, which provides the reducing equivalents to various redox partners, such as cytochromes P450 (CYPs), heme oxygenase (HO), cytochrome b5 and squalene monooxygenase. Human patients with severe forms of CYPOR mutation show bone defects such as cranio- and humeroradial synostoses and long bone fractures, known as Antley-Bixler-like Syndrome (ABS). To elucidate the role of CYPOR in bone, we knocked-down CYPOR in multiple osteoblast cell lines using RNAi technology. In this study, knock-down of CYPOR decreased the expression of Connexin43 (Cx43), known to play a critical role in bone formation, modeling, and remodeling. Knock-down of CYPOR also decreased Gap Junction Intercellular Communication (GJIC) and hemichannel activity. Promoter luciferase assays revealed that the decrease in expression of Cx43 in CYPOR knock-down cells was due to transcriptional repression. Primary osteoblasts isolated from bone specific Por knock-down mice calvaria confirmed the findings in the cell lines. Taken together, our study provides novel insights into the regulation of gap junction function by CYPOR and suggests that Cx43 may play an important role(s) in CYPOR-mediated bone defects seen in patients. PMID:21726529

  8. Action spectra of chlorophyll a biosynthesis in cyanobacteria: dark-operative protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase-deficient mutants.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yang; Xiong, Wei; He, Ming J; Tang, Li; Xiang, Jin Y; Wu, Qing Y

    2009-01-01

    Both light-dependent and light-independent (dark) protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) reductase account for catalyzing the reduction of Pchlide to chlorophyllide during the biosynthesis of Mg-tetrapyrrole pigments in cyanobacteria. To gain more insight into the interaction between the wavelength of the light and these two chlorophyll synthetic pathways in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, the spectral effectiveness of the formation of chlorophyll a was investigated during the regreening process in chlL(-) and chlN(-) mutants, which could not synthesize chlorophyll during growth in the dark. The action spectra showed obvious maxima around 450 nm and 650 nm, similar to those of higher plants except that the intensities of two peaks are reversed. The mRNA levels of chlL and chlN and chlorophyll a content under different wavelengths of light in the wild-type strain were also measured. The RT-PCR analysis revealed that the transcripts of chlL and chlN were up-regulated in red light but simultaneously down-regulated in green light which resulted in corresponding changes of the chlorophyll content. This fact indicates that the regulation of dark-operative protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (DPOR) in the transcriptional level is essential for cyanobacteria to synthesize appropriate chlorophyll for acclimating in various light colour environments. PMID:19323276

  9. An unexpected reactivity of the P460 cofactor in hydroxylamine oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Dietl, Andreas; Maalcke, Wouter; Barends, Thomas R M

    2015-08-01

    Hydroxylamine oxidoreductases (HAOs) contain a unique haem cofactor called P460 that consists of a profoundly ruffled c-type haem with two covalent bonds between the haem porphyrin and a conserved tyrosine. This cofactor is exceptional in that it abstracts electrons from a ligand bound to the haem iron, whereas other haems involved in redox chemistry usually inject electrons into their ligands. The effects of the tyrosine cross-links and of the haem ruffling on the chemistry of this cofactor have been investigated theoretically but are not yet clear. A new crystal structure of an HAO from Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis, a model organism for anaerobic ammonium oxidation, now shows that its P460 cofactor has yet another unexpected reactivity: when ethylene glycol was used as a cryoprotectant, the 1.8 Å resolution electron-density maps showed additional density which could be interpreted as an ethylene glycol molecule covalently bound to the C16 atom of the haem ring, opposite the covalent links to the conserved tyrosine. Possible causes for this unexpected reactivity are discussed. PMID:26249351

  10. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of the Oxidoreductase NmDsbA3 from Neisseria meningitidis

    SciTech Connect

    Vivian, Julian P.; Scoullar, Jessica; Robertson, Amy L.; Bottomley, Stephen P.; Horne, James; Chin, Yanni; Wielens, Jerome; Thompson, Philip E.; Velkov, Tony; Piek, Susannah; Byres, Emma; Beddoe, Travis; Wilce, Matthew C.J.; Kahler, Charlene M.; Rossjohn, Jamie; Scanlon, Martin J.

    2009-09-02

    DsbA is an enzyme found in the periplasm of Gram-negative bacteria that catalyzes the formation of disulfide bonds in a diverse array of protein substrates, many of which are involved in bacterial pathogenesis. Although most bacteria possess only a single essential DsbA, Neisseria meningitidis is unusual in that it possesses three DsbAs, although the reason for this additional redundancy is unclear. Two of these N. meningitidis enzymes (NmDsbA1 and NmDsbA2) play an important role in meningococcal attachment to human epithelial cells, whereas NmDsbA3 is considered to have a narrow substrate repertoire. To begin to address the role of DsbAs in the pathogenesis of N. meningitidis, we have determined the structure of NmDsbA3 to 2.3-{angstrom} resolution. Although the sequence identity between NmDsbA3 and other DsbAs is low, the NmDsbA3 structure adopted a DsbA-like fold. Consistent with this finding, we demonstrated that NmDsbA3 acts as a thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase in vitro and is reoxidized by Escherichia coli DsbB (EcDsbB). However, pronounced differences in the structures between DsbA3 and EcDsbA, which are clustered around the active site of the enzyme, suggested a structural basis for the unusual substrate specificity that is observed for NmDsbA3.

  11. Localization-controlled specificity of FAD:threonine flavin transferases in Klebsiella pneumoniae and its implications for the mechanism of Na(+)-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Bertsova, Yulia V; Kostyrko, Vitaly A; Baykov, Alexander A; Bogachev, Alexander V

    2014-07-01

    The Klebsiella pneumoniae genome contains genes for two putative flavin transferase enzymes (ApbE1 and ApbE2) that add FMN to protein Thr residues. ApbE1, but not ApbE2, has a periplasm-addressing signal sequence. The genome also contains genes for three target proteins with the Dxx(s/t)gAT flavinylation motif: two subunits of Na(+)-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na(+)-NQR), and a 99.5kDa protein, KPK_2907, with a previously unknown function. We show here that KPK_2907 is an active cytoplasmically-localized fumarate reductase. K. pneumoniae cells with an inactivated kpk_2907 gene lack cytoplasmic fumarate reductase activity, while retaining this activity in the membrane fraction. Complementation of the mutant strain with a kpk_2907-containing plasmid resulted in a complete recovery of cytoplasmic fumarate reductase activity. KPK_2907 produced in Escherichia coli cells contains 1mol/mol each of covalently bound FMN, noncovalently bound FMN and noncovalently bound FAD. Lesion in the ApbE1 gene in K. pneumoniae resulted in inactive Na(+)-NQR, but cytoplasmic fumarate reductase activity remained unchanged. On the contrary, lesion in the ApbE2 gene abolished the fumarate reductase but not the Na(+)-NQR activity. Both activities could be restored by transformation of the ApbE1- or ApbE2-deficient K. pneumoniae strains with plasmids containing the Vibrio cholerae apbE gene with or without the periplasm-directing signal sequence, respectively. Our data thus indicate that ApbE1 and ApbE2 bind FMN to Na(+)-NQR and fumarate reductase, respectively, and that, contrary to the presently accepted view, the FMN residues are on the periplasmic side of Na(+)-NQR. A new, "electron loop" mechanism is proposed for Na(+)-NQR, involving an electroneutral Na(+)/electron symport. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 18th European Bioenergetic Conference. PMID:24361839

  12. Correlating EPR and X-ray structural analysis of arsenite-inhibited forms of aldehyde oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Thapper, Anders; Boer, D R; Brondino, Carlos D; Moura, José J G; Romão, Maria J

    2007-03-01

    Two arsenite-inhibited forms of each of the aldehyde oxidoreductases from Desulfovibrio gigas and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans have been studied by X-ray crystallography and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The molybdenum site of these enzymes shows a distorted square-pyramidal geometry in which two ligands, a hydroxyl/water molecule (the catalytic labile site) and a sulfido ligand, have been shown to be essential for catalysis. Arsenite addition to active as-prepared enzyme or to a reduced desulfo form yields two different species called A and B, respectively, which show different Mo(V) EPR signals. Both EPR signals show strong hyperfine and quadrupolar couplings with an arsenic nucleus, which suggests that arsenic interacts with molybdenum through an equatorial ligand. X-ray data of single crystals prepared from EPR-active samples show in both inhibited forms that the arsenic atom interacts with the molybdenum ion through an oxygen atom at the catalytic labile site and that the sulfido ligand is no longer present. EPR and X-ray data indicate that the main difference between both species is an equatorial ligand to molybdenum which was determined to be an oxo ligand in species A and a hydroxyl/water ligand in species B. The conclusion that the sulfido ligand is not essential to determine the EPR properties in both Mo-As complexes is achieved through EPR measurements on a substantial number of randomly oriented chemically reduced crystals immediately followed by X-ray studies on one of those crystals. EPR saturation studies show that the electron transfer pathway, which is essential for catalysis, is not modified upon inhibition. PMID:17139522

  13. Purification, characterization, and properties of an aryl aldehyde oxidoreductase from Nocardia sp. strain NRRL 5646.

    PubMed Central

    Li, T; Rosazza, J P

    1997-01-01

    An aryl aldehyde oxidoreductase from Nocardia sp. strain NRRL 5646 was purified 196-fold by a combination of Mono-Q, Reactive Green 19 agarose affinity, and hydroxyapatite chromatographies. The purified enzyme runs as a single band of 140 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The molecular mass was estimated to be 163 +/- 3.8 kDa by gel filtration, indicating that this enzyme is a monomeric protein. The binding of the enzyme to Reactive Green 19 agarose was Mg2+ dependent. The binding capacity was estimated to be about 0.2 mg of Reactive Green agarose per ml in the presence of 10 mM MgCl2. This enzyme can catalyze the reduction of a wide range of aryl carboxylic acids, including substituted benzoic acids, phenyl-substituted aliphatic acids, heterocyclic carboxylic acids, and polyaromatic ring carboxylic acids, to produce the corresponding aldehydes. The Km values for benzoate, ATP, and NADPH were determined to be 645 +/- 75, 29.3 +/- 3.1, and 57.3 +/- 12.5 microM, respectively. The Vmax was determined to be 0.902 +/- 0.04 micromol/min/mg of protein. Km values for (S)-(+)-alpha-methyl-4-(2-methylpropyl)-benzeneacetic acid (ibuprofen) and its (R)-(-) isomer were determined to be 155 +/- 18 and 34.5 +/- 2.5 microM, respectively. The Vmax for the (S)-(+) and (R)-(-) isomers were 1.33 and 0.15 micromol/min/mg of protein, respectively. Anthranilic acid is a competitive inhibitor with benzoic acid as a substrate, with a Ki of 261 +/- 30 microM. The N-terminal and internal amino acid sequences of a 76-kDa peptide from limited alpha-chymotrypsin digestion were determined. PMID:9171390

  14. Xanthine crystals induced by topiroxostat, a xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, in rats, cause transitional cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Shimo, Takeo; Moto, Mitsuyoshi; Ashizawa, Naoki; Matsumoto, Koji; Iwanaga, Takashi; Saito, Kazuhiro

    2014-04-01

    The present study was performed to elucidate the underlying mechanism of transitional cell tumors found in the carcinogenicity testing of topiroxostat, a xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, in which topiroxostat was orally given to F344 rats at 0.3, 1, and 3 mg/kg for 2 years. In the urinary bladder, transitional cell papillomas and/or carcinomas were seen in males receiving 0.3, 1, and 3 mg/kg (1/49, 3/49, and 10/50, respectively). In the kidney, transitional cell papillomas and/or carcinomas in the pelvis were seen in 2/50 males and 1/50 females receiving 3 mg/kg. In the mechanistic study by 52-week oral treatment with topiroxostat at 3 mg/kg to F344 male rats, with and without citrate, simple and papillary transitional cell hyperplasias of the urinary bladder epithelium were observed in 5/17 in the topiroxostat-alone treatment group, along with xanthine-induced nephropathy, in contrast to neither xanthine crystals nor lesions in urinary organs by co-treatment group with citrate. As for sex differences of urinary bladder tumors, the BrdU labeling index for epithelial cells of the urinary bladder by 5-week oral treatment with topiroxostat at 10 mg/kg to F344 rats was increased in males only, showing consistency with histopathological findings. Therefore, the present study indicates that transitional cell tumors induced by topiroxostat in rats were due to physical stimulation to transitional cells of xanthine crystals/calculi and provides that other factors were not implicated in this tumorigenesis. Furthermore, the present study suggests that such tumors do not predict for humans since topiroxostat-induced xanthine deposition is a rodent-specific event. PMID:24448833

  15. Identification of a Lactate-Quinone Oxidoreductase in Staphylococcus aureus that is Essential for Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, James R.; Vitko, Nicholas P.; Perkowski, Ellen F.; Scott, Eric; Khatri, Dal; Spontak, Jeffrey S.; Thurlow, Lance R.; Richardson, Anthony R.

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen commonly infecting nearly every host tissue. The ability of S. aureus to resist innate immunity is critical to its success as a pathogen, including its propensity to grow in the presence of host nitric oxide (NO). Upon exogenous NO exposure, S. aureus immediately excretes copious amounts of L-lactate to maintain redox balance. However, after prolonged NO-exposure, S. aureus reassimilates L-lactate specifically and in this work, we identify the enzyme responsible for this L-lactate-consumption as a L-lactate-quinone oxidoreductase (Lqo, SACOL2623). Originally annotated as Mqo2 and thought to oxidize malate, we show that this enzyme exhibits no affinity for malate but reacts specifically with L-lactate (KM?=??330??M). In addition to its requirement for reassimilation of L-lactate during NO-stress, Lqo is also critical to respiratory growth on L-lactate as a sole carbon source. Moreover, ?lqo mutants exhibit attenuation in a murine model of sepsis, particularly in their ability to cause myocarditis. Interestingly, this cardiac-specific attenuation is completely abrogated in mice unable to synthesize inflammatory NO (iNOS?/?). We demonstrate that S. aureus NO-resistance is highly dependent on the availability of a glycolytic carbon sources. However, S. aureus can utilize the combination of peptides and L-lactate as carbon sources during NO-stress in an Lqo-dependent fashion. Murine cardiac tissue has markedly high levels of L-lactate in comparison to renal or hepatic tissue consistent with the NO-dependent requirement for Lqo in S. aureus myocarditis. Thus, Lqo provides S. aureus with yet another means of replicating in the presence of host NO. PMID:22919585

  16. Activities of xanthine oxidoreductase and antioxidant enzymes in different tissues of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Aliciguzel, Yakup; Ozen, Ikbal; Aslan, Mutay; Karayalcin, Umit

    2003-09-01

    Oxidative stress is an important pathogenic constituent in diabetic endothelial dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an increase in oxidative stress related to xanthine oxidoreductase occurs in diabetes. Liver, brain, heart, and kidney xanthine oxidase (XO), xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH), antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase), and nitrite levels were measured in control and early and late diabetic rat models. Although diabetes had no impact on liver XO and XDH activity, XDH activity in heart, kidney, and brain was significantly greater in late diabetic rats than in controls. Selenium glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity was found to be lower in the liver, brain, kidney, and heart of late diabetic rats than in controls. The measured decrease in selenium GPx activity was also observed in early diabetic heart, kidney, and brain. No significant change was observed in liver, brain, and kidney copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) activity in early and late diabetic rat models compared with that in controls, whereas heart Cu/Zn SOD activity was significantly decreased in both early and late diabetic rats. Liver and brain catalase activity remained similar among the different experimental groups, whereas increased heart and kidney catalase activity was observed in both early and late diabetic rats. Liver, kidney, and brain nitrite levels were found to be increased in early diabetic rat models compared with those in controls. These data suggest that the increased XDH and decreased selenium GPx activity observed in the later stages of diabetes leads to enhanced oxidative stress in the heart, kidney, and brain, resulting in secondary organ damage associated with the disease. PMID:14532905

  17. Extensive horizontal gene transfer, duplication, and loss of chlorophyll synthesis genes in the algae

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hunsperger, Heather M.; Randhawa, Tejinder; Cattolico, Rose Ann

    2015-02-10

    Two non-homologous, isofunctional enzymes catalyze the penultimate step of chlorophyll a synthesis in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms such as cyanobacteria, eukaryotic algae and land plants: the light independent (LIPOR) and light-dependent (POR) protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases. Whereas the distribution of these enzymes in cyanobacteria and land plants is well understood, the presence, loss, duplication, and replacement of these genes have not been surveyed in the polyphyletic and remarkably diverse eukaryotic algal lineages.

  18. Clostridial pyruvate oxidoreductase and the pyruvate-oxidizing enzyme specific to nitrogen fixation in Klebsiella pneumoniae are similar enzymes.

    PubMed

    Wahl, R C; Orme-Johnson, W H

    1987-08-01

    The chemical characterization, EPR properties, and mechanism of pyruvate:flavodoxin (ferredoxin) oxidoreductase from Klebsiella pneumoniae and Clostridium thermoaceticum have been investigated. A simple, specific, and sensitive assay and an efficient purification (based on the high affinity of these enzymes for a dye attached to agarose) are reported. The observed iron content of 8 atoms/subunit is twice that reported by others, whereas the contents of lipoate and flavin are less than 0.1 mol/subunit, in agreement with previous reports. Spectroscopic evidence suggests that the iron is present in Fe4S4(2+,1+) clusters. Reduction of the enzyme requires the presence of CoA as well as 1.1 pyruvate/subunit, which is very nearly the theoretical amount required the reduce two Fe4S(2+,1+) clusters. In the absence of CoA, stoichiometric amounts of pyruvate are decarboxylated, but the Fe/S centers are not reduced. We conclude that the K. pneumoniae and C. thermoaceticum enzymes are adapted to rapid reduction of low potential 1-e- carriers, similar to the pyruvate oxidoreductase of Halobacterium (Kerscher, L., and Oesterhelt, D. (1977) FEBS Lett. 83, 197-201), but different in that an Fe/S center-radical pair is used in the latter enzyme in place of the pair of Fe4S4 centers we find. The K. pneumoniae and C. thermoaceticum oxidoreductases appear to be mechanistically closely related to the Clostridium acidiurici enzyme (Uyeda, K., and Rabinowitz, J. C. (1971) J. Biol. Chem. 246, 3111-3119), differing as a class from the lipoate-containing, pyridine nucleotide-reducing enzyme present in aerobes (Reed, L. J. (1974) Accts. Chem. Res. 2, 740-746). The function of the Klebsiella enzyme is to supply electrons to nitrogenase. This is accomplished in vitro with purified components via a nif-specific flavodoxin or other low potential 1-e- carriers such as viologen dyes or ferredoxins. The in vivo molar ratio of nitrogenase to the physiological reduction system, estimated from activity measurements of individual components in crude extracts, was 0.4:0.03:2:1 pyruvate oxidoreductase:flavodoxin:nitrogenase component II:nitrogenase component I. PMID:3038882

  19. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of a protein disulfide oxidoreductase from Aeropyrum pernix K1

    PubMed Central

    D’Ambrosio, Katia; De Simone, Giuseppina; Pedone, Emilia; Rossi, Mosè; Bartolucci, Simonetta; Pedone, Carlo

    2005-01-01

    A protein disulfide oxidoreductase from the archaeon Aeropyrum pernix K1 has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli and crystallized at 298 K using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Crystals belong to the space group I222 or I212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 90.59, b = 102.43, c = 128.96 Å. A complete data set has been collected at the Elettra synchrotron source in Trieste to 1.93 Å resolution using a single frozen crystal. PMID:16511034

  20. The yeast ζ-crystallin/NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase (Zta1p) is under nutritional control by the target of rapamycin pathway and is involved in the regulation of argininosuccinate lyase mRNA half-life.

    PubMed

    Crosas, Eva; Sumoy, Lauro; González, Eva; Díaz, Maykelis; Bartolomé, Salvador; Farrés, Jaume; Parés, Xavier; Biosca, Josep Antoni; Fernández, María Rosario

    2015-05-01

    The yeast ζ-crystallin (Zta1p) is a quinone oxidoreductase belonging to the ζ-crystallin family, with activity in the reduction of alkenal/alkenone compounds. Various biological functions have been ascribed to the members of this protein family, such as their ability to interact specifically with AU-rich sequences in mRNA, and thus they have been proposed to act as AU-rich element-binding proteins (AREBPs). In this study, we evaluated the specificity of Zta1p for RNA versus DNA by means of a novel nonisotopic method for the in vitro quantitative detection of protein · RNA complexes. Through comparative transcriptomic analysis, we found that the lack of Zta1p negatively affects the expression of a group of genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis, the argininosuccinate lyase (ARG4) gene being one of them. Here, we propose that Zta1p participates in the post-transcriptional regulation of ARG4 expression by increasing the ARG4 mRNA half-life. In addition, expression of the ζ-crystallin gene (ZTA1) is itself regulated by nutrient availability through the general amino acid control and target of rapamycin pathways. Our results shed new light on the ζ-crystallin family members from yeast to humans as stress response proteins with a bifunctional role in the detoxification of alkenal and alkenone compounds, and the regulation of gene expression. PMID:25715111

  1. Identification of NAD(P)H Quinone Oxidoreductase Activity in Azoreductases from P. aeruginosa: Azoreductases and NAD(P)H Quinone Oxidoreductases Belong to the Same FMN-Dependent Superfamily of Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Ali; Kaplan, Elise; Nebel, Jean-Christophe; Polycarpou, Elena; Crescente, Vincenzo; Lowe, Edward; Preston, Gail M.; Sim, Edith

    2014-01-01

    Water soluble quinones are a group of cytotoxic anti-bacterial compounds that are secreted by many species of plants, invertebrates, fungi and bacteria. Studies in a number of species have shown the importance of quinones in response to pathogenic bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. Two electron reduction is an important mechanism of quinone detoxification as it generates the less toxic quinol. In most organisms this reaction is carried out by a group of flavoenzymes known as NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductases. Azoreductases have previously been separate from this group, however using azoreductases from Pseudomonas aeruginosa we show that they can rapidly reduce quinones. Azoreductases from the same organism are also shown to have distinct substrate specificity profiles allowing them to reduce a wide range of quinones. The azoreductase family is also shown to be more extensive than originally thought, due to the large sequence divergence amongst its members. As both NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductases and azoreductases have related reaction mechanisms it is proposed that they form an enzyme superfamily. The ubiquitous and diverse nature of azoreductases alongside their broad substrate specificity, indicates they play a wide role in cellular survival under adverse conditions. PMID:24915188

  2. Role of xanthine oxidoreductase in the anti-thrombotic effects of nitrite in rats in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kramkowski, K; Leszczynska, A; Przyborowski, K; Kaminski, T; Rykaczewska, U; Sitek, B; Zakrzewska, A; Proniewski, B; Smolenski, R T; Chabielska, E; Buczko, W; Chlopicki, S

    2016-05-01

    The mechanisms underlying nitrite-induced effects on thrombosis and hemostasis in vivo are not clear. The goal of the work described here was to investigate the role of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) in the anti-platelet and anti-thrombotic activities of nitrite in rats in vivo. Arterial thrombosis was induced electrically in rats with renovascular hypertension by partial ligation of the left renal artery. Sodium nitrite (NaNO2, 0.17 mmol/kg twice daily for 3 days, p.o) was administered with or without one of the XOR-inhibitors: allopurinol (ALLO) and febuxostat (FEB) (100 and 5 mg/kg, p.o., for 3 days). Nitrite treatment (0.17 mmol/kg), which was associated with a significant increase in NOHb, nitrite/nitrate plasma concentration, resulted in a substantial decrease in thrombus weight (TW) (0.48 ± 0.03 mg vs. vehicle [VEH] 0.88 ± 0.08 mg, p < 0.001) without a significant hypotensive effect. The anti-thrombotic effect of nitrite was partially reversed by FEB (TW = 0.63 ± 0.06 mg, p < 0.05 vs. nitrites), but not by ALLO (TW = 0.43 ± 0.02 mg). In turn, profound anti-platelet effect of nitrite measured ex vivo using collagen-induced whole-blood platelet aggregation (70.5 ± 7.1% vs. VEH 100 ± 4.5%, p < 0.05) and dynamic thromboxaneB2 generation was fully reversed by both XOR-inhibitors. In addition, nitrite decreased plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 concentration (0.47 ± 0.13 ng/ml vs. VEH 0.62 ± 0.04 ng/ml, p < 0.05) and FEB/ALLO reversed this effect. In vitro the anti-platelet effect of nitrite (1 mM) was reversed by FEB (0.1 mM) under hypoxia (0.5%O2) and normoxia (20%O2). Nitrite treatment had no effect on coagulation parameters. In conclusion, the nitrite-induced anti-platelet effect in rats in vivo is mediated by XOR, but XOR does not fully account for the anti-thrombotic effects of nitrite. PMID:26374946

  3. High-Yield Expression of a Catalytically Active Membrane-Bound Protein: Human P450 Oxidoreductase

    PubMed Central

    Sandee, Duanpen

    2011-01-01

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is a two-flavin protein that reduces microsomal P450 enzymes and some other proteins. Preparation of active bacterially expressed human POR for biochemical studies has been difficult because membrane-bound proteins tend to interact with column matrices. To reduce column-protein interactions and permit more vigorous washing, human POR lacking 27 N-terminal residues (N-27 POR) was modified to carry a C-terminal Gly3His6-tag (N-27 POR-G3H6). When expressed in Escherichia coli, N-27 POR-G3H6 could be purified to apparent homogeneity by a modified, single-step nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography, yielding 31 mg POR per liter of culture, whereas standard purification of native N-27 POR required multiple steps, yielding 5 mg POR per liter. Both POR proteins had absorption maxima at 375 and 453 nm and both reduced cytochrome c with indistinguishable specific activities. Using progesterone as substrate for bacterially expressed purified human P450c17, the Michaelis constant for 17?-hydroxylase activity supported by N-27 POR or N-27 POR-G3H6 were 1.73 or 1.49 ?m, and the maximal velocity was 0.029 or 0.026 pmol steroids per picomole P450 per minute, respectively. Using 17-hydroxypregnenolone as the P450c17 substrate, the Michaelis constant for 17,20 lyase activity using N-27 POR or N-27 POR-G3H6 was 1.92 or 1.89 ?m and the maximal velocity was 0.041 or 0.042 pmol steroid per picomole P450 per minute, respectively. Thus, N-27 POR-G3H6 is equally active as native N-27 POR. This expression and purification system permits the rapid preparation of large amounts of highly pure, biologically active POR and may be generally applicable for the preparation of membrane-bound proteins. PMID:21586563

  4. Tempol improves xanthine oxidoreductase-mediated vascular responses to nitrite in experimental renovascular hypertension.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Paula, Gustavo H; Pinheiro, Lucas C; Guimaraes, Danielle A; Tella, Sandra O Conde; Blanco, Ana L Furlan; Angelis, Celio D; Schechter, Alan N; Tanus-Santos, Jose E

    2016-08-01

    Upregulation of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) increases vascular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and contributes to nitroso-redox imbalance. However, XOR can generate nitric oxide (NO) from nitrite, and increased superoxide could inactivate NO formed from nitrite. This study tested the hypothesis that XOR contributes to the cardiovascular effects of nitrite in renovascular hypertension, and that treatment with the antioxidant tempol (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl) improves XOR-mediated effects of nitrite. Blood pressure was assessed weekly in two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) and control rats. After six weeks of hypertension, the relaxing responses to nitrite were assessed in aortic rings in the presence of the XOR inhibitor oxypurinol (or vehicle), either in the absence or in the presence of tempol. Moreover, in vivo hypotensive responses to nitrite were also examined in the presence of oxypurinol (or vehicle) and tempol (or vehicle). Aortic XOR activity and expression were evaluated by fluorescence and Western blot, respectively. Vascular ROS production was assessed by the dihydroethidium assay. 2K1C hypertensive rats showed increased aortic XOR activity and vascular ROS production compared with control rats. Oxypurinol shifted the nitrite concentration-response curve to the right in aortic rings from 2K1C rats (but not in controls). Oxypurinol also attenuated the hypotensive responses to nitrite in 2K1C rats (but not in controls). These functional findings agree with increased aortic and plasma XOR activity found in 2K1C rats. Tempol treatment enhanced oxypurinol-induced shift of the nitrite concentration-response curve to the right. However, antioxidant treatment did not affect XOR-mediated hypotensive effects of nitrite. Our results show that XOR is important to the cardiovascular responses to nitrite in 2K1C hypertension, and XOR inhibitors commonly used by patients may cancel this effect. This finding suggests that nitrite treatment may not be effective in patients being treated with XOR inhibitors. Moreover, while tempol may improve the vascular responses to nitrite, antihypertensive responses are not affected. PMID:27078869

  5. Identification and characterization of the enzymatic activity of zeta-crystallin from guinea pig lens. A novel NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Rao, P V; Krishna, C M; Zigler, J S

    1992-01-01

    zeta-Crystallin is a major protein in the lens of certain mammals. In guinea pigs it comprises 10% of the total lens protein, and it has been shown that a mutation in the zeta-crystallin gene is associated with autosomal dominant congenital cataract. As with several other lens crystallins of limited phylogenetic distribution, zeta-crystallin has been characterized as an "enzyme/crystallin" based on its ability to reduce catalytically the electron acceptor 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol. We report here that certain naturally occurring quinones are good substrates for the enzymatic activity of zeta-crystallin. Among the various quinones tested, the orthoquinones 1,2-naphthoquinone and 9,10-phenanthrenequinone were the best substrates whereas menadione, ubiquinone, 9,10-anthraquinone, vitamins K1 and K2 were inactive as substrates. This quinone reductase activity was NADPH specific and exhibited typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Activity was sensitive to heat and sulfhydryl reagents but was very stable on freezing. Dicumarol (Ki = 1.3 x 10(-5) M) and nitrofurantoin (Ki = 1.4 x 10(-5) M) inhibited the activity competitively with respect to the electron acceptor, quinone. NADPH protected the enzyme against inactivation caused by heat, N-ethylmaleimide, or H2O2. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of the reaction products showed formation of a semiquinone radical. The enzyme activity was associated with O2 consumption, generation of O2- and H2O2, and reduction of ferricytochrome c. These properties indicate that the enzyme acts through a one-electron transfer process. The substrate specificity, reaction characteristics, and physicochemical properties of zeta-crystallin demonstrate that it is an active NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase distinct from quinone reductases described previously. PMID:1370456

  6. Purification and Characterization of a Ferredoxin-NADP+ Oxidoreductase-Like Enzyme from Radish Root Tissues 1

    PubMed Central

    Morigasaki, Susumu; Takata, Kinuyo; Suzuki, Takashi; Wada, Keishiro

    1990-01-01

    An enzyme able to reduce cytochrome c via ferredoxin in the presence of NADPH, was isolated, purified from radish (Raphanus sativus var acanthiformis cultivar miyashige) roots and characterized. The enzyme was purified by DEAE-cellulose, Blue-Cellulofine, Ferredoxin-Sepharose 4B, and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. Molecular mass of the enzyme was estimated to be 33,000 and 35,000 daltons by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration and SDS-PAGE, respectively. Its absorption spectrum suggested that the enzyme contains flavin as a prosthetic group. The Km values for NADPH and ferredoxin were calculated to be 9.2 and 1.2 micromolar, respectively. The enzyme required NADPH and did not use NADH as an electron donor. The optimal pH was 8.4. The enzyme also catalyzed the photoreduction of NADP+ in the spinach leaf thylakoid membranes depleted of ferredoxin and ferredoxin-NADP+ oxidoreductase. The effect of NaCl and MgCl2 concentration on the activity and amino acid composition of the enzyme were demonstrated. The results suggest that the enzyme is similar to ferredoxin-NADP+ oxidoreductase from chloroplasts and cyanobacteria and is the key enzyme catalyzing the electron transport between NADPH, generated by the pentose phosphate pathway, and ferredoxin in plastids of plant heterotrophic tissues. Images Figure 4 PMID:16667598

  7. Probing the Transmembrane Structure and Dynamics of Microsomal NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase by Solid-State NMR

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Rui; Yamamoto, Kazutoshi; Zhang, Meng; Popovych, Nataliya; Hung, Ivan; Im, Sang-Choul; Gan, Zhehong; Waskell, Lucy; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2014-01-01

    NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CYPOR) is an essential redox partner of the cytochrome P450 (cyt P450) superfamily of metabolic enzymes. In the endoplasmic reticulum of liver cells, such enzymes metabolize ∼75% of the pharmaceuticals in use today. It is known that the transmembrane domain of CYPOR plays a crucial role in aiding the formation of a complex between CYPOR and cyt P450. Here we present the transmembrane structure, topology, and dynamics of the FMN binding domain of CYPOR in a native membrane-like environment. Our solid-state NMR results reveal that the N-terminal transmembrane domain of CYPOR adopts an α-helical conformation in the lipid membrane environment. Most notably, we also show that the transmembrane helix is tilted ∼13° from the lipid bilayer normal, and exhibits motions on a submillisecond timescale including rotational diffusion of the whole helix and fluctuation of the helical director axis. The approaches and the information reported in this study would enable further investigations on the structure and dynamics of the full-length NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase and its interaction with other membrane proteins in a membrane environment. PMID:24853741

  8. Screening of Microorganisms Producing Cold-Active Oxidoreductases to Be Applied in Enantioselective Alcohol Oxidation. An Antarctic Survey

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Lidiane S.; Kagohara, Edna; Garcia, Thaís P.; Pellizari, Vivian H.; Andrade, Leandro H.

    2011-01-01

    Several microorganisms were isolated from soil/sediment samples of Antarctic Peninsula. The enrichment technique using (RS)-1-(phenyl)ethanol as a carbon source allowed us to isolate 232 psychrophile/psychrotroph microorganisms. We also evaluated the enzyme activity (oxidoreductases) for enantioselective oxidation reactions, by using derivatives of (RS)-1-(phenyl)ethanol as substrates. Among the studied microorganisms, 15 psychrophile/psychrotroph strains contain oxidoreductases that catalyze the (S)-enantiomer oxidation from racemic alcohols to their corresponding ketones. Among the identified microorganisms, Flavobacterium sp. and Arthrobacter sp. showed excellent enzymatic activity. These new bacteria strains were selected for optimization study, in which the (RS)-1-(4-methyl-phenyl)ethanol oxidation was evaluated in several reaction conditions. From these studies, it was observed that Flavobacterium sp. has an excellent enzymatic activity at 10 °C and Arthrobacter sp. at 15 and 25 °C. We have also determined the growth curves of these bacteria, and both strains showed optimum growth at 25 °C, indicating that these bacteria are psychrotroph. PMID:21673897

  9. Ferredoxin:NADP+ oxidoreductase in junction with CdSe/ZnS quantum dots: characteristics of an enzymatically active nanohybrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczepaniak, Krzysztof; Worch, Remigiusz; Grzyb, Joanna

    2013-05-01

    Ferredoxin:NADP+ oxidoreductase (FNR) is a plant and cyanobacterial photosynthetic enzyme, also found in non-photosynthetic tissues, where it is involved in redox reactions of biosynthetic pathways. In vivo it transfers electrons to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+), forming its reduced version, NADPH, while in vitro it can also use NADPH to reduce several substrates, such as ferricyanide, various quinones and nitriles. As an oxidoreductase catalyzing reaction of a broad range of substrates, FNR may be used in biotechnological processes. Quantum dots are semiconductor nanocrystals of a few to several nanometers diameter, having very useful luminescent properties. We present the spectroscopic and functional characteristics of a covalent conjugation of FNR and CdSe/ZnS quantum dots. Two types of quantum dots, of different diameter and emission maximum (550 and 650 nm), were used for comparison. Steady-state fluorescence and gel electrophoresis confirmed efficient conjugation, while fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) allowed for determination of the conjugates’ radii. The nanohybrids sustained enzymatic activity; however, changes in maximal reaction rates and Michaelis constant were found. Detailed analysis of the kinetic parameters showed that the changes in the enzyme activity depend on the substrate used for activity measurement but also on the size of the quantum dots. The presented nanohybrids, as the first example using plant and photosynthetic enzyme as a protein partner, may became a tool to study photosynthesis as well as other biosynthetic and biotechnological processes, involving enzymatically catalyzed electron transfer.

  10. Purification and characterization of a novel NADPH-dependent 2-aminoacetophenone reductase from Arthrobacter sulfureus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guogang; Sun, Wanru; Wang, Jianjun

    2015-06-01

    A novel 2-aminoacetophenone reductase was purified to homogeneity from Arthrobacter sulfureus BW1010. The enzyme is a monomer with a molecular weight of approximately 60 kDa. Using NADPH as coenzyme, it catalyzes the reduction of ketones, especially amine phenyl ketones, and stereospecifically reduces 2-aminoacetophenone to (S)-2-amino-1-phenylethanol (e.e > 99.8%) with the optimal pH at 7.5. PMID:25488497

  11. Membrane-associated glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase family enzymes PhcC and PhcD are essential for enantioselective catabolism of dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kenji; Hirose, Yusaku; Kamimura, Naofumi; Hishiyama, Shojiro; Hara, Hirofumi; Araki, Takuma; Kasai, Daisuke; Kajita, Shinya; Katayama, Yoshihiro; Fukuda, Masao; Masai, Eiji

    2015-12-01

    Sphingobium sp. strain SYK-6 is able to degrade various lignin-derived biaryls, including a phenylcoumaran-type compound, dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (DCA). In SYK-6 cells, the alcohol group of the B-ring side chain of DCA is initially oxidized to the carboxyl group to generate 3-(2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-(hydroxymethyl)-7-methoxy-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-5-yl) acrylic acid (DCA-C). Next, the alcohol group of the A-ring side chain of DCA-C is oxidized to the carboxyl group, and then the resulting metabolite is catabolized through vanillin and 5-formylferulate. In this study, the genes involved in the conversion of DCA-C were identified and characterized. The DCA-C oxidation activities in SYK-6 were enhanced in the presence of flavin adenine dinucleotide and an artificial electron acceptor and were induced ca. 1.6-fold when the cells were grown with DCA. Based on these observations, SLG_09480 (phcC) and SLG_09500 (phcD), encoding glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase family proteins, were presumed to encode DCA-C oxidases. Analyses of phcC and phcD mutants indicated that PhcC and PhcD are essential for the conversion of (+)-DCA-C and (-)-DCA-C, respectively. When phcC and phcD were expressed in SYK-6 and Escherichia coli, the gene products were mainly observed in their membrane fractions. The membrane fractions of E. coli that expressed phcC and phcD catalyzed the specific conversion of DCA-C into the corresponding carboxyl derivatives. In the oxidation of DCA-C, PhcC and PhcD effectively utilized ubiquinone derivatives as electron acceptors. Furthermore, the transcription of a putative cytochrome c gene was significantly induced in SYK-6 grown with DCA. The DCA-C oxidation catalyzed by membrane-associated PhcC and PhcD appears to be coupled to the respiratory chain. PMID:26362985

  12. Anti-cancer analogues ME-143 and ME-344 exert toxicity by directly inhibiting mitochondrial NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I)

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sze Chern; Carey, Kirstyn T; McKenzie, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Isoflavonoids have been shown to inhibit tumor proliferation and metastasis by activating cell death pathways. As such, they have been widely studied as potential therapies for cancer prevention. The second generation synthetic isoflavan analogues ME-143 and ME-344 also exhibit anti-cancer effects, however their specific molecular targets have not been completely defined. To identify these targets, we examined the effects of ME-143 and ME-344 on cellular metabolism and found that they are potent inhibitors of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complex I (NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase) activity. In isolated HEK293T mitochondria, ME-143 and ME-344 reduced complex I activity to 14.3% and 28.6% of control values respectively. In addition to the inhibition of complex I, ME-344 also significantly inhibited mitochondrial complex III (ubiquinol: ferricytochrome-c oxidoreductase) activity by 10.8%. This inhibition of complex I activity (and to a lesser extent complex III activity) was associated with a reduction in mitochondrial oxygen consumption. In permeabilized HEK293T cells, ME-143 and ME-344 significantly reduced the maximum ADP-stimulated respiration rate to 62.3% and 70.0% of control levels respectively in the presence of complex I-linked substrates. Conversely, complex II-linked respiration was unaffected by either drug. We also observed that the inhibition of complex I-linked respiration caused the dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential (??m). Blue native (BN-PAGE) analysis revealed that prolonged loss of ??m results in the destabilization of the native OXPHOS complexes. In particular, treatment of 143B osteosarcoma, HeLa and HEK293T human embryonic kidney cells with ME-344 for 4 h resulted in reduced steady-state levels of mature complex I. Degradation of the complex I subunit NDUFA9, as well as the complex IV (ferrocytochrome c: oxygen oxidoreductase) subunit COXIV, was also evident. The identification of OXPHOS complex I as a target of ME-143 and ME-344 advances our understanding of how these drugs induce cell death by disrupting mitochondrial metabolism, and will direct future work to maximize the anti-cancer capacity of these and other isoflavone-based compounds. PMID:25973307

  13. Anti-cancer analogues ME-143 and ME-344 exert toxicity by directly inhibiting mitochondrial NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I).

