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1

Characterization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae YMR318C (ADH6) gene product as a broad specificity NADPH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase: relevance in aldehyde reduction.  

PubMed Central

YMR318C represents an open reading frame from Saccharomyces cerevisiae with unknown function. It possesses a conserved sequence motif, the zinc-containing alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) signature, specific to the medium-chain zinc-containing ADHs. In the present study, the YMR318C gene product has been purified to homogeneity from overexpressing yeast cells, and found to be a homodimeric ADH, composed of 40 kDa subunits and with a pI of 5.0-5.4. The enzyme was strictly specific for NADPH and was active with a wide variety of substrates, including aliphatic (linear and branched-chain) and aromatic primary alcohols and aldehydes. Aldehydes were processed with a 50-fold higher catalytic efficiency than that for the corresponding alcohols. The highest k(cat)/K(m) values were found with pentanal>veratraldehyde > hexanal > 3-methylbutanal >cinnamaldehyde. Taking into consideration the substrate specificity and sequence characteristics of the YMR318C gene product, we have proposed this gene to be called ADH6. The disruption of ADH6 was not lethal for the yeast under laboratory conditions. Although S. cerevisiae is considered a non lignin-degrading organism, the catalytic activity of ADHVI can direct veratraldehyde and anisaldehyde, arising from the oxidation of lignocellulose by fungal lignin peroxidases, to the lignin biodegradation pathway. ADHVI is the only S. cerevisiae enzyme able to significantly reduce veratraldehyde in vivo, and its overexpression allowed yeast to grow under toxic concentrations of this aldehyde. The enzyme may also be involved in the synthesis of fusel alcohols. To our knowledge this is the first NADPH-dependent medium-chain ADH to be characterized in S. cerevisiae.

Larroy, Carol; Fernandez, M Rosario; Gonzalez, Eva; Pares, Xavier; Biosca, Josep A

2002-01-01

2

NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase A (NTRA) confers elevated tolerance to oxidative stress and drought.  

PubMed

NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductases (NTRs) are key-regulatory enzymes determining the redox state of the thioredoxin (Trx) system that provides reducing power to peroxidases or oxidoreductases. Moreover, it also plays an essential function in the direct reduction of ROS and acquiring stress tolerance in plant. Cytoplasmic NTRA, mitochondrial NTRB, and chloroplastic NTRC are the three conserved NTRs which cooperate with specific sub-cellularly localized Trxs in Arabidopsis. However, cytosolic NTRs such as NTRA in Arabidopsis have not previously been identified in plants or mammals as a source of functional redundancy with mitochondrial NTRs. Here, we show the involvement of NTRA in the plant stress response counteracting oxidative and drought stresses. Methyl viologen (MV), an inducer of oxidative stress in plants, enhanced the NTRA transcripts. To identify the physiological role of NTRA influencing ROS homeostasis by stress, NTRA overexpression (NTRAOX) and knock-out mutants (ntra-ko) were generated. After exposure to oxidative stress, wild-type and ntra-ko plants were sensitive, but NTRAOX plants tolerant. ROS range was increased by MV in wild-type and ntra-ko plants, but not in NTRAOX. Investigating the involvement of Arabidopsis NTRA in drought, NTRAOX plants exhibited extreme drought tolerance with high survival rates, lower water loss and reduced ROS compared to wild-type and ntra-ko plants. Transcripts of drought-responsive genes, such as RD29A and DREB2A, were highly expressed under drought and antioxidant genes, namely CuZnSOD and APX1 were enhanced in the absence of drought in NTRAOX plants. The results suggest that NTRA overexpression confers oxidative and drought tolerance by regulation of ROS amounts. PMID:24792388

Cha, Joon-Yung; Kim, Joo Yeon; Jung, In Jung; Kim, Mi Ri; Melencion, Andrew; Alam, Sadia Sabrina; Yun, Dae-Jin; Lee, Sang Yeol; Kim, Min Gab; Kim, Woe-Yeon

2014-07-01

3

Isolation and Characterization of a Soluble NADPH-Dependent Fe(III) Reductase from Geobacter sulfurreducens  

PubMed Central

NADPH is an intermediate in the oxidation of organic compounds coupled to Fe(III) reduction in Geobacter species, but Fe(III) reduction with NADPH as the electron donor has not been studied in these organisms. Crude extracts of Geobacter sulfurreducens catalyzed the NADPH-dependent reduction of Fe(III)-nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA). The responsible enzyme, which was recovered in the soluble protein fraction, was purified to apparent homogeneity in a four-step procedure. Its specific activity for Fe(III) reduction was 65 ?mol · min?1 · mg?1. The soluble Fe(III) reductase was specific for NADPH and did not utilize NADH as an electron donor. Although the enzyme reduced several forms of Fe(III), Fe(III)-NTA was the preferred electron acceptor. The protein possessed methyl viologen:NADP+ oxidoreductase activity and catalyzed the reduction of NADP+ with reduced methyl viologen as electron donor at a rate of 385 U/mg. The enzyme consisted of two subunits with molecular masses of 87 and 78 kDa and had a native molecular mass of 320 kDa, as determined by gel filtration. The purified enzyme contained 28.9 mol of Fe, 17.4 mol of acid-labile sulfur, and 0.7 mol of flavin adenine dinucleotide per mol of protein. The genes encoding the two subunits were identified in the complete sequence of the G. sulfurreducens genome from the N-terminal amino acid sequences derived from the subunits of the purified protein. The sequences of the two subunits had about 30% amino acid identity to the respective subunits of the formate dehydrogenase from Moorella thermoacetica, but the soluble Fe(III) reductase did not possess formate dehydrogenase activity. This soluble Fe(III) reductase differs significantly from previously characterized dissimilatory and assimilatory Fe(III) reductases in its molecular composition and cofactor content.

Kaufmann, Franz; Lovley, Derek R.

2001-01-01

4

ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ALKANE-INDUCIBLE NADPH-CYTOCHROME P-450 OXIDOREDUCTASE GENE FROM CANDIDA TROPICALIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The gene coding for the Candida tropicalis NADPH-cytochrome P-450 oxidoreductase (CPR, NADPH: ferricytochrome oxidoreductase, EC 1.6.2.4) was isolated by immunoscreening of a C. tropicalis gtll expression library and colony hybridization of a C. tropicalis genomic library. he C. ...

5

NADPH-dependent oxidation of benzidine by rat liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study used liver microsomes from control and |}- naphthoflavone-treated rats to evaluate NADPH-dependent oxidation of benzidine. With microsomes from p^-naphtho- flavone-treated rats, the rates of formation of aqueous soluble metabolite (HPLC analysis) and protein and DNA binding were 835 ± 81, 14.5 ± 1.8 and 0.71 ± 0.14 pmol\\/ mg\\/min respectively. fJ-Naphthoflavone treatment elicited 12.3-, 1.8- and 14.2-fold increases

Vijaya M. Lakshmi; Nathan T. Zenser; F. F. Hsu; Michael B. Mattammal; Terry V. Zenser; Bernard B. Davis

1996-01-01

6

NADPH-dependent L-sorbose reductase is responsible for L-sorbose assimilation in Gluconobacter suboxydans IFO 3291.  

PubMed

The NADPH-dependent L-sorbose reductase (SR) of L-sorbose-producing Gluconobacter suboxydans IFO 3291 contributes to intracellular L-sorbose assimilation. The gene disruptant showed no SR activity and did not assimilate the once-produced L-sorbose, indicating that the SR functions mainly as an L-sorbose-reducing enzyme in vivo and not as a D-sorbitol-oxidizing enzyme. PMID:11790761

Shinjoh, Masako; Tazoe, Masaaki; Hoshino, Tatsuo

2002-02-01

7

Glutaric acidemia type II: gene structure and mutations of the electron transfer flavoprotein:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF:QO) gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutaric acidemia type II is a human inborn error of metabolism which can be due to defects in either subunit of electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) or in ETF:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF:QO), but few disease-causing mutations have been described. The ETF:QO gene is located on 4q33, and contains 13 exons. Primers to amplify these exons are presented, together with mutations identified by

Stephen I Goodman; Robert J Binard; Michael R Woontner; Frank E Frerman

2002-01-01

8

Paraquat and NADPH-dependent lipid peroxidation in lung microsomes  

SciTech Connect

Since there exists some controversy in the literature as to whether paraquat augments microsomal lipid peroxidation via superoxide anion (O/sub 2//sup -/), the role of paraquat and active oxygen species in NADPH-dependent lung microsomal lipid peroxidation was investigated. Incubation of buffered aerobic mixture of bovine lung microsome and NADPH, in the presence or absence of exogenously added iron, resulted in a progressive formation of lipid peroxides whose accumulation could be followed at 535 nm as malondialdehyde. Paraquat strongly inhibited this lipid peroxidation, Thus, malondialydehyde formation was 50% inhibited by 4 X 10/sup -5/ M paraquat in the reaction mixture. The malondialdehyde color development by lipid peroxides was not affected by this concentration of paraquat. Lipid peroxidation was also strongly inhibited by singlet oxygen scavengers, e.g. dimethylfuran and diphenylfuran, and by catalase. Hydroxyl radical scavengers, e.g. mannitol, benzoate, and ethanol, had little effect in malondialydehyde production. Superoxide dismutase, which removes O/sub 2//sup -/ efficiently, did not inhibit malondialdehyde production by lung microsomes and rather enhanced its formation. A scheme in which paraquat and active O/sub 2/ species may be involved with microsomal lipid peroxidation is presented.

Misra, H.P.; Gorsky, L.D.

1981-10-10

9

Papain proteolysis releases a soluble NADPH dependent diaphorase activity from bovine neutrophil membranes.  

PubMed

An NADPH dependent cytochrome c reductase has been purified from resting bovine neutrophil membranes. A high degree of purification, approaching homogeneity, is indicated by the presence of a single 75 kDa protein band on silver stained SDS-PAGE (10%). The purified protein catalyzes as well an NADPH dependent reduction of iodonitrotetrazolium violet (INT). Limited papain digestion of the purified preparation produces a 65 kDa product which retains both enzymatic activities. In a similar fashion papain digestion of the plasma membrane bound protein generates a fully active soluble NADPH dependent INT and cytochrome c reductase preparation (65 kDa). Proteolytic cleavage would appear to occur at a protein-membrane anchor remote from the proteins catalytic site. The cytochrome c reductase acts independently of the O2-generating cytochrome b558, a leukocyte plasma membrane protein which also catalyzes an NADPH dependent INT reduction. PMID:9539148

Li, J; Kon, L M; Guillory, R J

1998-03-13

10

Cloning, sequence analysis, and expression of the structural gene encoding glucose-fructose oxidoreductase from Zymomonas mobilis.  

PubMed Central

The gene encoding glucose-fructose oxidoreductase (gfo) from Zymomonas mobilis was cloned in Escherichia coli and sequenced. An open reading frame of 439 amino acids encoded a protein of 49 kDa. A leader sequence of 52 amino acids preceded the N-terminal sequence of the enzyme, indicating cleavage of the precursor protein at an Ala-Ala site to give rise to an active form of the enzyme of 43 kDa. Processing of the glucose-fructose oxidoreductase leader sequence, although not complete, was demonstrated in an in vitro translation system. The two Z. mobilis promoters of the gfo gene show considerable homology to other highly expressed Z. mobilis genes (pdc, adhB, gap, and pgk) as well as to the E. coli consensus sequence. Although translation of the gfo gene was demonstrated in vitro in an E. coli S30 coupled transcription-translation system, a functional stable protein was not produced in the E. coli clone. However, the gfo gene cloned into a shuttle vector was shown to overexpress glucose-fructose oxidoreductase to levels of up to 6% of the soluble protein in Z. mobilis. Images

Kanagasundaram, V; Scopes, R K

1992-01-01

11

Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase gene and its differentially terminated cDNAs from the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium metabolizes a range of xenobiotics via P450 mono-oxygenation, particularly under peroxidase-suppressing culture conditions.\\u000a Here we report the cloning and analysis of the gene from this fungus for the cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CPR) and its\\u000a differentially terminated cDNAs. Using a PCR-based approach with degenerate primers, a 285-bp genomic fragment was isolated\\u000a from the two widely

Jagjit S. Yadav; John C. Loper

2000-01-01

12

Fur Activates Expression of the 2-Oxoglutarate Oxidoreductase Genes (oorDABC) in Helicobacter pylori  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori is a highly successful pathogen that colonizes the gastric mucosa of ?50% of the world's population. Within this colonization niche, the bacteria encounter large fluctuations in nutrient availability. As such, it is critical that this organism regulate expression of key metabolic enzymes so that they are present when environmental conditions are optimal for growth. One such enzyme is the 2-oxoglutarate (?-ketoglutarate) oxidoreductase (OOR), which catalyzes the conversion of ?-ketoglutarate to succinyl coenzyme A (succinyl-CoA) and CO2. Previous studies from our group suggested that the genes that encode the OOR are activated by iron-bound Fur (Fe-Fur); microarray analysis showed that expression of oorD, oorA, and oorC was altered in a fur mutant strain of H. pylori. The goal of the present work was to more thoroughly characterize expression of the oorDABC genes in H. pylori as well as to define the role of Fe-Fur in this process. Here we show that these four genes are cotranscribed as an operon and that expression of the operon is decreased in a fur mutant strain. Transcriptional start site mapping and promoter analysis revealed the presence of a canonical extended ?10 element but a poorly conserved ?35 element upstream of the +1. Additionally, we identified a conserved Fur binding sequence ?130 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site. Transcriptional analysis using promoter fusions revealed that this binding sequence was required for Fe-Fur-mediated activation. Finally, fluorescence anisotropy assays indicate that Fe-Fur specifically bound this Fur box with a relatively high affinity (dissociation constant [Kd] = 200 nM). These findings provide novel insight into the genetic regulation of a key metabolic enzyme and add to our understanding of the diverse roles Fur plays in gene regulation in H. pylori.

Gilbreath, Jeremy J.; West, Abby L.; Pich, Oscar Q.; Carpenter, Beth M.; Michel, Sarah

2012-01-01

13

Fur activates expression of the 2-oxoglutarate oxidoreductase genes (oorDABC) in Helicobacter pylori.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori is a highly successful pathogen that colonizes the gastric mucosa of ?50% of the world's population. Within this colonization niche, the bacteria encounter large fluctuations in nutrient availability. As such, it is critical that this organism regulate expression of key metabolic enzymes so that they are present when environmental conditions are optimal for growth. One such enzyme is the 2-oxoglutarate (?-ketoglutarate) oxidoreductase (OOR), which catalyzes the conversion of ?-ketoglutarate to succinyl coenzyme A (succinyl-CoA) and CO(2). Previous studies from our group suggested that the genes that encode the OOR are activated by iron-bound Fur (Fe-Fur); microarray analysis showed that expression of oorD, oorA, and oorC was altered in a fur mutant strain of H. pylori. The goal of the present work was to more thoroughly characterize expression of the oorDABC genes in H. pylori as well as to define the role of Fe-Fur in this process. Here we show that these four genes are cotranscribed as an operon and that expression of the operon is decreased in a fur mutant strain. Transcriptional start site mapping and promoter analysis revealed the presence of a canonical extended -10 element but a poorly conserved -35 element upstream of the +1. Additionally, we identified a conserved Fur binding sequence ?130 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site. Transcriptional analysis using promoter fusions revealed that this binding sequence was required for Fe-Fur-mediated activation. Finally, fluorescence anisotropy assays indicate that Fe-Fur specifically bound this Fur box with a relatively high affinity (dissociation constant [K(d)] = 200 nM). These findings provide novel insight into the genetic regulation of a key metabolic enzyme and add to our understanding of the diverse roles Fur plays in gene regulation in H. pylori. PMID:23002221

Gilbreath, Jeremy J; West, Abby L; Pich, Oscar Q; Carpenter, Beth M; Michel, Sarah; Merrell, D Scott

2012-12-01

14

An NADPH-dependent genetic switch regulates plant infection by the rice blast fungus  

PubMed Central

To cause rice blast disease, the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae breaches the tough outer cuticle of the rice leaf by using specialized infection structures called appressoria. These cells allow the fungus to invade the host plant and proliferate rapidly within leaf tissue. Here, we show that a unique NADPH-dependent genetic switch regulates plant infection in response to the changing nutritional and redox conditions encountered by the pathogen. The biosynthetic enzyme trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (Tps1) integrates control of glucose-6-phosphate metabolism and nitrogen source utilization by regulating the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, the generation of NADPH, and the activity of nitrate reductase. We report that Tps1 directly binds to NADPH and, thereby, regulates a set of related transcriptional corepressors, comprising three proteins, Nmr1, Nmr2, and Nmr3, which can each bind NADP. Targeted deletion of any of the Nmr-encoding genes partially suppresses the nonpathogenic phenotype of a ?tps1 mutant. Tps1-dependent Nmr corepressors control the expression of a set of virulence-associated genes that are derepressed during appressorium-mediated plant infection. When considered together, these results suggest that initiation of rice blast disease by M. oryzae requires a regulatory mechanism involving an NADPH sensor protein, Tps1, a set of NADP-dependent transcriptional corepressors, and the nonconsuming interconversion of NADPH and NADP acting as signal transducer.

Wilson, Richard A.; Gibson, Robert P.; Quispe, Cristian F.; Littlechild, Jennifer A.; Talbot, Nicholas J.

2010-01-01

15

Biodesulfurization of dibenzothiophene in Escherichia coli is enhanced by expression of a Vibrio harveyi oxidoreductase gene  

SciTech Connect

One possible alternative to current fuel hydrodesulfurization methods is the use of microorganisms to remove sulfur compounds. Biodesulfurization requires much milder processing conditions, gives higher specificity, and does not require molecular hydrogen. In the present work the authors have produced two compatible plasmids: pDSR3, which allows Escherichia coli to convert dibenzothiophene (DBT) to hydroxybiphenyl (HBP), and pDSR2, which produces a Vibrio harveyi flavin oxidoreductase. The authors show that the flavin oxidoreductase enhances the rate of DBT removal when co-expressed in vivo with the desulfurization enzymes. The plasmids pDSR2 and pDSR3 were co-expressed in growing cultures. The expression of oxidoreductase caused an increase in the rate of DBT removal but a decrease in the rate of HBP production. The maximum rate of DBT removal was 8 mg/h {center{underscore}dot} g dry cell weight. Experiments were also conducted using resting cells with the addition of various carbon sources. It was found that the addition of glucose or glycerol to cultures with oxidoreductase expression produced the highest DBT removal rate. The culture with acetate and no oxidoreductase expression had the highest level of HBP production. For all carbon sources, the DBT removal rate was faster and the HBP generation rate slower with the expression of the oxidoreductase. Analysis of desulfurization intermediates indicates that the last enzyme in the pathway may be limiting.

Reichmuth, D.S.; Hittle, J.L.; Blanch, H.W.; Keasling, J.D.

2000-01-05

16

Environmental detection of octahaem cytochrome c hydroxylamine/hydrazine oxidoreductase genes of aerobic and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria.  

PubMed

Bacterial aerobic ammonium oxidation and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) are important processes in the global nitrogen cycle. Key enzymes in both processes are the octahaem cytochrome c (OCC) proteins, hydroxylamine oxidoreductase (HAO) of aerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), which catalyses the oxidation of hydroxylamine to nitrite, and hydrazine oxidoreductase (HZO) of anammox bacteria, which converts hydrazine to N(2). While the genomes of AOB encode up to three nearly identical copies of hao operons, genome analysis of Candidatus'Kuenenia stuttgartiensis' showed eight highly divergent octahaem protein coding regions as possible candidates for the HZO. Based on their phylogenetic relationship and biochemical characteristics, the sequences of these eight gene products grouped in three clusters. Degenerate primers were designed on the basis of available gene sequences with the aim to detect hao and hzo genes in various ecosystems. The hao primer pairs amplified gene fragments from 738 to 1172 bp and the hzo primer pairs amplified gene fragments from 289 to 876 bp in length, when tested on genomic DNA isolated from a variety of AOB and anammox bacteria. A selection of these primer pairs was also used successfully to amplify and analyse the hao and hzo genes in community DNA isolated from different ecosystems harbouring both AOB and anammox bacteria. We propose that OCC protein-encoding genes are suitable targets for molecular ecological studies on both aerobic and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria. PMID:18973625

Schmid, Markus C; Hooper, Alan B; Klotz, Martin G; Woebken, Dagmar; Lam, Phyllis; Kuypers, Marcel M M; Pommerening-Roeser, Andreas; Op den Camp, Huub J M; Jetten, Mike S M

2008-11-01

17

46,XX DSD and Antley-Bixler syndrome due to novel mutations in the cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase gene.  

PubMed

Deficiency of the enzyme P450 oxidoreductase is a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia with characteristics of combined and partial impairments in steroidogenic enzyme activities, as P450 oxidoreductase transfers electrons to CYP21A2, CYP17A1, and CYP19A1. It results in disorders of sex development and skeletal malformations similar to Antley-Bixley syndrome. We report the case of a 9-year-old girl who was born with virilized genitalia (Prader stage V), absence of palpable gonads, 46,XX karyotype, and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. During the first year of life, ovarian cyst, partial adrenal insufficiency, and osteoarticular changes, such as mild craniosynostosis, carpal and tarsal synostosis, and limited forearm pronosupination were observed. Her mother presented severe virilization during pregnancy. The molecular analysis of P450 oxidoreductase gene revealed compound heterozygosis for the nonsense p.Arg223*, and the novel missense p.Met408Lys, inherited from the father and the mother, respectively. PMID:23295302

Guaragna-Filho, Guilherme; Castro, Carla Cristina Telles de Sousa; Carvalho, Rodrigo Ribeiro De; Coeli, Fernanda Borchers; Ferraz, Lúcio Fábio Caldas; Petroli, Reginaldo José; Mello, Maricilda Palandi De; Sewaybricker, Letícia Esposito; Lemos-Marini, Sofia Helena Valente; D'Souza-Li, Lilia Freire Rodrigues; Miranda, Márcio Lopes; Maciel-Guerra, Andréa Trevas; Guerra-Junior, Gil

2012-11-01

18

A new and suitable reconstructed system for NADPH-dependent microsomal lipid peroxidation.  

PubMed

In order to evaluate the O-2 participation in NADPH-dependent microsomal lipid peroxidation, we used reconstructed system which contained detergent-solubilized NADPH-dependent cytochrome P-450 reductase, cytochrome P-450, phospholipid liposomes, NADPH and Fe3+-ADP. Lipid peroxidation, monitored by the formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance, was increased with increasing concentration of detergent-solubilized NADPH cytochrome P-450 reductase, cytochrome P-450 or Fe3+-ADP. Cytochrome P-450-dependent lipid peroxidation was parallel to O-2 generation monitored by chemiluminescence probe with 2-methyl-6-(p-methoxyphenol)-3,7-dihydroimidazo[1,2-a]pyrazin++ +-3-one. Lipid peroxidation was significantly inhibited by superoxide dismutase, but not by catalase or sodium benzoate. The reconstructed system herein described is considered to be very close to NADPH-dependent microsomal lipid peroxidation system. PMID:2839175

Minakami, H; Arai, H; Nakano, M; Sugioka, K; Suzuki, S; Sotomatsu, A

1988-06-30

19

Transcriptional Regulation of the Human P450 Oxidoreductase Gene: Hormonal Regulation and Influence of Promoter Polymorphisms  

PubMed Central

P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the flavoprotein that acts as the obligatory electron donor to all microsomal P450 enzymes, including those involved in hepatic drug metabolism as well as three steroidogenic P450 enzymes. The untranslated first exon of human POR was located recently, permitting analysis of human POR transcription. Expression of deletional mutants containing up to 3193 bp of the human POR promoter in human adrenal NCI-H295A and liver Hep-G2 cells located the proximal promoter at ?325/?1 bp from the untranslated exon. Common human POR polymorphisms at ?208 and ?173 had little influence on transcription, but the polymorphism at ?152 reduced transcription significantly in both cell lines. EMSA and supershift assays identified binding of Smad3/Smad4 between ?249 and ?261 and binding of thyroid hormone receptor-? (TR?) at ?240/?245. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that Smad3, Smad4, TR?, TR?, and estrogen receptor-? were bound between ?374 and ?149. Cotransfection of vectors for these transcription factors and POR promoter-reporter constructs into both cell types followed by hormonal treatment showed that T3 exerts major tropic effects via TR?, with TR?, estrogen receptor-?, Smad3, and Smad4 exerting lesser, modulatory effects. T3 also increased POR mRNA in both cell lines. Thyroid hormone also is essential for rat liver POR expression but acts via different transcription factor complexes. These are the first data on human POR gene transcription, establishing roles for TR? and Smad3/4 in its expression and indicating that the common polymorphism at ?152 may play a role in genetic variation in steroid biosynthesis and drug metabolism.

Tee, Meng Kian; Huang, Ningwu; Damm, Izabella

2011-01-01

20

Pirfenidone inhibits NADPH-dependent microsomal lipid peroxidation and scavenges hydroxyl radicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pirfenidone (Pf), a new broad-spectrum anti-fibrotic agent, is known to offer protection against lung fibrosis in vivo in laboratory animals, and against mitogenesis and collagen formation by human lung fibroblasts in vitro. Because reactive oxygen species are thought to be involved in these events, we investigated the mechanism(s) by which Pf ameliorates oxidative stress and its effects on NADPH-dependent lipid

Hara P. Misra; Christine Rabideau

2000-01-01

21

Diversity and Spatial Distribution of Hydrazine Oxidoreductase (hzo) Gene in the Oxygen Minimum Zone Off Costa Rica  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox) as an important nitrogen loss pathway has been reported in marine oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), but the community composition and spatial distribution of anammox bacteria in the eastern tropical North Pacific (ETNP) OMZ are poorly determined. In this study, anammox bacterial communities in the OMZ off Costa Rica (CRD-OMZ) were analyzed based on both hydrazine oxidoreductase (hzo) genes and their transcripts assigned to cluster 1 and 2. The anammox communities revealed by hzo genes and proteins in CRD-OMZ showed a low diversity. Gene quantification results showed that hzo gene abundances peaked in the upper OMZs, associated with the peaks of nitrite concentration. Nitrite and oxygen concentrations may therefore colimit the distribution of anammox bacteria in this area. Furthermore, transcriptional activity of anammox bacteria was confirmed by obtaining abundant hzo mRNA transcripts through qRT-PCR. A novel hzo cluster 2x clade was identified by the phylogenetic analysis and these novel sequences were abundant and widely distributed in this environment. Our study demonstrated that both cluster 1 and 2 anammox bacteria play an active role in the CRD-OMZ, and the cluster 1 abundance and transcriptional activity were higher than cluster 2 in both free-living and particle-attached fractions at both gene and transcriptional levels.

Kong, Liangliang; Jing, Hongmei; Kataoka, Takafumi; Buchwald, Carolyn; Liu, Hongbin

2013-01-01

22

Diversity and spatial distribution of hydrazine oxidoreductase (hzo) gene in the oxygen minimum zone off Costa Rica.  

PubMed

Anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox) as an important nitrogen loss pathway has been reported in marine oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), but the community composition and spatial distribution of anammox bacteria in the eastern tropical North Pacific (ETNP) OMZ are poorly determined. In this study, anammox bacterial communities in the OMZ off Costa Rica (CRD-OMZ) were analyzed based on both hydrazine oxidoreductase (hzo) genes and their transcripts assigned to cluster 1 and 2. The anammox communities revealed by hzo genes and proteins in CRD-OMZ showed a low diversity. Gene quantification results showed that hzo gene abundances peaked in the upper OMZs, associated with the peaks of nitrite concentration. Nitrite and oxygen concentrations may therefore colimit the distribution of anammox bacteria in this area. Furthermore, transcriptional activity of anammox bacteria was confirmed by obtaining abundant hzo mRNA transcripts through qRT-PCR. A novel hzo cluster 2x clade was identified by the phylogenetic analysis and these novel sequences were abundant and widely distributed in this environment. Our study demonstrated that both cluster 1 and 2 anammox bacteria play an active role in the CRD-OMZ, and the cluster 1 abundance and transcriptional activity were higher than cluster 2 in both free-living and particle-attached fractions at both gene and transcriptional levels. PMID:24205176

Kong, Liangliang; Jing, Hongmei; Kataoka, Takafumi; Buchwald, Carolyn; Liu, Hongbin

2013-01-01

23

The Aflatoxin Biosynthesis Cluster Gene, aflX, Encodes an Oxidoreductase Involved in Conversion of Versicolorin A to Demethylsterigmatocystin  

PubMed Central

Biosynthesis of the toxic and carcinogenic aflatoxins by the fungus Aspergillus flavus is a complicated process involving more that 27 enzymes and regulatory factors encoded by a clustered group of genes. Previous studies found that three enzymes, encoded by verA, ver-1, and aflY, are required for conversion of versicolorin A (VA), to demethylsterigmatocystin. We now show that a fourth enzyme, encoded by the previously uncharacterized gene, aflX (ordB), is also required for this conversion. A homolog of this gene, stcQ, is present in the A. nidulans sterigmatocystin (ST) biosynthesis cluster. Disruption of aflX in Aspergillus flavus gave transformants that accumulated ?4-fold more VA and fourfold less aflatoxin than the untransformed strain. Southern and Northern blot analyses confirmed that aflX was the only gene disrupted in these transformants. Feeding ST or O-methylsterigmatocystin, but not VA or earlier precursor metabolites, restored normal levels of AF production. The protein encoded by aflX is predicted to have domains typical of an NADH-dependent oxidoreductase. It has 27% amino acid identity to a protein encoded by the aflatoxin cluster gene, aflO (avfA). Some of domains in the protein are similar to those of epoxide hydrolases.

Cary, Jeffrey W.; Ehrlich, Kenneth C.; Bland, John M.; Montalbano, Beverly G.

2006-01-01

24

Enhancement of L-ornithine production by disruption of three genes encoding putative oxidoreductases in Corynebacterium glutamicum.  

PubMed

Recently, Corynebacterium glutamicum has been shown to exhibit gluconate bypass activity, with two key enzymes, glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) and gluconate kinase, that provides an alternate route to 6-phosphogluconate formation. In this study, gene disruption analysis was used to examine possible metabolic functions of three proteins encoded by open reading frames having significant sequence similarity to GDH of Bacillus subtilis. Chromosomal in-frame deletion of three genes (NCgl0281, NCgl2582, and NCgl2053) encoding putative NADP?-dependent oxidoreductases led to the absence of GDH activity and correlated with increased specific glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase activities. This finding suggested that enhanced carbon flux from glucose was directed toward the oxidative pentose phosphate (PP) pathway, when the mutant was cultivated with 6 % glucose. Consequently, the mutant showed 72.4 % increased intracellular NADPH and 66.3 % increased extracellular L-ornithine production. The enhanced activities of the oxidative PP pathway in the mutant explain both the increased intracellular NADPH and the high extracellular concentration of L-ornithine. Thus, the observed metabolic changes in this work corroborate the importance of NADPH in L-ornithine production from C. glutamicum. PMID:24402505

Hwang, Gui-Hye; Cho, Jae-Yong

2014-03-01

25

The bile acid synthetic gene 3?-hydroxy-?5-C27-steroid oxidoreductase is mutated in progressive intrahepatic cholestasis  

PubMed Central

We used expression cloning to isolate cDNAs encoding a microsomal 3?-hydroxy-?5-C27-steroid oxidoreductase (C27 3?-HSD) that is expressed predominantly in the liver. The predicted product shares 34% sequence identity with the C19 and C21 3?-HSD enzymes, which participate in steroid hormone metabolism. When transfected into cultured cells, the cloned C27 3?-HSD cDNA encodes an enzyme that is active against four 7?-hydroxylated sterols, indicating that a single C27 3?-HSD enzyme can participate in all known pathways of bile acid synthesis. The expressed enzyme did not metabolize several different C19/21 steroids as substrates. The levels of hepatic C27 3?-HSD mRNA in the mouse are not sexually dimorphic and do not change in response to dietary cholesterol or to changes in bile acid pool size. The corresponding human gene on chromosome 16p11.2-12 contains six exons and spans 3 kb of DNA, and we identified a 2-bp deletion in the C27 3?-HSD gene of a patient with neonatal progressive intrahepatic cholestasis. This mutation eliminates the activity of the enzyme in transfected cells. These findings establish the central role of C27 3?-HSD in the biosynthesis of bile acids and provide molecular tools for the diagnosis of a third type of neonatal progressive intrahepatic cholestasis associated with impaired bile acid synthesis.

Schwarz, Margrit; Wright, Angelique C.; Davis, Daphne L.; Nazer, Hisham; Bjorkhem, Ingemar; Russell, David W.

2000-01-01

26

Structure and activity of NADPH-dependent reductase Q1EQE0 from Streptomyces kanamyceticus, which catalyses the R-selective reduction of an imine substrate.  

PubMed

NADPH-dependent oxidoreductase Q1EQE0 from Streptomyces kanamyceticus catalyzes the asymmetric reduction of the prochiral monocyclic imine 2-methyl-1-pyrroline to the chiral amine (R)-2-methylpyrrolidine with >99% ee, and is thus of interest as a potential biocatalyst for the production of optically active amines. The structures of Q1EQE0 in native form, and in complex with the nicotinamide cofactor NADPH have been solved and refined to a resolution of 2.7 Å. Q1EQE0 functions as a dimer in which the monomer consists of an N-terminal Rossman-fold motif attached to a helical C-terminal domain through a helix of 28 amino acids. The dimer is formed through reciprocal domain sharing in which the C-terminal domains are swapped, with a substrate-binding cleft formed between the N-terminal subunit of monomer A and the C-terminal subunit of monomer B. The structure is related to those of known ?-hydroxyacid dehydrogenases, except that the essential lysine, which serves as an acid/base in the (de)protonation of the nascent alcohol in those enzymes, is replaced by an aspartate residue, Asp187 in Q1EQE0. Mutation of Asp187 to either asparagine or alanine resulted in an inactive enzyme. PMID:23813853

Rodríguez-Mata, María; Frank, Annika; Wells, Elizabeth; Leipold, Friedemann; Turner, Nicholas J; Hart, Sam; Turkenburg, Johan P; Grogan, Gideon

2013-07-22

27

Boost in bioethanol production using recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae with mutated strictly NADPH-dependent xylose reductase and NADP(+)-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

The xylose-fermenting recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its improvement have been studied extensively. The redox balance between xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) is thought to be an important factor in effective xylose fermentation. Using protein engineering, we previously successfully reduced xylitol accumulation and improved ethanol production by reversing the dependency of XDH from NAD(+) to NADP(+). We also constructed a set of novel strictly NADPH-dependent XR from Pichia stipitis by site-directed mutagenesis. In the present study, we constructed a set of recombinant S. cerevisiae carrying a novel set of mutated strictly NADPH-dependent XR and NADP(+)-dependent XDH genes with overexpression of endogenous xylulokinase (XK) to study the effects of complete NADPH/NADP(+) recycling on ethanol fermentation and xylitol accumulation. All mutated strains demonstrated reduced xylitol accumulation, ranging 34.4-54.7% compared with the control strain. Moreover, compared with the control strain, the two strains showed 20% and 10% improvement in ethanol production. PMID:23578809

Khattab, Sadat Mohammad Rezq; Saimura, Masayuki; Kodaki, Tsutomu

2013-06-10

28

Construction and Screening of Metagenomic Libraries Derived from Enrichment Cultures: Generation of a Gene Bank for Genes Conferring Alcohol Oxidoreductase Activity on Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Enrichment of microorganisms with special traits and the construction of metagenomic libraries by direct cloning of environmental DNA have great potential for identifying genes and gene products for biotechnological purposes. We have combined these techniques to isolate novel genes conferring oxidation of short-chain (C2 to C4) polyols or reduction of the corresponding carbonyls. In order to favor the growth of microorganisms containing the targeted genes, samples collected from four different environments were incubated in the presence of glycerol and 1,2-propanediol. Subsequently, the DNA was extracted from the four samples and used to construct complex plasmid libraries. Approximately 100,000 Escherichia coli strains of each library per test substrate were screened for the production of carbonyls from polyols on indicator agar. Twenty-four positive E. coli clones were obtained during the initial screen. Sixteen of them contained a plasmid (pAK101 to pAK116) which conferred a stable carbonyl-forming phenotype. Eight of the positive clones exhibited NAD(H)-dependent alcohol oxidoreductase activity with polyols or carbonyls as the substrates in crude extracts. Sequencing revealed that the inserts of pAK101 to pAK116 encoded 36 complete and 17 incomplete presumptive protein-encoding genes. Fifty of these genes showed similarity to sequenced genes from a broad collection of different microorganisms. The genes responsible for the carbonyl formation of E. coli were identified for nine of the plasmids (pAK101, pAK102, pAK105, pAK107 to pAK110, pAK115, and pAK116). Analyses of the amino acid sequences deduced from these genes revealed that three (orf12, orf14, and orf22) encoded novel alcohol dehydrogenases of different types, four (orf5, sucB, fdhD, and yabF) encoded novel putative oxidoreductases belonging to groups distinct from alcohol dehydrogenases, one (glpK) encoded a putative glycerol kinase, and one (orf1) encoded a protein which showed no similarity to any other known gene product.

Knietsch, Anja; Waschkowitz, Tanja; Bowien, Susanne; Henne, Anke; Daniel, Rolf

2003-01-01

29

Randomly selected suppressor mutations in genes for NADH?:?quinone oxidoreductase-1, which rescue motility of a Salmonella ubiquinone-biosynthesis mutant strain.  

PubMed

The primary mobile electron-carrier in the aerobic respiratory chain of Salmonella is ubiquinone. Demethylmenaquinone and menaquinone are alternative electron-carriers involved in anaerobic respiration. Ubiquinone biosynthesis was disrupted in strains bearing deletions of the ubiA or ubiE genes. In soft tryptone agar both mutant strains swam poorly. However, the ubiA deletion mutant strain produced suppressor mutant strains with somewhat rescued motility and growth. Six independent suppressor mutants were purified and comparative genome sequence analysis revealed that they each bore a single new missense mutation, which localized to genes for subunits of NADH?:?quinone oxidoreductase-1. Four mutants bore an identical nuoG(Q297K) mutation, one mutant bore a nuoM(A254S) mutation and one mutant bore a nuoN(A444E) mutation. The NuoG subunit is part of the hydrophilic domain of NADH?:?quinone oxidoreductase-1 and the NuoM and NuoN subunits are part of the hydrophobic membrane-embedded domain. Respiration was rescued and the suppressed mutant strains grew better in Luria-Bertani broth medium and could use l-malate as a sole carbon source. The quinone pool of the cytoplasmic membrane was characterized by reversed-phase HPLC. Wild-type cells made ubiquinone and menaquinone. Strains with a ubiA deletion mutation made demethylmenaquinone and menaquinone and the ubiE deletion mutant strain made demethylmenaquinone and 2-octaprenyl-6-methoxy-1,4-benzoquinone; the total quinone pool was reduced. Immunoblotting found increased NADH?:?quinone oxidoreductase-1 levels for ubiquinone-biosynthesis mutant strains and enzyme assays measured electron transfer from NADH to demethylmenaquinone or menaquinone. Under certain growth conditions the suppressor mutations improved electron flow activity of NADH?:?quinone oxidoreductase-1 for cells bearing a ubiA deletion mutation. PMID:24692644

Barker, Clive S; Meshcheryakova, Irina V; Sasaki, Toshio; Roy, Michael C; Sinha, Prem Kumar; Yagi, Takao; Samatey, Fadel A

2014-06-01

30

Characterization of aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase gene defective mutant in Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A non-magnetic mutant of Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1, designated as NMA21, was generated by mini-Tn5 transposon mutagenesis to identify genes involved in bacterial magnetic particle (BMP) synthesis. Alignment of the DNA sequences flanking the transposon allowed the isolation of an open reading frame (ORF2) within an operon consisting of five genes. The amino acid sequence of ORF2 showed homology with tungsten-containing

Aris Tri Wahyudi; Haruko Takeyama; Yoshiko Okamura; Yorikane Fukuda; Tadashi Matsunaga

2003-01-01

31

Disruption of the NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) gene in mice causes myelogenous hyperplasia.  

PubMed

NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase1 (NQO1) is a cytosolic protein that reduces and detoxifies quinones and their derivatives, thus protecting cells against redox cycling and oxidative stress. Disruption of the NQO1 gene in mice caused myeloid hyperplasia of bone marrow and highly significant increases in blood neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. NQO1-null mice also showed a decrease in lymphocytes and WBCs as compared with wild-type mice. Various techniques also demonstrated an increase in megakaryocytes without an increase in blood platelets. Histological analysis of liver, kidney, spleen, and thymus did not demonstrate a difference between wild-type and NQO1-null mice or a sign of infection. Blood cultures and urine analysis also did not demonstrate any sign of infection in NQO1-null and wild-type mice. Additional analysis of the bone marrow from NQO1-null mice revealed that loss of NQO1 alters the intracellular redox status because of accumulation of NAD(P)H, cofactors for NQO1. This causes a reduction in the levels of pyridine nucleotides and tumor suppressor proteins p53 and p73, and a decrease in apoptosis. The decrease in apoptosis causes myelogenous hyperplasia in NQO1-null mice. These results demonstrate that NQO1 acts as an endogenous factor in the protection against myelogenous hyperplasia. This is significant because 2-4% of human individuals without known abnormalities, and >25% of individuals with benzene poisoning and acute myelogenic leukemia are homozygous for a mutant allele (P187S) of NQO1 and lack NQO1 protein/activity. PMID:12036909

Long, Delwin J; Gaikwad, Amos; Multani, Asha; Pathak, Sen; Montgomery, Charles A; Gonzalez, Frank J; Jaiswal, Anil K

2002-06-01

32

Chloroplast NADPH-Dependent Thioredoxin Reductase from Chlorella vulgaris Alleviates Environmental Stresses in Yeast Together with 2-Cys Peroxiredoxin  

PubMed Central

Chloroplast NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase (NTRC) catalyzes the reduction of 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (2-Cys Prx) and, thus, probably functions as an antioxidant system. The functions of the enzyme in oxidative and salt stresses have been reported previously. We have previously identified and characterized NTRC in Chlorella vulgaris. In the present study, we isolated a full-length cDNA clone encoding 2-Cys Prx from C. vulgaris and investigated the involvement of Chlorella NTRC/2-Cys Prx system in several environmental stress tolerances by using yeast as a eukaryotic model. Deduced Chlorella 2-Cys Prx was homologous to those of chloroplast 2-Cys Prxs from plants, and two conserved cysteine residues were found in the deduced sequence. Enzyme assay showed that recombinant mature C. vulgaris NTRC (mCvNTRC) transferred electrons from NADPH to recombinant mature C. vulgaris 2-Cys Prx (mCvPrx), and mCvPrx decomposed hydrogen peroxide, tert-butyl hydroperoxide, and peroxynitrite by cooperating with mCvNTRC. Based on the results, the mCvNTRC/mCvPrx antioxidant system was identified in Chlorella. The antioxidant system genes were expressed in yeast separately or coordinately. Stress tolerances of yeast against freezing, heat, and menadione-induced oxidative stresses were significantly improved by expression of mCvNTRC, and the elevated tolerances were more significant when both mCvNTRC and mCvPrx were co-expressed. Our results reveal a novel feature of NTRC: it functions as an antioxidant system with 2-Cys Prx in freezing and heat stress tolerances.

Machida, Takeshi; Ishibashi, Akiko; Kirino, Ai; Sato, Jun-ichi; Kawasaki, Shinji; Niimura, Youichi; Honjoh, Ken-ichi; Miyamoto, Takahisa

2012-01-01

33

Reconstruction of an acetogenic 2,3-butanediol pathway involving a novel NADPH-dependent primary-secondary alcohol dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

Acetogenic bacteria use CO and/or CO2 plus H2 as their sole carbon and energy sources. Fermentation processes with these organisms hold promise for producing chemicals and biofuels from abundant waste gas feedstocks while simultaneously reducing industrial greenhouse gas emissions. The acetogen Clostridium autoethanogenum is known to synthesize the pyruvate-derived metabolites lactate and 2,3-butanediol during gas fermentation. Industrially, 2,3-butanediol is valuable for chemical production. Here we identify and characterize the C. autoethanogenum enzymes for lactate and 2,3-butanediol biosynthesis. The putative C. autoethanogenum lactate dehydrogenase was active when expressed in Escherichia coli. The 2,3-butanediol pathway was reconstituted in E. coli by cloning and expressing the candidate genes for acetolactate synthase, acetolactate decarboxylase, and 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase. Under anaerobic conditions, the resulting E. coli strain produced 1.1 ± 0.2 mM 2R,3R-butanediol (23 ?M h(-1) optical density unit(-1)), which is comparable to the level produced by C. autoethanogenum during growth on CO-containing waste gases. In addition to the 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase, we identified a strictly NADPH-dependent primary-secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (CaADH) that could reduce acetoin to 2,3-butanediol. Detailed kinetic analysis revealed that CaADH accepts a range of 2-, 3-, and 4-carbon substrates, including the nonphysiological ketones acetone and butanone. The high activity of CaADH toward acetone led us to predict, and confirm experimentally, that C. autoethanogenum can act as a whole-cell biocatalyst for converting exogenous acetone to isopropanol. Together, our results functionally validate the 2,3-butanediol pathway from C. autoethanogenum, identify CaADH as a target for further engineering, and demonstrate the potential of C. autoethanogenum as a platform for sustainable chemical production. PMID:24657865

Köpke, Michael; Gerth, Monica L; Maddock, Danielle J; Mueller, Alexander P; Liew, FungMin; Simpson, Séan D; Patrick, Wayne M

2014-06-01

34

Posttranslational Influence of NADPH-Dependent Thioredoxin Reductase C on Enzymes in Tetrapyrrole Synthesis[W][OA  

PubMed Central

The NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase C (NTRC) is involved in redox-related regulatory processes in chloroplasts and nonphotosynthetic active plastids. Together with 2-cysteine peroxiredoxin, it forms a two-component peroxide-detoxifying system that acts as a reductant under stress conditions. NTRC stimulates in vitro activity of magnesium protoporphyrin IX monomethylester (MgPMME) cyclase, most likely by scavenging peroxides. Reexamination of tetrapyrrole intermediate levels of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) knockout ntrc reveals lower magnesium protoporphyrin IX (MgP) and MgPMME steady-state levels, the substrate and the product of MgP methyltransferase (CHLM) preceding MgPMME cyclase, while MgP strongly accumulates in mutant leaves after 5-aminolevulinic acid feeding. The ntrc mutant has a reduced capacity to synthesize 5-aminolevulinic acid and reduced CHLM activity compared with the wild type. Although transcript levels of genes involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis are not significantly altered in 2-week-old ntrc seedlings, the contents of glutamyl-transfer RNA reductase1 (GluTR1) and CHLM are reduced. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay confirms a physical interaction of NTRC with GluTR1 and CHLM. While ntrc contains partly oxidized CHLM, the wild type has only reduced CHLM. As NTRC also stimulates CHLM activity in vitro, it is proposed that NTRC has a regulatory impact on the redox status of conserved cysteine residues of CHLM. It is hypothesized that a deficiency of NTRC leads to a lower capacity to reduce cysteine residues of GluTR1 and CHLM, affecting the stability and, thereby, altering the activity in the entire tetrapyrrole synthesis pathway.

Richter, Andreas S.; Peter, Enrico; Rothbart, Maxi; Schlicke, Hagen; Toivola, Jouni; Rintamaki, Eevi; Grimm, Bernhard

2013-01-01

35

Structure of Hordeum vulgare NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase 2. Unwinding the reaction mechanism  

PubMed Central

Thioredoxins (Trxs) are protein disulfide reductases that regulate the intracellular redox environment and are important for seed germination in plants. Trxs are in turn regulated by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductases (NTRs), which provide reducing equivalents to Trx using NADPH to recycle Trxs to the active form. Here, the first crystal structure of a cereal NTR, HvNTR2 from Hordeum vulgare (barley), is presented, which is also the first structure of a monocot plant NTR. The structure was determined at 2.6?Å resolution and refined to an R cryst of 19.0% and an R free of 23.8%. The dimeric protein is structurally similar to the structures of AtNTR-B from Arabidopsis thaliana and other known low-molecular-weight NTRs. However, the relative position of the two NTR cofactor-binding domains, the FAD and the NADPH domains, is not the same. The NADPH domain is rotated by 25° and bent by a 38% closure relative to the FAD domain in comparison with AtNTR-B. The structure may represent an intermediate between the two conformations described pre­viously: the flavin-oxidizing (FO) and the flavin-reducing (FR) conformations. Here, analysis of interdomain contacts as well as phylogenetic studies lead to the proposal of a new reaction scheme in which NTR–Trx interactions mediate the FO to FR transformation.

Kirkensgaard, Kristine G.; Hagglund, Per; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte; Henriksen, Anette

2009-01-01

36

Light Driven CO2 Fixation by Using Cyanobacterial Photosystem I and NADPH-Dependent Formate Dehydrogenase  

PubMed Central

The ultimate goal of this research is to construct a new direct CO2 fixation system using photosystems in living algae. Here, we report light-driven formate production from CO2 by using cyanobacterial photosystem I (PS I). Formate, a chemical hydrogen carrier and important industrial material, can be produced from CO2 by using the reducing power and the catalytic function of formate dehydrogenase (FDH). We created a bacterial FDH mutant that experimentally switched the cofactor specificity from NADH to NADPH, and combined it with an in vitro-reconstituted cyanobacterial light-driven NADPH production system consisting of PS I, ferredoxin (Fd), and ferredoxin-NADP+-reductase (FNR). Consequently, light-dependent formate production under a CO2 atmosphere was successfully achieved. In addition, we introduced the NADPH-dependent FDH mutant into heterocysts of the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 and demonstrated an increased formate concentration in the cells. These results provide a new possibility for photo-biological CO2 fixation.

Ihara, Masaki; Kawano, Yusuke; Urano, Miho; Okabe, Ayako

2013-01-01

37

A Single Eubacterial Origin of Eukaryotic Pyruvate:Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase Genes: Implications for the Evolution of Anaerobic Eukaryotes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The iron sulfur protein pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFO) is central to energy metabolism in amitochondriate eukaryotes, including those with hydrogenosomes. Thus, revealing the evolutionary history of PFO is critical to understanding the origin(s) of eukaryote anaerobic energy metabolism. We determined a complete PFO sequence for Spironucleus barkhanus, a large fragment of a PFO sequence from Clostridium pasteurianum,and a fragment of a

David S. Horner; Robert P. Hirt; T. Martin Embley

38

Synergistic effect of NADH on NADPH-dependent acetaminophen activation in liver microsomes and its inhibition by cyanide  

SciTech Connect

The effects of NADH and cyanide on NADPH-dependent acetaminophen activation in rat and mouse liver microsomes were studied. In both rat and mouse microsomes, NADPH-dependent acetaminophen-glutathione conjugate production was synergistically enhanced by the addition of NADH, whereas NADH alone did not initiate this reaction. The data suggest that the second electron in this reaction may be transferred from NADH. The present findings are different from a previous report in a reconstituted system that NADH decreases covalent binding of acetaminophen to proteins. This reaction was inhibited by low concentrations of sodium cyanide. The role of the cyanide sensitive factor in this reaction in liver microsomes remains to be further clarified.

Sato, Chifumi; Marumo, Fumiaki (Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ. (Japan))

1991-01-01

39

The effects of ascorbate and ?-tocopherol on the NADPH-dependent lipid peroxidation in human placental mitochondria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of ascorbate and a-tocopherol as antioxidants and as co-operative factors against NADPH-dependent lipid peroxidation in human placental mitochondria have been studied. The addition of ascorbate at low concentration (up to 50 µM) to the NADPH-generating system resulted in increasing lipid peroxidation and Fe3+ to Fe2+ reduction. High concentration of ascorbate (150 µM), which produced maximal rate of ascorbate-dependent

Ryszard Milczarek; Jerzy Klimek; Leon ?elewski

2000-01-01

40

1,4-Naphthoquinones and Others NADPH-Dependent Glutathione Reductase-Catalyzed Redox Cyclers as Antimalarial Agents  

PubMed Central

The homodimeric flavoenzyme glutathione reductase catalyzes NADPH-dependent glutathione disulfide reduction. This reaction is important for keeping the redox homeostasis in human cells and in the human pathogen Plasmodium falciparum. Different types of NADPH-dependent disulfide reductase inhibitors were designed in various chemical series to evaluate the impact of each inhibition mode on the propagation of the parasites. Against malaria parasites in cultures the most potent and specific effects were observed for redox-active agents acting as subversive substrates for both glutathione reductases of the Plasmodium-infected red blood cells. In their oxidized form, these redox-active compounds are reduced by NADPH-dependent flavoenzyme-catalyzed reactions in the cytosol of infected erythrocytes. In their reduced forms, these compounds can reduce molecular oxygen to reactive oxygen species, or reduce oxidants like methemoglobin, the major nutrient of the parasite, to indigestible hemoglobin. Furthermore, studies on a fluorinated suicide-substrate of the human glutathione reductase indicate that the glutathione reductase-catalyzed bioactivation of 3-benzylnaphthoquinones to the corresponding reduced 3-benzoyl metabolites is essential for the observed antimalarial activity. In conclusion, the antimalarial lead naphthoquinones are suggested to perturb the major redox equilibria of the targeted cells. These effects result in development arrest of the parasite and contribute to the removal of the parasitized erythrocytes by macrophages.

Belorgey, Didier; Lanfranchi, Don Antoine; Davioud-Charvet, Elisabeth

2013-01-01

41

New method for RNA isolation from actinomycetes: application to the transcriptional analysis of the alcohol oxidoreductase gene thcE in Rhodococcus and Mycobacterium.  

PubMed

A new protocol for the isolation of RNA from Rhodococcus and other actinomycetes such as Mycobacterium and Amycolatopsis was developed. The method is based on rapid lysis of cells in a high-speed reciprocal shaker using small abrasive particles followed by spin column purification of the lysate. This quick procedure yields RNA preparations suitable for functional studies. This was shown for the thcE gene of R. erythropolis NI86/21, which encodes a N,N'-dimethyl-4-nitrosoaniline-dependent alcohol oxidoreductase. The thcE transcript was detected by Northern hybridization in R. erythropolis, R. fascians, Mycobacterium chlorophenolicum and Mycobacterium smegmatis. The transcriptional start point of the gene was determined by primer extension of the R. erythropolis mRNA. PMID:9248086

Nagy, I; Schoofs, G; De Schrijver, A; Vanderleyden, J; De Mot, R

1997-07-01

42

A comparison of primer sets for detecting 16S rRNA and hydrazine oxidoreductase genes of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in marine sediments.  

PubMed

Published polymerase chain reaction primer sets for detecting the genes encoding 16S rRNA gene and hydrazine oxidoreductase (hzo) in anammox bacteria were compared by using the same coastal marine sediment samples. While four previously reported primer sets developed to detect the 16S rRNA gene showed varying specificities between 12% and 77%, an optimized primer combination resulted in up to 98% specificity, and the recovered anammox 16S rRNA gene sequences were >95% sequence identical to published sequences from anammox bacteria in the Candidatus "Scalindua" group. Furthermore, four primer sets used in detecting the hzo gene of anammox bacteria were highly specific (up to 92%) and efficient, and the newly designed primer set in this study amplified longer hzo gene segments suitable for phylogenetic analysis. The optimized primer set for the 16S rRNA gene and the newly designed primer set for the hzo gene were successfully applied to identify anammox bacteria from marine sediments of aquaculture zone, coastal wetland, and deep ocean where the three ecosystems form a gradient of anthropogenic impact. Results indicated a broad distribution of anammox bacteria with high niche-specific community structure within each marine ecosystem. PMID:20107988

Li, Meng; Hong, Yiguo; Klotz, Martin Gunter; Gu, Ji-Dong

2010-03-01

43

Five-Gene Cluster in Clostridium thermoaceticum Consisting of Two Divergent Operons Encoding Rubredoxin Oxidoreductase- Rubredoxin and Rubrerythrin-Type A Flavoprotein- High-Molecular-Weight Rubredoxin  

PubMed Central

A five-gene cluster encoding four nonheme iron proteins and a flavoprotein from the thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Clostridium thermoaceticum (Moorella thermoacetica) was cloned and sequenced. Based on analysis of deduced amino acid sequences, the genes were identified as rub (rubredoxin), rbo (rubredoxin oxidoreductase), rbr (rubrerythrin), fprA (type A flavoprotein), and a gene referred to as hrb (high-molecular-weight rubredoxin). Northern blot analysis demonstrated that the five-gene cluster is organized as two subclusters, consisting of two divergently transcribed operons, rbr-fprA-hrb and rbo-rub. The rbr, fprA, and rub genes were expressed in Escherichia coli, and their encoded recombinant proteins were purified. The molecular masses, UV-visible absorption spectra, and cofactor contents of the recombinant rubrerythrin, rubredoxin, and type A flavoprotein were similar to those of respective homologs from other microorganisms. Antibodies raised against Desulfovibrio vulgaris Rbr reacted with both native and recombinant Rbr from C. thermoaceticum, indicating that this protein was expressed in the native organism. Since Rbr and Rbo have been recently implicated in oxidative stress protection in several anaerobic bacteria and archaea, we suggest a similar function of these proteins in oxygen tolerance of C. thermoaceticum.

Das, Amaresh; Coulter, Eric D.; Kurtz, Donald M.; Ljungdahl, Lars G.

2001-01-01

44

Analysis of the transcriptional unit encoding the genes for rubredoxin (rub) and a putative rubredoxin oxidoreductase (rbo) in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough.  

PubMed Central

The nucleotide sequence of a 2.0-kilobase-pair EcoRI restriction fragment upstream from the gene (rub, 162 base pairs) encoding rubredoxin from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough indicates that it is part of a larger transcriptional unit, containing an additional 378-base-pair open reading frame which terminates 16 nucleotides from the translational start of the rub gene and could encode a polypeptide of 14 kilodaltons (kDa). Northern (RNA) blotting of RNA isolated from both D. vulgaris Hildenborough and Escherichia coli TG2 transformed with plasmid pJK29, which contains both genes on a 1.1-kilobase-pair SalI insert, confirms that the genes for this 14-kDa polypeptide and rubredoxin are present on a single transcript of 680 nucleotides. Strong evidence that the 14-kDa polypeptide is also a redox protein is provided by the fact that its NH2 terminus is homologous to desulforedoxin, which has been isolated from D. gigas as a small dimeric redox protein (36 amino acids per monomer), coordinating two iron atoms. Since rubredoxin is a potential redox partner for the 14-kDa protein, it has been tentatively named rubredoxin oxidoreductase, produced by the rbo gene. Southern blotting indicates that the rbo-rub operon is present in several species and strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria. Images

Brumlik, M J; Voordouw, G

1989-01-01

45

Isolation of cytoplasmic NADPH-dependent phenol hydroxylase and catechol-1,2-dioxygenase from Candida tropicalis yeast  

PubMed Central

The efficiencies of NADPH-dependent phenol hydroxylase (EC 1.14.13.7) and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (EC.1.13.11.1) in biodegradation of phenol in the cytosolic fraction isolated from yeast Candida tropicalis were investigated. Enzymatic activities of both NADPH-dependent phenol hydroxylase and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase were detected in the cytosolic fraction of C. tropicalis grown on medium containing phenol. Using the procedure consisting of chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose, fractionation by polyethylene glycol 6000 and gel permeation chromatography on Sepharose 4B the enzyme responsible for phenol hydroxylation in cytosol, NADPH-dependent phenol hydroxylase, was isolated from the cytosolic fraction of C. tropicalis close to homogeneity. However, fractionation with polyethylene glycol 6000 lead to a decrease in catechol 1,2-dioxygenase activity. Therefore, another procedure was tested to purify this enzyme. Gel permeation chromatography of proteins of the eluate obtained by chromatography on a DEAE-Sepharose column was utilized to separate phenol hydroxylase and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase. Among gel permeation chromatography on columns of Sephadex G-100, Sephacryl S-300 and Sepharose 4B tested for their efficiencies to isolate phenol hydroxylase and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase, that on Sephacryl S-300 was found to be suitable for such a procedure. Nevertheless, even this chromatographic method did not lead to obtain catechol 1,2-dioxygenase in sufficient amounts and purity for its further characterization. The data demonstrate the progress in resolving the enzymes responsible for the first two steps of phenol degradation by the C. tropicalis strain.