    PubMed

    Lim, Sze Chern; Carey, Kirstyn T; McKenzie, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Isoflavonoids have been shown to inhibit tumor proliferation and metastasis by activating cell death pathways. As such, they have been widely studied as potential therapies for cancer prevention. The second generation synthetic isoflavan analogues ME-143 and ME-344 also exhibit anti-cancer effects, however their specific molecular targets have not been completely defined. To identify these targets, we examined the effects of ME-143 and ME-344 on cellular metabolism and found that they are potent inhibitors of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complex I (NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase) activity. In isolated HEK293T mitochondria, ME-143 and ME-344 reduced complex I activity to 14.3% and 28.6% of control values respectively. In addition to the inhibition of complex I, ME-344 also significantly inhibited mitochondrial complex III (ubiquinol: ferricytochrome-c oxidoreductase) activity by 10.8%. This inhibition of complex I activity (and to a lesser extent complex III activity) was associated with a reduction in mitochondrial oxygen consumption. In permeabilized HEK293T cells, ME-143 and ME-344 significantly reduced the maximum ADP-stimulated respiration rate to 62.3% and 70.0% of control levels respectively in the presence of complex I-linked substrates. Conversely, complex II-linked respiration was unaffected by either drug. We also observed that the inhibition of complex I-linked respiration caused the dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential (??m). Blue native (BN-PAGE) analysis revealed that prolonged loss of ??m results in the destabilization of the native OXPHOS complexes. In particular, treatment of 143B osteosarcoma, HeLa and HEK293T human embryonic kidney cells with ME-344 for 4 h resulted in reduced steady-state levels of mature complex I. Degradation of the complex I subunit NDUFA9, as well as the complex IV (ferrocytochrome c: oxygen oxidoreductase) subunit COXIV, was also evident. The identification of OXPHOS complex I as a target of ME-143 and ME-344 advances our understanding of how these drugs induce cell death by disrupting mitochondrial metabolism, and will direct future work to maximize the anti-cancer capacity of these and other isoflavone-based compounds. PMID:25973307

  14. Identification and cloning of two immunogenic C. perfringens proteins, elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFO) of Clostridium perfringens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clostridium related poultry diseases such as necrotic enteritis (NE) and gangrenous dermatitis (GD) cause substantial economic losses on a global scale. Two antigenic C. perfringens proteins, elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFO), were identified by reaction with...

  15. The Mrp Na+/H+ Antiporter Increases the Activity of the Malate:Quinone Oxidoreductase of an Escherichia coli Respiratory Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Talia H.; Ito, Masahiro; Hicks, David B.; Nuqui, Mark; Guffanti, Arthur A.; Krulwich, Terry A.

    2005-01-01

    Mrp catalyzes secondary Na+/H+ antiport and was hypothesized to have an additional primary energization mode. Mrp-dependent complementation of nonfermentative growth of an Escherichia coli respiratory mutant supported this hypothesis but is shown here to be related to increased expression of host malate:quinone oxidoreductase, not to catalytic activity of Mrp. PMID:15601724

  16. Enhanced activity of the plasma membrane oxidoreductase in circulating lymphocytes from insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Lenaz, Giorgio; Paolucci, Ugo; Fato, Romana; D'Aurelio, Marilena; Parenti Castelli, Giovanna; Sgarbi, Gianluca; Biagini, Graziella; Ragni, Luca; Salardi, Silvana; Cacciari, Emanuele

    2002-02-01

    Circulating human lymphocytes contain a transmembrane oxidoreductase (PMOR) capable of reducing dichlorophenol indophenol (DCIP) by endogenous reductants, presumably NADH. Membranes from lymphocytes obtained from buffy coats contain a NADH DCIP reductase having a K(m) of about 1 microM and almost insensible to dicoumarol. The PMOR of lymphocytes from insulin-dependent diabetic patients is higher than that from age-matched controls and, in addition, has a dicoumarol-sensitive component, lacking in most controls, presumably due to membrane association of DT-diaphorase. The increase of PMOR in diabetes is likely due to overexpression of the enzyme, in view of the very low K(m) for NADH indicating that, in intact cells, the enzyme is practically saturated with the reductant substrate. PMID:11820804

  17. The two common polymorphic forms of human NRH-quinone oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2) have different biochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Megarity, Clare F; Gill, James R E; Caraher, M Clare; Stratford, Ian J; Nolan, Karen A; Timson, David J

    2014-05-01

    There are two common forms of NRH-quinone oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2) in the human population resulting from SNP rs1143684. One has phenylalanine at position 47 (NQO2-F47) and the other leucine (NQO2-L47). Using recombinant proteins, we show that these variants have similar steady state kinetic parameters, although NQO2-L47 has a slightly lower specificity constant. NQO2-L47 is less stable towards proteolytic digestion and thermal denaturation than NQO2-F47. Both forms are inhibited by resveratrol, but NQO2-F47 shows negative cooperativity with this inhibitor. Thus these data demonstrate, for the first time, clear biochemical differences between the variants which help explain previous biomedical and epidemiological findings. PMID:24631540

  18. Specific disintegration of complex II succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase links pH changes to oxidative stress for apoptosis induction

    PubMed Central

    Lemarie, A; Huc, L; Pazarentzos, E; Mahul-Mellier, A-L; Grimm, S

    2011-01-01

    The formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the change of the intracellular pH (pHi) are common phenomena during apoptosis. How they are interconnected, however, is poorly understood. Here we show that numerous anticancer drugs and cytokines such as Fas ligand and tumour necrosis factor α provoke intracellular acidification and cause the formation of mitochondrial ROS. In parallel, we found that the succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (SQR) activity of the mitochondrial respiratory complex II is specifically impaired without affecting the second enzymatic activity of this complex as a succinate dehydrogenase (SDH). Only in this configuration is complex II an apoptosis mediator and generates superoxides for cell death. This is achieved by the pHi decline that leads to the specific dissociation of the SDHA/SDHB subunits, which encompass the SDH activity, from the membrane-bound components of complex II that are required for the SQR activity. PMID:20706275

  19. [The interaction of ferredoxin:NADP{sup +} oxidoreductase and ferredoxin:thioredoxin reductase with substrates]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    We seek to map the ferredoxin-binding sites on three soluble enzymes located in spinach chloroplasts which utilize ferredoxin as an electron donor:Ferredoxin:NADP{sup +}oxidoreductase (FNR); ferredoxin:thioredoxin reductase (FTR) and glutamate synthase. As the availability of amino acid sequences for the enzymes are important in such studies, that the amino acid sequence of glutamate synthase needs be determined, the amino acid sequences of FNR, FTR and ferredoxin are already known. Related to an aim elucidate the binding sites for ferredoxin to determine whether there is a common binding site on all of these ferredoxin-dependent chloroplast enzymes and, if so, to map it. Additionally thioredoxin binding by FTR needs be determine to resolve whether the same site on FTR is involved in binding both ferredoxin and thioredoxin. Considerable progress is reported on the prosthetic groups of glutamate synthase, in establishing the role of arginine and lysine residues in ferredoxin binding by, ferredoxin:nitrite oxidoreductase nitrite reductase, labelling carboxyl groups on ferredoxin with taurine and labelling lysine residues biotinylation, and low potential heme proteins have been isolated and characterized from a non-photosynthetic plant tissue. Although the monoclonal antibodies raised against FNR turned out not to be useful for mapping the FNR/ferredoxin or FNR/NADPinteraction domains, good progress has been made on mapping the FNR/ferredoxin interaction domains by an alternative technique. The techniques developed for differential chemical modification of these two proteins - taurine modification of aspartate and glutamate residues and biotin modification of lysine residues - should be useful for mapping the interaction domains of many proteins that associate through electrostatic interactions.

  20. Human NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase type I (hNQO1) activation of quinone propionic acid trigger groups†

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Maria F.; Hollabaugh, Nicole M.; Hettiarachchi, Suraj U.; McCarley, Robin L.

    2012-01-01

    NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase type I (NQO1) is a target enzyme for triggered delivery of drugs at inflamed tissue and tumor sites, particularly those that challenge traditional therapies. Prodrugs, macromolecules, and molecular assemblies possessing trigger groups that can be cleaved by environmental stimuli are vehicles with the potential to yield active drug only at prescribed sites. Furthermore, quinone propionic acids (QPAs) covalently attached to prodrugs or liposome surfaces can be removed by application of a reductive trigger stimulus, such as that from NQO1; their rates of reductive activation should be tunable via QPA structure. We explored in detail the recombinant human NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase type I (rhNQO1)-catalyzed NADH reduction of a family of substituted QPAs and obtained high precision kinetic parameters. It is found that small changes in QPA structure—in particular, single atom and function group substitutions on the quinone ring at R1—lead to significant impacts on the Michaelis constant (Km), maximum velocity (Vmax), catalytic constant (kcat), and catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km). Molecular docking simulations demonstrate that alterations in QPA structure result in large changes in QPA alignment and placement with respect to the flavin isoalloxazine ring in the active site of rhNQO1; a qualitative relationship exists between the kinetic parameters and the depth of QPA penetration into the rhNQO1 active site. From a quantitative perspective, a very good correlation is observed between log(kcat/Km) and the molecular-docking-derived distance between flavin hydride donor site and quinone hydride acceptor site in the QPAs, an observation that is in agreement with developing theories. The comprehensive kinetic and molecular modeling knowledge obtained for the interaction of recombinant human NQO1 with the quinone propionic acid analogues provides insight into the design and implementation of the QPA trigger groups for drug delivery applications. PMID:22989153

  1. High Ratio of Bacteriochlorophyll Biosynthesis Genes to Chlorophyll Biosynthesis Genes in Bacteria of Humic Lakes ▿

    PubMed Central

    Eiler, Alexander; Beier, Sara; Säwström, Christin; Karlsson, Jan; Bertilsson, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies highlight the diversity and significance of marine phototrophic microorganisms such as picocyanobacteria, phototrophic picoeukaryotes, and bacteriochlorophyll- and rhodopsin-holding phototrophic bacteria. To assess if freshwater ecosystems also harbor similar phototroph diversity, genes involved in the biosynthesis of bacteriochlorophyll and chlorophyll were targeted to explore oxygenic and aerobic anoxygenic phototroph composition in a wide range of lakes. Partial dark-operative protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (DPOR) and chlorophyllide oxidoreductase (COR) genes in bacteria of seven lakes with contrasting trophic statuses were PCR amplified, cloned, and sequenced. Out of 61 sequences encoding the L subunit of DPOR (L-DPOR), 22 clustered with aerobic anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria, whereas 39 L-DPOR sequences related to oxygenic phototrophs, like cyanobacteria, were observed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed clear separation of these freshwater L-DPOR genes as well as 11 COR gene sequences from their marine counterparts. Terminal restriction fragment length analysis of L-DPOR genes was used to characterize oxygenic aerobic and anoxygenic photosynthesizing populations in 20 lakes differing in physical and chemical characteristics. Significant differences in L-DPOR community composition were observed between dystrophic lakes and all other systems, where a higher proportion of genes affiliated with aerobic anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria was observed than in other systems. Our results reveal a significant diversity of phototrophic microorganisms in lakes and suggest niche partitioning of oxygenic and aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs in these systems in response to trophic status and coupled differences in light regime. PMID:19801478

  2. Angelica sinensis and its Alkylphthalides Induce the Detoxification enzyme NAD(P)H: Quinone OxidoReductase 1 by Alkylating KEAP1

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, Birgit M.; Liu, Dongting; Hagos, Ghenet K.; Yao, Ping; Schinkovitz, Andreas; Pro, Samuel M.; Deng, Shixin; Farnsworth, Norman R.; Pauli, Guido F.; van Breemen, Richard B.; Bolton, Judy L.

    2008-01-01

    The roots of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.), Diels (Dang Gui; Apiaceae) have a long history in traditional Chinese medicine as a remedy for women's disorders, and are often called “lady's ginseng”. Currently, extracts of A. sinensis are commonly included in numerous dietary supplements used for women's health and as anti-aging products. In the present study, we examined the potential chemopreventive activity of A. sinensis extracts by measuring the relative ability to induce the detoxification enzyme, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). The lipophilic partitions showed strong NQO1 induction with concentrations to double the enzyme activity (CD) of 5.5 ± 0.7 μg/mL (petroleum ether) and 3.9 ± 0.5 μg/mL (chloroform). Fractionation led to the isolation of phenolic esters and alkylphthalides, especially Z-ligustilide, the main lipophilic compound, which showed strong NQO1 inducing properties (CD = 6.9 ± 1.9 μM). Transcription of many detoxifying enzymes is regulated through the antioxidant response element (ARE) and its transcription factor Nrf2, which is repressed under basal conditions by Keap1. However, exposure to electrophilic inducers that alkylate Keap1 results in a higher concentrations of free Nrf2 and ARE activation. The ARE reporter activity was therefore analyzed in HepG2-ARE-C8 cells after incubation with lipophilic extracts of A. sinensis or ligustilide for 24 h. Under these conditions, both the extract and ligustilide increased ARE-luciferase reporter activity in a dose-dependent manner. Incubation of ligustilide with GSH and subsequent LC-MS-MS analysis revealed that ligustilide as well as oxidized ligustilide species covalently modified GSH. In addition, using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and LC-MS-MS, it was demonstrated that the lipophilic extracts, ligustilide, and monooxygenated ligustilide alkylated important cysteine residues in human Keap1 protein, thus activating Nrf2 and transcription of ARE regulated genes. These observations suggest that A. sinensis dietary supplements standardized to ligustilide have potential as chemopreventive agents through induction of detoxification enzymes. PMID:18808158

  3. Common polymorphisms in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) genes influence quality of aging and longevity in humans.

    PubMed

    Montesanto, Alberto; Crocco, Paolina; Tallaro, Federica; Pisani, Francesca; Mazzei, Bruno; Mari, Vincenzo; Corsonello, Andrea; Lattanzio, Fabrizia; Passarino, Giuseppe; Rose, Giuseppina

    2013-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) triggers multiple signal transduction pathways and contributes to the control of numerous cellular functions. Previous studies have shown in model organisms that the alteration of NO production has important effects on aging and lifespan. We studied in a large sample (763 subjects, age range 19-107 years) the variability of the three human genes (NOS1, -2, -3) coding for the three isoforms of the NADPH-dependent enzymes named NO synthases (NOS) which are responsible of NO synthesis. We have then verified if the variability of these genes is associated with longevity, and with a number of geriatric parameters. We found that gene variation of NOS1 and NOS2 was associated with longevity. In addition NOS1 rs1879417 was also found to be associated with a lower cognitive performance, while NOS2 rs2297518 polymorphism showed to be associated with physical performance. Moreover, SNPs in the NOS1 and NOS3 genes were respectively associated with the presence of depression symptoms and disability, two of the main factors affecting quality of life in older individuals. On the whole, our study shows that genetic variability of NOS genes has an effect on common age related phenotypes and longevity in humans as well as previously reported for model organisms. PMID:23572278

  4. Biphasic Kinetic Behavior of E. coli WrbA, an FMN-Dependent NAD(P)H:Quinone Oxidoreductase

    PubMed Central

    Kishko, Iryna; Harish, Balasubramanian; Zayats, Vasilina; Reha, David; Tenner, Brian; Beri, Dhananjay; Gustavsson, Tobias; Ettrich, Rüdiger; Carey, Jannette

    2012-01-01

    The E. coli protein WrbA is an FMN-dependent NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase that has been implicated in oxidative defense. Three subunits of the tetrameric enzyme contribute to each of four identical, cavernous active sites that appear to accommodate NAD(P)H or various quinones, but not simultaneously, suggesting an obligate tetramer with a ping-pong mechanism in which NAD departs before oxidized quinone binds. The present work was undertaken to evaluate these suggestions and to characterize the kinetic behavior of WrbA. Steady-state kinetics results reveal that WrbA conforms to a ping-pong mechanism with respect to the constancy of the apparent Vmax to Km ratio with substrate concentration. However, the competitive/non-competitive patterns of product inhibition, though consistent with the general class of bi-substrate reactions, do not exclude a minor contribution from additional forms of the enzyme. NMR results support the presence of additional enzyme forms. Docking and energy calculations find that electron-transfer-competent binding sites for NADH and benzoquinone present severe steric overlap, consistent with the ping-pong mechanism. Unexpectedly, plots of initial velocity as a function of either NADH or benzoquinone concentration present one or two Michaelis-Menten phases depending on the temperature at which the enzyme is held prior to assay. The effect of temperature is reversible, suggesting an intramolecular conformational process. WrbA shares these and other details of its kinetic behavior with mammalian DT-diaphorase, an FAD-dependent NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase. An extensive literature review reveals several other enzymes with two-plateau kinetic plots, but in no case has a molecular explanation been elucidated. Preliminary sedimentation velocity analysis of WrbA indicates a large shift in size of the multimer with temperature, suggesting that subunit assembly coupled to substrate binding may underlie the two-plateau behavior. An additional aim of this report is to bring under wider attention the apparently widespread phenomenon of two-plateau Michaelis-Menten plots. PMID:22952804

  5. The Rnf Complex of Clostridium ljungdahlii Is a Proton-Translocating Ferredoxin:NAD(+) Oxidoreductase Essential for Autotrophic Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Tremblay, PL; Zhang, T; Dar, SA; Leang, C; Lovley, DR

    2012-12-26

    It has been predicted that the Rnf complex of Clostridium ljungdahlii is a proton-translocating ferredoxin: NAD(+) oxidoreductase which contributes to ATP synthesis by an H+-translocating ATPase under both autotrophic and heterotrophic growth conditions. The recent development of methods for genetic manipulation of C. ljungdahlii made it possible to evaluate the possible role of the Rnf complex in energy conservation. Disruption of the C. ljungdahlii rnf operon inhibited autotrophic growth. ATP synthesis, proton gradient, membrane potential, and proton motive force collapsed in the Rnf-deficient mutant with H-2 as the electron source and CO2 as the electron acceptor. Heterotrophic growth was hindered in the absence of a functional Rnf complex, as ATP synthesis, proton gradient, and proton motive force were significantly reduced with fructose as the electron donor. Growth of the Rnf-deficient mutant was also inhibited when no source of fixed nitrogen was provided. These results demonstrate that the Rnf complex of C. ljungdahlii is responsible for translocation of protons across the membrane to elicit energy conservation during acetogenesis and is a multifunctional device also implicated in nitrogen fixation. IMPORTANCE Mechanisms for energy conservation in the acetogen Clostridium ljungdahlii are of interest because of its potential value as a chassis for the production of biocommodities with novel electron donors such as carbon monoxide, syngas, and electrons derived from electrodes. Characterizing the components implicated in the chemiosmotic ATP synthesis during acetogenesis by C. ljungdahlii is a prerequisite for the development of highly productive strains. The Rnf complex has been considered the prime candidate to be the pump responsible for the formation of an ion gradient coupled with ATP synthesis in multiple acetogens. However, experimental evidence for a proton-pumping Rnf complex has been lacking. This study establishes the C. ljungdahlii Rnf complex as a proton-translocating ferredoxin: NAD(+) oxidoreductase and demonstrates that C. ljungdahlii has the potential of becoming a model organism to study proton translocation, electron transport, and other functions of the Rnf complex in energy conservation or other processes.

  6. Mechanistic studies of the biosynthesis of 3,6-dideoxyhexoses in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Purification and stereochemical analysis of CDP-D-glucose oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Yu, Y; Russell, R N; Thorson, J S; Liu, L D; Liu, H W

    1992-03-25

    An NAD(+)-dependent CDP-D-glucose oxidoreductase which catalyzes the first step of the biosynthesis of CDP-ascarylose (CDP-3,6-dideoxy-L-arabino-hexose), converting CDP-D-glucose to CDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose, was isolated from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. A protocol consisting of DEAE-cellulose, Matrex Blue-A, hydroxylapatite, DEAE-Sephadex, Sephadex G-100, and NAD(+)-agarose column chromatography was used to purify this enzyme 6000-fold to homogeneity. This enzyme consists of two identical subunits, each with a molecular weight of 42,500. Using CDP-D-glucose as the substrate, the Km and Vmax of this catalysis were determined to be 222 microM and 8.3 mumols mg-1 min-1, respectively. Unlike most other oxidoreductases of its class which have a tightly bound NAD+, this highly purified CDP-D-glucose oxidoreductase showed an absolute requirement of NAD+ for its activity. Using chemically synthesized (6S)- and (6R)-CDP-D-[4-2H,6-3H]glucose as substrates, a stereochemical analysis showed this enzymatic reaction involves an intramolecular hydrogen migration from C-4 to C-6, and the displacement of C-6 hydroxyl group by the C-4 hydrogen occurs with inversion. Thus, despite the low cofactor affinity, this enzyme undergoes a mechanism consistent with that followed by other members of its type. Such a mechanistic and stereochemical convergency found for all sugar oxidoreductases so far characterized suggests the presence of a common progenitor of this class of enzyme. PMID:1556102

  7. NRH:Quinone Oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2) Protein Competes with the 20 S Proteasome to Stabilize Transcription Factor CCAAT Enhancer-binding Protein α (C/EBPα), Leading to Protection against γ Radiation-induced Myeloproliferative Disease*

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Junkang; Patrick, Brad Allen; Jaiswal, Anil K.

    2013-01-01

    NRH:quinone oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2) is a flavoprotein that protects cells against radiation and chemical-induced oxidative stress. Disruption of the NQO2 gene in mice leads to γ radiation-induced myeloproliferative diseases. In this report, we showed that the 20 S proteasome and NQO2 both interact with myeloid differentiation factor CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα). The interaction of the 20 S proteasome with C/EBPα led to the degradation of C/EBPα. NQO2, in the presence of its cofactor NRH, protected C/EBPα against 20 S degradation. Deletion and site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that NQO2 and 20 S competed for the same binding region of S(268)GAGAGKAKKSV(279) in C/EBPα. Exposure of mice and HL-60 cells to γ radiation enhanced the levels of NQO2, which led to an increased NQO2 interaction with C/EBPα and decreased 20 S interaction with C/EBPα. NQO2 stabilization of C/EBPα was independent of NQO1, even though both interacted with the same C/EBPα domain. NQO2−/− mice, deficient in NQO2, failed to stabilize C/EBPα. This contributed to the development of γ radiation-induced myeloproliferative disease in NQO2−/− mice. PMID:24142791

  8. Inhibition of pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase from Trichomonas vaginalis by pyruvate and its analogues. Comparison with the pyruvate decarboxylase component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, K P; Leadlay, P F; Lowe, P N

    1990-01-01

    Pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase and the pyruvate dehydrogenase multi-enzyme complex both catalyse the CoA-dependent oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate but differ in size, subunit composition and mechanism. Comparison of the pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase from the protozoon Trichomonas vaginalis and the pyruvate dehydrogenase component of the Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase complex shows that both are inactivated by incubation with pyruvate under aerobic conditions in the absence of co-substrates. However, only the former is irreversibly inhibited by incubation with hydroxypyruvate, and only the latter by incubation with bromopyruvate. Pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase activity is potently, but reversibly, inhibited by addition of bromopyruvate in the presence of CoA, and it is suggested that the mechanism involves formation of an adduct between CoA and bromopyruvate in the active site of the enzyme. It is proposed that both enzymes are inactivated by pyruvate through a mechanism involving oxidation of an enzyme-bound thiamin pyrophosphate/substrate adduct to form a tightly bound inhibitory species, possibly thiamin thiazolone pyrophosphate as hypothesized by Sumegi & Alkonyi. PMID:2188649

  9. A New Class of Tungsten-Containing Oxidoreductase in Caldicellulosiruptor, a Genus of Plant Biomass-Degrading Thermophilic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Israel M.; Rubinstein, Gabe M.; Lipscomb, Gina L.; Basen, Mirko; Schut, Gerrit J.; Rhaesa, Amanda M.; Lancaster, W. Andrew; Poole, Farris L.; Kelly, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Caldicellulosiruptor bescii grows optimally at 78°C and is able to decompose high concentrations of lignocellulosic plant biomass without the need for thermochemical pretreatment. C. bescii ferments both C5 and C6 sugars primarily to hydrogen gas, lactate, acetate, and CO2 and is of particular interest for metabolic engineering applications given the recent availability of a genetic system. Developing optimal strains for technological use requires a detailed understanding of primary metabolism, particularly when the goal is to divert all available reductant (electrons) toward highly reduced products such as biofuels. During an analysis of the C. bescii genome sequence for oxidoreductase-type enzymes, evidence was uncovered to suggest that the primary redox metabolism of C. bescii has a completely uncharacterized aspect involving tungsten, a rarely used element in biology. An active tungsten utilization pathway in C. bescii was demonstrated by the heterologous production of a tungsten-requiring, aldehyde-oxidizing enzyme (AOR) from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. Furthermore, C. bescii also contains a tungsten-based AOR-type enzyme, here termed XOR, which is phylogenetically unique, representing a completely new member of the AOR tungstoenzyme family. Moreover, in C. bescii, XOR represents ca. 2% of the cytoplasmic protein. XOR is proposed to play a key, but as yet undetermined, role in the primary redox metabolism of this cellulolytic microorganism. PMID:26276113

  10. Regulation of enzyme activity of alcohol dehydrogenase through its interactions with pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase in Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Wang, Quanhui; Tong, Wei; Bai, Xue; Chen, Zhen; Zhao, Jingjing; Zhang, Jiyuan; Liu, Siqi

    2012-01-20

    Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) from thermophilic microorganisms are interesting enzymes that have their potential applications in biotechnology and potentially provide insight into the mechanisms of action of thermo-tolerant proteins. The molecular mechanisms of ADHs under thermal stress in vivo have yet to be explored. Herein, we employed a proteomic strategy to survey the possible interactions of secondary-ADH (2-ADH) with other proteins in Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis (T. tengcongensis) cultured at 75°C and found that 2-ADH, pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) and several glycolytic enzymes coexisted in a protein complex. Using anion exchange chromatography, the elution profile indicated that the native 2-ADH was present in two forms, PFOR-bound and PFOR-free. Immuno-precipitation and pull down analysis further validated the interactions between 2-ADH and PFOR. The kinetic behaviours of 2-ADH either in the recombinant or native form were evaluated with different substrates. The enzyme activity of 2-ADH was inhibited in a non-competitive mode by PFOR, implying the interaction of 2-ADH and PFOR negatively regulated alcohol formation. In T. tengcongensis, PFOR is an enzyme complex located at the upstream of 2-ADH in the alcohol generation pathway. These findings, therefore, offered a plausible mechanism for how alcohol metabolism is regulated by hetero-interactions between 2-ADH and PFOR, especially in anaerobic thermophiles. PMID:22222371

  11. NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 inhibits the proteasomal degradation of homocysteine-induced endoplasmic reticulum protein.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Tomoji; Tanabe-Fujimura, Chiaki; Fujita, Yu; Abe, Chihiro; Nanakida, Yoshino; Zou, Kun; Liu, Junjun; Liu, Shuyu; Nakajima, Toshihiro; Komano, Hiroto

    2016-05-13

    Homocysteine-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein (Herp) is an ER stress-inducible key regulatory component of ER-associated degradation (ERAD) that has been implicated in insulin hypersecretion in diabetic mouse models. Herp expression is tightly regulated. Additionally, Herp is a highly labile protein and interacts with various proteins, which are characteristic features of ubiquitinated protein. Previously, we reported that ubiquitination is not required for Herp degradation. In addition, we found that the lysine residues of Herp (which are ubiquitinated by E3 ubiquitin ligase) are not sufficient for regulation of Herp degradation. In this study, we found that NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1)-mediated targeting of Herp to the proteasome was involved in Herp degradation. In addition, we found that Herp protein levels were markedly elevated in synoviolin-null cells. The E3 ubiquitin ligase synoviolin is a central component of ERAD and is involved in the degradation of nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2), which regulates cellular reactive oxygen species. Additionally, NQO1 is a target of Nrf2. Thus, our findings indicated that NQO1 could stabilize Herp protein expression via indirect regulation of synoviolin. PMID:27084451

  12. Crystallization of the NADH-oxidizing domain of the Na{sup +}-translocating NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase from Vibrio cholerae

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Minli; Türk, Karin; Diez, Joachim; Grütter, Markus G.; Fritz, Günter; Steuber, Julia

    2006-02-01

    The FAD domain of the NqrF subunit from the Na{sup +}-translocating NADH dehydrogenase from V. cholerae has been purified and crystallized. A complete data set was recorded at 3.1 Å. The Na{sup +}-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na{sup +}-NQR) from pathogenic and marine bacteria is a respiratory complex that couples the exergonic oxidation of NADH by quinone to the transport of Na{sup +} across the membrane. The NqrF subunit oxidizes NADH and transfers the electrons to other redox cofactors in the enzyme. The FAD-containing domain of NqrF has been expressed, purified and crystallized. The purified NqrF FAD domain exhibited high rates of NADH oxidation and contained stoichiometric amounts of the FAD cofactor. Initial crystallization of the flavin domain was achieved by the sitting-drop technique using a Cartesian MicroSys4000 robot. Optimization of the crystallization conditions yielded yellow hexagonal crystals with dimensions of 30 × 30 × 70 µm. The protein mainly crystallizes in long hexagonal needles with a diameter of up to 30 µm. Crystals diffract to 2.8 Å and belong to space group P622, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 145.3, c = 90.2 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°.

  13. Identification and Characterization of the Rhizobium sp. Strain GIN611 Glycoside Oxidoreductase Resulting in the Deglycosylation of Ginsenosides

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Mi; Kim, Juhan; Seo, Joo-Hyun; Park, Jun-Seong; Kim, Duck-Hee

    2012-01-01

    Using enrichment culture, Rhizobium sp. strain GIN611 was isolated as having activity for deglycosylation of a ginsenoside, compound K (CK). The purified heterodimeric protein complex from Rhizobium sp. GIN611 consisted of two subunits with molecular masses of 63.5 kDa and 17.5 kDa. In the genome, the coding sequence for the small subunit was located right after the sequence for the large subunit, with one nucleotide overlapping. The large subunit showed CK oxidation activity, and the deglycosylation of compound K was performed via oxidation of ginsenoside glucose by glycoside oxidoreductase. Coexpression of the small subunit helped soluble expression of the large subunit in recombinant Escherichia coli. The purified large subunit also showed oxidation activity against other ginsenoside compounds, such as Rb1, Rb2, Rb3, Rc, F2, CK, Rh2, Re, F1, and the isoflavone daidzin, but at a much lower rate. When oxidized CK was extracted and incubated in phosphate buffer with or without enzyme, (S)-protopanaxadiol [PPD(S)] was detected in both cases, which suggests that deglycosylation of oxidized glucose is spontaneous. PMID:22020506

  14. Functional Characterization and Partial Purification of the Ubiquinol-Cytochrome c Oxidoreductase from Higher Plant Mitochondria (Helianthus tuberosus).

    PubMed

    Esposti, M D; Flamini, E; Zannoni, D

    1985-03-01

    The functional and thermodynamic characteristics of the ubiquinolcytochrome (Cyt) c oxidoreductase in a Cyt b/c(1)-enriched fraction (defined S-1) isolated from Jerusalem artichoke mitochondria (JAM) (Helianthus tuberosus), have been analyzed. Fraction S-1, obtained through deoxycholate-KCl fractionation procedure, contained one Cyt of c type (formally c(1) with Em(7.0) of +240 millivolts), two b type Cyt with Em(7.0) values of +100 and -25 millivolts, ferredoxin-like centers presumably linked to succinic- and NADH-dehydrogenases, and a Rieske-type iron sulfur center (g(y) = 1.89). The ubiquinol-dependent Cyt c reduction by fraction S-1 showed sensitivity to antimycin A, myxothiazol, and n-2-hepthyl-1-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide with I(50) of 12 nanomolar, 30 nanomolar, and 0.1 micromolar, respectively. Oxidation-induced extra b type reduction, a widespread phenomenon of bacterial and mitochondrial respiratory systems, has also been observed in both intact mitochondria and S-1 fraction. The data seem to blur previous experiments in which both spectral and functional differences between higher plant and mammalian mitochondria have been underlined. PMID:16664130

  15. Overproduction of stromal ferredoxin:NADPH oxidoreductase in H2O 2-accumulating Brassica napus leaf protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Rajesh Kumar; Satoh, Mamoru; Kado, Sayaka; Mishina, Kohei; Anma, Misato; Enami, Kazuhiko; Hanaoka, Mitsumasa; Watanabe, Masami

    2014-12-01

    The isolation of Brassica napus leaf protoplasts induces reactive oxygen species generation and accumulation in the chloroplasts. An activated isoform of NADPH oxidase-like protein was detected in the protoplasts and the protoplast chloroplasts. The purpose of this study is to define the NADH oxidase-like activities in the H2O2-accumulating protoplast chloroplasts. Proteomic analysis of this protein revealed an isoform of ferredoxin:NADPH oxidoreductase (FNR1). While leaves highly expressed the LFNR1 transcript, protoplasts decreased the expression significantly. The protoplast chloroplasts predominantly expressed soluble FNR1 proteins. While the albino leaves of white kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala f. tricolor cv. white pigeon) expressed FNR1 protein at the same level as B. napus leaves, the protoplasts of albino leaves displayed reduced FNR1 expression. The albino leaf protoplasts of white kale generated and accumulated H2O2 in the cytoplasm and on the plasma membrane. Intracellular pH showed that the chloroplasts were acidic, which suggest that excess H(+) was generated in chloroplast stroma. NADPH content of the protoplast chloroplasts increased by over sixfold during the isolation of protoplasts. This study reports a possibility of mediating electrons to oxygen by an overproduced soluble FNR, and suggests that the FNR has a function in utilizing any excess reducing power of NADPH. PMID:25255860

  16. Insights into MHC class I peptide loading from the structure of the Tapasin-ERp57 thiol oxidoreductase heterodimer

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, G.; Wearsch, P.A.; Peaper, D.R.; Cresswell, P.; Reinisch, K.M.

    2009-03-02

    Tapasin is a glycoprotein critical for loading major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules with high-affinity peptides. It functions within the multimeric peptide-loading complex (PLC) as a disulfide-linked, stable heterodimer with the thiol oxidoreductase ERp57, and this covalent interaction is required to support optimal PLC activity. Here, we present the 2.6 {angstrom} resolution structure of the tapasin-ERp57 core of the PLC. The structure revealed that tapasin interacts with both ERp57 catalytic domains, accounting for the stability of the heterodimer, and provided an example of a protein disulfide isomerase family member interacting with substrate. Mutational analysis identified a conserved surface on tapasin that interacted with MHC class I molecules and was critical for peptide loading and editing functions of the tapasin-ERp57 heterodimer. By combining the tapasin-ERp57 structure with those of other defined PLC components, we present a molecular model that illuminates the processes involved in MHC class I peptide loading.

  17. Collapse of the native structure caused by a single amino acid exchange in human NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase

    PubMed Central

    Uhl, Michael K.; Binter, Alexandra; Pulido, Sergio A.; Saf, Robert; Zangger, Klaus; Gruber, Karl; Macheroux, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Human NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is essential for the antioxidant defense system, stabilization of tumor suppressors (e.g. p53, p33, and p73), and activation of quinone-based chemotherapeutics. Overexpression of NQO1 in many solid tumors, coupled with its ability to convert quinone-based chemotherapeutics into potent cytotoxic compounds, have made it a very attractive target for anticancer drugs. A naturally occurring single-nucleotide polymorphism (C609T) leading to an amino acid exchange (P187S) has been implicated in the development of various cancers and poor survival rates following anthracyclin-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Despite its importance for cancer prediction and therapy, the exact molecular basis for the loss of function in NQO1 P187S is currently unknown. Therefore, we solved the crystal structure of NQO1 P187S. Surprisingly, this structure is almost identical to NQO1. Employing a combination of NMR spectroscopy and limited proteolysis experiments, we demonstrated that the single amino acid exchange destabilized interactions between the core and C-terminus, leading to depopulation of the native structure in solution. This collapse of the native structure diminished cofactor affinity and led to a less competent FAD-binding pocket, thus severely compromising the catalytic capacity of the variant protein. Hence, our findings provide a rationale for the loss of function in NQO1 P187S with a frequently occurring single-nucleotide polymorphism. PMID:25143260

  18. The Crystal Structure and Mechanism of an Unusual Oxidoreductase, GilR, Involved in Gilvocarcin V Biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Noinaj, Nicholas; Bosserman, Mary A.; Schickli, M. Alexandra; Piszczek, Grzegorz; Kharel, Madan K.; Pahari, Pallab; Buchanan, Susan K.; Rohr, Jürgen

    2012-11-26

    GilR is a recently identified oxidoreductase that catalyzes the terminal step of gilvocarcin V biosynthesis and is a unique enzyme that establishes the lactone core of the polyketide-derived gilvocarcin chromophore. Gilvocarcin-type compounds form a small distinct family of anticancer agents that are involved in both photo-activated DNA-alkylation and histone H3 cross-linking. High resolution crystal structures of apoGilR and GilR in complex with its substrate pregilvocarcin V reveals that GilR belongs to the small group of a relatively new type of the vanillyl-alcohol oxidase flavoprotein family characterized by bicovalently tethered cofactors. GilR was found as a dimer, with the bicovalently attached FAD cofactor mediated through His-65 and Cys-125. Subsequent mutagenesis and functional assays indicate that Tyr-445 may be involved in reaction catalysis and in mediating the covalent attachment of FAD, whereas Tyr-448 serves as an essential residue initiating the catalysis by swinging away from the active site to accommodate binding of the 6R-configured substrate and consequently abstracting the proton of the hydroxyl residue of the substrate hemiacetal 6-OH group. These studies lay the groundwork for future enzyme engineering to broaden the substrate specificity of this bottleneck enzyme of the gilvocarcin biosynthetic pathway for the development of novel anti-cancer therapeutics.

  19. Molecular and biochemical characterization of bifunctional pyruvate decarboxylases and pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductases from Thermotoga maritima and Thermotoga hypogea.

    PubMed

    Eram, Mohammad S; Wong, Alton; Oduaran, Erica; Ma, Kesen

    2015-12-01

    Hyperthermophilic bacteria Thermotoga maritima and Thermotoga hypogea produce ethanol as a metabolic end product, which is resulted from acetaldehyde reduction catalysed by an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). However, the enzyme that is involved in the production of acetaldehyde from pyruvate is not well characterized. An oxygen sensitive and coenzyme A-dependent pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) activity was found to be present in cell free extracts of T. maritima and T. hypogea. Both enzymes were purified and found to have pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (POR) activity, indicating their bifunctionality. Both PDC and POR activities from each of the purified enzymes were characterized in regards to their optimal assay conditions including pH dependency, oxygen sensitivity, thermal stability, temperature dependency and kinetic parameters. The close relatedness of the PORs that was shown by sequence analysis could be an indication of the presence of such bifunctionality in other hyperthermophilic bacteria. This is the first report of a bifunctional PDC/POR enzyme in hyperthermophilic bacteria. The PDC and the previously reported ADHs are most likely the key enzymes catalysing the production of ethanol from pyruvate in bacterial hyperthermophiles. PMID:26032540

  20. The secretome of Trametes versicolor grown on tomato juice medium and purification of the secreted oxidoreductases including a versatile peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Carabajal, Maira; Kellner, Harald; Levin, Laura; Jehmlich, Nico; Hofrichter, Martin; Ullrich, Ren

    2013-10-10

    The present work was carried out with the aim to analyze the secretome of Trametes versicolor BAFC 2234 grown on tomato juice medium supplemented with copper and manganese. T. versicolor BAFC 2234 was selected among diverse wood dwelling agaricomycetes from Argentina by its ability to cause a strong white rot on hardwood and in addition to show high tolerance toward phenolic compounds. A considerable number of the identified proteins were related to the degradation/modification of lignocelluloses. Hydrolases, peroxidases and phenoloxidases were the most abundant enzymes produced under the above-mentioned culture conditions. The lignin-modifying oxidoreductases laccase, manganese peroxidase (MnP) and versatile peroxidase (VP) were successfully purified - the latter for the first time from T. versicolor. The native VP protein has a molecular mass of 45kDa and an isoelectric point of pH 3.7. The study clearly shows that complex plant-based media being rich in phenolics, such as tomato juice, can stimulate the secretion of a broad set of extracellular lignocellulolytic enzymes. Using such natural products as fungal culture media may give the opportunity to investigate plant biomass decomposition as well as the biodegradation of organic pollutants in an environment close to nature. PMID:23948257

  1. Depletion of the thiol oxidoreductase ERp57 in tumor cells inhibits proliferation and increases sensitivity to ionizing radiation and chemotherapeutics.

    PubMed

    Hussmann, Melanie; Janke, Kirsten; Kranz, Philip; Neumann, Fabian; Mersch, Evgenija; Baumann, Melanie; Goepelt, Kirsten; Brockmeier, Ulf; Metzen, Eric

    2015-11-17

    Rapidly growing tumor cells must synthesize proteins at a high rate and therefore depend on an efficient folding and quality control system for nascent secretory proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The ER resident thiol oxidoreductase ERp57 plays an important role in disulfide bond formation. Lentiviral, doxycycline-inducible ERp57 knockdown was combined with irradiation and treatment with chemotherapeutic agents. The knockdown of ERp57 significantly enhanced the apoptotic response to anticancer treatment in HCT116 colon cancer cells via a p53-dependent mechanism. Instead of a direct interaction with p53, depletion of ERp57 induced cell death via a selective activation of the PERK branch of the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). In contrast, apoptosis was reduced in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells harboring mutant p53. Nevertheless, we observed a strong reduction of proliferation in response to ERp57 knockdown in both cell lines regardless of the p53 status. Depletion of ERp57 reduced the phosphorylation activity of the mTOR-complex1 (mTORC1) as demonstrated by reduction of p70S6K phosphorylation. Our data demonstrate that ERp57 is a promising target for anticancer therapy due to synergistic p53-dependent induction of apoptosis and p53-independent inhibition of proliferation. PMID:26513173

  2. A substrate-independent, 14:3:3 protein-mediated plastid import pathway of NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase A

    PubMed Central

    Schemenewitz, Andreas; Pollmann, Stephan; Reinbothe, Christiane; Reinbothe, Steffen

    2007-01-01

    Plastids are semiautonomous organelles that contain only limited coding information in their own DNA. Because most of their genome was transferred to the nucleus after their endosymbiotic origin, plastids must import the major part of their protein constituents from the cytosol. The exact role of cytosolic targeting factors in the regulation of plastid protein import has not been determined. Here, we report that the nucleus-encoded NADPH:protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) oxidoreductase A plastid precursor (pPORA) can use two different plastid import pathways that differ by the requirements for cytosolic 14:3:3 proteins and Hsp70. pPORA synthesized in a wheat germ lysate segregated into different precursor fractions. While import of free pPORA and only Hsp70-complexed pPORA was Pchlide-dependent and involved the previously identified Pchlide-dependent translocon, 14:3:3 protein- and Hsp70-complexed pPORA was transported into Pchlide-free chloroplasts through the Toc75-containing standard translocon at the outer chloroplast membrane/translocon at the inner chloroplast membrane machinery. A 14:3:3 protein binding site was identified in the mature region of the 35S-pPORA, which governed 14:3:3 protein- and Hsp70-mediated, Pchlide-independent plastid import. Collectively, our results reveal that the import of pPORA into the plastids is tightly regulated and involves different cytosolic targeting factors and plastid envelope translocon complexes. PMID:17483469

  3. Inactivation of corticosteroids in intestinal mucosa by 11 beta-hydroxysteroid: NADP oxidoreductase (EC 1. 1. 1. 146)

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, A.F.; Anderson, F.H.

    1983-10-01

    Activity of the enzyme 11 beta-hydroxysteroid:NADP oxidoreductase (EC 1.1.1.146) in human intestinal mucosa was determined by incubating scraped mucosa with /sup 3/H-cortisone and /sup 14/C-cortisol; these steroids were then extracted, separated chromatographically, and the radioactivity assayed to determine simultaneously both reductase and dehydrogenase activities. This was the only significant metabolic alteration which the substrate underwent. Only two cases had slight (5 and 13%) reductase activity. In 35 patients, 16 male and 19 female, including seven cases of Crohn's disease, three ulcerative colitis, five diverticulitis, two undergoing surgery for repair of injuries and 18 for carcinoma of colon or rectum, cortisol was converted to cortisone in 15 min with a wide range of values distributed uniformly up to 85% dehydrogenation, with a mean of 42%. When tissue homogenates were fortified with coenzymes, excess NADPH lowered dehydrogenase activity 81%; excess NADP increased dehydrogenase activity 2-fold in three cases. It is possible that a value is characteristic of an individual but perhaps more likely enzyme activity varies with metabolic events involving changes in the coenzyme levels in mucosa, and a random sampling might be expected to yield such a distribution of values. In any event, where activity is high most of the cortisol is inactivated within minutes. It is suggested that synthetic corticoids which escape such metabolic alteration might, except during pregnancy, prove superior in the treatment of conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease.

  4. Structure of Escherichia coli Succinate:Quinone Oxidoreductase with an Occupied and Empty Quinone-binding Site*

    PubMed Central

    Ruprecht, Jonathan; Yankovskaya, Victoria; Maklashina, Elena; Iwata, So; Cecchini, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Three new structures of Escherichia coli succinate-quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) have been solved. One with the specific quinone-binding site (Q-site) inhibitor carboxin present has been solved at 2.4 Å resolution and reveals how carboxin inhibits the Q-site. The other new structures are with the Q-site inhibitor pentachlorophenol and with an empty Q-site. These structures reveal important details unresolved in earlier structures. Comparison of the new SQR structures shows how subtle rearrangements of the quinone-binding site accommodate the different inhibitors. The position of conserved water molecules near the quinone binding pocket leads to a reassessment of possible water-mediated proton uptake networks that complete reduction of ubiquinone. The dicarboxylate-binding site in the soluble domain of SQR is highly similar to that seen in high resolution structures of avian SQR (PDB 2H88) and soluble flavocytochrome c (PDB 1QJD) showing mechanistically significant structural features conserved across prokaryotic and eukaryotic SQRs. PMID:19710024

  5. Dark-operative protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase generates substrate radicals by an iron-sulphur cluster in bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Nomata, Jiro; Kondo, Toru; Mizoguchi, Tadashi; Tamiaki, Hitoshi; Itoh, Shigeru; Fujita, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthesis converts solar energy to chemical energy using chlorophylls (Chls). In a late stage of biosynthesis of Chls, dark-operative protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) oxidoreductase (DPOR), a nitrogenase-like enzyme, reduces the C17 = C18 double bond of Pchlide and drastically changes the spectral properties suitable for photosynthesis forming the parental chlorin ring for Chl a. We previously proposed that the spatial arrangement of the proton donors determines the stereospecificity of the Pchlide reduction based on the recently resolved structure of the DPOR catalytic component, NB-protein. However, it was not clear how the two-electron and two-proton transfer events are coordinated in the reaction. In this study, we demonstrate that DPOR initiates a single electron transfer reaction from a [4Fe-4S]-cluster (NB-cluster) to Pchlide, generating Pchlide anion radicals followed by a single proton transfer, and then, further electron/proton transfer steps transform the anion radicals into chlorophyllide (Chlide). Thus, DPOR is a unique iron-sulphur enzyme to form substrate radicals followed by sequential proton- and electron-transfer steps with the protein folding very similar to that of nitrogenase. This novel radical-mediated reaction supports the biosynthesis of Chl in a wide variety of photosynthetic organisms. PMID:24965831

  6. Isolation and characterization of a Chinese hamster ovary cell line deficient in fatty alcohol:NAD sup + oxidoreductase activity

    SciTech Connect

    James, P.F.; Lee, J. ); Rizzo, W.B.; Zoeller, R.A. )

    1990-08-01

    The authors have isolated a mutant Chinese hamster ovary cell line that is defective in long-chain fatty alcohol oxidation. The ability of the mutant cells to convert labeled hexadecanol to the corresponding fatty acid in vivo was reduced to 5% of the parent strain. Whole-cell homogenates from the mutant strain, FAA.1, were deficient in long-chain fatty alcohol:NAD{sup +} oxidoreductase activity, which catalyzes the oxidation of hexadecanol to hexadecanoic acid, although the intermediate fatty aldehyde was formed normally. A direct measurement of fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase showed that the FAA.1, strain was defective in this component of FAO activity. FAA.1 is a two-stage mutant that was selected from a previously described parent strain, ZR-82, which is defective in ether lipid biosynthesis and peroxisome assembly. Because of combined defects in ether lipid biosynthesis and fatty alcohol oxidation, the ability of the FAA.1 cells to incorporate hexadecanol into complex lipids was greatly impaired, resulting in a 60-fold increase in cellular fatty alcohol levels. As the FAO deficiency in FAA.1 cells appears to be identical to the defect associated with the human genetic disorder Sjoegren-Larsson syndrome, the FAA.1 cell line may be useful in studying this disease.

  7. Why is the molybdenum-substituted tungsten-dependent formaldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase not active? A quantum chemical study.

    PubMed

    Liao, Rong-Zhen

    2013-02-01

    Formaldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase is a tungsten-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative degradation of formaldehyde to formic acid. The molybdenum ion can be incorporated into the active site to displace the tungsten ion, but is without activity. Density functional calculations have been employed to understand the incapacitation of the enzyme caused by molybdenum substitution. The calculations show that the enzyme with molybdenum (Mo-FOR) has higher redox potential than that with tungsten, which makes the formation of the Mo(VI)=O complex endothermic by 14 kcal/mol. Following our previously suggested mechanism for this enzyme, the formaldehyde substrate oxidation was also investigated for Mo-FOR using the same quantum-mechanics-only model, except for the displacement of tungsten by molybdenum. The calculations demonstrate that formaldehyde oxidation occurs via a sequential two-step mechanism. Similarly to the tungsten-catalyzed reaction, the Mo(VI)=O species performs the nucleophilic attack on the formaldehyde carbon, followed by proton transfer in concert with two-electron reduction of the metal center. The first step is rate-limiting, with a total barrier of 28.2 kcal/mol. The higher barrier is mainly due to the large energy penalty for the formation of the Mo(VI)=O species. PMID:23183892

  8. Depletion of the thiol oxidoreductase ERp57 in tumor cells inhibits proliferation and increases sensitivity to ionizing radiation and chemotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Kranz, Philip; Neumann, Fabian; Mersch, Evgenija; Baumann, Melanie; Goepelt, Kirsten; Brockmeier, Ulf; Metzen, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly growing tumor cells must synthesize proteins at a high rate and therefore depend on an efficient folding and quality control system for nascent secretory proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The ER resident thiol oxidoreductase ERp57 plays an important role in disulfide bond formation. Lentiviral, doxycycline-inducible ERp57 knockdown was combined with irradiation and treatment with chemotherapeutic agents. The knockdown of ERp57 significantly enhanced the apoptotic response to anticancer treatment in HCT116 colon cancer cells via a p53-dependent mechanism. Instead of a direct interaction with p53, depletion of ERp57 induced cell death via a selective activation of the PERK branch of the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). In contrast, apoptosis was reduced in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells harboring mutant p53. Nevertheless, we observed a strong reduction of proliferation in response to ERp57 knockdown in both cell lines regardless of the p53 status. Depletion of ERp57 reduced the phosphorylation activity of the mTOR-complex1 (mTORC1) as demonstrated by reduction of p70S6K phosphorylation. Our data demonstrate that ERp57 is a promising target for anticancer therapy due to synergistic p53-dependent induction of apoptosis and p53-independent inhibition of proliferation. PMID:26513173

  9. Acyclic monoterpene primary alcohol:NADP+ oxidoreductase of Rauwolfia serpentina cells: the key enzyme in biosynthesis of monoterpene alcohols.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, H; Esaki, N; Nakai, S; Hashimoto, K; Uesato, S; Soda, K; Fujita, T

    1991-02-01

    Acyclic monoterpene primary alcohol:NADP+ oxidoreductase, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of monoterpene alcohols in plants, is unstable and has been only poorly characterized. However we have established conditions which stabilize the enzyme from Rauwolfia serpentina cells, and then purified it to homogeneity. It is a monomer with a molecular weight of about 44,000 and contains zinc ions. Various branched-chain allylic primary alcohols such as nerol, geraniol, and 10-hydroxygeraniol were substrates, but ethanol was inert. The enzyme exclusively requires NADP+ or NADPH as the cofactor. Steady-state kinetic studies showed that the nerol dehydrogenation proceeds by an ordered Bi-Bi mechanism. NADP+ binds the enzyme first and then NADPH is the second product released from it. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of the reaction products showed that 10-hydroxygeraniol undergoes a reversible dehydrogenation to produce 10-oxogeraniol or 10-hydroxygeranial, which are oxidized further to give 10-oxogeranial, the direct precursor of iridodial. The enzyme has been found to exclusively transfer the pro-R hydrogen of NADPH to neral. The N-terminal sequence of the first 21 amino acids revealed no significant homology with those of various other proteins including the NAD(P)(+)-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases registered in a protein data bank. PMID:1864846

  10. Investigation of a functional quinine oxidoreductase (NQO2) polymorphism and cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Payton, Antony; Miyajima, Fabio; Ollier, William; Rabbitt, Patrick; Pickles, Andrew; Weiss, Volkmar; Pendleton, Neil; Horan, Michael

    2010-02-01

    NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 2 (NQO2) is a quinone reductase whose functions include the reduction of both oxidative stress during the redox cycle and neurotoxicity caused by the metabolism of catecholamines. We have investigated a functional non-synonymous exon 3 single nucleotide polymorphism (rs1143684) within the NQO2 gene for association with cognitive decline using a cohort of 722 community-dwelling older individuals aged 50 years and over. The volunteers had completed tests that measured fluid intelligence, processing speed, immediate/delayed verbal recall and semantic memory. We observed a nominal significant association between this polymorphism and the trajectory of delayed memory recall over time (p=0.029). No other associations were seen with the decline of other cognitive abilities. PMID:18538895

  11. Copper radical oxidases and related extracellular oxidoreductases of wood-decay Agaricomycetes.

    PubMed

    Kersten, Phil; Cullen, Dan

    2014-11-01

    Extracellular peroxide generation, a key component of oxidative lignocellulose degradation, has been attributed to various enzymes including the copper radical oxidases. Encoded by a family of structurally related sequences, the genes are widely distributed among wood decay fungi including three recently completed polypore genomes. In all cases, core catalytic residues are conserved, but five subfamilies are recognized. Glyoxal oxidase, the most intensively studied representative, has been shown physiologically connected to lignin peroxidase. Relatively little is known about structure-function relationships among more recently discovered copper radical oxidases. Nevertheless, differences in substrate preferences have been observed in one case and the proteins have been detected in filtrates of various wood-grown cultures. Such diversity may reflect adaptations to host cell wall composition and changing environmental conditions. PMID:24915038

  12. Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase Influences CYP2B6 Activity in Cyclophosphamide Bioactivation

    PubMed Central

    El-Serafi, Ibrahim; Afsharian, Parvaneh; Moshfegh, Ali; Hassan, Moustapha; Terelius, Ylva

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cyclophosphamide is commonly used as an important component in conditioning prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, a curative treatment for several hematological diseases. Cyclophosphamide is a prodrug activated mainly by cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) in the liver. A high degree of inter- and intra-individual variation in cyclophosphamide kinetics has been reported in several studies. Materials and Methods Hydroxylation of cyclophosphamide was investigated in vitro using three microsomal batches of CYP2B6*1 with different ratios of POR/CYP expression levels. Twenty patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were also included in the study. All patients received an i.v. infusion of cyclophosphamide (60 mg/kg/day, for two days) as a part of their conditioning. Blood samples were collected from each patient before cyclophosphamide infusion, 6 h after the first dose and before and 6 h after the second dose. POR gene expression was measured by mRNA analysis and the pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide and its active metabolite were determined. Results A strong correlation between the in vitro intrinsic clearance of cyclophosphamide and the POR/CYP ratio was found. The apparent Km for CYP2B6.1 was almost constant (3-4 mM), while the CLint values were proportional to the POR/CYP ratio (3-34 μL/min/nmol CYP). In patients, the average expression of the POR gene in blood was significantly (P <0.001) up-regulated after cyclophosphamide infusion, with high inter-individual variations and significant correlation with the concentration ratio of the active metabolite 4-hydroxy-cyclophosphamide/cyclophosphamide. Nine patients were carriers for POR*28; four patients had relatively high POR expression. Conclusions This investigation shows for the first time that POR besides CYP2B6 can influence cyclophosphamide metabolism. Our results indicate that not only CYPs are important, but also POR expression and/or activity may influence cyclophosphamide bioactivation, affecting therapeutic efficacy and treatment related toxicity and hence on clinical outcome. Thus, both POR and CYP genotype and expression levels may have to be taken into account when personalizing treatment schedules to achieve optimal therapeutic drug plasma concentrations of cyclophosphamide. PMID:26544874

  13. Discovery of the first light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase in anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kaschner, Marco; Loeschcke, Anita; Krause, Judith; Minh, Bui Quang; Heck, Achim; Endres, Stephan; Svensson, Vera; Wirtz, Astrid; von Haeseler, Arndt; Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Drepper, Thomas; Krauss, Ulrich

    2014-09-01

    In all photosynthetic organisms, chlorophylls function as light-absorbing photopigments allowing the efficient harvesting of light energy. Chlorophyll biosynthesis recurs in similar ways in anoxygenic phototrophic proteobacteria as well as oxygenic phototrophic cyanobacteria and plants. Here, the biocatalytic conversion of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide is catalysed by evolutionary and structurally distinct protochlorophyllide reductases (PORs) in anoxygenic and oxygenic phototrophs. It is commonly assumed that anoxygenic phototrophs only contain oxygen-sensitive dark-operative PORs (DPORs), which catalyse protochlorophyllide reduction independent of the presence of light. In contrast, oxygenic phototrophs additionally (or exclusively) possess oxygen-insensitive but light-dependent PORs (LPORs). Based on this observation it was suggested that light-dependent protochlorophyllide reduction first emerged as a consequence of increased atmospheric oxygen levels caused by oxygenic photosynthesis in cyanobacteria. Here, we provide experimental evidence for the presence of an LPOR in the anoxygenic phototrophic α-proteobacterium Dinoroseobacter shibae DFL12(T). In vitro and in vivo functional assays unequivocally prove light-dependent protochlorophyllide reduction by this enzyme and reveal that LPORs are not restricted to cyanobacteria and plants. Sequence-based phylogenetic analyses reconcile our findings with current hypotheses about the evolution of LPORs by suggesting that the light-dependent enzyme of D. shibae DFL12(T) might have been obtained from cyanobacteria by horizontal gene transfer. PMID:25039543

  14. An ABA and GA modulated gene expressed in the barley embryo encodes an aldose reductase related protein.

    PubMed Central

    Bartels, D; Engelhardt, K; Roncarati, R; Schneider, K; Rotter, M; Salamini, F

    1991-01-01

    In most higher plants a period of desiccation is the terminal event in embryogenesis. Excised barley embryos acquire desiccation tolerance at a precise developmental stage and cDNA clones have been isolated which are temporally linked with desiccation tolerance. One such clone (pG22-69) with a putative gene product of 34 kd displays high structural homology to mammalian genes encoding an NADPH dependent aldose reductase involved in the synthesis of sorbitol. This first aldose reductase gene of plants is expressed constitutively during embryo maturation and is modulated by the plant hormones abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA). Immunohistochemistry showed that the protein is preferentially expressed in tissues formed at early stages in embryogenesis. Measurements of enzymatic activity indicate that pG22-69 encodes an active aldose reductase. The finding of this reductase activity and the cloning of the corresponding gene supports the existence of a metabolic pathway in plants playing a role in the synthesis of osmolytes like sorbitol. The significance of this work is that genes of related structure and functions are being used in diverse organisms to fulfil stress related biological requirements. Images PMID:1827067

  15. Fermentation enzymes of Giardia intestinalis, pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase and hydrogenase, do not localize to its mitosomes.

    PubMed

    Emelyanov, Victor V; Goldberg, Alina V

    2011-06-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that the so-called remnant organelles of microaerophilic unicellular eukaryotes, hydrogenosomes and mitosomes, are significantly reduced versions of mitochondria. They normally lack most of the classic mitochondrial attributes, such as an electron transport chain and a genome. While hydrogenosomes generate energy by substrate-level phosphorylation along a hydrogen-producing fermentation pathway, involving iron-sulfur-cluster-containing enzymes pyruvate : ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFO) and hydrogenase, whether mitosomes participate in ATP synthesis is currently unknown. Both enzymes were recently described in the mitosome-bearing diplomonad Giardia intestinalis, also shown to produce molecular hydrogen. As published data show that giardial PFO is a membrane-associated enzyme, it could be suspected that PFO and hydrogenase operate in the mitosome, in which case the latter would by definition be a hydrogenosome. Using antibodies against recombinant enzymes of G. intestinalis, it was shown by Western blot analysis of subcellular fractions and by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy of whole cells that neither PFO nor hydrogenase localize to the mitosome, but are mostly found in the cytosol. The giardial mitosome is known to play a role in iron-sulfur cluster assembly and to contain chaperones Cpn60 and mtHsp70, which assist, in particular, in protein import. In mitochondria, transmembrane potential is essential for this complex process. Using MitoTracker Red and organelle-specific antibodies, transmembrane potential could be detected in the Trichomonas vaginalis hydrogenosome, but not in the G. intestinalis mitosome. These results provide further evidence that the Giardia mitosome is one of the most highly reduced mitochondrial homologues. PMID:21349979

  16. The thiol oxidoreductase ERp57 is a component of the MHC class I peptide-loading complex.

    PubMed

    Hughes, E A; Cresswell, P

    1998-06-01

    The proper folding and assembly of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an intricate process involving a number of components. Nascent heavy chains of MHC class I molecules, translocated into the ER membrane, are rapidly glycosylated and bind the transmembrane chaperone calnexin. In humans, after dissociation from calnexin, fully oxidized MHC class I heavy chains associate with beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) and the soluble chaperone calreticulin. This complex interacts with another transmembrane protein, tapasin, which is believed to assist in MHC class I folding as well as in mediating the interaction between assembling MHC class I molecules and the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP). The TAP heterodimer (TAP1-TAP2) introduces the final component of the MHC class I molecule by translocating peptides, predominately generated by the proteasome, from the cytosol into the ER where they can bind dimers of beta 2M and the MHC class I heavy chain. Recently, the thiol oxidoreductase ERp57--also known as GRP58, ERp61, ER60, Q2, HIP-70, and CPT and first misidentified as phospholipase C-alpha--has been shown to bind in conjunction with calnexin or calreticulin to a number of newly synthesized ER glycoproteins when their N-linked glycans are trimmed by glucosidases I and II. It was speculated that ERp57 is a generic component of the glycan-dependent ER quality control system. Here, we show that ERp57 is a component of the MHC class I peptide-loading complex. ERp57 might influence the folding of MHC class I molecules at a critical step in peptide loading. PMID:9637923

  17. Effect of Different Carbon Sources on Relative Growth Rate, Internal Carbohydrates, and Mannitol 1-Oxidoreductase Activity in Celery Suspension Cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Stoop, JMH.; Pharr, D. M.

    1993-01-01

    Little information exists concerning the biochemical route of mannitol catabolism in higher plant cells. In this study, the role of a recently discovered mannitol 1-oxidoreductase (MDH) in mannitol catabolism was investigated. Suspension cultures of celery (Apium graveolens L. var dulce [Mill.] Pers.) were successfully grown on nutrient media with either mannitol, mannose, or sucrose as the sole carbon source. Cell cultures grown on any of the three carbon sources did not differ in relative growth rate, as measured by packed cell volume, but differed drastically in internal carbohydrate concentration. Mannitol-grown cells contained high concentrations of mannitol and extremely low concentrations of sucrose, fructose, glucose, and mannose. Sucrose-grown cells had high concentrations of sucrose early in the growth cycle and contained a substantial hexose pool. Mannose-grown cells had a high mannose concentration early in the cycle, which decreased during the growth cycle, whereas their internal sucrose concentrations remained relatively constant during the entire growth cycle. Celery suspension cultures on all three carbon substrates contained an NAD-dependent MDH. Throughout the growth cycle, MDH activity was 2- to 4-fold higher in mannitol-grown cells compared with sucrose- or mannose-grown cells, which did not contain detectable levels of mannitol, indicating that MDH functions pre-dominantly in an oxidative capacity in situ. The MDH activity observed in celery cells was 3-fold higher than the minimum amount required to account for the observed rate of mannitol utilization from the media. Cultures transferred from mannitol to mannose underwent a decrease in MDH activity over a period of days, and transfer from mannose to mannitol resulted in an increase in MDH activity. These data provide strong evidence that MDH plays an important role in mannitol utilization in celery suspension cultures. PMID:12231996

  18. WrbA from Escherichia coli and Archaeoglobus fulgidus is an NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Patridge, Eric V; Ferry, James G

    2006-05-01

    WrbA (tryptophan [W] repressor-binding protein) was discovered in Escherichia coli, where it was proposed to play a role in regulation of the tryptophan operon; however, this has been put in question, leaving the function unknown. Here we report a phylogenetic analysis of 30 sequences which indicated that WrbA is the prototype of a distinct family of flavoproteins which exists in a diversity of cell types across all three domains of life and includes documented NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductases (NQOs) from the Fungi and Viridiplantae kingdoms. Biochemical characterization of the prototypic WrbA protein from E. coli and WrbA from Archaeoglobus fulgidus, a hyperthermophilic species from the Archaea domain, shows that these enzymes have NQO activity, suggesting that this activity is a defining characteristic of the WrbA family that we designate a new type of NQO (type IV). For E. coli WrbA, the K(m)(NADH) was 14 +/- 0.43 microM and the K(m)(benzoquinone) was 5.8 +/- 0.12 microM. For A. fulgidus WrbA, the K(m)(NADH) was 19 +/- 1.7 microM and the K(m)(benzoquinone) was 37 +/- 3.6 microM. Both enzymes were found to be homodimeric by gel filtration chromatography and homotetrameric by dynamic light scattering and to contain one flavin mononucleotide molecule per monomer. The NQO activity of each enzyme is retained over a broad pH range, and apparent initial velocities indicate that maximal activities are comparable to the optimum growth temperature for the respective organisms. The results are discussed and implicate WrbA in the two-electron reduction of quinones, protecting against oxidative stress. PMID:16672604

  19. Phylogenomic Analysis and Predicted Physiological Role of the Proton-Translocating NADH:Quinone Oxidoreductase (Complex I) Across Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Spero, Melanie A.; Aylward, Frank O.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The proton-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is a multisubunit integral membrane enzyme found in the respiratory chains of both bacteria and eukaryotic organelles. Although much research has focused on the enzyme’s central role in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, comparatively little is known about its role in the diverse energetic lifestyles of different bacteria. Here, we used a phylogenomic approach to better understand the distribution of complex I across bacteria, the evolution of this enzyme, and its potential roles in shaping the physiology of different bacterial groups. By surveying 970 representative bacterial genomes, we predict complex I to be present in ~50% of bacteria. While this includes bacteria with a wide range of energetic schemes, the presence of complex I is associated with specific lifestyles, including aerobic respiration and specific types of phototrophy (bacteria with only a type II reaction center). A phylogeny of bacterial complex I revealed five main clades of enzymes whose evolution is largely congruent with the evolution of the bacterial groups that encode complex I. A notable exception includes the gammaproteobacteria, whose members encode one of two distantly related complex I enzymes predicted to participate in different types of respiratory chains (aerobic versus anaerobic). Comparative genomic analyses suggest a broad role for complex I in reoxidizing NADH produced from various catabolic reactions, including the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and fatty acid beta-oxidation. Together, these findings suggest diverse roles for complex I across bacteria and highlight the importance of this enzyme in shaping diverse physiologies across the bacterial domain. PMID:25873378

  20. Differential Interaction of Maize Root Ferredoxin:NADP+ Oxidoreductase with Photosynthetic and Non-Photosynthetic Ferredoxin Isoproteins1

    PubMed Central

    Onda, Yayoi; Matsumura, Tomohiro; Kimata-Ariga, Yoko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Sugiyama, Tatsuo; Hase, Toshiharu

    2000-01-01

    In higher plants ferredoxin (Fd):NADP+ oxidoreductase (FNR) and Fd are each distributed in photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic organs as distinct isoproteins. We have cloned cDNAs for leaf FNR (L-FNR I and L-FNR II) and root FNR (R-FNR) from maize (Zea mays L.), and produced recombinant L-FNR I and R-FNR to study their enzymatic functions through kinetic and Fd-binding analyses. The Km value obtained by assay for a diaphorase activity indicated that R-FNR had a 10-fold higher affinity for NADPH than L-FNR I. When we assayed for NADPH-cytochrome c reductase activity using maize photosynthetic Fd (Fd I) and non-photosynthetic Fd (Fd III), the R-FNR showed a marked difference in affinity between these two Fd isoproteins; the Km for Fd III was 3.0 μm and that for Fd I was 29 μm. Consistent with this, the dissociation constant for the R-FNR:Fd III complex was 10-fold smaller than that of the R-FNR:Fd I complex. This differential binding capacity was confirmed by an affinity chromatography of R-FNR on Fd-sepharose with stronger binding to Fd III. L-FNR I showed no such differential interaction with Fd I and Fd III. These data demonstrated that R-FNR has the ability to discriminate between these two types of Fds. We propose that the stronger interaction of R-FNR with Fd III is crucial for an efficient electron flux of NADPH-FNR-Fd cascade, thus supporting Fd-dependent metabolism in non-photosynthetic organs. PMID:10889253

  1. NAD(P)H: Quinone Oxidoreductase 1 Deficiency Conjoint with Marginal Vitamin C Deficiency Causes Cigarette Smoke Induced Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Das, Archita; Dey, Neekkan; Ghosh, Arunava; Das, Tanusree; Chatterjee, Indu B.

    2011-01-01

    Background The etiology of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is largely unknown. Exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) is reported to be associated with MDS risk. There is inconsistent evidence that deficiency of NAD(P)H-quinone: oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) increases the risk of MDS. Earlier we had shown that CS induces toxicity only in marginal vitamin C-deficient guinea pigs but not in vitamin C-sufficient ones. We therefore considered that NQO1 deficiency along with marginal vitamin C deficiency might produce MDS in CS-exposed guinea pigs. Methodology and Principal Findings Here we show that CS exposure for 21 days produces MDS in guinea pigs having deficiency of NQO1 (fed 3 mg dicoumarol/day) conjoint with marginal vitamin C deficiency (fed 0.5 mg vitamin C/day). As evidenced by morphology, histology and cytogenetics, MDS produced in the guinea pigs falls in the category of refractory cytopenia with unilineage dysplasia (RCUD): refractory anemia; refractory thrombocytopenia that is associated with ring sideroblasts, micromegakaryocytes, myeloid hyperplasia and aneuploidy. MDS is accompanied by increased CD34(+) cells and oxidative stress as shown by the formation of protein carbonyls and 8-oxodeoxyguanosine. Apoptosis precedes MDS but disappears later with marked decrease in the p53 protein. MDS produced in the guinea pigs are irreversible. MDS and all the aforesaid pathophysiological events do not occur in vitamin C-sufficient guinea pigs. However, after the onset of MDS vitamin C becomes ineffective. Conclusions and Significance CS exposure causes MDS in guinea pigs having deficiency of NQO1 conjoint with marginal vitamin C deficiency. The syndromes are not produced in singular deficiency of NQO1 or marginal vitamin C deficiency. Our results suggest that human smokers having NQO1 deficiency combined with marginal vitamin C deficiency are likely to be at high risk for developing MDS and that intake of a moderately large dose of vitamin C would prevent MDS. PMID:21655231

  2. Effects of topiroxostat and febuxostat on urinary albumin excretion and plasma xanthine oxidoreductase activity in db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Takashi; Murase, Takayo; Nampei, Mai; Morimoto, Nobutaka; Ashizawa, Naoki; Iwanaga, Takashi; Sakamoto, Ryusuke

    2016-06-01

    Topiroxostat, a xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) inhibitor, has been shown to decrease the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio compared with placebo in hyperuricemic patients with stage 3 chronic kidney disease. Thus, we aimed to ascertain the albuminuria-lowering effect of topiroxostat in diabetic mouse. Db/db mice were fed standard diets with or without topiroxostat (0.1, 0.3, 1, and 3mg/kg/day) and febuxostat (0.1, 0.3, and 1mg/kg/day) for four weeks. Urinary albumin and purine bodies levels, XOR activities, and drug concentrations in the liver, kidney, and plasma were measured. Moreover, the XOR inhibitory activity of each XOR inhibitor was evaluated with or without an exogenous protein in vitro. Topiroxostat decreased dose-dependently the urinary albumin excretion, but febuxostat did not show such a tendency. Treatment with topiroxostat inhibited plasma XOR activity with dose-dependent increase in plasma purine levels, which was not observed by febuxostat. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis revealed that topiroxostat and febuxostat concentration in each tissue showed a good correlation with both the hypouricemic effect and plasma drug concentration, whereas the change in albuminuria correlated neither with the change in uric acid nor with drug concentration in plasma. However, the change in urinary albumin and plasma XOR activity showed good correlation in topiroxostat group. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 value) of febuxostat against plasma XOR in vitro was 12-fold higher than that of topiroxostat, and increased by approximately 13-fold by interfering with an exogenous protein. Topiroxostat caused reduced urinary albumin excretion, in which potent inhibition of the plasma XOR activity might be involved. PMID:27038523

  3. Bovine heart NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase contains one molecule of ubiquinone with ten isoprene units as one of the cofactors.

    PubMed

    Shinzawa-Itoh, Kyoko; Seiyama, Junko; Terada, Hirohito; Nakatsubo, Ryohei; Naoki, Kazuki; Nakashima, Yumiko; Yoshikawa, Shinya

    2010-01-26

    NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I) is located at the entrance of the mitochondrial electron transfer chain and transfers electrons from NADH to ubiquinone with 10 isoprene units (Q(10)) coupled with proton pumping. The composition of Complex I, the largest and most complex proton pump in the mitochondrial electron transfer system, especially the contents of Q(10) and phospholipids, has not been well established. An improved purification method including solubilization of mitochondrial membrane with deoxycholate followed by sucrose gradient centrifugation and anion-exchange column chromatography provided reproducibly a heme-free preparation containing 1 Q(10), 70 phosphorus atoms of phospholipids, 1 zinc ion, 1 FMN, 30 inorganic sulfur ions, and 30 iron atoms as the intrinsic constituents. The rotenone-sensitive enzymatic activity of the Complex I preparation was comparable to that of Complex I in the mitochondrial membrane. It has been proposed that Complex I has two Q(10) binding sites, one involved in the proton pump and the other functioning as a converter between one and two electron transfer pathways [Ohnishi, T., Johnson, J. J. E., Yano, T., LoBrutto, R., and Widger, R. W. (2005) FEBS Lett. 579, 500-506]. The existence of one molecule of Q(10) in the fully oxidized Complex I suggests that the affinity of Q(10) to one of the two Q(10) sites is greatly dependent on the oxidation state and/or the membrane potential and that the Q(10) in the present preparation functions as the converter of the electron transfer pathways which should be present in any oxidation state. PMID:19961238

  4. Deletion of P399{sub E}401 in NADPH cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase results in partial mixed oxidase deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Flueck, Christa E.; Mallet, Delphine; Hofer, Gaby; Samara-Boustani, Dinane; Leger, Juliane; Polak, Michel; Morel, Yves; Pandey, Amit V.

    2011-09-09

    Highlights: {yields} Mutations in human POR cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia. {yields} We are reporting a novel 3 amino acid deletion mutation in POR P399{sub E}401del. {yields} POR mutation P399{sub E}401del decreased P450 activities by 60-85%. {yields} Impairment of steroid metabolism may be caused by multiple hits. {yields} Severity of aromatase inhibition is related to degree of in utero virilization. -- Abstract: P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the electron donor for all microsomal P450s including steroidogenic enzymes CYP17A1, CYP19A1 and CYP21A2. We found a novel POR mutation P399{sub E}401del in two unrelated Turkish patients with 46,XX disorder of sexual development. Recombinant POR proteins were produced in yeast and tested for their ability to support steroid metabolizing P450 activities. In comparison to wild-type POR, the P399{sub E}401del protein was found to decrease catalytic efficiency of 21-hydroxylation of progesterone by 68%, 17{alpha}-hydroxylation of progesterone by 76%, 17,20-lyase action on 17OH-pregnenolone by 69%, aromatization of androstenedione by 85% and cytochrome c reduction activity by 80%. Protein structure analysis of the three amino acid deletion P399{sub E}401 revealed reduced stability and flexibility of the mutant. In conclusion, P399{sub E}401del is a novel mutation in POR that provides valuable genotype-phenotype and structure-function correlation for mutations in a different region of POR compared to previous studies. Characterization of P399{sub E}401del provides further insight into specificity of different P450s for interaction with POR as well as nature of metabolic disruptions caused by more pronounced effect on specific P450s like CYP17A1 and aromatase.

  5. Activities of Secreted Aryl Alcohol Quinone Oxidoreductases from Pycnoporus cinnabarinus Provide Insights into Fungal Degradation of Plant Biomass.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Yann; Piumi, Francois; Valli, Richard; Aramburu, Juan Carro; Ferreira, Patricia; Faulds, Craig B; Record, Eric

    2016-04-15

    Auxiliary activities family 3 subfamily 2 (AA3_2) from the CAZy database comprises various functions related to ligninolytic enzymes, such as fungal aryl alcohol oxidases (AAO) and glucose oxidases, both of which are flavoenzymes. The recent study of thePycnoporus cinnabarinusCIRM BRFM 137 genome combined with its secretome revealed that four AA3_2 enzymes are secreted during biomass degradation. One of these AA3_2 enzymes, scf184803.g17, has recently been produced heterologously inAspergillus niger Based on the enzyme's activity and specificity, it was assigned to the glucose dehydrogenases (PcinnabarinusGDH [PcGDH]). Here, we analyze the distribution of the other three AA3_2 enzymes (scf185002.g8, scf184611.g7, and scf184746.g13) to assess their putative functions. These proteins showed the highest homology with aryl alcohol oxidase fromPleurotus eryngii Biochemical characterization demonstrated that they were also flavoenzymes harboring flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) as a cofactor and able to oxidize a wide variety of phenolic and nonphenolic aryl alcohols and one aliphatic polyunsaturated primary alcohol. Though presenting homology with fungal AAOs, these enzymes exhibited greater efficiency in reducing electron acceptors (quinones and one artificial acceptor) than molecular oxygen and so were defined as aryl-alcohol:quinone oxidoreductases (AAQOs) with two enzymes possessing residual oxidase activity (PcAAQO2 andPcAAQO3). Structural comparison ofPcAAQO homology models withP. eryngiiAAO demonstrated a wider substrate access channel connecting the active-site cavity to the solvent, explaining the absence of activity with molecular oxygen. Finally, the ability ofPcAAQOs to reduce radical intermediates generated by laccase fromP. cinnabarinuswas demonstrated, shedding light on the ligninolytic system of this fungus. PMID:26873317

  6. Suppression of NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase 1 enhanced the susceptibility of cholangiocarcinoma cells to chemotherapeutic agents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is highly resistant to most of the known chemotherapeutic treatments. NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is an antioxidant/detoxifying enzyme recently recognized as an important contributor to chemoresistance in some human cancers. However, the contribution of NQO1 to chemotherapy resistance in CCA is unknown. Methods Two CCA cell lines, KKU-100 and KKU-M214, with high and low NQO1 expression levels, respectively, were used to evaluate the sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents; 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), doxorubicin (Doxo), and gemcitabine (Gem). NQO1 and/or p53 expression in KKU-100 cells were knocked down by siRNA. NQO1 was over-expressed in KKU-M214 cells by transfection with pCMV6-XL5-NQO1 expression vector. CCA cells with modulated NQO1 and/or p53 expression were treated with chemotherapeutic agents, and the cytotoxicity was assessed by SRB assay. The mechanism of enhanced chemosensitivity was evaluated by Western blot analysis. Results When NQO1 was knocked down, KKU-100 cells became more susceptible to all chemotherapeutic agents. Conversely, with over-expression of NQO1 made KKU-M214 cells more resistant to chemotherapeutic agents. Western blot analysis suggested that enhanced chemosensitivity was probably due to the activation of p53-mediated cell death. Enhanced susceptibility to chemotherapeutic agents by NQO1 silencing was abolished by knockdown of p53. Conclusions These results suggest that inhibition of NQO1 could enhance the susceptibility of CCA to an array of chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:24460787

  7. Suppression of Chloroplastic Alkenal/One Oxidoreductase Represses the Carbon Catabolic Pathway in Arabidopsis Leaves during Night1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ifuku, Kentaro; Ikeda, Ken-ichi; Inoue, Kanako Ikeda; Park, Pyoyun; Tamoi, Masahiro; Inoue, Hironori; Sakamoto, Katsuhiko; Saito, Ryota

    2016-01-01

    Lipid-derived reactive carbonyl species (RCS) possess electrophilic moieties and cause oxidative stress by reacting with cellular components. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) has a chloroplast-localized alkenal/one oxidoreductase (AtAOR) for the detoxification of lipid-derived RCS, especially α,β-unsaturated carbonyls. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the physiological importance of AtAOR and analyzed AtAOR (aor) mutants, including a transfer DNA knockout, aor (T-DNA), and RNA interference knockdown, aor (RNAi), lines. We found that both aor mutants showed smaller plant sizes than wild-type plants when they were grown under day/night cycle conditions. To elucidate the cause of the aor mutant phenotype, we analyzed the photosynthetic rate and the respiration rate by gas-exchange analysis. Subsequently, we found that both wild-type and aor (RNAi) plants showed similar CO2 assimilation rates; however, the respiration rate was lower in aor (RNAi) than in wild-type plants. Furthermore, we revealed that phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity decreased and starch degradation during the night was suppressed in aor (RNAi). In contrast, the phenotype of aor (RNAi) was rescued when aor (RNAi) plants were grown under constant light conditions. These results indicate that the smaller plant sizes observed in aor mutants grown under day/night cycle conditions were attributable to the decrease in carbon utilization during the night. Here, we propose that the detoxification of lipid-derived RCS by AtAOR in chloroplasts contributes to the protection of dark respiration and supports plant growth during the night. PMID:26884484

  8. NRH:Quinone Oxidoreductase 2 Deficient Mice are Highly Susceptible to Radiation-Induced B-Cell Lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Iskander, Karim; Barrios, Roberto J.; Jaiswal, Anil K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose NRH:Quinone Oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2) is known to protect against myelogenous hyperplasia. However, the role of NQO2 in prevention of hematological malignancies remains unknown. Present studies investigated in vivo role of NQO2 in prevention of myeloproliferative disease and lymphomas. Experimental Design Wild type and NQO2-null mice were exposed to 0, 1 and 3 Gy γ-radiation. One year later, the mice were analyzed for the development of myeloproliferative disease and lymphomas. Immunohistochemistry analysis determined B and T cell origin of lymphomas. The mice were also sacrificed at six and forty-eight hours after radiation exposure, bone marrow collected and analyzed for p53, Bax and B-cell apoptosis. Bone marrow cells were cultured and the rate of degradation of p53 analyzed. Results Seventy-two percent NQO2-null mice demonstrated development of B-cell lymphomas in multiple tissues as compared to eleven percent in wild type mice exposed to 3 Gy γ-radiation. In contrast, only twenty-two percent NQO2-null mice showed myeloproliferation as compared to none in wild type mice. Further analysis revealed that bone marrow from NQO2-null mice contained lower levels of p53 compared with wild type mice due to rapid degradation of p53. In addition, the exposure to radiation resulted in lower induction of p53 and Bax, and decreased B-cell apoptosis in NQO2-null mice. Conclusion NQO2-null mice are highly susceptible to develop radiation-induced B-cell lymphomas. The lack of significant induction of p53 and Bax, and decrease in B-cell apoptosis presumably contributed to the development of lymphomas. NQO2 functions as endogenous factor in prevention against radiation-induced B-cell lymphomas. PMID:19223498

  9. Dynamic function of the alkyl spacer of acetogenins in their inhibitory action with mitochondrial complex I (NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase).