Vilimkova, Lenka; Paca, Jan; Kremlackova, Veronika; Paca, Jan; Stiborova, Marie

2008-01-01

46

Toxic-Selenium and Low-Selenium Transcriptomes in Caenorhabditis elegans: Toxic Selenium Up-Regulates Oxidoreductase and Down-Regulates Cuticle-Associated Genes  

PubMed Central

Selenium (Se) is an element that in trace quantities is both essential in mammals but also toxic to bacteria, yeast, plants and animals, including C. elegans. Our previous studies showed that selenite was four times as toxic as selenate to C. elegans, but that deletion of thioredoxin reductase did not modulate Se toxicity. To characterize Se regulation of the full transcriptome, we conducted a microarray study in C. elegans cultured in axenic media supplemented with 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mM Se as selenite. C. elegans cultured in 0.2 and 0.4 mM Se displayed a significant delay in growth as compared to 0, 0.05, or 0.1 mM Se, indicating Se-induced toxicity, so worms were staged to mid-L4 larval stage for these studies. Relative to 0.1 mM Se treatment, culturing C. elegans at these Se concentrations resulted in 1.9, 9.7, 5.5, and 2.3%, respectively, of the transcriptome being altered by at least 2-fold. This toxicity altered the expression of 295 overlapping transcripts, which when filtered against gene sets for sulfur and cadmium toxicity, identified a dataset of 182 toxic-Se specific genes that were significantly enriched in functions related to oxidoreductase activity, and significantly depleted in genes related to structural components of collagen and the cuticle. Worms cultured in low Se (0 mM Se) exhibited no signs of deficiency, but low Se was accompanied by a transcriptional response of 59 genes changed ?2-fold when compared to all other Se concentrations, perhaps due to decreases in Se-dependent TRXR-1 activity. Overall, these results suggest that Se toxicity in C. elegans causes an increase in ROS and stress responses, marked by increased expression of oxidoreductases and reduced expression of cuticle-associated genes, which together underlie the impaired growth observed in these studies.

Boehler, Christopher J.; Raines, Anna M.; Sunde, Roger A.

2014-01-01

47

Structure, expression and regulation of a nuclear gene encoding a mitochondrial protein: the yeast L(+)-lactate cytochrome c oxidoreductase (cytochrome b2).  

PubMed Central

The yeast L(+)-lactate cytochrome c oxidoreductase or cytochrome b2 is a component of the mitochondrial intermembrane space. The protein is encoded by the nuclear genome, synthesized as a larger precursor in the cytoplasmic compartment, and then proteolytically processed to its mature form during its import into the mitochondria. The structural gene for yeast cytochrome b2 has been cloned. The complete nucleotide sequence of the gene with its 5' and 3' flanking regions was determined. The deduced primary structure of the cytochrome b2 precursor reveals an unusually long amino terminal extension of 80 amino acids. A variety of potentially significant sequences were identified in the region flanking the structural portion of the gene. Transcript mapping with both S1 nuclease and primer extension methods reveals that the site of RNA synthesis is 56-66 bp downstream from a putative TATA box. By Northern blot analysis and gene disruption, it is shown that there is only a single copy of the cytochrome b2 gene per haploid yeast nucleus. The cloned cytochrome b2 gene was used to probe specific mRNA levels and demonstrate that cytochrome b2 expression is transcriptionally repressed by glucose and induced by lactate. The inactivation of the chromosomal cytochrome b2 gene by integrative transformation led to a deficiency in L(+)-lactate dehydrogenase activity and consequently to the inability to use L(+)-lactate as a sole source of carbon. This is the first reported mutation affecting the structural gene of cytochrome b2. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 5. Fig. 7. Fig. 8.

Guiard, B

1985-01-01

48

Cloning and expression of the gene encoding the thermophilic NAD(P)H-FMN oxidoreductase coupling with the desulfurization enzymes from Paenibacillus sp. A11-2.  

PubMed

The gene encoding the NAD(P)H-flavin oxidoreductase (flavin reductase) which couples with the thermophilic dibenzothiophene (DBT)-desulfurizing monooxygenases of Paenibacillus sp. A11-2 was cloned in Escherichia coli and designated tdsD. Nucleotide sequence analysis suggested that the gene product consisted of 200 amino acids and showed about 30%, 27% and 26% amino acid sequence similarity to the major flavin reductase of Vibrio fischeri, the NADH dehydrogenase of Thermus thermophilus and several oxygen-insensitive NAD(P)H nitroreductases in the Enterobacteriaceae family, respectively. Both the growing and resting recombinant E. coli, in which tdsD was coexpressed with a set of desulfurizing genes, showed a rate of DBT removal about 5 times higher than the recombinants lacking tdsD. Maximal desulfurization was observed close to 45 degrees C and 55 degrees C in the resting cells and in the cell-free extraction reaction with the tdsD-coexpressing recombinants, respectively. In an organic/aqueous biphasic system, the coexpression of tdsD also markedly enhanced the rate of DBT removal. PMID:16232917

Ishii, Y; Konishi, J; Suzuki, M; Maruhashi, K

2000-01-01

49

Elimination of nitrite from the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrophenylmethylnitramine (tetryl) catalyzed by ferredoxin NADP oxidoreductase from spinach.  

PubMed

Nitroreductase enzymes generally catalyze the reduction of nitroaromatic compounds to the corresponding amines. In contrast, ferredoxin NADP oxidoreductase (FNR), glutathione reductase, xanthine oxidase, and cytochrome c reductase catalyze the NADPH dependent elimination of the nitramine nitro group from 2,4,6-trinitrophenylmethylnitramine to form N-methylpicramide (NMP). Nitrite elimination was inhibited under aerobic conditions. Our results suggest that under aerobic conditions, tetryl is enzymatically reduced to the nitroanion radical which is then involved in the reduction of molecular oxygen. Under anaerobic conditions, the radical is reduced to NMP and nitrite is eliminated. PMID:8607804

Shah, M M; Spain, J C

1996-03-27

50

Nrf1 and Nrf2 Positively and c-Fos and Fral Negatively Regulate the Human Antioxidant Response Element-Mediated Expression of NAD(P)H:Quinone oxidoreductase1 Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-four base pairs of the human antioxidant response element (hARE) are required for high basal transcription of the NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase1 (NQO1) gene and its induction in response to xenobiotics and antioxidants. hARE is a unique cis-element that contains one perfect and one imperfect AP1 element arranged as inverse repeats separated by 3 bp, followed by a ``GC'' box. We report

Radjendirane Venugopal; Anil K. Jaiswal

1996-01-01

51

Cell-specific expression of tryptophan decarboxylase and 10-hydroxygeraniol oxidoreductase, key genes involved in camptothecin biosynthesis in Camptotheca acuminata Decne (Nyssaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background Camptotheca acuminata is a major natural source of the terpenoid indole alkaloid camptothecin (CPT). At present, little is known about the cellular distribution of the biosynthesis of CPT, which would be useful knowledge for developing new strategies and technologies for improving alkaloid production. Results The pattern of CPT accumulation was compared with the expression pattern of some genes involved in CPT biosynthesis in C. acuminata [i.e., Ca-TDC1 and Ca-TDC2 (encoding for tryptophan decarboxylase) and Ca-HGO (encoding for 10-hydroxygeraniol oxidoreductase)]. Both CPT accumulation and gene expression were investigated in plants at different degrees of development and in plantlets subjected to drought-stress. In all organs, CPT accumulation was detected in epidermal idioblasts, in some glandular trichomes, and in groups of idioblast cells localized in parenchyma tissues. Drought-stress caused an increase in CPT accumulation and in the number of glandular trichomes containing CPT, whereas no increase in epidermal or parenchymatous idioblasts was observed. In the leaf, Ca-TDC1 expression was detected in some epidermal cells and in groups of mesophyll cells but not in glandular trichomes; in the stem, it was observed in parenchyma cells of the vascular tissue; in the root, no expression was detected. Ca-TDC2 expression was observed exclusively in leaves of plantlets subjected to drought-stress, in the same sites described for Ca-TDC1. In the leaf, Ca-HGO was detected in all chlorenchyma cells; in the stem, it was observed in the same sites described for Ca-TDC1; in the root, no expression was detected. Conclusions The finding that the sites of CPT accumulation are not consistently the same as those in which the studied genes are expressed demonstrates an organ-to-organ and cell-to-cell translocation of CPT or its precursors.

2010-01-01

52

Disruption of individual nuo-genes leads to the formation of partially assembled NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

The proton-pumping NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, respiratory complex I, couples the electron transfer from NADH to ubiquinone with the translocation of protons across the membrane. In Escherichia coli the complex is made up of 13 different subunits encoded by the so-called nuo-genes. Mutants, in which each of the nuo-genes was individually disrupted by the insertion of a resistance cartridge were unable to assemble a functional complex I. Each disruption resulted in the loss of complex I-mediated activity and the failure to extract a structurally intact complex. Thus, all nuo-genes are required either for the assembly or the stability of a functional E. coli complex I. The three subunits comprising the soluble NADH dehydrogenase fragment of the complex were detected in the cytoplasm of several nuo-mutants as one distinct band after BN-PAGE. It is discussed that the fully assembled NADH dehydrogenase fragment represents an assembly intermediate of the E. coli complex I. A partially assembled complex I bound to the membrane was detected in the nuoK and nuoL mutants, respectively. Overproduction of the ?NuoL variant resulted in the accumulation of two populations of a partially assembled complex in the cytoplasmic membranes. Both populations are devoid of NuoL. One population is enzymatically active, while the other is not. The inactive population is missing cluster N2 and is tightly associated with the inducible lysine decarboxylase. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biogenesis/Assembly of Respiratory Enzyme Complexes. PMID:22063474

Erhardt, Heiko; Steimle, Stefan; Muders, Vera; Pohl, Thomas; Walter, Julia; Friedrich, Thorsten

2012-06-01

53

Overexpression of chloroplast NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase in Arabidopsis enhances leaf growth and elucidates in vivo function of reductase and thioredoxin domains  

PubMed Central

Plant chloroplasts have versatile thioredoxin systems including two thioredoxin reductases and multiple types of thioredoxins. Plastid-localized NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase (NTRC) contains both reductase (NTRd) and thioredoxin (TRXd) domains in a single polypeptide and forms homodimers. To study the action of NTRC and NTRC domains in vivo, we have complemented the ntrc knockout line of Arabidopsis with the wild type and full-length NTRC genes, in which 2-Cys motifs either in NTRd, or in TRXd were inactivated. The ntrc line was also transformed either with the truncated NTRd or TRXd alone. Overexpression of wild-type NTRC promoted plant growth by increasing leaf size and biomass yield of the rosettes. Complementation of the ntrc line with the full-length NTRC gene containing an active reductase but an inactive TRXd, or vice versa, recovered wild-type chloroplast phenotype and, partly, rosette biomass production, indicating that the NTRC domains are capable of interacting with other chloroplast thioredoxin systems. Overexpression of truncated NTRd or TRXd in ntrc background did not restore wild-type phenotype. Modeling of the three-dimensional structure of the NTRC dimer indicates extensive interactions between the NTR domains and the TRX domains further stabilize the dimeric structure. The long linker region between the NTRd and TRXd, however, allows flexibility for the position of the TRXd in the dimer. Supplementation of the TRXd in the NTRC homodimer model by free chloroplast thioredoxins indicated that TRXf is the most likely partner to interact with NTRC. We propose that overexpression of NTRC promotes plant biomass yield both directly by stimulation of chloroplast biosynthetic and protective pathways controlled by NTRC and indirectly via free chloroplast thioredoxins. Our data indicate that overexpression of chloroplast thiol redox-regulator has a potential to increase biofuel yield in plant and algal species suitable for sustainable bioenergy production.

Toivola, Jouni; Nikkanen, Lauri; Dahlstrom, Kathe M.; Salminen, Tiina A.; Lepisto, Anna; Vignols, hb Florence; Rintamaki, Eevi

2013-01-01

54

Mouse NRH:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO2): cloning of cDNA and gene- and tissue-specific expression.  

PubMed

The mouse NQO2 cDNA and gene with flanking regions were cloned and sequenced. Analysis of the primary structure of the mouse NQO2 protein revealed the presence of glycosylation, myristylation, protein kinase C and caseine kinase II phosphorylation sites. These sites are conserved in the human NQO2 protein. The mouse NQO2 gene promoter contains several important cis-elements, including the antioxidant response element (ARE), the xenobiotic response element (XRE), and an Sp1 binding site. Northern analysis of eight mouse tissues indicated wide variations in the expression of the NQO2 and NQO1 genes. NQO2 gene expression was higher in liver and testis compared with the NQO1 gene, which was highest in the heart. NQO1 gene expression was undetectable in the testis. Mouse kidney showed significantly higher expression levels of NQO1 compared with NQO2. Brain, spleen, lung, and skeletal muscle showed undetectable levels of NQO2 and NQO1 gene expression. NQO2 activity followed a more or less similar pattern of tissue-specific expression as NQO2 RNA. Interestingly, the NQO2 activity remained unchanged in the NQO1-/-mice tissues compared with NQO1+/+ mice, with the exception of the liver. The livers from NQO1-/-mice showed a 45% increase in NQO2 activity compared with the NQO1+/+ mice. The mouse NQO2 cDNA was subcloned into the pMT2 eukaryotic expression vector which, upon transfection in monkey kidney COS1 cells, produced a significant increase in NQO2 activity. Deletion of 54 amino acids from the N-terminus of the mouse NQO2 protein resulted in the loss of NQO2 expression and activity in transfected COS1 cells. This indicates that deletion of exon(s) encoding the N-terminus of NQO2 from the endogenous gene in mouse embryonic (ES) stem cells should result in NQO2-null mice. PMID:10903442

Long, D J; Jaiswal, A K

2000-07-11

55

Evaluation of the mechanism of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human ovarian cancer stem cells transfected with a WW domain-containing oxidoreductase gene  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of the WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) gene on the mechanisms underlying epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human ovarian cancer stem cells. Western blot analysis was performed to detect the differences in the expression of the EMT markers, E-cadherin, ?-catenin, N-cadherin, vimentin and fibronectin, between human ovarian cancer stem cells and the human epithelial ovarian carcinoma cell line, HO-8910. A pcDNA3.1-WWOX eukaryotic expression vector was subsequently transfected into the ovarian cancer stem cells (recombinant plasmid group) or an empty plasmid (empty plasmid group) and non-transfected ovarian cancer stem cells (blank control group) served as the controls. Following the transfection of the WWOX gene, methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium cell viability and Transwell® invasion assays, and western blot analysis were performed to detect changes in the proliferative capability and invasive capacity of ovarian cancer stem cells, as well as the expression of EMT markers and regulatory factors, Elf5 and Snail. The expression levels of E-cadherin and ?-catenin in the ovarian cancer stem cells were identified to be significantly lower than those in the HO-8910 cells, whereas the expression levels of N-cadherin, vimentin and fibronectin in the ovarian cancer stem cells were found to be significantly higher than those in the HO-8910 cells. At each time point, the cellular proliferative capacity of the recombinant plasmid group was observed to be significantly lower than that of the empty plasmid or blank control groups (P<0.05 vs. the controls). The number of penetrating cells in the recombinant plasmid, empty plasmid and the blank control groups were 105.5±3.1, 199.7±3.4 and 191.4±4.1, respectively (mean ± standard error of the mean; P<0.05 vs. the controls). In addition, the protein expression of E-cadherin, ?-catenin and Elf5 in the recombinant plasmid group was found to be significantly higher than that in the other two groups, whereas the protein expression of N-cadherin, vimentin, fibronectin and Snail in the recombinant plasmid group was significantly lower than that in the other two groups. An EMT exists in ovarian cancer stem cells, and the WWOX gene inhibits the cellular proliferation of ovarian cancer stem cells and reduces their invasive capability. Therefore, the WWOX gene may reverse the EMT in ovarian cancer stem cells by regulating the expression of the EMT regulatory factors, Elf5 and Snail.

YAN, HONGCHAO; SUN, YUPING

2014-01-01

56

Identification of a five-oxidoreductase-gene cluster from Acetobacter pasteurianus conferring ethanol-dependent acidification in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Acetobacter pasteurianus, a Gram-negative bacterium belonging to the ?-divison of Proteobacteria, produces acetic acid through ethanol oxidation. A genomic bank of A. pasteurianus 386B DNA was cloned in the low-copy cosmid pRG930Cm vector and the resulting clones were screened for the production of protease using the skimmed-milk agar assay whereby a clearing zone around the inoculated spots indicates casein degradation. Several positive clones were selected and restriction analysis revealed that many contained the same inserts. One clone was further analyzed and the cosmid DNA subjected to in vitro transposon insertion. After electroporation, several clones having lost the capacity to cause casein degradation were isolated and the sequence of the transposon-flanking regions analyzed. The majority of insertions mapped to one gene encoding an NAD(P)+-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) of the PNTB superfamily, whereas one insert was found upstream in a gene encoding an ethanol dehydrogenase. Addition of phenol red to the medium confirmed the ethanol-dependent acidification around the inoculated spots of the clones without transposon insertion, suggesting that casein degradation is due to the production of acetic acid as a result of the combined activities of the alcohol dehydrogenase and ALDH. Quantitative data and pH measurements confirmed a significant acidification, and the presence of acetic acid.

Garcia-Armisen, Tamara; Vercammen, Ken; Rimaux, Tom; Vrancken, Gino; Vuyst, Luc De; Cornelis, Pierre

2012-01-01

57

Purification of NADPH-dependent dehydroascorbate reductase from rat liver and its identification with 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.  

PubMed Central

Rat liver cytosol has been found to reduce dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA) to ascorbic acid in the presence of NADPH. The enzyme responsible for such activity has been purified by ammonium sulphate fractionation, DEAE-Sepharose, Sephadex G-100 SF and Reactive Red column chromatography, with an overall recovery of 27%. SDS/PAGE of the purified enzyme showed one single protein band with an M(r) of 37,500. A similar value (36,800) was found by gel filtration on a Sephadex G-100 SF column. The results indicate that the enzyme is a homogeneous monomer. The Km for DHAA was 4.6 mM and the Vmax. was 1.55 units/mg of protein; for NADPH Km and Vmax. were 4.3 microM and 1.10 units/mg of protein respectively. The optimum pH was around 6.2. Several typical substrates and inhibitors of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily have been tested. The strong inhibition of DHAA reductase effected by steroidal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, together with the ability to reduce 5 alpha-androstane-3,17-dione strongly, suggest the possibility that DHAA reductase corresponds to 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Microsequence analysis performed on the electro-transferred enzyme band shows that the N-terminus is blocked. Internal primary structure data were obtained from CNBr-derived fragments and definitely proved the identity of NADPH-dependent DHAA reductase with 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Images Figure 2 Figure 4

Del Bello, B; Maellaro, E; Sugherini, L; Santucci, A; Comporti, M; Casini, A F

1994-01-01

58

The Ca2+/NADPH-dependent H2O2 generator in thyroid plasma membrane: inhibition by diphenyleneiodonium.  

PubMed Central

The thyroid plasma membrane contains a Ca(2+)-regulated NADPH-dependent H2O2-generating system which provides H2O2 for the peroxidase-catalysed biosynthesis of thyroid hormones. The electron transfer from NADPH to O2 catalysed by this system was studied by using diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of flavo- and haemo-proteins. The prosthetic group of the H2O2 generator was removed by incubation with 5 mM CHAPS at 40 degrees C, and an active holoenzyme was reconstituted with FAD, but not with FMN. The H2O2-generating system also had an intrinsic Ca(2+)-dependent NADPH:ferricyanide reductase activity which is probably linked to its flavodehydrogenase component (or domain). Both activities, H2O2 production and ferricyanide reductase activity, were inhibited by DPI, with similar K1/2 (2.5 nmol/mg of protein). DPI only inhibited a system reduced with NADPH in the presence of Ca2+. NADPH could not be replaced by NADP+, NADH or sodium dithionite, suggesting the need for specific mild reduction of a redox centre in a particular conformation. Ferricyanide protected both activities against inhibition by DPI; the NADPH:ferricyanide reductase activity was completely protected at a ferricyanide concentration 20 times lower than that needed to protect the H2O2 formation, implying at least two target sites for DPI. One might be the flavodehydrogenase component; the other was beyond, on the entity which transfers the electrons to O2. This second site has not been identified. Images Figure 5

Deme, D; Doussiere, J; De Sandro, V; Dupuy, C; Pommier, J; Virion, A

1994-01-01

59

Identification of the gene encoding a NAD(P)H-flavin oxidoreductase coupling with dibenzothiophene (DBT)-desulfurizing enzymes from the DBT-nondesulfurizing bacterium Paenibacillus polymyxa A-1.  

PubMed

The gene encoding NAD(P)H-flavin oxidoreductase (flavin reductase), which couples efficiently with dibenzothiophene (DBT)-desulfurizing monooxygenases of Rhodococci, was cloned from a DBT-non-desulfurizing bacterium Paenibacillus polymyxa A-1 in Escherichia coli, and designated as flv. Cell-free extracts from the recombinant exhibited a flavin reductase activity about forty times higher than that of the E. coli carrying the vector DNA only. Nucleotide sequence analysis reveals that the gene product consists of 208 amino acids and showed about 27%, 32% and 21% identity in amino acid sequence with FRase I, the major flavin reductase of Vibrio fischeri, the NADH dehydrogenase of Thermus thermophilus and several members of the nitroreductase family, respectively. The coexpression of flv with two kinds of desulfurizing genes, dszABC and tdsABC, in E. coli enhanced the rate of DBT degradation by about 10 and 5 times as high as in the case without flv, respectively. PMID:16232847

Ishii, Y; Ohshiro, T; Aoi, Y; Suzuki, M; Izumi, Y

2000-01-01

60

In vitro activation of NADPH-dependent O 2 - generating system in a plasma membrane-rich fraction of potato tuber tissues by treatment with an elicitor from Phytophthora infestans or with digitonin  

Microsoft Academic Search

NADPH-dependent O2- generating activity of a plasma membrane-rich (PM) fraction from potato tuber tissue was measured in vitro using polarographic measurements of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase-sensitive O2 consumption and\\/or spectrophotometric measurements of SOD-sensitive cytochrome c (acetylated) reduction.The enhanced NADPH-dependent O2- generating activity was found predominantly in the plasma membrane fraction isolated from the potato tuber slices which had been

N. Doke; Y. Miura

1995-01-01

61

Cloning and expression of the ccdA-associated thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase (catA) gene from Brevibacillus choshinensis: stimulation of human epidermal growth factor production.  

PubMed

Brevibacillus choshinensis (Bacillus brevis) is a protein-hyperproducing bacterium with a useful host-vector system for the production of recombinant proteins. Here, we cloned the ccdA-catA (cmacr;cdA ?ssociated thioredoxin-like tmacr;hiol-disulfide oxidoreductase) locus of B. choshinensis HPD31-S5. CatA protein (molecular weight, 19664) contains a thioredoxin-like motif, Cys-Gly-Pro-Cys. It was successfully expressed in B. choshinensis extracellularly ( approximately 100 microg x ml(-1) culture) using the secretion vector pNCMO2, and in Escherichia coli intracellularly ( approximately 350 microg x ml(-1) culture) with an amino-terminal His-tag. Both recombinant proteins showed thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase activity. Incubation of non-native human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) containing incorrect disulfide bonds with B. choshinensis cells secreting CatA protein resulted in the stimulation of the conversion of non-native hEGF to the native form. Furthermore, co-expression of CatA protein with recombinant hEGF in the B. choshinensis production system increased the yield of native hEGF. PMID:12770499

Tanaka, Ryoichi; Mizukami, Makoto; Ishibashi, Matsujiro; Tokunaga, Hiroko; Tokunaga, Masao

2003-06-12

62

Photosynthetic electron partitioning between [FeFe]-hydrogenase and ferredoxin:NADP+-oxidoreductase (FNR) enzymes in vitro.  

PubMed

Photosynthetic water splitting, coupled to hydrogenase-catalyzed hydrogen production, is considered a promising clean, renewable source of energy. It is widely accepted that the oxygen sensitivity of hydrogen production, combined with competition between hydrogenases and NADPH-dependent carbon dioxide fixation are the main limitations for its commercialization. Here we provide evidence that, under the anaerobic conditions that support hydrogen production, there is a significant loss of photosynthetic electrons toward NADPH production in vitro. To elucidate the basis for competition, we bioengineered a ferredoxin-hydrogenase fusion and characterized hydrogen production kinetics in the presence of Fd, ferredoxin:NADP(+)-oxidoreductase (FNR), and NADP(+). Replacing the hydrogenase with a ferredoxin-hydrogenase fusion switched the bias of electron transfer from FNR to hydrogenase and resulted in an increased rate of hydrogen photoproduction. These results suggest a new direction for improvement of biohydrogen production and a means to further resolve the mechanisms that control partitioning of photosynthetic electron transport. PMID:21606330

Yacoby, Iftach; Pochekailov, Sergii; Toporik, Hila; Ghirardi, Maria L; King, Paul W; Zhang, Shuguang

2011-06-01

63

Photosynthetic electron partitioning between [FeFe]-hydrogenase and ferredoxin:NADP+-oxidoreductase (FNR) enzymes in vitro  

PubMed Central

Photosynthetic water splitting, coupled to hydrogenase-catalyzed hydrogen production, is considered a promising clean, renewable source of energy. It is widely accepted that the oxygen sensitivity of hydrogen production, combined with competition between hydrogenases and NADPH-dependent carbon dioxide fixation are the main limitations for its commercialization. Here we provide evidence that, under the anaerobic conditions that support hydrogen production, there is a significant loss of photosynthetic electrons toward NADPH production in vitro. To elucidate the basis for competition, we bioengineered a ferredoxin-hydrogenase fusion and characterized hydrogen production kinetics in the presence of Fd, ferredoxin:NADP+-oxidoreductase (FNR), and NADP+. Replacing the hydrogenase with a ferredoxin-hydrogenase fusion switched the bias of electron transfer from FNR to hydrogenase and resulted in an increased rate of hydrogen photoproduction. These results suggest a new direction for improvement of biohydrogen production and a means to further resolve the mechanisms that control partitioning of photosynthetic electron transport.

Yacoby, Iftach; Pochekailov, Sergii; Toporik, Hila; Ghirardi, Maria L.; King, Paul W.; Zhang, Shuguang

2011-01-01

64

The P450 oxidoreductase, RedA, controls development beyond the mound stage in Dictyostelium discoideum  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: NADPH-cytochrome-P450 oxidoreductase (CPR) is a ubiquitous enzyme that belongs to a family of diflavin oxidoreductases and is required for activity of the microsomal cytochrome-P450 monooxygenase system. CPR gene-disruption experiments have demonstrated that absence of this enzyme causes developmental defects both in mouse and insect. RESULTS: Annotation of the sequenced genome of D. discoideum revealed the presence of three genes

Daniela C Gonzalez-Kristeller; Layla Farage; Leonardo C Fiorini; William F Loomis; Aline M da Silva

2008-01-01

65

Pharmacogenomics of human P450 oxidoreductase  

PubMed Central

Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) supports reactions of microsomal cytochrome P450 which metabolize drugs and steroid hormones. Mutations in POR cause disorders of sexual development. P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD) was initially identified in patients with Antley–Bixler syndrome (ABS) but now it has been established as a separate disorder of sexual development (DSD). Here we are summarizing the work on variations in POR related to metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics. We have compiled mutation data on reported cases of PORD from clinical studies. Mutations found in patients with defective steroid profiles impact metabolism of steroid hormones as well as drugs. Some trends are emerging that establish certain founder mutations in distinct populations, with Japanese (R457H), Caucasian (A287P), and Turkish (399–401) populations showing repeated findings of similar mutations. Most other mutations are found as single occurrences. A large number of different variants in POR gene with more than 130 amino acid changes are now listed in databases. Among the polymorphisms, the A503V is found in about 30% of all alleles but there are some differences across different population groups.

Pandey, Amit V.; Sproll, Patrick

2014-01-01

66

Pharmacogenomics of human P450 oxidoreductase.  

PubMed

Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) supports reactions of microsomal cytochrome P450 which metabolize drugs and steroid hormones. Mutations in POR cause disorders of sexual development. P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD) was initially identified in patients with Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS) but now it has been established as a separate disorder of sexual development (DSD). Here we are summarizing the work on variations in POR related to metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics. We have compiled mutation data on reported cases of PORD from clinical studies. Mutations found in patients with defective steroid profiles impact metabolism of steroid hormones as well as drugs. Some trends are emerging that establish certain founder mutations in distinct populations, with Japanese (R457H), Caucasian (A287P), and Turkish (399-401) populations showing repeated findings of similar mutations. Most other mutations are found as single occurrences. A large number of different variants in POR gene with more than 130 amino acid changes are now listed in databases. Among the polymorphisms, the A503V is found in about 30% of all alleles but there are some differences across different population groups. PMID:24847272

Pandey, Amit V; Sproll, Patrick

2014-01-01

67

The formate:oxygen oxidoreductase supercomplex of Escherichia coli aerobic respiratory chain.  

PubMed

The Escherichia coli formate:oxygen oxidoreductase supercomplex (FdOx) was investigated with respect to function and composition. Formate oxidoreductase activity was detected in blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) resolved membranes of E. coli, which were also capable of cyanide sensitive formate:oxygen oxidoreductase activity. The latter was compromised in strains devoid of specific oxygen reductases, particularly, in those devoid of cytochrome bo3 or bdI. A principal component analysis (PCA) integrating E. coli aerobic respiratory chain gene transcription, enzyme activity and growth dynamics was performed, correlating formate:oxygen oxidoreductase activity and the transcription of the genes encoding cytochromes bo3 and bdI, and corroborating previous evidence that associated these complexes in FdOx. PMID:23827816

Sousa, Pedro M F; Videira, Marco A M; Melo, Ana M P

2013-08-19

68

Site-directed mutagenesis of cysteine to serine in the DNA binding region of Nrf2 decreases its capacity to upregulate antioxidant response element-mediated expression and antioxidant induction of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase1 gene.  

PubMed

NF-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a CNC/b-zip protein that regulates antioxidant response element (ARE)-mediated expression, and antioxidant induction, of detoxifying enzyme genes, including NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase1 (NQO1). A comparison of Nrf2 from different species, and with other b-zip proteins, revealed the presence of a highly conserved cysteine residue at position 506 in the DNA binding domain of Nrf2. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to mutate this cysteine to serine. Transfection/over expression experiments in human hepatoblastoma (Hep-G2) cells demonstrated that mutant Nrf2 (mNrf2), containing the C506S mutation, was significantly less efficient in activating ARE-mediated gene expression, and induction in response to tert-butyl hydroquinone (t-BHQ), as copmpared with wild-type Nrf2. N-ethyl malemide (NEM), a sulfhydryl cross-linker, inhibited Nrf2 but not mNrf2C506S-mediated expression of NQO1. This further implicated the cysteine at position 506 in Nrf2 regulation of ARE-mediated gene expression. Nuclear localization experiments revealed that C506S mutation did not affect the retention of Nrf2 by INrf2/Keap1 in the cytosol, or its release in response to antioxidants. However, band and supershift assays showed a significant reduction in the binding of mNrf2C506S to the NQO1 gene ARE as compared with wild-type Nrf2. Therefore, the C506S mutation in Nrf2 lowered its affinity for the ARE, leading to decreased expression, and antioxidant induction, of NQO1. PMID:11948402

Bloom, David; Dhakshinamoorthy, Saravanakumar; Jaiswal, Anil K

2002-03-28

69

Contribution of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 to protection against carcinogenesis, and regulation of its gene by the Nrf2 basic-region leucine zipper and the arylhydrocarbon receptor basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is a key enzyme involved in defence against reactive forms of oxygen and inhibition of neoplasia. Under conditions of oxidative stress, expression of NQO1 is induced, and the resulting increase in oxidoreductase protein provides the cell with multiple layers of protection against environmental insults. Firstly, the catalytic activity of NQO1 is directed towards the complete reduction

Paul Nioi; John D. Hayes

2004-01-01

70

Glyceraldehyde3Phosphate Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase from Methanococcus maripaludis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genome sequence of the non-sugar-assimilating mesophile Methanococcus maripaludis contains three genes encoding enzymes: a nonphosphorylating NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydroge- nase (GAPN), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate ferre- doxin oxidoreductase (GAPOR); all these enzymes are potentially capable of catalyzing glyceraldehyde-3- phosphate (G3P) metabolism. GAPOR, whose homologs have been found mainly in archaea, catalyzes the reduction of ferredoxin coupled with oxidation of

Myong-Ok Park; Taeko Mizutani; Patrik R. Jones

2007-01-01

71

High warfarin sensitivity in carriers of CYP2C9*35 is determined by the impaired interaction with P450 oxidoreductase.  

PubMed

Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) metabolizes many clinically important drugs including warfarin and diclofenac. We have recently reported a new allelic variant, CYP2C9*35, found in a warfarin hypersensitive patient with Arg125Leu and Arg144Cys mutations. Here, we have investigated the molecular basis for the functional consequences of these polymorphic changes. CYP2C9.1 and CYP2C9-Arg144Cys expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells effectively metabolized both S-warfarin and diclofenac in NADPH-dependent reactions, whereas CYP2C9-Arg125Leu or CYP2C9.35 were catalytically silent. However, when NADPH was replaced by a direct electron donor to CYPs, cumene hydroperoxide, hereby bypassing the CYP oxidoreductase (POR), all variant enzymes were active, indicating unproductive interactions between CYP2C9.35 and POR. In silico analysis revealed a decrease of the electrostatic potential of CYP2C9-Arg125Leu-POR interacting surface and the loss of stabilizing salt bridges between these proteins. In conclusion, our data strongly suggest that the Arg125Leu mutation in CYP2C9.35 prevents CYP2C9-POR interactions resulting in the absence of NADPH-dependent CYP2C9-catalyzed activity in vivo, thus influencing the warfarin sensitivity in the carriers of this allele. PMID:24322786

Lee, M-Y; Borgiani, P; Johansson, I; Oteri, F; Mkrtchian, S; Falconi, M; Ingelman-Sundberg, M

2014-08-01

72

Identification of a Novel Cis Element Exhibiting Cytokinin-Dependent Protein Binding in Vitro in the 5?-region of NADPH-Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase Gene in Cucumber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytokinins and light activate the transcription of the cucumber NADPH-protochlorophyllide reductase (POR) gene. We have previously reported that 2.3 kb of the 5?-region of this gene contains a cis-element that is responsive to cytokinin. In this study, to identify the cytokinin-responsive cis-element corresponding to chlorophyll biosynthesis and chloroplast development, we performed transient expression assays in etiolated cucumber cotyledons. A 5?-deletional analysis

Naoki Fusada; Tatsuru Masuda; Hirofumi Kuroda; Hiroshi Shimada; Hiroyuki Ohta; Ken-ichiro Takamiya

2005-01-01

73

Directed Evolution and Structural Analysis of NADPH-Dependent Acetoacetyl Coenzyme A (Acetoacetyl-CoA) Reductase from Ralstonia eutropha Reveals Two Mutations Responsible for Enhanced Kinetics  

PubMed Central

NADPH-dependent acetoacetyl-coenzyme A (acetoacetyl-CoA) reductase (PhaB) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)], along with ?-ketothiolase (PhaA) and polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase (PhaC). In this study, PhaB from Ralstonia eutropha was engineered by means of directed evolution consisting of an error-prone PCR-mediated mutagenesis and a P(3HB) accumulation-based in vivo screening system using Escherichia coli. From approximately 20,000 mutants, we obtained two mutant candidates bearing Gln47Leu (Q47L) and Thr173Ser (T173S) substitutions. The mutants exhibited kcat values that were 2.4-fold and 3.5-fold higher than that of the wild-type enzyme, respectively. In fact, the PhaB mutants did exhibit enhanced activity and P(3HB) accumulation when expressed in recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum. Comparative three-dimensional structural analysis of wild-type PhaB and highly active PhaB mutants revealed that the beneficial mutations affected the flexibility around the active site, which in turn played an important role in substrate recognition. Furthermore, both the kinetic analysis and crystal structure data supported the conclusion that PhaB forms a ternary complex with NADPH and acetoacetyl-CoA. These results suggest that the mutations affected the interaction with substrates, resulting in the acquirement of enhanced activity.

Matsumoto, Ken'ichiro; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Motohashi, Ren; Ikeda, Koji; Tobitani, Kota; Yao, Min; Tanaka, Isao

2013-01-01

74

Functional characterization and role of INrf2 in antioxidant response element-mediated expression and antioxidant induction of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase1 gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant response element (ARE) and nuclear transcription factor Nrf2 are known to regulate expression and coordinated induction of NQO1 and other detoxifying enzyme genes in response to antioxidants and xenobiotics. A cytosolic inhibitor of Nrf2, INrf2, that retains Nrf2 in the cytoplasm, was cloned and sequenced. Treatment of cells with antioxidants and xenobiotics results in the release of Nrf2 from

Saravanakumar Dhakshinamoorthy; Anil K Jaiswal

2001-01-01

75

A nuclear gene of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Tba1, encodes a putative oxidoreductase required for translation of the chloroplast psbA mRNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Biosynthesis of chloroplast proteins is to a large extent regulated post-transcriptionally, and a number of nuclear-encoded genes have been identified that are required for translation or stability of specific chloroplast mRNAs. A nuclear mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, hf261, deficient in the translation of the psbA mRNA, has reduced association of the psbA mRNA with ribosomes and is deficient in

Aravind Somanchi; Dwight Barnes; Stephen P. Mayfield

2005-01-01

76

Exposure to low- vs iso-osmolar contrast agents reduces NADPH-dependent reactive oxygen species generation in a cellular model of renal injury.  

PubMed

Contrast-induced nephropathy represents the third cause of hospital-acquired acute renal failure. This study investigated the effects of low- vs iso-osmolar contrast medium (CM) exposure on NADPH-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by tubular cells. X-ray attenuation of iohexol, iopamidol, and iodixanol was assessed at equimolar iodine concentrations and their effects on human renal proximal tubular cells (PTCs) were evaluated with equally attenuating solutions of each CM. Cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and necrosis were investigated by trypan blue exclusion, MTT assay, and annexin V/propidium iodide assay, respectively. ROS production was assessed by DCF assay, NADPH oxidase activity by the lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence method, and Nox4 expression by immunoblot. Yielding the same X-ray attenuation, CM cytotoxicity was assessed in PTCs at equimolar iodine concentrations. More necrosis was present after incubation with iohexol and iopamidol than after incubation with equal concentrations of iodixanol. Iohexol and iodixanol at low iodine concentrations induced less cytotoxicity than iopamidol. Moreover, both iohexol and iopamidol induced more apoptosis than iodixanol, with a dose-dependent effect. ROS generation was significantly higher with iopamidol and iohexol compared to iodixanol. NADPH oxidase activity and Nox4 protein expression significantly increased after exposure to iopamidol and iohexol, with a dose-dependent effect, compared with iodixanol. CM-induced Nox4 expression and activity depended upon Src activation. In conclusion, at angiographic concentrations, iodixanol induces fewer cytotoxic effects on cultured tubular cells than iohexol and iopamidol along with a lower induction of Nox4-dependent ROS generation. This enzyme may, thus, represent a potential therapeutic target to prevent iodinated CM-related oxidative stress. PMID:24300339

Netti, Giuseppe Stefano; Prattichizzo, Clelia; Montemurno, Eustacchio; Simone, Simona; Cafiero, Cesira; Rascio, Federica; Stallone, Giovanni; Ranieri, Elena; Grandaliano, Giuseppe; Gesualdo, Loreto

2014-03-01

77

Time- and NADPH-Dependent Inhibition of Cytochrome P450 3A4 by the Cyclopentapeptide Cilengitide: Significance of the Guanidine Group and Accompanying Spectral Changes.  

PubMed

Cilengitide is a stable cyclic pentapeptide containing an Arg-Gly-Asp motif responsible for selective binding to ?V?3 and ?V?5 integrins. The candidate drug showed unexpected inhibition of cytochrome P450 (P450) 3A4 at high concentrations, that is, a 15-mM concentration caused attenuation of P450 3A4 activity (depending on the probe substrate): 15-19% direct inhibition, 10-23% time-dependent inhibition (30-minute preincubation), and 54-60% metabolism-dependent inhibition (30-minute preincubation). The inactivation efficiency determined with human liver microsomes was 0.003 ± 0.001 min(-1) mM(-1) and was 0.04 ± 0.01 min(-1) mM(-1) with baculovirus-based microsomes containing recombinant P450 3A4. Neither heme loss nor covalent binding to apoprotein could explain the observed reductions in residual activity. Slowly forming type II difference spectra were observed, with maximum spectral changes after 2 hours. Binding to both reduced and oxidized P450 3A4 was observed, with apparent Kd values of 0.66 ?M and 6 ?M. The significance of the guanidine group in inhibition was demonstrated using ligand binding spectral changes and inactivation assays with guanidine analogs (debrisoquine, N-acetylarginine-O-methyl ester) and the acetylated ornithine derivative of cilengitide. The observed inhibition could be explained by direct inhibition, plus by formation of stable complexes with both ferric and ferrous forms of heme iron and to some extent by the formation of reactive species capable to react to the protein or heme. Formation of the complex required time and NADPH and is attributed to the guanidino group. Thus, the NADPH-dependent inhibition is considered to be mainly due to the formation of a stable complex rather than the formation of reactive species. PMID:24985702

Boji?, Mirza; Barbero, Luca; Dolgos, Hugues; Freisleben, Achim; Gallemann, Dieter; Riva, Simona; Guengerich, F Peter

2014-09-01

78

Isolation and analysis of the gene encoding the pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase of Desulfovibrio africanus, production of the recombinant enzyme in Escherichia coli, and effect of carboxy-terminal deletions on its stability.  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown that the pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase (POR) of the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio africanus is a homodimer that contains one thiamine pyrophosphate and three [4Fe-4S]2+/1+ centers/subunit. Interestingly, the enzyme isolated from a strictly anaerobic bacterium is highly stable in the presence of oxygen, in contrast to the other PORs characterized in anaerobic organisms (L. Pieulle, B. Guigliarelli, M. Asso, F. Dole, A. Bernadac, and E. C. Hatchikian, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1250:49-59, 1995). We report here the determination of the nucleotide sequence of the por gene encoding the D. africanus POR. The amino acid sequence deduced from this nucleotide sequence corresponds to the first primary structure of a homodimeric POR from strictly anaerobic bacteria. The subunit of the D. africanus POR contains two ferredoxin-type [4Fe-4S] cluster binding motifs (CX2CX2CX3CP) and four additional highly conserved cysteines belonging to a nontypical motif. These 12 cysteine residues may coordinate the three Fe-S centers present in D. africanus POR. The thiamine pyrophosphate binding domain is located in the C-terminal part of the protein close to the four conserved cysteine residues. The D. africanus enzyme sequence appears homologous to the other POR sequences. However, the enzyme differs from all other PORs by a C-terminal extension of about 60 residues of its polypeptide chain. The two cysteine residues located in this additional region may be involved in the formation of a disulfide bridge associated with the activation process of the catalytic activity. The por gene has been expressed, for the first time, in anaerobically grown Escherichia coli behind the isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside-inducible tac promoter, resulting in the production of POR in its active form. The recombinant enzyme is stable toward oxygen during several days, and initial characterization of the recombinant POR showed that its activity increased in the presence of dithioerythritol. These properties indicate that the recombinant POR behaves like the native D. africanus enzyme. The study of carboxy-terminal deletion mutants strongly suggests that deletions in the C-terminal region of D. africanus enzyme can have dramatic effects on the stability of the enzyme toward oxygen.

Pieulle, L; Magro, V; Hatchikian, E C

1997-01-01

79

Discovering the electronic circuit diagram of life: structural relationships among transition metal binding sites in oxidoreductases  

PubMed Central

Oxidoreductases play a central role in catalysing enzymatic electron-transfer reactions across the tree of life. To first order, the equilibrium thermodynamic properties of these proteins are governed by protein folds associated with specific transition metals and ligands at the active site. A global analysis of holoenzyme structures and functions suggests that there are fewer than approximately 500 fundamental oxidoreductases, which can be further clustered into 35 unique groups. These catalysts evolved in prokaryotes early in the Earth's history and are largely responsible for the emergence of non-equilibrium biogeochemical cycles on the planet's surface. Although the evolutionary history of the amino acid sequences in the oxidoreductases is very difficult to reconstruct due to gene duplication and horizontal gene transfer, the evolution of the folds in the catalytic sites can potentially be used to infer the history of these enzymes. Using a novel, yet simple analysis of the secondary structures associated with the ligands in oxidoreductases, we developed a structural phylogeny of these enzymes. The results of this ‘composome’ analysis suggest an early split from a basal set of a small group of proteins dominated by loop structures into two families of oxidoreductases, one dominated by ?-helices and the second by ?-sheets. The structural evolutionary patterns in both clades trace redox gradients and increased hydrogen bond energy in the active sites. The overall pattern suggests that the evolution of the oxidoreductases led to decreased entropy in the transition metal folds over approximately 2.5 billion years, allowing the enzymes to use increasingly oxidized substrates with high specificity.

Kim, J. Dongun; Senn, Stefan; Harel, Arye; Jelen, Benjamin I.; Falkowski, Paul G.

2013-01-01

80

Discovering the electronic circuit diagram of life: structural relationships among transition metal binding sites in oxidoreductases.  

PubMed

Oxidoreductases play a central role in catalysing enzymatic electron-transfer reactions across the tree of life. To first order, the equilibrium thermodynamic properties of these proteins are governed by protein folds associated with specific transition metals and ligands at the active site. A global analysis of holoenzyme structures and functions suggests that there are fewer than approximately 500 fundamental oxidoreductases, which can be further clustered into 35 unique groups. These catalysts evolved in prokaryotes early in the Earth's history and are largely responsible for the emergence of non-equilibrium biogeochemical cycles on the planet's surface. Although the evolutionary history of the amino acid sequences in the oxidoreductases is very difficult to reconstruct due to gene duplication and horizontal gene transfer, the evolution of the folds in the catalytic sites can potentially be used to infer the history of these enzymes. Using a novel, yet simple analysis of the secondary structures associated with the ligands in oxidoreductases, we developed a structural phylogeny of these enzymes. The results of this 'composome' analysis suggest an early split from a basal set of a small group of proteins dominated by loop structures into two families of oxidoreductases, one dominated by ?-helices and the second by ?-sheets. The structural evolutionary patterns in both clades trace redox gradients and increased hydrogen bond energy in the active sites. The overall pattern suggests that the evolution of the oxidoreductases led to decreased entropy in the transition metal folds over approximately 2.5 billion years, allowing the enzymes to use increasingly oxidized substrates with high specificity. PMID:23754810

Kim, J Dongun; Senn, Stefan; Harel, Arye; Jelen, Benjamin I; Falkowski, Paul G

2013-07-19

81

Regulation of p53 stability and p53-dependent apoptosis by NADH quinone oxidoreductase 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tumor suppressor gene wild-type p53 encodes a labile protein that accumulates in cells after different stress signals and can cause either growth arrest or apoptosis. One of the p53 target genes, p53-inducible gene 3 (PIG3), encodes a protein with significant homology to oxidoreductases, enzymes involved in cellular re- sponses to oxidative stress and irradiation. This fact raised the possibility

Gad Asher; Joseph Lotem; Batya Cohen; Leo Sachs; Yosef Shaul

2001-01-01

82

Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase participates in nitric oxide consumption by rat brain  

PubMed Central

In low nanomolar concentrations, NO (nitric oxide) functions as a transmitter in brain and other tissues, whereas near-micromolar NO concentrations are associated with toxicity and cell death. Control of the NO concentration, therefore, is critical for proper brain function, but, although its synthesis pathway is well-characterized, the major route of breakdown of NO in brain is unclear. Previous observations indicate that brain cells actively consume NO at a high rate. The mechanism of this consumption was pursued in the present study. NO consumption by a preparation of central glial cells was abolished by cell lysis and recovered by addition of NADPH. NADPH-dependent consumption of NO localized to cell membranes and was inhibited by proteinase K, indicating the involvement of a membrane-bound protein. Purification of this activity yielded CYPOR (cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase). Antibodies against CYPOR inhibited NO consumption by brain membranes and the amount of CYPOR in several cell types correlated with their rate of NO consumption. NO was also consumed by purified CYPOR but this activity was found to depend on the presence of the vitamin E analogue Trolox (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2-carboxylic acid), included in the buffer as a precaution against inadvertent NO consumption by lipid peroxidation. In contrast, NO consumption by brain membranes was independent of Trolox. Hence, it appears that, during the purification process, CYPOR becomes separated from a partner needed for NO consumption. Cytochrome P450 inhibitors inhibited NO consumption by brain membranes, making these proteins likely candidates.

Hall, Catherine N.; Keynes, Robert G.; Garthwaite, John

2009-01-01

83

Oxidative phosphorylation and rotenone-insensitive malate- and NADH-quinone oxidoreductases in Plasmodium yoelii yoelii mitochondria in situ.  

PubMed

Respiration, membrane potential, and oxidative phosphorylation of mitochondria of Plasmodium yoelii yoelii trophozoites were assayed in situ after permeabilization with digitonin. ADP induced an oligomycin-sensitive transition from resting to phosphorylating respiration in the presence of oxidizable substrates. A functional respiratory chain was demonstrated. In addition, the ability of the parasite to oxidize exogenous NADH, as well as the insensitivity of respiration to rotenone and its sensitivity to flavone, suggested the presence of an alternative NADH-quinone (NADH-Q) oxidoreductase. Rotenone-insensitive respiration and membrane potential generation in the presence of malate suggested the presence of a malate-quinone oxidoreductase. These results are in agreement with the presence of genes in P. yoelii encoding for proteins with homology to NADH-Q oxidoreductases of bacteria, plant, fungi, and protozoa and malate-quinone oxidoreductases of bacteria. The complete inhibition of respiration by antimycin A and cyanide excluded the presence of an alternative oxidase as described in other parasites. An uncoupling effect of fatty acids was partly reversed by bovine serum albumin and GTP but was unaffected by carboxyatractyloside. These results provide the first biochemical evidence of the presence of an alternative NADH-Q oxidoreductase and a malate-quinone oxidoreductase and confirm the operation of oxidative phosphorylation in malaria parasites. PMID:14561763

Uyemura, Sergio A; Luo, Shuhong; Vieira, Mauricio; Moreno, Silvia N J; Docampo, Roberto

2004-01-01

84

Escherichia coli kduD encodes an oxidoreductase that converts both sugar and steroid substrates.  

PubMed

A previously unidentified oxidoreductase from Escherichia coli catalyzes the regioselective reduction of eukaryotic steroid hormone 11-deoxycorticosterone (11-DOC) to the valuable bioactive product 4-pregnen-20,21-diol-3-one. In nature, a reduction of C-20 carbonyl of C21 steroids is catalyzed by diverse NAD(P)H-dependent oxidoreductases. Enzymes that possess 20-ketosteroid reductase activity, however, have never before been described in E. coli. Our present study aimed to identify and characterize the E. coli enzyme which possesses 20-ketosteroid reductase activity against eukaryotic steroid hormone 11-DOC. We partially purified the enzyme from E. coli DH5? using protein chromatography techniques. Mass spectrometry revealed the presence of three NADH-specific oxidoreductases in the sample. The genes encoding these oxidoreductases were cloned and overexpressed in E. coli UT5600 (DE3). Only the overexpression of 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate 5-dehydrogenase (KduD) encoded by kduD gene enabled the whole-cell biotransformation of 11-DOC. A 6xHis-tagged version of KduD was purified to homogeneity and found to reduce several eukaryotic steroid hormones and catalyze the conversion of novel sugar substrates. KduD from E. coli is therefore a promiscuous enzyme that has a predicted role in sugar conversion in vivo but can be used for the production of valuable bioactive 20-hydroxysteroids. PMID:24509771

Tubeleviciute, Agne; Teese, Mark George; Jose, Joachim

2014-06-01

85

An oxidoreductase from 'Alphonso' mango catalyzing biosynthesis of furaneol and reduction of reactive carbonyls.  

PubMed

Two furanones, furaneol (4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone) and mesifuran (2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-3(2H)-furanone), are important constituents of flavor of the Alphonso cultivar of mango (Mangifera indica). To get insights into the biosynthesis of these furanones, we isolated an enone oxidoreductase gene from the Alphonso mango. It has high sequence similarity to an alkenal/one oxidoreductase from cucumber (79% identity) and enone oxidoreductases from tomato (73% identity) and strawberry (72% identity). The complete open reading frame was expressed in E. coli and the (his)6-tagged recombinant protein was purified by affinity chromatography. The purified protein assayed with NADH as a reducing agent converted D-fructose-1,6-diphosphate into furaneol, the immediate precursor of mesifuran. The enzyme was also able to convert two highly reactive carbonyls, 3-buten-2-one and 1-penten-3-one, produced by lipid peroxidation in plants, into their saturated derivatives. Expression profiling in various ripening stages of Alphonso fruits depicted an expression maxima at 10 days after harvest stage, shortly before the appearance of the maximum amount of furanones (completely ripe stage, 15 days after harvest). Although no furanones were detected at the 0 day after harvest stage, significant expression of this gene was detected in the fruits at this stage. Overall, the results suggest that this oxidoreductase plays important roles in Alphonso mango fruits. PMID:24133645

Kulkarni, Ram; Chidley, Hemangi; Deshpande, Ashish; Schmidt, Axel; Pujari, Keshav; Giri, Ashok; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Gupta, Vidya

2013-01-01

86

Global analysis of gene expression in response to L-Cysteine deprivation in the anaerobic protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica  

PubMed Central

Background Entamoeba histolytica, an enteric protozoan parasite, causes amebic colitis and extra intestinal abscesses in millions of inhabitants of endemic areas. E. histolytica completely lacks glutathione metabolism but possesses L-cysteine as the principle low molecular weight thiol. L-Cysteine is essential for the structure, stability, and various protein functions, including catalysis, electron transfer, redox regulation, nitrogen fixation, and sensing for regulatory processes. Recently, we demonstrated that in E. histolytica, L-cysteine regulates various metabolic pathways including energy, amino acid, and phospholipid metabolism. Results In this study, employing custom-made Affymetrix microarrays, we performed time course (3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h) gene expression analysis upon L-cysteine deprivation. We identified that out of 9,327 genes represented on the array, 290 genes encoding proteins with functions in metabolism, signalling, DNA/RNA regulation, electron transport, stress response, membrane transport, vesicular trafficking/secretion, and cytoskeleton were differentially expressed (?3 fold) at one or more time points upon L-cysteine deprivation. Approximately 60% of these modulated genes encoded proteins of no known function and annotated as hypothetical proteins. We also attempted further functional analysis of some of the most highly modulated genes by L-cysteine depletion. Conclusions To our surprise, L-cysteine depletion caused only limited changes in the expression of genes involved in sulfur-containing amino acid metabolism and oxidative stress defense. In contrast, we observed significant changes in the expression of several genes encoding iron sulfur flavoproteins, a major facilitator super-family transporter, regulator of nonsense transcripts, NADPH-dependent oxido-reductase, short chain dehydrogenase, acetyltransferases, and various other genes involved in diverse cellular functions. This study represents the first genome-wide analysis of transcriptional changes induced by L-cysteine deprivation in protozoan parasites, and in eukaryotic organisms where L-cysteine represents the major intracellular thiol.

2011-01-01

87

Functional Analysis of Paralogous Thiol-disulfide Oxidoreductases in Streptococcus gordonii*  

PubMed Central

Disulfide bonds are important for the stability of many extracellular proteins, including bacterial virulence factors. Formation of these bonds is catalyzed by thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases (TDORs). Little is known about their formation in Gram-positive bacteria, particularly among facultative anaerobic Firmicutes, such as streptococci. To investigate disulfide bond formation in Streptococcus gordonii, we identified five putative TDORs from the sequenced genome. Each of the putative TDOR genes was insertionally inactivated with an erythromycin resistance cassette, and the mutants were analyzed for autolysis, extracellular DNA release, biofilm formation, bacteriocin production, and genetic competence. This analysis revealed a single TDOR, SdbA, which exhibited a pleiotropic mutant phenotype. Using an in silico analysis approach, we identified the major autolysin AtlS as a natural substrate of SdbA and showed that SdbA is critical to the formation of a disulfide bond that is required for autolytic activity. Analysis by BLAST search revealed homologs to SdbA in other Gram-positive species. This study provides the first in vivo evidence of an oxidoreductase, SdbA, that affects multiple phenotypes in a Gram-positive bacterium. SdbA shows low sequence homology to previously identified oxidoreductases, suggesting that it may belong to a different class of enzymes. Our results demonstrate that SdbA is required for disulfide bond formation in S. gordonii and indicate that this enzyme may represent a novel type of oxidoreductase in Gram-positive bacteria.

Davey, Lauren; Ng, Crystal K. W.; Halperin, Scott A.; Lee, Song F.

2013-01-01

88

Opposing mechanisms of NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase regulation by peroxisome proliferators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peroxisome proliferators (PPs) regulate a battery of rodent P450 genes, including CYP2B, CYP2C, and CYP4A family members. We hypothesized that other components of the P450-metabolizing system are altered by exposure to PPs, including NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (P450R), an often rate-limiting component in P450-dependent reactions. In this study, we determined whether exposure to structurally diverse PPs alters the expression of P450R

Li-Qun Fan; Jackie Coley; Richard T. Miller; Russell C. Cattley; J. Christopher Corton

2003-01-01

89

NADPH alkenal/one oxidoreductase activity determines sensitivity of cancer cells to the chemotherapeutic alkylating agent irofulven.  

PubMed

Illudins S and M are extremely cytotoxic products of the fungus Omphalotus illudens. They were evaluated as possible anticancer chemotherapeutic agents but displayed unfavorable therapeutic indices. Irofulven (6-hydroxymethylacylfulvene), a less toxic, synthetic derivative of illudin S, has proven very effective in many preclinical and clinical studies. It has been postulated that metabolism via hydrogenation of the 8,9-double bonds of these molecules would unmask the electrophilic, and thus, the toxic nature of their cyclopropyl moieties. Illudins S and M were found to be rapidly metabolized by NADPH-dependent alkenal/one oxidoreductase (AOR) with maximal rates of 115.9 and 44.1 micromol x min(-1) mg(-1), and K(m)s of 308 and 109 microM, respectively. Irofulven was reduced at a much slower rate: V(max) 275 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) and K(m) 145 microM. Human 293 cells transfected with an AOR overexpression vector were 100-fold more sensitive than control cells to irofulven, but displayed little differential sensitivity to illudin M. Addition of glutathione to the alpha,beta-unsaturated ketone moiety of illudin M, but not irofulven, occurred readily at physiological concentrations. Electrophilic intermediates of irofulven and illudin M that were activated by AOR were trapped with glutathione and identified by high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Samples of the 60 human tumor cell line panel used by the National Cancer Institute to evaluate potential chemotherapeutic compounds were assayed for AOR activity, which correlated positively with previously determined growth inhibitory measures for irofulven, but not illudin M or S. Collectively, these data indicate that bioactivation of irofulven by AOR plays a predominant role in its chemotherapeutic activity. PMID:14977853

Dick, Ryan A; Yu, Xiang; Kensler, Thomas W

2004-02-15

90

Cloning and functional characterization of two cDNAs encoding NADPH-dependent 3-ketoacyl-CoA reductased from developing cotton fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genes encoding enzymes involved in biosynthesis of very long chain fatty acids were significantly up-regulated during early cotton fiber development. Two cDNAs, GhKCR1 and GhKCR2 encoding putative cotton 3-ketoacyl-CoA reductases that catalyze the second step in fatty acid elongation, were isolated from developing cotton fibers. GhKCR1 and 2 contain open reading frames of 963 bp and 924 bp encoding proteins

Yong Mei QIN; Francois MA PUJOL; Yong Hui SHI; Jian Xun FENG; Yi Ming LIU; Alexander J KASTANIOTIS; J Kalervo HILTUNEN; Yu Xian ZHU

2005-01-01

91

The P450 oxidoreductase, RedA, controls development beyond the mound stage in Dictyostelium discoideum  

PubMed Central

Background NADPH-cytochrome-P450 oxidoreductase (CPR) is a ubiquitous enzyme that belongs to a family of diflavin oxidoreductases and is required for activity of the microsomal cytochrome-P450 monooxygenase system. CPR gene-disruption experiments have demonstrated that absence of this enzyme causes developmental defects both in mouse and insect. Results Annotation of the sequenced genome of D. discoideum revealed the presence of three genes (redA, redB and redC) that encode putative members of the diflavin oxidoreductase protein family. redA transcripts are present during growth and early development but then decline, reaching undetectable levels after the mound stage. redB transcripts are present in the same levels during growth and development while redC expression was detected only in vegetative growing cells. We isolated a mutant strain of Dictyostelium discoideum following restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) mutagenesis in which redA was disrupted. This mutant develops only to the mound stage and accumulates a bright yellow pigment. The mound-arrest phenotype is cell-autonomous suggesting that the defect occurs within the cells rather than in intercellular signaling. Conclusion The developmental arrest due to disruption of redA implicates CPR in the metabolism of compounds that control cell differentiation.