    PubMed

    Abe, Masato; Murai, Masatoshi; Ichimaru, Naoya; Kenmochi, Atsushi; Yoshida, Takehiko; Kubo, Akina; Kimura, Yuka; Moroda, Aki; Makabe, Hidefumi; Nishioka, Takaaki; Miyoshi, Hideto

    2005-11-15

    Studies on the inhibitory mechanism of acetogenins, the most potent inhibitors of mitochondrial complex I (NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase), are useful for elucidating the structural and functional features of the terminal electron transfer step of this enzyme. Previous studies of the structure-activity relationship revealed that except for the alkyl spacer linking the two toxophores (i.e., the hydroxylated THF and the gamma-lactone rings), none of the multiple functional groups of these inhibitors is essential for potent inhibition. To elucidate the function of the alkyl spacer, two sets of systematically selected analogues were synthesized. First, the length of the spacer was varied widely. Second, the local flexibility of the spacer was specifically reduced by introducing multiple bond(s) into different regions of the spacer. The optimal length of the spacer for inhibition was approximately 13 carbon atoms. The decrease in the strength of the inhibitory effect caused by elongating the spacer from 13 carbons was much more drastic than that caused by shortening. Local flexibility in a specific region of the spacer was not important for the inhibition. These observations indicate that the active conformation of the spacer is not an extended form, and is not necessarily restricted to a certain rigid shape. Moreover, an analogue in which a spacer covering 10 carbon atoms was hardened into a rodlike shape still maintained a potent inhibitory effect. Our results strongly suggest that the spacer portion is free from steric congestion arising from the putative binding site probably because there is no cavity-like binding site for the spacer portion. The manner of acetogenin binding to the enzyme may not be explained by a simple "key and keyhole" analogy. PMID:16274237

  10. Characterization of the kinetics and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic properties of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanfei; Weiner, Joel H

    2014-12-15

    Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) catalyzes the oxidation of sulfide to polysulfide chains or elemental sulfur coupled to quinone reduction via a non-covalent FAD cofactor. We investigated the role of the FAD using kinetics and EPR spectroscopy. The properties of the enzyme were compared with alanine and/or serine variants of conserved cysteine residues (Cys128, Cys160, Cys356) structurally close to the FAD cofactor and histidine residues (His132, His198) implicated in function. When the pre-steady state reduction of FAD was monitored, variants of Cys128 and His132 had similar rates to wild-type enzyme confirming they do not participate in the reductive half reaction whereas variants of Cys160, Cys356 and His198 had greatly reduced activity. Using steady state kinetics of Na2S-dependent decylubiquinone (DUQ) reduction we measured a kcat of 6.5s(-1) and a Km (Na2S) of 3.0μM and a Km (DUQ) of 3.4μM. Variants of Cys160, Cys356 and His198 had greatly diminished DUQ reduction activity whereas variants of Cys128 and His132 were less affected. A neutral flavin semiquinone was observed in the EPR spectrum of SQR reduced with Na2S which was enhanced in the Cys160Ala variant suggesting the presence of a Cys356-S(γ)-S-C(4A)-FAD adduct. Potentiometric titrations of the FAD semiquinone revealed an Em of -139±4mV at pH 7.0. PMID:25303790

  11. Reductive half-reaction of aldehyde oxidoreductase toward acetaldehyde: Ab initio and free energy quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieterich, Johannes M.; Werner, Hans-Joachim; Mata, Ricardo A.; Metz, Sebastian; Thiel, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Energy and free energy barriers for acetaldehyde conversion in aldehyde oxidoreductase are determined for three reaction pathways using quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations on the solvated enzyme. Ab initio single-point QM/MM energies are obtained at the stationary points optimized at the DFT(B3LYP)/MM level. These ab initio calculations employ local correlation treatments [LMP2 and LCCSD(T0)] in combination with augmented triple- and quadruple-zeta basis sets, and the final coupled cluster results include MP2-based corrections for basis set incompleteness and for the domain approximation. Free energy perturbation (FEP) theory is used to generate free energy profiles at the DFT(B3LYP)/MM level for the most important reaction steps by sampling along the corresponding reaction paths using molecular dynamics. The ab initio and FEP QM/MM results are combined to derive improved estimates of the free energy barriers, which differ from the corresponding DFT(B3LYP)/MM energy barriers by about 3 kcal mol-1. The present results confirm the qualitative mechanistic conclusions from a previous DFT(B3LYP)/MM study. Most favorable is a three-step Lewis base catalyzed mechanism with an initial proton transfer from the cofactor to the Glu869 residue, a subsequent nucleophilic attack that yields a tetrahedral intermediate (IM2), and a final rate-limiting hydride transfer. The competing metal center activated pathway has the same final step but needs to overcome a higher barrier in the initial step on the route to IM2. The concerted mechanism has the highest free energy barrier and can be ruled out. While confirming the qualitative mechanistic scenario proposed previously on the basis of DFT(B3LYP)/MM energy profiles, the present ab initio and FEP QM/MM calculations provide corrections to the barriers that are important when aiming at high accuracy.

  12. The Structural and Functional Basis of Catalysis Mediated by NAD(P)H:acceptor Oxidoreductase (FerB) of Paracoccus denitrificans

    PubMed Central

    Sedláček, Vojtěch; Klumpler, Tomáš; Marek, Jaromír; Kučera, Igor

    2014-01-01

    FerB from Paracoccus denitrificans is a soluble cytoplasmic flavoprotein that accepts redox equivalents from NADH or NADPH and transfers them to various acceptors such as quinones, ferric complexes and chromate. The crystal structure and small-angle X-ray scattering measurements in solution reported here reveal a head-to-tail dimer with two flavin mononucleotide groups bound at the opposite sides of the subunit interface. The dimers tend to self-associate to a tetrameric form at higher protein concentrations. Amino acid residues important for the binding of FMN and NADH and for the catalytic activity are identified and verified by site-directed mutagenesis. In particular, we show that Glu77 anchors a conserved water molecule in close proximity to the O2 of FMN, with the probable role of facilitating flavin reduction. Hydride transfer is shown to occur from the 4-pro-S position of NADH to the solvent-accessible si side of the flavin ring. When using deuterated NADH, this process exhibits a kinetic isotope effect of about 6 just as does the NADH-dependent quinone reductase activity of FerB; the first, reductive half-reaction of flavin cofactor is thus rate-limiting. Replacing the bulky Arg95 in the vicinity of the active site with alanine substantially enhances the activity towards external flavins that obeys the standard bi-bi ping-pong reaction mechanism. The new evidence for a cryptic flavin reductase activity of FerB justifies the previous inclusion of this enzyme in the protein family of NADPH-dependent FMN reductases. PMID:24817153

  13. FaQR, Required for the Biosynthesis of the Strawberry Flavor Compound 4-Hydroxy-2,5-Dimethyl-3(2H)-Furanone, Encodes an Enone Oxidoreductase

    PubMed Central

    Raab, Thomas; Lpez-Rez, Juan Antonio; Klein, Dorothe; Caballero, Jose Luis; Moyano, Enriqueta; Schwab, Wilfried; Muoz-Blanco, Juan

    2006-01-01

    The flavor of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) fruit is dominated by an uncommon group of aroma compounds with a 2,5-dimethyl-3(H)-furanone structure. We report the characterization of an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDMF; Furaneol), the key flavor compound in strawberries. Protein extracts were partially purified, and the observed distribution of enzymatic activity correlated with the presence of a single polypeptide of ?37 kD. Sequence analysis of two peptide fragments showed total identity with the protein sequence of a strongly ripening-induced, auxin-dependent putative quinone oxidoreductase, Fragaria ananassa quinone oxidoreductase (FaQR). The open reading frame of the FaQR cDNA consists of 969 bp encoding a 322amino acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 34.3 kD. Laser capture microdissection followed by RNA extraction and amplification demonstrated the presence of FaQR mRNA in parenchyma tissue of the strawberry fruit. The FaQR protein was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli, and the monomer catalyzed the formation of HDMF. After chemical synthesis and liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry analysis, 4-hydroxy-5-methyl-2-methylene-3(2H)-furanone was confirmed as a substrate of FaQR and the natural precursor of HDMF. This study demonstrates the function of the FaQR enzyme in the biosynthesis of HDMF as enone oxidoreductase and provides a foundation for the improvement of strawberry flavor and the biotechnological production of HDMF. PMID:16517758

  14. F420H2: quinone oxidoreductase from Archaeoglobus fulgidus. Characterization of a membrane-bound multisubunit complex containing FAD and iron-sulfur clusters.

    PubMed

    Kunow, J; Linder, D; Stetter, K O; Thauer, R K

    1994-07-15

    Archaeoglobus fulgidus, a hyperthermophilic sulfate-reducing archaeon, was found to contain a membrane-bound F420H2: quinone oxidoreductase complex presumed to be involved in energy conservation during growth on lactate plus sulfate. After solubilization with dodecyl-beta-D-maltoside the complex was purified 32-fold with a yield of 24%. Using both gel filtration and native PAGE, an apparent molecular mass of approximately 270 kDa was determined. SDS/PAGE revealed the presence of at least seven polypeptides with apparent molecular masses 56, 45, 41, 39, 37, 33, and 32 kDa. The purified complex contained 1.6 mol FAD, 9 mol non-heme iron and 7 mol acid-labile sulfur/mol complex. It did not contain cytochromes, which were, however, present in the membrane fraction of A. fulgidus (3 nmol/mg membrane protein). The purified F420H2: quinone oxidoreductase complex catalyzed the reduction of 2,3-dimethyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (apparent Km 190 microM) with reduced coenzyme F420 (apparent Km 50 microM) exhibiting a specific activity of 500 U/mg (apparent Vmax) at pH 8.0 (pH optimum) and 65 degrees C (temperature optimum). 2-Methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (menadione), 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, 1,4-naphthoquinone, 2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,4- benzoquinone, and 2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-6-decyl-1,4-benzoquinone (decyl-ubiquinone) were also reduced with F420H2, albeit with lower rates. The physiological electron acceptor of the F420H2: quinone oxidoreductase complex is most likely the menaquinone found in the membrane fraction of A. fulgidus. PMID:8055920

  15. FaQR, required for the biosynthesis of the strawberry flavor compound 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, encodes an enone oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Raab, Thomas; Lpez-Rez, Juan Antonio; Klein, Dorothe; Caballero, Jose Luis; Moyano, Enriqueta; Schwab, Wilfried; Muoz-Blanco, Juan

    2006-04-01

    The flavor of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) fruit is dominated by an uncommon group of aroma compounds with a 2,5-dimethyl-3(H)-furanone structure. We report the characterization of an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDMF; Furaneol), the key flavor compound in strawberries. Protein extracts were partially purified, and the observed distribution of enzymatic activity correlated with the presence of a single polypeptide of approximately 37 kD. Sequence analysis of two peptide fragments showed total identity with the protein sequence of a strongly ripening-induced, auxin-dependent putative quinone oxidoreductase, Fragaria x ananassa quinone oxidoreductase (FaQR). The open reading frame of the FaQR cDNA consists of 969 bp encoding a 322-amino acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 34.3 kD. Laser capture microdissection followed by RNA extraction and amplification demonstrated the presence of FaQR mRNA in parenchyma tissue of the strawberry fruit. The FaQR protein was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli, and the monomer catalyzed the formation of HDMF. After chemical synthesis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, 4-hydroxy-5-methyl-2-methylene-3(2H)-furanone was confirmed as a substrate of FaQR and the natural precursor of HDMF. This study demonstrates the function of the FaQR enzyme in the biosynthesis of HDMF as enone oxidoreductase and provides a foundation for the improvement of strawberry flavor and the biotechnological production of HDMF. PMID:16517758

  16. Ubiquinol-cytochrome c oxidoreductase of higher plants. Isolation and characterization of the bc1 complex from potato tuber mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Berry, E A; Huang, L S; DeRose, V J

    1991-05-15

    A procedure is described for isolation of active ubiquinol-cytochrome c oxidoreductase (bc1 complex) from potato tuber mitochondria using dodecyl maltoside extraction and ion exchange chromatography. The same procedure works well with mitochondria from red beet and sweet potato. The potato complex has at least 10 subunits resolvable by gel electrophoresis in the presence of dodecyl sulfate. The fifth subunit carries covalently bound heme. The two largest ("core") subunits either show heterogeneity or include a third subunit. The purified complex contains about 4 mumol of cytochrome c1, 8 mumol of cytochrome b, and 20 mumol of iron/g of protein. The complex is highly delipidated, with 1-6 mol of phospholipid and about 0.2 mol of ubiquinone/mol of cytochrome c1. Nonetheless it catalyzes electron transfer from a short chain ubiquinol analog to equine cytochrome c with a turnover number of 50-170 mol of cytochrome c reduced per mol of cytochrome c1 per s, as compared with approximately 220 in whole mitochondria. The enzymatic activity is stable for weeks at 4 degrees C in phosphate buffer and for months at -20 degrees C in 50% glycerol. The activity is inhibited by antimycin, myxothiazol, and funiculosin. The complex is more resistant to funiculosin and diuron than the beef heart enzyme. The optical difference spectra of the cytochromes were resolved by analysis of full-spectrum redox titrations. The alpha-band absorption maxima are 552 nm (cytochrome c1), 560 nm (cytochrome b-560), and 557.5 + 565.5 nm (cytochrome b-566, which has a split alpha-band). Extinction coefficients appropriate for the potato cytochromes are estimated. Despite the low lipid and ubiquinone content of the purified complex, the midpoint potentials of the cytochromes (257, 51, and -77 mV for cytochromes c1, b-560, and b-566, respectively) are not very different from values reported for whole mitochondria. EPR spectroscopy shows the presence of a Rieske-type iron sulfur center, and the absence of centers associated with succinate and NADH dehydrogenases. The complex shows characteristics associated with a Q-cycle mechanism of redox-driven proton translocation, including two pathways for reduction of b cytochromes by quinols and oxidant-induced reduction of b cytochromes in the presence of antimycin. PMID:1851164

  17. Purification and properties of two oxidoreductases catalyzing the enantioselective reduction of diacetyl and other diketones from baker's yeast.

    PubMed

    Heidlas, J; Tressl, R

    1990-02-22

    The NADPH-linked diacetyl reductase system from the cytosolic fraction of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been resolved into two oxidoreductases catalyzing irreversibly the enantioselective reduction of diacetyl (2,3-butanedione) to (S)- and (R)-acetoin (3-hydroxy-2-butanone) [so-called (S)- and (R)-diacetyl reductases] (EC 1.1.1.5) which have been isolated to apparent electrophoretical purity. The clean-up procedures comprising streptomycin sulfate treatment, Sephadex G-25 filtration, DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography, affinity chromatography on Matrex Gel Red A and Superose 6 prep grade filtration led to 120-fold and 368-fold purifications, respectively. The relative molecular mass of the (R)-diacetyl reductase, estimated by means of HPLC filtration on Zorbax GF 250 and sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was 36,000. The (R)-enzyme was most active at pH 6.4 and accepted in addition to diacetyl C5-, C6-2,3-diketones, 1,2-cyclohexanedione, 2-oxo aldehydes and short-chain 2- and 3-oxo esters as substrates. The enzyme was characterized by high enantioselectivity and regiospecificity. The Km values for diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione were determined as 2.0 mM. The Mr of the (S)-diacetyl reductase was determined as 75,000 by means of HPLC filtration of Zorbax GF 250. The enzyme decomposed into subunits of Mr 48,000 and 24,000 on sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The optimum pH was 6.9. The purified (S)-enzyme reduced stereospecifically a broad spectrum of substrates, comprising 2,3-, 2,4- and 2,5-diketones, 2-oxo aldehydes, 1,2-cyclohexanedione and methyl ketones as well as 3-, 4- and 5-oxo esters. The 2,3- and 2,4-diketones are transformed to the corresponding (S)-2-hydroxy ketones; 2,5-hexanedione, however, was reduced to (S,S)-2,5-hexanediol. The Km values for diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione were estimated as 2.3 and 1.5 mM, respectively. Further characterization of the (S)-diacetyl reductase revealed that it is identical with the so-called '(S)-enzyme', involved in the enantioselective reduction of 3-, 4- and 5-oxo esters in baker's yeast. PMID:2180695

  18. Differences in the secretion pattern of oxidoreductases from Bjerkandera adusta induced by a phenolic olive mill extract.

    PubMed

    Reina, Rocío; Kellner, Harald; Jehmlich, Nico; Ullrich, René; García-Romera, Inmaculada; Aranda, Elisabet; Liers, Christiane

    2014-11-01

    The secretome of the white-rot fungus Bjerkandera adusta produced in synthetic Kirk medium was compared to that supplemented with an aqueous phenol-rich extract of dry olive mill residues (ADOR). Distinct changes in the protein composition of oxidoreductases, namely diverse class-II peroxidases and aryl alcohol oxidases were found. In the ADOR-supplemented medium (ASC), 157 distinct proteins were identified by the secretome analysis, whereas only 59 of them were identified without ADOR supplementation (Kirk medium culture; KM). Proteome analysis indicated that the number of peroxidases produced in ASC was more than doubled (from 4 to 11) compared to KM. Two short manganese peroxidases (MnP1 and MnP6) and one versatile peroxidase (VP1) represented 29% of the relative abundance (NSAF) in ASC. Two of them (MnP1 and VP1) were also detected in KM at a relative abundance (NSAF) of only 3%. Further peroxidases present in ASC were one lignin peroxidase (LiP2), one generic peroxidase (GP) and three dye-decolorizing peroxidases (DyPs). The relative abundance of DyPs and aryl alcohol oxidases (AAO) were lower in ASC in comparison to KM. In addition to peptide sequence analysis, the secretion of Mn(2+)-oxidizing peroxidases as well as AAOs were followed by enzyme measurement. The Mn(2+)-oxidizing activity increased nearly 30-fold (from 10 to 281Ul(-1)) after ADOR addition. Two enzymes responsible for that activity were successfully purified (BadVPI and BadVPII). To prove a potential involvement of these enzymes in the degradation of aromatic compounds, BadVPI was tested for its ability to degrade the recalcitrant dehydrogenated polymer (DHP, synthetic lignin). These results show that natural phenol-rich materials act as secretome-stimulating additives. Applying these substances enables us to investigate fungal degradation and detoxification processes and gives more insight into the complexity of fungal secretomes, e.g. of white-rot fungi. PMID:25069088

  19. Functional and Bioinformatics Analysis of Two Campylobacter jejuni Homologs of the Thiol-Disulfide Oxidoreductase, DsbA

    PubMed Central

    Grabowska, Anna D.; Wywiał, Ewa; Dunin-Horkawicz, Stanislaw; Łasica, Anna M.; Wösten, Marc M. S. M.; Nagy-Staroń, Anna; Godlewska, Renata; Bocian-Ostrzycka, Katarzyna; Pieńkowska, Katarzyna; Łaniewski, Paweł; Bujnicki, Janusz M.; van Putten, Jos P. M.; Jagusztyn-Krynicka, E. Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Background Bacterial Dsb enzymes are involved in the oxidative folding of many proteins, through the formation of disulfide bonds between their cysteine residues. The Dsb protein network has been well characterized in cells of the model microorganism Escherichia coli. To gain insight into the functioning of the Dsb system in epsilon-Proteobacteria, where it plays an important role in the colonization process, we studied two homologs of the main Escherichia coli Dsb oxidase (EcDsbA) that are present in the cells of the enteric pathogen Campylobacter jejuni, the most frequently reported bacterial cause of human enteritis in the world. Methods and Results Phylogenetic analysis suggests the horizontal transfer of the epsilon-Proteobacterial DsbAs from a common ancestor to gamma-Proteobacteria, which then gave rise to the DsbL lineage. Phenotype and enzymatic assays suggest that the two C. jejuni DsbAs play different roles in bacterial cells and have divergent substrate spectra. CjDsbA1 is essential for the motility and autoagglutination phenotypes, while CjDsbA2 has no impact on those processes. CjDsbA1 plays a critical role in the oxidative folding that ensures the activity of alkaline phosphatase CjPhoX, whereas CjDsbA2 is crucial for the activity of arylsulfotransferase CjAstA, encoded within the dsbA2-dsbB-astA operon. Conclusions Our results show that CjDsbA1 is the primary thiol-oxidoreductase affecting life processes associated with bacterial spread and host colonization, as well as ensuring the oxidative folding of particular protein substrates. In contrast, CjDsbA2 activity does not affect the same processes and so far its oxidative folding activity has been demonstrated for one substrate, arylsulfotransferase CjAstA. The results suggest the cooperation between CjDsbA2 and CjDsbB. In the case of the CjDsbA1, this cooperation is not exclusive and there is probably another protein to be identified in C. jejuni cells that acts to re-oxidize CjDsbA1. Altogether the data presented here constitute the considerable insight to the Epsilonproteobacterial Dsb systems, which have been poorly understood so far. PMID:25181355

  20. Arsenic induces NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase I by disrupting the Nrf2 x Keap1 x Cul3 complex and recruiting Nrf2 x Maf to the antioxidant response element enhancer.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoqing; Chen, Michael G; Lin, Gary X; Ma, Qiang

    2006-08-18

    The ubiquitous toxic metalloid arsenic elicits pleiotropic adverse and adaptive responses in mammalian species. The biological targets of arsenic are largely unknown at present. We analyzed the signaling pathway for induction of detoxification gene NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase (Nqo1) by arsenic. Genetic and biochemical evidence revealed that induction required cap 'n' collar basic leucine zipper transcription factor Nrf2 and the antioxidant response element (ARE) of Nqo1. Arsenic stabilized Nrf2 protein, extending the t(1/2) of Nrf2 from 21 to 200 min by inhibiting the Keap1 x Cul3-dependent ubiquitination and proteasomal turnover of Nrf2. Arsenic markedly inhibited the ubiquitination of Nrf2 but did not disrupt the Nrf2 x Keap1 x Cul3 association in the cytoplasm. In the nucleus, arsenic, but not phenolic antioxidant tert-butylhydroquinone, dissociated Nrf2 from Keap1 and Cul3 followed by dimerization of Nrf2 with a Maf protein (Maf G/Maf K). Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated that Nrf2 and Maf associated with the endogenous Nqo1 ARE enhancer constitutively. Arsenic substantially increased the ARE occupancy by Nrf2 and Maf. In addition, Keap1 was shown to be ubiquitinated in the cytoplasm and deubiquitinated in the nucleus in the presence of arsenic without changing the protein level, implicating nuclear-cytoplasmic recycling of Keap1. Our data reveal that arsenic activates the Nrf2/Keap1 signaling pathway through a distinct mechanism from that by antioxidants and suggest an "on-switch" model of Nqo1 transcription in which the binding of Nrf2 x Maf to ARE controls both the basal and inducible expression of Nqo1. PMID:16785233

  1. Progesterone Exerts a Neuromodulatory Effect on Turning Behavior of Hemiparkinsonian Male Rats: Expression of 3α-Hydroxysteroid Oxidoreductase and Allopregnanolone as Suggestive of GABAA Receptors Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Yunes, Roberto; Casas, Sebastián; Gaglio, Eliana; Cabrera, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing amount of evidence for a neuroprotective role of progesterone and its neuroactive metabolite, allopregnanolone, in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases. By using a model of hemiparkinsonism in male rats, injection of the neurotoxic 6-OHDA in left striatum, we studied progesterone's effects on rotational behavior induced by amphetamine or apomorphine. Also, in order to find potential explanatory mechanisms, we studied expression and activity of nigrostriatal 3α-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase, the enzyme that catalyzes progesterone to its active metabolite allopregnanolone. Coherently, we tested allopregnanolone for a possible neuromodulatory effect on rotational behavior. Also, since allopregnanolone is known as a GABAA modulator, we finally examined the action of GABAA antagonist bicuculline. We found that progesterone, in addition to an apparent neuroprotective effect, also increased ipsilateral expression and activity of 3α-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase. It was interesting to note that ipsilateral administration of allopregnanolone reversed a clear sign of motor neurodegeneration, that is, contralateral rotational behavior. A possible GABAA involvement modulated by allopregnanolone was shown by the blocking effect of bicuculline. Our results suggest that early administration of progesterone possibly activates genomic mechanisms that promote neuroprotection subchronically. This, in turn, could be partially mediated by fast, nongenomic, actions of allopregnanolone acting as an acute modulator of GABAergic transmission. PMID:25918669

  2. Fluorescence quenching studies on the characterization of energy generated at the NADH:quinone oxidoreductase and quinol oxidase segments of marine bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y J; Mizushima, S; Tokuda, H

    1991-04-01

    Generation of membrane potential (inside-positive) and delta pH (inside-acidic) at two kinds of NADH:quinone oxidoreductase segments, the Na(+)-motive segment and another segment, of Vibrio alginolyticus was examined by monitoring the quenching of fluorescence of oxonol V and that of quinacrine, respectively, with inside-out membrane vesicles. Transient generation of membrane potential at the segment occurred when ubiquinone-1 was added in the presence of KCN and NADH. The membrane potential was resistant to a proton conductor, carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, indicating that the membrane potential was generated specifically at the Na(+)-motive segment. On the other hand, neither membrane potential nor delta pH was generated at another segment. The Na(+)-motive segment did not generate delta pH, indicating that only Na+ is extruded at this segment. Furthermore, generation of membrane potential and delta pH at the NADH:quinone oxidoreductase segment of V. anguillarum was examined by using the fluorescence quenching technique. This segment of the bacterium was also found to generate delta psi by the extrusion of Na+ but not H+. These results revealed that the fluorescence quenching technique is useful for the rapid identification and characterization of the respiratory segment involved in Na+ translocation. PMID:1907969

  3. Directed Evolution and Resolution Mechanism of 1, 3-Propanediol Oxidoreductase from Klebsiella pneumoniae toward Higher Activity by Error-Prone PCR and Bioinformatics

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei; Zhuang, Yuan; Wang, Shizhen; Fang, Baishan

    2015-01-01

    1, 3-propanediol oxidoreductase (PDOR) is a key enzyme in glycerol bioconversion to 1,3-propanediol (1, 3-PD) which is a valuable chemical and one of the six new petrochemical products. We used error-prone PCR and activity screening to identify mutants of Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) PDOR with improved activity. The activity of one of the identified mutants, PDOR’-24, which includes a single mutation, A199S, was 48 U/mg, 4.9 times that of the wild-type enzyme. Molecular docking was performed to analyze the identified mutants; and amino acids S103, H271, N366, D106, N262 and D364 were predicted to bond with NADH. The origins of the improved activity of PDOR’-24, as well as three other mutants were analyzed by simulating the interaction mechanism of the mutants with the substrate and coenzyme, respectively. This research provides useful information about the use of safranine O plate screening for the directed evolution of oxidoreductases, identifies interesting sites for improving PDOR activity, and demonstrates the utility of using molecular docking to analyze the interaction mechanism of the mutants with the substrate and coenzyme, respectively. PMID:26528716

  4. Altered patterns of gene duplication and differential gene gain and loss in fungal pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Amy J; Conant, Gavin C; Brown, Douglas E; Carbone, Ignazio; Dean, Ralph A

    2008-01-01

    Background Duplication, followed by fixation or random loss of novel genes, contributes to genome evolution. Particular outcomes of duplication events are possibly associated with pathogenic life histories in fungi. To date, differential gene gain and loss have not been studied at genomic scales in fungal pathogens, despite this phenomenon's known importance in virulence in bacteria and viruses. Results To determine if patterns of gene duplication differed between pathogens and non-pathogens, we identified gene families across nine euascomycete and two basidiomycete species. Gene family size distributions were fit to power laws to compare gene duplication trends in pathogens versus non-pathogens. Fungal phytopathogens showed globally altered patterns of gene duplication, as indicated by differences in gene family size distribution. We also identified sixteen examples of gene family expansion and five instances of gene family contraction in pathogenic lineages. Expanded gene families included those predicted to be important in melanin biosynthesis, host cell wall degradation and transport functions. Contracted families included those encoding genes involved in toxin production, genes with oxidoreductase activity, as well as subunits of the vacuolar ATPase complex. Surveys of the functional distribution of gene duplicates indicated that pathogens show enrichment for gene duplicates associated with receptor and hydrolase activities, while euascomycete pathogens appeared to have not only these differences, but also significantly more duplicates associated with regulatory and carbohydrate binding functions. Conclusion Differences in the overall levels of gene duplication in phytopathogenic species versus non-pathogenic relatives implicate gene inventory flux as an important virulence-associated process in fungi. We hypothesize that the observed patterns of gene duplicate enrichment, gene family expansion and contraction reflect adaptation within pathogenic life histories. These adaptations were likely shaped by ancient, as well as contemporary, intimate associations with monocot hosts. PMID:18373860

  5. Biosynthesis of the Antimicrobial Peptide Epilancin 15X and Its N-terminal Lactate

    PubMed Central

    Velásquez, Juan E.; Zhang, Xingang; van der Donk, Wilfred

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified antimicrobial peptides. The recently discovered lantibiotic epilancin 15X produced by Staphylococcus epidermidis 15X154 contains an unusual N-terminal lactate group. To understand its biosynthesis, the epilancin 15X biosynthetic gene cluster was identified. The N-terminal lactate is produced by dehydration of a Ser residue in the first position of the core peptide by ElxB, followed by proteolytic removal of the leader peptide by ElxP, and hydrolysis of the resulting new N-terminal dehydroalanine. The pyruvate group thus formed is reduced to lactate by an NADPH dependent oxidoreductase designated ElxO. The enzymatic activity of ElxB, ElxP, and ElxO were investigated in vitro or in vivo and the importance of the N-terminal modification for peptide stability against bacterial aminopeptidases was assessed. PMID:21802007

  6. Glycogen Metabolic Genes Are Involved in Trehalose-6-Phosphate Synthase-Mediated Regulation of Pathogenicity by the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Richard A.; Wang, Zheng-Yi; Kershaw, Michael J.; Talbot, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is the causal agent of rice blast disease. Here we show that glycogen metabolic genes play an important role in plant infection by M. oryzae. Targeted deletion of AGL1 and GPH1, which encode amyloglucosidase and glycogen phosphorylase, respectively, prevented mobilisation of glycogen stores during appressorium development and caused a significant reduction in the ability of M. oryzae to cause rice blast disease. By contrast, targeted mutation of GSN1, which encodes glycogen synthase, significantly reduced the synthesis of intracellular glycogen, but had no effect on fungal pathogenicity. We found that loss of AGL1 and GPH1 led to a reduction in expression of TPS1 and TPS3, which encode components of the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase complex, that acts as a genetic switch in M. oryzae. Tps1 responds to glucose-6-phosphate levels and the balance of NADP/NADPH to regulate virulence-associated gene expression, in association with Nmr transcriptional inhibitors. We show that deletion of the NMR3 transcriptional inhibitor gene partially restores virulence to a Δagl1Δgph1 mutant, suggesting that glycogen metabolic genes are necessary for operation of the NADPH-dependent genetic switch in M. oryzae. PMID:24098112

  7. Overexpression of Arabidopsis NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase C (AtNTRC) confers freezing and cold shock tolerance to plants

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Jeong Chan; Lee, Sangmin; Shin, Su Young; Chae, Ho Byoung; Jung, Young Jun; Jung, Hyun Suk; Lee, Kyun Oh; Lee, Jung Ro; Lee, Sang Yeol

    2015-08-07

    Overexpression of AtNTRC (AtNTRC{sup OE}) in Arabidopsis thaliana led to a freezing and cold stress tolerance, whereas a knockout mutant (atntrc) showed a stress-sensitive phenotype. Biochemical analyses showed that the recombinant AtNTRC proteins exhibited a cryoprotective activity for malate dehydrogenase and lactic dehydrogenase. Furthermore, conclusive evidence of its interaction with nucleic acids in vitro is provided here on the basis of gel shift and electron microscopy analysis. Recombinant AtNTRC efficiently protected RNA and DNA from RNase A and metal catalyzed oxidation damage, respectively. The C-terminal thioredoxin domain is required for the nucleic acid–protein complex formation. From these results, it can be hypothesized that AtNTRC, which is known to be an electron donor of peroxiredoxin, contributes the stability of macromolecules under cold stress. - Highlights: • AtNTRC has a cryoprotective activity in vitro. • Overexpression of AtNTRC increases tolerance to freezing and cold shock stresses. • Thioredoxin domain of AtNTRC protects nucleic acids in vitro. • AtNTRC inhibits protein aggregation under freezing stress in vitro.

  8. Molecular Characterization of an NADPH-Dependent Acetoin Reductase/2,3-Butanediol Dehydrogenase from Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052

    PubMed Central

    Raedts, John; Siemerink, Marco A. J.; Levisson, Mark; van der Oost, John

    2014-01-01

    Acetoin reductase is an important enzyme for the fermentative production of 2,3-butanediol, a chemical compound with a very broad industrial use. Here, we report on the discovery and characterization of an acetoin reductase from Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052. An in silico screen of the C. beijerinckii genome revealed eight potential acetoin reductases. One of them (CBEI_1464) showed substantial acetoin reductase activity after expression in Escherichia coli. The purified enzyme (C. beijerinckii acetoin reductase [Cb-ACR]) was found to exist predominantly as a homodimer. In addition to acetoin (or 2,3-butanediol), other secondary alcohols and corresponding ketones were converted as well, provided that another electronegative group was attached to the adjacent C-3 carbon. Optimal activity was at pH 6.5 (reduction) and 9.5 (oxidation) and around 68°C. Cb-ACR accepts both NADH and NADPH as electron donors; however, unlike closely related enzymes, NADPH is preferred (Km, 32 μM). Cb-ACR was compared to characterized close homologs, all belonging to the “threonine dehydrogenase and related Zn-dependent dehydrogenases” (COG1063). Metal analysis confirmed the presence of 2 Zn2+ atoms. To gain insight into the substrate and cofactor specificity, a structural model was constructed. The catalytic zinc atom is likely coordinated by Cys37, His70, and Glu71, while the structural zinc site is probably composed of Cys100, Cys103, Cys106, and Cys114. Residues determining NADP specificity were predicted as well. The physiological role of Cb-ACR in C. beijerinckii is discussed. PMID:24441158

  9. Overexpression of Arabidopsis NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase C (AtNTRC) confers freezing and cold shock tolerance to plants.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jeong Chan; Lee, Sangmin; Shin, Su Young; Chae, Ho Byoung; Jung, Young Jun; Jung, Hyun Suk; Lee, Kyun Oh; Lee, Jung Ro; Lee, Sang Yeol

    2015-08-01

    Overexpression of AtNTRC (AtNTRC(OE)) in Arabidopsis thaliana led to a freezing and cold stress tolerance, whereas a knockout mutant (atntrc) showed a stress-sensitive phenotype. Biochemical analyses showed that the recombinant AtNTRC proteins exhibited a cryoprotective activity for malate dehydrogenase and lactic dehydrogenase. Furthermore, conclusive evidence of its interaction with nucleic acids in vitro is provided here on the basis of gel shift and electron microscopy analysis. Recombinant AtNTRC efficiently protected RNA and DNA from RNase A and metal catalyzed oxidation damage, respectively. The C-terminal thioredoxin domain is required for the nucleic acid-protein complex formation. From these results, it can be hypothesized that AtNTRC, which is known to be an electron donor of peroxiredoxin, contributes the stability of macromolecules under cold stress. PMID:26086110

  10. Expression of a heat-stable NADPH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase in Caldicellulosiruptor bescii results in furan aldehyde detoxification

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Daehwan; Verbeke, Tobin J.; Cross, Karissa L.; Westpheling, Janet; Elkins, James G.

    2015-07-22

    Compounds such as furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) are generated through the dehydration of xylose and glucose, respectively, during dilute-acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass and are also potent microbial growth and fermentation inhibitors. The enzymatic reduction of these furan aldehydes to their corresponding, and less toxic, alcohols is an engineering approach that has been successfully implemented in both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ethanologenicEscherichia coli, but has not yet been investigated in thermophiles relevant to biofuel production through consolidated bioprocessing (CBP). Developing CBP-relevant biocatalysts that are either naturally resistant to such inhibitors, or are amenable to engineered resistance, is therefore, an important component in making biofuels production from lignocellulosic biomass feasible.

  11. Expression of a heat-stable NADPH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase in Caldicellulosiruptor bescii results in furan aldehyde detoxification

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chung, Daehwan; Verbeke, Tobin J.; Cross, Karissa L.; Westpheling, Janet; Elkins, James G.

    2015-07-22

    Compounds such as furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) are generated through the dehydration of xylose and glucose, respectively, during dilute-acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass and are also potent microbial growth and fermentation inhibitors. The enzymatic reduction of these furan aldehydes to their corresponding, and less toxic, alcohols is an engineering approach that has been successfully implemented in both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ethanologenicEscherichia coli, but has not yet been investigated in thermophiles relevant to biofuel production through consolidated bioprocessing (CBP). Developing CBP-relevant biocatalysts that are either naturally resistant to such inhibitors, or are amenable to engineered resistance, is therefore, an important componentmore » in making biofuels production from lignocellulosic biomass feasible.« less

  12. Eicosanoids up-regulate production of reactive oxygen species by NADPH-dependent oxidase in Spodoptera exigua phagocytic hemocytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eicosanoids mediate cellular immune responses in insects, including phagocytosis of invading microbes. Phagocytosis entails two major steps, the internalization of microbes and the subsequent killing of them via formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we posed the hypothesis that eicosanoi...

  13. The ocean as a global reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes.

    PubMed

    Hatosy, Stephen M; Martiny, Adam C

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies of natural environments have revealed vast genetic reservoirs of antibiotic resistance (AR) genes. Soil bacteria and human pathogens share AR genes, and AR genes have been discovered in a variety of habitats. However, there is little knowledge about the presence and diversity of AR genes in marine environments and which organisms host AR genes. To address this, we identified the diversity of genes conferring resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, nitrofurantoin, and sulfadimethoxine in diverse marine environments using functional metagenomics (the cloning and screening of random DNA fragments). Marine environments were host to a diversity of AR-conferring genes. Antibiotic-resistant clones were found at all sites, with 28% of the genes identified as known AR genes (encoding beta-lactamases, bicyclomycin resistance pumps, etc.). However, the majority of AR genes were not previously classified as such but had products similar to proteins such as transport pumps, oxidoreductases, and hydrolases. Furthermore, 44% of the genes conferring antibiotic resistance were found in abundant marine taxa (e.g., Pelagibacter, Prochlorococcus, and Vibrio). Therefore, we uncovered a previously unknown diversity of genes that conferred an AR phenotype among marine environments, which makes the ocean a global reservoir of both clinically relevant and potentially novel AR genes. PMID:26296734

  14. The Ocean as a Global Reservoir of Antibiotic Resistance Genes

    PubMed Central

    Hatosy, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies of natural environments have revealed vast genetic reservoirs of antibiotic resistance (AR) genes. Soil bacteria and human pathogens share AR genes, and AR genes have been discovered in a variety of habitats. However, there is little knowledge about the presence and diversity of AR genes in marine environments and which organisms host AR genes. To address this, we identified the diversity of genes conferring resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, nitrofurantoin, and sulfadimethoxine in diverse marine environments using functional metagenomics (the cloning and screening of random DNA fragments). Marine environments were host to a diversity of AR-conferring genes. Antibiotic-resistant clones were found at all sites, with 28% of the genes identified as known AR genes (encoding beta-lactamases, bicyclomycin resistance pumps, etc.). However, the majority of AR genes were not previously classified as such but had products similar to proteins such as transport pumps, oxidoreductases, and hydrolases. Furthermore, 44% of the genes conferring antibiotic resistance were found in abundant marine taxa (e.g., Pelagibacter, Prochlorococcus, and Vibrio). Therefore, we uncovered a previously unknown diversity of genes that conferred an AR phenotype among marine environments, which makes the ocean a global reservoir of both clinically relevant and potentially novel AR genes. PMID:26296734

  15. Wiring of the aldehyde oxidoreductase PaoABC to electrode surfaces via entrapment in low potential phenothiazine-modified redox polymers.

    PubMed

    Pinyou, Piyanut; Ruff, Adrian; Pöller, Sascha; Alsaoub, Sabine; Leimkühler, Silke; Wollenberger, Ulla; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    Phenothiazine-modified redox hydrogels were synthesized and used for the wiring of the aldehyde oxidoreductase PaoABC to electrode surfaces. The effects of the pH value and electrode surface modification on the biocatalytic activity of the layers were studied in the presence of vanillin as the substrate. The enzyme electrodes were successfully employed as bioanodes in vanillin/O2 biofuel cells in combination with a high potential bilirubin oxidase biocathode. Open circuit voltages of around 700mV could be obtained in a two compartment biofuel cell setup. Moreover, the use of a rather hydrophobic polymer with a high degree of crosslinking sites ensures the formation of stable polymer/enzyme films which were successfully used as bioanode in membrane-less biofuel cells. PMID:26775204

  16. A light-dependent complementation system for analysis of NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase: Identification and mutagenesis of two conserved residues that are essential for enzyme activity

    SciTech Connect

    Wilks, H.M.; Timko, M.P.

    1995-01-31

    Protochlorophyllide reductase (NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase; EC 1.6.99.1) catalyzes the light-dependent reduction of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide, a key regulatory step in the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. We have developed an expression system in which the protochlorophyllide reductase from pea (Pisum sativum L.) is used to complement protochlorophyllide reduction mutants in the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus, allowing analysis of wild-type and mutant forms of the enzyme. By protein sequence comparisons, we have identified the plant protochlorophyllide reductases as belonging to the family of short-chain alcohol dehydrogenases. Based on our protein sequence alignments, we have identified and mutated two conserved residues (Tyr-275 and Lys-279) within the proposed active site of the enzyme and shown that they are critical for activity. A model of the enzyme reaction mechanism for light-dependent protochlorophyllide reduction is proposed. 33 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Chloroplast lipid droplet type II NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase is essential for prenylquinone metabolism and vitamin K1 accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Eugeni Piller, Lucia; Besagni, Cline; Ksas, Brigitte; Rumeau, Dominique; Brhlin, Claire; Glauser, Gatan; Kessler, Felix; Havaux, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Lipid droplets are ubiquitous cellular structures in eukaryotes and are required for lipid metabolism. Little is currently known about plant lipid droplets other than oil bodies. Here, we define dual roles for chloroplast lipid droplets (plastoglobules) in energy and prenylquinone metabolism. The prenylquinonesplastoquinone, plastochromanol-8, phylloquinone (vitamin K1), and tocopherol (vitamin E)are partly stored in plastoglobules. This work shows that NAD(P)H dehydrogenase C1 (NDC1) (At5g08740), a type II NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase, associates with plastoglobules. NDC1 reduces a plastoquinone analog in vitro and affects the overall redox state of the total plastoquinone pool in vivo by reducing the plastoquinone reservoir of plastoglobules. Finally, NDC1 is required for normal plastochromanol-8 accumulation and is essential for vitamin K1 production. PMID:21844348

  18. Myocardial Overexpression of Mecr, a Gene of Mitochondrial FAS II Leads to Cardiac Dysfunction in Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhijun; Leskinen, Hanna; Liimatta, Erkki; Sormunen, Raija T.; Miinalainen, Ilkka J.; Hassinen, Ilmo E.; Hiltunen, J. Kalervo

    2009-01-01

    It has been recently recognized that mammalian mitochondria contain most, if not all, of the components of fatty acid synthesis type II (FAS II). Among the components identified is 2-enoyl thioester reductase/mitochondrial enoyl-CoA reductase (Etr1/Mecr), which catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of trans-2-enoyl thioesters, generating saturated acyl-groups. Although the FAS type II pathway is highly conserved, its physiological role in fatty acid synthesis, which apparently occurs simultaneously with breakdown of fatty acids in the same subcellular compartment in mammals, has remained an enigma. To study the in vivo function of the mitochondrial FAS in mammals, with special reference to Mecr, we generated mice overexpressing Mecr under control of the mouse metallothionein-1 promoter. These Mecr transgenic mice developed cardiac abnormalities as demonstrated by echocardiography in vivo, heart perfusion ex vivo, and electron microscopy in situ. Moreover, the Mecr transgenic mice showed decreased performance in endurance exercise testing. Our results showed a ventricular dilatation behind impaired heart function upon Mecr overexpression, concurrent with appearance of dysmorphic mitochondria. Furthermore, the data suggested that inappropriate expression of genes of FAS II can result in the development of hereditary cardiomyopathy. PMID:19440339

  19. Reference genes for gene expression studies in wheat flag leaves grown under different farming conditions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Internal control genes with highly uniform expression throughout the experimental conditions are required for accurate gene expression analysis as no universal reference genes exists. In this study, the expression stability of 24 candidate genes from Triticum aestivum cv. Cubus flag leaves grown under organic and conventional farming systems was evaluated in two locations in order to select suitable genes that can be used for normalization of real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) reactions. The genes were selected among the most common used reference genes as well as genes encoding proteins involved in several metabolic pathways. Findings Individual genes displayed different expression rates across all samples assayed. Applying geNorm, a set of three potential reference genes were suitable for normalization of RT-qPCR reactions in winter wheat flag leaves cv. Cubus: TaFNRII (ferredoxin-NADP(H) oxidoreductase; AJ457980.1), ACT2 (actin 2; TC234027), and rrn26 (a putative homologue to RNA 26S gene; AL827977.1). In addition of these three genes that were also top-ranked by NormFinder, two extra genes: CYP18-2 (Cyclophilin A, AY456122.1) and TaWIN1 (14-3-3 like protein, AB042193) were most consistently stably expressed. Furthermore, we showed that TaFNRII, ACT2, and CYP18-2 are suitable for gene expression normalization in other two winter wheat varieties (Tommi and Centenaire) grown under three treatments (organic, conventional and no nitrogen) and a different environment than the one tested with cv. Cubus. Conclusions This study provides a new set of reference genes which should improve the accuracy of gene expression analyses when using wheat flag leaves as those related to the improvement of nitrogen use efficiency for cereal production. PMID:21951810

  20. Purification and characterization of dibenzothiophene sulfone monooxygenase and FMN-dependent NADH oxidoreductase from the thermophilic bacterium Paenibacillus sp. strain A11-2.

    PubMed

    Konishi, J; Ishii, Y; Onaka, T; Ohta, Y; Suzuki, M; Maruhashi, K

    2000-01-01

    A dibenzothiophene (DBT) sulfone monooxygenase (TdsA), which catalyses the oxidative CS bond cleavage of DBT sulfone to produce 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzenesulfinate (HPBS) was purified from the thermophilic DBT desulfurizing bacterium Paenibacillus sp. strain A11-2 by multistep chromatography. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was determined to be 120 kDa by gel filtration and the subunit molecular mass was calculated to be 48 kDa by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) indicating a dimeric structure. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified TdsA was determined to be MRQMHLAGFFAAGNTHH, which revealed no significant similarity to any other known amino acid sequences. The purified TdsA absolutely required an oxidoreductase for its activity. This oxidoreductase (TdsD) was also purified to homogeneity, and its molecular size was calculated to be 50 kDa and 25 kDa by gel filtration and SDS-PAGE, respectively. TdsD was completely FMN-dependent, and FAD could not act as a cofactor. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified TdsD was determined to be TSQTAEQSIAPIVAQYRHPEQPISALFVNR, which showed significant similarity to kinesin-like protein (44% identity). The optimal temperatures for the activity of TdsA and TdsD were 45 degrees C and 55 degrees C, respectively. Both enzymes showed optimal activity at pH 5.5. TdsA was slightly inhibited by sulfate, but not by 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP), which is another end product of DBT. TdsA showed higher activity toward bulkier substrates than its mesophilic counterpart, DszA. These properties suggest the applicability of biodesulfurization to the processing of actual petroleum fractions. PMID:16232919

  1. Time-lapse anomalous X-ray diffraction shows how Fe(2+) substrate ions move through ferritin protein nanocages to oxidoreductase sites.

    PubMed

    Pozzi, Cecilia; Di Pisa, Flavio; Lalli, Daniela; Rosa, Camilla; Theil, Elizabeth; Turano, Paola; Mangani, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    Ferritin superfamily protein cages reversibly synthesize internal biominerals, Fe2O3·H2O. Fe(2+) and O2 (or H2O2) substrates bind at oxidoreductase sites in the cage, initiating biomineral synthesis to concentrate iron and prevent potentially toxic reactions products from Fe(2+)and O2 or H2O2 chemistry. By freezing ferritin crystals of Rana catesbeiana ferritin M (RcMf) at different time intervals after exposure to a ferrous salt, a series of high-resolution anomalous X-ray diffraction data sets were obtained that led to crystal structures that allowed the direct observation of ferrous ions entering, moving along and binding at enzyme sites in the protein cages. The ensemble of crystal structures from both aerobic and anaerobic conditions provides snapshots of the iron substrate bound at different cage locations that vary with time. The observed differential occupation of the two iron sites in the enzyme oxidoreductase centre (with Glu23 and Glu58, and with Glu58, His61 and Glu103 as ligands, respectively) and other iron-binding sites (with Glu53, His54, Glu57, Glu136 and Asp140 as ligands) reflects the approach of the Fe(2+) substrate and its progression before the enzymatic cycle 2Fe(2+) + O2 → Fe(3+)-O-O-Fe(3+) → Fe(3+)-O(H)-Fe(3+) and turnover. The crystal structures also revealed different Fe(2+) coordination compounds bound to the ion channels located at the threefold and fourfold symmetry axes of the cage. PMID:25849404

  2. Tropine forming tropinone reductase gene from Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha): biochemical characteristics of the recombinant enzyme and novel physiological overtones of tissue-wide gene expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, Amit Kumar; Sangwan, Neelam Singh; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Negi, Arvind Singh; Misra, Laxminarain; Sangwan, Rajender Singh

    2013-01-01

    Withania somnifera is one of the most reputed medicinal plants of Indian systems of medicine synthesizing diverse types of secondary metabolites such as withanolides, alkaloids, withanamides etc. Present study comprises cloning and E. coli over-expression of a tropinone reductase gene (WsTR-I) from W. somnifera, and elucidation of biochemical characteristics and physiological role of tropinone reductase enzyme in tropane alkaloid biosynthesis in aerial tissues of the plant. The recombinant enzyme was demonstrated to catalyze NADPH-dependent tropinone to tropine conversion step in tropane metabolism, through TLC, GC and GC-MS-MS analyses of the reaction product. The functionally active homodimeric ~60 kDa enzyme catalyzed the reaction in reversible manner at optimum pH 6.7. Catalytic kinetics of the enzyme favoured its forward reaction (tropine formation). Comparative 3-D models of landscape of the enzyme active site contours and tropinone binding site were also developed. Tissue-wide and ontogenic stage-wise assessment of WsTR-I transcript levels revealed constitutive expression of the gene with relatively lower abundance in berries and young leaves. The tissue profiles of WsTR-I expression matched those of tropine levels. The data suggest that, in W. somnifera, aerial tissues as well possess tropane alkaloid biosynthetic competence. In vivo feeding of U-[(14)C]-sucrose to orphan shoot (twigs) and [(14)C]-chasing revealed substantial radiolabel incorporation in tropinone and tropine, confirming the de novo synthesizing ability of the aerial tissues. This inherent independent ability heralds a conceptual novelty in the backdrop of classical view that these tissues acquire the alkaloids through transportation from roots rather than synthesis. The TR-I gene expression was found to be up-regulated on exposure to signal molecules (methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid) and on mechanical injury. The enzyme's catalytic and structural properties as well as gene expression profiles are discussed with respect to their physiological overtones. PMID:24086372

  3. Tropine Forming Tropinone Reductase Gene from Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha): Biochemical Characteristics of the Recombinant Enzyme and Novel Physiological Overtones of Tissue-Wide Gene Expression Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Kushwaha, Amit Kumar; Sangwan, Neelam Singh; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Negi, Arvind Singh; Misra, Laxminarain; Sangwan, Rajender Singh

    2013-01-01

    Withania somnifera is one of the most reputed medicinal plants of Indian systems of medicine synthesizing diverse types of secondary metabolites such as withanolides, alkaloids, withanamides etc. Present study comprises cloning and E. coli over-expression of a tropinone reductase gene (WsTR-I) from W. somnifera, and elucidation of biochemical characteristics and physiological role of tropinone reductase enzyme in tropane alkaloid biosynthesis in aerial tissues of the plant. The recombinant enzyme was demonstrated to catalyze NADPH-dependent tropinone to tropine conversion step in tropane metabolism, through TLC, GC and GC-MS-MS analyses of the reaction product. The functionally active homodimeric ∼60 kDa enzyme catalyzed the reaction in reversible manner at optimum pH 6.7. Catalytic kinetics of the enzyme favoured its forward reaction (tropine formation). Comparative 3-D models of landscape of the enzyme active site contours and tropinone binding site were also developed. Tissue-wide and ontogenic stage-wise assessment of WsTR-I transcript levels revealed constitutive expression of the gene with relatively lower abundance in berries and young leaves. The tissue profiles of WsTR-I expression matched those of tropine levels. The data suggest that, in W. somnifera, aerial tissues as well possess tropane alkaloid biosynthetic competence. In vivo feeding of U-[14C]-sucrose to orphan shoot (twigs) and [14C]-chasing revealed substantial radiolabel incorporation in tropinone and tropine, confirming the de novo synthesizing ability of the aerial tissues. This inherent independent ability heralds a conceptual novelty in the backdrop of classical view that these tissues acquire the alkaloids through transportation from roots rather than synthesis. The TR-I gene expression was found to be up-regulated on exposure to signal molecules (methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid) and on mechanical injury. The enzyme's catalytic and structural properties as well as gene expression profiles are discussed with respect to their physiological overtones. PMID:24086372

  4. Genes and Gene Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... a child can have a genetic disorder. Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to ... prevent disease. The most common form of gene therapy involves inserting a normal gene to replace an ...

  5. Thermostable NADP+-Dependent Medium-Chain Alcohol Dehydrogenase from Acinetobacter sp. Strain M-1: Purification and Characterization and Gene Expression in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Tani, Akio; Sakai, Yasuyoshi; Ishige, Takeru; Kato, Nobuo

    2000-01-01

    NADPH-dependent alkylaldehyde reducing enzyme, which was greatly induced by n-hexadecane, from Acinetobacter sp. strain M-1 was purified and characterized. The purified enzyme had molecular masses of 40 kDa as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and 160 kDa as determined by gel filtration chromatography. The enzyme, which was shown to be highly thermostable, was most active toward n-heptanal and could use n-alkylaldehydes ranging from C2 to C14 and several substituted benzaldehydes, including the industrially important compounds cinnamyl aldehyde and anisaldehyde, as substrates. The alrA gene coding for this enzyme was cloned, and its nucleotide sequence was determined. The deduced amino acid sequence encoded by the alrA gene exhibited homology to the amino acid sequences of zinc-containing alcohol dehydrogenases from various sources. The gene could be highly expressed in Escherichia coli, and the product was purified to homogeneity by simpler procedures from the recombinant than from the original host. Our results show that this enzyme can be used for industrial bioconversion of useful alcohols and aldehydes. PMID:11097895

  6. Gene expression of sternohyoid and diaphragm muscles in type 2 diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes differs from type 1 diabetes in its pathogenesis. Type 1 diabetic diaphragm has altered gene expression which includes lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, ubiquitination and oxidoreductase activity. The objectives of the present study were to assess respiratory muscle gene expression changes in type 2 diabetes and to determine whether they are greater for the diaphragm than an upper airway muscle. Methods Diaphragm and sternohyoid muscle from Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats were analyzed with Affymetrix gene expression arrays. Results The two muscles had 97 and 102 genes, respectively, with at least ± 1.5-fold significantly changed expression with diabetes, and these were assigned to gene ontology groups based on over-representation analysis. Several significantly changed groups were common to both muscles, including lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, muscle contraction, ion transport and collagen, although the number of genes and the specific genes involved differed considerably for the two muscles. In both muscles there was a shift in metabolism gene expression from carbohydrate metabolism toward lipid metabolism, but the shift was greater and involved more genes in diabetic diaphragm than diabetic sternohyoid muscle. Groups present in only diaphragm were blood circulation and oxidoreductase activity. Groups present in only sternohyoid were immune & inflammation and response to stress & wounding, with complement genes being a prominent component. Conclusion Type 2 diabetes-induced gene expression changes in respiratory muscles has both similarities and differences relative to previous data on type 1 diabetes gene expression. Furthermore, the diabetic alterations in gene expression differ between diaphragm and sternohyoid. PMID:24199937

  7. NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 activity reduces hypertrophy in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) pathway responds to oxidative stress via control of the expression of several antioxidant genes. Recent efforts demonstrate that Nrf2 modulates development of adiposity and adipogenesis. However little is kno...

  8. Recombinant expression of four oxidoreductases in Phanerochaete chrysosporium improves degradation of phenolic and non-phenolic substrates.

    PubMed

    Coconi-Linares, Nancy; Ortiz-Vzquez, Elizabeth; Fernndez, Francisco; Loske, Achim M; Gmez-Lim, Miguel A

    2015-09-10

    Phanerochaete chrysosporium belongs to a group of lignin-degrading fungi that secretes various oxidoreductive enzymes, including lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP). Previously, we demonstrated that the heterologous expression of a versatile peroxidase (VP) in P. chrysosporium recombinant strains is possible. However, the production of laccases (Lac) in this fungus has not been completely demonstrated and remains controversial. In order to investigate if the co-expression of Lac and VP in P. chrysosporium would improve the degradation of phenolic and non-phenolic substrates, we tested the constitutive co-expression of the lacIIIb gene from Trametes versicolor and the vpl2 gene from Pleurotus eryngii, and also the endogenous genes mnp1 and lipH8 by shock wave mediated transformation. The co-overexpression of peroxidases and laccases was improved up to five-fold as compared with wild type species. Transformant strains showed a broad spectrum in phenolic/non-phenolic biotransformation and a high percentage in synthetic dye decolorization in comparison with the parental strain. Our results show that the four enzymes can be constitutively expressed in a single transformant of P. chrysosporium in minimal medium. These data offer new possibilities for an easy and efficient co-expression of laccases and peroxidases in suitable basidiomycete species. PMID:26113215

  9. Human carbonyl reductase (CBR) localized to band 21q22. 1 by high-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization displays gene dosage effects in trisomy 21 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, N. ); Malfoy, B. ); Forrest, G.L. )

    1993-01-01

    Human carbonyl reductase (CBR) belongs to a group of NADPH-dependent enzymes called aldo-keto reductases. The enzyme can function as an aldo-keto reductase or as a quinone reductase with potential for modulating quinone-mediated oxygen free radicals. The CBR gene was mapped by high-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization to band 21q22.12, very close to the SOD1 locus at position 2lq22.11. CBR displayed gene dosage effects in trisomy 21 human lymphoblasts at the DNA and mRNA levels. Lymphoblasts with increasing chromosome 21 ploidy also showed increased aldo-keto reductase activity and increased quinone reductase activity. Both aldo-keto reductase activity and quinone reductase activity have been shown to be associated with carbonyl reductase. The location of CBR near SOD1 and the increased enzyme activity and potential for free radical modulation in trisomy 21 cells implicate CBR as a candidate for contributing to the pathology of certain diseases such as Down syndrome and Alzheimer disease. 28 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  10. PAH Particles Perturb Prenatal Processes and Phenotypes: Protection from Deficits in Object Discrimination Afforded by Dampening of Brain Oxidoreductase Following In Utero Exposure to Inhaled Benzo(a)pyrene

    PubMed Central

    Chadalapaka, Gayathri; Ramesh, Aramandla; Khoshbouei, Habibeh; Maguire, Mark; Safe, Stephen; Rhoades, Raina E.; Clark, Ryan; Jules, George; McCallister, Monique; Aschner, Michael; Hood, Darryl B.

    2012-01-01

    The wild-type (WT) Cprlox/lox (cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase, Cpr) mouse is an ideal model to assess the contribution of P450 enzymes to the metabolic activation and disposition of environmental xenobiotics. In the present study, we examined the effect of in utero exposure to benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] aerosol on Sp4 and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)–dependent systems as well as a resulting behavioral phenotype (object discrimination) in Cpr offspring. Results from in utero exposure of WT Cprlox/lox mice were compared with in utero exposed brain-Cpr-null offspring mice. Null mice were used as they do not express brain cytochrome P4501B1–associated NADPH oxidoreductase (CYP1B1-associated NADPH oxidoreductase), thus reducing their capacity to produce neural B(a)P metabolites. Subsequent to in utero (E14–E17) exposure to B(a)P (100 μg/m3), Cprlox/lox offspring exhibited: (1) elevated B(a)P metabolite and F2-isoprostane neocortical tissue burdens, (2) elevated concentrations of cortical glutamate, (3) premature developmental expression of Sp4, (4) decreased subunit ratios of NR2B:NR2A, and (5) deficits in a novelty discrimination phenotype monitored to in utero exposed brain-Cpr-null offspring. Collectively, these findings suggest that in situ generation of metabolites by CYP1B1-associated NADPH oxidoreductase promotes negative effects on NMDA-mediated signaling processes during the period when synapses are first forming as well as effects on a subsequent behavioral phenotype. PMID:21987461

  11. Carbohydrate metabolism genes and pathways in insects: insights from the honey bee genome

    PubMed Central

    Kunieda, T; Fujiyuki, T; Kucharski, R; Foret, S; Ament, S A; Toth, A L; Ohashi, K; Takeuchi, H; Kamikouchi, A; Kage, E; Morioka, M; Beye, M; Kubo, T; Robinson, G E; Maleszka, R

    2006-01-01

    Carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes may have particularly interesting roles in the honey bee, Apis mellifera, because this social insect has an extremely carbohydrate-rich diet, and nutrition plays important roles in caste determination and socially mediated behavioural plasticity. We annotated a total of 174 genes encoding carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes and 28 genes encoding lipid-metabolizing enzymes, based on orthology to their counterparts in the fly, Drosophila melanogaster, and the mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. We found that the number of genes for carbohydrate metabolism appears to be more evolutionarily labile than for lipid metabolism. In particular, we identified striking changes in gene number or genomic organization for genes encoding glycolytic enzymes, cellulase, glucose oxidase and glucose dehydrogenases, glucose-methanol-choline (GMC) oxidoreductases, fucosyltransferases, and lysozymes. PMID:17069632

  12. The Bioinformatics Report of Mutation Outcome on NADPH Flavin Oxidoreductase Protein Sequence in Clinical Isolates of H. pylori.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Nasrin; Poursina, Farkhondeh; Moghim, Sharareh; Ghaempanah, Abdol Majid; Safaei, Hajieh Ghasemian

    2016-05-01

    frxA gene has been implicated in the metronidazole nitro reduction by H. pylori. Alternatively, frxA is expected to contribute to the protection of urease and to the in vivo survival of H. pylori. The aim of present study is to report the mutation effects on the frxA protein sequence in clinical isolates of H. pylori in our community. Metronidazole resistance was proven in 27 of 48 isolates. glmM and frxA genes were used for molecular confirmation of H. pylori isolates. The primer set for detection of whole sequence of frxA gene for the effect of mutation on protein sequence was used. DNA and protein sequence evaluation and analysis were done by blast, Clustal Omega, and T COFFEE programs. Then, FrxA protein sequences from six metronidazole-resistant clinical isolates were analyzed by web-based bioinformatics tools. The result of six metronidazole-resistant clinical isolates in comparison with strain 26695 showed ten missense mutations. The result with the STRING program revealed that no change was seen after alterations in these sequences. According to consensus data involving four methods, residue substitutions at 40, 13, and 141 increase the stability of protein sequence after mutation, while other alterations decrease. Residue substitutions at 40, 43, 141, 138, 169, and 179 are deleterious, while, V7I, Q10R, V34I, and V96I alterations are neutral. As FrxA contribute to survival of bacterium and in regard to the effect of mutations on protein function, it might affect the survival and bacterium phenotype and it need to be studied more. Also, none of the stability prediction tool is perfect; iStable is the best predictor method among all methods. PMID:26821239

  13. The two CcdA proteins of Bacillus anthracis differentially affect virulence gene expression and sporulation.

    PubMed

    Han, Hesong; Wilson, Adam C

    2013-12-01

    The cytochrome c maturation system influences the expression of virulence factors in Bacillus anthracis. B. anthracis carries two copies of the ccdA gene, encoding predicted thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases that contribute to cytochrome c maturation, while the closely related organism Bacillus subtilis carries only one copy of ccdA. To investigate the roles of the two ccdA gene copies in B. anthracis, strains were constructed without each ccdA gene, and one strain was constructed without both copies simultaneously. Loss of both ccdA genes results in a reduction of cytochrome c production, an increase in virulence factor expression, and a reduction in sporulation efficiency. Complementation and expression analyses indicate that ccdA2 encodes the primary CcdA in B. anthracis, active in all three pathways. While CcdA1 retains activity in cytochrome c maturation and virulence control, it has completely lost its activity in the sporulation pathway. In support of this finding, expression of ccdA1 is strongly reduced when cells are grown under sporulation-inducing conditions. When the activities of CcdA1 and CcdA2 were analyzed in B. subtilis, neither protein retained activity in cytochrome c maturation, but CcdA2 could still function in sporulation. These observations reveal the complexities of thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase function in pathways relevant to virulence and physiology. PMID:24056109

  14. Influence of Populus Genotype on Gene Expression by the Wood Decay Fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    PubMed Central

    Gaskell, Jill; Marty, Amber; Mozuch, Michael; Kersten, Philip J.; Splinter BonDurant, Sandra; Sabat, Grzegorz; Azarpira, Ali; Ralph, John; Skyba, Oleksandr; Mansfield, Shawn D.; Blanchette, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    We examined gene expression patterns in the lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium when it colonizes hybrid poplar (Populus alba × tremula) and syringyl (S)-rich transgenic derivatives. A combination of microarrays and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) allowed detection of a total of 9,959 transcripts and 793 proteins. Comparisons of P. chrysosporium transcript abundance in medium containing poplar or glucose as a sole carbon source showed 113 regulated genes, 11 of which were significantly higher (>2-fold, P < 0.05) in transgenic line 64 relative to the parental line. Possibly related to the very large amounts of syringyl (S) units in this transgenic tree (94 mol% S), several oxidoreductases were among the upregulated genes. Peptides corresponding to a total of 18 oxidoreductases were identified in medium consisting of biomass from line 64 or 82 (85 mol% S) but not in the parental clone (65 mol% S). These results demonstrate that P. chrysosporium gene expression patterns are substantially influenced by lignin composition. PMID:25015893

  15. NAD(P)H:Quinone Oxidoreductase-1 Expression Sensitizes Malignant Melanoma Cells to the HSP90 Inhibitor 17-AAG

    PubMed Central

    Kasai, Shuya; Arakawa, Nobuyuki; Okubo, Ayaka; Shigeeda, Wataru; Yasuhira, Shinji; Masuda, Tomoyuki; Akasaka, Toshihide; Shibazaki, Masahiko; Maesawa, Chihaya

    2016-01-01

    The KEAP1-NRF2 pathway regulates cellular redox homeostasis by transcriptional induction of genes associated with antioxidant synthesis and detoxification in response to oxidative stress. Previously, we reported that KEAP1 mutation elicits constitutive NRF2 activation and resistance to cisplatin (CDDP) and dacarbazine (DTIC) in human melanomas. The present study was conducted to clarify whether an HSP90 inhibitor, 17-AAG, efficiently eliminates melanoma with KEAP1 mutation, as the NRF2 target gene, NQO1, is a key enzyme in 17-AAG bioactivation. In melanoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines with or without KEAP1 mutations, NQO1 expression and 17-AAG sensitivity are inversely correlated. NQO1 is highly expressed in normal melanocytes and in several melanoma cell lines despite the presence of wild-type KEAP1, and the NQO1 expression is dependent on NRF2 activation. Because either CDDP or DTIC produces reactive oxygen species that activate NRF2, we determined whether these agents would sensitize NQO1-low melanoma cells to 17-AAG. Synergistic cytotoxicity of the 17-AAG and CDDP combination was detected in four out of five NQO1-low cell lines, but not in the cell line with KEAP1 mutation. These data indicate that 17-AAG could be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for melanoma with KEAP1 mutation or NQO1 expression. PMID:27045471

  16. Regulation of hexuronate system genes in Escherichia coli K-12: multiple regulation of the uxu operon by exuR and uxuR gene products.

    PubMed Central

    Robert-Baudouy, J; Portalier, R; Stoeber, F

    1981-01-01

    New regulatory mutants of Escherichia coli K-1 carrying alterations of the uxuR gene were isolated and characterized. In the presence of superrepressed or derepressed uxuR mutations, mannonic hydrolyase (uxuA) and oxidoreductase relationship analyses suggested that the uxuR gene product acted as a repressor in the control of uxuA-uxuB operon expression. uxuR mutations were localized near min 97, and the following gene order was established: (argH)-uxuR-uxuB-uxuA-(thr). Properties of exuR (point and deletion) mutants showed that both exuR and uxuR regulatory gene products were involved in the control of the uxuA uxuB operon. Analysis of exuR uxuR double-derepressed mutants suggested that exuR and uxuR repressors act cooperatively to repress the uxu operon. PMID:7007313

  17. Characterization of two quinone radicals in the NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase from Escherichia coli by a combined fluorescence spectroscopic and electrochemical approach.

    PubMed

    Hielscher, Ruth; Yegres, Michelle; Voicescu, Mariana; Gnandt, Emmanuel; Friedrich, Thorsten; Hellwig, Petra

    2013-12-17

    The NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) couples the transfer of electrons from NADH to ubiquinone with the translocation of protons across the membrane. It was proposed that the electron transfer involves quinoid groups localized at the end of the electron transfer chain. To identify these groups, fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of Escherichia coli complex I and its fragments, namely, the NADH dehydrogenase fragment containing the flavin mononucleotide and six iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters, and the quinone reductase fragment containing three Fe-S clusters were measured. Signals sensitive to reduction by either NADH or dithionite were detected within the complex and the quinone reductase fragment and attributed to the redox transition of protonated ubiquinone radicals. A fluorescence spectroscopic electrochemical redox titration revealed midpoint potentials of -37 and- 235 mV (vs the standard hydrogen electrode) for the redox transitions of the quinone radicals in complex I at pH 6 with an absorption around 325 nm and a fluorescence emission at 460/475 nm. The role of these cofactor(s) for electron transfer is discussed. PMID:24279322

  18. LIGHT-INDUCED RICE1 Regulates Light-Dependent Attachment of LEAF-TYPE FERREDOXIN-NADP+ OXIDOREDUCTASE to the Thylakoid Membrane in Rice and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao; Hu, Hongtao; Ren, Hongyan; Kong, Yuzhu; Lin, Hongwei; Guo, Jiangfan; Wang, Lingling; He, Yi; Ding, Xiaomeng; Grabsztunowicz, Magda; Mulo, Paula; Chen, Tao; Liu, Yu; Wu, Zhongchang; Wu, Yunrong; Mao, Chuanzao; Wu, Ping; Mo, Xiaorong

    2016-03-01

    LIR1(LIGHT-INDUCED RICE1) encodes a 13-kD, chloroplast-targeted protein containing two nearly identical motifs of unknown function.LIR1is present in the genomes of vascular plants, mosses, liverworts, and algae, but not in cyanobacteria. Using coimmunoprecipitation assays, pull-down assays, and yeast two-hybrid analyses, we showed that LIR1 interacts with LEAF-TYPE FERREDOXIN-NADP(+)OXIDOREDUCTASE (LFNR), an essential chloroplast enzyme functioning in the last step of photosynthetic linear electron transfer. LIR1 and LFNR formed high molecular weight thylakoid protein complexes with the TIC62 and TROL proteins, previously shown to anchor LFNR to the membrane. We further showed that LIR1 increases the affinity of LFNRs for TIC62 and that the rapid light-triggered degradation of the LIR1 coincides with the release of the LFNR from the thylakoid membrane. Loss ofLIR1resulted in a marked decrease in the accumulation of LFNR-containing thylakoid protein complexes without a concomitant decrease in total LFNR content. In rice (Oryza sativa), photosynthetic capacity oflir1plants was slightly impaired, whereas no such effect was observed inArabidopsis thalianaknockout mutants. The consequences of LIR1 deficiency in different species are discussed. PMID:26941088

  19. The MoxR ATPase RavA and Its Cofactor ViaA Interact with the NADH:Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase I in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Keith S.; Snider, Jamie D.; Graham, Chris; Greenblatt, Jack F.; Emili, Andrew; Babu, Mohan; Houry, Walid A.

    2014-01-01

    MoxR ATPases are widespread throughout bacteria and archaea. The experimental evidence to date suggests that these proteins have chaperone-like roles in facilitating the maturation of dedicated protein complexes that are functionally diverse. In Escherichia coli, the MoxR ATPase RavA and its putative cofactor ViaA are found to exist in early stationary-phase cells at 37°C at low levels of about 350 and 90 molecules per cell, respectively. Both proteins are predominantly localized to the cytoplasm, but ViaA was also unexpectedly found to localize to the cell membrane. Whole genome microarrays and synthetic lethality studies both indicated that RavA-ViaA are genetically linked to Fe-S cluster assembly and specific respiratory pathways. Systematic analysis of mutant strains of ravA and viaA indicated that RavA-ViaA sensitizes cells to sublethal concentrations of aminoglycosides. Furthermore, this effect was dependent on RavA's ATPase activity, and on the presence of specific subunits of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase I (Nuo Complex, or Complex I). Importantly, both RavA and ViaA were found to physically interact with specific Nuo subunits. We propose that RavA-ViaA facilitate the maturation of the Nuo complex. PMID:24454883

  20. Sorbitol promotes growth of Zymomonas mobilis in environments with high concentrations of sugar: evidence for a physiological function of glucose-fructose oxidoreductase in osmoprotection.

    PubMed Central

    Loos, H; Krämer, R; Sahm, H; Sprenger, G A

    1994-01-01

    The gram-negative ethanologenic bacterium Zymomonas mobilis is able to grow in media containing high concentrations of glucose or other sugars. A novel compatible solute for bacteria, sorbitol, which enhances growth of Z. mobilis at glucose concentrations exceeding 0.83 M (15%), is described. Added sorbitol was accumulated intracellularly up to 1 M to counteract high external glucose concentrations (up to 1.66 M or 30%). Accumulation of sorbitol was triggered by a glucose upshift (e.g., from 0.33 to 1.27 M or 6 to 23%) and was prevented by the uncoupler CCCP (carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone; 100 microM). The sorbitol transport system followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with an apparent Km of 34 mM and a Vmax of 11.2 nmol.min-1.mg-1 (dry mass). Sorbitol was produced by the cells themselves and was accumulated when growing on sucrose (1 M or 36%) by the action of the periplasmic enzyme glucose-fructose oxidoreductase, which converts glucose and fructose to gluconolactone and sorbitol. Thus, Z. mobilis can form and accumulate the compatible solute sorbitol from a natural carbon source, sucrose, in order to overcome osmotic stress in high-sugar media. No other major compatible solute (betaine, proline, glutamate, or trehalose) was detected. PMID:8002594

  1. Correlated Changes in the Activity, Amount of Protein, and Abundance of Transcript of NADPH:Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase and Chlorophyll Accumulation during Greening of Cucumber Cotyledons.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, K.; Chen, R. M.; Tanaka, A.; Teramoto, H.; Tanaka, R.; Timko, M. P.; Tsuji, H.

    1995-01-01

    Changes in the activity and abundance of NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (NPR) and the abundance of mRNA encoding it were examined during the greening of 5-d-old etiolated cucumber cotyledons under continuous illumination. To measure NPR activity in the extracts from fully greened tissues, we have developed an improved method of assay. Upon exposure of etiolated cotyledons to light, NPR activity decreased rapidly within the first 2 h of exposure. Thereafter, enzymatic activity increased transiently, reaching a submaximum level at 12 h, and decreased slowly. The level of immunodetectable NPR protein followed the same pattern of changes during 96 h of greening as observed for NPR activity. The NPR mRNA in etiolated cotyledons disappeared quickly in the 1st h of irradiation. However, the level of mRNA increased thereafter to reach 3-fold or more of the dark level at 12 h and then decreased. The changes in the activity, protein level, and mRNA level after the first rapid decreases corresponded chronologically and nearly paralleled the increase in the rate of chlorophyll accumulation. These findings suggest that the greening of cucumber cotyledons is regulated basically by the level of NPR protein without activation or repression of enzymatic activity and that NPR mRNA increased by light maintains the level of enzyme protein necessary for greening. PMID:12228591

  2. Structure and Function of an NADPH-Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase in an Open Conformation Capable of Reducing Cytochrome P450

    SciTech Connect

    Hamdane, Djemel; Xia, Chuanwu; Im, Sang-Choul; Zhang, Haoming; Kim, Jung-Ja P.; Waskell, Lucy

    2010-01-20

    NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CYPOR) catalyzes the transfer of electrons to all known microsomal cytochromes P450. A CYPOR variant, with a 4-amino acid deletion in the hinge connecting the FMN domain to the rest of the protein, has been crystallized in three remarkably extended conformations. The variant donates an electron to cytochrome P450 at the same rate as the wild-type, when provided with sufficient electrons. Nevertheless, it is defective in its ability to transfer electrons intramolecularly from FAD to FMN. The three extended CYPOR structures demonstrate that, by pivoting on the C terminus of the hinge, the FMN domain of the enzyme undergoes a structural rearrangement that separates it from FAD and exposes the FMN, allowing it to interact with its redox partners. A similar movement most likely occurs in the wild-type enzyme in the course of transferring electrons from FAD to its physiological partner, cytochrome P450. A model of the complex between an open conformation of CYPOR and cytochrome P450 is presented that satisfies mutagenesis constraints. Neither lengthening the linker nor mutating its sequence influenced the activity of CYPOR. It is likely that the analogous linker in other members of the diflavin family functions in a similar manner.

  3. A highly sensitive assay for xanthine oxidoreductase activity using a combination of [(13) C2 ,(15) N2 ]xanthine and liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Murase, Takayo; Oka, Mitsuru; Nampei, Mai; Miyachi, Atsushi; Nakamura, Takashi

    2016-05-15

    In this study, we developed a highly sensitive assay for xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) activity utilizing a combination of [(13) C2 ,(15) N2 ]xanthine and liquid chromatography (LC)/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (TQMS). In this assay, the amount of [(13) C2 ,(15) N2 ]uric acid (UA) produced by XOR was determined by using LC/TQMS. For this assay, we synthesized [(13) C2 ,(15) N2 ]xanthine as a substrate, [(13) C2 ,(15) N2 ]UA as an analytical standard, and [(13) C3 ,(15) N3 ]UA as an internal standard. The [(13) C2 ,(15) N2 ]UA calibration curve obtained using LC/TQMS under the selected reaction monitoring mode was evaluated, and the results indicated good linearity (R(2)  = 0.998, weighting of 1/x(2) ) in the range of 20 to 4000 nM. As a model reaction of less active samples, the XOR activity of serial-diluted mouse plasma was measured. Thereby, the XOR activity of the 1024-fold-diluted mouse plasma was 4.49 ± 0.44 pmol/100 μL/h (mean ± standard deviation, n = 3). This value is comparable to the predicted XOR activity value of healthy human plasma. Hence, this combination method may be used to obtain high-sensitivity measurements required for XOR activity analysis on various organs or human plasma. PMID:27006202

  4. Characterization of the Type 2 NADH:menaquinone oxidoreductases from Staphylococcus aureus and the bactericidal action of phenothiazines

    PubMed Central

    Schurig-Briccio, Lici A.; Yano, Takahiro; Rubin, Harvey; Gennis, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is currently one of the principal multiply resistant bacterial pathogens causing serious infections, many of which are life-threatening. Consequently, new therapeutic targets are required to combat such infections. In the current work, we explore the type 2 NADH dehydrogenases (NDH-2s) as possible drug targets and look at the effects of phenothiazines, known to inhibit NDH-2 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. NDH-2s are monotopic membrane proteins that catalyze the transfer of electrons from NADH via FAD to the quinone pool. They are required for maintaining the NADH/NAD+ redox balance and contribute indirectly to the generation of proton motive force. NDH-2s are not present in mammals, but are the only form of respiratory NADH dehydrogenase in several pathogens, including S. aureus. In this work, the two putative ndh genes present in the S. aureus genome were identified, cloned and expressed, and the proteins purified and characterized. Phenothiazines were shown to inhibit both of the S. aureus NDH-2s with IC50 values as low as 8 μM. However, evaluating the effects of phenothiazines on whole cells of S. aureus was complicated by the fact that they are also acting as uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. PMID:24709059

  5. Defining redox centers in human electron transfer flavoprotein: ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF:QO) by expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Frerman, F.E.; Beard, S.; Goodman, S.I.

    1994-09-01

    Mutations in ETF or ETC:QO cause glutaric acidemia type II (GA2). ETF:QO is an iron-sulfur flavoprotein in the inner mitochondrial membrane which transfers electrons from ETF in the mitochondrial matrix to ubiquinone (Q). The human ETF:QO gene is on chromosome 4q32{r_arrow}qter, and encodes a 617 amino acid precursor which is processed to the 64 kDa mature form in the mitochondrion. One ETF:QO mutation in GA2 is a G{r_arrow}T transversion in a donor splice site, deleting the 222 bp upstream exon from the transcript. The deleted 74 amino acids are near the carboxyl terminus just beyond a predicted membrane helix, and include C561, one of four cysteine residues predicted to ligate the 4Fe4S cluster. The mutant protein is not stable in patient fibroblasts. We have expressed cDNAs encoding wild type (wt) ETF:QO, ETF:QO with the 74 amino acid deletion, and ETFF:QO with only a C561A mutation, in S cerevisiae. In all instances, precursor and mature ETF:QOs were stably inserted into the mitochondrial membrane. ETF:QO (C561A) is extracted from the membrane under the same conditions as wt ETF:QO, but ETF:QO with the deletion is much more difficult to extract. Wt ETF:QO accepts electrons from ETF and reduces Q but, while both mutant proteins accept electrons from ETF, neither of them reduces Q. This work demonstrates that C561 in human ETF:QO is essential for Q reduction (probably because it ligands the 4Fe4S cluster), that mutant proteins that are unstable in man may be stable in other systems, that cleavage of signal peptide from precursor proteins can occur within the inner mitochondrial membrane, and the general usefulness of expressing human mitochondrial proteins in yeast.

  6. Apoptosis-inducing Factor (AIF) and Its Family Member Protein, AMID, Are Rotenone-sensitive NADH:Ubiquinone Oxidoreductases (NDH-2).