Gonzalez-Kristeller, Daniela C; Farage, Layla; Fiorini, Leonardo C; Loomis, William F; da Silva, Aline M

2008-01-01

92

Replacing Escherichia coli NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) with a NADP-dependent enzyme from Clostridium acetobutylicum facilitates NADPH dependent pathways.  

PubMed

Reactions requiring reducing equivalents, NAD(P)H, are of enormous importance for the synthesis of industrially valuable compounds such as carotenoids, polymers, antibiotics and chiral alcohols among others. The use of whole-cell biocatalysis can reduce process cost by acting as catalyst and cofactor regenerator at the same time; however, product yields might be limited by cofactor availability within the cell. Thus, our study focussed on the genetic manipulation of a whole-cell system by modifying metabolic pathways and enzymes to improve the overall production process. In the present work, we genetically engineered an Escherichia coli strain to increase NADPH availability to improve the productivity of products that require NADPH in its biosynthesis. The approach involved an alteration of the glycolysis step where glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GAP) is oxidized to 1,3 bisphophoglycerate (1,3-BPG). This reaction is catalyzed by NAD-dependent endogenous glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) encoded by the gapA gene. We constructed a recombinant E. coli strain by replacing the native NAD-dependent gapA gene with a NADP-dependent GAPDH from Clostridium acetobutylicum, encoded by the gene gapC. The beauty of this approach is that the recombinant E. coli strain produces 2 mol of NADPH, instead of NADH, per mole of glucose consumed. Metabolic flux analysis showed that the flux through the pentose phosphate (PP) pathway, one of the main pathways that produce NADPH, was reduced significantly in the recombinant strain when compared to that of the parent strain. The effectiveness of the NADPH enhancing system was tested using the production of lycopene and epsilon-caprolactone as model systems using two different background strains. The recombinant strains, with increased NADPH availability, consistently showed significant higher productivity than the parent strains. PMID:18852061

Martínez, Irene; Zhu, Jiangfeng; Lin, Henry; Bennett, George N; San, Ka-Yiu

2008-11-01

93

Protein Method for Investigating Mercuric Reductase Gene Expression in Aquatic Environments  

PubMed Central

A colorimetric assay for NADPH-dependent, mercuric ion-specific oxidoreductase activity was developed to facilitate the investigation of mercuric reductase gene expression in polluted aquatic ecosystems. Protein molecules extracted directly from unseeded freshwater and samples seeded with Pseudomonas aeruginosa PU21(Rip64) were quantitatively assayed for mercuric reductase activity in microtiter plates by stoichiometric coupling of mercuric ion reduction to a colorimetric redox chain through NADPH oxidation. Residual NADPH was determined by titration with phenazine methosulfate-catalyzed reduction of methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium to produce visible formazan. Spectrophotometric determination of formazan concentration showed a positive correlation with the amount of NADPH remaining in the reaction mixture (r2 = 0.99). Mercuric reductase activity in the protein extracts was inversely related to the amount of NADPH remaining and to the amount of formazan produced. A qualitative nitrocellulose membrane-based version of the method was also developed, where regions of mercuric reductase activity remained colorless against a stained-membrane background. The assay detected induced mercuric reductase activity from 102 CFU, and up to threefold signal intensity was detected in seeded freshwater samples amended with mercury compared to that in mercury-free samples. The efficiency of extraction of bacterial proteins from the freshwater samples was (97 ± 2)% over the range of population densities investigated (102 to 108 CFU/ml). The method was validated by detection of enzyme activity in protein extracts of water samples from a polluted site harboring naturally occurring mercury-resistant bacteria. The new method is proposed as a supplement to the repertoire of molecular techniques available for assessing specific gene expression in heterogeneous microbial communities impacted by mercury pollution.

Ogunseitan, O. A.

1998-01-01

94

Differential expression of plastome-encoded ndh genes in mesophyll and bundle-sheath chloroplasts of the C 4 plant Sorghum bicolor indicates that the complex I-homologous NAD(P)H-plastoquinone oxidoreductase is involved in cyclic electron transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanobacteria and plastids harbor a putative NAD(P)H- or ferredoxin-plastoquinone oxidoreductase that is homologous to the NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) of mitochondria and eubacteria. The enzyme is a multimeric protein complex that consists of at least 11 subunits (NDH-A-K) and is localized in the stroma lamellae of the thylakoid membrane system. We investigated the expression of the different subunits of the

Andreas Kubicki; Edgar Funk; Peter Westhoff; Klaus Steinmiiller

1996-01-01

95

Alternative 2-keto acid oxidoreductase activities in Trichomonas vaginalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have induced high levels of resistance to metronidazole (1 mM or 170 ?g ml?1) in two different strains of Trichomonas vaginalis (BRIS\\/92\\/STDL\\/F1623 and BRIS\\/92\\/STDL\\/B7708) and have used one strain to identify two alternative T. vaginalis 2-keto acid oxidoreductases (KOR) both of which are distinct from the already characterised pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR). Unlike the characterised PFOR which is severely down-regulated

David M. Brown; Jacqueline A. Upcroft; Helen N. Dodd; Nanhua Chen; Peter Upcroft

1999-01-01

96

Origin and Evolution of the Sodium -Pumping NADH: Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase.  

PubMed

The sodium -pumping NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR) is the main ion pump and the primary entry site for electrons into the respiratory chain of many different types of pathogenic bacteria. This enzymatic complex creates a transmembrane gradient of sodium that is used by the cell to sustain ionic homeostasis, nutrient transport, ATP synthesis, flagellum rotation and other essential processes. Comparative genomics data demonstrate that the nqr operon, which encodes all Na+-NQR subunits, is found in a large variety of bacterial lineages with different habitats and metabolic strategies. Here we studied the distribution, origin and evolution of this enzymatic complex. The molecular phylogenetic analyses and the organizations of the nqr operon indicate that Na+-NQR evolved within the Chlorobi/Bacteroidetes group, after the duplication and subsequent neofunctionalization of the operon that encodes the homolog RNF complex. Subsequently, the nqr operon dispersed through multiple horizontal transfer events to other bacterial lineages such as Chlamydiae, Planctomyces and ?, ?, ? and ? -proteobacteria. Considering the biochemical properties of the Na+-NQR complex and its physiological role in different bacteria, we propose a detailed scenario to explain the molecular mechanisms that gave rise to its novel redox- dependent sodium -pumping activity. Our model postulates that the evolution of the Na+-NQR complex involved a functional divergence from its RNF homolog, following the duplication of the rnf operon, the loss of the rnfB gene and the recruitment of the reductase subunit of an aromatic monooxygenase. PMID:24809444

Reyes-Prieto, Adrian; Barquera, Blanca; Juárez, Oscar

2014-01-01

97

Origin and Evolution of the Sodium -Pumping NADH: Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase  

PubMed Central

The sodium -pumping NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR) is the main ion pump and the primary entry site for electrons into the respiratory chain of many different types of pathogenic bacteria. This enzymatic complex creates a transmembrane gradient of sodium that is used by the cell to sustain ionic homeostasis, nutrient transport, ATP synthesis, flagellum rotation and other essential processes. Comparative genomics data demonstrate that the nqr operon, which encodes all Na+-NQR subunits, is found in a large variety of bacterial lineages with different habitats and metabolic strategies. Here we studied the distribution, origin and evolution of this enzymatic complex. The molecular phylogenetic analyses and the organizations of the nqr operon indicate that Na+-NQR evolved within the Chlorobi/Bacteroidetes group, after the duplication and subsequent neofunctionalization of the operon that encodes the homolog RNF complex. Subsequently, the nqr operon dispersed through multiple horizontal transfer events to other bacterial lineages such as Chlamydiae, Planctomyces and ?, ?, ? and ? -proteobacteria. Considering the biochemical properties of the Na+-NQR complex and its physiological role in different bacteria, we propose a detailed scenario to explain the molecular mechanisms that gave rise to its novel redox- dependent sodium -pumping activity. Our model postulates that the evolution of the Na+-NQR complex involved a functional divergence from its RNF homolog, following the duplication of the rnf operon, the loss of the rnfB gene and the recruitment of the reductase subunit of an aromatic monooxygenase.

Reyes-Prieto, Adrian; Barquera, Blanca; Juarez, Oscar

2014-01-01

98

Small maf (MafG and MafK) proteins negatively regulate antioxidant response element-mediated expression and antioxidant induction of the NAD(P)H:Quinone oxidoreductase1 gene.  

PubMed

The antioxidant response element (ARE) is known to regulate expression and induction of NQO1, GST Ya, and other detoxifying enzyme genes in response to antioxidants and xenobiotics. The nuclear transcription factor Nrf2 and Nrf1 bind to the ARE and positively regulate expression and induction of the NQO1 and GST Ya genes. In this study, we demonstrate that overexpression of small Maf (MafG and MafK) proteins negatively regulate ARE-mediated expression and tert-butyl hydroquinone induction of the NQO1 and GST Ya genes in transfected Hep-G2 cells. In similar experiments, overexpression of small Maf proteins also repressed Nrf2-mediated up-regulation of ARE-mediated NQO1 and GST Ya genes expression in Hep-G2 cells co-transfected with Nrf2 and small Maf proteins. Band and supershift assays with the NQO1 gene ARE and nuclear proteins demonstrate that small MafG and MafK bind to the ARE as Maf-Maf homodimers and Maf-Nrf2 heterodimers. Therefore, Maf-Maf homodimers and possibly Maf-Nrf2 heterodimers play a role in negative regulation of ARE-mediated transcription and antioxidant induction of NQO1 and other detoxifying enzyme genes. In contrast to Maf-Nrf2, the Maf-Nrf1 heterodimers failed to bind with the NQO1 gene ARE and did not demonstrate the repressive effect in transfection assays. PMID:11013233

Dhakshinamoorthy, S; Jaiswal, A K

2000-12-22

99

GMC oxidoreductase, a highly expressed protein in a potent biocontrol agent Fusarium oxysporum Cong:1-2, is dispensable for biocontrol activity.  

PubMed

A spontaneous non-pathogenic variant (Cong:1-2) derived from Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans (Cong: 1-1), a causal agent of cabbage yellows, carries biocontrol activity for cabbage yellows. We found a GMC oxidoreductase (ODX1) among the proteins expressed much more in Cong:1-2 than Cong:1-1 by 2D-DIGE comparison. GMC oxidoreductases have been reported to be involved in biocontrol activity of several plant pathogenic fungi. The gene encoding ODX1 in Cong:1-2 was cloned, and targeted disruption of the gene in Cong:1-2 did not affect its biocontrol activity, suggesting that GMC oxidoreductase is dispensable for biocontrol activity in the fungal biocontrol agent. PMID:21914969

Kawabe, Masato; Okabe Onokubo, Akiko; Arimoto, Yutaka; Yoshida, Takanobu; Azegami, Koji; Teraoka, Tohru; Arie, Tsutomu

2011-01-01

100

Overexpression of Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase C Regulates Oxidative Stress in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Light absorbed by colored intermediates of chlorophyll biosynthesis is not utilized in photosynthesis; instead, it is transferred to molecular oxygen, generating singlet oxygen (1O2). As there is no enzymatic detoxification mechanism available in plants to destroy 1O2, its generation should be minimized. We manipulated the concentration of a major chlorophyll biosynthetic intermediate i.e., protochlorophyllide in Arabidopsis by overexpressing the light-inducible protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase C (PORC) that effectively phototransforms endogenous protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide leading to minimal accumulation of the photosensitizer protochlorophyllide in light-grown plants. In PORC overexpressing (PORCx) plants exposed to high-light, the 1O2 generation and consequent malonedialdehyde production was minimal and the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II remained unaffected demonstrating that their photosynthetic apparatus and cellular organization were intact. Further, PORCx plants treated with 5-aminolevulinicacid when exposed to light, photo-converted over-accumulated protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide, reduced the generation of 1O2 and malonedialdehyde production and reduced plasma membrane damage. So PORCx plants survived and bolted whereas, the 5-aminolevulinicacid-treated wild-type plants perished. Thus, overexpression of PORC could be biotechnologically exploited in crop plants for tolerance to 1O2-induced oxidative stress, paving the use of 5-aminolevulinicacid as a selective commercial light-activated biodegradable herbicide. Reduced protochlorophyllide content in PORCx plants released the protochlorophyllide-mediated feed-back inhibition of 5-aminolevulinicacid biosynthesis that resulted in higher 5-aminolevulinicacid production. Increase of 5-aminolevulinicacid synthesis upregulated the gene and protein expression of several downstream chlorophyll biosynthetic enzymes elucidating a regulatory net work of expression of genes involved in 5-aminolevulinicacid and tetrapyrrole biosynthesis.

Pattanayak, Gopal K.; Tripathy, Baishnab C.

2011-01-01

101

Menaquinol-nitrate oxidoreductase of Bacillus halodenitrificans.  

PubMed

When grown anaerobically on nitrate-containing medium, Bacillus halodenitrificans exhibited a membrane-bound nitrate reductase (NR) that was solubilized by 2% Triton X-100 but not by 1% cholate or deoxycholate. Purification on columns of DE-52, hydroxylapatite, and Sephacryl S-300 yielded reduced methyl viologen NR (MVH-NR) with specific activities of 20 to 35 U/mg of protein that was stable when stored in 40% sucrose at -20 degrees C for 6 weeks. 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-2-hydroxypropone-1-sulfonat e (CHAPSO) and dodecyl-beta-D-maltoside stimulated enzyme activity three- to fourfold. Membrane extractions yielded purified NR that separated after electrophoresis into a 145-kDa alpha subunit, a 58-kDa beta subunit, and a 23-kDa gamma subunit. The electronic spectrum of dithionite-reduced, purified NR displayed peaks at 424.6, 527, and 557 nm, indicative of the presence of a cytochrome b, an interpretation consistent with the pyridine hemochrome spectrum formed. Analyses revealed a molybdenum-heme-non-heme iron ratio of 1:1:8 for the NR and the presence of molybdopterin. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signals characteristic of iron-sulfur centers were detected at low temperature. EPR also revealed a minor signal centered in the g = 2 region of the spectra. Upon reduction with dithionite, the enzyme displayed signals at g = 2.064, 2.026, 1.906, and 1.888, indicative of the presence of low-potential iron-sulfur centers, which resolve most probably as two [4Fe-4S]+1 clusters. With menadiol as the substrate for nitrate reduction, the Km for nitrate was 50-fold less than that seen when MVH was the electron donor. The cytochrome b557-containing enzyme from B. halodenitrificans is characterized as a menaquinol-nitrate:oxidoreductase. PMID:2013572

Ketchum, P A; Denariaz, G; LeGall, J; Payne, W J

1991-04-01

102

Menaquinol-nitrate oxidoreductase of Bacillus halodenitrificans.  

PubMed Central

When grown anaerobically on nitrate-containing medium, Bacillus halodenitrificans exhibited a membrane-bound nitrate reductase (NR) that was solubilized by 2% Triton X-100 but not by 1% cholate or deoxycholate. Purification on columns of DE-52, hydroxylapatite, and Sephacryl S-300 yielded reduced methyl viologen NR (MVH-NR) with specific activities of 20 to 35 U/mg of protein that was stable when stored in 40% sucrose at -20 degrees C for 6 weeks. 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-2-hydroxypropone-1-sulfonat e (CHAPSO) and dodecyl-beta-D-maltoside stimulated enzyme activity three- to fourfold. Membrane extractions yielded purified NR that separated after electrophoresis into a 145-kDa alpha subunit, a 58-kDa beta subunit, and a 23-kDa gamma subunit. The electronic spectrum of dithionite-reduced, purified NR displayed peaks at 424.6, 527, and 557 nm, indicative of the presence of a cytochrome b, an interpretation consistent with the pyridine hemochrome spectrum formed. Analyses revealed a molybdenum-heme-non-heme iron ratio of 1:1:8 for the NR and the presence of molybdopterin. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signals characteristic of iron-sulfur centers were detected at low temperature. EPR also revealed a minor signal centered in the g = 2 region of the spectra. Upon reduction with dithionite, the enzyme displayed signals at g = 2.064, 2.026, 1.906, and 1.888, indicative of the presence of low-potential iron-sulfur centers, which resolve most probably as two [4Fe-4S]+1 clusters. With menadiol as the substrate for nitrate reduction, the Km for nitrate was 50-fold less than that seen when MVH was the electron donor. The cytochrome b557-containing enzyme from B. halodenitrificans is characterized as a menaquinol-nitrate:oxidoreductase. Images

Ketchum, P A; Denariaz, G; LeGall, J; Payne, W J

1991-01-01

103

Characterization of the human SDHC gene encoding one of the integral membrane proteins of succinate–quinone oxidoreductase in mitochondria 1 The first two authors contributed equally to this paper. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex II of mitochondria contains succinate dehydrogenase and subunits to link this enzyme directly to the inner mitochondrial membrane. The four peptides of this complex are the flavoprotein (Fp) and iron–sulfur protein (Ip) of the dehydrogenase, and two integral membrane proteins referred to as CII-3 and CII-4. Their respective genes in mammals are SDHA, SDHB, SDHC and SDHD,2The nomenclature for

Amina Elbehti-Green; Harry C Au; James T Mascarello; Deena Ream-Robinson; Immo E Scheffler

1998-01-01

104

Assignment of Electron Transfer Flavoprotein-Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase (ETF-QO) to Human Chromosome 4q33 by Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization and Somatic Cell Hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF-QO) is a nuclear-encoded protein located in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Inherited defects of ETF-QO cause glutaric acidemia type II. We here describe the localization of the ETF-QO gene to human chromosome 4q33 by somatic cell hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization.

Elaine B. Spector; William K. Seltzer; Stephen I. Goodman

1999-01-01

105

Regulation of yeast replicative life span by thiol oxidoreductases  

PubMed Central

Thiol-based redox reactions are involved in the regulation of a variety of biological functions, such as protection against oxidative stress, signal transduction and protein folding. Some proteins involved in redox regulation have been shown to modulate life span in organisms from yeast to mammals. To assess the role of thiol oxidoreductases in aging on a genome-wide scale, we analyzed the replicative life span of yeast cells lacking known and candidate thiol oxidoreductases. The data suggest the role of several pathways in regulation of yeast aging, including thioredoxin reduction, protein folding and degradation, peroxide reduction, PIP3 signaling, and ATP synthesis.

Hacioglu, Elise; Esmer, Isil; Fomenko, Dmitri E.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Koc, Ahmet

2011-01-01

106

Uric acid and xanthine oxidoreductase in wound healing.  

PubMed

Chronic wounds are an important health problem because they are difficult to heal and treatment is often complicated, lengthy and expensive. For a majority of sufferers the most common outcomes are long-term immobility, infection and prolonged hospitalisation. There is therefore an urgent need for effective therapeutics that will enhance ulcer healing and patient quality of life, and will reduce healthcare costs. Studies in our laboratory have revealed elevated levels of purine catabolites in wound fluid from patients with venous leg ulcers. In particular, we have discovered that uric acid is elevated in wound fluid, with higher concentrations correlating with increased wound severity. We have also revealed a corresponding depletion in uric acid precursors, including adenosine. Further, we have revealed that xanthine oxidoreductase, the enzyme that catalyses the production of uric acid, is present at elevated levels in wound fluid. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that xanthine oxidoreductase may have a function in the formation or persistence of chronic wounds. Here we describe the potential function of xanthine oxidoreductase and uric acid accumulation in the wound site, and the effect of xanthine oxidoreductase in potentiating the inflammatory response. PMID:24357442

Fernandez, Melissa L; Upton, Zee; Shooter, Gary K

2014-02-01

107

Cellobiose-quinone oxidoreductase —application in monitoring cellobiohydrolase purification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzymatic saccharification of cellulose has traditionally been monitored via total reducing sugar analyses. Yet with cellobiohydrolase being a major component of fungal and actinomycete cellulases, there is a need for a more specific measurement of cellobiose besides other soluble cellulodextrin products without interference from glucose, the major product of cellulose saccharification. One approach is to utilize cellobiose: quinone oxidoreductase

Thomas J. Kelleher; Bland S. Montenecourt; Douglas E. Eveleigh

1987-01-01

108

Tryphostin AG879, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor: prevention of transcriptional activation of the electrophile and the aromatic hydrocarbon response elements 1 1 Abbreviations: EPRE, electrophile response element; AHRE, aromatic hydrocarbon response element; MRE, metal response element; Nqo1 and NQO1, mouse NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase [also called NMO1, quinone reductase, DT-diaphorase] gene and mRNA; Cyp1a1 and CYP1A1, mouse cytochrome P450 1A1 gene and mRNA; Mt1 and MT1, mouse metallothionein-1 gene and mRNA; Sod, mouse Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase gene; SOD, rat Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase gene; SOD, mouse and rat Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase mRNA and protein; Luc and LUC, firefly luciferase gene and enzyme; BGAL, ?-galactosidase enzyme activity; tBHQ, tert-butylhydroquinone; dioxin (also TCDD), 2,3,7,8-tetrahydro chlorodibenzo- p-dioxin; SSC, standard sodium citrate; and SET, sodium ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) Tris buffer  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate a possible role of phosphorylation in the signal transduction pathways responsible for transcriptional regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes, we tested seven specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors (tyrphostins) for their effects on NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1) mRNA levels in mouse hepatoma Hepa-1c1c7 (Hepa-1) cells and chose to study AG879 further. The potent electrophile tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) is known to activate NQO1 gene transcription

Matthew Z Dieter; Sarah L Freshwater; Willy A Solis; Daniel W Nebert; Timothy P Dalton

2001-01-01

109

Putative mutation mechanism and light responses of a protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase-less barley mutant NYB.  

PubMed

NYB (Nanchong Yellow Barley) is a Chl-less barley mutant, which is controlled by a recessive nuclear gene. It is the only protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases (POR)-less barley mutant known in the world. The putative mechanism of the mutation and its Chl synthesis and plastid development are studied here. Neither PORC nor an additional copy of porB could be detected in barley. porB mRNAs are normally expressed and correctly spliced in the mutant. However, the import of PORA, PORB, LHCIIb1 (light harvesting complex II b1) and SSU (small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) proteins to the plastid was greatly hampered in the mutant. We presume that a common translocon is mutated in NYB. The content of the supramolecular light-harvesting POR complex LHPP (light-harvesting NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase:protochlorophyllide) and the density of prolamellar bodies in etioplasts are decreased in the mutant. However, no further oxidative damage could be observed for the de-etiolated mutant seedlings after a dark to light shift. Development of the plastid is arrested (less stacking) in NYB, and the mutant becomes more yellowish in high-light conditions, with dwarfing of seedlings and decreased yield. The physiological significance and developmental roles of POR proteins and LHPP in barley cells are discussed. PMID:20616380

Yuan, Ming; Yuan, Shu; Zhang, Zhong-Wei; Xu, Fei; Chen, Yang-Er; Du, Jun-Bo; Lin, Hong-Hui

2010-08-01

110

Assembly of the Escherichia coli NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I).  

PubMed

The proton-pumping NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase is the first of the respiratory chain complexes in many bacteria and the mitochondria of most eukaryotes. In general, the bacterial complex consists of 14 different subunits. In addition to the homologues of these subunits, the mitochondrial complex contains approximately 31 additional proteins. While it was shown that the mitochondrial complex is assembled from distinct intermediates, nothing is known about the assembly of the bacterial complex. We used Escherichia coli mutants, in which the nuo-genes coding the subunits of complex I were individually disrupted by an insertion of a resistance cartridge to determine whether they are required for the assembly of a functional complex I. No complex I-mediated enzyme activity was detectable in the mutant membranes and it was not possible to extract a structurally intact complex I from the mutant membranes. However, the subunits and the cofactors of the soluble NADH dehydrogenase fragment of the complex were detected in the cytoplasm of some of the nuo-mutants. It is discussed whether this fragment represents an assembly intermediate. In addition, a membrane-bound fragment exhibiting NADH/ferricyanide oxidoreductase activity and containing the iron-sulfur cluster N2 was detected in one mutant. PMID:18394423

Schneider, Daniel; Pohl, Thomas; Walter, Julia; Dörner, Katerina; Kohlstädt, Markus; Berger, Annette; Spehr, Volker; Friedrich, Thorsten

2008-01-01

111

The Bifunctional Pyruvate Decarboxylase/Pyruvate Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase from Thermococcus guaymasensis  

PubMed Central

The hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus guaymasensis produces ethanol as a metabolic end product, and an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) catalyzing the reduction of acetaldehyde to ethanol has been purified and characterized. However, the enzyme catalyzing the formation of acetaldehyde has not been identified. In this study an enzyme catalyzing the production of acetaldehyde from pyruvate was purified and characterized from T. guaymasensis under strictly anaerobic conditions. The enzyme had both pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) and pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (POR) activities. It was oxygen sensitive, and the optimal temperatures were 85°C and >95°C for the PDC and POR activities, respectively. The purified enzyme had activities of 3.8 ± 0.22?U?mg?1 and 20.2 ± 1.8?U?mg?1, with optimal pH-values of 9.5 and 8.4 for each activity, respectively. Coenzyme A was essential for both activities, although it did not serve as a substrate for the former. Enzyme kinetic parameters were determined separately for each activity. The purified enzyme was a heterotetramer. The sequences of the genes encoding the subunits of the bifunctional PDC/POR were determined. It is predicted that all hyperthermophilic ?-keto acids ferredoxin oxidoreductases are bifunctional, catalyzing the activities of nonoxidative and oxidative decarboxylation of the corresponding ?-keto acids.

2014-01-01

112

Pyruvate:Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase Is Coupled to Light-independent Hydrogen Production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii*  

PubMed Central

In anaerobiosis, the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii evolves molecular hydrogen (H2) as one of several fermentation products. H2 is generated mostly by the [Fe-Fe]-hydrogenase HYDA1, which uses plant type ferredoxin PETF/FDX1 (PETF) as an electron donor. Dark fermentation of the alga is mainly of the mixed acid type, because formate, ethanol, and acetate are generated by a pyruvate:formate lyase pathway similar to Escherichia coli. However, C. reinhardtii also possesses the pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase PFR1, which, like pyruvate:formate lyase and HYDA1, is localized in the chloroplast. PFR1 has long been suggested to be responsible for the low but significant H2 accumulation in the dark because the catalytic mechanism of pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase involves the reduction of ferredoxin. With the aim of proving the biochemical feasibility of the postulated reaction, we have heterologously expressed the PFR1 gene in E. coli. Purified recombinant PFR1 is able to transfer electrons from pyruvate to HYDA1, using the ferredoxins PETF and FDX2 as electron carriers. The high reactivity of PFR1 toward oxaloacetate indicates that in vivo, fermentation might also be coupled to an anaerobically active glyoxylate cycle. Our results suggest that C. reinhardtii employs a clostridial type H2 production pathway in the dark, especially because C. reinhardtii PFR1 was also able to allow H2 evolution in reaction mixtures containing Clostridium acetobutylicum 2[4Fe-4S]-ferredoxin and [Fe-Fe]-hydrogenase HYDA.

Noth, Jens; Krawietz, Danuta; Hemschemeier, Anja; Happe, Thomas

2013-01-01

113

Molecular Evolution of the Aldo-keto Reductase Gene Superfamily  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The aldo-keto reductase enzymes comprise a functionally diverse gene family which catalyze the NADPH-dependant reduction\\u000a of a variety of carbonyl compounds. The protein sequences of 45 members of this family were aligned and phylogenetic trees\\u000a were deduced from this alignment using the neighbor-joining and Fitch algorithms. The branching order of these trees indicates\\u000a that the vertebrate enzymes cluster in

L. T. Seery; P. V. Nestor; G. A. FitzGerald

1998-01-01

114

A unifying kinetic framework for modeling oxidoreductase-catalyzed reactions  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Oxidoreductases are a fundamental class of enzymes responsible for the catalysis of oxidation–reduction reactions, crucial in most bioenergetic metabolic pathways. From their common root in the ancient prebiotic environment, oxidoreductases have evolved into diverse and elaborate protein structures with specific kinetic properties and mechanisms adapted to their individual functional roles and environmental conditions. While accurate kinetic modeling of oxidoreductases is thus important, current models suffer from limitations to the steady-state domain, lack empirical validation or are too specialized to a single system or set of conditions. Results: To address these limitations, we introduce a novel unifying modeling framework for kinetic descriptions of oxidoreductases. The framework is based on a set of seven elementary reactions that (i) form the basis for 69 pairs of enzyme state transitions for encoding various specific microscopic intra-enzyme reaction networks (micro-models), and (ii) lead to various specific macroscopic steady-state kinetic equations (macro-models) via thermodynamic assumptions. Thus, a synergistic bridge between the micro and macro kinetics can be achieved, enabling us to extract unitary rate constants, simulate reaction variance and validate the micro-models using steady-state empirical data. To help facilitate the application of this framework, we make available RedoxMech: a Mathematica™ software package that automates the generation and customization of micro-models. Availability: The Mathematica™ source code for RedoxMech, the documentation and the experimental datasets are all available from: http://www.igb.uci.edu/tools/sb/metabolic-modeling. Contact: pfbaldi@ics.uci.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

Chang, Ivan; Baldi, Pierre

2013-01-01

115

Molybdenum Incorporation in Tungsten Aldehyde Oxidoreductase Enzymes from Pyrococcus furiosus? †  

PubMed Central

The hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus expresses five aldehyde oxidoreductase (AOR) enzymes, all containing a tungsto-bispterin cofactor. The growth of this organism is fully dependent on the presence of tungsten in the growth medium. Previous studies have suggested that molybdenum is not incorporated in the active site of these enzymes. Application of the radioisotope 99Mo in metal isotope native radioautography in gel electrophoresis (MIRAGE) technology to P. furiosus shows that molybdenum can in fact be incorporated in all five AOR enzymes. Mo(V) signals characteristic for molybdopterin were observed in formaldehyde oxidoreductase (FOR) in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-monitored redox titrations. Our finding that the aldehyde oxidation activity of FOR and WOR5 (W-containing oxidoreductase 5) correlates only with the residual tungsten content suggests that the Mo-containing AORs are most likely inactive. An observed W/Mo antagonism is indicative of tungstate-dependent negative feedback of the expression of the tungstate/molybdate ABC transporter. An intracellular selection mechanism for tungstate and molybdate processing has to be present, since tungsten was found to be preferentially incorporated into the AORs even under conditions with comparable intracellular concentrations of tungstate and molybdate. Under the employed growth conditions of starch as the main carbon source in a rich medium, no tungsten- and/or molybdenum-associated proteins are detected in P. furiosus other than the high-affinity transporter, the proteins of the metallopterin insertion machinery, and the five W-AORs.

Sevcenco, Ana-Maria; Bevers, Loes E.; Pinkse, Martijn W. H.; Krijger, Gerard C.; Wolterbeek, Hubert T.; Verhaert, Peter D. E. M.; Hagen, Wilfred R.; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon

2010-01-01

116

Ero1-? and PDIs constitute a hierarchical electron transfer network of endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductases  

PubMed Central

Ero1-? and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) oxidoreductases of the protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family promote the efficient introduction of disulfide bonds into nascent polypeptides in the ER. However, the hierarchy of electron transfer among these oxidoreductases is poorly understood. In this paper, Ero1-?–associated oxidoreductases were identified by proteomic analysis and further confirmed by surface plasmon resonance. Ero1-? and PDI were found to constitute a regulatory hub, whereby PDI induced conformational flexibility in an Ero1-? shuttle cysteine (Cys99) facilitated intramolecular electron transfer to the active site. In isolation, Ero1-? also oxidized ERp46, ERp57, and P5; however, kinetic measurements and redox equilibrium analysis revealed that PDI preferentially oxidized other oxidoreductases. PDI accepted electrons from the other oxidoreductases via its a? domain, bypassing the a domain, which serves as the electron acceptor from reduced glutathione. These observations provide an integrated picture of the hierarchy of cooperative redox interactions among ER oxidoreductases in mammalian cells.

Araki, Kazutaka; Iemura, Shun-ichiro; Kamiya, Yukiko; Ron, David; Kato, Koichi; Natsume, Tohru

2013-01-01

117

Association of the NAD(P)H:quinone Oxidoreductase 609C3 T Polymorphism with a Decreased Lung Cancer Risk1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase gene, NQO1, often carries a C3 T transition at bp 609, which has been associated with a reduced enzymatic activity and which may result in altered metabolic activation of tobacco smoke procarcinogens. We tested the association of this polymorphism with lung cancer risk in a population-based case-control study of 327 cases and 440 controls of Caucasian, Japanese,

Hongwei Chen; Annette Lum; Ann Seifried; Lynne R. Wilkens; Loic Le Marchand

118

Studies on the expression of NDH-H, a subunit of the NAD(P)H-plastoquinone-oxidoreductase of higher-plant chloroplasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plastid genomes of higher plants contain eleven reading frames (ndhA-K) that are homologous to genes encoding subunits of the mitochondrial NADH-ubiquinone-oxidoreductase (complex I). The carboxyterminal end of the NDH-H subunit from rice (Oryza sativa L.) was expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli and antibodies against the fusion protein were generated in rabbits. The antibody was used to

Susanne Berger; Ulrike Ellersiek; Peter Westhoff; Klaus Steinmiiller

1993-01-01

119

Pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase is coupled to light-independent hydrogen production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.  

PubMed

In anaerobiosis, the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii evolves molecular hydrogen (H(2)) as one of several fermentation products. H(2) is generated mostly by the [Fe-Fe]-hydrogenase HYDA1, which uses plant type ferredoxin PETF/FDX1 (PETF) as an electron donor. Dark fermentation of the alga is mainly of the mixed acid type, because formate, ethanol, and acetate are generated by a pyruvate:formate lyase pathway similar to Escherichia coli. However, C. reinhardtii also possesses the pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase PFR1, which, like pyruvate:formate lyase and HYDA1, is localized in the chloroplast. PFR1 has long been suggested to be responsible for the low but significant H(2) accumulation in the dark because the catalytic mechanism of pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase involves the reduction of ferredoxin. With the aim of proving the biochemical feasibility of the postulated reaction, we have heterologously expressed the PFR1 gene in E. coli. Purified recombinant PFR1 is able to transfer electrons from pyruvate to HYDA1, using the ferredoxins PETF and FDX2 as electron carriers. The high reactivity of PFR1 toward oxaloacetate indicates that in vivo, fermentation might also be coupled to an anaerobically active glyoxylate cycle. Our results suggest that C. reinhardtii employs a clostridial type H(2) production pathway in the dark, especially because C. reinhardtii PFR1 was also able to allow H(2) evolution in reaction mixtures containing Clostridium acetobutylicum 2[4Fe-4S]-ferredoxin and [Fe-Fe]-hydrogenase HYDA. PMID:23258532

Noth, Jens; Krawietz, Danuta; Hemschemeier, Anja; Happe, Thomas

2013-02-01

120

Carbon monoxide:methylene blue oxidoreductase from Pseudomonas carboxydovorans.  

PubMed Central

The enzyme carbon monoxide:methylene blue oxidoreductase from CO autotrophically grown cells of Pseudomonas carboxydovorans strain OM5, was purified to homogeneity. The enzyme was obtained in 26% yield and was purified 36-fold. The enzyme was stable for at least 6 days, had a molecular weight of 230,000, gave a single protein and activity band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and was homogeneous by the criterion of sedimentation equilibrium. Sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis revealed a single band of molecular weight 107,000. Carbon monoxide:methylene blue oxidoreductase did not catalyze reduction of pyridine or flavin nucleotides but catalyzed the oxidation of CO to CO2 in the presence of methylene blue, thionine, toluylene blue, dichlorophenolindophenol, or pyocyanine under strictly anaerobic conditions. The visible spectrum revealed maxima at 405 and 470 nm. The millimolar extinction coefficients were 43.9 (405 nm) and 395.5 (275 nm), respectively. Absorption at 470 nm decreased in the presence of dithionite, and the spectrum was not affected by the substrate CO. Maximum reaction rates were found at pH 7.0 and 63 degrees C; temperature dependence followed the Arrhenius equation, with an activation energy (delta H degree) of 36.8 kJ/mol (8.8 kcal/mol). The apparent Km was 53 microM for CO. The purified enzyme was incapable of oxidizing methane, methanol, or formaldehyde in the presence of methylene blue as electron acceptor. Images

Meyer, O; Schlegel, H G

1980-01-01

121

Rubrerythrin and Rubredoxin Oxidoreductase in Desulfovibrio vulgaris: a Novel Oxidative Stress Protection System  

PubMed Central

Evidence is presented for an alternative to the superoxide dismutase (SOD)-catalase oxidative stress defense system in Desulfovibrio vulgaris (strain Hildenborough). This alternative system consists of the nonheme iron proteins, rubrerythrin (Rbr) and rubredoxin oxidoreductase (Rbo), the product of the rbo gene (also called desulfoferrodoxin). A ?rbo strain of D. vulgaris was found to be more sensitive to internal superoxide exposure than was the wild type. Unlike Rbo, expression of plasmid-borne Rbr failed to restore the aerobic growth of a SOD-deficient strain of Escherichia coli. Conversely, plasmid-borne expression of two different Rbrs from D. vulgaris increased the viability of a catalase-deficient strain of E. coli that had been exposed to hydrogen peroxide whereas Rbo actually decreased the viability. A previously undescribed D. vulgaris gene was found to encode a protein having 50% sequence identity to that of E. coli Fe-SOD. This gene also encoded an extended N-terminal sequence with high homologies to export signal peptides of periplasmic redox proteins. The SOD activity of D. vulgaris is not affected by the absence of Rbo and is concentrated in the periplasmic fraction of cell extracts. These results are consistent with a superoxide reductase rather than SOD activity of Rbo and with a peroxidase activity of Rbr. A joint role for Rbo and Rbr as a novel cytoplasmic oxidative stress protection system in D. vulgaris and other anaerobic microorganisms is proposed.

Lumppio, Heather L.; Shenvi, Neeta V.; Summers, Anne O.; Voordouw, Gerrit; Kurtz, Donald M.

2001-01-01

122

The NAD(P)H-Utilizing Glutamate Dehydrogenase of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicronBelongs to Enzyme Family I, and Its Activity Is Affected bytrans-Acting Gene(s) Positioned Downstream ofgdhA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have suggested that regulation of the enzymes of ammonia assimilation in human colonic Bacteroides species is coordinated differently than in other eubacteria. The gene encoding an NAD(P)H- dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (gdhA )i nBacteroides thetaiotaomicron was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli by mutant complementation from the recombinant plasmid pANS100. Examination of the predicted GdhA amino acid sequence revealed

LAURIE BAGGIO; ANDMARK MORRISON

123

Arabidopsis light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase A (PORA) is essential for normal plant growth and development.  

PubMed

During skotomorphogenesis in angiosperms, NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) forms an aggregate of photolabile NADPH-POR-protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) ternary complexes localized to the prolamellar bodies within etioplasts. During photomorphogenesis, POR catalyzes the light-dependent reduction of Pchlide a to chlorophyllide (Chlide) a, which is subsequently converted to chlorophyll (Chl). In Arabidopsis there are three structurally related POR genes, denoted PORA, PORB and PORC. The PORA and PORB proteins accumulate during skotomorphogenesis. During illumination, PORA is only transiently expressed, whereas PORB and PORC persist and are responsible for bulk Chl synthesis throughout plant development. Here we have tested whether PORA is important for skotomorphogenesis by assisting in etioplast development, and normal photomorphogenic development. Using reverse genetic approaches, we have identified the porA-1 null mutant, which contains an insertion of the maize Dissociation transposable element in the PORA gene. Additionally, we have characterized PORA RNAi lines. The porA-1 and PORA RNAi lines display severe photoautotrophic growth defects, which can be partially rescued on sucrose-supplemented growth media. Elimination of PORA during skotomorphogenesis results in reductions in the volume and frequency of prolamellar bodies, and in photoactive Pchlide conversion. The porA-1 mutant characterization thus establishes a quantitative requirement for PORA in etioplast development by demonstrating significant membrane ultrastructural and biochemical defects, in addition to suggesting PORA-specific functions in photomorphogenesis and plant development. PMID:22278767

Paddock, Troy; Lima, Daniel; Mason, Mary E; Apel, Klaus; Armstrong, Gregory A

2012-03-01

124

Untargeted Plasma Metabolite Profiling Reveals the Broad Systemic Consequences of Xanthine Oxidoreductase Inactivation in Mice  

PubMed Central

A major challenge in systems biology is integration of molecular findings for individual enzyme activities into a cohesive high-level understanding of cellular metabolism and physiology/pathophysiology. However, meaningful prediction for how a perturbed enzyme activity will globally impact metabolism in a cell, tissue or intact organisms is precluded by multiple unknowns, including in vivo enzymatic rates, subcellular distribution and pathway interactions. To address this challenge, metabolomics offers the potential to simultaneously survey changes in thousands of structurally diverse metabolites within complex biological matrices. The present study assessed the capability of untargeted plasma metabolite profiling to discover systemic changes arising from inactivation of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR), an enzyme that catalyzes the final steps in purine degradation. Using LC-MS coupled with a multivariate statistical data analysis platform, we confidently surveyed >3,700 plasma metabolites (50–1,000 Da) for differential expression in XOR wildtype vs. mice with inactivated XOR, arising from gene deletion or pharmacological inhibition. Results confirmed the predicted derangements in purine metabolism, but also revealed unanticipated perturbations in metabolism of pyrimidines, nicotinamides, tryptophan, phospholipids, Krebs and urea cycles, and revealed kidney dysfunction biomarkers. Histochemical studies confirmed and characterized kidney failure in xor-nullizygous mice. These findings provide new insight into XOR functions and demonstrate the power of untargeted metabolite profiling for systemic discovery of direct and indirect consequences of gene mutations and drug treatments.

Chen, Qiuying; Park, Hyeong-Cheon; Goligorsky, Michael S.; Chander, Praveen; Fischer, Steven M.; Gross, Steven S.

2012-01-01

125

Catalytic properties of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-2 (NQO2), a dihydronicotinamide riboside dependent oxidoreductase.  

PubMed

Human NAD(P)H:quinone acceptor oxidoreductase-2 (NQO2) has been prepared using an Escherichia coli expression method. NQO2 is thought to be an isoform of DT-diaphorase (EC 1.6.99.2) [also referred to as NAD(P)H:quinone acceptor oxidoreductase] because there is a 49% identity between their amino acid sequences. The present investigation has revealed that like DT-diaphorase, NQO2 is a dimer enzyme with one FAD prosthetic group per subunit. Interestingly, NQO2 uses dihydronicotinamide riboside (NRH) rather than NAD(P)H as an electron donor. It catalyzes a two-electron reduction of quinones and oxidation-reduction dyes. One-electron acceptors, such as potassium ferricyanide, cannot be reduced by NQO2. This enzyme also catalyzes a four-electron reduction, using methyl red as the electron acceptor. The NRH-methyl red reductase activity of NQO2 is 11 times the NADH-methyl red reductase activity of DT-diaphorase. In addition, through a four-electron reduction reaction, NQO2 can catalyze nitroreduction of cytotoxic compound CB 1954 [5-(aziridin-1-yl)-2,4-dinitrobenzamide]. NQO2 is 3000 times more effective than DT-diaphorase in the reduction of CB 1954. Therefore, NQO2 is a NRH-dependent oxidoreductase which catalyzes two- and four-electron reduction reactions. NQO2 is resistant to typical inhibitors of DT-diaphorase, such as dicumarol, Cibacron blue, and phenindone. Flavones are inhibitors of NQO2. However, structural requirements of flavones for the inhibition of NQO2 are different from those for DT-diaphorase. The most potent flavone inhibitor tested so far is quercetin (3,5,7,3',4'-. 6pentahydroxyflavone). It has been found that quercetin is a competitive inhibitor with respect to NRH (Ki = 21 nM). NQO2 is 43 amino acids shorter than DT-diaphorase, and it has been suggested that the carboxyl terminus of DT-diaphorase plays a role in substrate binding (S. Chen et al., Protein Sci. 3, 51-57, 1994). In order to understand better the basis of catalytic differences between NQO2 and DT-diaphorase, a human NQO2 with 43 amino acids from the carboxyl terminus of human DT-diaphorase (i.e., hNQO2-hDT43) has been prepared. hNQO2-hDT43 still uses NRH as an electron donor. In addition, the chimeric enzyme is inhibited by quercetin but not dicumarol. These results suggest that additional region(s) in these enzymes is involved in differentiating NRH from NAD(P)H. PMID:9367528

Wu, K; Knox, R; Sun, X Z; Joseph, P; Jaiswal, A K; Zhang, D; Deng, P S; Chen, S

1997-11-15

126

Purification and some properties of sulfite:ferric ion oxidoreductase from Thiobacillus ferrooxidans.  

PubMed Central

Sulfite:ferric ion oxidoreductase in the plasma membrane of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans AP19-3 was purified to an electrophoretically homogeneous state. The enzyme had an apparent molecular weight of 650,000 and was composed of two subunits (M(rs), 61,000 and 59,000) as estimated by sodium sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The Michaelis constants of sulfite:ferric ion oxidoreductase for Fe3+ and sulfite ions were 1.0 and 0.071 mM, respectively. Sulfite:ferric ion oxidoreductase suffered from end product inhibition by 1 mM Fe2+. Images

Sugio, T; Hirose, T; Ye, L Z; Tano, T

1992-01-01

127

Oxidative stress to human lymphocytes by xanthine oxidoreductase activity.  

PubMed

The in vitro toxicity of the reactive oxygen species generating enzyme xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) to human peripheral blood lymphocytes was studied after stimulation with phytohaemoagglutinin or anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies. Apoptosis and necrosis were induced by the XOR/hypoxanthine system in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. CD8+ lymphocytes showed a higher sensitivity than CD4+ cells to the XOR/hypoxanthine system. The occurrence of apoptosis was demonstrated by annexin-V binding to injured cell membrane, which was the most precocious alteration observed, followed by the increment of transglutaminase activity, which was significant at the lowest XOR concentration used. Nuclear damage was assessed by the increased hypodiploid nuclei and by DNA migration on gel electrophoresis, which turned to an apoptotic pattern before the occurrence of cell membrane necrotic lesions. Apoptosis was induced by XOR activity proportionally to substrate concentration and was prevented by the competitive enzyme inhibitor, allopurinol. The hydrogen peroxide scavenging enzyme, catalase, gave a higher protection than superoxide dismutase from the toxicity caused by the XOR/hypoxanthine system. Necrosis occurs in a variable percentage indicating that reactive oxygen species may trigger both apoptosis and necrosis in proliferating human lymphocytes, mostly depending on XOR concentration. PMID:11811520

Battelli, M G; Musiani, S; Tazzari, P L; Stirpe, F

2001-12-01

128

Functional characterization of the chloroplast ferric chelate oxidoreductase enzyme.  

PubMed

Iron (Fe) has an essential role in the biosynthesis of chlorophylls and redox cofactors, and thus chloroplast iron uptake is a process of special importance. The chloroplast ferric chelate oxidoreductase (cFRO) has a crucial role in this process but it is poorly characterized. To study the localization and mechanism of action of cFRO, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris cv Orbis) chloroplast envelope fractions were isolated by gradient ultracentrifugation, and their purity was tested by western blotting against different marker proteins. The ferric chelate reductase (FCR) activity of envelope fractions was studied in the presence of NAD(P)H (reductants) and FAD coenzymes. Reduction of Fe(III)-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was monitored spectrophotometrically by the Fe(II)-bathophenanthroline disulfonate complex formation. FCR activity, that is production of free Fe(II) for Fe uptake, showed biphasic saturation kinetics, and was clearly associated only to chloroplast inner envelope (cIE) vesicles. The reaction rate was > 2.5 times higher with NADPH than with NADH, which indicates the natural coenzyme preference of cFRO activity and its dependence on photosynthesis. FCR activity of cIE vesicles isolated from Fe-deficient plants also showed clear biphasic kinetics, where the KM of the low affinity component was elevated, and thus this component was down-regulated. PMID:24506824

Solti, Adám; Müller, Brigitta; Czech, Viktória; Sárvári, Éva; Fodor, Ferenc

2014-05-01

129

Elementary tetrahelical protein design for diverse oxidoreductase functions.  

PubMed

Emulating functions of natural enzymes in man-made constructs has proven challenging. Here we describe a man-made protein platform that reproduces many of the diverse functions of natural oxidoreductases without importing the complex and obscure interactions common to natural proteins. Our design is founded on an elementary, structurally stable 4-?-helix protein monomer with a minimalist interior malleable enough to accommodate various light- and redox-active cofactors and with an exterior tolerating extensive charge patterning for modulation of redox cofactor potentials and environmental interactions. Despite its modest size, the construct offers several independent domains for functional engineering that targets diverse natural activities, including dioxygen binding and superoxide and peroxide generation, interprotein electron transfer to natural cytochrome c and light-activated intraprotein energy transfer and charge separation approximating the core reactions of photosynthesis, cryptochrome and photolyase. The highly stable, readily expressible and biocompatible characteristics of these open-ended designs promise development of practical in vitro and in vivo applications. PMID:24121554

Farid, Tammer A; Kodali, Goutham; Solomon, Lee A; Lichtenstein, Bruce R; Sheehan, Molly M; Fry, Bryan A; Bialas, Chris; Ennist, Nathan M; Siedlecki, Jessica A; Zhao, Zhenyu; Stetz, Matthew A; Valentine, Kathleen G; Anderson, J L Ross; Wand, A Joshua; Discher, Bohdana M; Moser, Christopher C; Dutton, P Leslie

2013-12-01

130

Bacterial Na+-translocating ferredoxin:NAD+ oxidoreductase.  

PubMed

The anaerobic acetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium woodii carries out a unique type of Na(+)-motive, anaerobic respiration with caffeate as electron acceptor, termed "caffeate respiration." Central, and so far the only identified membrane-bound reaction in this respiration pathway, is a ferredoxin:NAD(+) oxidoreductase (Fno) activity. Here we show that inverted membrane vesicles of A. woodii couple electron transfer from reduced ferredoxin to NAD(+) with the transport of Na(+) from the outside into the lumen of the vesicles. Na(+) transport was electrogenic, and accumulation was inhibited by sodium ionophores but not protonophores, demonstrating a direct coupling of Fno activity to Na(+) transport. Results from inhibitor studies are consistent with the hypothesis that Fno activity coupled to Na(+) translocation is catalyzed by the Rnf complex, a membrane-bound, iron-sulfur and flavin-containing electron transport complex encoded by many bacterial and some archaeal genomes. Fno is a unique type of primary Na(+) pump and represents an early evolutionary mechanism of energy conservation that expands the redox range known to support life. In addition, it explains the lifestyle of many anaerobic bacteria and gives a mechanistic explanation for the enigma of the energetic driving force for the endergonic reduction of ferredoxin with NADH plus H(+) as reductant in a number of aerobic bacteria. PMID:20921383

Biegel, Eva; Müller, Volker

2010-10-19

131

NAD(P)H Quinone Oxidoreductase 1 Is Essential for Ozone-Induced Oxidative Stress in Mice and Humans  

PubMed Central

One host susceptibility factor for ozone identified in epidemiologic studies is NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). We hypothesized that after ozone exposure, NQO1 is required to increase 8-isoprostane (also known as F2-isoprostane) production, a recognized marker of ozone-induced oxidative stress, and to enhance airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness. In this report, we demonstrate that in contrast to wild-type mice, NQO1-null mice are resistant to ozone and have blunted responses, including decreased production of F2-isoprostane and keratinocyte chemokine, decreased airway inflammation, and diminished airway hyperreponsiveness. Importantly, these results in mice correlate with in vitro findings in humans. In primary human airway epithelial cells, inhibition of NQO1 by dicumarol blocks ozone-induced F2-isoprostane production and IL-8 gene expression. Together, these results demonstrate that NQO1 modulates cellular redox status and influences the biologic and physiologic effects of ozone.

Voynow, Judith A.; Fischer, Bernard M.; Zheng, Shuo; Potts, Erin N.; Grover, Amy R.; Jaiswal, Anil K.; Ghio, Andrew J.; Foster, W. Michael

2009-01-01

132

Chlorophyllide a oxidoreductase works as one of the divinyl reductases specifically involved in bacteriochlorophyll a biosynthesis.  

PubMed

Bacteriochlorophyll a is widely distributed among anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria. In bacteriochlorophyll a biosynthesis, the reduction of the C8 vinyl group in 8-vinyl-chlorophyllide a is catalyzed to produce chlorophyllide a by an 8-vinyl reductase called divinyl reductase (DVR), which has been classified into two types, BciA and BciB. However, previous studies demonstrated that mutants lacking the DVR still synthesize normal bacteriochlorophyll a with the C8 ethyl group and suggested the existence of an unknown "third" DVR. Meanwhile, we recently observed that chlorophyllide a oxidoreductase (COR) of a purple bacterium happened to show the 8-vinyl reduction of 8-vinyl-chlorophyllide a in vitro. In this study, we made a double mutant lacking BciA and COR of the purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides in order to investigate whether the mutant still produces pigments with the C8 ethyl group or if COR actually works as the third DVR. The single mutant deleting BciA or COR showed production of the C8 ethyl group pigments, whereas the double mutant accumulated 8-vinyl-chlorophyllide, indicating that there was no enzyme other than BciA and COR functioning as the unknown third DVR in Rhodobacter sphaeroides (note that this bacterium has no bciB gene). Moreover, some COR genes derived from other groups of anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria were introduced into the double mutant, and all of the complementary strains produced normal bacteriochlorophyll a. This observation indicated that COR of these bacteria performs two functions, reductions of the C8 vinyl group and the C7=C8 double bond, and that such an activity is probably conserved in the widely ranging groups. PMID:24637023

Harada, Jiro; Mizoguchi, Tadashi; Tsukatani, Yusuke; Yokono, Makio; Tanaka, Ayumi; Tamiaki, Hitoshi

2014-05-01

133

Ferredoxin:NADP+ Oxidoreductase Association with Phycocyanin Modulates Its Properties*  

PubMed Central

In photosynthetic organisms, ferredoxin:NADP+ oxidoreductase (FNR) is known to provide NADPH for CO2 assimilation, but it also utilizes NADPH to provide reduced ferredoxin. The cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803 produces two FNR isoforms, a small one (FNRS) similar to the one found in plant plastids and a large one (FNRL) that is associated with the phycobilisome, a light-harvesting complex. Here we show that a mutant lacking FNRL exhibits a higher NADP+/NADPH ratio. We also purified to homogeneity a phycobilisome subcomplex comprising FNRL, named FNRL-PC. The enzymatic activities of FNRL-PC were compared with those of FNRS. During NADPH oxidation, FNRL-PC exhibits a 30% decrease in the Michaelis constant Km(NADPH), and a 70% increase in Km(ferredoxin), which is in agreement with its predicted lower activity of ferredoxin reduction. During NADP+ reduction, the FNRL-PC shows a 29/43% decrease in the rate of single electron transfer from reduced ferredoxin in the presence/absence of NADP+. The increase in Km(ferredoxin) and the rate decrease of single reduction are attributed to steric hindrance by the phycocyanin moiety of FNRL-PC. Both isoforms are capable of catalyzing the NADP+ reduction under multiple turnover conditions. Furthermore, we obtained evidence that, under high ionic strength conditions, electron transfer from reduced ferredoxin is rate limiting during this process. The differences that we observe might not fully explain the in vivo properties of the Synechocystis mutants expressing only one of the isoforms. Therefore, we advocate that FNR localization and/or substrates availability are essential in vivo.

Korn, Anja; Ajlani, Ghada; Lagoutte, Bernard; Gall, Andrew; Setif, Pierre

2009-01-01

134

The Thiol:Disulfide Oxidoreductase DsbB Mediates the Oxidizing Effects of the Toxic Metalloid Tellurite (TeO32?) on the Plasma Membrane Redox System of the Facultative Phototroph Rhodobacter capsulatus?  

PubMed Central

The highly toxic oxyanion tellurite (TeO32?) is a well known pro-oxidant in mammalian and bacterial cells. This work examines the effects of tellurite on the redox state of the electron transport chain of the facultative phototroph Rhodobacter capsulatus, in relation to the role of the thiol:disulfide oxidoreductase DsbB. Under steady-state respiration, the addition of tellurite (2.5 mM) to membrane fragments generated an extrareduction of the cytochrome pool (c- and b-type hemes); further, in plasma membranes exposed to tellurite (0.25 to 2.5 mM) and subjected to a series of flashes of light, the rate of the QH2:cytochrome c (Cyt c) oxidoreductase activity was enhanced. The effect of tellurite was blocked by the antibiotics antimycin A and/or myxothiazol, specific inhibitors of the QH2:Cyt c oxidoreductase, and, most interestingly, the membrane-associated thiol:disulfide oxidoreductase DsbB was required to mediate the redox unbalance produced by the oxyanion. Indeed, this phenomenon was absent from R. capsulatus MD22, a DsbB-deficient mutant, whereas the tellurite effect was present in membranes from MD22/pDsbBWT, in which the mutant gene was complemented to regain the wild-type DsbB phenotype. These findings were taken as evidence that the membrane-bound thiol:disulfide oxidoreductase DsbB acts as an “electron conduit” between the hydrophilic metalloid and the lipid-embedded Q pool, so that in habitats contaminated with subinhibitory amounts of TeIV, the metalloid is likely to function as a disposal for the excess reducing power at the Q-pool level of facultative phototrophic bacteria.

Borsetti, Francesca; Francia, Francesco; Turner, Raymond J.; Zannoni, Davide

2007-01-01

135

Vascular xanthine oxidoreductase contributes to the antihypertensive effects of sodium nitrite in L-NAME hypertension.  

PubMed

Nitrate and nitrite have emerged as an important novel source of nitric oxide (NO). We have previously demonstrated that sodium nitrite is an antihypertensive compound that exerts antioxidant effects in experimental hypertension. These unpredicted antioxidant effects of nitrite raised the question whether the beneficial effects found were caused by its conversion to NO or simply due to reversal of endothelial dysfunction as a consequence of its antioxidant effects. Here, we evaluated the antihypertensive effects of a daily dose of sodium nitrite for 4 weeks in L-NAME-induced hypertension in rats. We studied the effects of nitrite on markers of NO bioavailability, vascular oxidative stress, and expression of xanthine oxidoreductase. Moreover, we tested if xanthine oxidoreductase inhibition could attenuate the acute hypotensive effects of sodium nitrite in L-NAME hypertensive rats. We found that a single pharmacological dose of sodium nitrite exerts antihypertensive effects in L-NAME-induced hypertension. While the beneficial antihypertensive properties of nitrite were associated with increased levels of NO metabolites, hypertension increased vascular xanthine oxidoreductase expression by approximately 40%, with minor increases in vascular superoxide production. The inhibition of xanthine oxidoreductase by oxypurinol attenuated the acute hypotensive effects of nitrite. Taken together, our results show that nitrite exerts antihypertensive effects in L-NAME hypertensive rats and provide evidence that xanthine oxidoreductase plays an important role in this antihypertensive effect. PMID:24658348

Montenegro, Marcelo F; Pinheiro, Lucas C; Amaral, Jefferson H; Ferreira, Graziele C; Portella, Rafael L; Tanus-Santos, Jose E

2014-06-01

136

NADPH dependent activation of microsomal glutathione transferase 1.  