    PubMed

    Elguindy, Mahmoud M; Nakamaru-Ogiso, Eiko

    2015-08-21

    Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and AMID (AIF-homologous mitochondrion-associated inducer of death) are flavoproteins. Although AIF was originally discovered as a caspase-independent cell death effector, bioenergetic roles of AIF, particularly relating to complex I functions, have since emerged. However, the role of AIF in mitochondrial respiration and redox metabolism has remained unknown. Here, we investigated the redox properties of human AIF and AMID by comparing them with yeast Ndi1, a type 2 NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (NDH-2) regarded as alternative complex I. Isolated AIF and AMID containing naturally incorporated FAD displayed no NADH oxidase activities. However, after reconstituting isolated AIF or AMID into bacterial or mitochondrial membranes, N-terminally tagged AIF and AMID displayed substantial NADH:O₂ activities and supported NADH-linked proton pumping activities in the host membranes almost as efficiently as Ndi1. NADH:ubiquinone-1 activities in the reconstituted membranes were highly sensitive to 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide (IC₅₀ = ∼1 μm), a quinone-binding inhibitor. Overexpressing N-terminally tagged AIF and AMID enhanced the growth of a double knock-out Escherichia coli strain lacking complex I and NDH-2. In contrast, C-terminally tagged AIF and NADH-binding site mutants of N-terminally tagged AIF and AMID failed to show both NADH:O₂ activity and the growth-enhancing effect. The disease mutant AIFΔR201 showed decreased NADH:O₂ activity and growth-enhancing effect. Furthermore, we surprisingly found that the redox activities of N-terminally tagged AIF and AMID were sensitive to rotenone, a well known complex I inhibitor. We propose that AIF and AMID are previously unidentified mammalian NDH-2 enzymes, whose bioenergetic function could be supplemental NADH oxidation in cells. PMID:26063804

  7. Electrical Wiring of the Aldehyde Oxidoreductase PaoABC with a Polymer Containing Osmium Redox Centers: Biosensors for Benzaldehyde and GABA

    PubMed Central

    Badalyan, Artavazd; Dierich, Marlen; Stiba, Konstanze; Schwuchow, Viola; Leimkhler, Silke; Wollenberger, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    Biosensors for the detection of benzaldehyde and ??aminobutyric acid (GABA) are reported using aldehyde oxidoreductase PaoABC from Escherichia coli immobilized in a polymer containing bound low potential osmium redox complexes. The electrically connected enzyme already electrooxidizes benzaldehyde at potentials below ?0.15 V (vs. Ag|AgCl, 1 M KCl). The pH-dependence of benzaldehyde oxidation can be strongly influenced by the ionic strength. The effect is similar with the soluble osmium redox complex and therefore indicates a clear electrostatic effect on the bioelectrocatalytic efficiency of PaoABC in the osmium containing redox polymer. At lower ionic strength, the pH-optimum is high and can be switched to low pH-values at high ionic strength. This offers biosensing at high and low pH-values. A reagentless biosensor has been formed with enzyme wired onto a screen-printed electrode in a flow cell device. The response time to addition of benzaldehyde is 30 s, and the measuring range is between 10150 M and the detection limit of 5 M (signal to noise ratio 3:1) of benzaldehyde. The relative standard deviation in a series (n = 13) for 200 M benzaldehyde is 1.9%. For the biosensor, a response to succinic semialdehyde was also identified. Based on this response and the ability to work at high pH a biosensor for GABA is proposed by coimmobilizing GABA-aminotransferase (GABA-T) and PaoABC in the osmium containing redox polymer. PMID:25587431

  8. LEDGF/p75 Overexpression Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Induced Necrosis and Upregulates the Oxidoreductase ERP57/PDIA3/GRP58 in Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Basu, Anamika; Cajigas-Du Ross, Christina K; Rios-Colon, Leslimar; Mediavilla-Varela, Melanie; Daniels-Wells, Tracy R; Leoh, Lai Sum; Rojas, Heather; Banerjee, Hiya; Martinez, Shannalee R; Acevedo-Martinez, Stephanny; Casiano, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) mortality is driven by highly aggressive tumors characterized by metastasis and resistance to therapy, and this aggressiveness is mediated by numerous factors, including activation of stress survival pathways in the pro-inflammatory tumor microenvironment. LEDGF/p75, also known as the DFS70 autoantigen, is a stress transcription co-activator implicated in cancer, HIV-AIDS, and autoimmunity. This protein is targeted by autoantibodies in certain subsets of patients with PCa and inflammatory conditions, as well as in some apparently healthy individuals. LEDGF/p75 is overexpressed in PCa and other cancers, and promotes resistance to chemotherapy-induced cell death via the transactivation of survival proteins. We report in this study that overexpression of LEDGF/p75 in PCa cells attenuates oxidative stress-induced necrosis but not staurosporine-induced apoptosis. This finding was consistent with the observation that while LEDGF/p75 was robustly cleaved in apoptotic cells into a p65 fragment that lacks stress survival activity, it remained relatively intact in necrotic cells. Overexpression of LEDGF/p75 in PCa cells led to the upregulation of transcript and protein levels of the thiol-oxidoreductase ERp57 (also known as GRP58 and PDIA3), whereas its depletion led to ERp57 transcript downregulation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and transcription reporter assays showed LEDGF/p75 binding to and transactivating the ERp57 promoter, respectively. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed significantly elevated co-expression of these two proteins in clinical prostate tumor tissues. Our results suggest that LEDGF/p75 is not an inhibitor of apoptosis but rather an antagonist of oxidative stress-induced necrosis, and that its overexpression in PCa leads to ERp57 upregulation. These findings are of significance in clarifying the role of the LEDGF/p75 stress survival pathway in PCa. PMID:26771192

  9. Semiquinone and Cluster N6 Signals in His-tagged Proton-translocating NADH:Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase (Complex I) from Escherichia coli*

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Madhavan; Gabrieli, David J.; Leung, Steven A.; Elguindy, Mahmoud M.; Glaser, Carl A.; Saju, Nitha; Sinha, Subhash C.; Nakamaru-Ogiso, Eiko

    2013-01-01

    NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) pumps protons across the membrane using downhill redox energy. The Escherichia coli complex I consists of 13 different subunits named NuoA-N coded by the nuo operon. Due to the low abundance of the protein and some difficulty with the genetic manipulation of its large ∼15-kb operon, purification of E. coli complex I has been technically challenging. Here, we generated a new strain in which a polyhistidine sequence was inserted upstream of nuoE in the operon. This allowed us to prepare large amounts of highly pure and active complex I by efficient affinity purification. The purified complex I contained 0.94 ± 0.1 mol of FMN, 29.0 ± 0.37 mol of iron, and 1.99 ± 0.07 mol of ubiquinone/1 mol of complex I. The extinction coefficient of isolated complex I was 495 mm−1 cm−1 at 274 nm and 50.3 mm−1 cm−1 at 410 nm. NADH:ferricyanide activity was 219 ± 9.7 μmol/min/mg by using HEPES-Bis-Tris propane, pH 7.5. Detailed EPR analyses revealed two additional iron-sulfur cluster signals, N6a and N6b, in addition to previously assigned signals. Furthermore, we found small but significant semiquinone signal(s), which have been reported only for bovine complex I. The line width was ∼12 G, indicating its neutral semiquinone form. More than 90% of the semiquinone signal originated from the single entity with P½ (half-saturation power level) = 1.85 milliwatts. The semiquinone signal(s) decreased by 60% when with asimicin, a potent complex I inhibitor. The functional role of semiquinone and the EPR assignment of clusters N6a/N6b are discussed. PMID:23543743

  10. Removal of naphthols and analogues by the combined use of an oxidoreductase polyphenol oxidase and a biopolymer chitosan from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yuji; Gotoh, Asahi; Shinozaki, Fumiyoshi; Kashiwada, Ayumi; Yamada, Kazunori

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the combined use of an amino group-containing polymer chitosan and an oxidoreductase polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was applied to the removal of naphthols and dihydroxynaphthalenes (DHNs) from aqueous solutions. The process parameters, such as the pH value, temperature and enzyme dose, were discussed for PPO-catalysed oxidation of 1-naphthol. The optimum conditions of enzymatic oxidation of 1-naphthol were determined to be pH 8.0 and 40 °C. Under the optimum conditions, PPO-catalysed oxidation of 1-naphthol increased with an increase in the enzyme dose. Quinone derivatives enzymatically generated were chemisorbed on chitosan beads and the initial velocity of PPO-catalysed oxidation increased with an increase in the amount of added chitosan beads. A specific initial velocity of 0.0675 μmol/U·min was obtained in the PPO concentration range below 200 U/cm³ and 1-naphthol was completely removed within 24 h by quinone adsorption on chitosan beads (0.20 cm³/cm³) at a PPO concentration of 100 U/cm³. The removal time was shortened by increasing the enzyme dose or the amount of added chitosan beads. 2-Naphthol was also completely removed at an initial concentration of 0.05 mM or less by prolonging the reaction time, since PPO-catalysed oxidation of 2-naphthol was much slower than that of 1-naphthol. In addition, this procedure was also applied to the removal of DHNs. These results revealed that the procedure constructed in this study was an effective technique to remove naphthols and DHNs from the aqueous medium. PMID:25189838

  11. Cross-Species Analysis of Protein Dynamics Associated with Hydride and Proton Transfer in the Catalytic Cycle of the Light-Driven Enzyme Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Hoeven, Robin; Hardman, Samantha J O; Heyes, Derren J; Scrutton, Nigel S

    2016-02-16

    Experimental interrogation of the relationship between protein dynamics and enzyme catalysis is challenging. Light-activated protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) is an excellent model for investigating this relationship because photoinitiation of the reaction cycle enables coordinated turnover in a "dark-assembled" ternary enzyme-substrate complex. The catalytic cycle involves sequential hydride and proton transfers (from NADPH and an active site tyrosine residue, respectively) to the substrate protochlorophyllide. Studies with a limited cross-species subset of POR enzymes (n = 4) have suggested that protein dynamics associated with hydride and proton transfer are distinct [Heyes, D. J., Levy, C., Sakuma, M., Robertson, D. L., and Scrutton, N. S. (2011) J. Biol. Chem. 286, 11849-11854]. Here, we use steady-state assays and single-turnover laser flash spectroscopy to analyze hydride and proton transfer dynamics in an extended series of POR enzymes taken from many species, including cyanobacteria, algae, embryophytes, and angiosperms. Hydride/proton transfer in all eukaryotic PORs is faster compared to prokaryotic PORs, suggesting active site architecture has been optimized in eukaryotic PORs following endosymbiosis. Visible pump-probe spectroscopy was also used to demonstrate a common photoexcitation mechanism for representative POR enzymes from different branches of the phylogenetic tree. Dynamics associated with hydride transfer are localized to the active site of all POR enzymes and are conserved. However, dynamics associated with proton transfer are variable. Protein dynamics associated with proton transfer are also coupled to solvent dynamics in cyanobacterial PORs, and these networks are likely required to optimize (shorten) the donor-acceptor distance for proton transfer. These extended networks are absent in algal and plant PORs. Our analysis suggests that extended networks of dynamics are disfavored, possibly through natural selection. Implications for the evolution of POR and more generally for other enzyme catalysts are discussed. PMID:26807652

  12. Arsenite pretreatment enhances the cytotoxicity of mitomycin C in human cancer cell lines via increased NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Lin Yiling; Ho, I-C.; Su, P.-F.; Lee, T.-C. . E-mail: bmtcl@ibms.sinica.edu.tw

    2006-08-01

    Arsenic is an effective therapeutic agent for the treatment of patients with refractory or relapsed acute promyelocytic leukemia. The use of arsenic for treating solid tumors, particularly in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents, has been extensively studied. Here, we report that arsenite-resistant human lung cancer CL3R15 cells constitutively overexpress NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), an enzyme responsible for activation of mitomycin C (MMC), and are more susceptible to MMC cytotoxicity than parental CL3 cells. The effects of arsenite pretreatment on NQO1 induction were examined in CL3, H1299, H460, and MC-T2 cells. Arsenite pretreatment significantly enhanced the expression of NQO1 and susceptibility to MMC in CL3, H1299, and MC-T2 cells, but not in H460 cells that express high endogenous levels of NQO1. Alternatively, arsenic pretreatment reduced adriamycin sensitivity of CL3 cells. Arsenite-mediated MMC susceptibility was abrogated by dicumarol (DIC), an NQO1 inhibitor, indicating that NQO1 is one of the key regulators of arsenite-mediated MMC susceptibility. Various cancer cell lines showed different basal levels of NQO1 activity and a different capacity for NQO1 induction in response to arsenite treatment. However, overall, there was a positive correlation between induced NQO1 activity and MMC susceptibility in cells pretreated with various doses of arsenite. These results suggest that arsenite may increase NQO1 activity and thus enhance the antineoplastic activity of MMC. In addition, our results also showed that inhibition of NQO1 activity by DIC reversed the arsenite resistance of CL3R15 cells.

  13. ES936 stimulates DNA synthesis in HeLa cells independently on NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 inhibition, through a mechanism involving p38 MAPK.

    PubMed

    González-Aragón, David; Alcaín, Francisco J; Ariza, Julia; Jódar, Laura; Barbarroja, Nuria; López-Pedrera, Chary; Villalba, José M

    2010-07-30

    The indolequinone ES936 (5-methoxy-1,2-dimethyl-3-[(4-nitrophenol)methyl]-indole-4,7-dione) is a potent mechanism-based inhibitor of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). Here, we report that ES936 significantly stimulated thymidine incorporation in sparse cultures of human adenocarcinoma HeLa cells, but was without effect in dense cultures. Stimulation of DNA synthesis was not related with a DNA repair response because an increase in thymidine incorporation was not observed in cells treated with 2,5 bis-[1-aziridyl]-1,4 benzoquinone, a well-established antitumor quinone that causes DNA damage. Conversely, it was related with an increase of cell growth. NQO1 inhibition was not involved in ES936 stimulation of DNA synthesis, because the same response was observed in cells where NQO1 expression had been knocked down by small interfering RNA. Stimulation of DNA synthesis was reverted by treatment with ambroxol, a SOD mimetic, and by pyruvate, an efficient peroxide scavenger, supporting the involvement of alterations in cellular redox state. Pharmacological inhibition of p38 with either SB203580 or PD169316 completely abolished ES936-stimulated DNA synthesis, indicating the requirement of p38 activity. This is the first report that demonstrates the existence of an ES936-sensitive system which is separate from NQO1, modulating the redox state and cell growth in HeLa cells through a p38-dependent mechanism. Our results show that the effect ES936 exerts on DNA synthesis may be either positive or negative depending on the cellular context and growth conditions. PMID:20433816

  14. Preferential utilization of NADPH as the endogenous electron donor for NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) in intact pulmonary arterial endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Bongard, Robert D.; Lindemer, Brian J.; Krenz, Gary S.; Merker, Marilyn P.

    2009-01-01

    The goal was to determine whether endogenous cytosolic NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) preferentially utilizes NADPH or NADH in intact pulmonary arterial endothelial cells in culture. The approach was to manipulate the redox status of the NADH/NAD+ and NADPH/NADP+ redox pairs in the cytosolic compartment using treatment conditions targeting glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway alone or with lactate, and to evaluate the impact on the intact cell NQO1 activity. Cells were treated with 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG), iodoacetate (IOA) or epiandrosterone (EPI) in the absence or presence of lactate, NQO1 activity was measured in intact cells using duroquinone (DQ) as the electron acceptor and pyridine nucleotide redox status was measured in total cell KOH extracts by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). 2-DG decreased the NADH/NAD+ and NADPH/NADP+ ratios, by 59% and 50%, respectively, and intact cell NQO1 activity by 74%; lactate restored NADH/NAD+, but not NADPH/NADP+ or NQO1 activity. IOA decreased NADH/NAD+ but had no detectable effect on NADPH/NADP+ or NQO1 activity. EPI decreased NQO1 activity by 67%, and while EPI alone did not alter NADPH/NADP+ or NADH/NAD+, when the NQO1 electron acceptor DQ was also present, NADPH/NADP+ decreased by 84% with no impact on NADH/NAD+. DQ alone also decreased NADPH/NADP+ but not NADH/NAD+. The results suggest that NQO1 activity is more tightly coupled with the redox status of the NADPH/NADP+ than NADH/NAD+ redox pair, and that NADPH is the endogenous NQO1 electron donor. Parallel studies of pulmonary endothelial transplasma membrane electron transport (TPMET), another redox process that draws reducing equivalents from the cytosol, confirmed previous observations of a correlation with the NADH/NAD+ ratio. PMID:18848878

  15. FeS/S/FeS2 Redox System and Its Oxidoreductase-like Chemistry in the Iron-Sulfur World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Yang, Bin; Qu, Youpeng; Liu, Xiaoyang; Su, Wenhui

    2011-06-01

    The iron-sulfur world (ISW) theory is an intriguing prediction regarding the origin of life on early Earth. It hypothesizes that life arose as a geochemical process from inorganic starting materials on the surface of sulfide minerals in the vicinity of deep-sea hot springs. During the last two decades, many experimental studies have been carried out on this topic, and some interesting results have been achieved. Among them, however, the processes of carbon/nitrogen fixation and biomolecular assembly on the mineral surface have received an inordinate amount of attention. To the present, an abiotic model for the oxidation-reduction of intermediates participating in metabolic pathways has been ignored. We examined the oxidation-reduction effect of a prebiotic FeS/S/FeS2 redox system on the interconversion between several pairs of ±-hydroxy acids and ±-keto acids (i.e., lactate/pyruvate, malate/oxaloacetate, and glycolate/glyoxylate). We found that, in the absence of FeS, elemental sulfur (S) oxidized ±-hydroxy acids to form corresponding keto acids only at a temperature higher than its melting point (113°C); in the presence of FeS, such reactions occurred more efficiently through a coupled reaction mechanism, even at a temperature below the phase transition point of S. On the other hand, FeS was shown to have the capacity to reversibly reduce the keto acids. Such an oxidoreductase-like chemistry of the FeS/S/FeS2 redox system suggests that it can determine the redox homeostasis of metabolic intermediates in the early evolutionary phase of life. The results provide a possible pathway for the development of primordial redox biochemistry in the iron-sulfur world.

  16. Down-regulation of the detoxifying enzyme NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 by vanadium in Hepa 1c1c7 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Anwar-Mohamed, Anwar; El-Kadi, Ayman O.S.

    2009-05-01

    Recent data suggest that vanadium (V{sup 5+}) compounds exert protective effects against chemical-induced carcinogenesis, mainly through modifying various xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. In fact, we have shown that V{sup 5+} down-regulates the expression of Cyp1a1 at the transcriptional level through an ATP-dependent mechanism. However, incongruously, there is increasing evidence that V{sup 5+} is found in higher amounts in cancer cells and tissues than in normal cells or tissues. Therefore, the current study aims to address the possible effect of this metal on the regulation of expression of an enzyme that helps maintain endogenous antioxidants used to protect tissues/cells from mutagens, carcinogens, and oxidative stress damage, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (Nqo1). In an attempt to examine these effects, Hepa 1c1c7 cells and its AhR-deficient version, c12, were treated with increasing concentrations of V{sup 5+} in the presence of two distinct Nqo1 inducers, the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and isothiocyanate sulforaphane (SUL). Our results showed that V{sup 5+} inhibits the TCDD- and SUL-mediated induction of Nqo1 at mRNA, protein, and catalytic activity levels. At transcriptional level, V{sup 5+} was able to decrease the TCDD- and SUL-induced nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 and the subsequent binding to antioxidant responsive element (ARE) without affecting Nrf2 protein levels. Looking at post-transcriptional level; we found that V{sup 5+} did not affect Nqo1 mRNA transcripts turn-over rates. However, at the post-translational level V{sup 5+} increased Nqo1 protein half-life. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that V{sup 5+} down-regulates Nqo1 at the transcriptional level, possibly through inhibiting the ATP-dependent activation of Nrf2.

  17. Mitochondrial Impairment May Increase Cellular NAD(P)H: Resazurin Oxidoreductase Activity, Perturbing the NAD(P)H-Based Viability Assays

    PubMed Central

    Aleshin, Vasily A.; Artiukhov, Artem V.; Oppermann, Henry; Kazantsev, Alexey V.; Lukashev, Nikolay V.; Bunik, Victoria I.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular NAD(P)H-dependent oxidoreductase activity with artificial dyes (NAD(P)H-OR) is an indicator of viability, as the cellular redox state is important for biosynthesis and antioxidant defense. However, high NAD(P)H due to impaired mitochondrial oxidation, known as reductive stress, should increase NAD(P)H-OR yet perturb viability. To better understand this complex behavior, we assayed NAD(P)H-OR with resazurin (Alamar Blue) in glioblastoma cell lines U87 and T98G, treated with inhibitors of central metabolism, oxythiamin, and phosphonate analogs of 2-oxo acids. Targeting the thiamin diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent enzymes, the inhibitors are known to decrease the NAD(P)H production in the pentose phosphate shuttle and/or upon mitochondrial oxidation of 2-oxo acids. Nevertheless, the inhibitors elevated NAD(P)H-OR with resazurin in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, suggesting impaired NAD(P)H oxidation rather than increased viability. In particular, inhibition of the ThDP-dependent enzymes affects metabolism of malate, which mediates mitochondrial oxidation of cytosolic NAD(P)H. We showed that oxythiamin not only inhibited mitochondrial 2-oxo acid dehydrogenases, but also induced cell-specific changes in glutamate and malate dehydrogenases and/or malic enzyme. As a result, inhibition of the 2-oxo acid dehydrogenases compromises mitochondrial metabolism, with the dysregulated electron fluxes leading to increases in cellular NAD(P)H-OR. Perturbed mitochondrial oxidation of NAD(P)H may thus complicate the NAD(P)H-based viability assay. PMID:26308058

  18. Purification and characterization of acetoin:2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol oxidoreductase, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, and dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase of the Pelobacter carbinolicus acetoin dehydrogenase enzyme system.

    PubMed Central

    Oppermann, F B; Schmidt, B; Steinbüchel, A

    1991-01-01

    Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DHLDH), dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (DHLTA), and acetoin: 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol oxidoreductase (Ao:DCPIP OR) were purified from acetoin-grown cells of Pelobacter carbinolicus. DHLDH had a native Mr of 110,000, consisted of two identical subunits of Mr 54,000, and reacted only with NAD(H) as a coenzyme. The N-terminal amino acid sequence included the flavin adenine dinucleotide-binding site and exhibited a high degree of homology to other DHLDHs. DHLTA had a native Mr of greater than 500,000 and consisted of subunits identical in size (Mr 60,000). The enzyme was highly sensitive to proteolytic attack. During limited tryptic digestion, two major fragments of Mr 32,500 and 25,500 were formed. Ao:DCPIP OR consisted of two different subunits of Mr 37,500 and 38,500 and had a native Mr in the range of 143,000 to 177,000. In vitro in the presence of DCPIP, it catalyzed a thiamine pyrophosphate-dependent oxidative-hydrolytic cleavage of acetoin, methylacetoin, and diacetyl. The combination of purified Ao:DCPIP OR, DHLTA, and DHLDH in the presence of thiamine pyrophosphate and the substrate acetoin or methylacetoin resulted in a coenzyme A-dependent reduction of NAD. In the strictly anaerobic acetoin-utilizing bacteria P. carbinolicus, Pelobacter venetianus, Pelobacter acetylenicus, Pelobacter propionicus, Acetobacterium carbinolicum, and Clostridium magnum, the enzymes Ao:DCPIP OR, DHLTA, and DHLDH were induced during growth on acetoin, whereas they were absent or scarcely present in cells grown on a nonacetoinogenic substrate. Images PMID:1898934

  19. Identification of the coupling step in Na(+)-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase from real-time kinetics of electron transfer.

    PubMed

    Belevich, Nikolai P; Bertsova, Yulia V; Verkhovskaya, Marina L; Baykov, Alexander A; Bogachev, Alexander V

    2016-02-01

    Bacterial Na(+)-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na(+)-NQR) uses a unique set of prosthetic redox groups-two covalently bound FMN residues, a [2Fe-2S] cluster, FAD, riboflavin and a Cys4[Fe] center-to catalyze electron transfer from NADH to ubiquinone in a reaction coupled with Na(+) translocation across the membrane. Here we used an ultra-fast microfluidic stopped-flow instrument to determine rate constants and the difference spectra for the six consecutive reaction steps of Vibrio harveyi Na(+)-NQR reduction by NADH. The instrument, with a dead time of 0.25 ms and optical path length of 1 cm allowed collection of visible spectra in 50-μs intervals. By comparing the spectra of reaction steps with the spectra of known redox transitions of individual enzyme cofactors, we were able to identify the chemical nature of most intermediates and the sequence of electron transfer events. A previously unknown spectral transition was detected and assigned to the Cys4[Fe] center reduction. Electron transfer from the [2Fe-2S] cluster to the Cys4[Fe] center and all subsequent steps were markedly accelerated when Na(+) concentration was increased from 20 μM to 25 mM, suggesting coupling of the former step with tight Na(+) binding to or occlusion by the enzyme. An alternating access mechanism was proposed to explain electron transfer between subunits NqrF and NqrC. According to the proposed mechanism, the Cys4[Fe] center is alternatively exposed to either side of the membrane, allowing the [2Fe-2S] cluster of NqrF and the FMN residue of NqrC to alternatively approach the Cys4[Fe] center from different sides of the membrane. PMID:26655930

  20. The Vitamin K Oxidoreductase Is a Multimer That Efficiently Reduces Vitamin K Epoxide to Hydroquinone to Allow Vitamin K-dependent Protein Carboxylation*

    PubMed Central

    Rishavy, Mark A.; Hallgren, Kevin W.; Wilson, Lee A.; Usubalieva, Aisulu; Runge, Kurt W.; Berkner, Kathleen L.

    2013-01-01

    The vitamin K oxidoreductase (VKORC1) recycles vitamin K to support the activation of vitamin K-dependent (VKD) proteins, which have diverse functions that include hemostasis and calcification. VKD proteins are activated by Glu carboxylation, which depends upon the oxygenation of vitamin K hydroquinone (KH2). The vitamin K epoxide (KO) product is recycled by two reactions, i.e. KO reduction to vitamin K quinone (K) and then to KH2, and recent studies have called into question whether VKORC1 reduces K to KH2. Analysis in insect cells lacking endogenous carboxylation components showed that r-VKORC1 reduces KO to efficiently drive carboxylation, indicating KH2 production. Direct detection of the vitamin K reaction products is confounded by KH2 oxidation, and we therefore developed a new assay that stabilized KH2 and allowed quantitation. Purified VKORC1 analyzed in this assay showed efficient KO to KH2 reduction. Studies in 293 cells expressing tagged r-VKORC1 revealed that VKORC1 is a multimer, most likely a dimer. A monomer can only perform one reaction, and a dimer is therefore interesting in explaining how VKORC1 accomplishes both reactions. An inactive mutant (VKORC1(C132A/C135A)) was dominant negative in heterodimers with wild type VKORC1, resulting in decreased KO reduction in cells and carboxylation in vitro. The results are significant regarding human VKORC1 mutations, as warfarin-resistant patients have mutant and wild type VKORC1 alleles. A VKORC1 dimer indicates a mixed population of homodimers and heterodimers that may have different functional properties, and VKORC1 reduction may therefore be more complex in these patients than appreciated previously. PMID:23918929

  1. Structure-function relationship of Vibrio harveyi NADPH-flavin oxidoreductase FRP: essential residues Lys167 and Arg15 for NADPH binding.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hae-Won; Tu, Shiao-Chun

    2012-06-19

    Vibrio harveyi NADPH-FMN oxidoreductase (FRP) catalyzes flavin reduction by NADPH. In comparing amino acid sequence and crystal structure with Escherichia coli NfsA, residues N134, R225, R133, K167, and R15 were targeted for investigation of their possible roles in the binding and utilization of the NADPH substrate. By mutation of each of these five residues to an alanine, steady-state rate analyses showed that the variants K167A and R15A had apparently greatly increased K(m,NADPH) and reduced k(cat)/K(m,NADPH), whereas little or much more modest changes were found for the other variants. The deuterium isotope effects (D)(V/K) for (4R)-[4-(2)H]-NADPH were markedly increased to 6.3 and 7.4 for K167A and R15A, respectively, indicating that the rate constants for NADPH and NADP(+) dissociation were greatly enhanced relative to the hydride transfer steps. Also, anaerobic stopped-flow analyses revealed that the equilibrium dissociation constant for NADPH binding (K(d)) to be 2.5-3.9 and 1.1 mM for K167A and R15A, respectively, much higher than the 0.4 μM K(d) for the native FRP, whereas the k(cat) of these two variants were similar to that of the wild-type enzyme. Moreover, the K167 to alanine mutation led to even a slight increase in k(cat)/K(m) for NADH. These results, taken together, provide a strong support to the conclusion that K167 and R15 each was critical in the binding of NADPH by FRP. Such a functional role may also exist for other FRP homologous proteins. PMID:22650604

  2. Structural and functional investigation of flavin binding center of the NqrC subunit of sodium-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase from Vibrio harveyi.

    PubMed

    Borshchevskiy, Valentin; Round, Ekaterina; Bertsova, Yulia; Polovinkin, Vitaly; Gushchin, Ivan; Ishchenko, Andrii; Kovalev, Kirill; Mishin, Alexey; Kachalova, Galina; Popov, Alexander; Bogachev, Alexander; Gordeliy, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    Na+-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (NQR) is a redox-driven sodium pump operating in the respiratory chain of various bacteria, including pathogenic species. The enzyme has a unique set of redox active prosthetic groups, which includes two covalently bound flavin mononucleotide (FMN) residues attached to threonine residues in subunits NqrB and NqrC. The reason of FMN covalent bonding in the subunits has not been established yet. In the current work, binding of free FMN to the apo-form of NqrC from Vibrio harveyi was studied showing very low affinity of NqrC to FMN in the absence of its covalent bonding. To study structural aspects of flavin binding in NqrC, its holo-form was crystallized and its 3D structure was solved at 1.56 Å resolution. It was found that the isoalloxazine moiety of the FMN residue is buried in a hydrophobic cavity and that its pyrimidine ring is squeezed between hydrophobic amino acid residues while its benzene ring is extended from the protein surroundings. This structure of the flavin-binding pocket appears to provide flexibility of the benzene ring, which can help the FMN residue to take the bended conformation and thus to stabilize the one-electron reduced form of the prosthetic group. These properties may also lead to relatively weak noncovalent binding of the flavin. This fact along with periplasmic location of the FMN-binding domains in the vast majority of NqrC-like proteins may explain the necessity of the covalent bonding of this prosthetic group to prevent its loss to the external medium. PMID:25734798

  3. Structural and Functional Investigation of Flavin Binding Center of the NqrC Subunit of Sodium-Translocating NADH:Quinone Oxidoreductase from Vibrio harveyi

    PubMed Central

    Bertsova, Yulia; Polovinkin, Vitaly; Gushchin, Ivan; Ishchenko, Andrii; Kovalev, Kirill; Mishin, Alexey; Kachalova, Galina; Popov, Alexander; Bogachev, Alexander; Gordeliy, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    Na+-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (NQR) is a redox-driven sodium pump operating in the respiratory chain of various bacteria, including pathogenic species. The enzyme has a unique set of redox active prosthetic groups, which includes two covalently bound flavin mononucleotide (FMN) residues attached to threonine residues in subunits NqrB and NqrC. The reason of FMN covalent bonding in the subunits has not been established yet. In the current work, binding of free FMN to the apo-form of NqrC from Vibrio harveyi was studied showing very low affinity of NqrC to FMN in the absence of its covalent bonding. To study structural aspects of flavin binding in NqrC, its holo-form was crystallized and its 3D structure was solved at 1.56 Å resolution. It was found that the isoalloxazine moiety of the FMN residue is buried in a hydrophobic cavity and that its pyrimidine ring is squeezed between hydrophobic amino acid residues while its benzene ring is extended from the protein surroundings. This structure of the flavin-binding pocket appears to provide flexibility of the benzene ring, which can help the FMN residue to take the bended conformation and thus to stabilize the one-electron reduced form of the prosthetic group. These properties may also lead to relatively weak noncovalent binding of the flavin. This fact along with periplasmic location of the FMN-binding domains in the vast majority of NqrC-like proteins may explain the necessity of the covalent bonding of this prosthetic group to prevent its loss to the external medium. PMID:25734798

  4. Pre-steady-state kinetic studies of redox reactions catalysed by Bacillus subtilis ferredoxin-NADP(+) oxidoreductase with NADP(+)/NADPH and ferredoxin.

    PubMed

    Seo, Daisuke; Soeta, Takahiro; Sakurai, Hidehiro; Sétif, Pierre; Sakurai, Takeshi

    2016-06-01

    Ferredoxin-NADP(+) oxidoreductase ([EC1.18.1.2], FNR) from Bacillus subtilis (BsFNR) is a homodimeric flavoprotein sharing structural homology with bacterial NADPH-thioredoxin reductase. Pre-steady-state kinetics of the reactions of BsFNR with NADP(+), NADPH, NADPD (deuterated form) and B. subtilis ferredoxin (BsFd) using stopped-flow spectrophotometry were studied. Mixing BsFNR with NADP(+) and NADPH yielded two types of charge-transfer (CT) complexes, oxidized FNR (FNRox)-NADPH and reduced FNR (FNRred)-NADP(+), both having CT absorption bands centered at approximately 600nm. After mixing BsFNRox with about a 10-fold molar excess of NADPH (forward reaction), BsFNR was almost completely reduced at equilibrium. When BsFNRred was mixed with NADP(+), the amount of BsFNRox increased with increasing NADP(+) concentration, but BsFNRred remained as the major species at equilibrium even with about 50-fold molar excess NADP(+). In both directions, the hydride-transfer was the rate-determining step, where the forward direction rate constant (~500s(-1)) was much higher than the reverse one (<10s(-1)). Mixing BsFdred with BsFNRox induced rapid formation of a neutral semiquinone form. This process was almost completed within 1ms. Subsequently the neutral semiquinone form was reduced to the hydroquinone form with an apparent rate constant of 50 to 70s(-1) at 10°C, which increased as BsFdred increased from 40 to 120μM. The reduction rate of BsFNRox by BsFdred was markedly decreased by premixing BsFNRox with BsFdox, indicating that the dissociation of BsFdox from BsFNRsq is rate-limiting in the reaction. The characteristics of the BsFNR reactions with NADP(+)/NADPH were compared with those of other types of FNRs. PMID:26965753

  5. Purification and kinetic analysis of pea (Pisum sativum L.) NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase expressed as a fusion with maltose-binding protein in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Martin, G E; Timko, M P; Wilks, H M

    1997-07-01

    NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) catalyses the light-dependent reduction of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide, a key reaction in the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. To facilitate structure-function studies, POR from pea (Pisum sativum L.) has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion with maltose-binding protein (MBP) at 5-10% of the total soluble cell protein. The fusion protein (MBP-POR) has been purified to greater than 90% homogeneity by a two-step affinity-purification procedure. This represents the first successful overexpression and purification of a plant POR. MBP-POR was found to be active, and the kinetic properties were determined using a continuous assay in which the rate of chlorophyllide formation was measured. The Vmax was 20.6+/-0.9 nmol.min-1.mg-1 and the Km values for NADPH and protochlorophyllide were 8.7+/-1.9 microM and 0.27+/-0.04 microM respectively. These results represent the first determination of the kinetic properties of a pure POR and the first report on the kinetics of POR from a dicotyledenous plant. The experiments described here demonstrate that the enzyme is not a 'suicide' enzyme, and the only components required for catalysis are NADPH, protochlorophyllide and light. Size-exclusion chromatography on a Superose 6 HR column indicated that MBP-POR has a molecular mass of 155 kDa (compared with the molecular mass of 80 kDa estimated by SDS/PAGE), indicating that it behaves as a dimer in solution. This is the first direct determination of the oligomerization state of POR. PMID:9224639

  6. LEDGF/p75 Overexpression Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Induced Necrosis and Upregulates the Oxidoreductase ERP57/PDIA3/GRP58 in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Anamika; Cajigas-Du Ross, Christina K.; Rios-Colon, Leslimar; Mediavilla-Varela, Melanie; Daniels-Wells, Tracy R.; Leoh, Lai Sum; Rojas, Heather; Banerjee, Hiya; Martinez, Shannalee R.; Acevedo-Martinez, Stephanny; Casiano, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) mortality is driven by highly aggressive tumors characterized by metastasis and resistance to therapy, and this aggressiveness is mediated by numerous factors, including activation of stress survival pathways in the pro-inflammatory tumor microenvironment. LEDGF/p75, also known as the DFS70 autoantigen, is a stress transcription co-activator implicated in cancer, HIV-AIDS, and autoimmunity. This protein is targeted by autoantibodies in certain subsets of patients with PCa and inflammatory conditions, as well as in some apparently healthy individuals. LEDGF/p75 is overexpressed in PCa and other cancers, and promotes resistance to chemotherapy-induced cell death via the transactivation of survival proteins. We report in this study that overexpression of LEDGF/p75 in PCa cells attenuates oxidative stress-induced necrosis but not staurosporine-induced apoptosis. This finding was consistent with the observation that while LEDGF/p75 was robustly cleaved in apoptotic cells into a p65 fragment that lacks stress survival activity, it remained relatively intact in necrotic cells. Overexpression of LEDGF/p75 in PCa cells led to the upregulation of transcript and protein levels of the thiol-oxidoreductase ERp57 (also known as GRP58 and PDIA3), whereas its depletion led to ERp57 transcript downregulation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and transcription reporter assays showed LEDGF/p75 binding to and transactivating the ERp57 promoter, respectively. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed significantly elevated co-expression of these two proteins in clinical prostate tumor tissues. Our results suggest that LEDGF/p75 is not an inhibitor of apoptosis but rather an antagonist of oxidative stress-induced necrosis, and that its overexpression in PCa leads to ERp57 upregulation. These findings are of significance in clarifying the role of the LEDGF/p75 stress survival pathway in PCa. PMID:26771192

  7. Identification, Design and Biological Evaluation of Bisaryl Quinolones Targeting Plasmodium falciparum Type II NADH:Quinone Oxidoreductase (PfNDH2)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A program was undertaken to identify hit compounds against NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (PfNDH2), a dehydrogenase of the mitochondrial electron transport chain of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. PfNDH2 has only one known inhibitor, hydroxy-2-dodecyl-4-(1H)-quinolone (HDQ), and this was used along with a range of chemoinformatics methods in the rational selection of 17 000 compounds for high-throughput screening. Twelve distinct chemotypes were identified and briefly examined leading to the selection of the quinolone core as the key target for structure–activity relationship (SAR) development. Extensive structural exploration led to the selection of 2-bisaryl 3-methyl quinolones as a series for further biological evaluation. The lead compound within this series 7-chloro-3-methyl-2-(4-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)benzyl)phenyl)quinolin-4(1H)-one (CK-2-68) has antimalarial activity against the 3D7 strain of P. falciparum of 36 nM, is selective for PfNDH2 over other respiratory enzymes (inhibitory IC50 against PfNDH2 of 16 nM), and demonstrates low cytotoxicity and high metabolic stability in the presence of human liver microsomes. This lead compound and its phosphate pro-drug have potent in vivo antimalarial activity after oral administration, consistent with the target product profile of a drug for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Other quinolones presented (e.g., 6d, 6f, 14e) have the capacity to inhibit both PfNDH2 and P. falciparum cytochrome bc1, and studies to determine the potential advantage of this dual-targeting effect are in progress. PMID:22364416

  8. Characterization of the threshold for NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase activity in intact sulforaphane-treated pulmonary arterial endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Bongard, Robert D; Krenz, Gary S; Gastonguay, Adam J; Williams, Carol L; Lindemer, Brian J; Merker, Marilyn P

    2011-04-15

    Treatment of bovine pulmonary arterial endothelial cells in culture with the phase II enzyme inducer sulforaphane (5μM, 24h; sulf-treated) increased cell-lysate NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) activity by 5.7 ± 0.6 (mean ± SEM)-fold, but intact-cell NQO1 activity by only 2.8 ± 0.1-fold compared to control cells. To evaluate the hypothesis that the threshold for sulforaphane-induced intact-cell NQO1 activity reflects a limitation in the capacity to supply NADPH at a sufficient rate to drive all the induced NQO1 to its maximum activity, total KOH-extractable pyridine nucleotides were measured in cells treated with duroquinone to stimulate maximal NQO1 activity. NQO1 activation increased NADP(+) in control and sulf-treated cells, with the effect more pronounced in the sulf-treated cells, in which the NADPH was also decreased. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) inhibition partially blocked NQO1 activity in control and sulf-treated cells, but G-6-PDH overexpression via transient transfection with the human cDNA alleviated neither the restriction on intact sulf-treated cell NQO1 activity nor the impact on the NADPH/NADP(+) ratios. Intracellular ATP levels were not affected by NQO1 activation in control or sulf-treated cells. An increased dependence on extracellular glucose and a rightward shift in the K(m) for extracellular glucose were observed in NQO1-stimulated sulf-treated vs control cells. The data suggest that glucose transport in the sulf-treated cells may be insufficient to support the increased metabolic demand for pentose phosphate pathway-generated NADPH as an explanation for the NQO1 threshold. PMID:21238579

  9. The antiproliferative activity of the heat shock protein 90 inhibitor IPI-504 is not dependent on NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Mark; Lim, Alice R; Porter, James R; West, Kip; Pink, Melissa M; Ge, Jie; Wylie, Andrew A; Tibbits, Thomas T; Biggs, Kurtis; Curtis, Michael; Palombella, Vito J; Adams, Julian; Fritz, Christian C; Normant, Emmanuel

    2009-12-01

    IPI-504, a water-soluble ansamycin analogue currently being investigated in clinical trials, is a potent inhibitor of the protein chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90). Inhibition of Hsp90 by IPI-504 triggers the degradation of important oncogenic client proteins. In cells, the free base of IPI-504 hydroquinone exists in a dynamic redox equilibrium with its corresponding quinone (17-AAG); the hydroquinone form binding 50 times more tightly to Hsp90. It has been proposed recently that the NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase NQO1 can produce the active hydroquinone and could be essential for the activity of IPI-504. Here, we have devised a method to directly measure the intracellular ratio of hydroquinone to quinone (HQ/Q) and have applied this measurement to correlate NQO1 enzyme abundance with HQ/Q ratio and cellular activity of IPI-504 in 30 cancer cell lines. Interestingly, the intracellular HQ/Q ratio was correlated with NQO1 levels only in a subset of cell lines and overall was poorly correlated with the growth inhibitory activity of IPI-504. Although artificial overexpression of NQO1 is able to increase the level of hydroquinone and cell sensitivity to IPI-504, it has little effect on the activity of 17-amino-17-demethoxy-geldanamycin, the major active metabolite of IPI-504. This finding could provide an explanation for the biological activity of IPI-504 in xenograft models of cell lines that are not sensitive to IPI-504 in vitro. Our results suggest that NQO1 activity is not a determinant of IPI-504 activity in vivo and, therefore, unlikely to become an important resistance mechanism to IPI-504 in the clinic. PMID:19952119

  10. Compounds from the Fruits of the Popular European Medicinal Plant Vitex agnus-castus in Chemoprevention via NADP(H):Quinone Oxidoreductase Type 1 Induction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shenghong; Qiu, Shengxiang; Yao, Ping; Sun, Handong; Fong, Harry H. S.; Zhang, Hongjie

    2013-01-01

    As part of our continuing efforts in the search for potential biologically active compounds from medicinal plants, we have isolated 18 compounds including two novel nitrogen containing diterpenes from extracts of the fruits of Vitex agnus-castus. These isolates, along with our previously obtained novel compound vitexlactam A (1), were evaluated for potential biological effects, including cancer chemoprevention. Chemically, the nitrogenous isolates were found to be two labdane diterpene alkaloids, each containing an α, β-unsaturated γ-lactam moiety. Structurally, they were elucidated to be 9α-hydroxy-13(14)-labden-16,15-amide (2) and 6β-acetoxy-9α-hydroxy-13(14)-labden-15,16-amide (3), which were named vitexlactams B and C, respectively. The 15 known isolates were identified as vitexilactone (4), rotundifuran (5), 8-epi-manoyl oxide (6), vitetrifolin D (7), spathulenol (8), cis-dihydro-dehydro-diconiferylalcohol-9-O-β-D-glucoside (9), luteolin-7-O-glucoside (10), 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,4′-tetramethoxyflavone (11), casticin (12), artemetin (13), aucubin (14), agnuside (15), β-sitosterol (16), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (17), and p-hydroxybenzoic acid glucose ester (18). All compound structures were determined/identified on the basis of 1D and/or 2D NMR and mass spectrometry techniques. Compounds 6, 8, 9, and 18 were reported from a Vitex spieces for the first time. The cancer chemopreventive potentials of these isolates were evaluated for NADP(H):quinone oxidoreductase type 1 (QR1) induction activity. Compound 7 demonstrated promising QR1 induction effect, while the new compound vitexlactam (3) was only slightly active. PMID:23662135

  11. Indolequinone Inhibitors of NRH:Quinone Oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2). Characterization of Mechanism of Inhibition in both Cell-free and Cellular Systems. †

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Chao; Dufour, Marine; Siegel, David; Reigan, Philip; Gomez, Joe; Shieh, Biehuoy; Moody, Christopher J.; Ross, David

    2011-01-01

    We describe a series of indolequinones as efficient mechanism-based inhibitors of NRH:quinone oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2) for use either in cellular or cell-free systems. Compounds were designed to be reduced in the active site of the enzyme leading to loss of a substituted phenol leaving group and generation of a reactive iminium electrophile. Inhibition of NQO2 activity was assessed in both cell-free systems and in the human leukemia K562 cell line. Inhibition of recombinant human NQO2 by the indolequinones was NRH-dependent with kinetic parameters characteristic of mechanism-based inhibition and partition ratios as low as 2.0. Indolequinones inhibited NQO2 activity in K562 cells at nanomolar concentrations which did not inhibit NQO1 and were non-toxic to cells. Computational-based molecular modeling simulations demonstrated favorable conformations of indolequinones positioned directly above and in parallel to the isoalloxazine ring of FAD and mass spectrometry extended our previous finding of adduction of the FAD in the active site of NQO2 by an indolequinone-derived iminium electrophile to the wider series of indolequinone inhibitors. Modeling combined with biochemical testing identified key structural parameters for effective inhibition including a 5-aminoalkyamino side chain. Hydrogen bonding of the terminal amine nitrogen in the aminoalkylamino side chain was found to be critical for correct orientation of the inhibitors in the active site. These indolequinones were irreversible inhibitors and were found to be at least an order of magnitude more potent than any previously documented competitive inhibitors of NQO2 and represent the first mechanism-based inhibitors of NQO2 to be characterized in cellular systems. PMID:21718050

  12. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor: A Novel Inhibitor of Apoptosis Signal-Regulating Kinase 1-p38-Xanthine Oxidoreductase-Dependent Cigarette Smoke-Induced Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Fallica, Jonathan; Varela, Lidenys; Johnston, Laura; Kim, Bo; Serebreni, Leonid; Wang, Lan; Damarla, Mahendra; Kolb, Todd M; Hassoun, Paul M; Damico, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure is the leading cause of emphysema. CS mediates pathologic emphysematous remodeling of the lung via apoptosis of lung parenchymal cells resulting in enlargement of the airspaces, loss of the capillary bed, and diminished surface area for gas exchange. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a pleiotropic cytokine, is reduced both in a preclinical model of CS-induced emphysema and in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, particularly those with the most severe disease and emphysematous phenotype. MIF functions to antagonize CS-induced DNA damage, p53-dependent apoptosis of pulmonary endothelial cells (EndoCs) and resultant emphysematous tissue remodeling. Using primary alveolar EndoCs and a mouse model of CS-induced lung damage, we investigated the capacity and molecular mechanism(s) by which MIF modifies oxidant injury. Here, we demonstrate that both the activity of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR), a superoxide-generating enzyme obligatory for CS-induced DNA damage and EndoC apoptosis, and superoxide concentrations are increased after CS exposure in the absence of MIF. Both XOR hyperactivation and apoptosis in the absence of MIF occurred via a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent mechanism. Furthermore, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase family member, apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), was necessary for CS-induced p38 activation and EndoC apoptosis. MIF was sufficient to directly suppress ASK1 enzymatic activity. Taken together, MIF suppresses CS-mediated cytotoxicity in the lung, in part by antagonizing ASK1-p38-XOR-dependent apoptosis. PMID:26390063

  13. The structure of Na⁺-translocating of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase of Vibrio cholerae: implications on coupling between electron transfer and Na⁺ transport.

    PubMed

    Steuber, Julia; Vohl, Georg; Muras, Valentin; Toulouse, Charlotte; Claußen, Björn; Vorburger, Thomas; Fritz, Günter

    2015-09-01

    The Na⁺-translocating NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Na⁺-NQR) of Vibrio cholerae is a respiratory complex that couples the exergonic oxidation of NADH to the transport of Na⁺ across the cytoplasmic membrane. It is composed of six different subunits, NqrA, NqrB, NqrC, NqrD, NqrE, and NqrF, which harbor FAD, FMN, riboflavin, quinone, and two FeS centers as redox co-factors. We recently determined the X-ray structure of the entire Na⁺-NQR complex at 3.5-Å resolution and complemented the analysis by high-resolution structures of NqrA, NqrC, and NqrF. The position of flavin and FeS co-factors both at the cytoplasmic and the periplasmic side revealed an electron transfer pathway from cytoplasmic subunit NqrF across the membrane to the periplasmic NqrC, and via NqrB back to the quinone reduction site on cytoplasmic NqrA. A so far unknown Fe site located in the midst of membrane-embedded subunits NqrD and NqrE shuttles the electrons over the membrane. Some distances observed between redox centers appear to be too large for effective electron transfer and require conformational changes that are most likely involved in Na⁺ transport. Based on the structure, we propose a mechanism where redox induced conformational changes critically couple electron transfer to Na⁺ translocation from the cytoplasm to the periplasm through a channel in subunit NqrB. PMID:26146127

  14. Identification of the Ndh (NAD(P)H-plastoquinone-oxidoreductase) complex in etioplast membranes of barley: changes during photomorphogenesis of chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Guéra, A; de Nova, P G; Sabater, B

    2000-01-01

    In the last few years the presence in thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts of a NAD(P)H-plastoquinone oxidoreductase complex (Ndh complex) homologous to mitochondrial complex I has been well established. Herein, we report the identification of the Ndh complex in barley etioplast membranes. Two plastid DNA-encoded polypeptides of the Ndh complex (NDH-A and NDH-F) were relatively more abundant in etioplast membranes than in thylakoids from greening chloroplasts. Conversion of etioplast into chloroplast, after light exposure of barley seedlings grown in the dark, was accompanied by a decrease in the NADH dehydrogenase activity associated to plastid membranes. Using native-PAGE and immunolabelling techniques we have determined that a NADH specific dehydrogenase activity associated with plastid membranes, which was more active in etioplasts than in greening chloroplasts, contained the NDH-A and NDH-F polypeptides. These results complemented by those obtained through blue-native-PAGE indicated that NDH-A and NDH-F polypeptides are part of a 580 kDa NADH dependent dehydrogenase complex present in etioplast membranes. This finding proves that accumulation of the Ndh complex is independent of light. The decrease in the relative levels and specific activity of this complex during the transition from etioplast to chloroplasts was accompanied by a parallel decrease in the specific activity of peroxidase associated to plastid membranes. Based on the mentioned observations it is proposed that an electron transport chain from NADH to H2O2 could be active in barley etioplasts. PMID:10750708

  15. Down-regulation of the detoxifying enzyme NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 by vanadium in Hepa 1c1c7 cells.

    PubMed

    Anwar-Mohamed, Anwar; El-Kadi, Ayman O S

    2009-05-01

    Recent data suggest that vanadium (V5+) compounds exert protective effects against chemical-induced carcinogenesis, mainly through modifying various xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. In fact, we have shown that V5+ down-regulates the expression of Cyp1a1 at the transcriptional level through an ATP-dependent mechanism. However, incongruously, there is increasing evidence that V5+ is found in higher amounts in cancer cells and tissues than in normal cells or tissues. Therefore, the current study aims to address the possible effect of this metal on the regulation of expression of an enzyme that helps maintain endogenous antioxidants used to protect tissues/cells from mutagens, carcinogens, and oxidative stress damage, NAD(P) H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (Nqo1). In an attempt to examine these effects, Hepa 1c1c7 cells and its AhRdeficient version, c12, were treated with increasing concentrations of V5+ in the presence of two distinct Nqo1 inducers, the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and isothiocyanate sulforaphane (SUL). Our results showed that V5+ inhibits the TCDD- and SUL-mediated induction of Nqo1 at mRNA, protein, and catalytic activity levels. At transcriptional level, V5+ was able to decrease the TCDD- and SUL-induced nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 and the subsequent binding to antioxidant responsive element (ARE) without affecting Nrf2 protein levels. Looking at post-transcriptional level; we found that V5+ did not affect Nqo1 mRNA transcripts turn-over rates. However, at the post-translational level V5+ increased Nqo1 protein half-life. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that V5+ down-regulates Nqo1 at the transcriptional level, possibly through inhibiting the ATP-dependent activation of Nrf2. PMID:19367690

  16. The Thiol Reductase Activity of YUCCA6 Mediates Delayed Leaf Senescence by Regulating Genes Involved in Auxin Redistribution

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Joon-Yung; Kim, Mi R.; Jung, In J.; Kang, Sun B.; Park, Hee J.; Kim, Min G.; Yun, Dae-Jin; Kim, Woe-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Auxin, a phytohormone that affects almost every aspect of plant growth and development, is biosynthesized from tryptophan via the tryptamine, indole-3-acetamide, indole-3-pyruvic acid, and indole-3-acetaldoxime pathways. YUCCAs (YUCs), flavin monooxygenase enzymes, catalyze the conversion of indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPA) to the auxin (indole acetic acid). Arabidopsis thaliana YUC6 also exhibits thiol-reductase and chaperone activity in vitro; these activities require the highly conserved Cys-85 and are essential for scavenging of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the drought tolerance response. Here, we examined whether the YUC6 thiol reductase activity also participates in the delay in senescence observed in YUC6-overexpressing (YUC6-OX) plants. YUC6 overexpression delays leaf senescence in natural and dark-induced senescence conditions by reducing the expression of SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED GENE 12 (SAG12). ROS accumulation normally occurs during senescence, but was not observed in the leaves of YUC6-OX plants; however, ROS accumulation was observed in YUC6-OXC85S plants, which overexpress a mutant YUC6 that lacks thiol reductase activity. We also found that YUC6-OX plants, but not YUC6-OXC85S plants, show upregulation of three genes encoding NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductases (NTRA, NTRB, and NTRC), and GAMMA-GLUTAMYLCYSTEINE SYNTHETASE 1 (GSH1), encoding an enzyme involved in redox signaling. We further determined that excess ROS accumulation caused by methyl viologen treatment or decreased glutathione levels caused by buthionine sulfoximine treatment can decrease the levels of auxin efflux proteins such as PIN2-4. The expression of PINs is also reduced in YUC6-OX plants. These findings suggest that the thiol reductase activity of YUC6 may play an essential role in delaying senescence via the activation of genes involved in redox signaling and auxin availability.

  17. NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase expression in Cyp1a-knockout and CYP1A-humanized mouse lines and its effect on bioactivation of the carcinogen aristolochic acid I

    SciTech Connect

    Levova, Katerina; Moserova, Michaela; Nebert, Daniel W.; Phillips, David H.; Frei, Eva; Schmeiser, Heinz H.; Arlt, Volker M.; Stiborova, Marie

    2012-12-15

    Aristolochic acid causes a specific nephropathy (AAN), Balkan endemic nephropathy, and urothelial malignancies. Using Western blotting suitable to determine protein expression, we investigated in several transgenic mouse lines expression of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1)—the most efficient cytosolic enzyme that reductively activates aristolochic acid I (AAI). The mouse tissues used were from previous studies [Arlt et al., Chem. Res. Toxicol. 24 (2011) 1710; Stiborova et al., Toxicol. Sci. 125 (2012) 345], in which the role of microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in AAI metabolism in vivo had been determined. We found that NQO1 levels in liver, kidney and lung of Cyp1a1(−/−), Cyp1a2(−/−) and Cyp1a1/1a2(−/−) knockout mouse lines, as well as in two CYP1A-humanized mouse lines harboring functional human CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 and lacking the mouse Cyp1a1/1a2 orthologs, differed from NQO1 levels in wild-type mice. NQO1 protein and enzymic activity were induced in hepatic and renal cytosolic fractions isolated from AAI-pretreated mice, compared with those in untreated mice. Furthermore, this increase in hepatic NQO1 enzyme activity was associated with bioactivation of AAI and elevated AAI-DNA adduct levels in ex vivo incubations of cytosolic fractions with DNA and AAI. In conclusion, AAI appears to increase its own metabolic activation by inducing NQO1, thereby enhancing its own genotoxic potential. Highlights: ► NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase expression in Cyp1a knockout and humanized CYP1A mice ► Reductive activation of the nephrotoxic and carcinogenic aristolochic acid I (AAI) ► NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase is induced in mice treated with AAI. ► Induced hepatic enzyme activity resulted in elevated AAI-DNA adduct levels.

  18. First Evidence for Existence of an Uphill Electron Transfer through the bc1 and NADH-Q Oxidoreductase Complexes of the Acidophilic Obligate Chemolithotrophic Ferrous Ion-Oxidizing Bacterium Thiobacillus ferrooxidans

    PubMed Central

    Elbehti, A.; Brasseur, G.; Lemesle-Meunier, D.

    2000-01-01

    The energy-dependent electron transfer pathway involved in the reduction of pyridine nucleotides which is required for CO2 fixation to occur in the acidophilic chemolithotrophic organism Thiobacillus ferrooxidans was investigated using ferrocytochrome c as the electron donor. The experimental results show that this uphill pathway involves a bc1 and an NADH-Q oxidoreductase complex functioning in reverse, using an electrochemical proton gradient generated by ATP hydrolysis. Based on these results, a model is presented to explain the balance of the reducing equivalent from ferrocytochrome c between the exergonic and endergonic electron transfer pathways. PMID:10852897

  19. Characterization of Pseudomonas putida Genes Responsive to Nutrient Limitation

    SciTech Connect

    Syn, Chris K.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Kingsley, Mark T.; Swarup, Sanjay

    2004-06-01

    The low bioavailability of nutrients and oxygen in the soil environment has hampered successful expression of biodegradation/biocontrol genes that are driven by promoters highly active during routine laboratory conditions of high nutrient- and oxygen-availability. Hence, in the present study, expression of the gus-tagged genes in 12 Tn5-gus mutants of the soil microbe Pseudomonas putida PNL-MK25 was examined under various conditions chosen to mimic the soil environment: low carbon, phosphate, nitrate, or oxygen, and in the rhizosphere. Based on their expression profiles, three nutrient-responsive mutant (NRM) strains, NRM5, NRM7, and NRM17, were selected for identification of the tagged genes. In the mutant strain NRM5, expression of the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdhA) gene was increased between 4.9- to 26.4-fold under various low nutrient conditions. In NRM7, expression of the novel NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase-like (nql) gene was consistently amongst the highest and was synergistically upregulated by low nutrient and anoxic conditions. The cyoD gene in NRM17, which encodes the fourth subunit of the cytochrome o ubiquinol oxidase complex, had decreased expression in low nutrient conditions but its absolute expression levels was still amongst the highest. Additionally, it was independent of oxygen availability, in contrast to that in E. coli.

  20. Mapping of aldose reductase gene sequences to human chromosomes 1, 3, 7, 9, 11, and 13

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, J.B.; Kojis, T. UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA ); Heinzmann, C.; Sparkes, R.S.; Klisak, I.; Diep, A. ); Carper, D. ); Nishimura, Chihiro ); Mohandas, T. )

    1993-09-01

    Aldose reductase (alditol:NAD(P)+ 1-oxidoreductase; EC 1.1.1.21) (AR) catalyzes the reduction of several aldehydes, including that of glucose, to the corresponding sugar alcohol. Using a complementary DNA clone encoding human AR, the authors mapped the gene sequences to human chromosomes 1, 3, 7, 9, 11, 13, 14, and 18 by somatic cell hybridization. By in situ hybridization analysis, sequences were localized to human chromosomes 1q32-q43, 3p12, 7q31-q35, 9q22, 11p14-p15, and 13q14-q21. As a putative functional AR gene has been mapped to chromosome 7 and a putative pseudogene to chromosome 3, the sequences on the other seven chromosomes may represent other active genes, non-aldose reductase homologous sequences, or pseudogenes. 24 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. The thioredoxin system of Penicillium chrysogenum and its possible role in penicillin biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, G; Argaman, A; Schreiber, R; Mislovati, M; Aharonowitz, Y

    1994-01-01

    Penicillium chrysogenum is an important producer of penicillin antibiotics. A key step in their biosynthesis is the oxidative cyclization of delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine (ACV) to isopenicillin N by the enzyme isopenicillin N synthase (IPNS). bis-ACV, the oxidized disulfide form of ACV is, however, not a substrate for IPNS. We report here the characterization of a broad-range disulfide reductase from P. chrysogenum that efficiently reduces bis-ACV to the thiol monomer. When coupled in vitro with IPNS, it converts bis-ACV to isopenicillin N and may therefore play a role in penicillin biosynthesis. The disulfide reductase consists of two protein components, a 72-kDa NADPH-dependent reductase, containing two identical subunits, and a 12-kDa general disulfide reductant. The latter reduces disulfide bonds in low-molecular-weight compounds and in proteins. The genes coding for the reductase system were cloned and sequenced. Both possess introns. A comparative analysis of their predicted amino acid sequences showed that the 12-kDa protein shares 26 to 60% sequence identity with thioredoxins and that the 36-kDa protein subunit shares 44 to 49% sequence identity with the two known bacterial thioredoxin reductases. In addition, the P. chrysogenum NADPH-dependent reductase is able to accept thioredoxin as a substrate. These results establish that the P. chrysogenum broad-range disulfide reductase is a member of the thioredoxin family of oxidoreductases. This is the first example of the cloning of a eucaryotic thioredoxin reductase gene. Images PMID:8106340

  2. Four structural subclasses of the antivirulence drug target disulfide oxidoreductase DsbA provide a platform for design of subclass-specific inhibitors.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Róisín M; Premkumar, Lakshmanane; Martin, Jennifer L

    2014-08-01

    By catalyzing oxidative protein folding, the bacterial disulfide bond protein A (DsbA) plays an essential role in the assembly of many virulence factors. Predictably, DsbA disruption affects multiple downstream effector molecules, resulting in pleiotropic effects on the virulence of important human pathogens. These findings mark DsbA as a master regulator of virulence, and identify the enzyme as a target for a new class of antivirulence agents that disarm pathogenic bacteria rather than killing them. The purpose of this article is to discuss and expand upon recent findings on DsbA and to provide additional novel insights into the druggability of this important disulfide oxidoreductase by comparing the structures and properties of 13 well-characterized DsbA enzymes. Our structural analysis involved comparison of the overall fold, the surface properties, the conformations of three loops contributing to the binding surface and the sequence identity of residues contributing to these loops. Two distinct structural classes were identified, classes I and II, which are differentiated by their central β-sheet arrangements and which roughly separate the DsbAs produced by Gram-negative from Gram-positive organisms. The classes can be further subdivided into a total of four subclasses on the basis of surface features. Class Ia is equivalent to the Enterobacteriaceae class that has been defined previously. Bioinformatic analyses support the classification of DsbAs into 3 of the 4 subclasses, but did not pick up the 4th subclass which is only apparent from analysis of DsbA electrostatic surface properties. In the context of inhibitor development, the discrete structural subclasses provide a platform for developing DsbA inhibitory scaffolds with a subclass-wide spectrum of activity. We expect that more DsbA classes are likely to be identified, as enzymes from other pathogens are explored, and we highlight the issues associated with structure-based inhibitor development targeting this pivotal mediator of bacterial virulence. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Thiol-Based Redox Processes. PMID:24487020

  3. Classic and non-classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency can be discriminated from P450 oxidoreductase deficiency in Japanese infants by urinary steroid metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Yuhei; Homma, Keiko; Fukami, Maki; Miwa, Masayuki; Ikeda, Kazushige; Ogata, Tsutomu; Murata, Mitsuru; Hasegawa, Tomonobu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. We previously reported a two-step biochemical diagnosis to discriminate classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency (C21OHD) from P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD) by using urinary steroid metabolites: the pregnanetriolone/tetrahydrocortisone ratio (Ptl / the cortisol metabolites 5α- and 5β-tetrahydrocortisone (sum of these metabolites termed THEs), and 11β-hydroxyandrosterone (11OHAn). The objective of this study was to investigate whether both C21OHD and non-classic 21OHD (C+NC21OHD) could be biochemically differentiated from PORD. We recruited 55 infants with C21OHD, 8 with NC21OHD, 16 with PORD, 57 with transient hyper-17α-hydroxyprogesteronemia (TH17OHP), and 2,473 controls. All infants were Japanese with ages between 0–180 d. In addition to Ptl, THEs, and 11OHAn, we measured urinary tetrahydroaldosterone (THAldo) and pregnenediol (PD5). The first step: by Ptl with the age-specific cutoffs 0.06 mg/g creatinine (0–10 d of age) and 0.3 mg/g creatinine (11–180 d of age), we were able to differentiate C+NC21OHD and PORD from TH17OHP and controls (0–10 d of age: 0.065–31 vs. < 0.001–0.052, 11–180 d of age: 0.40–42 vs. < 0.001–0.086) with 100% sensitivity and specificity. The second step: by the 11OHAn/THAldo or 11OHAn/PD5 ratio with a cutoff of 0.80 or 1.0, we were able to discriminate between C+NC21OHD and PORD (1.0–720 vs. 0.021–0.61 or 1.8–160 vs. 0.005–0.32, respectively) with 100% sensitivity and specificity. Ptl, 11OHAn/THAldo, and 11OHAn/PD5 could differentiate between C+NC21OHD and PORD in Japanese infants. PMID:27212795

  4. Heterologous expression of equine CYP3A94 and investigation of a tunable system to regulate co-expressed NADPH P450 oxidoreductase levels.

    PubMed

    Dettwiler, Ramona; Schmitz, Andrea L; Plattet, Philippe; Zielinski, Jana; Mevissen, Meike

    2014-01-01

    The activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes depends on the enzyme NADPH P450 oxidoreductase (POR). The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of the equine CYP3A94 using a system that allows to regulate the POR protein levels in mammalian cells. CYP3A94 and the equine POR were heterologously expressed in V79 cells. In the system used, the POR protein regulation is based on a destabilizing domain (DD) that transfers its instability to a fused protein. The resulting fusion protein is therefore degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Addition of "Shield-1" prevents the DD fusion protein from degradation. The change of POR levels at different Shield-1 concentrations was demonstrated by cytochrome c reduction, Western immunoblot analysis, and immunocytochemistry. The alteration of CYP3A94 activity was investigated using a substrate (BFC) known to detect CYP3A4 activity. Equine CYP3A94 was demonstrated to be metabolically active and its activity could be significantly elevated by co-expression of POR. Cytochrome c reduction was significantly increased in V79-CYP3A94/DD-POR cells compared to V79-CYP3A94 cells. Surprisingly, incubation with different Shield-1 concentrations resulted in a decrease in POR protein shown by Western immunoblot analysis. Cytochrome c reduction did not change significantly, but the CYP3A94 activity decreased more than 4-fold after incubation with 500 nM and 1 µM Shield-1 for 24 hours. No differences were obtained when V79-CYP3A94 POR cells with and without Shield-1 were compared. The basal activity levels of V79-CYP3A94/DD-POR cells were unexpectedly high, indicating that DD/POR is not degraded without Shield-1. Shield-1 decreased POR protein levels and CYP3A94 activity suggesting that Shield-1 might impair POR activity by an unknown mechanism. Although regulation of POR with the pPTuner system could not be obtained, the cell line V79-CYP3A94/DD-POR system can be used for further experiments to characterize the equine CYP3A94 since the CYP activity was significantly enhanced with co-expressed POR. PMID:25415624

  5. Heterologous Expression of Equine CYP3A94 and Investigation of a Tunable System to Regulate Co-Expressed NADPH P450 Oxidoreductase Levels

    PubMed Central

    Dettwiler, Ramona; Schmitz, Andrea L.; Plattet, Philippe; Zielinski, Jana; Mevissen, Meike

    2014-01-01

    The activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes depends on the enzyme NADPH P450 oxidoreductase (POR). The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of the equine CYP3A94 using a system that allows to regulate the POR protein levels in mammalian cells. CYP3A94 and the equine POR were heterologously expressed in V79 cells. In the system used, the POR protein regulation is based on a destabilizing domain (DD) that transfers its instability to a fused protein. The resulting fusion protein is therefore degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Addition of “Shield-1” prevents the DD fusion protein from degradation. The change of POR levels at different Shield-1 concentrations was demonstrated by cytochrome c reduction, Western immunoblot analysis, and immunocytochemistry. The alteration of CYP3A94 activity was investigated using a substrate (BFC) known to detect CYP3A4 activity. Equine CYP3A94 was demonstrated to be metabolically active and its activity could be significantly elevated by co-expression of POR. Cytochrome c reduction was significantly increased in V79-CYP3A94/DD-POR cells compared to V79-CYP3A94 cells. Surprisingly, incubation with different Shield-1 concentrations resulted in a decrease in POR protein shown by Western immunoblot analysis. Cytochrome c reduction did not change significantly, but the CYP3A94 activity decreased more than 4-fold after incubation with 500 nM and 1 µM Shield-1 for 24 hours. No differences were obtained when V79-CYP3A94 POR cells with and without Shield-1 were compared. The basal activity levels of V79-CYP3A94/DD-POR cells were unexpectedly high, indicating that DD/POR is not degraded without Shield-1. Shield-1 decreased POR protein levels and CYP3A94 activity suggesting that Shield-1 might impair POR activity by an unknown mechanism. Although regulation of POR with the pPTuner system could not be obtained, the cell line V79-CYP3A94/DD-POR system can be used for further experiments to characterize the equine CYP3A94 since the CYP activity was significantly enhanced with co-expressed POR. PMID:25415624

  6. High-Level Chromate Resistance in Arthrobacter sp. strain FB24 Requires Previously Uncharacterized Accessory Genes

    SciTech Connect

    Henne, Kristene L.; Nakatsu, Cindy N.; Thompson, Dorothea K.; Konopka, Allan

    2009-09-24

    The annotated genome sequence of Arthrobacter sp. strain FB24 revealed a chromate resistance determinant (CRD): a cluster of 8 genes located on a 10.6 kb fragment of a 96 kb plasmid. The CRD includes chrA, which encodes a putative chromate efflux protein, and three genes with amino acid similarities to the amino and carboxy termini of ChrB, a putative regulatory protein. There are also three novel genes that have not been previously associated with chromate resistance in other bacteria; they encode an oxidoreductase (most similar to malate:quinone oxidoreductase), a functionally unknown protein with a WD40 repeat domain and a lipoprotein. A chromate-sensitive mutant (strain D11) was generated by curing FB24 of its 96-kb plasmid. Elemental analysis indicated that chromate-exposed cells of strain D11 accumulated three times more chromium than strain FB24. Introduction of the CRD into strain D11 conferred chromate resistance comparable to wild-type levels, whereas deletion of specific regions of the CRD led to decreased resistance. Using real-time reverse transcriptase PCR, we show that expression of each gene within the CRD is specifically induced in response to chromate but not by lead, hydrogen peroxide or arsenate. Higher levels of chrA expression were achieved when the chrB orthologs and the WD40 repeat domain genes were present, suggesting their regulatory roles. Collectively, our findings indicate that chromate resistance in strain FB24 is primarily achieved by plasmid-mediated chromate efflux with the contribution of previously unrecognized accessory genes.

  7. Precorrin-6x reductase from Pseudomonas denitrificans: purification and characterization of the enzyme and identification of the structural gene.

    PubMed Central

    Blanche, F; Thibaut, D; Famechon, A; Debussche, L; Cameron, B; Crouzet, J

    1992-01-01

    Precorrin-6x reductase, which catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of precorrin-6x to a dihydro derivative named precorrin-6y, was purified 14,300-fold to homogeneity with an 8% yield from extracts of a recombinant strain of Pseudomonas denitrificans. Precorrin-6y was identified by fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry. It was converted in high yield (90%) to hydrogenobyrinic acid by cell-free protein preparations from P. denitrificans. For the purification and characterization of precorrin-6x reductase, a coupled-enzyme radioenzymatic assay was developed in which precorrin-6y was methylated in situ by the cobL gene product (F. Blanche, A. Famechon, D. Thibaut, L. Debussche, B. Cameron, J. Crouzet, J. Bacteriol. 174:1050-1052, 1992) in the presence of [methyl-3H]S-adenosyl-L-methionine. Molecular weights of precorrin-6x reductase obtained by gel filtration (Mr congruent to 27,000) and by analytical sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Mr congruent to 31,000) were consistent with the enzyme being a monomer. Km values of 3.6 +/- 0.2 microM for precorrin-6x and 23.5 +/- 3.5 microM for NADPH and a Vmax value of 17,000 U mg-1 were obtained at pH 7.7. The N-terminal sequence (six amino acids) and three internal sequences obtained after tryptic digestion of the enzyme were determined by microsequencing and established that precorrin-6x reductase is encoded by the cobK gene, located on a previously described 8.7-kb EcoRI fragment (J. Crouzet, B. Cameron, L. Cauchois, S. Rigault, M.-C. Rouyez, F. Blanche, D. Thibaut, and L. Debussche, J. Bacteriol. 172:5980-5990, 1990). However, the coding sequence was shown to be on the strand complementary to the one previously proposed as the coding strand. Images PMID:1732193

  8. Differentially expressed genes in embryonic cardiac tissues of mice lacking Folr1 gene activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Huiping; Cabrera, Robert M; Wlodarczyk, Bogdan J; Bozinov, Daniel; Wang, Deli; Schwartz, Robert J; Finnell, Richard H

    2007-01-01

    Background Heart anomalies are the most frequently observed among all human congenital defects. As with the situation for neural tube defects (NTDs), it has been demonstrated that women who use multivitamins containing folic acid peri-conceptionally have a reduced risk for delivering offspring with conotruncal heart defects [1-3]. Cellular folate transport is mediated by a receptor or binding protein and by an anionic transporter protein system. Defective function of the Folr1 (also known as Folbp1; homologue of human FRα) gene in mice results in inadequate transport, accumulation, or metabolism of folate during cardiovascular morphogenesis. Results We have observed cardiovascular abnormalities including outflow tract and aortic arch arterial defects in genetically compromised Folr1 knockout mice. In order to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the failure to complete development of outflow tract and aortic arch arteries in the Folr1 knockout mouse model, we examined tissue-specific gene expression difference between Folr1 nullizygous embryos and morphologically normal heterozygous embryos during early cardiac development (14-somite stage), heart tube looping (28-somite stage), and outflow track septation (38-somite stage). Microarray analysis was performed as a primary screening, followed by investigation using quantitative real-time PCR assays. Gene ontology analysis highlighted the following ontology groups: cell migration, cell motility and localization of cells, structural constituent of cytoskeleton, cell-cell adhesion, oxidoreductase, protein folding and mRNA processing. This study provided preliminary data and suggested potential candidate genes for further description and investigation. Conclusion The results suggested that Folr1 gene ablation and abnormal folate homeostasis altered gene expression in developing heart and conotruncal tissues. These changes affected normal cytoskeleton structures, cell migration and motility as well as cellular redox status, which may contribute to cardiovascular abnormalities in mouse embryos lacking Folr1 gene activity. PMID:18028541

  9. Cell Growth Defect Factor1/CHAPERONE-LIKE PROTEIN OF POR1 Plays a Role in Stabilization of Light-Dependent Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Yong; Lee, Ho-Seok; Song, Ji-Young; Jung, Young Jun; Reinbothe, Steffen; Park, Youn-Il; Lee, Sang Yeol; Pai, Hyun-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Angiosperms require light for chlorophyll biosynthesis because one reaction in the pathway, the reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to chlorophyllide, is catalyzed by the light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR). Here, we report that Cell growth defect factor1 (Cdf1), renamed here as CHAPERONE-LIKE PROTEIN OF POR1 (CPP1), an essential protein for chloroplast development, plays a role in the regulation of POR stability and function. Cdf1/CPP1 contains a J-like domain and three transmembrane domains, is localized in the thylakoid and envelope membranes, and interacts with POR isoforms in chloroplasts. CPP1 can stabilize POR proteins with its holdase chaperone activity. CPP1 deficiency results in diminished POR protein accumulation and defective chlorophyll synthesis, leading to photobleaching and growth inhibition of plants under light conditions. CPP1 depletion also causes reduced POR accumulation in etioplasts of dark-grown plants and as a result impairs the formation of prolamellar bodies, which subsequently affects chloroplast biogenesis upon illumination. Furthermore, in cyanobacteria, the CPP1 homolog critically regulates POR accumulation and chlorophyll synthesis under high-light conditions, in which the dark-operative Pchlide oxidoreductase is repressed by its oxygen sensitivity. These findings and the ubiquitous presence of CPP1 in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms suggest the conserved nature of CPP1 function in the regulation of POR. PMID:24151298

  10. Efficient cloning of single-copy genes using specialized cosmid vectors: isolation of mutant dihydrofolate reductase genes.

    PubMed Central

    Urlaub, G; Carothers, A M; Chasin, L A

    1985-01-01

    A method for the efficient cloning of single-copy genes from restriction digests of mammalian DNA is described. The method is illustrated by the cloning of several mutant genes as well as the wild-type gene for Chinese hamster dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR; 7,8-dihydrofolate:NADP+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.5.1.3). This gene is isolated within a 41-kilobase Bgl I fragment by using cosmid (plasmids containing a cohesive-end site) vectors that have been constructed especially for this purpose. Two cosmids are used: one contains a short region from the 5' flanking region of the dhfr gene, and the other contains a short region from the 3' flanking region. These two regions contain the Bgl I sites that bound the dhfr gene. Bgl I leaves staggered ends that are different depending on the DNA sequence within the enzyme binding site. When these cosmids are cut with Bgl I and hybridized with total Bgl I-cut genomic DNA, they preferentially associate with the fragment bearing the dhfr gene, since it has the same Bgl I ends. An approximately 500-fold enrichment for the dhfr gene in cosmid libraries from Chinese hamster ovary cells was achieved by using this method coupled with a single-step size fractionation. As a result, only several hundred cosmid colonies need to be screened in order to clone a dhfr gene from a particular mutant Chinese hamster ovary cell. This method should facilitate the repetitive cloning of any gene or gene fragment. Images PMID:3883353

  11. Studying Genes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Area What are genes? Genes are sections of DNA that contain instructions for making the molecules—many ... material in an organism. This includes genes and DNA elements that control the activity of genes. Does ...

  12. Structure and Sequence Conservation of hao Cluster Genes of Autotrophic Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria: Evidence for Their Evolutionary History

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, David J.; Hooper, Alan B.; Klotz, Martin G.

    2005-01-01

    Comparison of the organization and sequence of the hao (hydroxylamine oxidoreductase) gene clusters from the gammaproteobacterial autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacterium (aAOB) Nitrosococcus oceani and the betaproteobacterial aAOB Nitrosospira multiformis and Nitrosomonas europaea revealed a highly conserved gene cluster encoding the following proteins: hao, hydroxylamine oxidoreductase; orf2, a putative protein; cycA, cytochrome c554; and cycB, cytochrome cm552. The deduced protein sequences of HAO, c554, and cm552 were highly similar in all aAOB despite their differences in species evolution and codon usage. Phylogenetic inference revealed a broad family of multi-c-heme proteins, including HAO, the pentaheme nitrite reductase, and tetrathionate reductase. The c-hemes of this group also have a nearly identical geometry of heme orientation, which has remained conserved during divergent evolution of function. High sequence similarity is also seen within a protein family, including cytochromes cm552, NrfH/B, and NapC/NirT. It is proposed that the hydroxylamine oxidation pathway evolved from a nitrite reduction pathway involved in anaerobic respiration (denitrification) during the radiation of the Proteobacteria. Conservation of the hydroxylamine oxidation module was maintained by functional pressure, and the module expanded into two separate narrow taxa after a lateral gene transfer event between gamma- and betaproteobacterial ancestors of extant aAOB. HAO-encoding genes were also found in six non-aAOB, either singly or tandemly arranged with an orf2 gene, whereas a c554 gene was lacking. The conservation of the hao gene cluster in general and the uniqueness of the c554 gene in particular make it a suitable target for the design of primers and probes useful for molecular ecology approaches to detect aAOB. PMID:16151127

  13. Novel insights into structure-function mechanism and tissue-specific expression profiling of full-length dxr gene from Cymbopogon winterianus.

    PubMed

    Devi, Kamalakshi; Dehury, Budheswar; Phukon, Munmi; Modi, Mahendra Kumar; Sen, Priyabrata

    2015-01-01

    The 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR; EC1.1.1.267), an NADPH-dependent reductase, plays a pivotal role in the methylerythritol 4-phosphate pathway (MEP), in the conversion of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate (DXP) into MEP. The sheath and leaf of citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) accumulates large amount of terpenes and sesquiterpenes with proven medicinal value and economic uses. Thus, sequencing of full length dxr gene and its characterization seems to be a valuable resource in metabolic engineering to alter the flux of isoprenoid active ingredients in plants. In this study, full length DXR from citronella was characterized through in silico and tissue-specific expression studies to explain its structure-function mechanism, mode of cofactor recognition and differential expression. The modelled DXR has a three-domain architecture and its active site comprised of a cofactor (NADPH) binding pocket and the substrate-binding pocket. Molecular dynamics simulation studies indicated that DXR model retained most of its secondary structure during 10 ns simulation in aqueous solution. The modelled DXR superimposes well with its closest structural homolog but subtle variations in the charge distribution over the cofactor recognition site were noticed. Molecular docking study revealed critical residues aiding tight anchoring NADPH within the active pocket of DXR. Tissue-specific differential expression analysis using semi-quantitative RT-PCR and qRT-PCR in various tissues of citronella plant revealed distinct differential expression of DXR. To our knowledge, this is the first ever report on DXR from the important medicinal plant citronella and further characterization of this gene will open up better avenues for metabolic engineering of secondary metabolite pathway genes from medicinal plants in the near future. PMID:25941629

  14. Structure-Based Computational Study of Two Disease Resistance Gene Homologues (Hm1 and Hm2) in Maize (Zea mays L.) with Implications in Plant-Pathogen Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Maharana, Jitendra; Sahu, Jagajjit; Sen, Priyabrata; Modi, Mahendra Kumar; Choudhury, Manabendra Dutta; Barooah, Madhumita

    2014-01-01

    The NADPH-dependent HC-toxin reductases (HCTR1 and 2) encoded by enzymatic class of disease resistance homologous genes (Hm1 and Hm2) protect maize by detoxifying a cyclic tetrapeptide, HC-toxin, secreted by the fungus Cochliobolus carbonum race 1(CCR1). Unlike the other classes' resistance (R) genes, HCTR-mediated disease resistance is an inimitable mechanism where the avirulence (Avr) component from CCR1 is not involved in toxin degradation. In this study, we attempted to decipher cofactor (NADPH) recognition and mode of HC-toxin binding to HCTRs through molecular docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and binding free energy calculation methods. The rationality and the stability of docked complexes were validated by 30-ns MD simulation. The binding free energy decomposition of enzyme-cofactor complex was calculated to find the driving force behind cofactor recognition. The overall binding free energies of HCTR1-NADPH and HCTR2-NADPH were found to be −616.989 and −16.9749 kJ mol−1 respectively. The binding free energy decomposition revealed that the binding of NADPH to the HCTR1 is mainly governed by van der Waals and nonpolar interactions, whereas electrostatic terms play dominant role in stabilizing the binding mode between HCTR2 and NADPH. Further, docking analysis of HC-toxin with HCTR-NADPH complexes showed a distinct mode of binding and the complexes were stabilized by a strong network of hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interactions. This study is the first in silico attempt to unravel the biophysical and biochemical basis of cofactor recognition in enzymatic class of R genes in cereal crop maize. PMID:24847713

  15. Novel insights into structure–function mechanism and tissue-specific expression profiling of full-length dxr gene from Cymbopogon winterianus

    PubMed Central

    Devi, Kamalakshi; Dehury, Budheswar; Phukon, Munmi; Modi, Mahendra Kumar; Sen, Priyabrata

    2015-01-01

    The 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR; EC1.1.1.267), an NADPH-dependent reductase, plays a pivotal role in the methylerythritol 4-phosphate pathway (MEP), in the conversion of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate (DXP) into MEP. The sheath and leaf of citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) accumulates large amount of terpenes and sesquiterpenes with proven medicinal value and economic uses. Thus, sequencing of full length dxr gene and its characterization seems to be a valuable resource in metabolic engineering to alter the flux of isoprenoid active ingredients in plants. In this study, full length DXR from citronella was characterized through in silico and tissue-specific expression studies to explain its structure–function mechanism, mode of cofactor recognition and differential expression. The modelled DXR has a three-domain architecture and its active site comprised of a cofactor (NADPH) binding pocket and the substrate-binding pocket. Molecular dynamics simulation studies indicated that DXR model retained most of its secondary structure during 10 ns simulation in aqueous solution. The modelled DXR superimposes well with its closest structural homolog but subtle variations in the charge distribution over the cofactor recognition site were noticed. Molecular docking study revealed critical residues aiding tight anchoring NADPH within the active pocket of DXR. Tissue-specific differential expression analysis using semi-quantitative RT-PCR and qRT-PCR in various tissues of citronella plant revealed distinct differential expression of DXR. To our knowledge, this is the first ever report on DXR from the important medicinal plant citronella and further characterization of this gene will open up better avenues for metabolic engineering of secondary metabolite pathway genes from medicinal plants in the near future. PMID:25941629

  16. Chromosomal organization of the human dihydrofolate reductase genes: dispersion, selective amplification, and a novel form of polymorphism.