PubMed

Microsomal glutathione transferase 1 (MGST1) can become activated up to 30-fold by several mechanisms in vitro (e.g. covalent modification by reactive electrophiles such as N-ethylmaleimide (NEM)). Activation has also been observed in vivo during oxidative stress. It has been noted that an NADPH generating system (g.s.) can activate MGST1 (up to 2-fold) in microsomal incubations, but the mechanism was unclear. We show here that NADPH g.s treatment impaired N-ethylmaleimide activation, indicating a shared target (identified as cysteine-49 in the latter case). Furthermore, NADPH activation was prevented by sulfhydryl compounds (glutathione and dithiothreitol). A well established candidate for activation would be oxidative stress, however we could exclude that oxidation mediated by cytochrome P450 2E1 (or flavine monooxygenase) was responsible for activation under a defined set of experimental conditions since superoxide or hydrogen peroxide alone did not activate the enzyme (in microsomes prepared by our routine procedure). Actually, the ability of MGST1 to become activated by hydrogen peroxide is critically dependent on the microsome preparation method (which influences hydrogen peroxide decomposition rate as shown here), explaining variable results in the literature. NADPH g.s. dependent activation of MGST1 could instead be explained, at least partly, by a direct effect observed also with purified enzyme (up to 1.4-fold activation). This activation was inhibited by sulfhydryl compounds and thus displays the same characteristics as that of the microsomal system. Whereas NADPH, and also ATP, activated purified MGST1, several nucleotide analogues did not, demonstrating specificity. It is thus an intriguing possibility that MGST1 function could be modulated by ligands (as well as reactive oxygen species) during oxidative stress when sulfhydryls are depleted. PMID:15013818

Rinaldi, Rosanna; Aniya, Yoko; Svensson, Richard; Eliasson, Erik; Swedmark, Stellan; Shimoji, Miyuki; Morgenstern, Ralf

2004-03-15

137

40 CFR 174.524 - Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247 in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247 in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a...PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances...Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247 in all plants; exemption from the requirement of...

2013-07-01

138

P450 Oxidoreductase Deficiency: A Disorder of Steroidogenesis with Multiple Clinical Manifestations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cytochrome P450 enzymes catalyze the biosynthesis of steroid hormones and metabolize drugs. There are seven human type I P450 enzymes in mitochondria and 50 type II enzymes in endoplasmic reticulum. Type II enzymes, including both drug-metabolizing and some steroidogenic enzymes, require electron donation from a two-flavin protein, P450 oxidoreductase (POR). Although knockout of the POR gene causes embryonic lethality in mice, we discovered human POR deficiency as a disorder of steroidogenesis associated with the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome and found mild POR mutations in phenotypically normal adults with infertility. Assay results of mutant forms of POR using the traditional but nonphysiologic assay (reduction of cytochrome c) did not correlate with patient phenotypes; assays based on the 17,20 lyase activity of P450c17 (CYP17) correlated with clinical phenotypes. The POR sequence in 842 normal individuals revealed many polymorphisms; amino acid sequence variant A503V is encoded by ~28% of human alleles. POR A503V has about 60% of wild-type activity in assays with CYP17, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4, but nearly wild-type activity with P450c21, CYP1A2, and CYP2C19. Activity of a particular POR variant with one P450 enzyme will not predict its activity with another P450 enzyme: Each POR-P450 combination must be studied individually. Human POR transcription, initiated from an untranslated exon, is regulated by Smad3/4, thyroid receptors, and the transcription factor AP-2. A promoter polymorphism reduces transcription to 60% in liver cells and to 35% in adrenal cells. POR deficiency is a newly described disorder of steroidogenesis, and POR variants may account for some genetic variation in drug metabolism.

Walter L. Miller (San Francisco;University of California REV)

2012-10-23

139

WW-Domain-Containing Oxidoreductase Is Associated with Low Plasma HDL-C Levels  

PubMed Central

Low serum HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease. We performed targeted genotyping of a 12.4 Mb linked region on 16q to test for association with low HDL-C by using a regional-tag SNP strategy. We identified one SNP, rs2548861, in the WW-domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) gene with region-wide significance for low HDL-C in dyslipidemic families of Mexican and European descent and in low-HDL-C cases and controls of European descent (p = 6.9 × 10?7). We extended our investigation to the population level by using two independent unascertained population-based Finnish cohorts, the cross-sectional METSIM cohort of 4,463 males and the prospective Young Finns cohort of 2,265 subjects. The combined analysis provided p = 4 × 10?4 to 2 × 10?5. Importantly, in the prospective cohort, we observed a significant longitudinal association of rs2548861 with HDL-C levels obtained at four different time points over 21 years (p = 0.003), and the T risk allele explained 1.5% of the variance in HDL-C levels. The rs2548861 resides in a highly conserved region in intron 8 of WWOX. Results from our in vitro reporter assay and electrophoretic mobility-shift assay demonstrate that this region functions as a cis-regulatory element whose associated rs2548861 SNP has a specific allelic effect and that the region forms an allele-specific DNA-nuclear-factor complex. In conclusion, analyses of 9,798 subjects show significant association between HDL-C and a WWOX variant with an allele-specific cis-regulatory function.

Lee, Jenny C.; Weissglas-Volkov, Daphna; Kyttala, Mira; Dastani, Zari; Cantor, Rita M.; Sobel, Eric M.; Plaisier, Christopher L.; Engert, James C.; van Greevenbroek, Marleen M.J.; Kane, John P.; Malloy, Mary J.; Pullinger, Clive R.; Huertas-Vazquez, Adriana; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Tusie-Luna, Teresa; de Bruin, Tjerk W.A.; Aouizerat, Bradley E.; van der Kallen, Carla C.J.; Croce, Carlo M.; Aqeilan, Rami I.; Marcil, Michel; Viikari, Jorma S.A.; Lehtimaki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli T.; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Genest, Jacques; Pajukanta, Paivi

2008-01-01

140

Homologous Expression of a Subcomplex of Pyrococcus furiosus Hydrogenase that Interacts with Pyruvate Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase  

PubMed Central

Hydrogen gas is an attractive alternative fuel as it is carbon neutral and has higher energy content per unit mass than fossil fuels. The biological enzyme responsible for utilizing molecular hydrogen is hydrogenase, a heteromeric metalloenzyme requiring a complex maturation process to assemble its O2-sensitive dinuclear-catalytic site containing nickel and iron atoms. To facilitate their utility in applied processes, it is essential that tools are available to engineer hydrogenases to tailor catalytic activity and electron carrier specificity, and decrease oxygen sensitivity using standard molecular biology techniques. As a model system we are using hydrogen-producing Pyrococcus furiosus, which grows optimally at 100°C. We have taken advantage of a recently developed genetic system that allows markerless chromosomal integrations via homologous recombination. We have combined a new gene marker system with a highly-expressed constitutive promoter to enable high-level homologous expression of an engineered form of the cytoplasmic NADP-dependent hydrogenase (SHI) of P. furiosus. In a step towards obtaining ‘minimal’ hydrogenases, we have successfully produced the heterodimeric form of SHI that contains only two of the four subunits found in the native heterotetrameric enzyme. The heterodimeric form is highly active (150 units mg?1 in H2 production using the artificial electron donor methyl viologen) and thermostable (t1/2 ?0.5 hour at 90°C). Moreover, the heterodimer does not use NADPH and instead can directly utilize reductant supplied by pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase from P. furiosus. The SHI heterodimer and POR therefore represent a two-enzyme system that oxidizes pyruvate and produces H2 in vitro without the need for an intermediate electron carrier.

Jenney, Francis E.; Chandrayan, Sanjeev K.; McTernan, Patrick M.; Adams, Michael W. W.

2011-01-01

141

NADPH:Quinone Oxidoreductase 1 Regulates Host Susceptibility to Ozone via Isoprostane Generation*  

PubMed Central

NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is recognized as a major susceptibility gene for ozone-induced pulmonary toxicity. In the absence of NQO1 as can occur by genetic mutation, the human airway is protected from harmful effects of ozone. We recently reported that NQO1-null mice are protected from airway hyperresponsiveness and pulmonary inflammation following ozone exposure. However, NQO1 regenerates intracellular antioxidants and therefore should protect the individual from oxidative stress. To explain this paradox, we tested whether in the absence of NQO1 ozone exposure results in increased generation of A2-isoprostane, a cyclopentenone isoprostane that blunts inflammation. Using GC-MS, we found that NQO1-null mice had greater lung tissue levels of D2- and E2-isoprostanes, the precursors of J2- and A2-isoprostanes, both at base line and following ozone exposure compared with congenic wild-type mice. We confirmed in primary cultures of normal human bronchial epithelial cells that A2-isoprostane inhibited ozone-induced NF-?B activation and IL-8 regulation. Furthermore, we determined that A2-isoprostane covalently modified the active Cys179 domain in inhibitory ?B kinase in the presence of ozone in vitro, thus establishing the biochemical basis for A2-isoprostane inhibition of NF-?B. Our results demonstrate that host factors may regulate pulmonary susceptibility to ozone by regulating the generation of A2-isoprostanes in the lung. These observations provide the biochemical basis for the epidemiologic observation that NQO1 regulates pulmonary susceptibility to ozone.

Kummarapurugu, Apparao B.; Fischer, Bernard M.; Zheng, Shuo; Milne, Ginger L.; Ghio, Andrew J.; Potts-Kant, Erin N.; Foster, W. Michael; Soderblom, Erik J.; Dubois, Laura G.; Moseley, M. Arthur; Thompson, J. Will; Voynow, Judith A.

2013-01-01

142

Homologous expression of a subcomplex of Pyrococcus furiosus hydrogenase that interacts with pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase.  

PubMed

Hydrogen gas is an attractive alternative fuel as it is carbon neutral and has higher energy content per unit mass than fossil fuels. The biological enzyme responsible for utilizing molecular hydrogen is hydrogenase, a heteromeric metalloenzyme requiring a complex maturation process to assemble its O(2)-sensitive dinuclear-catalytic site containing nickel and iron atoms. To facilitate their utility in applied processes, it is essential that tools are available to engineer hydrogenases to tailor catalytic activity and electron carrier specificity, and decrease oxygen sensitivity using standard molecular biology techniques. As a model system we are using hydrogen-producing Pyrococcus furiosus, which grows optimally at 100°C. We have taken advantage of a recently developed genetic system that allows markerless chromosomal integrations via homologous recombination. We have combined a new gene marker system with a highly-expressed constitutive promoter to enable high-level homologous expression of an engineered form of the cytoplasmic NADP-dependent hydrogenase (SHI) of P. furiosus. In a step towards obtaining 'minimal' hydrogenases, we have successfully produced the heterodimeric form of SHI that contains only two of the four subunits found in the native heterotetrameric enzyme. The heterodimeric form is highly active (150 units mg(-1) in H(2) production using the artificial electron donor methyl viologen) and thermostable (t(1/2) ?0.5 hour at 90°C). Moreover, the heterodimer does not use NADPH and instead can directly utilize reductant supplied by pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase from P. furiosus. The SHI heterodimer and POR therefore represent a two-enzyme system that oxidizes pyruvate and produces H(2) in vitro without the need for an intermediate electron carrier. PMID:22039508

Hopkins, R Christopher; Sun, Junsong; Jenney, Francis E; Chandrayan, Sanjeev K; McTernan, Patrick M; Adams, Michael W W

2011-01-01

143

Structural basis for human NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency.  

PubMed

NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CYPOR) is essential for electron donation to microsomal cytochrome P450-mediated monooxygenation in such diverse physiological processes as drug metabolism (approximately 85-90% of therapeutic drugs), steroid biosynthesis, and bioactive metabolite production (vitamin D and retinoic acid metabolites). Expressed by a single gene, CYPOR's role with these multiple redox partners renders it a model for understanding protein-protein interactions at the structural level. Polymorphisms in human CYPOR have been shown to lead to defects in bone development and steroidogenesis, resulting in sexual dimorphisms, the severity of which differs significantly depending on the degree of CYPOR impairment. The atomic structure of human CYPOR is presented, with structures of two naturally occurring missense mutations, V492E and R457H. The overall structures of these CYPOR variants are similar to wild type. However, in both variants, local disruption of H bonding and salt bridging, involving the FAD pyrophosphate moiety, leads to weaker FAD binding, unstable protein, and loss of catalytic activity, which can be rescued by cofactor addition. The modes of polypeptide unfolding in these two variants differ significantly, as revealed by limited trypsin digestion: V492E is less stable but unfolds locally and gradually, whereas R457H is more stable but unfolds globally. FAD addition to either variant prevents trypsin digestion, supporting the role of the cofactor in conferring stability to CYPOR structure. Thus, CYPOR dysfunction in patients harboring these particular mutations may possibly be prevented by riboflavin therapy in utero, if predicted prenatally, or rescued postnatally in less severe cases. PMID:21808038

Xia, Chuanwu; Panda, Satya P; Marohnic, Christopher C; Martásek, Pavel; Masters, Bettie Sue; Kim, Jung-Ja P

2011-08-16

144

Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplasts contain a homodimeric pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase that functions with FDX1.  

PubMed

Eukaryotic algae have long been known to live in anoxic environments, but interest in their anaerobic energy metabolism has only recently gained momentum, largely due to their utility in biofuel production. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii figures remarkably in this respect, because it efficiently produces hydrogen and its genome harbors many genes for anaerobic metabolic routes. Central to anaerobic energy metabolism in many unicellular eukaryotes (protists) is pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFO), which decarboxylates pyruvate and forms acetyl-coenzyme A with concomitant reduction of low-potential ferredoxins or flavodoxins. Here, we report the biochemical properties of the homodimeric PFO of C. reinhardtii expressed in Escherichia coli. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of the recombinant enzyme (Cr-rPFO) showed three distinct [4Fe-4S] iron-sulfur clusters and a thiamine pyrophosphate radical upon reduction by pyruvate. Purified Cr-rPFO exhibits a specific decarboxylase activity of 12 µmol pyruvate min?¹ mg?¹ protein using benzyl viologen as electron acceptor. Despite the fact that the enzyme is very oxygen sensitive, it localizes to the chloroplast. Among the six known chloroplast ferredoxins (FDX1-FDX6) in C. reinhardtii, FDX1 and FDX2 were the most efficient electron acceptors from Cr-rPFO, with comparable apparent K(m) values of approximately 4 µm. As revealed by immunoblotting, anaerobic conditions that lead to the induction of CrPFO did not increase levels of either FDX1 or FDX2. FDX1, being by far the most abundant ferredoxin, is thus likely the partner of PFO in C. reinhardtii. This finding postulates a direct link between CrPFO and hydrogenase and provides new opportunities to better study and engineer hydrogen production in this protist. PMID:23154536

van Lis, Robert; Baffert, Carole; Couté, Yohann; Nitschke, Wolfgang; Atteia, Ariane

2013-01-01

145

NAD(P)H:Flavin Mononucleotide Oxidoreductase Inactivation during 2,4,6Trinitrotoluene Reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria readily transform 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), a contaminant frequently found at military bases and munitions production facilities, by reduction of the nitro group substituents. In this work, the kinetics of nitroreduction were investigated by using a model nitroreductase, NAD(P)H:flavin mononucleotide (FMN) oxidoreductase. Under mediation by NAD(P)H:FMN oxidoreductase, TNT rapidly reacted with NADH to form 2-hydroxylamino-4,6-dinitrotoluene and 4-hydroxylamino-2,6-dinitrotoluene, whereas 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotolu- ene and

R. Guy Riefler; Barth F. Smets

2002-01-01

146

Similarity of Escherichia coli propanediol oxidoreductase (fucO product) and an unusual alcohol dehydrogenase from Zymomonas mobilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

SciTech Connect

The gene that encodes 1,2-propanediol oxidoreductase (fucO) from Escherichia coli was sequenced. The reading frame specified a protein of 383 amino acids (including the N-terminal methionine), with an aggregate molecular weight of 40,642. The induction of fucO transcription, which occurred in the presence of fucose, was confirmed by Northern blot analysis. In E. coli, the primary fucO transcript was approximately 2.1 kilobases in length. The 5{prime} end of the transcript began more than 0.7 kilobase upstream of the fucO start codon within or beyond the fucA gene. Propanediol oxidoreductase exhibited 41.7% identity with the iron-containing alcohol dehydrogenase II from Zymomonas mobilis and 39.5% identity with ADH4 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These three proteins did not share homology with either short-chain or long-chain zinc-containing alcohol dehydrogenase enzymes. We propose that these three unusual alcohol dehydrogenases define a new family of enzymes.

Conway, T. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln (USA)); Ingram, L.O. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (USA))

1989-07-01

147

Similarity of Escherichia coli propanediol oxidoreductase (fucO product) and an unusual alcohol dehydrogenase from Zymomonas mobilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed Central

The gene that encodes 1,2-propanediol oxidoreductase (fucO) from Escherichia coli was sequenced. The reading frame specified a protein of 383 amino acids (including the N-terminal methionine), with an aggregate molecular weight of 40,642. The induction of fucO transcription, which occurred in the presence of fucose, was confirmed by Northern blot analysis. In E. coli, the primary fucO transcript was approximately 2.1 kilobases in length. The 5' end of the transcript began more than 0.7 kilobase upstream of the fucO start codon within or beyond the fucA gene. Propanediol oxidoreductase exhibited 41.7% identity with the iron-containing alcohol dehydrogenase II from Zymomonas mobilis and 39.5% identity with ADH4 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These three proteins did not share homology with either short-chain or long-chain zinc-containing alcohol dehydrogenase enzymes. We propose that these three unusual alcohol dehydrogenases define a new family of enzymes. Images

Conway, T; Ingram, L O

1989-01-01

148

Independently recruited oxidases from the glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase family enabled chemical defences in leaf beetle larvae (subtribe Chrysomelina) to evolve.  

PubMed

Larvae of the leaf beetle subtribe Chrysomelina sensu stricto repel their enemies by displaying glandular secretions that contain defensive compounds. These repellents can be produced either de novo (iridoids) or by using plant-derived precursors (e.g. salicylaldehyde). The autonomous production of iridoids, as in Phaedon cochleariae, is the ancestral chrysomeline chemical defence and predates the evolution of salicylaldehyde-based defence. Both biosynthesis strategies include an oxidative step of an alcohol intermediate. In salicylaldehyde-producing species, this step is catalysed by salicyl alcohol oxidases (SAOs) of the glucose-methanol-choline (GMC) oxidoreductase superfamily, but the enzyme oxidizing the iridoid precursor is unknown. Here, we show by in vitro as well as in vivo experiments that P. cochleariae also uses an oxidase from the GMC superfamily for defensive purposes. However, our phylogenetic analysis of chrysomeline GMC oxidoreductases revealed that the oxidase of the iridoid pathway originated from a GMC clade different from that of the SAOs. Thus, the evolution of a host-independent chemical defence followed by a shift to a host-dependent chemical defence in chrysomeline beetles coincided with the utilization of genes from different GMC subfamilies. These findings illustrate the importance of the GMC multi-gene family for adaptive processes in plant-insect interactions. PMID:24943369

Rahfeld, Peter; Kirsch, Roy; Kugel, Susann; Wielsch, Natalie; Stock, Magdalena; Groth, Marco; Boland, Wilhelm; Burse, Antje

2014-08-01

149

A second isoform of the ferredoxin:NADP oxidoreductase generated by an in-frame initiation of translation  

PubMed Central

Ferredoxin:NADP oxidoreductases (FNRs) constitute a family of flavoenzymes that catalyze the exchange of reducing equivalents between one-electron carriers and the two-electron-carrying NADP(H). The main role of FNRs in cyanobacteria and leaf plastids is to provide the NADPH for photoautotrophic metabolism. In root plastids, a distinct FNR isoform is found that has been postulated to function in the opposite direction, providing electrons for nitrogen assimilation at the expense of NADPH generated by heterotrophic metabolism. A multiple gene family encodes FNR isoenzymes in plants, whereas there is only one FNR gene (petH) in cyanobacteria. Nevertheless, we detected two FNR isoforms in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803. One of them (FNRS ?34 kDa) is similar in size to the plastid FNR and specifically accumulates under heterotrophic conditions, whereas the other one (FNRL ?46 kDa) contains an extra N-terminal domain that allows its association with the phycobilisome. Site-directed mutants allowed us to conclude that the smaller isoform, FNRS, is produced from an internal ribosome entry site within the petH ORF. Thus we have uncovered a mechanism by which two isoforms are produced from a single gene, which is, to our knowledge, novel in photosynthetic bacteria. Our results strongly suggest that FNRL is an NADP+ reductase, whereas FNRS is an NADPH oxidase.

Thomas, Jean-Claude; Ughy, Bettina; Lagoutte, Bernard; Ajlani, Ghada

2006-01-01

150

NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) loss of function in Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines.  

PubMed

Two-electron reduction of quinones catalyzed by NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) protects cells against oxidative stress and toxic quinones. In fact, low level of NQO1 activity is often associated with increased risk of developing different types of tumours and with toxic effects linked to environmental quinones. In a previous report we analyzed the relationship between the oxidative stress induced by UV radiation and CoQ10 content in Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines compared to HL-60. The basal content of CoQ10 in Raji cells was slightly higher compared to HL-60. Moreover, after irradiation or ubiquinone supplementation in the medium, reduced CoQ10 levels were higher in Raji and Daudi cells compared to HL-60. In the present work, in order to inquire if NQO1 plays a role in the CoQ reducing capacity observed in the lymphoblastoid cell lines, we analyzed the transcription and translation products of this gene in Raji and Daudi cells, compared to cell lines possessing low and high NQO1 activity. The amount of transcripts of this gene in lymphoblastoid cells was comparable to that observed in HL-60 cells (low activity), as well as the level of two alternatively spliced mRNAs; one of which is described for the first time in this work. From the genotype analysis of polymorphisms C609T and C465T we observed that HL-60, Raji and Daudi cells were all heterozygous. Furthermore, NQO1 enzyme activity and protein synthesis in the cytosol of Raji and Daudi cells were undetectable. Therefore in Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines the NQO1 gene is not efficiently translated and this effect is not related to (C609T) polymorphism. Further studies will be necessary to find the enzyme responsible for CoQ10 reducing activity observed in lymphoma cell lines. On the other hand, this result suggests a careful re-evaluation of data concerning loss of NQO1 activity and polymorphisms in tumour cells. PMID:19096102

Bruge, Francesca; Virgili, Samantha; Cacciamani, Tiziana; Principi, Federica; Tiano, Luca; Littarru, Gian Paolo

2008-01-01

151

Roles of the sodium-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR) on vibrio cholerae metabolism, motility and osmotic stress resistance.  

PubMed

The Na+ translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR) is a unique respiratory enzyme catalyzing the electron transfer from NADH to quinone coupled with the translocation of sodium ions across the membrane. Typically, Vibrio spp., including Vibrio cholerae, have this enzyme but lack the proton-pumping NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I). Thus, Na+-NQR should significantly contribute to multiple aspects of V. cholerae physiology; however, no detailed characterization of this aspect has been reported so far. In this study, we broadly investigated the effects of loss of Na+-NQR on V. cholerae physiology by using Phenotype Microarray (Biolog), transcriptome and metabolomics analyses. We found that the V. cholerae ?nqrA-F mutant showed multiple defects in metabolism detected by Phenotype Microarray. Transcriptome analysis revealed that the V. cholerae ?nqrA-F mutant up-regulates 31 genes and down-regulates 55 genes in both early and mid-growth phases. The most up-regulated genes included the cadA and cadB genes, encoding a lysine decarboxylase and a lysine/cadaverine antiporter, respectively. Increased CadAB activity was further suggested by the metabolomics analysis. The down-regulated genes include sialic acid catabolism genes. Metabolomic analysis also suggested increased reductive pathway of TCA cycle and decreased purine metabolism in the V. cholerae ?nqrA-F mutant. Lack of Na+-NQR did not affect any of the Na+ pumping-related phenotypes of V. cholerae suggesting that other secondary Na+ pump(s) can compensate for Na+ pumping activity of Na+-NQR. Overall, our study provides important insights into the contribution of Na+-NQR to V. cholerae physiology. PMID:24811312

Minato, Yusuke; Fassio, Sara R; Kirkwood, Jay S; Halang, Petra; Quinn, Matthew J; Faulkner, Wyatt J; Aagesen, Alisha M; Steuber, Julia; Stevens, Jan F; Häse, Claudia C

2014-01-01

152

Roles of the Sodium-Translocating NADH:Quinone Oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR) on Vibrio cholerae Metabolism, Motility and Osmotic Stress Resistance  

PubMed Central

The Na+ translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR) is a unique respiratory enzyme catalyzing the electron transfer from NADH to quinone coupled with the translocation of sodium ions across the membrane. Typically, Vibrio spp., including Vibrio cholerae, have this enzyme but lack the proton-pumping NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I). Thus, Na+-NQR should significantly contribute to multiple aspects of V. cholerae physiology; however, no detailed characterization of this aspect has been reported so far. In this study, we broadly investigated the effects of loss of Na+-NQR on V. cholerae physiology by using Phenotype Microarray (Biolog), transcriptome and metabolomics analyses. We found that the V. cholerae ?nqrA-F mutant showed multiple defects in metabolism detected by Phenotype Microarray. Transcriptome analysis revealed that the V. cholerae ?nqrA-F mutant up-regulates 31 genes and down-regulates 55 genes in both early and mid-growth phases. The most up-regulated genes included the cadA and cadB genes, encoding a lysine decarboxylase and a lysine/cadaverine antiporter, respectively. Increased CadAB activity was further suggested by the metabolomics analysis. The down-regulated genes include sialic acid catabolism genes. Metabolomic analysis also suggested increased reductive pathway of TCA cycle and decreased purine metabolism in the V. cholerae ?nqrA-F mutant. Lack of Na+-NQR did not affect any of the Na+ pumping-related phenotypes of V. cholerae suggesting that other secondary Na+ pump(s) can compensate for Na+ pumping activity of Na+-NQR. Overall, our study provides important insights into the contribution of Na+-NQR to V. cholerae physiology.

Minato, Yusuke; Halang, Petra; Quinn, Matthew J.; Faulkner, Wyatt J.; Aagesen, Alisha M.; Steuber, Julia; Stevens, Jan F.; Hase, Claudia C.

2014-01-01

153

Evolving thermostability in mutant libraries of ligninolytic oxidoreductases expressed in yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In the picture of a laboratory evolution experiment, to improve the thermostability whilst maintaining the activity requires of suitable procedures to generate diversity in combination with robust high-throughput protocols. The current work describes how to achieve this goal by engineering ligninolytic oxidoreductases (a high-redox potential laccase -HRPL- and a versatile peroxidase, -VP-) functionally expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. RESULTS: Taking

Eva García-Ruiz; Diana Maté; Antonio Ballesteros; Angel T Martinez; Miguel Alcalde

2010-01-01

154

NAD(P)H : quinone oxidoreductase 1 inducer activity of some Saudi Arabian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants are a rich source of biologically-active phytochemicals and have been used in traditional medicine for centuries. Specific phytochemicals and extracts of their plant sources have the ability to reduce the risk for chronic degenerative diseases by induction of enzymes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, many of which also have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions. One such multifunctional cytoprotective enzyme is NAD(P)H : quinone oxidoreductase. In this study, we prepared extracts of 27 Saudi Arabian medicinal plants which belong to 18 different plant families and tested their ability to induce NAD(P)H : quinone oxidoreductase in murine hepatoma cells grown in microtiter plate wells. In addition to the Brassicaceae, a known source of NAD(P)H : quinone oxidoreductase inducer activity, we found substantial inducer activity in extracts from the Apiaceae, Apocynaceae, and the Asteraceae families. Five out of a total of eight active extracts are from plants which belong to the Asteraceae family. We further show that artemisinin, an agent which is used clinically for the treatment of malaria, contributes but does not fully account for the inducer activity of the extract of Artemisia monosperma. In contrast to artemisinin, deoxyartemisinin is inactive in this assay, demonstrating the critical role of the endoperoxide moiety of artemisinin for inducer activity. Thus, the NAD(P)H : quinone oxidoreductase inducer activity of extracts of some Saudi Arabian medicinal plants indicates the presence of specific phytochemicals which have the potential to protect against chronic degenerative diseases. PMID:23512501

Shahat, Abdelaaty A; Alsaid, Mansour S; Alyahya, Muhammad A; Higgins, Maureen; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T

2013-04-01

155

Existence of a hydrogen sulfide: Ferric ion oxidoreductase in iron-oxidizing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of a hydrogen sulfide:ferric ion oxidoreductase, which catalyzes the oxidation of elemental sulfur with ferric ions as an electron acceptor to produce ferrous and sulfite ions, was assayed with washed intact cells and cell extracts of various kinds of iron-oxidizing bacteria, such as Thiobacillus ferrooxidans 13598, 13661, 14119, 19859, 21834, 23270, and 33020 from the American Type Culture

Tsuyoshi Sugio; K. J. White; E. Shute; D. Choate; R. C. Blake

1992-01-01

156

Activities of xanthine oxidoreductase and antioxidant enzymes in different tissues of diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidative stress is an important pathogenic constituent in diabetic endothelial dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an increase in oxidative stress related to xanthine oxidoreductase occurs in diabetes. Liver, brain, heart, and kidney xanthine oxidase (XO), xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH), antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase), and nitrite levels were measured in control and early and

Yakup Aliciguzel; Ikbal Ozen; Mutay Aslan; Umit Karayalcin

2003-01-01

157

The mechanism of superoxide production by NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) from bovine heart mitochondria  

Microsoft Academic Search

NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is a major source of reactive oxygen species in mitochondria and a significant contributor to cellular oxidative stress. Here, we describe the kinetic and molecular mechanism of superoxide production by complex I isolated from bovine heart mitochondria and confirm that it produces predominantly superoxide, not hydrogen peroxide. Redox titrations and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy exclude the

Lothar Kussmaul; Judy Hirst

2006-01-01

158

Halothane, isoflurane and sevoflurane inhibit NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) of cardiac mitochondria  

PubMed Central

We have investigated the effects of volatile anaesthetics on electron transport chain activity in the mammalian heart. Halothane, isoflurane and sevoflurane reversibly increased NADH fluorescence (autofluorescence) in intact ventricular myocytes of guinea-pig, suggesting that NADH oxidation was impaired. Using pig heart submitochondrial particles we found that the anaesthetics dose-dependently inhibited NADH oxidation in the order: halothane > isoflurane = sevoflurane. Succinate oxidation was unaffected by either isoflurane or sevoflurane, indicating that these agents selectively inhibit complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase). In addition to inhibiting NADH oxidation, halothane also inhibited succinate oxidation (and succinate dehydrogenase), albeit to a lesser extent. To test the hypothesis that complex I is a target of volatile anaesthetics, we examined the effects of these agents on NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (EC 1.6.99.3) activity using the ubiquinone analogue DBQ (decylubiquinone) as substrate. Halothane, isoflurane and sevoflurane dose-dependently inhibited NADH:DBQ oxidoreductase activity. Unlike the classical inhibitor rotenone, none of the anaesthetics completely inhibited enzyme activity at high concentration, suggesting that these agents bind weakly to the ‘hydrophobic inhibitory site’ of complex I. In conclusion, halothane, isoflurane and sevoflurane inhibit complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) of the electron transport chain. At concentrations of ?2 MAC (minimal alveolar concentration), the activity of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase was reduced by about 20 % in the presence of halothane or isoflurane, and by about 10 % in the presence of sevoflurane. These inhibitory effects are unlikely to compromise cardiac performance at usual clinical concentrations, but may contribute to the mechanism by which volatile anaesthetics induce pharmacological preconditioning.

Hanley, Peter J; Ray, John; Brandt, Ulrich; Daut, Jurgen

2002-01-01

159

Role for Ferredoxin:NAD(P)H Oxidoreductase (FprA) in Sulfate Assimilation and Siderophore Biosynthesis in Pseudomonads  

PubMed Central

Pyridine-2,6-bis(thiocarboxylate) (PDTC), produced by certain pseudomonads, is a sulfur-containing siderophore that binds iron, as well as a wide range of transition metals, and it affects the net hydrolysis of the environmental contaminant carbon tetrachloride. The pathway of PDTC biosynthesis has not been defined. Here, we performed a transposon screen of Pseudomonas putida DSM 3601 to identify genes necessary for PDTC production (Pdt phenotype). Transposon insertions within genes for sulfate assimilation (cysD, cysNC, and cysG [cobA2]) dominated the collection of Pdt mutations. In addition, two insertions were within the gene for the LysR-type transcriptional activator FinR (PP1637). Phenotypic characterization indicated that finR mutants were cysteine bradytrophs. The Pdt phenotype of finR mutants could be complemented by the known target of FinR regulation, fprA (encoding ferredoxin:NADP+ oxidoreductase), or by Escherichia coli cysJI (encoding sulfite reductase). These data indicate that fprA is necessary for effective sulfate assimilation by P. putida and that the effect of finR mutation on PDTC production was due to deficient expression of fprA and sulfite reduction. fprA expression in both P. putida and P. aeruginosa was found to be regulated by FinR, but in a manner dependent upon reduced sulfur sources, implicating FinR in sulfur regulatory physiology. The genes and phenotypes identified in this study indicated a strong dependence upon intracellular reduced sulfur/cysteine for PDTC biosynthesis and that pseudomonads utilize sulfite reduction enzymology distinct from that of E. coli and possibly similar to that of chloroplasts and other proteobacteria.

Glassing, Angela; Harper, Justin; Franklin, Michael J.

2013-01-01

160

Identification of Carboxylation Enzymes and Characterization of a Novel Four-Subunit Pyruvate:Flavodoxin Oxidoreductase fromHelicobacter pylori  

Microsoft Academic Search

H14CO3 2 fixation activity, which was shown to be due to the isotope exchange reaction of pyruvate:flavodoxin oxidoreductase (EC 1.2.7.1), was present. The purified enzyme is composed of four subunits of 47, 36, 24, and 14 kDa. N-terminal sequence analysis showed that this enzyme is related to a recently recognized group of four-subunit pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductases previously known only from hyperthermophiles.

NICKY J. HUGHES; PETER A. CHALK; CHRIS L. CLAYTON; ANDDAVID J. KELLY

161

Flow cytometry-based assay for the activity of NAD(P)H oxidoreductases of the outer mitochondrial membrane.  

PubMed

NAD(P)H oxidoreductases of the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) are able to activate various xenobiotics and stimulate the production of reactive oxygen species and the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. However, the role of these systems in the cell damage by xenobiotics and chemotherapeutic drugs is poorly understood because the methods for the selective assessment of their activity have not been elaborated and specific inhibitors are unknown. Here we propose a method for the semiquantitative assessment of the activity of NAD(P)H oxidoreductases of the OMM in intact and permeabilized cells that is based on the flow cytometry detection of dimethylbiacridene, a fluorescent product of two-electron reduction of lucigenin. The method uses the structural feature of mitochondrial organization: the proximity of the sites of one-electron reduction of lucigenin to cation radical (NAD(P)H oxidoreductases of the OMM) to the sites of its subsequent oxidation (cytochrome c oxidase). The inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase by cyanide selectively activates the dimethylbiacridene formation by oxidoreductases of the OMM but not by other cellular oxidoreductases. The proposed protocol allows one to assess the lucigenin reductase (two-electron) activity of NAD(P)H oxidoreductases of the OMM and to compare it with the activity of other cellular systems that can be used for the analysis of the role of these systems in the cell damage by xenobiotics and antitumor drugs. PMID:19679097

Kruglov, Alexey G; Solov'eva, Marina E; Teplova, Vera V

2009-12-15

162

ArxA, a new clade of arsenite oxidase within the DMSO reductase family of molybdenum oxidoreductases  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Arsenotrophy, growth coupled to autotrophic arsenite oxidation or arsenate respiratory reduction, occurs only in the prokaryotic domain of life. The enzymes responsible for arsenotrophy belong to distinct clades within the DMSO reductase family of molybdenum-containing oxidoreductases: specifically arsenate respiratory reductase, ArrA, and arsenite oxidase, AioA (formerly referred to as AroA and AoxB). A new arsenite oxidase clade, ArxA, represented by the haloalkaliphilic bacterium Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii strain MLHE-1 was also identified in the photosynthetic purple sulfur bacterium Ectothiorhodospira sp. strain PHS-1. A draft genome sequence of PHS-1 was completed and an arx operon similar to MLHE-1 was identified. Gene expression studies showed that arxA was strongly induced with arsenite. Microbial ecology investigation led to the identification of additional arxA-like sequences in Mono Lake and Hot Creek sediments, both arsenic-rich environments in California. Phylogenetic analyses placed these sequences as distinct members of the ArxA clade of arsenite oxidases. ArxA-like sequences were also identified in metagenome sequences of several alkaline microbial mat environments of Yellowstone National Park hot springs. These results suggest that ArxA-type arsenite oxidases appear to be widely distributed in the environment presenting an opportunity for further investigations of the contribution of Arx-dependent arsenotrophy to the arsenic biogeochemical cycle.

Zargar, Kamrun; Conrad, Alison; Bernick, David L.; Lowe, Todd M.; Stolc, Viktor; Hoeft, Shelley; Oremland, Ronald S.; Stolz, John; Saltikov, Chad W.

2012-01-01

163

Reaction of electron-transfer flavoprotein with electron-transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxidative half-reaction of electron-transfer flavoprotein (ETF), electron transfer from ETF to electron-transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF-QO), is dependent on complementary surface charges on the two proteins. ETF is the positively charged member of the redox pair. The evidence is based on the pH and ionic strength dependencies of the comproportionation of oxidized ETF and ETF hydroquinone catalyzed by ETF-QO and

Joe D. Beckmann; Frank E. Frerman

1985-01-01

164

Purification and characterization of succinate:menaquinone oxidoreductase from Corynebacterium glutamicum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Succinate:menaquinone oxidoreductase from Corynebacterium glutamicum, a high-G+C, Gram-positive bacterium, was purified to homogeneity. The enzyme contained two heme B molecules and three polypeptides with apparent molecular masses of 67, 29 and 23 kDa, which corresponded to SdhA (flavoprotein), SdhB (iron–sulfur protein), and SdhC (membrane anchor protein), respectively. In non-denaturating polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the enzyme migrated as a single band with an

Tatsuki Kurokawa; Junshi Sakamoto

2005-01-01

165

Mutant P450 oxidoreductase causes disordered steroidogenesis with and without Antley-Bixler syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deficient activities of multiple steroidogenic enzymes have been reported without and with Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS), but mutations of corresponding cytochrome P450 enzymes have not been found. We identified mutations in POR, encoding P450 oxidoreductase, the obligate electron donor for these enzymes, in a woman with amenorrhea and three children with ABS, even though knock-out of POR is embryonically lethal in

C. E. Fluck; Toshihro Tajima; A. V. Pandey; Wiebke Arlt; Kouji Okuhara; Charles F Verge; Ethylin Wang Jabs; B. B. Mendonca; Kenji Fujieda; Walter L Miller

2004-01-01

166

Herbicide-resistant tobacco plants expressing the fused enzyme between rat cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) and yeast NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase.  

PubMed Central

Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Xanthi) plants expressing a genetically engineered fused enzyme between rat cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) and yeast NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase were produced. The expression plasmid pGFC2 for the fused enzyme was constructed by insertion of the corresponding cDNA into the expression vector pNG01 under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and nopaline synthase gene terminator. The fused enzyme cDNA was integrated into tobacco genomes by Agrobacterium infection techniques. In transgenic tobacco plants, the fused enzyme protein was localized primarily in the microsomal fraction. The microsomal monooxygenase activities were approximately 10 times higher toward both 7-ethoxycoumarin and benzo[a]pyrene than in the control plant. The transgenic plants also showed resistance to the herbicide chlortoluron.

Shiota, N; Nagasawa, A; Sakaki, T; Yabusaki, Y; Ohkawa, H

1994-01-01

167

Rapid fluorescent visualization of multiple NAD(P)H oxidoreductases in homogenate, permeabilized cells, and tissue slices.  

PubMed

Intracellular NAD(P)H oxidoreductases are a class of diverse enzymes that are the key players in a number of vital processes. The method we present and validate here is based on the ability of many NAD(P)H oxidoreductases to reduce the superoxide probe lucigenin, which is structurally similar to flavins, to its highly fluorescent water-insoluble derivative dimethylbiacridene. Two modifications of the method are proposed: (i) an express method for tissue homogenate and permeabilized cells in suspensions and (ii) a standard procedure for cells in culture and acute thin tissue slices. The method allows one to assess, visualize, and localize, using fluorescent markers of cellular compartments, multiple NADH and NADPH oxidoreductase activities. The application of selective inhibitors (e.g., VAS2870, a NOX2 inhibitor; plumbagin, a NOX4 inhibitor) allows one to distinguish and compare specific NAD(P)H oxidoreductase activities in cells and tissues and to attribute them to known enzymes. The method is simple, rapid, and flexible. It can be easily adapted to a variety of tasks. It will be useful for investigations of the role of various NAD(P)H oxidoreductases in a number of physiological and pathophysiological processes. PMID:23747529

Nikiforova, Anna B; Fadeev, Roman S; Kruglov, Alexey G

2013-09-15

168

TrAnsFuSE refines the search for protein function: oxidoreductases.  

PubMed

Non-equilibrium catalysis of electron transfer reactions (i.e. redox) regulates the flux of key elements found in biological macromolecules. The enzymes responsible, oxidoreductases, contain specific transition metals in poorly sequence-conserved domains. These domains evolved ?2.4 billion years ago in microbes and spread across the tree of life. We lack understanding of how oxidoreductases evolved; divergence of sequences makes identification difficult. We developed a method to recognise the various versions of these enzyme-domains in unannotated sequence-space. Often, homology is used to transfer function annotations from experimentally resolved domains to unannotated sequences. Unreliability of inferring homology below 30% sequence identity limits single-sequence based searches. Misaligned functional sites may compromise annotation transfer from even very similar sequences. Combining profile-based searches with knowledge of functional sites could improve domain detection accuracy. Here we present an approach that enhances the search for redox domains using catalytic site annotations. From the scientific literature, we validated annotations of 104 InterPro domains indicated as using "transition metals in redox reactions." These domains mediate electron transfer in 20% of oxidoreductases, primarily employing iron, copper and molybdenum. We used the experimentally identified catalytic residues in these domains to validate sequence alignment-based protein function annotations. Our method, TrAnsFuSE, is 11% and 14% more accurate than PSI-BLAST and InterPro, respectively. Moreover, it is robust for use with other functional residues-we attain higher accuracy at comparable coverage using metal binding, in addition to catalytic, sites. TrAnsFuSE can be used to focus the study of the vast amounts of unannotated sequencing data from meta-/genome projects. PMID:22481248

Harel, Arye; Falkowski, Paul; Bromberg, Yana

2012-07-01

169

Allosteric nucleotide-binding site in the mitochondrial NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (respiratory complex I).  

PubMed

The rotenone-insensitive NADH:hexaammineruthenium III (HAR) oxidoreductase reactions catalyzed by bovine heart and Yarrowia lipolytica submitochondrial particles or purified bovine complex I are stimulated by ATP and other purine nucleotides. The soluble fraction of mammalian complex I (FP) and prokaryotic complex I homolog NDH-1 in Paracoccus denitrificans plasma membrane lack stimulation of their activities by ATP. The stimulation appears as a decrease in apparent K(m) values for NADH and HAR. Thus, the "accessory" subunits of eukaryotic complex I bear an allosteric ATP-binding site. PMID:21624365

Grivennikova, Vera G; Gladyshev, Grigory V; Vinogradov, Andrei D

2011-07-21

170

Determination of glucose-fructose oxidoreductase activity in whole cells of Zymomonas mobilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the determination of glucose-fructose oxidoreductase (GFOR) activity in whole cells of Zymomonas mobilis is described. The Km and the theoretical Vmax for GFOR were 192 g glucose.l-1 and 17 g gluconic acid.g-1 cell.h-1, respectively. The changes in enthalpy (31.1 kJ.mol-1), entropy (0.41 kJ.K-1), and Gibbs free energy (-97.5 kJ.mol-1) related to glucose to gluconic acid conversion were

G. S. Erzinger; M. M. Silveira; M. Vitolo; R. Jonas

1996-01-01

171

Amiloride inhibition of the proton-translocating NADH-quinone oxidoreductase of mammals and bacteria.  

PubMed

The proton-translocating NADH-quinone oxidoreductase in mitochondria (complex I) and bacteria (NDH-1) was shown to be inhibited by amiloride derivatives that are known as specific inhibitors for Na(+)/H(+) exchangers. In bovine submitochondrial particles, the effective concentrations were about the same as those for the Na(+)/H(+) exchangers, whereas in bacterial membranes the inhibitory potencies were lower. These results together with our earlier observation that the amiloride analogues prevent labeling of the ND5 subunit of complex I with a fenpyroximate analogue suggest the involvement of ND5 in H(+) (Na(+)) translocation and no direct involvement of electron carriers in H(+) (Na(+)) translocation. PMID:12914922

Nakamaru-Ogiso, Eiko; Seo, Byoung Boo; Yagi, Takao; Matsuno-Yagi, Akemi

2003-08-14

172

Simultaneous Involvement of a Tungsten-Containing Aldehyde:Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase and a Phenylacetaldehyde Dehydrogenase in Anaerobic Phenylalanine Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic phenylalanine metabolism in the denitrifying betaproteobacterium Aromatoleum aromaticum is initiated by conversion of phenylalanine to phenylacetate, which is further metabolized via benzoyl-coenzyme A (CoA). The formation of phenylacetate is catalyzed by phenylalanine transaminase, phenylpyruvate decarboxylase, and a phenylacetaldehyde-oxidizing enzyme. The presence of these enzymes was detected in extracts of cells grown with phenylalanine and nitrate. We found that two distinct enzymes are involved in the oxidation of phenylacetaldehyde to phenylacetate, an aldehyde:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (AOR) and a phenylacetaldehyde dehydrogenase (PDH). Based on sequence comparison, growth studies with various tungstate concentrations, and metal analysis of the enriched enzyme, AOR was shown to be a tungsten-containing enzyme, necessitating specific cofactor biosynthetic pathways for molybdenum- and tungsten-dependent enzymes simultaneously. We predict from the genome sequence that most enzymes of molybdopterin biosynthesis are shared, while the molybdate/tungstate uptake systems are duplicated and specialized paralogs of the sulfur-inserting MoaD and the metal-inserting MoeA proteins seem to be involved in dedicating biosynthesis toward molybdenum or tungsten cofactors. We also characterized PDH biochemically and identified both NAD+ and NADP+ as electron acceptors. We identified the gene coding for the enzyme and purified a recombinant Strep-tagged PDH variant. The homotetrameric enzyme is highly specific for phenylacetaldehyde, has cooperative kinetics toward the substrate, and shows considerable substrate inhibition. Our data suggest that A. aromaticum utilizes PDH as the primary enzyme during anaerobic phenylalanine degradation, whereas AOR is not essential for the metabolic pathway. We hypothesize a function as a detoxifying enzyme if high aldehyde concentrations accumulate in the cytoplasm, which would lead to substrate inhibition of PDH.

Debnar-Daumler, Carlotta; Seubert, Andreas; Schmitt, Georg

2014-01-01

173

Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Chloroplasts Contain a Homodimeric Pyruvate:Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase That Functions with FDX11[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Eukaryotic algae have long been known to live in anoxic environments, but interest in their anaerobic energy metabolism has only recently gained momentum, largely due to their utility in biofuel production. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii figures remarkably in this respect, because it efficiently produces hydrogen and its genome harbors many genes for anaerobic metabolic routes. Central to anaerobic energy metabolism in many unicellular eukaryotes (protists) is pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFO), which decarboxylates pyruvate and forms acetyl-coenzyme A with concomitant reduction of low-potential ferredoxins or flavodoxins. Here, we report the biochemical properties of the homodimeric PFO of C. reinhardtii expressed in Escherichia coli. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of the recombinant enzyme (Cr-rPFO) showed three distinct [4Fe-4S] iron-sulfur clusters and a thiamine pyrophosphate radical upon reduction by pyruvate. Purified Cr-rPFO exhibits a specific decarboxylase activity of 12 µmol pyruvate min?1 mg?1 protein using benzyl viologen as electron acceptor. Despite the fact that the enzyme is very oxygen sensitive, it localizes to the chloroplast. Among the six known chloroplast ferredoxins (FDX1–FDX6) in C. reinhardtii, FDX1 and FDX2 were the most efficient electron acceptors from Cr-rPFO, with comparable apparent Km values of approximately 4 µm. As revealed by immunoblotting, anaerobic conditions that lead to the induction of CrPFO did not increase levels of either FDX1 or FDX2. FDX1, being by far the most abundant ferredoxin, is thus likely the partner of PFO in C. reinhardtii. This finding postulates a direct link between CrPFO and hydrogenase and provides new opportunities to better study and engineer hydrogen production in this protist.

van Lis, Robert; Baffert, Carole; Coute, Yohann; Nitschke, Wolfgang; Atteia, Ariane

2013-01-01

174

Simultaneous involvement of a tungsten-containing aldehyde:ferredoxin oxidoreductase and a phenylacetaldehyde dehydrogenase in anaerobic phenylalanine metabolism.  

PubMed

Anaerobic phenylalanine metabolism in the denitrifying betaproteobacterium Aromatoleum aromaticum is initiated by conversion of phenylalanine to phenylacetate, which is further metabolized via benzoyl-coenzyme A (CoA). The formation of phenylacetate is catalyzed by phenylalanine transaminase, phenylpyruvate decarboxylase, and a phenylacetaldehyde-oxidizing enzyme. The presence of these enzymes was detected in extracts of cells grown with phenylalanine and nitrate. We found that two distinct enzymes are involved in the oxidation of phenylacetaldehyde to phenylacetate, an aldehyde:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (AOR) and a phenylacetaldehyde dehydrogenase (PDH). Based on sequence comparison, growth studies with various tungstate concentrations, and metal analysis of the enriched enzyme, AOR was shown to be a tungsten-containing enzyme, necessitating specific cofactor biosynthetic pathways for molybdenum- and tungsten-dependent enzymes simultaneously. We predict from the genome sequence that most enzymes of molybdopterin biosynthesis are shared, while the molybdate/tungstate uptake systems are duplicated and specialized paralogs of the sulfur-inserting MoaD and the metal-inserting MoeA proteins seem to be involved in dedicating biosynthesis toward molybdenum or tungsten cofactors. We also characterized PDH biochemically and identified both NAD(+) and NADP(+) as electron acceptors. We identified the gene coding for the enzyme and purified a recombinant Strep-tagged PDH variant. The homotetrameric enzyme is highly specific for phenylacetaldehyde, has cooperative kinetics toward the substrate, and shows considerable substrate inhibition. Our data suggest that A. aromaticum utilizes PDH as the primary enzyme during anaerobic phenylalanine degradation, whereas AOR is not essential for the metabolic pathway. We hypothesize a function as a detoxifying enzyme if high aldehyde concentrations accumulate in the cytoplasm, which would lead to substrate inhibition of PDH. PMID:24214948

Debnar-Daumler, Carlotta; Seubert, Andreas; Schmitt, Georg; Heider, Johann

2014-01-01

175

Interplay Between the Oxidoreductase PDIA6 and microRNA-322 Controls the Response to Disrupted Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium Homeostasis.  

PubMed

The disruption of the energy or nutrient balance triggers endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, a process that mobilizes various strategies, collectively called the unfolded protein response (UPR), which reestablish homeostasis of the ER and cell. Activation of the UPR stress sensor IRE1? (inositol-requiring enzyme 1?) stimulates its endoribonuclease activity, leading to the generation of the mRNA encoding the transcription factor XBP1 (X-box binding protein 1), which regulates the transcription of genes encoding factors involved in controlling the quality and folding of proteins. We found that the activity of IRE1? was regulated by the ER oxidoreductase PDIA6 (protein disulfide isomerase A6) and the microRNA miR-322 in response to disruption of ER Ca(2+) homeostasis. PDIA6 interacted with IRE1? and enhanced IRE1? activity as monitored by phosphorylation of IRE1? and XBP1 mRNA splicing, but PDIA6 did not substantially affect the activity of other pathways that mediate responses to ER stress. ER Ca(2+) depletion and activation of store-operated Ca(2+) entry reduced the abundance of the microRNA miR-322, which increased PDIA6 mRNA stability and, consequently, IRE1? activity during the ER stress response. In vivo experiments with mice and worms showed that the induction of ER stress correlated with decreased miR-322 abundance, increased PDIA6 mRNA abundance, or both. Together, these findings demonstrated that ER Ca(2+), PDIA6, IRE1?, and miR-322 function in a dynamic feedback loop modulating the UPR under conditions of disrupted ER Ca(2+) homeostasis. PMID:24917591

Groenendyk, Jody; Peng, Zhenling; Dudek, Elzbieta; Fan, Xiao; Mizianty, Marcin J; Dufey, Estefanie; Urra, Hery; Sepulveda, Denisse; Rojas-Rivera, Diego; Lim, Yunki; Kim, Do Han; Baretta, Kayla; Srikanth, Sonal; Gwack, Yousang; Ahnn, Joohong; Kaufman, Randal J; Lee, Sun-Kyung; Hetz, Claudio; Kurgan, Lukasz; Michalak, Marek

2014-01-01

176

The End of the Line: Can Ferredoxin and Ferredoxin NADP(H) Oxidoreductase Determine the Fate of Photosynthetic Electrons?  

PubMed Central

At the end of the linear photosynthetic electron transfer (PET) chain, the small soluble protein ferredoxin (Fd) transfers electrons to Fd:NADP(H) oxidoreductase (FNR), which can then reduce NADP+ to support C assimilation. In addition to this linear electron flow (LEF), Fd is also thought to mediate electron flow back to the membrane complexes by different cyclic electron flow (CEF) pathways: either antimycin A sensitive, NAD(P)H complex dependent, or through FNR located at the cytochrome b6f complex. Both Fd and FNR are present in higher plant genomes as multiple gene copies, and it is now known that specific Fd iso-proteins can promote CEF. In addition, FNR iso-proteins vary in their ability to dynamically interact with thylakoid membrane complexes, and it has been suggested that this may also play a role in CEF. We will highlight work on the different Fd-isoproteins and FNR-membrane association found in the bundle sheath (BSC) and mesophyll (MC) cell chloroplasts of the C4 plant maize. These two cell types perform predominantly CEF and LEF, and the properties and activities of Fd and FNR in the BSC and MC are therefore specialized for CEF and LEF respectively. A diversity of Fd isoproteins and dynamic FNR location has also been recorded in C3 plants, algae and cyanobacteria. This indicates that the principles learned from the extreme electron transport situations in the BSC and MC of maize might be usefully applied to understanding the dynamic transition between these states in other systems.

Goss, Tatjana; Hanke, Guy

2014-01-01

177

The end of the line: can ferredoxin and ferredoxin NADP(H) oxidoreductase determine the fate of photosynthetic electrons?  

PubMed

At the end of the linear photosynthetic electron transfer (PET) chain, the small soluble protein ferredoxin (Fd) transfers electrons to Fd:NADP(H) oxidoreductase (FNR), which can then reduce NADP+ to support C assimilation. In addition to this linear electron flow (LEF), Fd is also thought to mediate electron flow back to the membrane complexes by different cyclic electron flow (CEF) pathways: either antimycin A sensitive, NAD(P)H complex dependent, or through FNR located at the cytochrome b6f complex. Both Fd and FNR are present in higher plant genomes as multiple gene copies, and it is now known that specific Fd iso-proteins can promote CEF. In addition, FNR iso-proteins vary in their ability to dynamically interact with thylakoid membrane complexes, and it has been suggested that this may also play a role in CEF. We will highlight work on the different Fd-isoproteins and FNR-membrane association found in the bundle sheath (BSC) and mesophyll (MC) cell chloroplasts of the C4 plant maize. These two cell types perform predominantly CEF and LEF, and the properties and activities of Fd and FNR in the BSC and MC are therefore specialized for CEF and LEF respectively. A diversity of Fd isoproteins and dynamic FNR location has also been recorded in C3 plants, algae and cyanobacteria. This indicates that the principles learned from the extreme electron transport situations in the BSC and MC of maize might be usefully applied to understanding the dynamic transition between these states in other systems. PMID:24678667

Goss, Tatjana; Hanke, Guy

2014-01-01

178

Purification and some properties of sulfur:ferric ion oxidoreductase from Thiobacillus ferrooxidans  

SciTech Connect

A sulfur:ferric ion oxidoreductase that utilizes ferric ion (Fe/sup 3 +/) as an electron acceptor of elemental sulfur was purified from iron-grown Thiobacillus ferrooxidans to an electrophoretically homogeneous state. Under anaerobic conditions in the presence of Fe/sup 3 +/, the enzyme reduced 4 mol of Fe/sup 3 +/ with 1 mol of elemental sulfur to give 4 mol of Fe/sup 2 +/ and 1 mol of sulfite, indicting that it corresponds to a ferric ion-reducing system. Under aerobic conditions, sulfite, but not Fe/sup 2 +/, was produced during the oxidation of elemental sulfur by this enzyme because the Fe/sup 2 +/ produced was rapidly reoxidized chemically by molecular oxygen. The possibility that Fe/sup 3 +/ serves as an electron acceptor under aerobic conditions was ascertained by adding o-phenanthroline, which chelates Fe/sup 2 +/, to the reaction mixture. Sulfur oxidation by this enzyme was absolutely dependent on the presence of reduced glutathione. The enzyme had an isoelectric point and a pH optimum at pH 4.6 and 6.5, respectively. Almost all the activity of sulfur:ferric ion oxidoreductase was observed in the osmotic shock fluid of the cells, suggesting that it was localized in the periplasmic space of the cells.

Sugio, T.; Mizunashi, W.; Inagaki, K.; Tano, T.

1987-11-01

179

NADPH-Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase: Prototypic Member of the Diflavin Reductase Family  

PubMed Central

NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CYPOR) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS), two members of the diflavin oxidoreductase family, are multi-domain enzymes containing distinct FAD and FMN domains connected by a flexible hinge. FAD accepts a hydride ion from NADPH, and reduced FAD donates electrons to FMN, which in turn transfers electrons to the heme center of cytochrome P450 or NOS oxygenase domain. Structural analysis of CYPOR, the prototype of this enzyme family, has revealed the exact nature of the domain arrangement and the role of residues involved in cofactor binding. Recent structural and biophysical studies of CYPOR have shown that the two flavin domains undergo large domain movements during catalysis. NOS isoforms contain additional regulatory elements within the reductase domain that control electron transfer through Ca2+-dependent calmodulin (CaM) binding. The recent crystal structure of an iNOS Ca2+/CaM-FMN construct, containing the FMN domain in complex with Ca2+/CaM, provided structural information on the linkage between the reductase and oxgenase domains of NOS, making it possible to model the holo iNOS structure. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the dynamics of domain movements during CYPOR catalysis and the role of the NOS diflavin reductase domain in the regulation of NOS isozyme activities.

Iyanagi, Takashi; Xia, Chuanwu; Kim, Jung-Ja P.

2012-01-01

180

Effects of L-malate on mitochondrial oxidoreductases in liver of aged rats.  

PubMed

Accumulation of oxidative damage has been implicated to be a major causative factor in the decline in physiological functions that occur during the aging process. The mitochondrial respiratory chain is a powerful source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), considered as the pathogenic agent of many diseases and aging. L-malate, a tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate, plays an important role in transporting NADH from cytosol to mitochondria for energy production. Previous studies in our laboratory reported L-malate as a free radical scavenger in aged rats. In the present study we focused on the effect of L-malate on the activities of electron transport chain in young and aged rats. We found that mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the activities of succinate dehydrogenase, NADH-cytochrome c oxidoreductase and cytochrome c oxidase in liver of aged rats were significantly decreased when compared to young control rats. Supplementation of L-malate to aged rats for 30 days slightly increased MMP and improved the activities of NADH-dehydrogenase, NADH-cytochrome c oxidoreductase and cytochrome c oxidase in liver of aged rats when compared with aged control rats. In young rats, L-malate administration increased only the activity of NADH-dehydrogenase. Our result suggested that L-malate could improve the activities of electron transport chain enzymes in aged rats. PMID:21114358

Wu, J-L; Wu, Q-P; Peng, Y-P; Zhang, J-M

2011-01-01

181

Sodium-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase as a redox-driven ion pump.  

PubMed

The Na+-translocating NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR) is a component of the respiratory chain of various bacteria. This enzyme is an analogous but not homologous counterpart of mitochondrial Complex I. Na+-NQR drives the same chemistry and also uses released energy to translocate ions across the membrane, but it pumps Na+ instead of H+. Most likely the mechanism of sodium pumping is quite different from that of proton pumping (for example, it could not accommodate the Grotthuss mechanism of ion movement); this is why the enzyme structure, subunits and prosthetic groups are completely special. This review summarizes modern knowledge on the structural and catalytic properties of bacterial Na+-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductases. The sequence of electron transfer through the enzyme cofactors and thermodynamic properties of those cofactors is discussed. The resolution of the intermediates of the catalytic cycle and localization of sodium-dependent steps are combined in a possible molecular mechanism of sodium transfer by the enzyme. PMID:20056102

Verkhovsky, Michael I; Bogachev, Alexander V

2010-01-01

182

Crystal structures of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 quinone oxidoreductase and its complex with NADPH  

SciTech Connect

Zeta-crystallin-like quinone oxidoreductase is NAD(P)H-dependent and catalyzes one-electron reduction of certain quinones to generate semiquinone. Here we present the crystal structures of zeta-crystallin-like quinone oxidoreductase from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (PtoQOR) and its complexes with NADPH determined at 2.4 and 2.01 A resolutions, respectively. PtoQOR forms as a homologous dimer, each monomer containing two domains. In the structure of the PtoQOR-NADPH complex, NADPH locates in the groove between the two domains. NADPH binding causes obvious conformational changes in the structure of PtoQOR. The putative substrate-binding site of PtoQOR is wider than that of Escherichia coli and Thermus thermophilus HB8. Activity assays show that PtoQOR has weak 1,4-benzoquinone catalytic activity, and very strong reduction activity towards large substrates such as 9,10-phenanthrenequinone. We propose a model to explain the conformational changes which take place during reduction reactions catalyzed by PtoQOR.

Pan, Xiaowei [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China) [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Hongmei; Gao, Yu; Li, Mei [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China)] [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China); Chang, Wenrui, E-mail: wrchang@sun5.ibp.ac.cn [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China)] [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China)

2009-12-18

183

Another Unusual Type of Citric Acid Cycle Enzyme in Helicobacter pylori: the Malate:Quinone Oxidoreductase  

PubMed Central

The only enzyme of the citric acid cycle for which no open reading frame (ORF) was found in the Helicobacter pylori genome is the NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase. Here, it is shown that in this organism the oxidation of malate to oxaloacetate is catalyzed by a malate:quinone oxidoreductase (MQO). This flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent membrane-associated enzyme donates electrons to quinones of the electron transfer chain. Similar to succinate dehydrogenase, it is part of both the electron transfer chain and the citric acid cycle. MQO activity was demonstrated in isolated membranes of H. pylori. The enzyme is encoded by the ORF HP0086, which is shown by the fact that expression of the HP0086 sequence from a plasmid induces high MQO activity in mqo deletion mutants of Escherichia coli or Corynebacterium glutamicum. Furthermore, this plasmid was able to complement the phenotype of the C. glutamicum mqo deletion mutant. Interestingly, the protein predicted to be encoded by this ORF is only distantly related to known or postulated MQO sequences from other bacteria. The presence of an MQO shown here and the previously demonstrated presence of a 2-ketoglutarate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase and a succinyl-coenzyme A (CoA):acetoacetyl-CoA transferase indicate that H. pylori possesses a complete citric acid cycle, but one which deviates from the standard textbook example in three steps.

Kather, Birgit; Stingl, Kerstin; van der Rest, Michel E.; Altendorf, Karlheinz; Molenaar, Douwe

2000-01-01

184

Insights into the Metabolism of Elemental Sulfur by the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus: Characterization of a Coenzyme A- Dependent NAD(P)H Sulfur Oxidoreductase? †  

PubMed Central

The hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus uses carbohydrates as a carbon source and produces acetate, CO2, and H2 as end products. When S0 is added to a growing culture, within 10 min the rate of H2 production rapidly decreases and H2S is detected. After 1 hour cells contain high NADPH- and coenzyme A-dependent S0 reduction activity (0.7 units/mg, 85°C) located in the cytoplasm. The enzyme responsible for this activity was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity (specific activity, 100 units/mg) and is termed NAD(P)H elemental sulfur oxidoreductase (NSR). NSR is a homodimeric flavoprotein (Mr, 100,000) and is encoded by PF1186. This designation was previously assigned to the gene encoding an enzyme that reduces coenzyme A disulfide, which is a side reaction of NSR. Whole-genome DNA microarray and quantitative PCR analyses showed that the expression of NSR is up-regulated up to sevenfold within 10 min of S0 addition. This primary response to S0 also involves the up-regulation (>16-fold) of a 13-gene cluster encoding a membrane-bound oxidoreductase (MBX). The cluster encoding MBX is proposed to replace the homologous 14-gene cluster that encodes the ferredoxin-oxidizing, H2-evolving membrane-bound hydrogenase (MBH), which is down-regulated >12-fold within 10 min of S0 addition. Although an activity for MBX could not be demonstrated, it is proposed to conserve energy by oxidizing ferredoxin and reducing NADP, which is used by NSR to reduce S0. A secondary response to S0 is observed 30 min after S0 addition and includes the up-regulation of genes encoding proteins involved in amino acid biosynthesis and iron metabolism, as well as two so-called sulfur-induced proteins termed SipA and SipB. This novel S0-reducing system involving NSR and MBX has been found so far only in the heterotrophic Thermococcales and is in contrast to the cytochrome- and quinone-based S0-reducing system in autotrophic archaea and bacteria.

Schut, Gerrit J.; Bridger, Stephanie L.; Adams, Michael W. W.

2007-01-01

185

Molecular cloning and characterization of hemolymph 3-dehydroecdysone 3beta-reductase from the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis. A new member of the third superfamily of oxidoreductases.  

PubMed

The primary product of the prothoracic glands of last instar larvae of Spodoptera littoralis is 3-dehydroecdysone (3DE). After secretion, 3DE is reduced to ecdysone by 3DE 3beta-reductase in the hemolymph. We have previously purified and characterized 3DE 3beta-reductase from the hemolymph of S. littoralis. In this study, cDNA clones encoding the enzyme were obtained by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, employing primers based on the amino acid sequences, in conjunction with 5'- and 3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Multiple polyadenylation signals and AT-rich elements were found in the 3'-untranslated region, suggesting that this region may have a role in regulation of expression of the gene. Conceptual translation and amino acid sequence analysis suggest that 3DE 3beta-reductase from S. littoralis is a new member of the third superfamily of oxidoreductases. Northern analysis shows that 3DE 3beta-reductase mRNA transcripts are widely distributed, but are differentially expressed, in some tissues. The developmental profile of the mRNA revealed that the gene encoding 3DE 3beta-reductase is only transcribed in the second half of the last larval instar and that this fluctuation in expression accounts for the change in the enzyme activity during the instar. Southern analysis indicates that the 3DE 3beta-reductase is encoded by a single gene, which probably contains at least one intron. PMID:10187849

Chen, J H; Turner, P C; Rees, H H

1999-04-01

186

Pyrazolo Pyrimidine Derivatives and Methods of Use Thereof.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention generally relates to pyrazolo pyrimidine derivatives useful as, inter alia, inhibitors of short chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) family of NAD(P)(H) dependent oxido-reductases. More specifically, the invention relates to pyrazolo pyrimid...

M. Tanaka C. Zhang K. M. Shokat A. L. Burlingame K. Hansen R. L. Bateman S. G. DiMagno

2004-01-01

187

The structure of glucose-fructose oxidoreductase from Zymomonas mobilis: an osmoprotective periplasmic enzyme containing non-dissociable NADP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The organism Zymomonas mobilis occurs naturally in sugar-rich environments. To protect the bacterium against osmotic shock, the periplasmic enzyme glucose-fructose oxidoreductase (GFOR) produces the compatible, solute sorbitol by reduction of fructose, coupled with the oxidation of glucose to gluconolactone. Hence, Z. mobilis can tolerate high concentrations of sugars and this property may be useful in the development of an

Richard L Kingston; Robert K Scopes; Edward N Baker

1996-01-01

188

Benzofuran-, benzothiophene-, indazole- and benzisoxazole-quinones: excellent substrates for NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1.  

PubMed

A series of heterocyclic quinones based on benzofuran, benzothiophene, indazole and benzisoxazole has been synthesized, and evaluated for their ability to function as substrates for recombinant human NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), a two-electron reductase upregulated in tumor cells. Overall, the quinones are excellent substrates for NQO1, approaching the reduction rates observed for menadione. PMID:23635904

Newsome, Jeffery J; Hassani, Mary; Swann, Elizabeth; Bibby, Jane M; Beall, Howard D; Moody, Christopher J

2013-06-01

189

Disulfide Bond Oxidoreductase DsbA2 of Legionella pneumophila Exhibits Protein Disulfide Isomerase Activity  

PubMed Central

The extracytoplasmic assembly of the Dot/Icm type IVb secretion system (T4SS) of Legionella pneumophila is dependent on correct disulfide bond (DSB) formation catalyzed by a novel and essential disulfide bond oxidoreductase DsbA2 and not by DsbA1, a second nonessential DSB oxidoreductase. DsbA2, which is widely distributed in the microbial world, is phylogenetically distinct from the canonical DsbA oxidase and the DsbC protein disulfide isomerase (PDI)/reductase of Escherichia coli. Here we show that the extended N-terminal amino acid sequence of DsbA2 (relative to DsbA proteins) contains a highly conserved 27-amino-acid dimerization domain enabling the protein to form a homodimer. Complementation tests with E. coli mutants established that L. pneumophila dsbA1, but not the dsbA2 strain, restored motility to a dsbA mutant. In a protein-folding PDI detector assay, the dsbA2 strain, but not the dsbA1 strain, complemented a dsbC mutant of E. coli. Deletion of the dimerization domain sequences from DsbA2 produced the monomer (DsbA2N), which no longer exhibited PDI activity but complemented the E. coli dsbA mutant. PDI activity was demonstrated in vitro for DsbA2 but not DsbA1 in a nitrocefin-based mutant TEM ?-lactamase folding assay. In an insulin reduction assay, DsbA2N activity was intermediate between those of DsbA2 and DsbA1. In L. pneumophila, DsbA2 was maintained as a mixture of thiol and disulfide forms, while in E. coli, DsbA2 was present as the reduced thiol. Our studies suggest that DsbA2 is a naturally occurring bifunctional disulfide bond oxidoreductase that may be uniquely suited to the majority of intracellular bacterial pathogens expressing T4SSs as well as in many slow-growing soil and aquatic bacteria.

Kpadeh, Zegbeh Z.; Jameson-Lee, Max; Yeh, Anthony J.; Chertihin, Olga; Shumilin, Igor A.; Dey, Rafik; Day, Shandra R.

2013-01-01

190

Molybdenum(VI) salts convert the xanthine oxidoreductase apoprotein into the active enzyme in mouse L929 fibroblastic cells.  

PubMed Central

The mouse L929 fibroblastic cell line presents low, but detectable, levels of the mRNA encoding xanthine oxidoreductase under basal conditions, and it responds to type I and type II interferons by inducing the expression of the transcript [Falciani, Ghezzi, Terao, Cazzaniga, and Garattini (1992) Biochem. J. 285, 1001-1008]. This cell line, however, does not show any detectable amount of xanthine oxidoreductase enzymic activity, either before or after treatment with the cytokines. Molybdenum(VI) salts, in the millimolar range, are capable of activating xanthine oxidoreductase in L929 cells both under basal conditions and after treatment with interferon-alpha. The increase is observed in mouse L929 as well as in clones derived from it, but not in many other human and mouse cell lines. The induction observed in L929 cells is post-translational in nature and it is insensitive to cycloheximide, indicating that the molybdenum ion converts a pool of inactive xanthine oxidoreductase apoenzyme into its holoenzymic form. When grown in the absence of sodium molybdate, the L929 cell line has undetectable intracellular levels of the molybdenum cofactor, since the cell extracts are unable to complement the nitrate reductase defect of the nit-1 mutant of Neurospora crassa. L929 cells grown in the presence of millimolar concentrations of sodium molybdate, however, become competent to complement the nit-1 defect. L929 cells accumulate molybdenum ion inside the intracellular compartment as efficiently as TEnd cells, a mouse endothelial cell line that expresses xanthine oxidoreductase activity both under basal conditions and after treatment with interferon-gamma, suggesting that L929 cells have a defect in one or more of the metabolic steps leading to the synthesis of the molybdenum cofactor. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4

Falciani, F; Terao, M; Goldwurm, S; Ronchi, A; Gatti, A; Minoia, C; Li Calzi, M; Salmona, M; Cazzaniga, G; Garattini, E

1994-01-01

191

Characterization of methylhydroquinone-metabolizing oxygenase genes encoded on plasmid in Burkholderia sp. NF100.  

PubMed

Methylhydroquinone is an intermediate in the degradation of fenitrothion by Burkholderia sp. NF100. The catabolic gene (mhq) for methylhydroquinone degradation encoded on the plasmid pNF1 in the strain was cloned and sequenced. The mhq clone contained two ORFs, mhqA and mhqB, of which the deduced amino acid sequence shared significant homology with NAD(P)H-dependent flavoprotein monooxygenases and extradiol dioxygenases, respectively. Parts of the consensus sequences of the monooxygenase gene and dioxygenase gene have been identified in MhqA and MhqB from strain NF100, respectively. MhqA was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and partially purified MhqA catalyzed the NADPH-dependent hydroxylation of methylhydroquinone. MhqB was also overexpressed in E. coli, and the purified enzyme showed an extradiol ring cleavage activity toward 3-methylcatechol but a very low activity was observed toward 4-methylcatechol. PMID:16384790

Tago, Kanako; Sato, Junichi; Takesa, Hideaki; Kawagishi, Hirokazu; Hayatsu, Masahito

2005-11-01

192

A soluble NADH dehydrogenase (NADH: ferricyanide oxidoreductase) from Thermus aquaticus strain T351.  

PubMed Central

A soluble NADH dehydrogenase (NADH:ferricyanide oxidoreductase) has been obtained by simple disruption of cells of Thermus aquaticus strain T351, and purified. The enzyme is of low molecular mass, 50 000 Da, and displays many of the properties of the membrane-bound enzyme, including inhibition by both NADH and ferricyanide, and the same Km for ferricyanide. The enzyme contains 0.05 mol of FMN, 0.16 mol of labile sulphur and 2.2 mol of iron per mol of protein. The enzyme is inhibited by NAD and cupferron competitively with ferricyanide, and by ATP (but not ADP) competitively with NADH. The enzyme is particularly thermostable, having a half-life at 95 degrees C of 35 min. The effect of temperature on the molar absorption coefficient and the stability of NADH was determined.

Walsh, K A; Daniel, R M; Morgan, H W

1983-01-01

193

A soluble NADH dehydrogenase (NADH: ferricyanide oxidoreductase) from Thermus aquaticus strain T351.  

PubMed

A soluble NADH dehydrogenase (NADH:ferricyanide oxidoreductase) has been obtained by simple disruption of cells of Thermus aquaticus strain T351, and purified. The enzyme is of low molecular mass, 50 000 Da, and displays many of the properties of the membrane-bound enzyme, including inhibition by both NADH and ferricyanide, and the same Km for ferricyanide. The enzyme contains 0.05 mol of FMN, 0.16 mol of labile sulphur and 2.2 mol of iron per mol of protein. The enzyme is inhibited by NAD and cupferron competitively with ferricyanide, and by ATP (but not ADP) competitively with NADH. The enzyme is particularly thermostable, having a half-life at 95 degrees C of 35 min. The effect of temperature on the molar absorption coefficient and the stability of NADH was determined. PMID:6847628

Walsh, K A; Daniel, R M; Morgan, H W

1983-02-01

194

Xanthine oxidoreductase-catalyzed reactive species generation: A process in critical need of reevaluation?  

PubMed Central

Nearly 30 years have passed since the discovery of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) as a critical source of reactive species in ischemia/reperfusion injury. Since then, numerous inflammatory disease processes have been associated with elevated XOR activity and allied reactive species formation solidifying the ideology that enhancement of XOR activity equates to negative clinical outcomes. However, recent evidence may shatter this paradigm by describing a nitrate/nitrite reductase capacity for XOR whereby XOR may be considered a crucial source of beneficial •NO under ischemic/hypoxic/acidic conditions; settings similar to those that limit the functional capacity of nitric oxide synthase. Herein, we review XOR-catalyzed reactive species generation and identify key microenvironmental factors whose interplay impacts the identity of the reactive species (oxidants vs. •NO) produced. In doing so, we redefine existing dogma and shed new light on an enzyme that has weathered the evolutionary process not as gadfly but a crucial component in the maintenance of homeostasis.

Cantu-Medellin, Nadiezhda; Kelley, Eric E.

2013-01-01

195

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of glucose-fructose oxidoreductase from Zymomonas mobilis.  

PubMed Central

Glucose-fructose oxidoreductase (E.C. 1.1.99.-) from the ethanol-producing Gram-negative bacterium Zymomonas mobilis is a periplasmic, soluble enzyme that forms a homotetramer of 160 kDa with one NADP(H) cofactor per subunit that is tightly, but noncovalently, bound. The enzyme was crystallized by the hanging drop vapor diffusion method using sodium citrate as precipitant. The obtained crystals belong to the space group P2(1)2(1)2, with unit cell constants of 84.6 A, 94.1 A, and 117.0 A, consistent with two monomers in the asymmetric unit. They diffract to a resolution of about 2 A and are suitable for X-ray structure determination.

Loos, H.; Ermler, U.; Sprenger, G. A.; Sahm, H.

1994-01-01

196

Induction of D-aldohexoside:cytochrome c oxidoreductase in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.  

PubMed Central

D-Aldohexopyranoside:cytochrome c oxidoreductase (ACO) was strongly induced by cellobiose, alpha-methylglucoside, beta-methylglucoside, kojibiose, and sophorose. Induction was rapid, and ACO was readily detectable within 10 min after addition of cellobiose as inducer. Although not measurable for 30 to 40 min after addition of inducer, once started, the rate of induction with alpha-methylglucoside equaled or even exceeded that obtained with cellobiose. Induction by sucrose, maltose, alpha-alpha-trehalose, melibiose, and lactose was weak. In general, the active ACO inducers were poor glycosidase inducers; the converse also appeared to be true. Although ACO induction was not repressed by D-glucose, it was repressed by succinate, malate, and fumarate.

Nakamura, L K; Tyler, D D

1977-01-01

197

Enantiocomplementary Yarrowia lipolytica Oxidoreductases: Alcohol Dehydrogenase 2 and Short Chain Dehydrogenase/Reductase  

PubMed Central

Enzymes of the non-conventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica seem to be tailor-made for the conversion of lipophilic substrates. Herein, we cloned and overexpressed the Zn-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase ADH2 from Yarrowia lipolytica in Escherichia coli. The purified enzyme was characterized in vitro. The substrate scope for YlADH2 mediated oxidation and reduction was investigated spectrophotometrically and the enzyme showed a broader substrate range than its homolog from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A preference for secondary compared to primary alcohols in oxidation direction was observed for YlADH2. 2-Octanone was investigated in reduction mode in detail. Remarkably, YlADH2 displays perfect (S)-selectivity and together with a highly (R)-selective short chain dehydrogenase/ reductase from Yarrowia lipolytica it is possible to access both enantiomers of 2-octanol in >99% ee with Yarrowia lipolytica oxidoreductases.

Napora-Wijata, Kamila; Strohmeier, Gernot A.; Sonavane, Manoj N.; Avi, Manuela; Robins, Karen; Winkler, Margit

2013-01-01

198

Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Caused by P450 Oxidoreductase Deficiency  

PubMed Central

Context: Mutations in the electron donor enzyme P450 oxidoreductase (POR) result in congenital adrenal hyperplasia with apparent combined 17?-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase and 21-hydroxylase deficiencies, also termed P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD). Major clinical features present in PORD are disordered sex development in affected individuals of both sexes, glucocorticoid deficiency, and multiple skeletal malformations. Objective: The objective of the study was to establish a noninvasive approach to prenatal diagnosis of PORD including assessment of malformation severity to facilitate optimized prenatal diagnosis and timely treatment. Design: We analyzed 20 pregnancies with children homozygous or compound heterozygous for disease-causing POR mutations and 1 pregnancy with a child carrying a heterozygous POR mutation by recording clinical and biochemical presentations and fetal ultrasound findings. In 4 of the pregnancies (3 homozygous and 1 heterozygous for disease-causing POR mutations), prenatal analysis of steroid metabolite excretion in maternal urine was carried out by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry during gestational weeks 11–23. Results: Pregnancy complications in our cohort included maternal virilization (6 of 20) with onset in the second trimester. Seven pregnant women presented with low unconjugated estriol at prenatal screening (triple or quadruple antenatal screening test). Overt dysmorphic features were noted in 19 of the 20 babies at birth but observed in only 5 by prenatal ultrasound. These 5 had the most severe malformation phenotypes and poor outcome, whereas the other babies showed normal development. Steroid profiling of maternal urine revealed significantly increased steroids of fetal origin, namely the pregnenolone metabolite epiallopregnanediol and the androgen metabolite androsterone, with concomitant low values for estriol. Diagnostic steroid ratios conclusively indicated PORD as early as gestational week 12. In the heterozygous pregnancy, steroid ratios were only slightly elevated and estriol excretion was normal. Conclusion: Prenatal diagnosis in PORD is readily established via urinary steroid metabolite analysis of maternal urine. Visible malformations at prenatal ultrasound predict a severe malformation phenotype.

Reisch, Nicole; Idkowiak, Jan; Hughes, Beverly A.; Ivison, Hannah E.; Abdul-Rahman, Omar A.; Hendon, Laura G.; Olney, Ann Haskins; Nielsen, Shelly; Harrison, Rachel; Blair, Edward M.; Dhir, Vivek; Krone, Nils; Shackleton, Cedric H. L.

2013-01-01

199

Genotype-Phenotype Analysis in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to P450 Oxidoreductase Deficiency  

PubMed Central

Context: P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD) is a unique congenital adrenal hyperplasia variant that manifests with glucocorticoid deficiency, disordered sex development (DSD), and skeletal malformations. No comprehensive data on genotype-phenotype correlations in Caucasian patients are available. Objective: The objective of the study was to establish genotype-phenotype correlations in a large PORD cohort. Design: The design of the study was the clinical, biochemical, and genetic assessment including multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) in 30 PORD patients from 11 countries. Results: We identified 23 P450 oxidoreductase (POR) mutations (14 novel) including an exonic deletion and a partial duplication detected by MLPA. Only 22% of unrelated patients carried homozygous POR mutations. p.A287P was the most common mutation (43% of unrelated alleles); no other hot spot was identified. Urinary steroid profiling showed characteristic PORD metabolomes with variable impairment of 17?-hydroxylase and 21-hydroxylase. Short cosyntropin testing revealed adrenal insufficiency in 89%. DSD was present in 15 of 18 46,XX and seven of 12 46,XY individuals. Homozygosity for p.A287P was invariably associated with 46,XX DSD but normal genitalia in 46,XY individuals. The majority of patients with mild to moderate skeletal malformations, assessed by a novel scoring system, were compound heterozygous for missense mutations, whereas nearly all patients with severe malformations carried a major loss-of-function defect on one of the affected alleles. Conclusions: We report clinical, biochemical, and genetic findings in a large PORD cohort and show that MLPA is a useful addition to POR mutation analysis. Homozygosity for the most frequent mutation in Caucasians, p.A287P, allows for prediction of genital phenotype and moderate malformations. Adrenal insufficiency is frequent, easily overlooked, but readily detected by cosyntropin testing.

Krone, Nils; Reisch, Nicole; Idkowiak, Jan; Dhir, Vivek; Ivison, Hannah E.; Hughes, Beverly A.; Rose, Ian T.; O'Neil, Donna M.; Vijzelaar, Raymon; Smith, Matthew J.; MacDonald, Fiona; Cole, Trevor R.; Adolphs, Nicolai; Barton, John S.; Blair, Edward M.; Braddock, Stephen R.; Collins, Felicity; Cragun, Deborah L.; Dattani, Mehul T.; Day, Ruth; Dougan, Shelley; Feist, Miriam; Gottschalk, Michael E.; Gregory, John W.; Haim, Michaela; Harrison, Rachel; Haskins Olney, Ann; Hauffa, Berthold P.; Hindmarsh, Peter C.; Hopkin, Robert J.; Jira, Petr E.; Kempers, Marlies; Kerstens, Michiel N.; Khalifa, Mohamed M.; Kohler, Birgit; Maiter, Dominique; Nielsen, Shelly; O'Riordan, Stephen M.; Roth, Christian L.; Shane, Kate P.; Silink, Martin; Stikkelbroeck, Nike M. M. L.; Sweeney, Elizabeth; Szarras-Czapnik, Maria; Waterson, John R.; Williamson, Lori; Hartmann, Michaela F.; Taylor, Norman F.; Wudy, Stefan A.; Malunowicz, Ewa M.; Shackleton, Cedric H. L.

2012-01-01

200

Purification and characterization of a benzylviologen-linked, tungsten-containing aldehyde oxidoreductase from Desulfovibrio gigas.  

PubMed Central

Desulfovibrio gigas NCIMB 9332 cells grown in ethanol-containing medium with 0.1 microM tungstate contained a benzylviologen-linked aldehyde oxidoreductase. The enzyme was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity and found to be a homodimer with a subunit M(r) of 62,000. It contained 0.68 +/- 0.08 W, 4.8 Fe, and 3.2 +/- 0.2 labile S per subunit. After acid iodine oxidation of the purified enzyme, a fluorescence spectrum typical for form A of molybdopterin was obtained. Acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, and benzaldehyde were excellent substrates, with apparent Km values of 12.5, 10.8, and 20 microM, respectively. The natural electron acceptor is not yet known; benzylviologen was used as an artificial electron acceptor (apparent Km, 0.55 mM). The enzyme was activated by potassium ions and strongly inhibited by cyanide, arsenite, and iodoacetate. In the as-isolated enzyme, electron paramagnetic resonance studies readily detected W(V) as a complex signal with g values in the range of 1.84 to 1.97. The dithionite-reduced enzyme exhibited a broad signal at low temperature with g = 2.04 and 1.92; this is indicative of a [4Fe-4S]1+ cluster interacting with a second paramagnet, possibly the S = 1 system of W(IV). Until now W-containing aldehyde oxidoreductases had only been found in two Clostridium strains and two hyperthermophilic archaea. The D. gigas enzyme is the first example of such an enzyme in a gram-negative bacterium.

Hensgens, C M; Hagen, W R; Hansen, T A

1995-01-01

201

Pubertal Presentation in Seven Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to P450 Oxidoreductase Deficiency  

PubMed Central

Context: P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is a crucial electron donor to all microsomal P450 cytochrome (CYP) enzymes including 17?-hydroxylase (CYP17A1), 21-hydroxylase (CYP21A2) and P450 aromatase. Mutant POR causes congenital adrenal hyperplasia with combined glucocorticoid and sex steroid deficiency. P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (ORD) commonly presents neonatally, with disordered sex development in both sexes, skeletal malformations, and glucocorticoid deficiency. Objective: The aim of the study was to describe the clinical and biochemical characteristics of ORD during puberty. Design: Clinical, biochemical, and genetic assessment of seven ORD patients (five females, two males) presenting during puberty was conducted. Results: Predominant findings in females were incomplete pubertal development (four of five) and large ovarian cysts (five of five) prone to spontaneous rupture, in some only resolving after combined treatment with estrogen/progestin, GnRH superagonists, and glucocorticoids. Pubertal development in the two boys was more mildly affected, with some spontaneous progression. Urinary steroid profiling revealed combined CYP17A1 and CYP21A2 deficiencies indicative of ORD in all patients; all but one failed to mount an appropriate cortisol response to ACTH stimulation indicative of adrenal insufficiency. Diagnosis of ORD was confirmed by direct sequencing, demonstrating disease-causing POR mutations. Conclusion: Delayed and disordered puberty can be the first sign leading to a diagnosis of ORD. Appropriate testosterone production during puberty in affected boys but manifest primary hypogonadism in girls with ORD may indicate that testicular steroidogenesis is less dependent on POR than adrenal and ovarian steroidogenesis. Ovarian cysts in pubertal girls may be driven not only by high gonadotropins but possibly also by impaired CYP51A1-mediated production of meiosis-activating sterols due to mutant POR.

Idkowiak, Jan; O'Riordan, Stephen; Reisch, Nicole; Malunowicz, Ewa M.; Collins, Felicity; Kerstens, Michiel N.; Kohler, Birgit; Graul-Neumann, Luitgard Margarete; Szarras-Czapnik, Maria; Dattani, Mehul; Silink, Martin; Shackleton, Cedric H. L.; Maiter, Dominique; Krone, Nils

2011-01-01

202

Activity and expression of progesterone metabolizing 5?-reductase, 20?-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase and 3?(?)-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductases in tumorigenic (MCF7, MDA-MB-231, T-47D) and nontumorigenic (MCF10A) human breast cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Recent observations indicate that human tumorous breast tissue metabolizes progesterone differently than nontumorous breast tissue. Specifically, 5?-reduced metabolites (5?-pregnanes, shown to stimulate cell proliferation and detachment) are produced at a significantly higher rate in tumorous tissue, indicating increased 5?-reductase (5?R) activity. Conversely, the activities of 3?-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase (3?-HSO) and 20?-HSO enzymes appeared to be higher in normal tissues. The

John P Wiebe; Michael J Lewis

2003-01-01

203

Reduction of trans-4,5-dihydroxy-1,2-dithiane by cellular oxidoreductases activates gadd153/chop and grp78 transcription and induces cellular tolerance in kidney epithelial cells.  

PubMed

trans-4,5-Dihydroxy-1,2-dithiane, the intramolecular disulfide form of dithiothreitol (DTTox) transcriptionally activates the stress-responsive genes gadd153(chop) and grp78. Herein, we used a renal epithelial cell line, LLC-PK1, to investigate the mechanism(s) whereby DTTox activates a molecular stress response. DTTox activated both grp78 and gadd153 transcriptionally, but gadd153 mRNA stability also increased suggesting that both transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms are involved. DTTox did not activate hsp70 transcription indicating that a heat shock response was not induced. Structure-activity studies showed that DTTox analogues lacking the intramolecular disulfide were inactive. Furthermore, the ring-open intermolecular disulfide form of DTTox, 2-hydroxyethyl disulfide, was only a weak inducer of grp78 and gadd153 but was a strong inducer of hsp70 mRNA and a potent oxidant that lowered the NADPH/NADP+ ratio and depleted reduced glutathione (GSH). DTTox had little effect on the overall GSH and NADPH levels; thus cells were not undergoing oxidative stress; however, the NADPH/NADP+ ratio decreased slightly indicating that reducing equivalents were consumed. LLC-PK1 cells reduced DTTox to DTT, and the kinetics as well as the concentration dependence for reduction correlated with induction of both grp78 and gadd153 mRNA. Prior treatment with DTTox rendered cells tolerant to the potent nephrotoxicant S-(1,1,2, 2-tetrafluoroethyl)-L-cysteine. Bacitracin, an inhibitor of plasma membrane oxidoreductases, blocked DTTox reduction and gene activation as well as DTTox-induced tolerance. Thus, activation of stress genes and induction of cellular tolerance by DTTox is mediated by a novel mechanism involving cellular oxidoreductases. PMID:9268305

Halleck, M M; Liu, H; North, J; Stevens, J L

1997-08-29

204

Arabidopsis protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase A (PORA) restores bulk chlorophyll synthesis and normal development to a porB porC double mutant.  

PubMed

In angiosperms the strictly light-dependent reduction of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide is catalyzed by NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR). The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes three structurally related but differentially regulated POR genes, PORA, PORB and PORC. PORA is expressed primarily early in development-during etiolation, germination and greening. In contrast, PORB and PORC are not only expressed during seedling development but also throughout the later life of the plant, during which they are responsible for bulk chlorophyll synthesis. The Arabidopsis porB-1 porC-1 mutant displays a severe xantha (highly chlorophyll-deficient) phenotype characterized by smaller prolamellar bodies in etioplasts and decreased thylakoid stacking in chloroplasts. Here we have demonstrated the ability of an ectopic PORA overexpression construct to restore prolamellar body formation in the porB-1 porC-1 double mutant background. In response to illumination, light-dependent chlorophyll production, thylakoid stacking and photomorphogenesis are also restored in PORA-overexpressing porB-1 porC-1 seedlings and adult plants. An Arabidopsis porB-1 porC-1 double mutant can therefore be functionally rescued by the addition of ectopically expressed PORA, which suffices in the absence of either PORB or PORC to direct bulk chlorophyll synthesis and normal plant development. PMID:20012672

Paddock, Troy N; Mason, Mary E; Lima, Daniel F; Armstrong, Gregory A

2010-03-01

205

Epigenetic silencing of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 by hepatitis B virus X protein increases mitochondrial injury and cellular susceptibility to oxidative stress in hepatoma cells.  

PubMed

NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is a phase II enzyme that participates in the detoxification of dopamine-derived quinone molecules and reactive oxygen species. Our prior work using a proteomic approach found that NQO1 protein levels were significantly decreased in stable hepatitis B virus (HBV)-producing hepatoma cells relative to the empty-vector-transfected controls. However, the mechanism and biological significance of the NQO1 suppression remain elusive. In this study we demonstrate that HBV X protein (HBx) induces epigenetic silencing of NQO1 in hepatoma cells through promoter hypermethylation via recruitment of DNA methyltransferase DNMT3A to the promoter region of the NQO1 gene. In HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) specimens, HBx expression was correlated negatively to NQO1 transcripts but positively to NQO1 promoter hypermethylation. Downregulation of NQO1 by HBx reduced intracellular glutathione levels, impaired mitochondrial function, and increased susceptibility of hepatoma cells to oxidative stress-induced cell injury. These results suggest a novel mechanism for HBV-mediated pathogenesis of chronic liver diseases, including HCC. PMID:23920313

Wu, Yun-li; Wang, Dong; Peng, Xian-e; Chen, Yan-ling; Zheng, Da-li; Chen, Wan-nan; Lin, Xu

2013-12-01

206

Activation of Ferredoxin-NADP+Oxidoreductase in Vicia fabaLeaves Induced by a Short-Term Increase in Irradiance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of a short-term increase in growth irradiance (I) by 1.5–5 times on the rate of the photosynthetic electron transport and the activity of ferredoxin-NADP+oxidoreductase (FNR) in the leaves of broadbean (Vicia fabaL.) plants grown under an irradiance of 8 W\\/m2was studied. NADPH-diaphorase and cytochrome creductase activities of FNR were determined in isolated chloroplasts and leaf homogenates. The duration

M. K. Nikolaeva

2001-01-01

207

Antiparasitic Drug Nitazoxanide Inhibits the Pyruvate Oxidoreductases of Helicobacter pylori, Selected Anaerobic Bacteria and Parasites, and Campylobacter jejuni  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitazoxanide (NTZ) exhibits broad-spectrum activity against anaerobic bacteria and parasites and the ulcer-causing pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Here we show that NTZ is a noncompetitive inhibitor (Ki ,2t o 10 M) of the pyruvate:ferredoxin\\/flavodoxin oxidoreductases (PFORs) of Trichomonas vaginalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens, H. pylori, and Campylobacter jejuni and is weakly active against the pyruvate dehydrogenase of

Paul S. Hoffman; Gary Sisson; Matthew A. Croxen; Kevin Welch; W. Dean Harman; Nunilo Cremades; Michael G. Morash

2007-01-01

208

Differential Interaction of Maize Root Ferredoxin:NADP+ Oxidoreductase with Photosynthetic and NonPhotosynthetic Ferredoxin Isoproteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

In higher plants ferredoxin (Fd):NADP1 oxidoreductase (FNR) and Fd are each distributed in photosynthetic and non- photosynthetic organs as distinct isoproteins. We have cloned cDNAs for leaf FNR (L-FNR I and L-FNR II) and root FNR (R-FNR) from maize (Zea mays L.), and produced recombinant L-FNR I and R-FNR to study their enzymatic functions through kinetic and Fd-binding analyses. The

Yayoi Onda; Tomohiro Matsumura; Yoko Kimata-Ariga; Hitoshi Sakakibara; Tatsuo Sugiyama; Toshiharu Hase

2000-01-01

209

Primary structure and eubacterial relationships of the pyruvate:Ferredoxin oxidoreductase of the amitochondriate eukaryote Trichomonas vaginalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the eukaryotic unicellular organismTrichomonas vaginalis a key step of energy metabolism, the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate with the formation of acetyl-CoA, is catalyzed by the iron-sulfur protein pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFO) and not by the almost-ubiquitous pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex. This enzyme is localized in the hydrogenosome, an organelle bounded by a double membrane. PFO and its closely related homolog,

Ivan Hrdý; Miklós Müller

1995-01-01

210

Primary structure and eubacterial relationships of the pyruvate:Ferredoxin oxidoreductase of the amitochondriate eukaryote Trichomonas vaginalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the eukaryotic unicellular organism Trichomonas vaginalis a key step of energy metabolism, the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate with the formation of acetyl-CoA, is catalyzed by the iron-sulfur protein pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFO) and not by the almost-ubiquitous pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex. This enzyme is localized in the hydrogenosome, an organelle bounded by a double membrane. PFO and its closely related

Ivan Hrdý; Miklós Müller

1995-01-01

211

Evolving thermostability in mutant libraries of ligninolytic oxidoreductases expressed in yeast  

PubMed Central

Background In the picture of a laboratory evolution experiment, to improve the thermostability whilst maintaining the activity requires of suitable procedures to generate diversity in combination with robust high-throughput protocols. The current work describes how to achieve this goal by engineering ligninolytic oxidoreductases (a high-redox potential laccase -HRPL- and a versatile peroxidase, -VP-) functionally expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results Taking advantage of the eukaryotic machinery, complex mutant libraries were constructed by different in vivo recombination approaches and explored for improved stabilities and activities. A reliable high-throughput assay based on the analysis of T50 was employed for discovering thermostable oxidases from mutant libraries in yeast. Both VP and HRPL libraries contained variants with shifts in the T50 values. Stabilizing mutations were found at the surface of the protein establishing new interactions with the surrounding residues. Conclusions The existing tradeoff between activity and stability determined from many point mutations discovered by directed evolution and other protein engineering means can be circumvented combining different tools of in vitro evolution.

2010-01-01

212

Secondary structure of NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase examined by circular dichroism and prediction methods.  

PubMed

To study the secondary structure of the enzyme NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (PCOR), a novel method of enzyme isolation was developed. The detergent isotridecyl poly-(ethylene glycol) ether (Genapol X-080) selectively solubilizes the enzyme from a prolamellar-body fraction isolated from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The solubilized fraction was further purified by ion-exchange chromatography. The isolated enzyme was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy at 77 K, and by CD spectroscopy. The fluorescence-emission spectra revealed that the binding properties of the substrate and co-substrate were preserved and that photo-reduction occurred. The CD spectra of PCOR were analysed for the relative amounts of the secondary structures, alpha-helix, beta-sheet, turn and random coil. The secondary structure composition was estimated to be 33% alpha-helix, 19% beta-sheet, 20% turn and 28% random coil. These values are in agreement with those predicted by the Predict Heidelberg Deutschland and self-optimized prediction method from alignments methods. The enzyme has some amino acid identity with other NADPH-binding enzymes containing the Rossmann fold. The Rossmann-fold fingerprint motif is localized in the N-terminal region and at the expected positions in the predicted secondary structure. It is suggested that PCOR is anchored to the interfacial region of the membrane by either a beta-sheet or an alpha-helical region containing tryptophan residues. A hydrophobic loop-region could also be involved in membrane anchoring. PMID:8713084

Birve, S J; Selstam, E; Johansson, L B

1996-07-15

213

Structural and Biochemical Characterization of the Oxidoreductase NmDsbA3 from Neisseria meningitidis  

SciTech Connect

DsbA is an enzyme found in the periplasm of Gram-negative bacteria that catalyzes the formation of disulfide bonds in a diverse array of protein substrates, many of which are involved in bacterial pathogenesis. Although most bacteria possess only a single essential DsbA, Neisseria meningitidis is unusual in that it possesses three DsbAs, although the reason for this additional redundancy is unclear. Two of these N. meningitidis enzymes (NmDsbA1 and NmDsbA2) play an important role in meningococcal attachment to human epithelial cells, whereas NmDsbA3 is considered to have a narrow substrate repertoire. To begin to address the role of DsbAs in the pathogenesis of N. meningitidis, we have determined the structure of NmDsbA3 to 2.3-{angstrom} resolution. Although the sequence identity between NmDsbA3 and other DsbAs is low, the NmDsbA3 structure adopted a DsbA-like fold. Consistent with this finding, we demonstrated that NmDsbA3 acts as a thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase in vitro and is reoxidized by Escherichia coli DsbB (EcDsbB). However, pronounced differences in the structures between DsbA3 and EcDsbA, which are clustered around the active site of the enzyme, suggested a structural basis for the unusual substrate specificity that is observed for NmDsbA3.

Vivian, Julian P.; Scoullar, Jessica; Robertson, Amy L.; Bottomley, Stephen P.; Horne, James; Chin, Yanni; Wielens, Jerome; Thompson, Philip E.; Velkov, Tony; Piek, Susannah; Byres, Emma; Beddoe, Travis; Wilce, Matthew C.J.; Kahler, Charlene M.; Rossjohn, Jamie; Scanlon, Martin J. (UWA); (Monash)

2009-09-02

214

Reduction of Clofazimine by Mycobacterial Type 2 NADH:Quinone Oxidoreductase  

PubMed Central

The mechanism of action of clofazimine (CFZ), an antimycobacterial drug with a long history, is not well understood. The present study describes a redox cycling pathway that involves the enzymatic reduction of CFZ by NDH-2, the primary respiratory chain NADH:quinone oxidoreductase of mycobacteria and nonenzymatic oxidation of reduced CFZ by O2 yielding CFZ and reactive oxygen species (ROS). This pathway was demonstrated using isolated membranes and purified recombinant NDH-2. The reduction and oxidation of CFZ was measured spectrally, and the production of ROS was measured using a coupled assay system with Amplex Red. Supporting the ROS-based killing mechanism, bacteria grown in the presence of antioxidants are more resistant to CFZ. CFZ-mediated increase in NADH oxidation and ROS production were not observed in membranes from three different Gram-negative bacteria but was observed in Staphylococcus aureus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is consistent with the known antimicrobial specificity of CFZ. A more soluble analog of CFZ, KS6, was synthesized and was shown to have the same activities as CFZ. These studies describe a pathway for a continuous and high rate of reactive oxygen species production in Mycobacterium smegmatis treated with CFZ and a CFZ analog as well as evidence that cell death produced by these agents are related to the production of these radical species.

Yano, Takahiro; Kassovska-Bratinova, Sacha; Teh, J. Shin; Winkler, Jeffrey; Sullivan, Kevin; Isaacs, Andre; Schechter, Norman M.; Rubin, Harvey

2011-01-01

215

NADPH-Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase: Roles in Physiology, Pharmacology, and Toxicology  

PubMed Central

This is a report on a symposium sponsored by the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics and held at the Experimental Biology 2012 meeting in San Diego, California, on April 25, 2012. The symposium speakers summarized and critically evaluated our current understanding of the physiologic, pharmacological, and toxicological roles of NADPH–cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR), a flavoprotein involved in electron transfer to microsomal cytochromes P450 (P450), cytochrome b5, squalene mono-oxygenase, and heme oxygenase. Considerable insight has been derived from the development and characterization of mouse models with conditional Por deletion in particular tissues or partial suppression of POR expression in all tissues. Additional mouse models with global or conditional hepatic deletion of cytochrome b5 are helping to clarify the P450 isoform- and substrate-specific influences of cytochrome b5 on P450 electron transfer and catalytic function. This symposium also considered studies using siRNA to suppress POR expression in a hepatoma cell–culture model to explore the basis of the hepatic lipidosis phenotype observed in mice with conditional deletion of Por in liver. The symposium concluded with a strong translational perspective, relating the basic science of human POR structure and function to the impacts of POR genetic variation on human drug and steroid metabolism.

Ding, Xinxin; Wolf, C. Roland; Porter, Todd D.; Pandey, Amit V.; Zhang, Qing-Yu; Gu, Jun; Finn, Robert D.; Ronseaux, Sebastien; McLaughlin, Lesley A.; Henderson, Colin J.; Zou, Ling; Fluck, Christa E.

2013-01-01

216

[Phenyl pyrazolones--novel oxidoreductase redox-mediators for degradation of xenobiotics].  

PubMed

An approach was developed to screening organic compounds for putative activity of redox mediators of oxidoreductases, including laccases and peroxidases, applicable for xenobiotic degradation. The study was carried out with a homogenous laccase preparation from the basidiomycete Trametes hirsuta and horse-radish root peroxidase. Compounds belonging to 1-phenyl-3-methylpyrazolones were selected. Spectroscopic and electrochemical investigation of two of the compounds, sodium 1-phenyl-2,3-dimethyl-4-aminopyrazolon 5n(4)-methanesulfonate (PPNa) and 1-(3'-sulfophenyl)-3-methylpyrazolone (SPP), was performed. Electrochemical oxidation of both PPNa and SPP gave rise to high-potential intermediates capable of oxidizing veratryl alcohol; a lignin-modeling compound. Kinetic indices of these compounds were determined in enzymatic reactions with the presence of laccase. It was shown that enzymatic oxidation of SPP by laccase produced high-potential intermediates capable of oxidizing veratryl alcohol to veratric acid. Veratryl alcohol did not oxidize during enzymatic oxidation of SPP by peroxidase. This points to a difference between the mechanisms of enzymatic oxidation of PPNa and SPP by laccase and peroxidase. PMID:15125193

Shleev, S V; Khan, I G; Morozova, O V; Mazhugo, Iu M; Khalunina, A S; Iaropolov, A I

2004-01-01

217

Iron (III) reduction: A novel activity of the human NAD(P)H:oxidoreductase  

SciTech Connect

NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1; EC 1.6.99.2) catalyzes a two-electron transfer involved in the protection of cells from reactive oxygen species. These reactive oxygen species are often generated by the one-electron reduction of quinones or quinone analogs. We report here on the previously unreported Fe(III) reduction activity of human NQO1. Under steady state conditions with Fe(III) citrate, the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (K{sub m}{sup app}) was {approx}0.3nM and the apparent maximum velocity (V{sub max}{sup app}) was 16Umg{sup -1}. Substrate inhibition was observed above 5nM. NADH was the electron donor, K{sub m}{sup app}=340{mu}M and V{sub max}{sup app}=46Umg{sup -1}. FAD was also a cofactor with a K{sub m}{sup app} of 3.1{mu}M and V{sub max}{sup app} of 89Umg{sup -1}. The turnover number for NADH oxidation was 25s{sup -1}. Possible physiological roles of the Fe(III) reduction by this enzyme are discussed.

Onyenwoke, Rob U. [Department of Microbiology, University of Georgia, 1000 Cedar Street, Athens, GA 30602-2605 (United States); Wiegel, Juergen [Department of Microbiology, University of Georgia, 1000 Cedar Street, Athens, GA 30602-2605 (United States)]. E-mail: jwiegel@uga.edu

2007-02-09

218

WW domain-containing oxidoreductase promotes neuronal differentiation via negative regulation of glycogen synthase kinase 3?  

PubMed Central

WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX), a putative tumour suppressor, is suggested to be involved in the hyperphosphorylation of Alzheimer's Tau. Tau is a microtubule-associated protein that has an important role in microtubule assembly and stability. Glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?) has a vital role in Tau hyperphosphorylation at its microtubule-binding domains. Hyperphosphorylated Tau has a low affinity for microtubules, thus disrupting microtubule stability. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that WWOX contains two potential GSK3?-binding FXXXLI/VXRLE motifs. Immunofluorescence, immunoprecipitation and molecular modelling showed that WWOX interacts physically with GSK3?. We demonstrated biochemically that WWOX can bind directly to GSK3? through its short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase/reductase domain. Moreover, the overexpression of WWOX inhibited GSK3?-stimulated S396 and S404 phosphorylation within the microtubule domains of Tau, indicating that WWOX is involved in regulating GSK3? activity in cells. WWOX repressed GSK3? activity, restored the microtubule assembly activity of Tau and promoted neurite outgrowth in SH-SY5Y cells. Conversely, RNAi-mediated knockdown of WWOX in retinoic acid (RA)-differentiated SH-SY5Y cells inhibited neurite outgrowth. These results suggest that WWOX is likely to be involved in regulating GSK3? activity, reducing the level of phosphorylated Tau, and subsequently promoting neurite outgrowth during neuron differentiation. In summary, our data reveal a novel mechanism by which WWOX promotes neuronal differentiation in response to RA.

Wang, H-Y; Juo, L-I; Lin, Y-T; Hsiao, M; Lin, J-T; Tsai, C-H; Tzeng, Y-H; Chuang, Y-C; Chang, N-S; Yang, C-N; Lu, P-J

2012-01-01

219

Reduction of xylose to xylitol catalyzed by glucose-fructose oxidoreductase from Zymomonas mobilis.  

PubMed

Genetic improvements of Zymomonas mobilis for pentose utilization have a huge potential in fuel ethanol production. The production of xylitol and the resulting growth inhibition by xylitol phosphate have been considered to be one of the important factors affecting the rates and yields from xylose metabolism by the recombinant Z. mobilis, but the mechanism of xylitol formation is largely unknown. Here, we reported that glucose-fructose oxidoreductase (GFOR), a periplasmic enzyme responsible for sorbitol production, catalyzed the reduction of xylose to xylitol in vitro, operating via a ping-pong mechanism similar to that in the formation of sorbitol. However, the specific activity of GFOR for sorbitol was higher than that for xylitol (68.39 vs. 1.102 micromol min(-1) mg(-1)), and an apparent substrate-induced positive cooperativity occurred during the catalyzed formation of xylitol, with the Hill coefficient being about 2. While a change of the potential acid-base catalyst Tyr269 to Phe almost completely abolished the activity toward xylose as well as fructose, mutant S116D, which has been shown to lose tight cofactor binding, displayed an even slower catalytic process against xylose. PMID:19239494

Zhang, Xiaomei; Chen, Guanjun; Liu, Weifeng

2009-04-01

220

Docking and electron transfer studies between rubredoxin and rubredoxin:oxygen oxidoreductase.  

PubMed

The interaction and electron transfer (ET) between rubredoxin (Rd) and rubredoxin:oxygen oxidoreductase (ROO) from Desulfovibrio gigas is studied by molecular modelling techniques. Experimental kinetic assays using recombinant proteins show that the Rd reoxidation by ROO displays a bell-shaped dependence on ionic strength, suggesting a non-trivial electrostatic dependence of the interaction between these two proteins. Rigid docking studies reveal a prevalence for Rd to interact, in a very specific way, with the surface of the ROO dimer near its FMN cofactors. The optimization of the lowest energy complexes, using molecular dynamics simulation, shows a very tight interaction between the surface of the two proteins, with a high probability for Rd residues (but not the iron centre directly) to be in direct contact with the FMN cofactors of ROO. Both electrostatics and van der Waals interactions contribute to the final energy of the complex. In these complexes, the major contributions for complex formation are polar interactions between acidic residues of Rd and basic residues of ROO, plus substantial non-polar interactions between different groups. Important residues for this process are identified. ET estimates (using the Pathways model), in the optimized lowest energy complexes, suggest that these configurations are efficient for transferring electrons. The experimental bell-shaped dependence of kinetics on ionic strength is analysed in view of the molecular modelling results, and hypotheses for the molecular basis of this phenomenon are discussed. PMID:12761668

Victor, Bruno L; Vicente, João B; Rodrigues, Rute; Oliveira, Solange; Rodrigues-Pousada, Claudina; Frazão, Carlos; Gomes, Cláudio M; Teixeira, Miguel; Soares, Cláudio M

2003-04-01

221

Cation transport by the respiratory NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (complex I): facts and hypotheses.  

PubMed

The respiratory complex I (electrogenic NADH:quinone oxidoreductase) has been considered to act exclusively as a H+ pump. This was questioned when the search for the NADH-driven respiratory Na+ pump in Klebsiella pneumoniae initiated by Peter Dimroth led to the discovery of a Na+-translocating complex in this enterobacterium. The 3D structures of complex I from different organisms support the idea that the mechanism of cation transport by complex I involves conformational changes of the membrane-bound NuoL, NuoM and NuoN subunits. In vitro methods to follow Na+ transport were compared with in vivo approaches to test whether complex I, or its individual NuoL, NuoM or NuoN subunits, extrude Na+ from the cytoplasm to the periplasm of bacterial host cells. The truncated NuoL subunit of the Escherichia coli complex I which comprises amino acids 1-369 exhibits Na+ transport activity in vitro. This observation, together with an analysis of putative cation channels in NuoL, suggests that there exists in NuoL at least one continuous pathway for cations lined by amino acid residues from transmembrane segments 3, 4, 5, 7 and 8. Finally, we discuss recent studies on Na+ transport by mitochondrial complex I with respect to its putative role in the cycling of Na+ ions across the inner mitochondrial membrane. PMID:24059520

Steffen, Wojtek; Steuber, Julia

2013-10-01

222

Unregulated Mitochondrial GSK3? Activity Results in NADH:Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase Deficiency  

PubMed Central

GSK3? is prominent for its role in apoptosis signaling and has been shown to be involved in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis. The overall effects of GSK3? activity on cell fate are well-established, but the effects of mitochondrial GSK3? activity on mitochondrial function and cell fate are unknown. Here we selectively expressed constitutively active GSK3? within the mitochondria and found that this enhanced the apoptosis signaling activated by the PD-mimetic NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) inhibitors 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+) and rotenone. Additionally, expression of GSK3? in the mitochondria itself caused a significant decrease in complex I activity and ATP production. Increased mitochondrial GSK3? activity also increased reactive oxygen species production and perturbed the mitochondrial morphology. Conversely, chemical inhibitors of GSK3? inhibited MPP+- and rotenone-induced apoptosis, and attenuated the mitochondrial GSK3?-mediated impairment in complex I. These results indicate that unregulated mitochondrial GSK3? activity can mimic some of the mitochondrial insufficiencies found in PD pathology.

King, Taj D.; Clodfelder-Miller, Buffie; Barksdale, Keri A.; Bijur, Gautam N.

2008-01-01

223

Functional characterization of the FoxE iron oxidoreductase from the photoferrotroph Rhodobacter ferrooxidans SW2.  

PubMed

Photoferrotrophy is presumed to be an ancient type of photosynthetic metabolism in which bacteria use the reducing power of ferrous iron to drive carbon fixation. In this work the putative iron oxidoreductase of the photoferrotroph Rhodobacter ferrooxidans SW2 was cloned, purified, and characterized for the first time. This protein, FoxE, was characterized using spectroscopic, thermodynamic, and kinetic techniques. It is a c-type cytochrome that forms a trimer or tetramer in solution; the two hemes of each monomer are hexacoordinated by histidine and methionine. The hemes have positive reduction potentials that allow downhill electron transfer from many geochemically relevant ferrous iron forms to the photosynthetic reaction center. The reduction potentials of the hemes are different and are cross-assigned to fast and slow kinetic phases of ferrous iron oxidation in vitro. Lower reactivity was observed at high pH and may contribute to prevent ferric iron precipitation inside or at the surface of the cell. These results help fill in the molecular details of a metabolic process that likely contributed to the deposition of precambrian banded iron formations, globally important sedimentary rocks that are found on every continent today. PMID:22661703

Saraiva, Ivo H; Newman, Dianne K; Louro, Ricardo O

2012-07-20

224

Action spectra of chlorophyll a biosynthesis in cyanobacteria: dark-operative protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase-deficient mutants.  

PubMed

Both light-dependent and light-independent (dark) protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) reductase account for catalyzing the reduction of Pchlide to chlorophyllide during the biosynthesis of Mg-tetrapyrrole pigments in cyanobacteria. To gain more insight into the interaction between the wavelength of the light and these two chlorophyll synthetic pathways in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, the spectral effectiveness of the formation of chlorophyll a was investigated during the regreening process in chlL(-) and chlN(-) mutants, which could not synthesize chlorophyll during growth in the dark. The action spectra showed obvious maxima around 450 nm and 650 nm, similar to those of higher plants except that the intensities of two peaks are reversed. The mRNA levels of chlL and chlN and chlorophyll a content under different wavelengths of light in the wild-type strain were also measured. The RT-PCR analysis revealed that the transcripts of chlL and chlN were up-regulated in red light but simultaneously down-regulated in green light which resulted in corresponding changes of the chlorophyll content. This fact indicates that the regulation of dark-operative protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (DPOR) in the transcriptional level is essential for cyanobacteria to synthesize appropriate chlorophyll for acclimating in various light colour environments. PMID:19323276

Gao, Yang; Xiong, Wei; He, Ming J; Tang, Li; Xiang, Jin Y; Wu, Qing Y

2009-01-01

225

Structural studies of hydroxylamine oxidoreductase reveal a unique heme cofactor and a previously unidentified interaction partner.  

PubMed

Hydroxylamine oxidoreductase (HAO) is a 24-heme homotrimeric enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of hydroxylamine to nitrite in nitrifying bacteria: a key reaction in the nitrogen cycle. One heme in each HAO monomer is a highly unusual heme P460 that is the site of catalysis. This was proposed to be a c-type heme that contained an additional porphyrin-tyrosine cross-link. Here, we report the crystal structure of HAO from Nitrosomonas europaea to 2.1 Å resolution that defines a different model compatible with the crystallographic and biochemical data. The structure reveals that heme P460 contains two covalent cross-links between the porphyrin and a Tyr residue. In addition, the enzyme was purified from source, and an unknown physiological HAO binding partner was present within the crystal (annotated in the genome as hypothetical protein NE1300). NE1300 may play a structural role in the ternary complex with cytochrome c554, the physiological electron acceptor of HAO. PMID:23952581

Cedervall, Peder; Hooper, Alan B; Wilmot, Carrie M

2013-09-10

226

On the importance of anion-? interactions in the mechanism of sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase.  

PubMed

Sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) is a flavin-dependent enzyme that plays a physiological role in two important processes. First, it is responsible for sulfide detoxification by oxidizing sulfide ions (S(2-) and HS(-)) to elementary sulfur and the electrons are first transferred to flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), which in turn passes them to the quinone pool in the membrane. Second, in sulfidotrophic bacteria, SQRs play a key role in the sulfide-dependent respiration and anaerobic photosynthesis, deriving energy for their growth from reduced sulfur. Two mechanisms of action for SQR have been proposed: first, nucleophilic attack of a Cys residue on the C4 of FAD, and second, an alternate anionic radical mechanism by direct electron transfer from Cys to the isoalloxazine ring of FAD. Both mechanisms involve a common anionic intermediate that it is stabilized by a relevant anion-? interaction and its previous formation (from HS(-) and Cys-S-S-Cys) is also facilitated by reducing the transition-state barrier, owing to an interaction that involves the ? system of FAD. By analyzing the X-ray structures of SQRs available in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and using DFT calculations, we demonstrate the relevance of the anion-? interaction in the enzymatic mechanism. PMID:23907989

Bauzá, Antonio; Quiñonero, David; Deyà, Pere M; Frontera, Antonio

2013-11-01

227

Functional and structural characterization of protein disulfide oxidoreductase from Thermus thermophilus HB27.  