    PubMed Central

    Anagnou, N P; O'Brien, S J; Shimada, T; Nash, W G; Chen, M J; Nienhuis, A W

    1984-01-01

    The human dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR; tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase; 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate: NADP+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.5.1.3) gene family includes a functional gene (hDHFR) and at least four intronless genes. Three intronless genes (hDHFR-psi 2, hDHFR-psi 3, and hDHFR-psi 4) are identifiable as pseudogenes because of DNA sequence divergence from the functional gene with introns, while one intronless gene (hDHFR-psi 1) is completely homologous to the coding sequences of the functional gene. Analysis of genomic DNA from two panels of somatic human-rodent cell hybrids with specific molecular probes provide insight into the chromosomal organization and assignment of these genes. The five genes are dispersed in that each one is found on a different chromosome. The functional gene hDHFR has been assigned to chromosome 5, and one pseudogene (hDHFR-psi 4), to chromosome 3. In a human cell line (HeLa) that was selected for methotrexate resistance, the functional locus became amplified, while there was no amplification of the four intronless pseudogenes. hDHFR-psi 1 was found to be present in DNA of some individuals and absent from DNA of others, consistent with a recent evolutionary origin of this gene originally suggested by its sequence identity to the coding portions of the functional gene. The presence or absence of this intronless pseudogene represents a previously unreported form of DNA polymorphism. Images PMID:6089182

  17. Xenobiotic oxidation by cytochrome P-450-enriched extracts of Streptomyces griseus.

    PubMed

    Trower, M K; Sariaslani, F S; Kitson, F G

    1988-12-30

    Crude extracts of Streptomyces griseus grown on soybean flour-enriched medium contain high levels of cytochrome P-450. The cytochrome P-450-enriched fractions, obtained by ammonium sulfate fractionation (30-50% saturation), catalyze the NADPH-dependent oxidation of a variety of xenobiotics when complemented with both spinach ferredoxin:NADP+ oxidoreductase and spinach ferredoxin. Reactions observed are aromatic, benzylic and alicyclic hydroxylations, O-dealkylation, non-aromatic double bond epoxidation, N-oxidation and N-acetylation. PMID:3144975

  18. Cloning and characterization of the nucleoredoxin gene that encodes a novel nuclear protein related to thioredoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Kurooka, Hisanori; Kato, Keizo; Minoguchi, Shigeru

    1997-02-01

    In a yeast artificial chromosome contig close to the nude locus on mouse chromosome 11, we identified a novel gene, nucleoredoxin, that encodes a protein with similarity to the active site of thioredoxins. Nucleoredoxin is conserved between mammalian species, and two homologous genes were found in Caenorhabditis elegans. The nucleoredoxin transcripts are expressed in all adult tissues examined, but restricted to the nervous system and the limb buds in Day 10.5-11.5 embryos. The nucleoredoxin protein is predominantly localized in the nucleus of cells transfected with the nucleoredoxin expression construct. Since the bacterially expressed protein of nucleoredoxin showed oxidoreductase activity of the insulin disulfide bonds with kinetics similar to that of thioredoxin, it may be a redox regulator of the nuclear proteins, such as transcription factors. 40 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Identification and Characterization of Catabolic para-Nitrophenol 4-Monooxygenase and para-Benzoquinone Reductase from Pseudomonas sp. Strain WBC-3▿

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun-Jie; Liu, Hong; Xiao, Yi; Zhang, Xian-En; Zhou, Ning-Yi

    2009-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain WBC-3 utilizes para-nitrophenol (PNP) as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. In order to identify the genes involved in this utilization, we cloned and sequenced a 12.7-kb fragment containing a conserved region of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase genes. Of the products of the 13 open reading frames deduced from this fragment, PnpA shares 24% identity to the large component of a 3-hydroxyphenylacetate hydroxylase from Pseudomonas putida U and PnpB is 58% identical to an NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase from Escherichia coli. Both PnpA and PnpB were purified to homogeneity as His-tagged proteins, and they were considered to be a monomer and a dimer, respectively, as determined by gel filtration. PnpA is a flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent single-component PNP 4-monooxygenase that converts PNP to para-benzoquinone in the presence of NADPH. PnpB is a flavin mononucleotide-and NADPH-dependent p-benzoquinone reductase that catalyzes the reduction of p-benzoquinone to hydroquinone. PnpB could enhance PnpA activity, and genetic analyses indicated that both pnpA and pnpB play essential roles in PNP mineralization in strain WBC-3. Furthermore, the pnpCDEF gene cluster next to pnpAB shares significant similarities with and has the same organization as a gene cluster responsible for hydroquinone degradation (hapCDEF) in Pseudomonas fluorescens ACB (M. J. Moonen, N. M. Kamerbeek, A. H. Westphal, S. A. Boeren, D. B. Janssen, M. W. Fraaije, and W. J. van Berkel, J. Bacteriol. 190:5190-5198, 2008), suggesting that the genes involved in PNP degradation are physically linked. PMID:19218392

  20. Murine and human b locus pigmentation genes encode a glycoprotein (gp75) with catalase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Halaban, R; Moellmann, G

    1990-01-01

    Melanogenesis is regulated in large part by tyrosinase (monophenol monooxygenase; monophenol, L-dopa:oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.14.18.1), and defective tyrosinase leads to albinism. The mechanisms for other pigmentation determinants (e.g., those operative in tyrosinase-positive albinism and in murine coat-color mutants) are not yet known. One murine pigmentation gene, the brown (b) locus, when mutated leads to a brown (b/b) or hypopigmented (Blt/Blt) coat versus the wild-type black (B/B). We show that the b locus codes for a glycoprotein with the activity of a catalase (hydrogen-peroxide:hydrogen-peroxide oxidoreductase, EC 1.11.1.6) (catalase B). Only the c locus protein is a tyrosinase. Because peroxides may be by-products of melanogenic activity and hydrogen peroxide in particular is known to destroy melanin precursors and melanin, we conclude that pigmentation is controlled not only by tyrosinase but also by a hydroperoxidase. Our studies indicate that catalase B is identical with gp75, a known human melanosomal glycoprotein; that the b mutation is in a heme-associated domain; and that the Blt mutation renders the protein susceptible to rapid proteolytic degradation. Images PMID:1693779

  1. Expression of an isoflavone reductase-like gene enhanced by pollen tube growth in pistils of Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed

    van Eldik, G J; Ruiter, R K; Colla, P H; van Herpen, M M; Schrauwen, J A; Wullems, G J

    1997-03-01

    Successful sexual reproduction relies on gene products delivered by the pistil to create an environment suitable for pollen tube growth. These compounds are either produced before pollination or formed during the interactions between pistil and pollen tubes. Here we describe the pollination-enhanced expression of the cp100 gene in pistils of Solanum tuberosum. Temporal analysis of gene expression revealed an enhanced expression already one hour after pollination and lasts more than 72 h. Increase in expression also occurred after touching the stigma and was not restricted to the site of touch but spread into the style. The predicted CP100 protein shows similarity to leguminous isoflavone reductases (IFRs), but belongs to a family of IFR-like NAD(P)H-dependent oxidoreductases present in various plant species. PMID:9106515

  2. Gene Expression Profiling in the Type 1 Diabetes Rat Diaphragm

    PubMed Central

    van Lunteren, Erik; Moyer, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Background Respiratory muscle contractile performance is impaired by diabetes, mechanisms of which included altered carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and changes in membrane electrophysiology. The present study examined to what extent these cellular perturbations involve changes in gene expression. Methodology/Principal Findings Diaphragm muscle from streptozotocin-diabetic rats was analyzed with Affymetrix gene expression arrays. Diaphragm from diabetic rats had 105 genes with at least 2-fold significantly changed expression (55 increased, 50 decreased), and these were assigned to gene ontology groups based on over-representation analysis using DAVID software. There was increased expression of genes involved in palmitoyl-CoA hydrolase activity (a component of lipid metabolism) (P?=?0.037, n?=?2 genes, fold change 4.2 to 27.5) and reduced expression of genes related to carbohydrate metabolism (P?=?0.000061, n?=?8 genes, fold change ?2.0 to ?8.5). Other gene ontology groups among upregulated genes were protein ubiquitination (P?=?0.0053, n?=?4, fold change 2.2 to 3.4), oxidoreductase activity (P?=?0.024, n?=?8, fold change 2.1 to 6.0), and morphogenesis (P?=?0.012, n?=?10, fold change 2.1 to 4.3). Other downregulated gene groups were extracellular region (including extracellular matrix and collagen) (P?=?0.00032, n?=?13, fold change ?2.2 to ?3.7) and organogenesis (P?=?0.032, n?=?7, fold change ?2.1 to ?3.7). Real-time PCR confirmed the directionality of changes in gene expression for 30 of 31 genes tested. Conclusions/Significance These data indicate that in diaphragm muscle type 1 diabetes increases expression of genes involved in lipid energetics, oxidative stress and protein ubiquitination, decreases expression of genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, and has little effect on expression of ion channel genes. Reciprocal changes in expression of genes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism may change the availability of energetic substrates and thereby directly modulate fatigue resistance, an important issue for a muscle like the diaphragm which needs to contract without rest for the entire lifetime of the organism. PMID:19915678

  3. Isolation and characterization of the human tyrosine hydroxylase gene: identification of 5' alternative splice sites responsible for multiple mRNAs

    SciTech Connect

    O'Malley, K.L.; Anhalt, M.J.; Martin, B.M.; Kelsoe, J.R.; Winfield, S.L.; Ginns, E.I.

    1987-11-03

    A full-length genomic clone for human tyrosine hydroxylase (L-tyrosine, tetrahydropteridine:oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.14.16.2) has been isolated. A human brain genomic library constructed in EMBL3 was screened by using a rat cDNA for tyrosine hydroxylase as a probe. Out of one million recombinant phage, one clone was identified that hybridized to both 5' and 3' rat cDNA probes. Restriction endonuclease mapping, Southern blotting, and sequence analysis revealed that, like its rodent counterpart, the human gene is single copy, contains 13 primary exons, and spans approximately 8 kilobases (kb). In contrast to the rat gene, human tyrosine hydroxylase undergoes alternative RNA processing within intron 1, generating at least three distinct mRNAs. A comparison of the human tyrosine hydroxylase and phenylalanine hydroxylase genes indicates that although both probably evolved from a common ancestral gene, major changes in the size of introns have occurred since their divergence.

  4. The Nairovirus Nairobi Sheep Disease Virus/Ganjam Virus Induces the Translocation of Protein Disulphide Isomerase-Like Oxidoreductases from the Endoplasmic Reticulum to the Cell Surface and the Extracellular Space

    PubMed Central

    Lasecka, Lidia; Baron, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) of the genus Nairovirus causes a haemorrhagic gastroenteritis in sheep and goats with mortality up to 90%; the virus is found in East and Central Africa, and in India, where the virus is called Ganjam virus. NSDV is closely related to the human pathogen Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, which also causes a haemorrhagic disease. As with other nairoviruses, replication of NSDV takes place in the cytoplasm and the new virus particles bud into the Golgi apparatus; however, the effect of viral replication on cellular compartments has not been studied extensively. We have found that the overall structure of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment and the Golgi were unaffected by infection with NSDV. However, we observed that NSDV infection led to the loss of protein disulphide isomerase (PDI), an oxidoreductase present in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and which assists during protein folding, from the ER. Further investigation showed that NSDV-infected cells have high levels of PDI at their surface, and PDI is also secreted into the culture medium of infected cells. Another chaperone from the PDI family, ERp57, was found to be similarly affected. Analysis of infected cells and expression of individual viral glycoproteins indicated that the NSDV PreGn glycoprotein is involved in redistribution of these soluble ER oxidoreductases. It has been suggested that extracellular PDI can activate integrins and tissue factor, which are involved respectively in pro-inflammatory responses and disseminated intravascular coagulation, both of which manifest in many viral haemorrhagic fevers. The discovery of enhanced PDI secretion from NSDV-infected cells may be an important finding for understanding the mechanisms underlying the pathogenicity of haemorrhagic nairoviruses. PMID:24714576

  5. Two genes encoding steroid 21-hydroxylase are located near the genes encoding the fourth component of complement in man.

    PubMed Central

    White, P C; Grossberger, D; Onufer, B J; Chaplin, D D; New, M I; Dupont, B; Strominger, J L

    1985-01-01

    Two genes encoding steroid 21-hydroxylase [21-OHase; steroid 21-monooxygenase; steroid, hydrogen-donor: oxygen oxidoreductase (21-hydroxylating); EC 1.14.99.10], a cytochrome P-450 enzyme, have been located within the HLA major histocompatibility complex. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-OHase deficiency is a common inherited disorder of cortisol biosynthesis which is in genetic linkage disequilibrium with certain extended HLA haplotypes. These haplotypes include characteristic serum complement allotypes. A series of cosmid clones was isolated from a human genomic library by using a probe encoding part of the fourth component of complement, C4. These clones also hybridized with a probe encoding most of human 21-OHase. Restriction mapping and hybridization analysis showed that there are two 21-OHase genes, each located near the 3' end of one of the two C4 genes. Hybridization with probes specific for the 5' and 3' ends of the 21-OHase gene showed that the 21-OHase and C4 genes all have the same orientation. The 21-OHase genes 3' to C4A and C4B carry T aq I fragments of 3.2 and 3.7 kilobases (kb), respectively. Both of these fragments are found in genomic DNA of most individuals. In DNA from an individual with the severe, "salt-wasting" form of 21-OHase deficiency who was homozygous for HLA-A3;Bw47;C4A*1;C4B*Q0(null); DR7, the 3.7-kb Taq I fragment is absent, whereas hormonally normal individuals homozygous for HLA-A1;B8;C4A*Q0;C4B*1;DR3 do not carry the 3.2-kb Taq I fragment. These data suggest that the 21-OHase "B" gene (3.7-kb Taq I fragment) is functional, but the 21-OHase "A" gene (3.2-kb Taq I fragment) is not. Images PMID:2983330

  6. Purification, Characterization, and Potential Bacterial Wax Production Role of an NADPH-Dependent Fatty Aldehyde Reductase from Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Wahlen, Bradley D.; Oswald, Whitney S.; Seefeldt, Lance C.; Barney, Brett M.

    2009-01-01

    Wax esters, ester-linked fatty acids and long-chain alcohols, are important energy storage compounds in select bacteria. The synthesis of wax esters from fatty acids is proposed to require the action of a four-enzyme pathway. An essential step in the pathway is the reduction of a fatty aldehyde to the corresponding fatty alcohol, although the enzyme responsible for catalyzing this reaction has yet to be identified in bacteria. We report here the purification and characterization of an enzyme from the wax ester-accumulating bacterium Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8, which is a proposed fatty aldehyde reductase in this pathway. The enzyme, a 57-kDa monomer, was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with the maltose binding protein on the N terminus and was purified to near homogeneity by using amylose affinity chromatography. The purified enzyme was found to reduce a number of long-chain aldehydes to the corresponding alcohols coupled to the oxidation of NADPH. The highest specific activity was observed for the reduction of decanal (85 nmol decanal reduced/min/mg). Short-chain and aromatic aldehydes were not substrates. The enzyme showed no detectable catalysis of the reverse reaction, the oxidation of decanol by NADP+. The mechanism of the enzyme was probed with several site-specific chemical probes. The possible uses of this enzyme in the production of wax esters are discussed. PMID:19270127

  7. Purification and Characterization of a NADPH-Dependent Aldehyde Reductase from Mung Bean That Detoxifies Eutypine, a Toxin from Eutypa lata1

    PubMed Central

    Colrat, Ségolène; Latché, Alain; Guis, Monique; Pech, Jean-Claude; Bouzayen, Mondher; Fallot, Jean; Roustan, Jean-Paul

    1999-01-01

    Eutypine (4-hydroxy-3-[3-methyl-3-butene-1-ynyl] benzaldehyde) is a toxin produced by Eutypa lata, the causal agent of eutypa dieback in the grapevine (Vitis vinifera). Eutypine is enzymatically converted by numerous plant tissues into eutypinol (4-hydroxy-3-[3-methyl-3-butene-1-ynyl] benzyl alcohol), a metabolite that is nontoxic to grapevine. We report a four-step procedure for the purification to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity of a eutypine-reducing enzyme (ERE) from etiolated mung bean (Vigna radiata) hypocotyls. The purified protein is a monomer of 36 kD, uses NADPH as a cofactor, and exhibits a Km value of 6.3 μm for eutypine and a high affinity for 3- and 4-nitro-benzaldehyde. The enzyme failed to catalyze the reverse reaction using eutypinol as a substrate. ERE detoxifies eutypine efficiently over a pH range from 6.2 to 7.5. These data strongly suggest that ERE is an aldehyde reductase that could probably be classified into the aldo-keto reductase superfamily. We discuss the possible role of this enzyme in eutypine detoxification. PMID:9952458

  8. Regulation of NADPH-dependent Nitric Oxide and reactive oxygen species signalling in endothelial and melanoma cells by a photoactive NADPH analogue

    PubMed Central

    Rouaud, Florian; Romero-Perez, Miguel; Wang, Huan; Lobysheva, Irina; Ramassamy, Booma; Henry, Etienne; Tauc, Patrick; Giacchero, Damien; Boucher, Jean-Luc; Deprez, Eric; Rocchi, Stéphane; Slama-Schwok, Anny

    2014-01-01

    Nitric Oxide (NO) and Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are endogenous regulators of angiogenesis-related events as endothelial cell proliferation and survival, but NO/ROS defect or unbalance contribute to cancers. We recently designed a novel photoactive inhibitor of NO-Synthases (NOS) called NS1, which binds their NADPH site in vitro. Here, we show that NS1 inhibited NO formed in aortic rings. NS1-induced NO decrease led to an inhibition of angiogenesis in a model of VEGF-induced endothelial tubes formation. Beside this effect, NS1 reduced ROS levels in endothelial and melanoma A375 cells and in aorta. In metastatic melanoma cells, NS1 first induced a strong decrease of VEGF and blocked melanoma cell cycle at G2/M. NS1 decreased NOX4 and ROS levels that could lead to a specific proliferation arrest and cell death. In contrast, NS1 did not perturb melanocytes growth. Altogether, NS1 revealed a possible cross-talk between eNOS- and NOX4 –associated pathways in melanoma cells via VEGF, Erk and Akt modulation by NS1 that could be targeted to stop proliferation. NS1 thus constitutes a promising tool that modulates NO and redox stresses by targeting and directly inhibiting eNOS and, at least indirectly, NADPH oxidase(s), with great potential to control angiogenesis. PMID:25296975

  9. Regulation of NADPH-dependent Nitric Oxide and reactive oxygen species signalling in endothelial and melanoma cells by a photoactive NADPH analogue.

    PubMed

    Rouaud, Florian; Romero-Perez, Miguel; Wang, Huan; Lobysheva, Irina; Ramassamy, Booma; Henry, Etienne; Tauc, Patrick; Giacchero, Damien; Boucher, Jean-Luc; Deprez, Eric; Rocchi, Stéphane; Slama-Schwok, Anny

    2014-11-15

    Nitric Oxide (NO) and Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are endogenous regulators of angiogenesis-related events as endothelial cell proliferation and survival, but NO/ROS defect or unbalance contribute to cancers. We recently designed a novel photoactive inhibitor of NO-Synthases (NOS) called NS1, which binds their NADPH site in vitro. Here, we show that NS1 inhibited NO formed in aortic rings. NS1-induced NO decrease led to an inhibition of angiogenesis in a model of VEGF-induced endothelial tubes formation. Beside this effect, NS1 reduced ROS levels in endothelial and melanoma A375 cells and in aorta. In metastatic melanoma cells, NS1 first induced a strong decrease of VEGF and blocked melanoma cell cycle at G2/M. NS1 decreased NOX(4) and ROS levels that could lead to a specific proliferation arrest and cell death. In contrast, NS1 did not perturb melanocytes growth. Altogether, NS1 revealed a possible cross-talk between eNOS- and NOX(4) -associated pathways in melanoma cells via VEGF, Erk and Akt modulation by NS1 that could be targeted to stop proliferation. NS1 thus constitutes a promising tool that modulates NO and redox stresses by targeting and directly inhibiting eNOS and, at least indirectly, NADPH oxidase(s), with great potential to control angiogenesis. PMID:25296975

  10. A new family of enzymes catalyzing the first committed step of the methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Sangari, Félix J.; Pérez-Gil, Jordi; Carretero-Paulet, Lorenzo; García-Lobo, Juan M.; Rodríguez-Concepción, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Isoprenoids are a large family of compounds with essential functions in all domains of life. Most eubacteria synthesize their isoprenoids using the methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway, whereas a minority uses the unrelated mevalonate pathway and only a few have both. Interestingly, Brucella abortus and some other bacteria that only use the MEP pathway lack deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate (DXP) reductoisomerase (DXR), the enzyme catalyzing the NADPH-dependent production of MEP from DXP in the first committed step of the pathway. Fosmidomycin, a specific competitive inhibitor of DXR, inhibited growth of B. abortus cells expressing the Escherichia coli GlpT transporter (required for fosmidomycin uptake), confirming that a DXR-like (DRL) activity exists in these bacteria. The B. abortus DRL protein was found to belong to a family of uncharacterized proteins similar to homoserine dehydrogenase. Subsequent experiments confirmed that DRL and DXR catalyze the same biochemical reaction. DRL homologues shown to complement a DXR-deficient E. coli strain grouped within the same phylogenetic clade. The scattered taxonomic distribution of sequences from the DRL clade and the occurrence of several paralogues in some bacterial strains might be the result of lateral gene transfer and lineage-specific gene duplications and/or losses, similar to that described for typical mevalonate and MEP pathway genes. These results reveal the existence of a novel class of oxidoreductases catalyzing the conversion of DXP into MEP in prokaryotic cells, underscoring the biochemical and genetic plasticity achieved by bacteria to synthesize essential compounds such as isoprenoids. PMID:20660776

  11. RNA-Seq Reveals OTA-Related Gene Transcriptional Changes in Aspergillus carbonarius

    PubMed Central

    Gerin, Donato; De Miccolis Angelini, Rita M.; Pollastro, Stefania; Faretra, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin harmful for animals and humans. Aspergillus carbonarius is the main responsible for OTA contamination of grapes and derived products. Gene transcriptional profiling of 4 A. carbonarius strains was carried out by RNA-Seq analysis to study transcriptome changes associated with OTA production. By comparing OTA inducing (OTAI) vs. non-inducing (OTAN) cultural conditions, a total of 3,705 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (fold change > |2| and FDR ≤ 0.05) were identified. Several genes involved in primary metabolic processes, with particular regard to carbohydrate and amino acid metabolisms, secondary metabolic processes, transport, response to stress and sporulation were up-regulated by OTAI conditions at all the analysed sampling times (4, 6 and 8 DAI) or starting from 6 DAI. Highly up-regulated DEGs encoding enzymes involved in biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, oxidoreductases, transporters and transcription factors were examined for their potential involvement in OTA biosynthesis and related metabolic pathways. Differential expression of genes encoding polyketide synthases (pks), non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (nrps) and chloroperoxidase (cpo) was validated by RT-qPCR. Among clusters of co-regulated genes involved in SM biosynthesis, one putative OTA-gene cluster, including both pks and nrps genes, was detected in the A. carbonarius genome. PMID:26765536

  12. Endocrine genes

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, Y.F.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 13 chapters. Some of the titles are: Gene Transfer and Expression of Mammalian Cell Receptors; Mapping Endocrine Genes with Sorted Human Chromosomes; Structure, Function, Hormonal Regulation of Steroidogenic Enzyme Genes; Molecular Analysis of Steroid Hormone Action Using the Human Metallothionein Genes as a Model.

  13. Metronidazole activation and isolation of Clostridium acetobutylicum electron transport genes.

    PubMed Central

    Santangelo, J D; Jones, D T; Woods, D R

    1991-01-01

    An Escherichia coli F19 recA, nitrate reductase-deficient mutant was constructed by transposon mutagenesis and shown to be resistant to metronidazole. This mutant was a most suitable host for the isolation of Clostridium acetobutylicum genes on recombinant plasmids, which activated metronidazole and rendered the E. coli F19 strain sensitive to metronidazole. Twenty-five E. coli F19 clones containing different recombinant plasmids were isolated and classified into five groups on the basis of their sensitivity to metronidazole. The clones were tested for nitrate reductase, pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase, and hydrogenase activities. DNA hybridization and restriction endonuclease mapping revealed that four of the C. acetobutylicum insert DNA fragments on recombinant plasmids were linked in an 11.1-kb chromosomal fragment. DNA sequencing and amino acid homology studies indicated that this DNA fragment contained a flavodoxin gene which encoded a protein of 160 amino acids that activated metronidazole and made the E. coli F19 mutant very sensitive to metronidazole. The flavodoxin and hydrogenase genes which are involved in electron transfer systems were linked on the 11.1-kb DNA fragment from C. acetobutylicum. Images PMID:1991710

  14. Cloning, Sequencing, and Characterization of a Gene Cluster Involved in EDTA Degradation from the Bacterium BNC1

    PubMed Central

    Bohuslavek, Jan; Payne, Jason W.; Liu, Yong; Bolton, Harvey; Xun, Luying

    2001-01-01

    EDTA is a chelating agent, widely used in many industries. Because of its ability to mobilize heavy metals and radionuclides, it can be an environmental pollutant. The EDTA monooxygenases that initiate EDTA degradation have been purified and characterized in bacterial strains BNC1 and DSM 9103. However, the genes encoding the enzymes have not been reported. The EDTA monooxygenase gene was cloned by probing a genomic library of strain BNC1 with a probe generated from the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the monooxygenase. Sequencing of the cloned DNA fragment revealed a gene cluster containing eight genes. Two of the genes, emoA and emoB, were expressed in Escherichia coli, and the gene products, EmoA and EmoB, were purified and characterized. Both experimental data and sequence analysis showed that EmoA is a reduced flavin mononucleotide-utilizing monooxygenase and that EmoB is an NADH:flavin mononucleotide oxidoreductase. The two-enzyme system oxidized EDTA to ethylenediaminediacetate (EDDA) and nitrilotriacetate (NTA) to iminodiacetate (IDA) with the production of glyoxylate. The emoA and emoB genes were cotranscribed when BNC1 cells were grown on EDTA. Other genes in the cluster encoded a hypothetical transport system, a putative regulatory protein, and IDA oxidase that oxidizes IDA and EDDA. We concluded that this gene cluster is responsible for the initial steps of EDTA and NTA degradation. PMID:11157232

  15. Cold-Induced Changes in Gene Expression in Brown Adipose Tissue, White Adipose Tissue and Liver

    PubMed Central

    Shore, Andrew M.; Karamitri, Angeliki; Kemp, Paul; Speakman, John R.; Graham, Neil S.; Lomax, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Cold exposure imposes a metabolic challenge to mammals that is met by a coordinated response in different tissues to prevent hypothermia. This study reports a transcriptomic analysis in brown adipose tissue (BAT), white adipose (WAT) and liver of mice in response to 24 h cold exposure at 8°C. Expression of 1895 genes were significantly (P<0.05) up- or down-regulated more than two fold by cold exposure in all tissues but only 5 of these genes were shared by all three tissues, and only 19, 14 and 134 genes were common between WAT and BAT, WAT and liver, and BAT and liver, respectively. We confirmed using qRT-PCR, the increased expression of a number of characteristic BAT genes during cold exposure. In both BAT and the liver, the most common direction of change in gene expression was suppression (496 genes in BAT and 590 genes in liver). Gene ontology analysis revealed for the first time significant (P<0.05) down regulation in response to cold, of genes involved in oxidoreductase activity, lipid metabolic processes and protease inhibitor activity, in both BAT and liver, but not WAT. The results reveal an unexpected importance of down regulation of cytochrome P450 gene expression and apolipoprotein, in both BAT and liver, but not WAT, in response to cold exposure. Pathway analysis suggests a model in which down regulation of the nuclear transcription factors HNF4α and PPARα in both BAT and liver may orchestrate the down regulation of genes involved in lipoprotein and steroid metabolism as well as Phase I enzymes belonging to the cytochrome P450 group in response to cold stress in mice. We propose that the response to cold stress involves decreased gene expression in a range of cellular processes in order to maximise pathways involved in heat production. PMID:23894377

  16. Identification of the Genes Involved in the Fruiting Body Production and Cordycepin Formation of Cordyceps militaris Fungus.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhuang-Li; Qiu, Xue-Hong; Han, Ri-Chou

    2015-03-01

    A mutant library of Cordyceps militaris was constructed by improved Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and screened for degradation features. Six mutants with altered characters in in vitro and in vivo fruiting body production, and cordycepin formation were found to contain a single copy T-DNA. T-DNA flanking sequences of these mutants were identified by thermal asymmetric interlaced-PCR approach. ATP-dependent helicase, cytochrome oxidase subunit I and ubiquitin-like activating enzyme were involved in in vitro fruiting body production, serine/threonine phosphatase involved in in vivo fruiting body production, while glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase and telomerase reverse transcriptase involved in cordycepin formation. These genes were analyzed by bioinformatics methods, and their molecular function and biology process were speculated by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis. The results provided useful information for the control of culture degeneration in commercial production of C. militaris. PMID:25892913

  17. Identification of the Genes Involved in the Fruiting Body Production and Cordycepin Formation of Cordyceps militaris Fungus

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhuang-li; Qiu, Xue-hong

    2015-01-01

    A mutant library of Cordyceps militaris was constructed by improved Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and screened for degradation features. Six mutants with altered characters in in vitro and in vivo fruiting body production, and cordycepin formation were found to contain a single copy T-DNA. T-DNA flanking sequences of these mutants were identified by thermal asymmetric interlaced-PCR approach. ATP-dependent helicase, cytochrome oxidase subunit I and ubiquitin-like activating enzyme were involved in in vitro fruiting body production, serine/threonine phosphatase involved in in vivo fruiting body production, while glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase and telomerase reverse transcriptase involved in cordycepin formation. These genes were analyzed by bioinformatics methods, and their molecular function and biology process were speculated by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis. The results provided useful information for the control of culture degeneration in commercial production of C. militaris. PMID:25892913

  18. Differential Divergence of Three Human Pseudoautosomal Genes and Their Mouse Homologs: Implications for Sex Chromosome Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Gianfrancesco, Fernando; Sanges, Remo; Esposito, Teresa; Tempesta, Sergio; Rao, Ercole; Rappold, Gudrun; Archidiacono, Nicoletta; Graves, Jennifer A.M.; Forabosco, Antonino; D'Urso, Michele

    2001-01-01

    The human pseudoautosomal region 1 (PAR1) is essential for meiotic pairing and recombination, and its deletion causes male sterility. Comparative studies of human and mouse pseudoautosomal genes are valuable in charting the evolution of this interesting region, but have been limited by the paucity of genes conserved between the two species. We have cloned a novel human PAR1 gene, DHRSXY, encoding an oxidoreductase of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family, and isolated a mouse ortholog Dhrsxy. We also searched for mouse homologs of recently reported PGPL and TRAMP genes that flank it within PAR1. We recovered a highly conserved mouse ortholog of PGPL by cross-hybridization, but found no mouse homolog of TRAMP. Like Csf2ra and Il3ra, both mouse homologs are autosomal; Pgpl on chromosome 5, and Dhrsxy subtelomeric on chromosome 4. TRAMP, like the human genes within or near PAR1, is probably very divergent or absent in the mouse genome. We interpret the rapid divergence and loss of pseudoautosomal genes in terms of a model of selection for the concentration of repetitive recombinogenic sequences that predispose to high recombination and translocation. [The sequence data described in this paper have been submitted to the EMBL data library under accession nos. AJ293620, AJ296079, and AJ293619.] PMID:11731500

  19. Organization of the human [zeta]-crystallin/quinone reductase gene (CRYZ)

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, P.; Rao, P.V.; Zigler, J.S. Jr. )

    1994-05-15

    [zeta]-Crystallin is a protein highly expressed in the lens of guinea pigs and camels, where it comprises about 10% of the total soluble protein. It has recently been characterized as a novel quinone oxidoreductase present in a variety of mammalian tissues. The authors report here the isolation and characterization of the human [zeta]-crystallin gene (CRYZ) and its processed pseudogene. The functional gene is composed of nine exons and spans about 20 kb. The 5[prime]-flanking region of the gene is rich in G and C (58%) and lacks TATA and CAAT boxes. Previous analysis of the guinea pig gene revealed the presence of two different promoters, one responsible for the high lens-specific expression and the other for expression at the enzymatic level in numerous tissues. Comparative analysis with the guinea pig gene shows that a region of [approximately]2.5 kb that includes the promoter responsible for the high expression in the lens in guinea pig is not present in the human gene. 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  20. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa rhlG and rhlAB genes are inversely regulated and RhlG is not required for rhamnolipid synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces rhamnolipid biosurfactants involved in numerous phenomena including virulence. The transcriptional study of the rhlAB operon encoding two key enzymes for rhamnolipid synthesis led to the discovery of the quorum sensing system RhlRI. The latter positively controls the transcription of rhlAB, as well as of rhlC, which is required for di-rhamnolipid synthesis. The rhlG gene encodes an NADPH-dependent β-ketoacyl reductase. Although it was reported to be required for the biosynthesis of the fatty acid part of rhamnolipids, its function in rhamnolipid synthesis was later questioned. The rhlG transcription and its role in rhamnolipid production were investigated here. Results Using 5′-RACE PCR, a luxCDABE-based transcriptional fusion, and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, we confirmed two previously identified σ70- and σ54-dependent promoters and we identified a third promoter recognized by the extra-cytoplasmic function sigma factor AlgU. rhlG was inversely regulated compared to rhlAB and rhlC: the rhlG transcription was down-regulated in response to N-butyryl-l-homoserine lactone, the communication molecule of the RhlRI system, and was induced by hyperosmotic stress in an AlgU-dependent manner. Consistently with this transcriptional pattern, the single or double deletions of rhlG and PA3388, which forms an operon with rhlG, did not dramatically impair rhamnolipid synthesis. Conclusion This first detailed study of rhlG transcription reveals a complex regulation involving three sigma factors and N-butyryl-l-homoserine lactone. We furthermore present evidences that RhlG does not play a key role in rhamnolipid synthesis. PMID:24943492

  1. High-level chromate resistance in Arthrobacter sp. strain FB24 requires previously uncharacterized accessory genes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The genome of Arthrobacter sp. strain FB24 contains a chromate resistance determinant (CRD), consisting of a cluster of 8 genes located on a 10.6 kb fragment of a 96 kb plasmid. The CRD includes chrA, which encodes a putative chromate efflux protein, and three genes with amino acid similarities to the amino and carboxy termini of ChrB, a putative regulatory protein. There are also three novel genes that have not been previously associated with chromate resistance in other bacteria; they encode an oxidoreductase (most similar to malate:quinone oxidoreductase), a functionally unknown protein with a WD40 repeat domain and a lipoprotein. To delineate the contribution of the CRD genes to the FB24 chromate [Cr(VI)] response, we evaluated the growth of mutant strains bearing regions of the CRD and transcript expression levels in response to Cr(VI) challenge. Results A chromate-sensitive mutant (strain D11) was generated by curing FB24 of its 96-kb plasmid. Elemental analysis indicated that chromate-exposed cells of strain D11 accumulated three times more chromium than strain FB24. Introduction of the CRD into strain D11 conferred chromate resistance comparable to wild-type levels, whereas deletion of specific regions of the CRD led to decreased resistance. Using real-time reverse transcriptase PCR, we show that expression of each gene within the CRD is specifically induced in response to chromate but not by lead, hydrogen peroxide or arsenate. Higher levels of chrA expression were achieved when the chrB orthologs and the WD40 repeat domain genes were present, suggesting their possible regulatory roles. Conclusion Our findings indicate that chromate resistance in Arthrobacter sp. strain FB24 is due to chromate efflux through the ChrA transport protein. More importantly, new genes have been identified as having significant roles in chromate resistance. Collectively, the functional predictions of these additional genes suggest the involvement of a signal transduction system in the regulation of chromate efflux and warrants further study. PMID:19758450

  2. Rapid expansion of the protein disulfide isomerase gene family facilitates the folding of venom peptides.

    PubMed

    Safavi-Hemami, Helena; Li, Qing; Jackson, Ronneshia L; Song, Albert S; Boomsma, Wouter; Bandyopadhyay, Pradip K; Gruber, Christian W; Purcell, Anthony W; Yandell, Mark; Olivera, Baldomero M; Ellgaard, Lars

    2016-03-22

    Formation of correct disulfide bonds in the endoplasmic reticulum is a crucial step for folding proteins destined for secretion. Protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs) play a central role in this process. We report a previously unidentified, hypervariable family of PDIs that represents the most diverse gene family of oxidoreductases described in a single genus to date. These enzymes are highly expressed specifically in the venom glands of predatory cone snails, animals that synthesize a remarkably diverse set of cysteine-rich peptide toxins (conotoxins). Enzymes in this PDI family, termed conotoxin-specific PDIs, significantly and differentially accelerate the kinetics of disulfide-bond formation of several conotoxins. Our results are consistent with a unique biological scenario associated with protein folding: The diversification of a family of foldases can be correlated with the rapid evolution of an unprecedented diversity of disulfide-rich structural domains expressed by venomous marine snails in the superfamily Conoidea. PMID:26957604

  3. The Dithiol:Disulfide Oxidoreductases DsbA and DsbB of Rhodobacter capsulatus Are Not Directly Involved in Cytochrome c Biogenesis, but Their Inactivation Restores the Cytochrome c Biogenesis Defect of CcdA-Null Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Meenal; Turkarslan, Serdar; Astor, Donniel; Valkova-Valchanova, Maria; Daldal, Fevzi

    2003-01-01

    The cytoplasmic membrane protein CcdA and its homologues in other species, such as DsbD of Escherichia coli, are thought to supply the reducing equivalents required for the biogenesis of c-type cytochromes that occurs in the periplasm of gram-negative bacteria. CcdA-null mutants of the facultative phototroph Rhodobacter capsulatus are unable to grow under photosynthetic conditions (Ps−) and do not produce any active cytochrome c oxidase (Nadi−) due to a pleiotropic cytochrome c deficiency. However, under photosynthetic or respiratory growth conditions, these mutants revert frequently to yield Ps+ Nadi+ colonies that produce c-type cytochromes despite the absence of CcdA. Complementation of a CcdA-null mutant for the Ps+ growth phenotype was attempted by using a genomic library constructed with chromosomal DNA from a revertant. No complementation was observed, but plasmids that rescued a CcdA-null mutant for photosynthetic growth by homologous recombination were recovered. Analysis of one such plasmid revealed that the rescue ability was mediated by open reading frame 3149, encoding the dithiol:disulfide oxidoreductase DsbA. DNA sequence data revealed that the dsbA allele on the rescuing plasmid contained a frameshift mutation expected to produce a truncated, nonfunctional DsbA. Indeed, a dsbA ccdA double mutant was shown to be Ps+ Nadi+, establishing that in R. capsulatus the inactivation of dsbA suppresses the c-type cytochrome deficiency due to the absence of ccdA. Next, the ability of the wild-type dsbA allele to suppress the Ps+ growth phenotype of the dsbA ccdA double mutant was exploited to isolate dsbA-independent ccdA revertants. Sequence analysis revealed that these revertants carried mutations in dsbB and that their Ps+ phenotypes could be suppressed by the wild-type allele of dsbB. As with dsbA, a dsbB ccdA double mutant was also Ps+ Nadi+ and produced c-type cytochromes. Therefore, the absence of either DsbA or DsbB restores c-type cytochrome biogenesis in the absence of CcdA. Finally, it was also found that the DsbA-null and DsbB-null single mutants of R. capsulatus are Ps+ and produce c-type cytochromes, unlike their E. coli counterparts, but are impaired for growth under respiratory conditions. This finding demonstrates that in R. capsulatus the dithiol:disulfide oxidoreductases DsbA and DsbB are not essential for cytochrome c biogenesis even though they are important for respiration under certain conditions. PMID:12754234

  4. Piper betle induces phase I & II genes through Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway in mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from wild type and Nrf2 knockout cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45 related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a primary transcription factor, protecting cells from oxidative stress by regulating a number of antioxidants and phase II detoxifying enzymes. Dietary components such as sulforaphane in broccoli and quercetin in onions have been shown to be inducers of Nrf2. Piper betle (PB) grows well in tropical climate and the leaves are used in a number of traditional remedies for the treatment of stomach ailments and infections among Asians. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of Piper betle (PB) leaves extract in Nrf2 signaling pathway by using 2 types of cells; mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from wild-type (WT) and Nrf2 knockout (N0) mice. Methods WT and N0 cells were treated with 5 and 10 μg/ml of PB for 10 and 12-h for the determination of nuclear translocation of Nrf2 protein. Luciferase reporter gene activity was performed to evaluate the antioxidant response element (ARE)-induction by PB. Real-time PCR and Western blot were conducted on both WT and N0 cells after PB treatment for the determination of antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and heme-oxygenase (HO-1)], phase I oxidoreductase enzymes [NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1)] and phase II detoxifying enzyme [glutathione S-transferase (GST)]. Results Nuclear translocation of Nrf2 by PB in WT cells was better after 10 h incubation compared to 12 h. Real time PCR and Western blot analysis showed increased expr