PubMed

The paper reports the characterization of a protein disulfide oxidoreductase (PDO) from the thermophilic Gram negative bacterium Thermus thermophilus HB27, identified as TTC0486 by genome analysis and named TtPDO. PDO members are involved in the oxidative folding, redox balance and detoxification of peroxides in thermophilic prokaryotes. Ttpdo was cloned and expressed in E. coli and the recombinant purified protein was assayed for the dithiol-reductase activity using insulin as substrate and compared with other PDOs characterized so far. In the thermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus PDOs work as thiol-reductases constituting a peculiar redox couple with Thioredoxin reductase (SsTr). To get insight into the role of TtPDO, a hybrid redox couple with SsTr, homologous to putative Trs of T. thermophilus, was assayed. The results showed that SsTr was able to reduce TtPDO in a concentration dependent manner with a calculated K M of 34.72 ?M, suggesting the existence of a new redox system also in thermophilic bacteria. In addition, structural characterization of TtPDO by light scattering and circular dichroism revealed the monomeric structure and the high thermostability of the protein. The analysis of the genomic environment suggested a possible clustering of Ttpdo with TTC0487 and TTC0488 (tlpA). Accordingly, transcriptional analysis showed that Ttpdo is transcribed as polycistronic messenger. Primer extension analysis allowed the determination of its 5'end and the identification of the promoter region. PMID:24839097

Pedone, Emilia; Fiorentino, Gabriella; Pirone, Luciano; Contursi, Patrizia; Bartolucci, Simonetta; Limauro, Danila

2014-07-01

228

Dextran causes aggregation of mitochondria and influences their oxidoreductase activities and light scattering.  

PubMed

It has been reported that dextrans diminish the intermembrane space of mitochondria, increase the number of contact sites between the inner and the outer mitochondrial membranes, decrease the outer membrane permeability to adenosine 5(')-diphosphate, and change the kinetic properties of mitochondrial kinases. In the present work the influence of dextran M40 (5% w/v) on the oxidoreductase activities of the inner and outer membranes of mitochondria, the interaction of cytochrome c with mitochondrial membranes, and the light scattering by rat liver mitochondria were studied. No influence of dextran on the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria or its interaction with mitochondrial membranes was observed. Decreases in the NADH-oxidase (to 80+/-2% of the control), NADH-cytochrome c reductase (to 26+/-2%), succinate-cytochrome c reductase (to 70+/-5%), and NADH-ferricyanide reductase (to 75+/-3%) activities induced by dextran, which may be due to the mitochondrial aggregation, were observed. The formation of aggregates was registered by light scattering, confirmed by light microscopy, and explained within the framework of the Gouy-Chapman theory of the electrical double layer. The observed mitochondrial aggregation seems to be useful also for understanding the mechanisms of mitochondrial condensation and perinuclear clustering during apoptosis. PMID:12667481

Lemeshko, Victor V; Solano, Sigifredo; López, Luis F; Rendón, Dairo A; Ghafourifar, Pedram; Gómez, Luis A

2003-04-15

229

Sequencing and preliminary characterization of the Na+-translocating NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase from Vibrio harveyi.  

PubMed

The Na(+)-translocating NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Na(+)-NQR) generates an electrochemical Na(+) potential driven by aerobic respiration. Previous studies on the enzyme from Vibrio alginolyticus have shown that the Na(+)-NQR has six subunits, and it is known to contain FAD and an FeS center as redox cofactors. In the current work, the enzyme from the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi has been purified and characterized. In addition to FAD, a second flavin, tentatively identified as FMN, was discovered to be covalently attached to the NqrC subunit. The purified V. harveyi Na(+)-NQR was reconstituted into proteoliposomes. The generation of a transmembrane electric potential by the enzyme upon NADH:Q(1) oxidoreduction was strictly dependent on Na(+), resistant to the protonophore CCCP, and sensitive to the sodium ionophore ETH-157, showing that the enzyme operates as a primary electrogenic sodium pump. Interior alkalinization of the inside-out proteoliposomes due to the operation of the Na(+)-NQR was accelerated by CCCP, inhibited by valinomycin, and completely arrested by ETH-157. Hence, the protons required for ubiquinol formation must be taken up from the outside of the liposomes, which corresponds to the bacterial cytoplasm. The Na(+)-NQR operon from this bacterium was sequenced, and the sequence shows strong homology to the previously reported Na(+)-NQR operons from V. alginolyticus and Haemophilus influenzae. Homology studies show that a number of other bacteria, including a number of pathogenic species, also have an Na(+)-NQR operon. PMID:10587447

Zhou, W; Bertsova, Y V; Feng, B; Tsatsos, P; Verkhovskaya, M L; Gennis, R B; Bogachev, A V; Barquera, B

1999-12-01

230

Functional Characterization of the FoxE Iron Oxidoreductase from the Photoferrotroph Rhodobacter ferrooxidans SW2*  

PubMed Central

Photoferrotrophy is presumed to be an ancient type of photosynthetic metabolism in which bacteria use the reducing power of ferrous iron to drive carbon fixation. In this work the putative iron oxidoreductase of the photoferrotroph Rhodobacter ferrooxidans SW2 was cloned, purified, and characterized for the first time. This protein, FoxE, was characterized using spectroscopic, thermodynamic, and kinetic techniques. It is a c-type cytochrome that forms a trimer or tetramer in solution; the two hemes of each monomer are hexacoordinated by histidine and methionine. The hemes have positive reduction potentials that allow downhill electron transfer from many geochemically relevant ferrous iron forms to the photosynthetic reaction center. The reduction potentials of the hemes are different and are cross-assigned to fast and slow kinetic phases of ferrous iron oxidation in vitro. Lower reactivity was observed at high pH and may contribute to prevent ferric iron precipitation inside or at the surface of the cell. These results help fill in the molecular details of a metabolic process that likely contributed to the deposition of precambrian banded iron formations, globally important sedimentary rocks that are found on every continent today.

Saraiva, Ivo H.; Newman, Dianne K.; Louro, Ricardo O.

2012-01-01

231

Localization-controlled specificity of FAD:threonine flavin transferases in Klebsiella pneumoniae and its implications for the mechanism of Na(+)-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase.  

PubMed

The Klebsiella pneumoniae genome contains genes for two putative flavin transferase enzymes (ApbE1 and ApbE2) that add FMN to protein Thr residues. ApbE1, but not ApbE2, has a periplasm-addressing signal sequence. The genome also contains genes for three target proteins with the Dxx(s/t)gAT flavinylation motif: two subunits of Na(+)-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na(+)-NQR), and a 99.5kDa protein, KPK_2907, with a previously unknown function. We show here that KPK_2907 is an active cytoplasmically-localized fumarate reductase. K. pneumoniae cells with an inactivated kpk_2907 gene lack cytoplasmic fumarate reductase activity, while retaining this activity in the membrane fraction. Complementation of the mutant strain with a kpk_2907-containing plasmid resulted in a complete recovery of cytoplasmic fumarate reductase activity. KPK_2907 produced in Escherichia coli cells contains 1mol/mol each of covalently bound FMN, noncovalently bound FMN and noncovalently bound FAD. Lesion in the ApbE1 gene in K. pneumoniae resulted in inactive Na(+)-NQR, but cytoplasmic fumarate reductase activity remained unchanged. On the contrary, lesion in the ApbE2 gene abolished the fumarate reductase but not the Na(+)-NQR activity. Both activities could be restored by transformation of the ApbE1- or ApbE2-deficient K. pneumoniae strains with plasmids containing the Vibrio cholerae apbE gene with or without the periplasm-directing signal sequence, respectively. Our data thus indicate that ApbE1 and ApbE2 bind FMN to Na(+)-NQR and fumarate reductase, respectively, and that, contrary to the presently accepted view, the FMN residues are on the periplasmic side of Na(+)-NQR. A new, "electron loop" mechanism is proposed for Na(+)-NQR, involving an electroneutral Na(+)/electron symport. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 18th European Bioenergetic Conference. PMID:24361839

Bertsova, Yulia V; Kostyrko, Vitaly A; Baykov, Alexander A; Bogachev, Alexander V

2014-07-01

232

A bacterial quercetin oxidoreductase QuoA-mediated perturbation in the phenylpropanoid metabolic network increases lignification with a concomitant decrease in phenolamides in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Metabolic perturbations by a gain-of-function approach provide a means to alter steady states of metabolites and query network properties, while keeping enzyme complexes intact. A combination of genetic and targeted metabolomics approach was used to understand the network properties of phenylpropanoid secondary metabolism pathways. A novel quercetin oxidoreductase, QuoA, from Pseudomonas putida, which converts quercetin to naringenin, thus effectively reversing the biosynthesis of quercetin through a de novo pathway, was expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana. QuoA transgenic lines selected for low, medium, and high expression levels of QuoA RNA had corresponding levels of QuoA activity and hypocotyl coloration resulting from increased anthocyanin accumulation. Stems of all three QuoA lines had increased tensile strength resulting from increased lignification. Sixteen metabolic intermediates from anthocyanin, lignin, and shikimate pathways had increased accumulation, of which 11 paralleled QuoA expression levels in the transgenic lines. The concomitant upregulation of the above pathways was explained by a significant downregulation of the phenolamide pathway and its precursor, spermidine. In a tt6 mutant line, lignifications as well as levels of the lignin pathway metabolites were much lower than those of QuoA transgenic lines. Unlike QuoA lines, phenolamides and spermidine were not affected in the tt6 line. Taken together, these results suggest that phenolamide pathway plays a major role in directing metabolic intermediates into the lignin pathway. Metabolic perturbations were accompanied by downregulation of five genes associated with branch-point enzymes and upregulation of their corresponding products. These results suggest that gene–metabolite pairs are likely to be co-ordinately regulated at critical branch points. Thus, these perturbations by a gain-of-function approach have uncovered novel properties of the phenylpropanoid metabolic network.

Swarup, Sanjay

2013-01-01

233

Impaired hepatic drug and steroid metabolism in congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to P450 oxidoreductase deficiency  

PubMed Central

Objective Patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to P450 oxidoreductase (POR) deficiency (ORD) present with disordered sex development and glucocorticoid deficiency. This is due to disruption of electron transfer from mutant POR to microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes that play a key role in glucocorticoid and sex steroid synthesis. POR also transfers electrons to all major drug-metabolizing CYP enzymes, including CYP3A4 that inactivates glucocorticoid and oestrogens. However, whether ORD results in impairment of in vivo drug metabolism has never been studied. Design We studied an adult patient with ORD due to homozygous POR A287P, the most frequent POR mutation in Caucasians, and her clinically unaffected, heterozygous mother. The patient had received standard dose oestrogen replacement from 17 until 37 years of age when it was stopped after she developed breast cancer. Methods Both subjects underwent in vivo cocktail phenotyping comprising the oral administration of caffeine, tolbutamide, omeprazole, dextromethorphan hydrobromide and midazolam to assess the five major drug-metabolizing CYP enzymes. We also performed genotyping for variant CYP alleles known to affect drug metabolism. Results Though CYP enzyme genotyping predicted normal or high enzymatic activities in both subjects, in vivo assessment showed subnormal activities of CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 in the patient and of CYP1A2 and CYP2C9 in her mother. Conclusions Our results provide in vivo evidence for an important role of POR in regulating drug metabolism and detoxification. In patients with ORD, in vivo assessment of drug-metabolizing activities with subsequent tailoring of drug therapy and steroid replacement should be considered.

Tomalik-Scharte, Dorota; Maiter, Dominique; Kirchheiner, Julia; Ivison, Hannah E; Fuhr, Uwe; Arlt, Wiebke

2010-01-01

234

Further Characterization of the Reduced Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate:Nitrate Oxidoreductase in Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

The reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH):nitrate oxidoreductase (EC 1.6.6.2) from Aspergillus nidulans wild-type bi-1 was purified by means of salt fractionation, gel filtration, affinity chromatography, and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Enzyme which was adsorbed on Cibacron blue agarose could be eluted with 2 mM NADPH or 2 mM oxidized NADP (NADP+), the former being about three times more effective than the latter. About half the total NADPH:nitrate reductase activity adsorbed on agarose required elution with 1 M NaCl. This salt-elutable form remained active with NADPH and was not converted to the NADPH-elutable form after readsorption on Cibacron blue agarose. The NADPH-eluted enzyme exhibited a markedly different electrophoretic mobility than the enzyme eluted with NADP+ or NaCl. After electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gels, the NADPH-eluted NADPH:nitrate reductase was separated into four proteins, two of which contained nonheme iron and exhibited reduced methyl viologen-nitrate reductase activity. None of these proteins, singly or in combination, reduced nitrate with NADPH as substrate. Difference spectra analyses and specific heme iron stains revealed the presence of cytochrome b557 in the largest of the proteins. The molecular weights of the four proteins, which were determined from the relationship of their mobilities on varied concentrations of acrylamide gel, were 360,000, 300,000, 240,000, and 118,000. The subunit molecular weights of these, which are determined via sodium dodecyl sulfate slab gel electrophoresis, were 49,000, 50,000, and 75,000. The key role of NADPH in maintenance of the active form of the heteromultimer is further substantiated.

Downey, Ronald J.; Steiner, Francis X.

1979-01-01

235

The Subunit Composition of Mitochondrial NADH:Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase (Complex I) From Pichia pastoris  

PubMed Central

Respiratory complex I (NADH:quinone oxidoreductase) is an entry point to the electron transport chain in the mitochondria of many eukaryotes. It is a large, multisubunit enzyme with a hydrophilic domain in the matrix and a hydrophobic domain in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the protein composition and post-translational modifications of complex I from Pichia pastoris, using a combination of proteomic and bioinformatic approaches. Forty-one subunits were identified in P. pastoris complex I, comprising the 14 core (conserved) subunits and 27 supernumerary subunits; seven of the core subunits are mitochondrial encoded. Three of the supernumerary subunits (named NUSM, NUTM, and NUUM) have not been observed previously in any species of complex I. However, homologues to all three of them are present in either Yarrowia lipolytica or Pichia angusta complex I. P. pastoris complex I has 39 subunits in common with Y. lipolytica complex I, 37 in common with N. crassa complex I, and 35 in common with the bovine enzyme. The mitochondrial encoded subunits (translated by the mold mitochondrial genetic code) retain their N-?-formyl methionine residues. At least eight subunits are N-?-acetylated, but the N-terminal modifications of the nuclear encoded subunits are not well-conserved. A combination of two methods of protein separation (SDS-PAGE and HPLC) and three different mass spectrometry techniques (peptide mass fingerprinting, tandem MS and molecular mass measurements) were required to define the protein complement of P. pastoris complex I. This requirement highlights the need for inclusive and comprehensive strategies for the characterization of challenging membrane-bound protein complexes containing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic components.

Bridges, Hannah R.; Fearnley, Ian M.; Hirst, Judy

2010-01-01

236

The physiological importance of photosynthetic ferredoxin NADP+ oxidoreductase (FNR) isoforms in wheat  

PubMed Central

Ferredoxin NADP+ oxidoreductase (FNR) enzymes catalyse electron transfer between ferredoxin and NADPH. In plants, a photosynthetic FNR (pFNR) transfers electrons from reduced ferredoxin to NADPH for the final step of linear electron flow, providing reductant for carbon fixation. pFNR is also thought to play important roles in two different mechanisms of cyclic electron flow around photosystem I; and photosynthetic reductant is itself partitioned between competing linear, cyclic, and alternative electron flow pathways. Four pFNR protein isoforms in wheat that display distinct reaction kinetics with leaf-type ferredoxin have previously been identified. It has been suggested that these isoforms may be crucial to the regulation of reductant partition between carbon fixation and other metabolic pathways. Here the 12?cm primary wheat leaf has been used to show that the alternative N-terminal pFNRI and pFNRII protein isoforms have statistically significant differences in response to the physiological parameters of chloroplast maturity, nitrogen regime, and oxidative stress. More specifically, the results obtained suggest that the alternative N-terminal forms of pFNRI have distinct roles in the partitioning of photosynthetic reductant. The role of alternative N-terminal processing of pFNRI is also discussed in terms of its importance for thylakoid targeting. The results suggest that the four pFNR protein isoforms are each present in the chloroplast in phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated states. pFNR isoforms vary in putative phosphorylation responses to physiological parameters, but the physiological significance requires further investigation.

Moolna, Adam; Bowsher, Caroline G.

2010-01-01

237

Structural insights into vinyl reduction regiospecificity of phycocyanobilin:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PcyA).  

PubMed

Phycocyanobilin:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PcyA) is the best characterized member of the ferredoxin-dependent bilin reductase family. Unlike other ferredoxin-dependent bilin reductases that catalyze a two-electron reduction, PcyA sequentially reduces D-ring (exo) and A-ring (endo) vinyl groups of biliverdin IXalpha (BV) to yield phycocyanobilin, a key pigment precursor of the light-harvesting antennae complexes of red algae, cyanobacteria, and cryptophytes. To address the structural basis for the reduction regiospecificity of PcyA, we report new high resolution crystal structures of bilin substrate complexes of PcyA from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, all of which lack exo-vinyl reduction activity. These include the BV complex of the E76Q mutant as well as substrate-bound complexes of wild-type PcyA with the reaction intermediate 18(1),18(2)-dihydrobiliverdin IXalpha (18EtBV) and with biliverdin XIIIalpha (BV13), a synthetic substrate that lacks an exo-vinyl group. Although the overall folds and the binding sites of the U-shaped substrates of all three complexes were similar with wild-type PcyA-BV, the orientation of the Glu-76 side chain, which was in close contact with the exo-vinyl group in PcyA-BV, was rotated away from the bilin D-ring. The local structures around the A-rings in the three complexes, which all retain the ability to reduce the A-ring of their bound pigments, were nearly identical with that of wild-type PcyA-BV. Consistent with the proposed proton-donating role of the carboxylic acid side chain of Glu-76 for exo-vinyl reduction, these structures reveal new insight into the reduction regiospecificity of PcyA. PMID:19887371

Hagiwara, Yoshinori; Sugishima, Masakazu; Khawn, Htoi; Kinoshita, Hideki; Inomata, Katsuhiko; Shang, Lixia; Lagarias, J Clark; Takahashi, Yasuhiro; Fukuyama, Keiichi

2010-01-01

238

Evidence for two sites of superoxide production by mitochondrial NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I).  

PubMed

Complex I (NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase) can form superoxide during forward electron flow (NADH-oxidizing) or, at sufficiently high protonmotive force, during reverse electron transport from the ubiquinone (Q) pool (NAD(+)-reducing). We designed an assay system to allow titration of the redox state of the superoxide-generating site during reverse electron transport in rat skeletal muscle mitochondria: a protonmotive force generated by ATP hydrolysis, succinate:malonate to alter electron supply and modulate the redox state of the Q pool, and inhibition of complex III to prevent QH(2) oxidation via the Q cycle. Stepwise oxidation of the QH(2)/Q pool by increasing malonate concentration slowed the rates of both reverse electron transport and rotenone-sensitive superoxide production by complex I. However, the superoxide production rate was not uniquely related to the resultant potential of the NADH/NAD(+) redox couple. Thus, there is a superoxide producer during reverse electron transport at complex I that responds to Q pool redox state and is not in equilibrium with the NAD reduction state. In contrast, superoxide production during forward electron transport in the presence of rotenone was uniquely related to NAD redox state. These results support a two-site model of complex I superoxide production; one site in equilibrium with the NAD pool, presumably the flavin of the FMN moiety (site I(F)) and the other dependent not only on NAD redox state, but also on protonmotive force and the reduction state of the Q pool, presumably a semiquinone in the Q-binding site (site I(Q)). PMID:21659507

Treberg, Jason R; Quinlan, Casey L; Brand, Martin D

2011-08-01

239

Analysis of the iron-sulfur clusters within the complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) isolated from potato tuber mitochondria.  

PubMed

The mitochondrial complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum) has been investigated for the presence of iron-sulfur clusters. EPR spectroscopic analysis detected signals arising from clusters N1, N2, N3 and N4. Quantitation of the content of iron and sulfur within the isolated complex I showed the preparation to contain 22.6 mol acid-labile sulfide and 30.4 mol iron/mol complex I. The iron-sulfur cluster composition of the plant complex I appears to be similar to the well-known composition found in Neurospora crassa. PMID:7601133

Lin, T I; Sled, V D; Ohnishi, T; Brennicke, A; Grohmann, L

1995-06-15

240

Decreased activities of ubiquinol:ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase (complex III) and ferrocytochrome c:oxygen oxidoreductase (complex IV) in liver mitochondria from rats with hydroxycobalamin[c-lactam]-induced methylmalonic aciduria.  

PubMed

Rats treated with hydroxycobalamin[c-lactam] (HCCL), a cobalamin analogue that induces methylmalonic aciduria, have increased hepatic mitochondrial content and increased oxidative metabolism of pyruvate and palmitate per hepatocyte. The present studies were undertaken to characterize oxidative metabolism in isolated liver mitochondria from rats treated with HCCL. After 5-6 weeks, state 3 oxidation rates for diverse substrates are reduced in mitochondria from HCCL-treated rats. Similar reductions of mitochondrial oxidation rates are obtained with dinitrophenol-uncoupled mitochondria excluding defective phosphorylation as a cause for the observed decrease in mitochondrial oxidation. The activities of mitochondrial oxidases are reduced in HCCL-treated rats and demonstrate a defect in complex IV. Investigation of the complexes of the respiratory chain reveals a 32% decrease of ubiquinol:ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase (complex III) activity and a 72% decrease of ferrocytochrome c:oxygen oxidoreductase (complex IV) activity in mitochondria from 5-6-week HCCL-treated rats as compared with controls. Liver mitochondria from HCCL-treated rats also demonstrate decreased cytochrome content per mg of mitochondrial protein (25% decrease of cytochrome b and 52% decrease of cytochrome a + a3 as compared with control rats). The HCCL-treated rat represents an animal model for the study of the consequences of respiratory chain defects in liver mitochondria. PMID:1657942

Krahenbuhl, S; Chang, M; Brass, E P; Hoppel, C L

1991-11-01

241

Identification of NAD(P)H Quinone Oxidoreductase Activity in Azoreductases from P. aeruginosa: Azoreductases and NAD(P)H Quinone Oxidoreductases Belong to the Same FMN-Dependent Superfamily of Enzymes  

PubMed Central

Water soluble quinones are a group of cytotoxic anti-bacterial compounds that are secreted by many species of plants, invertebrates, fungi and bacteria. Studies in a number of species have shown the importance of quinones in response to pathogenic bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. Two electron reduction is an important mechanism of quinone detoxification as it generates the less toxic quinol. In most organisms this reaction is carried out by a group of flavoenzymes known as NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductases. Azoreductases have previously been separate from this group, however using azoreductases from Pseudomonas aeruginosa we show that they can rapidly reduce quinones. Azoreductases from the same organism are also shown to have distinct substrate specificity profiles allowing them to reduce a wide range of quinones. The azoreductase family is also shown to be more extensive than originally thought, due to the large sequence divergence amongst its members. As both NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductases and azoreductases have related reaction mechanisms it is proposed that they form an enzyme superfamily. The ubiquitous and diverse nature of azoreductases alongside their broad substrate specificity, indicates they play a wide role in cellular survival under adverse conditions.

Ryan, Ali; Kaplan, Elise; Nebel, Jean-Christophe; Polycarpou, Elena; Crescente, Vincenzo; Lowe, Edward; Preston, Gail M.; Sim, Edith

2014-01-01

242

Characterization of a polymorphism in NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase (DT-diaphorase).  

PubMed

NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1, EC 1.6.99.2) is an obligate two-electron reductase that can either bioactivate or detoxify quinones and has been proposed to play an important role in chemoprevention. We have previously characterized a homozygous point mutation in the BE human colon carcinoma cell line that leads to a loss of NQO1 activity. Sequence analysis showed that this mutation was at position 609 of the NQO1 cDNA, conferring a proline to serine substitution at position 187 of the NQO1 enzyme. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, we have found that the H596 human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line has elevated NQO1 mRNA, but no detectable enzyme activity. Sequencing of the coding region of NQO1 from the H596 cells showed the presence of the identical homozygous point mutation present in the BE cell line. Expression and purification of recombinant wild-type and mutant protein from E. coli showed that mutant protein could be detected using immunoblot analysis and had 2% of the enzymatic activity of the wild-type protein. PCR and Northern blot analysis showed moderate to low levels of expression of the correctly sized transcript in the mutant cells. Immunoblot analysis also revealed that recombinant mutant protein was immunoreactive; however, the mutant protein was not detected in the cytosol of either BE or H596 cells, suggesting that the mutant proteins were either not translated or were rapidly degraded. The absence of any detectable, active protein, therefore, appears to be responsible for the lack of NQO1 activity in cells homozygous for the mutation. A polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis for the mutation at position 609 conducted on 90 human lung tissue samples (45 matched sets of tumour and uninvolved tissue) revealed a 7% incidence of individuals homozygous for the mutation, and 42% heterozygous for the mutation. These data suggest that the mutation at position 609 represents a polymorphism in an important xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme, which has implications for cancer therapy, chemoprevention and chemoprotection. PMID:9000600

Traver, R D; Siegel, D; Beall, H D; Phillips, R M; Gibson, N W; Franklin, W A; Ross, D

1997-01-01

243

Lucigenin as a substrate of microsomal NAD(P)H-oxidoreductases.  

PubMed

NADPH oxidation and cytochrome c reduction with and without lucigenin as well as NAD(P)H/lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence of rat liver microsomes were studied. An increased rate of NADPH oxidation and cytochrome c reduction in the presence of lucigenin was related to one-electron lucigenin reduction by microsomal NADPH reductases. The apparent Michaelis constant values for lucigenin (Km appLuc) were 3.6 and 5.0 microM in normoxygenic (pO2 = 150 +/- 5 mm Hg) and 8.7 and 8.3 microM in hypoxygenic (pO2 = 45 +/- 4 mm Hg) media in the reactions of lucigenin-dependent NADPH oxidation and cytochrome c reduction, respectively. The maximal level of NADPH/lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence was registered at lucigenin concentration close to the mean K Luc/m app in the lucigenin-reductase reaction. Increasing the lucigenin concentration from 5 to 100 microM was associated with a decrease in the chemiluminescence intensity; this could be due to the inactivation of cytochrome P450. In the presence of superoxide dismutase (SOD), the rate of lucigenin-dependent cytochrome c reduction and NADPH/lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence were decreased by 10 and 30%, respectively. The addition of lucigenin to microsomes which contain the reduced hemoprotein--CO complex was followed by the disappearance of the differential absorption spectrum specific for the carboxy complex and by increase in chemiluminescence intensity versus the control (without carboxy complex). Thus, lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence of microsomes may be due to some enzymes including lucigenin reductase (NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase), generation of O2-. in the redox cycle of lucigenin radicals, dioxetane formation by (di)oxygenases, and catalytic action of the cytochrome P450 heme on dioxetane decomposition followed by light quantum emission. Thus, lucigenin cannot be used to measure the basal O2-. formation in tissue homogenates with high levels of NAD(P)H-oxidoreductases. PMID:9986909

Schepetkin, I A

1999-01-01

244

Comparison of the inhibitory action of synthetic capsaicin analogues with various NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductases.  

PubMed

Capsaicin is a new naturally occurring inhibitor of proton-pumping NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (NDH-1), that competitively acts against ubiquinone. A series of capsaicin analogues was synthesized to examine the structural factors required for the inhibitory action and to probe the structural property of the ubiquinone catalytic site of various NADH-ubiquinone reductases, including non-proton-pumping enzyme (NDH-2), from bovine heart mitochondria, potato tuber (Solanum tuberosum, L) mitochondria and Escherichia coli (GR 19N) plasma membranes. Some synthetic capsaicins were fairly potent inhibitors of each of the three NDH-1 compared with the potent rotenone and piericidin A. Synthetic capsaicin analogues inhibited all three NDH-1 activities in a competitive manner against an exogenous quinone. The modification both of the substitution pattern and of the number of methoxy groups on the benzene ring, which may be superimposable on the quinone ring of ubiquinone, did not drastically affect the inhibitory potency. In addition, alteration of the position of dipolar amide bond unit in the molecule and chemical modifications of this unit did not change the inhibitory potency, particularly with bovine heart and potato tuber NDH-1. These results might be explained assuming that the ubiquinone catalytic site of NDH-1 is spacious enough to accommodate a variety of structurally different capsaicin analogues in a dissimilar manner. Regarding the moiety corresponding to the alkyl side chain, a rigid diphenyl ether structure was more inhibitory than a flexible alkyl chain. Structure-activity studies and molecular orbital calculations suggested that a bent form is the active conformation of capsaicin analogues. On the other hand, poor correlations between the inhibitory potencies determined with the three NDH-1 suggested that the structural similarity of the ubiquinone catalytic sites of these enzymes is rather poor. The sensitivity to the inhibition by synthetic capsaicins remarkably differed between NDH-1 and NDH-2, supporting the notion that the sensitivity against capsaicin inhibition correlates well with the presence of an energy coupling site in the enzyme (Yagi, T. (1990) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 281, 305-311). It is noteworthy that several synthetic capsaicins discriminated between NDH-1 and NDH-2 much better than natural capsaicin. PMID:8573592

Satoh, T; Miyoshi, H; Sakamoto, K; Iwamura, H

1996-01-11

245

Structural factors of rotenone required for inhibition of various NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductases.  

PubMed

We performed a structure-activity study of a series of synthetic rotenone analogues to elucidate the structural factors of rotenone required for inhibition and to probe the structural properties of the rotenone binding site of various NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductases (NDH), including both proton-pumping (NDH-1) and non-proton-pumping (NDH-2) enzymes, from bovine heart mitochondria, potato tuber (Solanum tuberosum L.) mitochondria and Escherichia coli (GR 19N) plasma membranes. Using a benzyloxy group as a substitute for the E-ring moiety of natural rotenone, systematically selected structural modifications of the A-ring became feasible. The inhibitory potency of bovine NDH markedly varied depending upon structural modifications of the A-ring. The native chemical structure (2,3-dimethoxy substitution) appeared to be the most favorable for the activity. The spatial location of the hydrogen-bond acceptable methoxy oxygens may be important for tight fitting into the binding site. However, replacing one of the two methoxy groups by an ethoxy group almost completely retained the activity, indicating that the binding environment of the A-ring moiety is spacious enough to accommodate a substituent larger than the methoxy group. The manner of action of the derivative lacking the 12-C = O group in the C-ring differed from that of natural rotenone, indicating that this functional group is important for supporting the inhibitory action of natural rotenone itself. Regarding potato tube and E. coli NDH-1, the sensitivity of the two enzymes to the inhibition by rotenone analogues was much lower than that of the bovine enzyme. The 2,3-dimethoxy substitution was the most favorable for the activity with potato NDH-1, whereas this substitution pattern was not necessarily the best with E. coli NDH-1. A rule governing inhibitory potency depending upon structural modifications was ambiguous for the two enzymes because of a small variation in the inhibitory potencies. These findings indicated that the local binding environment of the A-ring moiety of rotenone in bovine NDH is specific and differs considerably from that in potato and E. coli NDH-1. PMID:8856105

Ueno, H; Miyoshi, H; Inoue, M; Niidome, Y; Iwamura, H

1996-09-30

246

Chemical constituents from the rice fermented with the edible mushroom Pleurotus eryngii and their quinone oxidoreductase 1 inducing effect.  

PubMed

The fruiting bodies or mycelia of mushrooms have been used as food and food-flavoring material for centuries due to their nutritional and medicinal values and the diversity of their bioactive components. The present research was the first to study the chemical components in rice fermented with the edible mushroom Pleurotus eryngii and the quinone oxidoreductase 1 inducing effect of these compounds. Through chemical investigation, one new compound, ((6S,7S)-6,7-dihydroxy-6-methyl-2-(3-methylbutanoyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzofuran-3-yl)methyl acetate (1) and eight known compounds (2-9) were isolated from the P. eryngii-fermented rice. All of these compounds were isolated from rice fermented with the edible mushroom P. eryngii for the first time. Their structures were elucidated by MS and NMR data analyses. Alternariol-5-O-methyl ether (2) showed strong quinone oxidoreductase 1 inducing effect with an IR value of 2.58 at the concentration of 20 ?g/ml. The content of adenosine (8) in the fermented rice (175.64 ?g/g) is much higher than that of non-fermented rice (14.38 ?g/g). PMID:23933238

Liu, Shun; Dong, Yanan; Li, Yongxia; Bao, Li; Liu, Hongwei; Li, Heran

2013-12-01

247

Purification and Characterization of a Ferredoxin-NADP+ Oxidoreductase-Like Enzyme from Radish Root Tissues 1  

PubMed Central

An enzyme able to reduce cytochrome c via ferredoxin in the presence of NADPH, was isolated, purified from radish (Raphanus sativus var acanthiformis cultivar miyashige) roots and characterized. The enzyme was purified by DEAE-cellulose, Blue-Cellulofine, Ferredoxin-Sepharose 4B, and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. Molecular mass of the enzyme was estimated to be 33,000 and 35,000 daltons by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration and SDS-PAGE, respectively. Its absorption spectrum suggested that the enzyme contains flavin as a prosthetic group. The Km values for NADPH and ferredoxin were calculated to be 9.2 and 1.2 micromolar, respectively. The enzyme required NADPH and did not use NADH as an electron donor. The optimal pH was 8.4. The enzyme also catalyzed the photoreduction of NADP+ in the spinach leaf thylakoid membranes depleted of ferredoxin and ferredoxin-NADP+ oxidoreductase. The effect of NaCl and MgCl2 concentration on the activity and amino acid composition of the enzyme were demonstrated. The results suggest that the enzyme is similar to ferredoxin-NADP+ oxidoreductase from chloroplasts and cyanobacteria and is the key enzyme catalyzing the electron transport between NADPH, generated by the pentose phosphate pathway, and ferredoxin in plastids of plant heterotrophic tissues. Images Figure 4

Morigasaki, Susumu; Takata, Kinuyo; Suzuki, Takashi; Wada, Keishiro

1990-01-01

248

Screening of Microorganisms Producing Cold-Active Oxidoreductases to Be Applied in Enantioselective Alcohol Oxidation. An Antarctic Survey  

PubMed Central

Several microorganisms were isolated from soil/sediment samples of Antarctic Peninsula. The enrichment technique using (RS)-1-(phenyl)ethanol as a carbon source allowed us to isolate 232 psychrophile/psychrotroph microorganisms. We also evaluated the enzyme activity (oxidoreductases) for enantioselective oxidation reactions, by using derivatives of (RS)-1-(phenyl)ethanol as substrates. Among the studied microorganisms, 15 psychrophile/psychrotroph strains contain oxidoreductases that catalyze the (S)-enantiomer oxidation from racemic alcohols to their corresponding ketones. Among the identified microorganisms, Flavobacterium sp. and Arthrobacter sp. showed excellent enzymatic activity. These new bacteria strains were selected for optimization study, in which the (RS)-1-(4-methyl-phenyl)ethanol oxidation was evaluated in several reaction conditions. From these studies, it was observed that Flavobacterium sp. has an excellent enzymatic activity at 10 °C and Arthrobacter sp. at 15 and 25 °C. We have also determined the growth curves of these bacteria, and both strains showed optimum growth at 25 °C, indicating that these bacteria are psychrotroph.

Araujo, Lidiane S.; Kagohara, Edna; Garcia, Thais P.; Pellizari, Vivian H.; Andrade, Leandro H.

2011-01-01

249

KefF, the regulatory subunit of the potassium efflux system KefC, shows quinone oxidoreductase activity.  

PubMed

Escherichia coli and many other Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria protect themselves from the toxic effects of electrophilic compounds by using a potassium efflux system (Kef). Potassium efflux is coupled to the influx of protons, which lowers the internal pH and results in immediate protection. The activity of the Kef system is subject to complex regulation by glutathione and its S conjugates. Full activation of KefC requires a soluble ancillary protein, KefF. This protein has structural similarities to oxidoreductases, including human quinone reductases 1 and 2. Here, we show that KefF has enzymatic activity as an oxidoreductase, in addition to its role as the KefC activator. It accepts NADH and NADPH as electron donors and quinones and ferricyanide (in addition to other compounds) as acceptors. However, typical electrophilic activators of the Kef system, e.g., N-ethyl maleimide, are not substrates. If the enzymatic activity is disrupted by site-directed mutagenesis while retaining structural integrity, KefF is still able to activate the Kef system, showing that the role as an activator is independent of the enzyme activity. Potassium efflux assays show that electrophilic quinones are able to activate the Kef system by forming S conjugates with glutathione. Therefore, it appears that the enzymatic activity of KefF diminishes the redox toxicity of quinones, in parallel with the protection afforded by activation of the Kef system. PMID:21742892

Lyngberg, Lisbeth; Healy, Jessica; Bartlett, Wendy; Miller, Samantha; Conway, Stuart J; Booth, Ian R; Rasmussen, Tim

2011-09-01

250

KefF, the Regulatory Subunit of the Potassium Efflux System KefC, Shows Quinone Oxidoreductase Activity ? †  

PubMed Central

Escherichia coli and many other Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria protect themselves from the toxic effects of electrophilic compounds by using a potassium efflux system (Kef). Potassium efflux is coupled to the influx of protons, which lowers the internal pH and results in immediate protection. The activity of the Kef system is subject to complex regulation by glutathione and its S conjugates. Full activation of KefC requires a soluble ancillary protein, KefF. This protein has structural similarities to oxidoreductases, including human quinone reductases 1 and 2. Here, we show that KefF has enzymatic activity as an oxidoreductase, in addition to its role as the KefC activator. It accepts NADH and NADPH as electron donors and quinones and ferricyanide (in addition to other compounds) as acceptors. However, typical electrophilic activators of the Kef system, e.g., N-ethyl maleimide, are not substrates. If the enzymatic activity is disrupted by site-directed mutagenesis while retaining structural integrity, KefF is still able to activate the Kef system, showing that the role as an activator is independent of the enzyme activity. Potassium efflux assays show that electrophilic quinones are able to activate the Kef system by forming S conjugates with glutathione. Therefore, it appears that the enzymatic activity of KefF diminishes the redox toxicity of quinones, in parallel with the protection afforded by activation of the Kef system.

Lyngberg, Lisbeth; Healy, Jessica; Bartlett, Wendy; Miller, Samantha; Conway, Stuart J.; Booth, Ian R.; Rasmussen, Tim

2011-01-01

251

Ferredoxin:NADP+ oxidoreductase in junction with CdSe/ZnS quantum dots: characteristics of an enzymatically active nanohybrid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ferredoxin:NADP+ oxidoreductase (FNR) is a plant and cyanobacterial photosynthetic enzyme, also found in non-photosynthetic tissues, where it is involved in redox reactions of biosynthetic pathways. In vivo it transfers electrons to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+), forming its reduced version, NADPH, while in vitro it can also use NADPH to reduce several substrates, such as ferricyanide, various quinones and nitriles. As an oxidoreductase catalyzing reaction of a broad range of substrates, FNR may be used in biotechnological processes. Quantum dots are semiconductor nanocrystals of a few to several nanometers diameter, having very useful luminescent properties. We present the spectroscopic and functional characteristics of a covalent conjugation of FNR and CdSe/ZnS quantum dots. Two types of quantum dots, of different diameter and emission maximum (550 and 650 nm), were used for comparison. Steady-state fluorescence and gel electrophoresis confirmed efficient conjugation, while fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) allowed for determination of the conjugates’ radii. The nanohybrids sustained enzymatic activity; however, changes in maximal reaction rates and Michaelis constant were found. Detailed analysis of the kinetic parameters showed that the changes in the enzyme activity depend on the substrate used for activity measurement but also on the size of the quantum dots. The presented nanohybrids, as the first example using plant and photosynthetic enzyme as a protein partner, may became a tool to study photosynthesis as well as other biosynthetic and biotechnological processes, involving enzymatically catalyzed electron transfer.

Szczepaniak, Krzysztof; Worch, Remigiusz; Grzyb, Joanna

2013-05-01

252

Diphenyleneiodonium inhibits reduction of iron-sulfur clusters in the mitochondrial NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I).  

PubMed

Diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) inhibits the mitochondrial NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I) on the substrate side of the Fe-S clusters. In the inhibited NADH-supplemented state all of the Fe-S clusters are oxidized, whereas the reduced minus oxidized difference spectrum of the protein-bound FMN can be visualized. It is characterized by troughs at 370 and 450 nm and a small increase of absorbance in the 500-700-nm region. DPI probably reacts irreversibly with FMN, because oxidation of FMN is blocked even after its extraction from the enzyme. Inhibition requires preincubation of enzyme in the presence of NADH and DPI. The lower the NADH/NAD+ ratio or the pH, or the higher the NAD+/DPI ratio, the more DPI is required for inhibition. NAD+ and DPI apparently compete for a common site. Both ubiquinone and dichlorophenolindophenol reductase activities are fully blocked by DPI, whereas the ferricyanide reductase activity is inhibited by 75%. Similar results were found with Complex I and two rotenone-insensitive preparations, subcomplex I lambda and the flavoprotein fraction. DPI also inhibits NADH oxidation by bacterial NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase-1 (NDH-1) in membranes of Paracoccus denitrificans and Escherichia coli. PMID:8063722

Majander, A; Finel, M; Wikström, M

1994-08-19

253

Ferredoxin:NADP+ oxidoreductase in junction with CdSe/ZnS quantum dots: characteristics of an enzymatically active nanohybrid.  

PubMed

Ferredoxin:NADP(+) oxidoreductase (FNR) is a plant and cyanobacterial photosynthetic enzyme, also found in non-photosynthetic tissues, where it is involved in redox reactions of biosynthetic pathways. In vivo it transfers electrons to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP(+)), forming its reduced version, NADPH, while in vitro it can also use NADPH to reduce several substrates, such as ferricyanide, various quinones and nitriles. As an oxidoreductase catalyzing reaction of a broad range of substrates, FNR may be used in biotechnological processes. Quantum dots are semiconductor nanocrystals of a few to several nanometers diameter, having very useful luminescent properties. We present the spectroscopic and functional characteristics of a covalent conjugation of FNR and CdSe/ZnS quantum dots. Two types of quantum dots, of different diameter and emission maximum (550 and 650 nm), were used for comparison. Steady-state fluorescence and gel electrophoresis confirmed efficient conjugation, while fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) allowed for determination of the conjugates' radii. The nanohybrids sustained enzymatic activity; however, changes in maximal reaction rates and Michaelis constant were found. Detailed analysis of the kinetic parameters showed that the changes in the enzyme activity depend on the substrate used for activity measurement but also on the size of the quantum dots. The presented nanohybrids, as the first example using plant and photosynthetic enzyme as a protein partner, may became a tool to study photosynthesis as well as other biosynthetic and biotechnological processes, involving enzymatically catalyzed electron transfer. PMID:23611948

Szczepaniak, Krzysztof; Worch, Remigiusz; Grzyb, Joanna

2013-05-15

254

Genes encoding mercuric reductases from selected gram-negative aquatic bacteria have a low degree of homology with merA of transposon Tn501.  

PubMed Central

An investigation of the Hg2+ resistance mechanism of four freshwater and four coastal marine bacteria that did not hybridize with a mer operonic probe was conducted (T. Barkay, C. Liebert, and M. Gillman, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 55:1196-1202, 1989). Hybridization with a merA probe, the gene encoding the mercuric reductase polypeptide, at a stringency of hybridization permitting hybrid formation between evolutionarily distant merA genes (as exists between gram-positive and -negative bacteria), detected merA sequences in the genomes of all tested strains. Inducible Hg2+ volatilization was demonstrated for all eight organisms, and NADPH-dependent mercuric reductase activities were detected in crude cell extracts of six of the strains. Because these strains represented random selections of bacteria from three aquatic environments, it is concluded that merA encodes a common molecular mechanism for Hg2+ resistance and volatilization in aerobic heterotrophic aquatic communities. Images

Barkay, T; Gillman, M; Liebert, C

1990-01-01

255

Cloning of the Alcaligenes eutrophus genes for synthesis of poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) and synthesis of PHB in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

Eight mutants of Alcaligenes eutrophus defective in the intracellular accumulation of poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) were isolated after transposon Tn5 mutagenesis with the suicide vector pSUP5011. EcoRI fragments which harbor Tn5-mob were isolated from pHC79 cosmid gene banks. One of them, PPT1, was used as a probe to detect the intact 12.5-kilobase-pair EcoRI fragment PP1 in a lambda L47 gene bank of A. eutrophus genomic DNA. In six of these mutants (PSI, API, GPI, GPIV, GPV, and GPVI) the insertion of Tn5-mob was physically mapped within a region of approximately 1.2 kilobase pairs in PP1; in mutant API, cointegration of vector DNA has occurred. In two other mutants (GPII and GPIII), most probably only the insertion element had inserted into PP1. All PHB-negative mutants were completely impaired in the formation of active PHB synthase, which was measured by a radiometric assay. In addition, activities of beta-ketothiolase and of NADPH-dependent acetoacetyl coenzyme A (acetoacetyl-CoA) reductase were diminished, whereas the activity of NADPH-dependent acetoacetyl-CoA reductase was unaffected. In all PHB-negative mutants the ability to accumulate PHB was restored upon complementation in trans with PP1. The PHB-synthetic pathway of A. eutrophus was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant strains of E. coli JM83 and K-12, which harbor pUC9-1::PP1, pSUP202::PP1, or pVK101::PP1, accumulated PHB up to 30% of the cellular dry weight. Crude extracts of these cells had significant activities of the enzymes PHB synthase, beta-ketothiolase, and NADPH-dependent acetoacetyl-CoA reductase. Therefore, PP1 most probably encodes all three genes of the PHB-synthetic pathway in A. eutrophus. In addition to PHB-negative mutants, we isolated mutants which accumulate PHB at a much lower rate than the wild type does. These PHB-leaky mutants exhibited activities of all three PHB-synthetic enzymes; Tn5-mob had not inserted into PP1, and the phenotype of the wild type could not be restored with fragment PP1. The rationale for this mutant type remains unknown.

Schubert, P; Steinbuchel, A; Schlegel, H G

1988-01-01

256

Cloning of the Alcaligenes eutrophus genes for synthesis of poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) and synthesis of PHB in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Eight mutants of Alcaligenes eutrophus defective in the intracellular accumulation of poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) were isolated after transposon Tn5 mutagenesis with the suicide vector pSUP5011. EcoRI fragments which harbor Tn5-mob were isolated from pHC79 cosmid gene banks. One of them, PPT1, was used as a probe to detect the intact 12.5-kilobase-pair EcoRI fragment PP1 in a lambda L47 gene bank of A. eutrophus genomic DNA. In six of these mutants (PSI, API, GPI, GPIV, GPV, and GPVI) the insertion of Tn5-mob was physically mapped within a region of approximately 1.2 kilobase pairs in PP1; in mutant API, cointegration of vector DNA has occurred. In two other mutants (GPII and GPIII), most probably only the insertion element had inserted into PP1. All PHB-negative mutants were completely impaired in the formation of active PHB synthase, which was measured by a radiometric assay. In addition, activities of beta-ketothiolase and of NADPH-dependent acetoacetyl coenzyme A (acetoacetyl-CoA) reductase were diminished, whereas the activity of NADPH-dependent acetoacetyl-CoA reductase was unaffected. In all PHB-negative mutants the ability to accumulate PHB was restored upon complementation in trans with PP1. The PHB-synthetic pathway of A. eutrophus was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant strains of E. coli JM83 and K-12, which harbor pUC9-1::PP1, pSUP202::PP1, or pVK101::PP1, accumulated PHB up to 30% of the cellular dry weight. Crude extracts of these cells had significant activities of the enzymes PHB synthase, beta-ketothiolase, and NADPH-dependent acetoacetyl-CoA reductase. Therefore, PP1 most probably encodes all three genes of the PHB-synthetic pathway in A. eutrophus. In addition to PHB-negative mutants, we isolated mutants which accumulate PHB at a much lower rate than the wild type does. These PHB-leaky mutants exhibited activities of all three PHB-synthetic enzymes; Tn5-mob had not inserted into PP1, and the phenotype of the wild type could not be restored with fragment PP1. The rationale for this mutant type remains unknown. PMID:2848014

Schubert, P; Steinbüchel, A; Schlegel, H G

1988-12-01

257

Pitfalls of using lucigenin in endothelial cells: implications for NAD(P)H dependent superoxide formation.  

PubMed

Since an increased endothelial superoxide formation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction its specific detection is of particular interest. The widely used superoxide probe lucigenin, however, has been reported to induce superoxide under certain conditions, especially in the presence of NADH. This raises questions as to the conclusion of a NAD(P)H oxidase as the major source of endothelial superoxide. Using independent methods, we showed that lucigenin in the presence of NADH leads to the production of substantial amount of superoxide (approximately 15-fold of control) in endothelial cell homogenates. On the other hand, these independent methods revealed that endothelial cells without lucigenin still produce superoxide in a NAD(P)H-dependent manner. This was blocked by inhibitors of the neutrophil NADPH oxidase diphenyleniodonium and phenylarsine oxide. Our results demonstrate that a NAD(P)H-dependent oxidase is an important source for endothelial superoxide but the latter, however, cannot be measured reliably by lucigenin. PMID:10730825

Sohn, H Y; Keller, M; Gloe, T; Crause, P; Pohl, U

2000-03-01

258

Expression of the Firefly Luciferase Gene in Vaccinia Virus: A Highly Sensitive Gene Marker to Follow Virus Dissemination in Tissues of Infected Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have introduced the firefly luciferase gene of Photinus pyralis into the vaccinia virus genome. This gene is expressed in a coordinate fashion during virus infection. Luminescence produced by the action of luciferase [Photinus-luciferin:oxygen 4-oxidoreductase(decarboxylating, ATP-hydrolyzing), EC 1.13.12.7] was easily detectable in infected cells in culture as well as in cells of tissues of infected mice. The limits of detection

Jose F. Rodriguez; Dolores Rodriguez; Juan-Ramon Rodriguez; Eleanor B. McGowan; Mariano Esteban

1988-01-01

259

The thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase system in the cold-adapted bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC 125: discovery of a novel disulfide oxidoreductase enzyme.  

PubMed

In prokaryotes, protein disulfide bond oxidation, reduction and isomerization are catalyzed by members of the thioredoxin superfamily, characterized by the conserved C-X-X-C motif in their active site. Thioredoxins and glutaredoxins contribute to the reducing power in the cytoplasm, while the Dsb system catalyzes disulfide bonds formation in the periplasmic space. This paper addresses the question of disulfide bonds formation in a cold-adapted micro-organism, Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC 125 (PhTAC125) by characterizing the DsbA system. We found distinctive features respect mesophilic counterparts that highlighted for the first time the occurrence of two adjacent chromosomal DsbA genes organised in a functional operon. The sophisticated transcriptional regulation mechanism that controls the expression of these two genes was also defined. The two DsbA proteins, named PhDsbA and PhDsbA2, respectively, were expressed in Escherichia coli and characterized. Results reported in this paper provide some insights into disulfide bonds formation in a micro organism isolated in the Antarctic sea water. PMID:16179963

Madonna, Stefania; Papa, Rosanna; Birolo, Leila; Autore, Flavia; Doti, Nunzianna; Marino, Gennaro; Quemeneur, Eric; Sannia, Giovanni; Tutino, Maria L; Duilio, Angela

2006-02-01

260

Specificity and locale of the l-3-glycerophosphate-flavoprotein oxidoreductase of mitochondria isolated from the flight muscle of Sarcophaga barbata Thoms  

PubMed Central

1. The oxidation of l-3-glycerophosphate by flight-muscle mitochondria isolated from the flesh fly Sarcophaga barbata has been studied. Use of substrate analogues indicates that the catalytic and effector l-3-glycerophosphate binding sites on the allosteric l-3-glycerophosphate–flavoprotein oxidoreductase differ markedly in specificity. 2. The l-3-glycerophosphate–cyanoferrate oxidoreductase system in these mitochondria is antimycin-insensitive whereas the corresponding NADH–cyanoferrate oxidoreductase is extremely sensitive to this respiratory-chain inhibitor. Also no swelling is observed when these mitochondria are suspended in iso-osmotic solutions of ammonium glycerophosphate in contrast with the extensive swelling seen in similar solutions of ammonium pyruvate. These observations indicate that l-3-glycerophosphate does not penetrate the mitochondrial matrix whereas pyruvate does. 3. Submitochondrial particles catalyse the ATP-driven reduction of NAD+ by l-3-glycerophosphate but at a far lower rate than that seen when succinate is the electron donor. These particles do not have an energy-linked pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenase activity. 4. We conclude that the l-3-glycerophosphate–flavoprotein oxidoreductase is located on the outer surface of the inner membrane of the flight-muscle mitochondria.

Donnellan, J. F.; Barker, M. D.; Wood, J.; Beechey, R. B.

1970-01-01

261

Cell-surface NAD(P)H-oxidase: relationship to trans-plasma membrane NADH-oxidoreductase and a potential source of circulating NADH-oxidase.  

PubMed

The surface of mammalian cells faces an oxidizing environment that has the potential to damage proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates to which it is exposed. In contrast, the cytoplasm is reducing and its redox state is tightly regulated. Trans-plasma membrane oxidoreductases that shift electrons from cytosolic NADH to external electron acceptors such as oxygen are widely involved in cellular redox control. They reduce oxygen to water and may generate reactive oxygen species such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. In addition, external NAD(P)H-oxidases have been demonstrated on intact cells and as eluted proteins, but the relationship between trans-plasma membrane NADH-oxidoreductases and cell-surface NAD(P)H-oxidases is not known. To investigate further the relationship between plasma membrane NAD(P)H-oxidoreductases, and to gain insight into the physiological functions of these redox active membrane proteins, we have adapted a simple colorimetric assay for measuring the trans-plasma membrane NADH-oxidoreductase activity of viable cells to measure NAD(P)H-oxidase at the cell surface in real time. Using the cell-impermeable tetrazolium salt WST-1 in the presence of NADH or NADPH, but in the absence of an intermediate electron acceptor, we show that cell-surface NAD(P)H-oxidase is widely expressed on mammalian cells, being more abundant on rapidly proliferating cells than on resting neutrophils and spleen cells. The ratio of cofactor dependence of NAD(P)H-oxidase (NADH:NADPH) varied widely between different cells (0.7-5.2), suggesting a family of cell surface oxidases or that the activity of these enzymes may be modulated in various ways. Comparison of NAD(P)H-oxidase on the surface of viable cells with trans-membrane NADH-oxidoreductase, measured with WST-1 in the presence of 1-methoxy PMS, showed that cell-surface NAD(P)H-oxidase was differentially inhibited by the cell-impermeable thiol-blocking agent pCMBS, but was unaffected or stimulated by other thiol blocking agents. Capsaicin, which inhibits trans-plasma membrane NADH-oxidoreductase activity, stimulated surface NAD(P)H-oxidase. Metabolic inhibitors had little effect on surface NAD(P)H-oxidase activity but inhibited trans-plasma membrane activity. These results do not support the view the surface NAD(P)H-oxidase is a terminal oxidase for trans-plasma membrane NADH-oxidoreductase. PMID:11229532

Berridge, M V; Tan, A S

2000-01-01

262

P5-type sulfhydryl oxidoreductase promotes the sorting of proteins to protein body I in rice endosperm cells  

PubMed Central

In rice (Oryza sativa) endosperm cells, oxidative protein folding is necessary for the sorting of storage proteins to protein bodies, PB-I and PB-II. Here we examined the role of sulfhydryl oxidoreductase PDIL2;3 (a human P5 ortholog) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), using GFP-AB, a PB-I marker in which the N-terminal region (AB) of ?-globulin is fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP). RNAi knockdown of PDIL2;3 inhibited the accumulation of GFP-AB in PB-I and promoted its exit from the ER. We discuss the role of PDIL2;3 in retaining proteins within the ER and specifying their localization to PB-I through disulfide bond formation.

Onda, Yayoi; Kawagoe, Yasushi

2013-01-01

263

The two common polymorphic forms of human NRH-quinone oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2) have different biochemical properties  

PubMed Central

There are two common forms of NRH-quinone oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2) in the human population resulting from SNP rs1143684. One has phenylalanine at position 47 (NQO2-F47) and the other leucine (NQO2-L47). Using recombinant proteins, we show that these variants have similar steady state kinetic parameters, although NQO2-L47 has a slightly lower specificity constant. NQO2-L47 is less stable towards proteolytic digestion and thermal denaturation than NQO2-F47. Both forms are inhibited by resveratrol, but NQO2-F47 shows negative cooperativity with this inhibitor. Thus these data demonstrate, for the first time, clear biochemical differences between the variants which help explain previous biomedical and epidemiological findings.

Megarity, Clare F.; Gill, James R.E.; Clare Caraher, M.; Stratford, Ian J.; Nolan, Karen A.; Timson, David J.

2014-01-01

264

Indolepyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase: An oxygen-sensitive iron-sulfur enzyme from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus profundus.  

PubMed

Thermococcus profundus is a strictly anaerobic sulfur-dependent archaeon that grows optimally at 80°C by peptide fermentation. Indolepyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (IOR), an enzyme involved in the peptide fermentation pathway, was purified to homogeneity from the archaeon under strictly anaerobic conditions. The maximal activity was obtained above the boiling temperature of water (105°C), with a half-life of 62min at 100°C and 20min at 105°C. IOR was oxygen-sensitive with a half-life of 7h at 25°C under aerobic conditions. The specific activity of T. profundus IOR was found to be dependent on the number of [4Fe-4S] clusters in the enzyme. PMID:22608551

Ozawa, Yukiko; Siddiqui, Masood Ahmed; Takahashi, Yasufumi; Urushiyama, Akio; Ohmori, Daijiro; Yamakura, Fumiyuki; Arisaka, Fumio; Imai, Takeo

2012-07-01

265

The two common polymorphic forms of human NRH-quinone oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2) have different biochemical properties.  

PubMed

There are two common forms of NRH-quinone oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2) in the human population resulting from SNP rs1143684. One has phenylalanine at position 47 (NQO2-F47) and the other leucine (NQO2-L47). Using recombinant proteins, we show that these variants have similar steady state kinetic parameters, although NQO2-L47 has a slightly lower specificity constant. NQO2-L47 is less stable towards proteolytic digestion and thermal denaturation than NQO2-F47. Both forms are inhibited by resveratrol, but NQO2-F47 shows negative cooperativity with this inhibitor. Thus these data demonstrate, for the first time, clear biochemical differences between the variants which help explain previous biomedical and epidemiological findings. PMID:24631540

Megarity, Clare F; Gill, James R E; Caraher, M Clare; Stratford, Ian J; Nolan, Karen A; Timson, David J

2014-05-01

266

Comparative Mapping and Genomic Annotation of the Bovine Oncosuppressor Gene WWOX  

Microsoft Academic Search

WWOX (WW domain-containing oxidoreductase) is the gene mapping at FRA16D HSA16q23.1, the second most active common fragile site in the human genome. In this study we characterized at a detailed molecular level WWOX in the bovine genome. First, we sequenced cDNA from various tissues and obtained evidence in support of a 9-exon structure for the gene, similar to the human

S. Manera; S. Bonfiglio; A. Malusà; C. Denis; M. Boussaha; V. Russo; F. Roperto; A. Perucatti; G. P. Di Meo; A. Eggen; L. Ferretti

2009-01-01

267

NADH-quinone oxidoreductase: PSST subunit couples electron transfer from iron-sulfur cluster N2 to quinone.  

PubMed

The proton-translocating NADH-quinone oxidoreductase (EC 1.6.99.3) is the largest and least understood enzyme complex of the respiratory chain. The mammalian mitochondrial enzyme (also called complex I) contains more than 40 subunits, whereas its structurally simpler bacterial counterpart (NDH-1) in Paracoccus denitrificans and Thermus thermophilus HB-8 consists of 14 subunits. A major unsolved question is the location and mechanism of the terminal electron transfer step from iron-sulfur cluster N2 to quinone. Potent inhibitors acting at this key region are candidate photoaffinity probes to dissect NADH-quinone oxidoreductases. Complex I and NDH-1 are very sensitive to inhibition by a variety of structurally diverse toxicants, including rotenone, piericidin A, bullatacin, and pyridaben. We designed (trifluoromethyl)diazirinyl[3H]pyridaben ([3H]TDP) as our photoaffinity ligand because it combines outstanding inhibitor potency, a suitable photoreactive group, and tritium at high specific activity. Photoaffinity labeling of mitochondrial electron transport particles was specific and saturable. Isolation, protein sequencing, and immunoprecipitation identified the high-affinity specifically labeled 23-kDa subunit as PSST of complex I. Immunoprecipitation of labeled membranes of P. denitrificans and T. thermophilus established photoaffinity labeling of the equivalent bacterial NQO6. Competitive binding and enzyme inhibition studies showed that photoaffinity labeling of the specific high-affinity binding site of PSST is exceptionally sensitive to each of the high-potency inhibitors mentioned above. These findings establish that the homologous PSST of mitochondria and NQO6 of bacteria have a conserved inhibitor-binding site and that this subunit plays a key role in electron transfer by functionally coupling iron-sulfur cluster N2 to quinone. PMID:10097178

Schuler, F; Yano, T; Di Bernardo, S; Yagi, T; Yankovskaya, V; Singer, T P; Casida, J E

1999-03-30

268

High ratio of bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis genes to chlorophyll biosynthesis genes in bacteria of humic lakes.  

PubMed

Recent studies highlight the diversity and significance of marine phototrophic microorganisms such as picocyanobacteria, phototrophic picoeukaryotes, and bacteriochlorophyll- and rhodopsin-holding phototrophic bacteria. To assess if freshwater ecosystems also harbor similar phototroph diversity, genes involved in the biosynthesis of bacteriochlorophyll and chlorophyll were targeted to explore oxygenic and aerobic anoxygenic phototroph composition in a wide range of lakes. Partial dark-operative protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (DPOR) and chlorophyllide oxidoreductase (COR) genes in bacteria of seven lakes with contrasting trophic statuses were PCR amplified, cloned, and sequenced. Out of 61 sequences encoding the L subunit of DPOR (L-DPOR), 22 clustered with aerobic anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria, whereas 39 L-DPOR sequences related to oxygenic phototrophs, like cyanobacteria, were observed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed clear separation of these freshwater L-DPOR genes as well as 11 COR gene sequences from their marine counterparts. Terminal restriction fragment length analysis of L-DPOR genes was used to characterize oxygenic aerobic and anoxygenic photosynthesizing populations in 20 lakes differing in physical and chemical characteristics. Significant differences in L-DPOR community composition were observed between dystrophic lakes and all other systems, where a higher proportion of genes affiliated with aerobic anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria was observed than in other systems. Our results reveal a significant diversity of phototrophic microorganisms in lakes and suggest niche partitioning of oxygenic and aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs in these systems in response to trophic status and coupled differences in light regime. PMID:19801478

Eiler, Alexander; Beier, Sara; Säwström, Christin; Karlsson, Jan; Bertilsson, Stefan

2009-11-01

269

High Ratio of Bacteriochlorophyll Biosynthesis Genes to Chlorophyll Biosynthesis Genes in Bacteria of Humic Lakes ?  

PubMed Central

Recent studies highlight the diversity and significance of marine phototrophic microorganisms such as picocyanobacteria, phototrophic picoeukaryotes, and bacteriochlorophyll- and rhodopsin-holding phototrophic bacteria. To assess if freshwater ecosystems also harbor similar phototroph diversity, genes involved in the biosynthesis of bacteriochlorophyll and chlorophyll were targeted to explore oxygenic and aerobic anoxygenic phototroph composition in a wide range of lakes. Partial dark-operative protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (DPOR) and chlorophyllide oxidoreductase (COR) genes in bacteria of seven lakes with contrasting trophic statuses were PCR amplified, cloned, and sequenced. Out of 61 sequences encoding the L subunit of DPOR (L-DPOR), 22 clustered with aerobic anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria, whereas 39 L-DPOR sequences related to oxygenic phototrophs, like cyanobacteria, were observed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed clear separation of these freshwater L-DPOR genes as well as 11 COR gene sequences from their marine counterparts. Terminal restriction fragment length analysis of L-DPOR genes was used to characterize oxygenic aerobic and anoxygenic photosynthesizing populations in 20 lakes differing in physical and chemical characteristics. Significant differences in L-DPOR community composition were observed between dystrophic lakes and all other systems, where a higher proportion of genes affiliated with aerobic anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria was observed than in other systems. Our results reveal a significant diversity of phototrophic microorganisms in lakes and suggest niche partitioning of oxygenic and aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs in these systems in response to trophic status and coupled differences in light regime.

Eiler, Alexander; Beier, Sara; Sawstrom, Christin; Karlsson, Jan; Bertilsson, Stefan

2009-01-01

270

Role of the O-antigen of lipopolysaccharide, and possible roles of growth rate and of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (nuo) in competitive tomato root-tip colonization by Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS365.  

PubMed

Colonization-defective, transposon-induced mutants of the efficient root colonizer Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS365 were identified with a gnotobiotic system. Most mutants were impaired in known colonization traits, i.e., prototrophy for amino acids, motility, and synthesis of the O-antigen of LPS (lipopolysaccharide). Mutants lacking the O-antigen of LPS were impaired in both colonization and competitive growth whereas one mutant (PCL1205) with a shorter O-antigen chain was defective only in colonization ability, suggesting a role for the intact O-antigen of LPS in colonization. Eight competitive colonization mutants that were not defective in the above-mentioned traits colonized the tomato root tip well when inoculated alone, but were defective in competitive root colonization of tomato, radish, and wheat, indicating they contained mutations affecting host range. One of these eight mutants (PCL1201) was further characterized and contains a mutation in a gene that shows homology to the Escherichia coli nuo4 gene, which encodes a subunit of one of two known NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductases. Competition experiments in an oxygen-poor medium between mutant PCL1201 and its parental strain showed a decreased growth rate of mutant PCL1201. The requirement of the nuo4 gene homolog for optimal growth under conditions of oxygen limitation suggests that the root-tip environment is micro-aerobic. A mutant characterized by a slow growth rate (PCL1216) was analyzed further and contained a mutation in a gene with similarity to the E. coli HtrB protein, a lauroyl transferase that functions in lipid A biosynthesis. PMID:9675892

Dekkers, L C; van der Bij, A J; Mulders, I H; Phoelich, C C; Wentwoord, R A; Glandorf, D C; Wijffelman, C A; Lugtenberg, B J

1998-08-01

271

Angelica sinensis and its Alkylphthalides Induce the Detoxification enzyme NAD(P)H: Quinone OxidoReductase 1 by Alkylating KEAP1  

PubMed Central

The roots of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.), Diels (Dang Gui; Apiaceae) have a long history in traditional Chinese medicine as a remedy for women's disorders, and are often called “lady's ginseng”. Currently, extracts of A. sinensis are commonly included in numerous dietary supplements used for women's health and as anti-aging products. In the present study, we examined the potential chemopreventive activity of A. sinensis extracts by measuring the relative ability to induce the detoxification enzyme, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). The lipophilic partitions showed strong NQO1 induction with concentrations to double the enzyme activity (CD) of 5.5 ± 0.7 ?g/mL (petroleum ether) and 3.9 ± 0.5 ?g/mL (chloroform). Fractionation led to the isolation of phenolic esters and alkylphthalides, especially Z-ligustilide, the main lipophilic compound, which showed strong NQO1 inducing properties (CD = 6.9 ± 1.9 ?M). Transcription of many detoxifying enzymes is regulated through the antioxidant response element (ARE) and its transcription factor Nrf2, which is repressed under basal conditions by Keap1. However, exposure to electrophilic inducers that alkylate Keap1 results in a higher concentrations of free Nrf2 and ARE activation. The ARE reporter activity was therefore analyzed in HepG2-ARE-C8 cells after incubation with lipophilic extracts of A. sinensis or ligustilide for 24 h. Under these conditions, both the extract and ligustilide increased ARE-luciferase reporter activity in a dose-dependent manner. Incubation of ligustilide with GSH and subsequent LC-MS-MS analysis revealed that ligustilide as well as oxidized ligustilide species covalently modified GSH. In addition, using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and LC-MS-MS, it was demonstrated that the lipophilic extracts, ligustilide, and monooxygenated ligustilide alkylated important cysteine residues in human Keap1 protein, thus activating Nrf2 and transcription of ARE regulated genes. These observations suggest that A. sinensis dietary supplements standardized to ligustilide have potential as chemopreventive agents through induction of detoxification enzymes.

Dietz, Birgit M.; Liu, Dongting; Hagos, Ghenet K.; Yao, Ping; Schinkovitz, Andreas; Pro, Samuel M.; Deng, Shixin; Farnsworth, Norman R.; Pauli, Guido F.; van Breemen, Richard B.; Bolton, Judy L.

2008-01-01

272

Sulfide Oxidation from Cyanobacteria to Humans: Sulfide–Quinone Oxidoreductase (SQR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the discovery that anoxygenic, sulfidotrophic photosynthesis can be induced in cyanobacteria, sulfide- quinone reductase\\u000a (SQR) was identified and characterized in Oscillatoria limnetica. This was closely followed by the study of SQR in the purple bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus. Subsequently the genes of the purple bacterium and of two cyanobacteria, as well as of the hyperthermophilic hydrogen bacterium\\u000a Aquifex aeolicus were

Yosepha Shahak; Günter Hauska

273

NAD(P)H:quinone Oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) Competes with 20S Proteasome for Binding with C/EBP? Leading to Its Stabilization and Protection against Radiation-induced Myeloproliferative Disease*  

PubMed Central

NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is a flavoprotein that protects cells against radiation and chemical-induced oxidative stress. Disruption of NQO1 gene in mice leads to increased susceptibility to myeloproliferative disease. In this report, we demonstrate that NQO1 controls the stability of myeloid differentiation factor C/EBP? against 20S proteasomal degradation during radiation exposure stress. Co-immunoprecipitation studies showed that NQO1, C/EBP?, and 20S all interacted with each other. C/EBP? interaction with 20S led to the degradation of C/EBP?. NQO1 in presence of its cofactor NADH protected C/EBP? against 20S degradation. Deletion and site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that NQO1 and 20S competed for the same binding region 268SGAGAGKAKKSV279 in C/EBP?. Mutagenesis studies also revealed that NQO1Y127/Y129 required for NADH binding is essential for NQO1 stabilization of C/EBP?. Exposure of mice and HL-60 cells to 3 Grays of ?-radiation led to increased NQO1 that stabilized C/EBP? against 20S proteasomal degradation. This mechanism of NQO1 regulation of C/EBP? may provide protection to bone marrow against adverse effects of radiation exposure. The studies have significance for human individuals carrying hetero- or homozygous NQO1P187S mutation and are deficient or lack NQO1 protein.

Xu, Junkang; Jaiswal, Anil K.

2012-01-01

274

The C609T inborn polymorphism in NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 is associated with susceptibility to multiple sclerosis and affects the risk of development of the primary progressive form of the disease.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Inactivating polymorphisms of genes encoding detoxification enzymes, such as NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), could influence susceptibility to MS. To test this hypothesis we performed a case-control study in which we compared the distribution of NQO1 genotypes between 231 MS patients and 380 controls, using both PCR-RFLP and real-time PCR assays. Correlations with MS clinical subtype classification and gender were also evaluated. A significantly higher frequency of the homozygous (T/T) and heterozygous (C/T) NQO1 C(609)T variant genotypes was observed among MS patients compared to controls (P=0.01), with MS patients showing a 1.5-fold increased risk of carrying at least one variant T allele (P=0.009). Interestingly, patients belonging to the primary progressive subgroup exhibited a significantly higher incidence of the heterozygous C/T variant genotype, compared to the other forms of MS (P=0.019). There was no correlation of the NQO1 polymorphism with gender. These results provide the first evidence for a pathogenetic role for the NQO1 C(609)T polymorphism in MS susceptibility and suggest a possible role for the NQO1 genetic background in the development of primary progressive MS. PMID:21605663

Stavropoulou, Chrysa; Zachaki, Sophia; Alexoudi, Athanasia; Chatzi, Ioanna; Georgakakos, Vasileios N; Terzoudi, Georgia I; Pantelias, Gabriel E; Karageorgiou, Clementine E; Sambani, Constantina

2011-08-01

275

Production of glucose-fructose oxidoreductase and ethanol by Zymomonas mobilis ATCC 29191 in medium containing corn steep liquor as a source of vitamins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different concentrations of corn steep liquor (CSL) were tested in the cultivation of Zymomonas mobilis. Cell growth, ethanol production, and the formation of glucose-fructose oxidoreductase (GFOR) and glucono-'-lactonase (GL), the enzymes responsible for the bio-production of gluconic acid and sorbitol, were examined. The cell yields using 25 g CSL l-1 and 40 g CSL l-1 (YX\\/SƸ.031 g g-1) were close

M. M. Silveira; E. Wisbeck; I. Hoch; R. Jonas

2001-01-01

276

In vitro-mutagenesis of NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase B: two distinctive protochlorophyllide binding sites participate in enzyme catalysis and assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) B is a key enzyme for the light-induced greening of etiolated angiosperm plants. It is nucleus-encoded, imported into the plastids posttranslationally, and assembled into larger light-harvesting POR:protochlorophyllide complexes termed LHPP (Reinbothe et al., Nature 397:80–84, 1999). An in vitro-mutagenesis approach was taken to study the role of the evolutionarily conserved Cys residues in pigment binding. Four Cys

Christiane Reinbothe; Frank Buhr; Sandra Bartsch; Claire Desvignes; Françoise Quigley; Hélène Pesey; Steffen Reinbothe

2006-01-01

277

Stable Expression of Human Cytochrome P450 3A4 in Conjunction with Human NADPH-Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase in V79 Chinese Hamster Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

V79 Chinese hamster cells were constructed for stable expression of human cytochrome P450 3A4 with and without coexpression of human NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase. Expression of the cDNAs was shown by Northern and Western analyses. Activity was tested by 6?-hydroxylation of testosterone for cytochrome P450 3A4 and by cytochrome c reduction for NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. Five V79 cell lines were obtained

Anneliese Schneider; Wolfgang A. Schmalix; Vasanthi Siruguri; Els M. de Groene; G. Jean Horbach; Britta Kleingeist; Dieter Lang; Ronald Böcker; Claire Belloc; Philippe Beaune; Helmut Greim; Johannes Doehmer

1996-01-01

278

Electron spin relaxation enhancement measurements of interspin distances in human, porcine, and Rhodobacter electron transfer flavoprotein–ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF–QO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron transfer flavoprotein–ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF–QO) is a membrane-bound electron transfer protein that links primary flavoprotein dehydrogenases with the main respiratory chain. Human, porcine, and Rhodobacter sphaeroides ETF–QO each contain a single [4Fe–4S]2+,1+ cluster and one equivalent of FAD, which are diamagnetic in the isolated enzyme and become paramagnetic on reduction with the enzymatic electron donor or with dithionite. The anionic

Alistair J. Fielding; Robert J. Usselman; Nicholas Watmough; Martin Simkovic; Frank E. Frerman; Gareth R. Eaton; Sandra S. Eaton

2008-01-01

279

Three-dimensional structure of bovine NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) at 22 å in ice 1 1 Edited by R. Huber  

Microsoft Academic Search

NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is the first and largest complex in the electron transport chain of mitochondria. The bovine complex purified from cardiac muscle consists of at least 42 different subunits with a combined molecular mass of about 890 kDa. The three-dimensional structure of the complex was determined at 22 Å from single particles embedded in vitrified ice using electron

N. Grigorieff

1998-01-01

280

Selective localisation of P450 enzymes and NADPH-P450 oxidoreductase in rat basal ganglia using anti-peptide antisera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental or endogenous toxins may cause nigral cell death in Parkinson's disease (PD) due to altered expression of P450 enzymes. In rat brain, immunohistochemistry using anti-peptide antisera showed NADPH-P450 oxidoreductase and CYP2B1\\/2 in various hypothalamic nuclei and CYP1A1 in the globus pallidus, but neither enzyme was expressed in substantia nigra. No specific immunoreactivity to CYP2D1 or CYP3A1 was found in

Andrew G Riedl; Paul M Watts; Robert J Edwards; Alan R Boobis; Peter Jenner; C. David Marsden

1996-01-01

281

Light-independent and light-dependent protochlorophyllide-reducing activities and two distinct NADPH-protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase polypeptides in mountain pine ( Pinus mugo )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lower plants and gymnosperms synthesize chlorophyll and develop photosynthetically competent chloroplasts even when grown in the dark. In cell-free extracts of pine (Pinus mugo, Turra, ssp. mugo) seedlings, light-independent and light-dependent protochlorophyllide-reducing activities are present. Two distinct NADPH-protochlorophyllide-oxidoreductase (POR) polypeptides can be detected immunologically with an antiserum raised against the POR of barley. The subcellular localization and amounts of the

Christoph Forreiter; Klaus Apel

1993-01-01

282

Anticancer action of cub? insecticide: Correlation for rotenoid constituents between inhibition of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase and induced ornithine decarboxylase activities  

PubMed Central

Rotenone and rotenoid-containing botanicals, important insecticides and fish poisons, are reported to have anticancer activity in rats and mice. The toxic action of rotenone is attributed to inhibition of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase activity and the purported cancer chemopreventive effect of deguelin analogs has been associated with inhibition of phorbol ester-induced ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity. This study defines a possible relationship between these two types of activity important in evaluating the toxicology of rotenoid pesticides and the suitability of the anticancer model. Fractionation of cubé resin (the commercial rotenoid pesticide) establishes that the activity in both assays is due primarily to rotenone (IC50 = 0.8–4 nM), secondarily to deguelin, and in small part to rotenolone and tephrosin. In addition, the potency of 29 rotenoids from cubé insecticide for inhibiting NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase in vitro assayed with bovine heart electron transport particles satisfactorily predicts their potency in vivo in the induced ODC assay using noncytotoxic rotenoid concentrations with cultured MCF-7 human breast cancer cells (r = 0.86). Clearly the molecular features of rotenoids essential for inhibiting NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase are similar to those for blocking ODC induction. This apparent correlation extends to 11 flavonoids and stilbenoids from cubé resin (r = 0.98) and genistein and resveratrol except for lower potency and less selectivity than the rotenoids relative to cytotoxicity. These findings on cubé insecticide constituents and our earlier study comparing rotenone and pyridaben miticide indicate that inhibition of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase activity lowers the level of induced ODC activity leading to the antiproliferative effect and anticancer action.

Fang, Nianbai; Casida, John E.

1998-01-01

283

Involvement of NADH:Acceptor Oxidoreductase and Butyryl Coenzyme A Dehydrogenase in Reversed Electron Transport during Syntrophic Butyrate Oxidation by Syntrophomonas wolfei? †  

PubMed Central

Methanogenic oxidation of butyrate to acetate requires a tight cooperation between the syntrophically fermenting Syntrophomonas wolfei and the methanogen Methanospirillum hungatei, and a reversed electron transport system in S. wolfei was postulated to shift electrons from butyryl coenzyme A (butyryl-CoA) oxidation to the redox potential of NADH for H2 generation. The metabolic activity of butyrate-oxidizing S. wolfei cells was measured via production of formazan and acetate from butyrate, with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride as electron acceptor. This activity was inhibited by trifluoperazine (TPZ), an antitubercular agent known to inhibit NADH:menaquinone oxidoreductase. In cell extracts of S. wolfei, the oxidation of NADH could be measured with quinones, viologens, and tetrazolium dyes as electron acceptors, and also this activity was inhibited by TPZ. The TPZ-sensitive NADH:acceptor oxidoreductase activity appeared to be membrane associated but could be dissociated from the membrane as a soluble protein and was semipurified by anion-exchange chromatography. Recovered proteins were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting, which indicated the presence of an NADH:acceptor oxidoreductase as part of a three-component [FeFe] hydrogenase complex and a selenocysteine-containing formate dehydrogenase. Furthermore, purification of butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase (Bcd) activity and peptide mass fingerprinting revealed two Bcd proteins different from the Bcd subunit of the Bcd/electron-transfer flavoprotein complex (Bcd/EtfAB) predicted from the genome sequence of S. wolfei. The results suggest that syntrophic oxidation of butyrate in S. wolfei involves a membrane-associated TPZ-sensitive NADH:acceptor oxidoreductase as part of a hydrogenase complex similar to the recently discovered “bifurcating” hydrogenase in Thermotoga maritima and butyryl-CoA dehydrogenases that are different from Bcd of the Bcd/EtfAB complex.

Muller, Nicolai; Schleheck, David; Schink, Bernhard

2009-01-01

284

Biphasic Kinetic Behavior of E. coli WrbA, an FMN-Dependent NAD(P)H:Quinone Oxidoreductase  

PubMed Central

The E. coli protein WrbA is an FMN-dependent NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase that has been implicated in oxidative defense. Three subunits of the tetrameric enzyme contribute to each of four identical, cavernous active sites that appear to accommodate NAD(P)H or various quinones, but not simultaneously, suggesting an obligate tetramer with a ping-pong mechanism in which NAD departs before oxidized quinone binds. The present work was undertaken to evaluate these suggestions and to characterize the kinetic behavior of WrbA. Steady-state kinetics results reveal that WrbA conforms to a ping-pong mechanism with respect to the constancy of the apparent Vmax to Km ratio with substrate concentration. However, the competitive/non-competitive patterns of product inhibition, though consistent with the general class of bi-substrate reactions, do not exclude a minor contribution from additional forms of the enzyme. NMR results support the presence of additional enzyme forms. Docking and energy calculations find that electron-transfer-competent binding sites for NADH and benzoquinone present severe steric overlap, consistent with the ping-pong mechanism. Unexpectedly, plots of initial velocity as a function of either NADH or benzoquinone concentration present one or two Michaelis-Menten phases depending on the temperature at which the enzyme is held prior to assay. The effect of temperature is reversible, suggesting an intramolecular conformational process. WrbA shares these and other details of its kinetic behavior with mammalian DT-diaphorase, an FAD-dependent NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase. An extensive literature review reveals several other enzymes with two-plateau kinetic plots, but in no case has a molecular explanation been elucidated. Preliminary sedimentation velocity analysis of WrbA indicates a large shift in size of the multimer with temperature, suggesting that subunit assembly coupled to substrate binding may underlie the two-plateau behavior. An additional aim of this report is to bring under wider attention the apparently widespread phenomenon of two-plateau Michaelis-Menten plots.

Kishko, Iryna; Harish, Balasubramanian; Zayats, Vasilina; Reha, David; Tenner, Brian; Beri, Dhananjay; Gustavsson, Tobias; Ettrich, Rudiger; Carey, Jannette

2012-01-01

285

Isolation and characterization of the citrinin biosynthetic gene cluster from Monascus aurantiacus.  

PubMed

Monascus aurantiacus produces high amounts of citrinin which is a mycotoxin with nephrotoxic activity. Six putative citrinin biosynthesis genes have been discovered in M. purpureus and at least 10 genes are responsible for its biosynthesis. However, the sequence of citrinin pathway gene cluster in M. aurantiacus has not been reported. Here, the putative sequence of citrinin biosynthetic gene cluster was obtained by a PCR-based strategy for screening a genome fosmid library of M. aurantiacus. A sequence of 43 kb revealed 16 ORFs including the six putative biosynthetic genes reported previous. The putative gene cluster consists of a polytekide synthetase encoding one PKS module, an oxidoreductase gene, three dehydrogenase genes, an acyl-coenzyme A synthetase gene, a membrane transport protein gene, a transcriptional activator gene as well as genes encoding proteins of undefined function. PMID:21956130

Li, Yan-Ping; Xu, Yang; Huang, Zhi-Bing

2012-01-01

286

NAD(P)H:quinone acceptor oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), a multifunctional antioxidant enzyme and exceptionally versatile cytoprotector  

PubMed Central

NAD(P)H:quinone acceptor oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is a widely-distributed FAD-dependent flavoprotein that promotes obligatory 2-electron reductions of quinones, quinoneimines, nitroaromatics, and azo dyes, at rates that are comparable with NADH or NADPH. These reductions depress quinone levels and thereby minimize opportunities for generation of reactive oxygen intermediates by redox cycling, and for depletion of intracellular thiol pools. NQO1 is a highly-inducible enzyme that is regulated by the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway. Evidence for the importance of the antioxidant functions of NQO1 in combating oxidative stress is provided by demonstrations that induction of NQO1 levels or their depletion (knockout, or knockdown) are associated with decreased and increased susceptibilities to oxidative stress, respectively. Furthermore, benzene genotoxicity is markedly enhanced when NQO1 activity is compromised. Not surprisingly, human polymorphisms that suppress NQO1 activities are associated with increased predisposition to disease. Recent studies have uncovered protective roles for NQO1 that apparently are unrelated to its enzymatic activities. NQO1 binds to and thereby stabilizes the important tumor suppressor p53 against proteasomal degradation. Indeed, NQO1 appears to regulate the degradative fate of other proteins. These findings suggest that NQO1 may exercise a selective “gatekeeping” role in regulating the proteasomal degradation of specific proteins, thereby broadening the cytoprotective role of NQO1 far beyond its highly effective antioxidant functions.

Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T.; Talalay, Paul

2010-01-01

287

Catalytic Mechanism of Short Ethoxy Chain Nonylphenol Dehydrogenase Belonging to a Polyethylene Glycol Dehydrogenase Group in the GMC Oxidoreductase Family  

PubMed Central

Ethoxy (EO) chain nonylphenol dehydrogenase (NPEO-DH) from Ensifer sp. AS08 and EO chain octylphenol dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida share common molecular characteristics with polyethylene glycol (PEG) dehydrogenases (PEG-DH) and comprise a PEG-DH subgroup in the family of glucose-methanol-choline (GMC) oxidoreductases that includes glucose/alcohol oxidase and glucose/choline dehydrogenase. Three-dimensional (3D) molecular modeling suggested that differences in the size, secondary structure and hydropathy in the active site caused differences in their substrate specificities toward EO chain alkylphenols and free PEGs. Based on 3D molecular modeling, site-directed mutagenesis was utilized to introduce mutations into potential catalytic residues of NPEO-DH. From steady state and rapid kinetic characterization of wild type and mutant NPEO-DHs, we can conclude that His465 and Asn507 are directly involved in the catalysis. Asn507 mediates the transfer of proton from a substrate to FAD and His465 transfers the same proton from the reduced flavin to an electron acceptor.

Liu, Xin; Ohta, Takeshi; Kawabata, Takeshi; Kawai, Fusako

2013-01-01

288

Increased vulnerability to ?-cell destruction and diabetes in mice lacking NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1.  

PubMed

NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) has been known to protect cells against stressors, including the diabetogenic reagent streptozotocin (STZ). The present study demonstrated that NQO1 deficiency resulted in increased pancreatic ?-cell death induced by multiple low dose of STZ (MLDS) injections. NQO1 knockout (KO) mice showed hyperglycemia, body weight loss, impaired glucose clearance rate and a lower plasma insulin level after MLDS treatment. Moreover, ?-cell mass and pancreatic insulin content were significantly lower in KO mice than in wild-type (WT) mice after MLDS treatment. Five days after the first STZ treatment, the islets of KO mice had substantially more TUNEL-positive ?-cells than those of WT mice, but there was no difference in the regeneration of ?-cells between KO mice and WT mice. At the same time, MLDS-treated KO mice showed significantly increased apoptotic markers in ?-cells, including cleaved caspase 3, Smac/DIABLO and AIF (apoptosis inducing factor) in the cytoplasm. These results suggest that mice deficient in NQO1 are vulnerable to MLDS-induced ?-cell destruction and diabetes, caused by increase of ?-cell apoptosis in pancreas. PMID:23458895

Yeo, Seung-Hoon; Noh, Jung-Ran; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Gang, Gil-Tae; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kim, Kyoung-Shim; Hwang, Jung Hwan; Shong, Minho; Lee, Chul-Ho

2013-05-10

289

C609T Polymorphism of NADPH Quinone Oxidoreductase 1 Correlates Clinical Hematological Toxicities in Lung Cancer Patients Treated with Amrubicin  

PubMed Central

Background: Amrubicin hydrochloride (AMR) is a key agent for lung cancer. NADPH quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) metabolizes the quinone structures contained in both amrubicin (AMR) and amrubicinol (AMR-OH). We hypothesized that NQO1 C609T polymorphism may affect AMR-related pharmacokinetics and clinical outcomes. Methods: Patients received AMR doses of 30 or 40 mg/m2/day on days 1–3. Plasma sampling was performed 24 hours after the first and third AMR injections. Concentrations of AMR and AMR-OH were determined by HPLC and the NQO1 C609T polymorphism was assayed by RT-PCR. Results: A total of 35 patients were enrolled. At a dose of 40 mg/m2, the T/T genotype exhibited a tendency toward a relationship with decrease concentrations of AMR-OH on days 2 and 4. The genotype also showed a significant decrease of hematological toxicities (P < 0.05). Conclusions: NQO1 C609T polymorphism had a tendency of correlation with the plasma concentrations of AMR-OH, and thereby had significant correlations with hematologic toxicities.

Nagata, Misato; Kimura, Tatsuo; Suzumura, Tomohiro; Kira, Yukimi; Nakai, Toshiyuki; Umekawa, Kanako; Tanaka, Hidenori; Matsuura, Kuniomi; Mitsuoka, Shigeki; Yoshimura, Naruo; Oka, Takako; Kudoh, Shinzoh; Hirata, Kazuto

2013-01-01

290

Enhanced crystal packing due to solvent reorganization through reductive methylation of lysine residues in oxidoreductase from Streptococcus pneumoniae  

PubMed Central

Protein crystallization is in part driven by the changes in the entropy of the system, but opinions differ as to whether the solute (protein) or solvent (water) molecules make more of a contribution to the overall entropic change. Methylation of lysine residues in proteins has been used to enhance protein crystallization. We investigated using molecular dynamics simulations with explicit solvent molecules, the behavior of several native proteins and their methylated counterparts chosen from an earlier large-scale study. Methylated lysines are capable of making a variety of interactions including H-bonds with protein residues and solvent. We demonstrate that methylation on the lysine slightly increases its side chain conformational entropy by about 3.5 J mol?1 K?1. Analysis of the radial and spatial distributions of the water molecules around the methylated lysine surface in oxidoreductase from Streptococcus pneumoniae revealed a larger sphere of water molecules with low entropy, as compared with solvent associated with unmethylated lysine. If methylated lysine were to make interactions at the protein–protein interface, the low-entropy water molecules associated with methylated lysines would be released, resulting in a gain of entropy. We show that this gain more than compensates for the loss of protein entropy. Therefore, we propose that lysine methylation favors the formation of crystals through solvent entropic gain.

Fan, Yao

2010-01-01

291

Redox-dependent sodium binding by the Na(+)-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase from Vibrio harveyi.  

PubMed

Relaxation characteristics of the 23Na nuclei magnetization were used to determine the sodium-binding properties of the Na+-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase from Vibrio harveyi (NQR). The dissociation constant of Na+ for the oxidized enzyme was found to be 24 mM and for the reduced enzyme about 30 microM. Such large (3 orders in magnitude) redox dependence of the NQR affinity to sodium ions shows that the molecular machinery was designed to use the drop in redox energy for creating an electrochemical sodium gradient. Redox titration of NQR monitored by changes in line width of the 23Na NMR signal at 2 mM Na+ showed that the enzyme affinity to sodium ions follows the Nernst law for a one-electron carrier with Em about -300 mV (vs SHE). The data indicate that energy conservation by NQR involves a mechanism modulating ion affinity by the redox state of an enzyme redox cofactor. PMID:17696408

Bogachev, Alexander V; Bertsova, Yulia V; Aitio, Olli; Permi, Perttu; Verkhovsky, Michael I

2007-09-01

292

Dark-operative protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase generates substrate radicals by an iron-sulphur cluster in bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis.  

PubMed

Photosynthesis converts solar energy to chemical energy using chlorophylls (Chls). In a late stage of biosynthesis of Chls, dark-operative protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) oxidoreductase (DPOR), a nitrogenase-like enzyme, reduces the C17 = C18 double bond of Pchlide and drastically changes the spectral properties suitable for photosynthesis forming the parental chlorin ring for Chl a. We previously proposed that the spatial arrangement of the proton donors determines the stereospecificity of the Pchlide reduction based on the recently resolved structure of the DPOR catalytic component, NB-protein. However, it was not clear how the two-electron and two-proton transfer events are coordinated in the reaction. In this study, we demonstrate that DPOR initiates a single electron transfer reaction from a [4Fe-4S]-cluster (NB-cluster) to Pchlide, generating Pchlide anion radicals followed by a single proton transfer, and then, further electron/proton transfer steps transform the anion radicals into chlorophyllide (Chlide). Thus, DPOR is a unique iron-sulphur enzyme to form substrate radicals followed by sequential proton- and electron-transfer steps with the protein folding very similar to that of nitrogenase. This novel radical-mediated reaction supports the biosynthesis of Chl in a wide variety of photosynthetic organisms. PMID:24965831

Nomata, Jiro; Kondo, Toru; Mizoguchi, Tadashi; Tamiaki, Hitoshi; Itoh, Shigeru; Fujita, Yuichi

2014-01-01

293

Dark-operative protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase generates substrate radicals by an iron-sulphur cluster in bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

Photosynthesis converts solar energy to chemical energy using chlorophylls (Chls). In a late stage of biosynthesis of Chls, dark-operative protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) oxidoreductase (DPOR), a nitrogenase-like enzyme, reduces the C17 = C18 double bond of Pchlide and drastically changes the spectral properties suitable for photosynthesis forming the parental chlorin ring for Chl a. We previously proposed that the spatial arrangement of the proton donors determines the stereospecificity of the Pchlide reduction based on the recently resolved structure of the DPOR catalytic component, NB-protein. However, it was not clear how the two-electron and two-proton transfer events are coordinated in the reaction. In this study, we demonstrate that DPOR initiates a single electron transfer reaction from a [4Fe-4S]-cluster (NB-cluster) to Pchlide, generating Pchlide anion radicals followed by a single proton transfer, and then, further electron/proton transfer steps transform the anion radicals into chlorophyllide (Chlide). Thus, DPOR is a unique iron-sulphur enzyme to form substrate radicals followed by sequential proton- and electron-transfer steps with the protein folding very similar to that of nitrogenase. This novel radical-mediated reaction supports the biosynthesis of Chl in a wide variety of photosynthetic organisms.

Nomata, Jiro; Kondo, Toru; Mizoguchi, Tadashi; Tamiaki, Hitoshi; Itoh, Shigeru; Fujita, Yuichi

2014-01-01

294

Specific modification of a Na+ binding site in NADH:quinone oxidoreductase from Klebsiella pneumoniae with dicyclohexylcarbodiimide.  

PubMed

The respiratory NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (complex I) (NDH-1) is a multisubunit enzyme that translocates protons (or in some cases Na+) across energy-conserving membranes from bacteria or mitochondria. We studied the reaction of the Na+-translocating complex I from the enterobacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae with N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), with the aim of identifying a subunit critical for Na+ binding. At low Na+ concentrations (0.6 mM), DCCD inhibited both quinone reduction and Na+ transport by NDH-1 concurrent with the covalent modification of a 30-kDa polypeptide. In the presence of 50 mM Na+, NDH-1 was protected from inhibition by DCCD, and the modification of the 30-kDa polypeptide with [14C]DCCD was prevented, indicating that Na+ and DCCD competed for the binding to a critical carboxyl group in NDH-1. The 30-kDa polypeptide was assigned to NuoH, the homologue of the ND1 subunit from mitochondrial complex I. It is proposed that Na+ binds to the NuoH subunit during NADH-driven Na+ transport by NDH-1. PMID:16621819

Vgenopoulou, Irini; Gemperli, Anja C; Steuber, Julia

2006-05-01

295

Inactivation of corticosteroids in intestinal mucosa by 11 beta-hydroxysteroid: NADP oxidoreductase (EC 1. 1. 1. 146)  

SciTech Connect

Activity of the enzyme 11 beta-hydroxysteroid:NADP oxidoreductase (EC 1.1.1.146) in human intestinal mucosa was determined by incubating scraped mucosa with /sup 3/H-cortisone and /sup 14/C-cortisol; these steroids were then extracted, separated chromatographically, and the radioactivity assayed to determine simultaneously both reductase and dehydrogenase activities. This was the only significant metabolic alteration which the substrate underwent. Only two cases had slight (5 and 13%) reductase activity. In 35 patients, 16 male and 19 female, including seven cases of Crohn's disease, three ulcerative colitis, five diverticulitis, two undergoing surgery for repair of injuries and 18 for carcinoma of colon or rectum, cortisol was converted to cortisone in 15 min with a wide range of values distributed uniformly up to 85% dehydrogenation, with a mean of 42%. When tissue homogenates were fortified with coenzymes, excess NADPH lowered dehydrogenase activity 81%; excess NADP increased dehydrogenase activity 2-fold in three cases. It is possible that a value is characteristic of an individual but perhaps more likely enzyme activity varies with metabolic events involving changes in the coenzyme levels in mucosa, and a random sampling might be expected to yield such a distribution of values. In any event, where activity is high most of the cortisol is inactivated within minutes. It is suggested that synthetic corticoids which escape such metabolic alteration might, except during pregnancy, prove superior in the treatment of conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease.

Burton, A.F.; Anderson, F.H.

1983-10-01

296

Structure of the biliverdin radical intermediate in phycocyanobilin:ferredoxin oxidoreductase identified by high-field EPR and DFT.  

PubMed

The cyanobacterial enzyme phycocyanobilin:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PcyA) catalyzes the two-step four-electron reduction of biliverdin IXalpha to phycocyanobilin, the precursor of biliprotein chromophores found in phycobilisomes. It is known that catalysis proceeds via paramagnetic radical intermediates, but the structure of these intermediates and the transfer pathways for the four protons involved are not known. In this study, high-field electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of frozen solutions and single crystals of the one-electron reduced protein-substrate complex of two PcyA mutants D105N from the cyanobacteria Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 and Nostoc sp. PCC7120 are examined. Detailed analysis of Synechocystis D105N mutant spectra at 130 and 406 GHz reveals a biliverdin radical with a very narrow g tensor with principal values 2.00359(5), 2.00341(5), and 2.00218(5). Using density-functional theory (DFT) computations to explore the possible protonation states of the biliverdin radical, it is shown that this g tensor is consistent with a biliverdin radical where the carbonyl oxygen atoms on both the A and the D pyrrole rings are protonated. This experimentally confirms the reaction mechanism recently proposed (Tu, et al. Biochemistry 2007, 46, 1484). PMID:19159240

Stoll, Stefan; Gunn, Alexander; Brynda, Marcin; Sughrue, Wesley; Kohler, Amanda C; Ozarowski, Andrew; Fisher, Andrew J; Lagarias, J Clark; Britt, R David

2009-02-11

297

Insight Into the Radical Mechanism of Phycocyanobilin-Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase (Pcya) Revealed By X-Ray Crystallography And Biochemical Measurements  

SciTech Connect

The X-ray crystal structure of the substrate-free form of phycocyanobilin (PCB)-ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PcyA; EC 1.3.7.5) from the cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC7120 has been solved at 2.5 angstrom resolution. A comparative analysis of this structure with those recently reported for substrate-bound and substrate-free forms of PcyA from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 (Hagiwara et al. (2006) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 27-32; Hagiwara et al. (2006) FEBS Lett. 580, 3823-3828) provides a compelling picture of substrate-induced changes in the PcyA enzyme and the chemical basis of PcyA's catalytic activity. On the basis of these structures and the biochemical analysis of site-directed mutants of Nostoc PcyA, including mutants reported in recent studies (Tu et al. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 281, 3127-3136) as well as mutants described in this study, a revised mechanism for the PcyA-mediated four-electron reduction of biliverdin IX{alpha} to 3E/3Z-phycocyanobilin via enzyme-bound bilin radical intermediates is proposed. The mechanistic insight of these studies, along with homology modeling, have provided new insight into the catalytic mechanisms of other members of the ferredoxin-dependent bilin reductase family that are widespread in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms.

Tu, S.-L.; Rockwell, N.; Lagarias, J.C.; Fisher, A.J.; /Inst. Plant Microb. Biol., Taipei /UC, Davis

2007-07-13

298

Identification and Characterization of the Rhizobium sp. Strain GIN611 Glycoside Oxidoreductase Resulting in the Deglycosylation of Ginsenosides  

PubMed Central

Using enrichment culture, Rhizobium sp. strain GIN611 was isolated as having activity for deglycosylation of a ginsenoside, compound K (CK). The purified heterodimeric protein complex from Rhizobium sp. GIN611 consisted of two subunits with molecular masses of 63.5 kDa and 17.5 kDa. In the genome, the coding sequence for the small subunit was located right after the sequence for the large subunit, with one nucleotide overlapping. The large subunit showed CK oxidation activity, and the deglycosylation of compound K was performed via oxidation of ginsenoside glucose by glycoside oxidoreductase. Coexpression of the small subunit helped soluble expression of the large subunit in recombinant Escherichia coli. The purified large subunit also showed oxidation activity against other ginsenoside compounds, such as Rb1, Rb2, Rb3, Rc, F2, CK, Rh2, Re, F1, and the isoflavone daidzin, but at a much lower rate. When oxidized CK was extracted and incubated in phosphate buffer with or without enzyme, (S)-protopanaxadiol [PPD(S)] was detected in both cases, which suggests that deglycosylation of oxidized glucose is spontaneous.

Kim, Eun-Mi; Kim, Juhan; Seo, Joo-Hyun; Park, Jun-Seong; Kim, Duck-Hee

2012-01-01

299

The Crystal Structure and Mechanism of an Unusual Oxidoreductase, GilR, Involved in Gilvocarcin V Biosynthesis*  

PubMed Central

GilR is a recently identified oxidoreductase that catalyzes the terminal step of gilvocarcin V biosynthesis and is a unique enzyme that establishes the lactone core of the polyketide-derived gilvocarcin chromophore. Gilvocarcin-type compounds form a small distinct family of anticancer agents that are involved in both photo-activated DNA-alkylation and histone H3 cross-linking. High resolution crystal structures of apoGilR and GilR in complex with its substrate pregilvocarcin V reveals that GilR belongs to the small group of a relatively new type of the vanillyl-alcohol oxidase flavoprotein family characterized by bicovalently tethered cofactors. GilR was found as a dimer, with the bicovalently attached FAD cofactor mediated through His-65 and Cys-125. Subsequent mutagenesis and functional assays indicate that Tyr-445 may be involved in reaction catalysis and in mediating the covalent attachment of FAD, whereas Tyr-448 serves as an essential residue initiating the catalysis by swinging away from the active site to accommodate binding of the 6R-configured substrate and consequently abstracting the proton of the hydroxyl residue of the substrate hemiacetal 6-OH group. These studies lay the groundwork for future enzyme engineering to broaden the substrate specificity of this bottleneck enzyme of the gilvocarcin biosynthetic pathway for the development of novel anti-cancer therapeutics.

Noinaj, Nicholas; Bosserman, Mary A.; Schickli, M. Alexandra; Piszczek, Grzegorz; Kharel, Madan K.; Pahari, Pallab; Buchanan, Susan K.; Rohr, Jurgen

2011-01-01

300

The Rnf Complex of Clostridium ljungdahlii Is a Proton-Translocating Ferredoxin:NAD+ Oxidoreductase Essential for Autotrophic Growth  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT It has been predicted that the Rnf complex of Clostridium ljungdahlii is a proton-translocating ferredoxin:NAD+ oxidoreductase which contributes to ATP synthesis by an H+-translocating ATPase under both autotrophic and heterotrophic growth conditions. The recent development of methods for genetic manipulation of C. ljungdahlii made it possible to evaluate the possible role of the Rnf complex in energy conservation. Disruption of the C. ljungdahlii rnf operon inhibited autotrophic growth. ATP synthesis, proton gradient, membrane potential, and proton motive force collapsed in the Rnf-deficient mutant with H2 as the electron source and CO2 as the electron acceptor. Heterotrophic growth was hindered in the absence of a functional Rnf complex, as ATP synthesis, proton gradient, and proton motive force were significantly reduced with fructose as the electron donor. Growth of the Rnf-deficient mutant was also inhibited when no source of fixed nitrogen was provided. These results demonstrate that the Rnf complex of C. ljungdahlii is responsible for translocation of protons across the membrane to elicit energy conservation during acetogenesis and is a multifunctional device also implicated in nitrogen fixation.

Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Zhang, Tian; Dar, Shabir A.; Leang, Ching; Lovley, Derek R.

2012-01-01

301

NADH: flavin oxidoreductase/NADH oxidase and ROS regulate microsclerotium development in Nomuraea rileyi.  

PubMed

Based on transcriptome library, an NADH: flavinoxidore ductase/NADH oxidase gene (Nox) was cloned from Nomuraea rileyi. The 1,663-bp full-length cDNA contains an open reading frame of 1,233 bp coding 410 amino acids. The expression level of Nox was up-regulated and co-related to the intracellular H2O2 concentration during microsclerotium (MS) initiation. Rotenone inhibition showed that inhibition of Nox could cause a noticeable decrease in the MS yields. Silencing of Nox resulted in the MS yields, H2O2 and virulence decreased by 98.5, 38 and 21.5 %, respectively. On the other hand, MS yields increased by 24.8-61 % when induced by H2O2 or menadione. Furthermore, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, ascorbic acid (up to 0.03 g ascorbic acid l(-1)), completely inhibited the formation of MS. In conclusion, the results obtained suggested that ROS promoted MS development, and that Nox was required for MS differentiation through regulation of intracellular H2O2 concentration. Besides, Nox had a great impact on the virulence in N. rileyi. PMID:24497186

Liu, Juanjuan; Yin, Youping; Song, Zhangyong; Li, Yan; Jiang, Shasha; Shao, Changwen; Wang, Zhongkang

2014-07-01

302

Identification of the NF-E2-related Factor2-dependent Genes Conferring Protection against Oxidative Stress in Primary Cortical Astrocytes Using Oligonucleotide Microarray Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant responsive element (ARE) mediates transcriptional regulation of phase II detoxification en- zymes and antioxidant proteins such as NAD(P)H:qui- none oxidoreductase (NQO1), glutathione S-trans- ferases, and glutamate-cysteine ligase. In this study, we demonstrate that NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) plays a major role in transcriptional activation of ARE-driven genes and identify Nrf2-dependent genes by oligonu- cleotide microarray analysis using primary cortical

Jong-Min Lee; Marcus J. Calkins; Kaimin Chan; Yuet Wai Kan; Jeffrey A. Johnson

2003-01-01

303

Divergent Molecular Evolution of the Mitochondrial Sulfhydryl:Cytochrome c Oxidoreductase Erv in Opisthokonts and Parasitic Protists*  

PubMed Central

Mia40 and the sulfhydryl:cytochrome c oxidoreductase Erv1/ALR are essential for oxidative protein import into the mitochondrial intermembrane space in yeast and mammals. Although mitochondrial protein import is functionally conserved in the course of evolution, many organisms seem to lack Mia40. Moreover, except for in organello import studies and in silico analyses, nothing is known about the function and properties of protist Erv homologues. Here we compared Erv homologues from yeast, the kinetoplastid parasite Leishmania tarentolae, and the non-related malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Both parasite proteins have altered cysteine motifs, formed intermolecular disulfide bonds in vitro and in vivo, and could not replace Erv1 from yeast despite successful mitochondrial protein import in vivo. To analyze its enzymatic activity, we established the expression and purification of recombinant full-length L. tarentolae Erv and compared the mechanism with related and non-related flavoproteins. Enzyme assays indeed confirmed an electron transferase activity with equine and yeast cytochrome c, suggesting a conservation of the enzymatic activity in different eukaryotic lineages. However, although Erv and non-related flavoproteins are intriguing examples of convergent molecular evolution resulting in similar enzyme properties, the mechanisms of Erv homologues from parasitic protists and opisthokonts differ significantly. In summary, the Erv-mediated reduction of cytochrome c might be highly conserved throughout evolution despite the apparent absence of Mia40 in many eukaryotes. Nevertheless, the knowledge on mitochondrial protein import in yeast and mammals cannot be generally transferred to all other eukaryotes, and the corresponding pathways, components, and mechanisms remain to be analyzed.

Eckers, Elisabeth; Petrungaro, Carmelina; Gross, Dominik; Riemer, Jan; Hell, Kai; Deponte, Marcel

2013-01-01

304

Amixicile, a novel inhibitor of pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase, shows efficacy against Clostridium difficile in a mouse infection model.  

PubMed

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a serious diarrheal disease that often develops following prior antibiotic usage. One of the major problems with current therapies (oral vancomycin and metronidazole) is the high rate of recurrence. Nitazoxanide (NTZ), an inhibitor of pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) in anaerobic bacteria, parasites, Helicobacter pylori, and Campylobacter jejuni, also shows clinical efficacy against CDI. From a library of ?250 analogues of NTZ, we identified leads with increased potency for PFOR. MIC screens indicated in vitro activity in the 0.05- to 2-?g/ml range against C. difficile. To improve solubility, we replaced the 2-acetoxy group with propylamine, producing amixicile, a soluble (10 mg/ml), nontoxic (cell-based assay) lead that produced no adverse effects in mice by oral or intraperitoneal (i.p.) routes at 200 mg/kg of body weight/day. In initial efficacy testing in mice treated (20 mg/kg/day, 5 days each) 1 day after receiving a lethal inoculum of C. difficile, amixicile showed slightly less protection than did vancomycin by day 5. However, in an optimized CDI model, amixicile showed equivalence to vancomycin and fidaxomicin at day 5 and there was significantly greater survival produced by amixicile than by the other drugs on day 12. All three drugs were comparable by measures of weight loss/gain and severity of disease. Recurrence of CDI was common for mice treated with vancomycin or fidaxomicin but not for mice receiving amixicile or NTZ. These results suggest that gut repopulation with beneficial (non-PFOR) bacteria, considered essential for protection against CDI, rebounds much sooner with amixicile therapy than with vancomycin or fidaxomicin. If the mouse model is indeed predictive of human CDI disease, then amixicile, a novel PFOR inhibitor, appears to be a very promising new candidate for treatment of CDI. PMID:22585229

Warren, Cirle A; van Opstal, Edward; Ballard, T Eric; Kennedy, Andrew; Wang, Xia; Riggins, Mary; Olekhnovich, Igor; Warthan, Michelle; Kolling, Glynis L; Guerrant, Richard L; Macdonald, Timothy L; Hoffman, Paul S

2012-08-01

305

NAD(P)H:Quinone Oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) P187S Polymorphism and Prostate Cancer Risk in Caucasians  

PubMed Central

NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) catalyses the reduction of quinoid compounds to hydroquinones, preventing the generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen. A “C” to “T” transversion at position 609 of NQO1, leading to a nonsynonymous amino acid change (Pro187Ser, P187S), results in an altered enzyme activity. No NQO1 protein activity was detected in NQO1 609TT genotype, and low to intermediate activity was detected in NQO1 609CT genotype compared with 609CC genotype. Thus, this polymorphism may result in altered cancer predisposition. For prostate cancer, only sparse data are available. We therefore analyzed the distribution of the NQO1 P187S SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) in prostate cancer patients and a healthy control group. Allelic variants were determined using RFLP analysis. Overall, 232 patients without any malignancy and 119 consecutive prostate cancer patients were investigated. The genotype distribution in our cohorts followed the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium in cases and controls. The distribution of the NQO1 codon 187 SNP did not differ significantly between prostate cancer patients and the control group (p = 0.242). There was also no association between the allelic variants and stage or Gleason score of the tumors. The NQO1 P187S SNP was not significantly associated with an increased prostate cancer risk in our cohorts. The SNP has also no influence on histopathological characteristics of the tumors. A combined analysis of all available data from published European studies also showed no significant differences in the genotype distribution between controls and prostate cancer patients. Our data suggest a minor role of the NQO1 nucleotide 609 polymorphism in prostate carcinogenesis.

Stoehr, Christine G.; Nolte, Elke; Wach, Sven; Wieland, Wolf F.; Hofstaedter, Ferdinand; Hartmann, Arndt; Stoehr, Robert

2012-01-01

306

Novel quinolinequinone antitumor agents: structure-metabolism studies with NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1).  

PubMed

A series of quinolinequinones bearing various substituents has been synthesized, and the effects of substituents on the metabolism of the quinones by recombinant human NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (hNQO1) was studied. A range of quinolinequinones were selected for study, and were specifically designed to probe the effects of aryl substituents at C-2. A range of 28 quinolinequinones 2-29 was prepared using three general strategies: the palladium(0) catalyzed coupling of 2-chloroquinolines, the classical Friedländer synthesis and the double-Vilsmeier reaction of acetanilides. One example of an isoquinolinequinone 30 was also prepared, and the reduction potentials of the quinones were measured by cyclic voltammetry. For simple substituents R(2) at the quinoline 2-position, the rates of quinone metabolism by hNQO1 decrease for R(2)=Cl>H approximately Me>Ph. For aromatic substituents, the rate of reduction decreases dramatically for R(2)=Ph>1-naphthyl>2-naphthyl>4-biphenyl. Compounds containing a pyridine substituent are the best substrates, and the rates decrease as R(2)=4-pyridyl>3-pyridyl>2-pyridyl>4-methyl-2-pyridyl>5-methyl-2-pyridyl. The toxicity toward human colon carcinoma cells with either no detectable activity (H596 or BE-WT) or high NQO1 activity (H460 or BE-NQ) was also studied in representative quinones. Quinones that are good substrates for hNQO1 are more toxic to the NQO1 containing or expressing cell lines (H460 and BE-NQ) than the NQO1 deficient cell lines (H596 and BE-WT). PMID:15028260

Fryatt, Tara; Pettersson, Hanna I; Gardipee, Walter T; Bray, Kurtis C; Green, Stephen J; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Beall, Howard D; Moody, Christopher J

2004-04-01

307

Deletion of P399{sub E}401 in NADPH cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase results in partial mixed oxidase deficiency  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} Mutations in human POR cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia. {yields} We are reporting a novel 3 amino acid deletion mutation in POR P399{sub E}401del. {yields} POR mutation P399{sub E}401del decreased P450 activities by 60-85%. {yields} Impairment of steroid metabolism may be caused by multiple hits. {yields} Severity of aromatase inhibition is related to degree of in utero virilization. -- Abstract: P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the electron donor for all microsomal P450s including steroidogenic enzymes CYP17A1, CYP19A1 and CYP21A2. We found a novel POR mutation P399{sub E}401del in two unrelated Turkish patients with 46,XX disorder of sexual development. Recombinant POR proteins were produced in yeast and tested for their ability to support steroid metabolizing P450 activities. In comparison to wild-type POR, the P399{sub E}401del protein was found to decrease catalytic efficiency of 21-hydroxylation of progesterone by 68%, 17{alpha}-hydroxylation of progesterone by 76%, 17,20-lyase action on 17OH-pregnenolone by 69%, aromatization of androstenedione by 85% and cytochrome c reduction activity by 80%. Protein structure analysis of the three amino acid deletion P399{sub E}401 revealed reduced stability and flexibility of the mutant. In conclusion, P399{sub E}401del is a novel mutation in POR that provides valuable genotype-phenotype and structure-function correlation for mutations in a different region of POR compared to previous studies. Characterization of P399{sub E}401del provides further insight into specificity of different P450s for interaction with POR as well as nature of metabolic disruptions caused by more pronounced effect on specific P450s like CYP17A1 and aromatase.

Flueck, Christa E., E-mail: christa.flueck@dkf.unibe.ch [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, University Children's Hospital, Bern (Switzerland); Mallet, Delphine [Service d'Endocrinologie Moleculaire et Maladies Rares, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Bron (France)] [Service d'Endocrinologie Moleculaire et Maladies Rares, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Bron (France); Hofer, Gaby [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, University Children's Hospital, Bern (Switzerland)] [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, University Children's Hospital, Bern (Switzerland); Samara-Boustani, Dinane [Hopital Necker-Enfants malades, Paris (France)] [Hopital Necker-Enfants malades, Paris (France); Leger, Juliane [Hopital Robert Debre, Paris (France)] [Hopital Robert Debre, Paris (France); Polak, Michel [Hopital Necker-Enfants malades, Paris (France)] [Hopital Necker-Enfants malades, Paris (France); Morel, Yves [Service d'Endocrinologie Moleculaire et Maladies Rares, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Bron (France)] [Service d'Endocrinologie Moleculaire et Maladies Rares, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Bron (France); Pandey, Amit V., E-mail: amit@pandeylab.org [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, University Children's Hospital, Bern (Switzerland)

2011-09-09

308

Electron spin relaxation enhancement measurements of interspin distances in human, porcine, and Rhodobacter electron transfer flavoprotein ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF QO)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF-QO) is a membrane-bound electron transfer protein that links primary flavoprotein dehydrogenases with the main respiratory chain. Human, porcine, and Rhodobacter sphaeroides ETF-QO each contain a single [4Fe-4S] 2+,1+ cluster and one equivalent of FAD, which are diamagnetic in the isolated enzyme and become paramagnetic on reduction with the enzymatic electron donor or with dithionite. The anionic flavin semiquinone can be reduced further to diamagnetic hydroquinone. The redox potentials for the three redox couples are so similar that it is not possible to poise the proteins in a state where both the [4Fe-4S] + cluster and the flavoquinone are fully in the paramagnetic form. Inversion recovery was used to measure the electron spin-lattice relaxation rates for the [4Fe-4S] + between 8 and 18 K and for semiquinone between 25 and 65 K. At higher temperatures the spin-lattice relaxation rates for the [4Fe-4S] + were calculated from the temperature-dependent contributions to the continuous wave linewidths. Although mixtures of the redox states are present, it was possible to analyze the enhancement of the electron spin relaxation of the FAD semiquinone signal due to dipolar interaction with the more rapidly relaxing [4Fe-4S] + and obtain point-dipole interspin distances of 18.6 ± 1 Å for the three proteins. The point-dipole distances are within experimental uncertainty of the value calculated based on the crystal structure of porcine ETF-QO when spin delocalization is taken into account. The results demonstrate that electron spin relaxation enhancement can be used to measure distances in redox poised proteins even when several redox states are present.

Fielding, Alistair J.; Usselman, Robert J.; Watmough, Nicholas; Simkovic, Martin; Frerman, Frank E.; Eaton, Gareth R.; Eaton, Sandra S.

2008-02-01

309

A biomimetic approach to oxidized sites in the xanthine oxidoreductase family: synthesis and stereochemistry of tungsten(VI) analogue complexes.  

PubMed

Two series of square pyramidal (SP) monodithiolene complexes, [M (VI)O 3- n S n (bdt)] (2-) and their silylated derivatives [M (VI)O 2- n S n (OSiR 3)(bdt)] (-) ( n = 0, M = Mo or W; n = 1, 2, M = W), synthesized in this and previous work, constitute the basic molecules in a biomimetic approach to structural analogues of the oxidized sites in the xanthine oxidoreductase enzyme family. Benzene-1,2-dithiolate (bdt) simulates native pyranopterindithiolene chelation in the basal plane, tungsten instead of the native metal molybdenum was employed in sulfido complexes to avoid autoreduction, and silylation models protonation. The complexes [MO 3(bdt)] (2-) and [MO 2(OSiR 3)(bdt)] (-) represent inactive sites, while [MO 2S(bdt)] (2-) and [MOS(OSiR 3)(bdt)] (-), with basal sulfido and silyloxo ligands, are the first analogues of the catalytic sites. Also prepared were [MOS 2(bdt)] (2-) and [MS 2(OSiR 3)(bdt)] (-), with basal sulfido and silyloxo ligands. Complexes are described by angular parameters which reveal occasional distortions from idealized SP toward a trigonal bipyramidal (TBP) structure arising from crystal packing forces in crystalline Et 4N (+) salts. Miminized energy structures from DFT calculations are uniformly SP and reproduce experimental structures. For example, the correct structure is predicted for [WO 2S(bdt)] (2-), whose basal and apical sulfido diastereomers are potentially interconvertible through a low-lying TBP transition state for pseudorotation. The lowest energy tautomer of the protonated form is calculated to be [WOS(OH)(bdt)] (-), with basal sulfido and hydroxo ligands. Computational and experimental structures indicate that protein sites adopt intrinsic coordination geometries rather than those dictated by protein structure and environment. PMID:18763763

Groysman, Stanislav; Wang, Jun-Jieh; Tagore, Ranitendranath; Lee, Sonny C; Holm, R H

2008-09-24

310

Effect of Different Carbon Sources on Relative Growth Rate, Internal Carbohydrates, and Mannitol 1-Oxidoreductase Activity in Celery Suspension Cultures.  

PubMed Central

Little information exists concerning the biochemical route of mannitol catabolism in higher plant cells. In this study, the role of a recently discovered mannitol 1-oxidoreductase (MDH) in mannitol catabolism was investigated. Suspension cultures of celery (Apium graveolens L. var dulce [Mill.] Pers.) were successfully grown on nutrient media with either mannitol, mannose, or sucrose as the sole carbon source. Cell cultures grown on any of the three carbon sources did not differ in relative growth rate, as measured by packed cell volume, but differed drastically in internal carbohydrate concentration. Mannitol-grown cells contained high concentrations of mannitol and extremely low concentrations of sucrose, fructose, glucose, and mannose. Sucrose-grown cells had high concentrations of sucrose early in the growth cycle and contained a substantial hexose pool. Mannose-grown cells had a high mannose concentration early in the cycle, which decreased during the growth cycle, whereas their internal sucrose concentrations remained relatively constant during the entire growth cycle. Celery suspension cultures on all three carbon substrates contained an NAD-dependent MDH. Throughout the growth cycle, MDH activity was 2- to 4-fold higher in mannitol-grown cells compared with sucrose- or mannose-grown cells, which did not contain detectable levels of mannitol, indicating that MDH functions pre-dominantly in an oxidative capacity in situ. The MDH activity observed in celery cells was 3-fold higher than the minimum amount required to account for the observed rate of mannitol utilization from the media. Cultures transferred from mannitol to mannose underwent a decrease in MDH activity over a period of days, and transfer from mannose to mannitol resulted in an increase in MDH activity. These data provide strong evidence that MDH plays an important role in mannitol utilization in celery suspension cultures.

Stoop, JMH.; Pharr, D. M.

1993-01-01

311

Reevaluating the relationship between EPR spectra and enzyme structure for the iron sulfur clusters in NADH:quinone oxidoreductase.  

PubMed

NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (complex I) plays a pivotal role in cellular energy production. It employs a series of redox cofactors to couple electron transfer to the generation of a proton-motive force across the inner mitochondrial or bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. Complex I contains a noncovalently bound flavin mononucleotide at the active site for NADH oxidation and eight or nine iron-sulfur clusters to transfer electrons between the flavin and a quinone-binding site. Understanding the mechanism of complex I requires the properties of these clusters to be defined, both individually and as an ensemble. Most functional information on the clusters has been gained from EPR spectroscopy, but some clusters are not observed by EPR and attributing the observed signals to the structurally defined clusters is difficult. The current consensus picture relies on correlating the spectra from overexpressed subunits (containing one to four clusters) with those from intact complexes I. Here, we analyze spectra from the overexpressed NuoG subunit from Escherichia coli complex I and compare them with spectra from the intact enzyme. Consequently, we propose that EPR signals N4 and N5 have been misassigned: signal N4 is from NuoI (not NuoG) and signal N5 is from the conserved cysteine-ligated [4Fe-4S] cluster in NuoG (not from the cluster with a histidine ligand). The consequences of reassigning the EPR signals and their associated functional information on the free energy profile for electron transfer through complex I are discussed. PMID:17640900

Yakovlev, Gregory; Reda, Torsten; Hirst, Judy

2007-07-31

312

The role of short-chain dehydrogenase/oxidoreductase, induced by salt stress, on host interaction of B. pseudomallei  

PubMed Central

Background Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a frequently occurring disease in northeastern Thailand, where soil and water high in salt content are common. Using microarray analysis, we previously showed that B. pseudomallei up-regulated a short-chain dehydrogenase/oxidoreductase (SDO) under salt stress. However, the importance of SDO in B. pseudomallei infection is unknown. This study aimed to explore the function of B. pseudomallei SDO, and to investigate its role in interactions between B. pseudomallei and host cells. Results Bioinformatics analysis of B. pseudomallei SDO structure, based on homology modeling, revealed a NAD+ cofactor domain and a catalytic triad containing Ser149, Tyr162, and Lys166. This is similar to Bacillus megaterium glucose 1-dehydrogenase. To investigate the role of this protein, we constructed a B. pseudomallei SDO defective mutant, measured glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) activity, and tested the interactions with host cells. The B. pseudomallei K96243 wild type exhibited potent GDH activity under condition containing 300 mM NaCl, while the mutant showed activity levels 15 times lower. Both invasion into the A549 cell line and early intracellular survival within the J774A.1 macrophage cell were impaired in the mutant. Complementation of SDO was able to restore the mutant ability to produce GDH activity, invade epithelial cells, and survive in macrophages. Conclusions Our data suggest that induced SDO activity during salt stress may facilitate B. pseudomallei invasion and affect initiation of successful intracellular infection. Identifying the role of B. pseudomallei SDO provides a better understanding of the association between bacterial adaptation and pathogenesis in melioidosis.

2014-01-01

313

NAD(P)H: Quinone Oxidoreductase 1 Deficiency Conjoint with Marginal Vitamin C Deficiency Causes Cigarette Smoke Induced Myelodysplastic Syndromes  

PubMed Central

Background The etiology of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is largely unknown. Exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) is reported to be associated with MDS risk. There is inconsistent evidence that deficiency of NAD(P)H-quinone: oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) increases the risk of MDS. Earlier we had shown that CS induces toxicity only in marginal vitamin C-deficient guinea pigs but not in vitamin C-sufficient ones. We therefore considered that NQO1 deficiency along with marginal vitamin C deficiency might produce MDS in CS-exposed guinea pigs. Methodology and Principal Findings Here we show that CS exposure for 21 days produces MDS in guinea pigs having deficiency of NQO1 (fed 3 mg dicoumarol/day) conjoint with marginal vitamin C deficiency (fed 0.5 mg vitamin C/day). As evidenced by morphology, histology and cytogenetics, MDS produced in the guinea pigs falls in the category of refractory cytopenia with unilineage dysplasia (RCUD): refractory anemia; refractory thrombocytopenia that is associated with ring sideroblasts, micromegakaryocytes, myeloid hyperplasia and aneuploidy. MDS is accompanied by increased CD34(+) cells and oxidative stress as shown by the formation of protein carbonyls and 8-oxodeoxyguanosine. Apoptosis precedes MDS but disappears later with marked decrease in the p53 protein. MDS produced in the guinea pigs are irreversible. MDS and all the aforesaid pathophysiological events do not occur in vitamin C-sufficient guinea pigs. However, after the onset of MDS vitamin C becomes ineffective. Conclusions and Significance CS exposure causes MDS in guinea pigs having deficiency of NQO1 conjoint with marginal vitamin C deficiency. The syndromes are not produced in singular deficiency of NQO1 or marginal vitamin C deficiency. Our results suggest that human smokers having NQO1 deficiency combined with marginal vitamin C deficiency are likely to be at high risk for developing MDS and that intake of a moderately large dose of vitamin C would prevent MDS.

Das, Archita; Dey, Neekkan; Ghosh, Arunava; Das, Tanusree; Chatterjee, Indu B.

2011-01-01

314

Substrate-specific modulation of CYP3A4 activity by genetic variants of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR)  

PubMed Central

Objectives CYP3A4 receives electrons from P450 oxidoreductase (POR) to metabolize about 50% of clinically used drugs. There is substantial inter-individual variation in CYP3A4 catalytic activity that is not explained by CYP3A4 genetic variants. CYP3A4 is flexible and distensible, permitting it to accommodate substrates varying in shape and size. To elucidate mechanisms of variability in CYP3A4 catalysis, we examined the effects of genetic variants of POR, and explored the possibility that substrate-induced conformational changes in CYP3A4 differentially affect the ability of POR variants to support catalysis. Methods We expressed human CYP3A4 and four POR variants (Q153R, A287P, R457H, A503V) in bacteria, reconstituted them in vitro and measured the Michaelis constant and maximum velocity with testosterone, midazolam, quinidine and erythromycin as substrates. Results POR A287P and R457H had low activity with all substrates; Q153R had 76–94% of wild type (WT) activity with midazolam and erythromycin, but 129–150% activity with testosterone and quinidine. The A503V polymorphism reduced CYP3A4 activity to 61–77% of wild type with testosterone and midazolam, but had nearly wild type activity with quinidine and erythromycin. Conclusion POR variants affect CYP3A4 activities. The impact of a POR variant on catalysis by CYP3A4 is substrate-specific, probably due to substrate-induced conformational changes in CYP3A4.

Agrawal, Vishal; Choi, Ji Ha; Giacomini, Kathleen M.; Miller, Walter L.

2010-01-01

315

Reductive half-reaction of aldehyde oxidoreductase toward acetaldehyde: Ab initio and free energy quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy and free energy barriers for acetaldehyde conversion in aldehyde oxidoreductase are determined for three reaction pathways using quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations on the solvated enzyme. Ab initio single-point QM/MM energies are obtained at the stationary points optimized at the DFT(B3LYP)/MM level. These ab initio calculations employ local correlation treatments [LMP2 and LCCSD(T0)] in combination with augmented triple- and quadruple-zeta basis sets, and the final coupled cluster results include MP2-based corrections for basis set incompleteness and for the domain approximation. Free energy perturbation (FEP) theory is used to generate free energy profiles at the DFT(B3LYP)/MM level for the most important reaction steps by sampling along the corresponding reaction paths using molecular dynamics. The ab initio and FEP QM/MM results are combined to derive improved estimates of the free energy barriers, which differ from the corresponding DFT(B3LYP)/MM energy barriers by about 3 kcal mol-1. The present results confirm the qualitative mechanistic conclusions from a previous DFT(B3LYP)/MM study. Most favorable is a three-step Lewis base catalyzed mechanism with an initial proton transfer from the cofactor to the Glu869 residue, a subsequent nucleophilic attack that yields a tetrahedral intermediate (IM2), and a final rate-limiting hydride transfer. The competing metal center activated pathway has the same final step but needs to overcome a higher barrier in the initial step on the route to IM2. The concerted mechanism has the highest free energy barrier and can be ruled out. While confirming the qualitative mechanistic scenario proposed previously on the basis of DFT(B3LYP)/MM energy profiles, the present ab initio and FEP QM/MM calculations provide corrections to the barriers that are important when aiming at high accuracy.

Dieterich, Johannes M.; Werner, Hans-Joachim; Mata, Ricardo A.; Metz, Sebastian; Thiel, Walter

2010-01-01

316

Suppression of NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase 1 enhanced the susceptibility of cholangiocarcinoma cells to chemotherapeutic agents  

PubMed Central

Background Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is highly resistant to most of the known chemotherapeutic treatments. NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is an antioxidant/detoxifying enzyme recently recognized as an important contributor to chemoresistance in some human cancers. However, the contribution of NQO1 to chemotherapy resistance in CCA is unknown. Methods Two CCA cell lines, KKU-100 and KKU-M214, with high and low NQO1 expression levels, respectively, were used to evaluate the sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents; 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), doxorubicin (Doxo), and gemcitabine (Gem). NQO1 and/or p53 expression in KKU-100 cells were knocked down by siRNA. NQO1 was over-expressed in KKU-M214 cells by transfection with pCMV6-XL5-NQO1 expression vector. CCA cells with modulated NQO1 and/or p53 expression were treated with chemotherapeutic agents, and the cytotoxicity was assessed by SRB assay. The mechanism of enhanced chemosensitivity was evaluated by Western blot analysis. Results When NQO1 was knocked down, KKU-100 cells became more susceptible to all chemotherapeutic agents. Conversely, with over-expression of NQO1 made KKU-M214 cells more resistant to chemotherapeutic agents. Western blot analysis suggested that enhanced chemosensitivity was probably due to the activation of p53-mediated cell death. Enhanced susceptibility to chemotherapeutic agents by NQO1 silencing was abolished by knockdown of p53. Conclusions These results suggest that inhibition of NQO1 could enhance the susceptibility of CCA to an array of chemotherapeutic agents.

2014-01-01

317

Functional regulation of xanthine oxidoreductase expression and localization in the mouse mammary gland: evidence of a role in lipid secretion  

PubMed Central

Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR), a key enzyme of purine metabolism, has been implicated in the secretion of the milk fat droplet in lactating mammary epithelial cells, possibly through structural interactions with other milk fat globule proteins including butyrophilin (Btn) and adipophilin (ADPH). To help determine the mechanism by which XOR is regulated, we examined the expression and localization of XOR in the non-secretory states of late pregnancy and induced involution compared with the state of active secretion. XOR mRNA levels started to increase at mid-pregnancy, turned sharply upwards at the onset of lactation and decreased rapidly with forced involution, indicating transcriptional control of the enzyme level by differentiation and secretory function. During pregnancy and involution the enzyme was diffusely distributed in the cytoplasm, but moved rapidly to the apical membrane of the cells when secretion was activated, where it colocalized with both Btn and ADPH, similar to the situation in the milk fat globule itself. Size-exclusion chromatography of solubilized milk fat globule membrane proteins showed that XOR formed a sulphydryl-bond-dependent complex with Btn and ADPH in the milk fat globule membrane. XOR returned to a diffuse cytoplasmic localization shortly after induced involution, while Btn remained localized to the apical membrane, suggesting that localization of XOR is not dependent on the presence of Btn in the apical membrane. Our findings indicate that the expression and membrane association of XOR in the mammary gland are tightly regulated by secretory activity, and suggest that the apical membrane association of XOR regulates the coupling of lipid droplets to the apical plasma membrane during milk lipid secretion.

McManaman, J L; Palmer, C A; Wright, R M; Neville, M C

2002-01-01

318

The antidote effect of quinone oxidoreductase 2 inhibitor against paraquat-induced toxicity in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The mechanisms of paraquat (PQ)-induced toxicity are poorly understood and PQ poisoning is often fatal due to a lack of effective antidotes. In this study we report the effects of N-[2-(2-methoxy-6H-dipyrido{2,3-a:3,2-e}pyrrolizin-11-yl)ethyl]-2-furamide (NMDPEF), a melatonin-related inhibitor of quinone oxidoreductase2 (QR2) on the toxicity of PQ in vitro & in vivo. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Prevention of PQ-induced toxicity was tested in different cells, including primary pneumocytes and astroglial U373 cells. Cell death and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were analysed by flow cytometry and fluorescent probes. QR2 silencing was achieved by lentiviral shRNAs. PQ (30 mg·kg(-1)) and NMDPEF were administered i.p. to Wistar rats and animals were monitored for 28 days. PQ toxicity in the substantia nigra (SN) was tested by a localized microinfusion and electrocorticography. QR2 activity was measured by fluorimetry of N-benzyldihydronicotinamide oxidation. KEY RESULTS NMDPEF potently antagonized non-apoptotic PQ-induced cell death, ROS generation and inhibited cellular QR2 activity. In contrast, the cytoprotective effect of melatonin and apocynin was limited and transient compared with NMDPEF. Silencing of QR2 attenuated PQ-induced cell death and reduced the efficacy of NMDPEF. Significantly, NMDPEF (4.5 mg·kg(-1)) potently antagonized PQ-induced systemic toxicity and animal mortality. Microinfusion of NMDPEF into SN prevented severe behavioural and electrocortical effects of PQ which correlated with inhibition of malondialdehyde accumulation in cells and tissues. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS NMDPEF protected against PQ-induced toxicity in vitro and in vivo, suggesting a key role for QR2 in the regulation of oxidative stress. PMID:22289031

Janda, Elzbieta; Parafati, Maddalena; Aprigliano, Serafina; Carresi, Cristina; Visalli, Valeria; Sacco, Iolanda; Ventrice, Domenica; Mega, Tiziana; Vadalá, Nuria; Rinaldi, Stefano; Musolino, Vincenzo; Palma, Ernesto; Gratteri, Santo; Rotiroti, Domenicantonio; Mollace, Vincenzo

2013-01-01

319

NAD(P)H:Quinone Oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) Localizes to the Mitotic Spindle in Human Cells  

PubMed Central

NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is an FAD containing quinone reductase that catalyzes the 2-electron reduction of a broad range of quinones. The 2-electron reduction of quinones to hydroquinones by NQO1 is believed to be a detoxification process since this reaction bypasses the formation of the highly reactive semiquinone. NQO1 is expressed at high levels in normal epithelium, endothelium and adipocytes as well as in many human solid tumors. In addition to its function as a quinone reductase NQO1 has been shown to reduce superoxide and regulate the 20 S proteasomal degradation of proteins including p53. Biochemical studies have indicated that NQO1 is primarily located in the cytosol, however, lower levels of NQO1 have also been found in the nucleus. In these studies we demonstrate using immunocytochemistry and confocal imaging that NQO1 was found associated with mitotic spindles in cells undergoing division. The association of NQO1 with the mitotic spindles was observed in many different human cell lines including nontransformed cells (astrocytes, HUVEC) immortalized cell lines (HBMEC, 16HBE) and cancer (pancreatic adenocarcinoma, BXPC3). Confocal analysis of double-labeling experiments demonstrated co-localization of NQO1with alpha-tubulin in mitotic spindles. In studies with BxPc-3 human pancreatic cancer cells the association of NQO1 with mitotic spindles appeared to be unchanged in the presence of NQO1 inhibitors ES936 or dicoumarol suggesting that NQO1 can associate with the mitotic spindle and still retain catalytic activity. Analysis of archival human squamous lung carcinoma tissue immunostained for NQO1 demonstrated positive staining for NQO1 in the spindles of mitotic cells. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate for the first time the association of the quinone reductase NQO1 with the mitotic spindle in human cells.

Siegel, David; Kepa, Jadwiga K.; Ross, David

2012-01-01

320

Amixicile, a Novel Inhibitor of Pyruvate:Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase, Shows Efficacy against Clostridium difficile in a Mouse Infection Model  

PubMed Central

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a serious diarrheal disease that often develops following prior antibiotic usage. One of the major problems with current therapies (oral vancomycin and metronidazole) is the high rate of recurrence. Nitazoxanide (NTZ), an inhibitor of pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) in anaerobic bacteria, parasites, Helicobacter pylori, and Campylobacter jejuni, also shows clinical efficacy against CDI. From a library of ?250 analogues of NTZ, we identified leads with increased potency for PFOR. MIC screens indicated in vitro activity in the 0.05- to 2-?g/ml range against C. difficile. To improve solubility, we replaced the 2-acetoxy group with propylamine, producing amixicile, a soluble (10 mg/ml), nontoxic (cell-based assay) lead that produced no adverse effects in mice by oral or intraperitoneal (i.p.) routes at 200 mg/kg of body weight/day. In initial efficacy testing in mice treated (20 mg/kg/day, 5 days each) 1 day after receiving a lethal inoculum of C. difficile, amixicile showed slightly less protection than did vancomycin by day 5. However, in an optimized CDI model, amixicile showed equivalence to vancomycin and fidaxomicin at day 5 and there was significantly greater survival produced by amixicile than by the other drugs on day 12. All three drugs were comparable by measures of weight loss/gain and severity of disease. Recurrence of CDI was common for mice treated with vancomycin or fidaxomicin but not for mice receiving amixicile or NTZ. These results suggest that gut repopulation with beneficial (non-PFOR) bacteria, considered essential for protection against CDI, rebounds much sooner with amixicile therapy than with vancomycin or fidaxomicin. If the mouse model is indeed predictive of human CDI disease, then amixicile, a novel PFOR inhibitor, appears to be a very promising new candidate for treatment of CDI.

Warren, Cirle A.; van Opstal, Edward; Ballard, T. Eric; Kennedy, Andrew; Wang, Xia; Riggins, Mary; Olekhnovich, Igor; Warthan, Michelle; Kolling, Glynis L.; Guerrant, Richard L.; Macdonald, Timothy L.

2012-01-01

321

The Structural and Functional Basis of Catalysis Mediated by NAD(P)H:acceptor Oxidoreductase (FerB) of Paracoccus denitrificans  

PubMed Central

FerB from Paracoccus denitrificans is a soluble cytoplasmic flavoprotein that accepts redox equivalents from NADH or NADPH and transfers them to various acceptors such as quinones, ferric complexes and chromate. The crystal structure and small-angle X-ray scattering measurements in solution reported here reveal a head-to-tail dimer with two flavin mononucleotide groups bound at the opposite sides of the subunit interface. The dimers tend to self-associate to a tetrameric form at higher protein concentrations. Amino acid residues important for the binding of FMN and NADH and for the catalytic activity are identified and verified by site-directed mutagenesis. In particular, we show that Glu77 anchors a conserved water molecule in close proximity to the O2 of FMN, with the probable role of facilitating flavin reduction. Hydride transfer is shown to occur from the 4-pro-S position of NADH to the solvent-accessible si side of the flavin ring. When using deuterated NADH, this process exhibits a kinetic isotope effect of about 6 just as does the NADH-dependent quinone reductase activity of FerB; the first, reductive half-reaction of flavin cofactor is thus rate-limiting. Replacing the bulky Arg95 in the vicinity of the active site with alanine substantially enhances the activity towards external flavins that obeys the standard bi-bi ping-pong reaction mechanism. The new evidence for a cryptic flavin reductase activity of FerB justifies the previous inclusion of this enzyme in the protein family of NADPH-dependent FMN reductases.

Sedlacek, Vojtech; Klumpler, Tomas; Marek, Jaromir; Kucera, Igor

2014-01-01

322

Isomorphic deactivation of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa oxidoreductase: The crystal structure of Ag(I) metallated azurin at 1.7 Å.  

PubMed

Multiple biophysical methods demonstrate that silver effectively metallates Pseudomonas aeruginosa apo-azurin in solution. X-ray crystallography of the silver-modified protein reveals that silver binds to azurin at the traditional copper mediated active site with nearly identical geometry. Cyclic voltammetry indicates that the silver adduct is redox inert. Our results suggest that a potential mechanism for the microbial toxicity of silver is the deactivation of copper oxidoreductases by the effective binding and structural mimicry by silver without the corresponding function. PMID:23911566

Panzner, Matthew J; Bilinovich, Stephanie M; Parker, Jillian A; Bladholm, Erika L; Ziegler, Christopher J; Berry, Steven M; Leeper, Thomas C

2013-11-01

323

NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase from bovine heart mitochondria. cDNA sequences of the import precursors of the nuclear-encoded 39 kDa and 42 kDa subunits.  

PubMed Central

The 39 kDa and 42 kDa subunits of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase from bovine heart mitochondria are nuclear-coded components of the hydrophobic protein fraction of the enzyme. Their amino acid sequences have been deduced from the sequences of overlapping cDNA clones. These clones were amplified from total bovine heart cDNA by means of the polymerase chain reaction, with the use of complex mixtures of oligonucleotide primers based upon fragments of protein sequence determined at the N-terminals of the proteins and at internal sites. The protein sequences of the 39 kDa and 42 kDa subunits are 345 and 320 amino acid residues long respectively, and their calculated molecular masses are 39,115 Da and 36,693 Da. Both proteins are predominantly hydrophilic, but each contains one or two hydrophobic segments that could possibly be folded into transmembrane alpha-helices. The bovine 39 kDa protein sequence is related to that of a 40 kDa subunit from complex I from Neurospora crassa mitochondria; otherwise, it is not related significantly to any known sequence, including redox proteins and two polypeptides involved in import of proteins into mitochondria, known as the mitochondrial processing peptidase and the processing-enhancing protein. Therefore the functions of the 39 kDa and 42 kDa subunits of complex I are unknown. The mitochondrial gene product, ND4, a hydrophobic component of complex I with an apparent molecular mass of about 39 kDa, has been identified in preparations of the enzyme. This subunit stains faintly with Coomassie Blue dye, and in many gel systems it is not resolved from the nuclearcoded 36 kDa subunit. Images Fig. 1.

Fearnley, I M; Finel, M; Skehel, J M; Walker, J E

1991-01-01

324

Augmenter of Liver Regeneration: Substrate Specificity of a Flavin-dependent Oxidoreductase from the Mitochondrial Intermembrane Space†  

PubMed Central

Augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) is both a growth factor and a sulfhydryl oxidase that binds FAD in an unusual helix-rich domain containing a redox-active CxxC disulfide proximal to the flavin ring. In addition to the cytokine form of ALR (sfALR) that circulates in serum, a longer form, lfALR, is believed to participate in oxidative trapping of reduced proteins entering the mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS). This longer form has an 80-residue N-terminal extension containing an additional, distal, CxxC motif. This work presents the first enzymological characterization of human lfALR. The N-terminal region conveys no catalytic advantage towards the oxidation of the model substrate dithiothreitol (DTT). In addition, C71A or C74A mutations of the distal disulfide do not increase the turnover number towards DTT. Unlike Erv1p, the yeast homolog of lfALR, static spectrophotometric experiments of the human oxidase provide no evidence for communication between distal and proximal disulfides. An N-terminal his-tagged version of human Mia40, a resident oxidoreductase of the IMS and a putative physiological reductant of lfALR, was subcloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 DE3 cells. Mia40, as isolated, shows a visible spectrum characteristic of an Fe/S center and contains 0.56 ± 0.02 atoms of iron per subunit. Treatment of Mia40 with guanidine hydrochloride and triscarboxyethylphosphine hydrochloride during purification removed this chromophore. The resulting protein, with a reduced CxC motif, was a good substrate of lfALR. However, neither sfALR, nor lfALR mutants lacking the distal disulfide, could oxidize reduced Mia40 efficiently. Thus, catalysis involves a flow of reducing equivalents from the reduced CxC motif of Mia40, to distal- and then proximal CxxC motifs of lfALR, to the flavin ring, and, finally, to cytochrome c or molecular oxygen.

Daithankar, Vidyadhar N.; Farrell, Scott R.; Thorpe, Colin

2009-01-01

325

Enhancement of xylitol production in glycerol kinase disrupted Candida tropicalis by co-expression of three genes involved in glycerol metabolic pathway.  

PubMed

Glycerol can be used as a primary carbon source by yeasts, little is known regarding glycerol metabolism in Candida tropicalis. In this study, glycerol kinase gene (gk) was disrupted from xylitol dehydrogenase gene (XYL2) knockout C. tropicalis strain BSXDH-3. The resultant gk knockout C. tropicalis strain was incapable to grow on glycerol. The cells growth on glycerol was resumed by co-expressing Scheffersomyces stipitis gcy1, 2 and 3 genes, which respectively encode NADP(+)-dependent glycerol dehydrogenase 1, 2 and 3, under the control of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) promoter. NADPH-dependent xylitol production was higher in the engineered strain, termed "GK", than in BSXDH-3. In fermentation experiments using glycerol as co-substrate with xylose, strain GK produced xylitol 0.85 and 1.28 g l(-1) h(-1) at the time periods of 16 and 24 h, respectively, which is 30 and 18 % higher at same time intervals in BSXDH-3. This is the first report of gk gene disruption and co-expression of gcy1, 2 and 3 genes for NADPH regeneration and enhanced xylitol production in C. tropicalis. PMID:23232964

Ahmad, Irshad; Shim, Woo Yong; Kim, Jung-Hoe

2013-09-01

326

Biotransformation of pineapple juice sugars into dietetic derivatives by using a cell free oxidoreductase from Zymomonas mobilis together with commercial invertase.  

PubMed

An easy procedure for cell free biotransformation of pineapple juice sugars into dietetic derivatives was accomplished using a commercial invertase and an oxidoreductase from Zymomonas mobilis. First, pineapple juice sucrose was quantitatively converted into glucose and fructose by invertase, thus increasing the concentration of each monosaccharide in the original juice to almost twice. In a second step, glucose-fructose oxidoreductase (GFOR) transformed glucose into gluconolactone, and fructose into the low calorie sweetener sorbitol. The advantage of using GFOR is simultaneous reduction of fructose and oxidation of glucose, allowing the continuous regeneration of the essential coenzyme NADP(H), that is tightly bound to the enzyme. The yield of GFOR catalyzed sugar conversion depends on initial pH and control of pH during the reaction. At optimal conditions (pH control at 6.2) a maximum of 80% (w/v) sugar conversion was obtained. Without pH control, GFOR is inactivated rapidly due to gluconic acid formation. Therefore, conversion yields are relatively low at the natural pH of pineapple juice. The application of this process might be more advantageous on juices of other tropical fruits (papaya, jackfruit, mango) due to their naturally given higher pH. PMID:22112775

Aziz, M G; Michlmayr, H; Kulbe, K D; Del Hierro, A M

2011-01-01

327

Investigation of protein FTT1103 electroactivity using carbon and mercury electrodes. Surface-inhibition approach for disulfide oxidoreductases using silver amalgam powder.  

PubMed

Recently, it was shown that electrochemical methods can be used for analysis of poorly water-soluble proteins and for study of their structural changes and intermolecular (protein-ligand) interactions. In this study, we focused on complex electrochemical investigation of recombinant protein FTT1103, a disulfide oxidoreductase with structural similarity to well described DsbA proteins. This thioredoxin-like periplasmic lipoprotein plays an important role in virulence of bacteria Francisella tularensis. For electrochemical analyses, adsorptive transfer (ex situ) square-wave voltammetry with pyrolytic graphite electrode, and alternating-current voltammetry and constant-current chronopotentiometric stripping analysis with mercury electrodes, including silver solid amalgam electrode (AgSAE) were used. AgSAE was used in poorly water-soluble protein analysis for the first time. In addition to basic redox, electrocatalytic and adsorption/desorption characterization of FTT1103, electrochemical methods were also used for sensitive determination of the protein at nanomolar level and study of its interaction with surface of AgSA microparticles. Proposed electrochemical protocol and AgSA surface-inhibition approach presented here could be used in future for biochemical studies focused on proteins associated with membranes as well as on those with disulfide oxidoreductase activity. PMID:24856508

Ve?erková, Renata; Hernychová, Lenka; Dobeš, Petr; Vrba, Ji?í; Josyp?uk, Bohdan; Bartošík, Martin; Vacek, Jan

2014-06-01

328

Homologous npdGI genes in 2,4-dinitrophenol- and 4-nitrophenol-degrading Rhodococcus spp.  

PubMed

Rhodococcus (opacus) erythropolis HL PM-1 grows on 2,4,6-trinitrophenol or 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) as a sole nitrogen source. The NADPH-dependent F(420) reductase (NDFR; encoded by npdG) and the hydride transferase II (HTII; encoded by npdI) of the strain were previously shown to convert both nitrophenols to their respective hydride Meisenheimer complexes. In the present study, npdG and npdI were amplified from six 2,4-DNP degrading Rhodococcus spp. The genes showed sequence similarities of 86 to 99% to the respective npd genes of strain HL PM-1. Heterologous expression of the npdG and npdI genes showed that they were involved in 2,4-DNP degradation. Sequence analyses of both the NDFRs and the HTIIs revealed conserved domains which may be involved in binding of NADPH or F(420). Phylogenetic analyses of the NDFRs showed that they represent a new group in the family of F(420)-dependent NADPH reductases. Phylogenetic analyses of the HTIIs revealed that they form an additional group in the family of F(420)-dependent glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenases and F(420)-dependent N(5),N(10)-methylenetetrahydromethanopterin reductases. Thus, the NDFRs and the HTIIs may each represent a novel group of F(420)-dependent enzymes involved in catabolism. PMID:12732545

Heiss, Gesche; Trachtmann, Natalie; Abe, Yoshikatsu; Takeo, Masahiro; Knackmuss, Hans-Joachim

2003-05-01

329

Homologous npdGI Genes in 2,4-Dinitrophenol- and 4-Nitrophenol-Degrading Rhodococcus spp.  

PubMed Central

Rhodococcus (opacus) erythropolis HL PM-1 grows on 2,4,6-trinitrophenol or 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) as a sole nitrogen source. The NADPH-dependent F420 reductase (NDFR; encoded by npdG) and the hydride transferase II (HTII; encoded by npdI) of the strain were previously shown to convert both nitrophenols to their respective hydride Meisenheimer complexes. In the present study, npdG and npdI were amplified from six 2,4-DNP degrading Rhodococcus spp. The genes showed sequence similarities of 86 to 99% to the respective npd genes of strain HL PM-1. Heterologous expression of the npdG and npdI genes showed that they were involved in 2,4-DNP degradation. Sequence analyses of both the NDFRs and the HTIIs revealed conserved domains which may be involved in binding of NADPH or F420. Phylogenetic analyses of the NDFRs showed that they represent a new group in the family of F420-dependent NADPH reductases. Phylogenetic analyses of the HTIIs revealed that they form an additional group in the family of F420-dependent glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenases and F420-dependent N5,N10-methylenetetrahydromethanopterin reductases. Thus, the NDFRs and the HTIIs may each represent a novel group of F420-dependent enzymes involved in catabolism.

Heiss, Gesche; Trachtmann, Natalie; Abe, Yoshikatsu; Takeo, Masahiro; Knackmuss, Hans-Joachim

2003-01-01

330

Glycogen Metabolic Genes Are Involved in Trehalose-6-Phosphate Synthase-Mediated Regulation of Pathogenicity by the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae  

PubMed Central

The filamentous fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is the causal agent of rice blast disease. Here we show that glycogen metabolic genes play an important role in plant infection by M. oryzae. Targeted deletion of AGL1 and GPH1, which encode amyloglucosidase and glycogen phosphorylase, respectively, prevented mobilisation of glycogen stores during appressorium development and caused a significant reduction in the ability of M. oryzae to cause rice blast disease. By contrast, targeted mutation of GSN1, which encodes glycogen synthase, significantly reduced the synthesis of intracellular glycogen, but had no effect on fungal pathogenicity. We found that loss of AGL1 and GPH1 led to a reduction in expression of TPS1 and TPS3, which encode components of the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase complex, that acts as a genetic switch in M. oryzae. Tps1 responds to glucose-6-phosphate levels and the balance of NADP/NADPH to regulate virulence-associated gene expression, in association with Nmr transcriptional inhibitors. We show that deletion of the NMR3 transcriptional inhibitor gene partially restores virulence to a ?agl1?gph1 mutant, suggesting that glycogen metabolic genes are necessary for operation of the NADPH-dependent genetic switch in M. oryzae.

Wilson, Richard A.; Wang, Zheng-Yi; Kershaw, Michael J.; Talbot, Nicholas J.

2013-01-01

331

Characterization of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase gene from the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera.  

PubMed

A complete cDNA encoding the NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (haCPR) and its genomic sequence from the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera were cloned and sequenced. The open reading frame of haCPR codes for a protein of 687 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 77.4kDa. The haCPR gene spans over 11kb and its coding region is interrupted by 11 introns. haCPR is ubiquitously expressed in various tissues and at various stages of development. Escherichia coli produced haCPR enzyme exhibited catalytic activity for NADPH-dependent reduction of cytochrome c, following Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The functionality of CPR was further demonstrated by its capacity to support cytochrome P450 (e.g. haCYP9A14 and chicken CYP1A5) mediated O-dealkylation activity of alkoxyresorufins. The flavoprotein-specific inhibitor (diphenyleneiodonium chloride, DPI) showed a potent inhibition to haCPR activity (IC50=1.69?M). Inhibitory effect of secondary metabolites in the host plants (tannic acid, quercetin and gossypol) on CPR activity (with an IC50 value ranged from 15 to 90?M) was also observed. PMID:24768738

Liu, Dong; Zhou, Xiaojie; Li, Mei; Zhu, Shunyi; Qiu, Xinghui

2014-07-25

332

Purification and biochemical characterization of a moderately halotolerant NADPH dependent xylose reductase from Debaryomyces nepalensis NCYC 3413.  

PubMed

A Xylose reductase (XR) from the halotolerant yeast, Debaryomyces nepalensis NCYC 3413 was purified to apparent homogeneity. The enzyme has a molecular mass of 74 kDa with monomeric subunit of 36.4 kDa (MALDI-TOF/MS) and pI of 6.0. The enzyme exhibited its maximum activity at pH 7.0 and 45 °C (21.2U/mg). In situ gel digestion and peptide mass fingerprinting analysis showed 12-22% sequence homology with XR from other yeasts. Inhibition of the enzyme by DEPC (diethylpyrocarbonate) confirmed the presence of histidine residue in its active site. The enzyme exhibited high preference for pentoses over hexoses with greater catalytic efficiency for arabinose than xylose. The enzyme also showed absolute specificity with NADPH over NADH. The enzyme retained 90% activity with 100 mM of NaCl or KCl and 40% activity with 1 M KCl which suggest that the enzyme is moderately halotolerant and can be utilized for commercial production of xylitol under conditions where salts are present. PMID:21855330

Kumar, Sawan; Gummadi, Sathyanarayana N

2011-10-01

333

Physiological properties of a mutant of Pachysolen tannophilus deficient in NADPH-dependent D-xylose reductase  

SciTech Connect

A D-xylose reductase mutant of Pachysolen tannophilus was isolated on the basis of its poor growth on D-xylose but normal growth on xylitol and D-glucose. Fractionation of cell extracts indicated that the mutant was deficient in D-cylose reductase activity that used NADPH exclusively as a cofactor, but not in activity that used both NADH and NADPH. Mutant cultures grown on D-xylose as the sole carbon source exhibited some properties that would be desired in improved strains. Growth rate, growth yield, and D-xylose consumption rate of the mutant were less sensitive than those of the wild type to changes in aeration rate. D-Xylose was utilized more efficiently in that less of a by-product, xylitol, was produced. In addition, under low aeration conditions, more ethanol was produced. A disadvantage was a relatively slow rate of D-xylose utilization.

Schneider, H.; James, A.P. (National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)); Lee, Hung; Barbosa, M. De F.S. (National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada) Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada)); Kubicek, C.P. (Technische Universitaet Wien, Vienna (Austria))

1989-11-01

334

Physiological Properties of a Mutant of Pachysolen tannophilus Deficient in NADPH-Dependent d-Xylose Reductase †  

PubMed Central

A d-xylose reductase mutant of Pachysolen tannophilus was isolated on the basis of its poor growth on d-xylose but normal growth on xylitol and d-glucose. Fractionation of cell extracts indicated that the mutant was deficient in d-xylose reductase activity that used NADPH exclusively as a cofactor, but not in activity that used both NADH and NADPH. Mutant cultures grown on d-xylose as the sole carbon source exhibited some properties that would be desired in improved strains. Growth rate, growth yield, and d-xylose consumption rate of the mutant were less sensitive than those of the wild type to changes in aeration rate. d-Xylose was utilized more efficiently in that less of a by-product, xylitol, was produced. In addition, under low aeration conditions, more ethanol was produced. A disadvantage was a relatively slow rate of d-xylose utilization.

Schneider, Henry; Lee, Hung; Barbosa, Maria de F. S.; Kubicek, C. P.; James, Allen P.

1989-01-01

335

A secondary mode of action of polymyxins against Gram-negative bacteria involves the inhibition of NADH-quinone oxidoreductase activity.  

PubMed

Polymyxin B and colistin were examined for their ability to inhibit the type II NADH-quinone oxidoreductases (NDH-2) of three species of Gram-negative bacteria. Polymyxin B and colistin inhibited the NDH-2 activity in preparations from all of the isolates in a concentration-dependent manner. The mechanism of NDH-2 inhibition by polymyxin B was investigated in detail with Escherichia coli inner membrane preparations and conformed to a mixed inhibition model with respect to ubiquinone-1 and a non-competitive inhibition model with respect to NADH. These suggest that the inhibition of vital respiratory enzymes in the bacterial inner membrane represents one of the secondary modes of action for polymyxins. PMID:24169795

Deris, Zakuan Z; Akter, Jesmin; Sivanesan, Sivashangarie; Roberts, Kade D; Thompson, Philip E; Nation, Roger L; Li, Jian; Velkov, Tony

2014-02-01

336

Chloroplast lipid droplet type II NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase is essential for prenylquinone metabolism and vitamin K1 accumulation  

PubMed Central

Lipid droplets are ubiquitous cellular structures in eukaryotes and are required for lipid metabolism. Little is currently known about plant lipid droplets other than oil bodies. Here, we define dual roles for chloroplast lipid droplets (plastoglobules) in energy and prenylquinone metabolism. The prenylquinones—plastoquinone, plastochromanol-8, phylloquinone (vitamin K1), and tocopherol (vitamin E)—are partly stored in plastoglobules. This work shows that NAD(P)H dehydrogenase C1 (NDC1) (At5g08740), a type II NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase, associates with plastoglobules. NDC1 reduces a plastoquinone analog in vitro and affects the overall redox state of the total plastoquinone pool in vivo by reducing the plastoquinone reservoir of plastoglobules. Finally, NDC1 is required for normal plastochromanol-8 accumulation and is essential for vitamin K1 production.

Eugeni Piller, Lucia; Besagni, Celine; Ksas, Brigitte; Rumeau, Dominique; Brehelin, Claire; Glauser, Gaetan; Kessler, Felix; Havaux, Michel

2011-01-01

337

Crystallization and preliminary analysis of the NqrA and NqrC subunits of the Na(+)-translocating NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase from Vibrio cholerae.  

PubMed

The Na(+)-translocating NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Na(+)-NQR) from Vibrio cholerae is a membrane protein complex consisting of six different subunits NqrA-NqrF. The major domains of the NqrA and NqrC subunits were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and crystallized. The structure of NqrA1-377 was solved in space groups C2221 and P21 by SAD phasing and molecular replacement at 1.9 and 2.1?Å resolution, respectively. NqrC devoid of the transmembrane helix was co-expressed with ApbE to insert the flavin mononucleotide group covalently attached to Thr225. The structure was determined by molecular replacement using apo-NqrC of Parabacteroides distasonis as search model at 1.8?Å resolution. PMID:25005105

Vohl, Georg; Nedielkov, Ruslan; Claussen, Björn; Casutt, Marco S; Vorburger, Thomas; Diederichs, Kay; Möller, Heiko M; Steuber, Julia; Fritz, Günter

2014-07-01

338

Residence of Habitat-Specific Anammox Bacteria in the Deep-Sea Subsurface Sediments of the South China Sea: Analyses of Marker Gene Abundance with Physical Chemical Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) has been recognized as an important process for the global nitrogen cycle. In this\\u000a study, the occurrence and diversity of anammox bacteria in the deep-sea subsurface sediments of the South China Sea (SCS)\\u000a were investigated. Results indicated that the anammox bacterial sequences recovered from this habitat by amplifying both 16S\\u000a rRNA gene and hydrazine oxidoreductase encoding

Yi-Guo Hong; Meng Li; Huiluo Cao; Ji-Dong Gu

339

Nrf2 and c-Jun regulation of antioxidant response element (ARE)-mediated expression and induction of ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase heavy subunit gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Glutamylcysteine synthetase (?-GCS) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the de novo synthesis of glutathione, a known scavenger of electrophiles and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ?-GCS gene is expressed ubiquitously and induced coordinately with NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase1 (NQO1) and glutathione S-transferase Ya (GST Ya) in response to xenobiotics and antioxidants. The antioxidant response element (ARE) is required for expression and induction

Janet Jeyapaul; Anil K Jaiswal

2000-01-01

340

Tropine forming tropinone reductase gene from Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha): biochemical characteristics of the recombinant enzyme and novel physiological overtones of tissue-wide gene expression patterns.  

PubMed

Withania somnifera is one of the most reputed medicinal plants of Indian systems of medicine synthesizing diverse types of secondary metabolites such as withanolides, alkaloids, withanamides etc. Present study comprises cloning and E. coli over-expression of a tropinone reductase gene (WsTR-I) from W. somnifera, and elucidation of biochemical characteristics and physiological role of tropinone reductase enzyme in tropane alkaloid biosynthesis in aerial tissues of the plant. The recombinant enzyme was demonstrated to catalyze NADPH-dependent tropinone to tropine conversion step in tropane metabolism, through TLC, GC and GC-MS-MS analyses of the reaction product. The functionally active homodimeric ~60 kDa enzyme catalyzed the reaction in reversible manner at optimum pH 6.7. Catalytic kinetics of the enzyme favoured its forward reaction (tropine formation). Comparative 3-D models of landscape of the enzyme active site contours and tropinone binding site were also developed. Tissue-wide and ontogenic stage-wise assessment of WsTR-I transcript levels revealed constitutive expression of the gene with relatively lower abundance in berries and young leaves. The tissue profiles of WsTR-I expression matched those of tropine levels. The data suggest that, in W. somnifera, aerial tissues as well possess tropane alkaloid biosynthetic competence. In vivo feeding of U-[(14)C]-sucrose to orphan shoot (twigs) and [(14)C]-chasing revealed substantial radiolabel incorporation in tropinone and tropine, confirming the de novo synthesizing ability of the aerial tissues. This inherent independent ability heralds a conceptual novelty in the backdrop of classical view that these tissues acquire the alkaloids through transportation from roots rather than synthesis. The TR-I gene expression was found to be up-regulated on exposure to signal molecules (methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid) and on mechanical injury. The enzyme's catalytic and structural properties as well as gene expression profiles are discussed with respect to their physiological overtones. PMID:24086372

Kushwaha, Amit Kumar; Sangwan, Neelam Singh; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Negi, Arvind Singh; Misra, Laxminarain; Sangwan, Rajender Singh

2013-01-01

341

Knockdown of human Oxa1l impairs the biogenesis of F1Fo-ATP synthase and NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase.  

PubMed

The Oxa1 protein is a founding member of the evolutionarily conserved Oxa1/Alb3/YidC protein family, which is involved in the biogenesis of membrane proteins in mitochondria, chloroplasts and bacteria. The predicted human homologue, Oxa1l, was originally identified by partial functional complementation of the respiratory growth defect of the yeast oxa1 mutant. Here we demonstrate that both the endogenous human Oxa1l, with an apparent molecular mass of 42 kDa, and the Oxa1l-FLAG chimeric protein localize exclusively to mitochondria in HEK293 cells. Furthermore, human Oxa1l was found to be an integral membrane protein, and, using two-dimensional blue native/denaturing PAGE, the majority of the protein was identified as part of a 600-700 kDa complex. The stable short hairpin (sh)RNA-mediated knockdown of Oxa1l in HEK293 cells resulted in markedly decreased steady-state levels and ATP hydrolytic activity of the F(1)F(o)-ATP synthase and moderately reduced levels and activity of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I). However, no significant accumulation of corresponding sub-complexes could be detected on blue native immunoblots. Intriguingly, the achieved depletion of Oxa1l protein did not adversely affect the assembly or activity of cytochrome c oxidase or the cytochrome bc(1) complex. Taken together, our results indicate that human Oxa1l represents a mitochondrial integral membrane protein required for the correct biogenesis of F(1)F(o)-ATP synthase and NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase. PMID:17936786

Stiburek, Lukas; Fornuskova, Daniela; Wenchich, Laszlo; Pejznochova, Martina; Hansikova, Hana; Zeman, Jiri

2007-11-23

342

Purification and characterization of dibenzothiophene sulfone monooxygenase and FMN-dependent NADH oxidoreductase from the thermophilic bacterium Paenibacillus sp. strain A11-2.  

PubMed

A dibenzothiophene (DBT) sulfone monooxygenase (TdsA), which catalyses the oxidative CS bond cleavage of DBT sulfone to produce 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzenesulfinate (HPBS) was purified from the thermophilic DBT desulfurizing bacterium Paenibacillus sp. strain A11-2 by multistep chromatography. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was determined to be 120 kDa by gel filtration and the subunit molecular mass was calculated to be 48 kDa by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) indicating a dimeric structure. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified TdsA was determined to be MRQMHLAGFFAAGNTHH, which revealed no significant similarity to any other known amino acid sequences. The purified TdsA absolutely required an oxidoreductase for its activity. This oxidoreductase (TdsD) was also purified to homogeneity, and its molecular size was calculated to be 50 kDa and 25 kDa by gel filtration and SDS-PAGE, respectively. TdsD was completely FMN-dependent, and FAD could not act as a cofactor. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified TdsD was determined to be TSQTAEQSIAPIVAQYRHPEQPISALFVNR, which showed significant similarity to kinesin-like protein (44% identity). The optimal temperatures for the activity of TdsA and TdsD were 45 degrees C and 55 degrees C, respectively. Both enzymes showed optimal activity at pH 5.5. TdsA was slightly inhibited by sulfate, but not by 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP), which is another end product of DBT. TdsA showed higher activity toward bulkier substrates than its mesophilic counterpart, DszA. These properties suggest the applicability of biodesulfurization to the processing of actual petroleum fractions. PMID:16232919

Konishi, J; Ishii, Y; Onaka, T; Ohta, Y; Suzuki, M; Maruhashi, K

2000-01-01

343

Activity and expression of progesterone metabolizing 5?-reductase, 20?-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase and 3?(?)-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductases in tumorigenic (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, T-47D) and nontumorigenic (MCF-10A) human breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Background Recent observations indicate that human tumorous breast tissue metabolizes progesterone differently than nontumorous breast tissue. Specifically, 5?-reduced metabolites (5?-pregnanes, shown to stimulate cell proliferation and detachment) are produced at a significantly higher rate in tumorous tissue, indicating increased 5?-reductase (5?R) activity. Conversely, the activities of 3?-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase (3?-HSO) and 20?-HSO enzymes appeared to be higher in normal tissues. The elevated conversion to 5?-pregnanes occurred regardless of estrogen (ER) or progesterone (PR) receptor levels. To gain insight into these differences, the activities and expression of these progesterone converting enzymes were investigated in a nontumorigenic cell line, MCF-10A (ER- and PR-negative), and the three tumorigenic cell lines, MDA-MB-231 (ER- and PR-negative), MCF-7 and T-47D (ER- and PR-positive). Methods For the enzyme activity studies, either whole cells were incubated with [14C]progesterone for 2, 4, 8, and 24 hours, or the microsomal/cytosolic fraction was incubated for 15–60 minutes with [3H]progesterone, and the metabolites were identified and quantified. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was employed to determine the relative levels of expression of 5?R type1 (SRD5A1), 5?R type 2 (SRD5A2), 20?-HSO (AKR1C1), 3?-HSO type 2 (AKR1C3), 3?-HSO type 3 (AKR1C2) and 3?-HSO (HSD3B1/HSD3B2) in the four cell lines using 18S rRNA as an internal control. Results The relative 5?-reductase activity, when considered as a ratio of 5?-pregnanes/4-pregnenes, was 4.21 (± 0.49) for MCF-7 cells, 6.24 (± 1.14) for MDA-MB-231 cells, 4.62 (± 0.43) for T-47D cells and 0.65 (± 0.07) for MCF-10A cells, constituting approximately 6.5-fold, 9.6-fold and 7.1 fold higher conversion to 5?-pregnanes in the tumorigenic cells, respectively, than in the nontumorigenic MCF-10A cells. Conversely, the 20?-HSO and 3?-HSO activities were significantly higher (p < 0.001) in MCF-10A cells than in the other three cell types. In the MCF-10A cells, 20?-HSO activity was 8-14-fold higher and the 3?-HSO activity was 2.5-5.4-fold higher than in the other three cell types. The values of 5?R:20?-HSO ratios were 16.9 – 32.6-fold greater and the 5?R:3?-HSO ratios were 5.2 – 10.5-fold greater in MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and T-47D cells than in MCF-10A cells. RT-PCR showed significantly higher expression of 5?R1 (p < 0.001), and lower expression of 20?-HSO (p < 0.001), 3?-HSO2 (p < 0.001), 3?-HSO3 (p < 0.001) in MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and T-47D cells than in MCF-10A cells. Conclusion The findings provide the first evidence that the 5?R activity (leading to the conversion of progesterone to the cancer promoting 5?-pregnanes) is significantly higher in the tumorigenic MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and T-47D breast cell lines than in the nontumorigenic MCF-10A cell line. The higher 5?R activity coincides with significantly greater expression of 5?R1. On the other hand, the activities of 20?-HSO and 3?-HSO are higher in the MCF-10A cells than in MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and T-47D cells; these differences in activity correlate with significantly higher expression of 20?-HSO, 3?-HSO2 and 3?-HSO3 in MCF-10A cells. Changes in progesterone metabolizing enzyme expression (resulting in enzyme activity changes) may be responsible for stimulating breast cancer by increased production of tumor-promoting 5?-pregnanes and decreased production of anti-cancer 20? – and 3?-4-pregnenes.

Wiebe, John P; Lewis, Michael J

2003-01-01

344

A new screening system for NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1)-directed antitumor quinones: identification of a new aziridinylbenzoquinone, RH1, as a NQO1-directed antitumor agent.  

PubMed

NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1; DT-diaphorase) is elevated in certain tumors, such as non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Compounds such as mitomycin C and streptonigrin are efficiently bioactivated by NQO1 and have been used in an enzyme-directed approach to chemotherapy. Previously, 2,5-diaziridinyl-3,6-dimethyl-1,4-benzoquinone (MeDZQ) was identified as a potential antitumor agent based on its high rate of bioactivation by human NQO1 and its selective cytotoxicity to cells containing elevated NQO1. RH1, a water-soluble analogue of MeDZQ synthesized in this work, was a better substrate for recombinant human NQO1 than the parent compound. RH1 was, correspondingly, more cytotoxic to human tumor cells expressing elevated NQO1 activity (H460 NSCLC and HT29 human colon carcinoma), as measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2,5-diphenyl)tetrazolium assay, than it was to cells deficient in NQO1 activity (H596 NSCLC and BE human colon carcinoma). RH1 exhibited a greater selective toxicity (ratio of IC50s in H596:H460 and BE:HT29) to cells with elevated NQO1 activity relative to MeDZQ. Additionally, we report the establishment of a stable line of BE human colon carcinoma cells transfected with wild-type human NQO1 (BE-NQ7). BE cells are devoid of NQO1 activity due to a homozygous point mutation in the NQO1 gene. In comparison to the parental cell line, RH1, MeDZQ, and mitomycin C were significantly more cytotoxic to BE-NQ7 cells (17-, 7-, and 3-fold, respectively), confirming that the presence of NQO1 is sufficient to increase cytotoxicity of these antitumor quinones. These data suggest that RH1 may be an effective NQO1-directed antitumor agent for the therapy of tumors with elevated NQO1 activity, such as NSCLC. PMID:9865924

Winski, S L; Hargreaves, R H; Butler, J; Ross, D

1998-12-01

345

Analysis of gene expression in poplar trees (Populus deltoides x nigra, DN34) exposed to the toxic explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX).  

PubMed

Poplar plants (Populus deltoides x nigra, DN34) growing under hydroponic conditions were exposed to 50 mg L(-1) of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) for 24 h. The expression of genes potentially involved in the metabolism of toxic explosives was analyzed by reverse-transcriptase (RT) real-time PCR. Genes under study were selected by reference to corresponding genes that were previously shown to be upregulated in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana by exposure to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) (Ekman et al., 2003. Plant Physiol., 133, 1397-1406). The target genes investigated include several genes encoding for enzymes known to be involved in the detoxification of xenobiotic pollutants, such as glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), cytochrome P-450s (CYPs), NADPH-dependent reductases, and peroxidases. Starting from A. thaliana TNT-inducible genes, corresponding Populus sequences were retrieved from the JGI Poplar Genome Project database and were used to design gene-specific primers. 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was used as an internal standard and recorded gene expression levels were normalized by reference to nonexposed plants. In three separate experiments, five genes were found to be significantly amplified in leaf tissues by exposure to RDX, including GST (9.7 fold), CYP (1.6 fold), reductases (1.6-1.7 fold), and peroxidase (1.7 fold). In root tissues, only a single GST gene was found to be significantly amplified by exposure to RDX (2.0 fold). These results show, for the first time, that the exposure of poplar plants to RDX results in the induction of several genes that are potentially involved in explosive detoxification. PMID:18246712

Tanaka, Sachiyo; Brentner, Laura B; Merchie, Kate M; Schnoor, Jerald L; Yoon, Jong Moon; Van Aken, Benoit

2007-01-01

346

Catabolism of 1,5-Anhydro-d-Fructose in Sinorhizobium morelense S-30.7.5: Discovery, Characterization, and Overexpression of a New 1,5-Anhydro-d-Fructose Reductase and Its Application in Sugar Analysis and Rare Sugar Synthesis  

PubMed Central

The bacterium Sinorhizobium morelense S-30.7.5 was isolated by a microbial screening using the sugar 1,5-anhydro-d-fructose (AF) as the sole carbon source. This strain metabolized AF by a novel pathway involving its reduction to 1,5-anhydro-d-mannitol (AM) and the further conversion of AM to d-mannose by C-1 oxygenation. Growth studies showed that the AF metabolizing capability is not confined to S. morelense S-30.7.5 but is a more common feature among the Rhizobiaceae. The AF reducing enzyme was purified and characterized as a new NADPH-dependent monomeric reductase (AFR, EC 1.1.1.-) of 35.1 kDa. It catalyzed the stereoselective reduction of AF to AM and also the conversion of a number of 2-keto aldoses (osones) to the corresponding manno-configurated aldoses. In contrast, common aldoses and ketoses, as well as nonsugar aldehydes and ketones, were not reduced. A database search using the N-terminal AFR sequence retrieved a putative 35-kDa oxidoreductase encoded by the open reading frame Smc04400 localized on the chromosome of Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021. Based on sequence information for this locus, the afr gene was cloned from S. morelense S-30.7.5 and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. In addition to the oxidoreductase of S. meliloti 1021, AFR showed high sequence similarities to putative oxidoreductases of Mesorhizobium loti, Brucella suis, and B. melitensis but not to any oxidoreductase with known functions. AFR could be assigned to the GFO/IDH/MocA family on the basis of highly conserved common structural features. His6-tagged AFR was used to demonstrate the utility of this enzyme for AF analysis and synthesis of AM, as well as related derivatives.

Kuhn, Annette; Yu, Shukun; Giffhorn, Friedrich

2006-01-01

347

The promoter of a gene encoding an isoflavone reductase-like protein in coffee (Coffea arabica) drives a stress-responsive expression in leaves.  

PubMed

A cDNA clone (designated CaIRL) encoding an isoflavone reductase-like protein from coffee (Coffea arabica) was retrieved during a search for genes showing organ/tissue-specific expression among the expressed sequence tags (EST) of the Brazilian coffee EST database. The CaIRL cDNA contains a single open reading frame of 946 nucleotides (nt) encoding 314 amino acids (predicted molecular weight of 34 kDa). Several features identified the predicted CaIRL protein as a new member of the PIP family of NADPH-dependent reductases. Expression studies demonstrated that CaIRL is expressed exclusively in coffee leaves and its transcript level is markedly increased in response to fungal infection and mechanical injury. Analysis of transgenic tobacco plants harboring a CaIRL 5'-flanking region (862 nt) fused to uidA reporter gene (GUS) confirmed the responsiveness of the putative promoter to abiotic stress in wounded leaves. In turn, a 5' deletion to -404 completely abolished promoter activation by abiotic stimulus in transgenic plants. The lack of GUS expression in non-wounded leaf tissues in transgenic tobacco was in contrast to the basal level of CaIRL expression observed in non-stressed healthy coffee leaves. PMID:19756631

Brandalise, Marcos; Severino, Fabio E; Maluf, Mirian P; Maia, Ivan G

2009-11-01

348

Isolation of a gene encoding a glycosylated cytokinin oxidase from maize.  

PubMed

The major cytokinin oxidase in immature maize kernels was purified to homogeneity. Selected tryptic peptides were used to design degenerate oligonucleotide primers for PCR isolation of a fragment of the oxidase gene. Hybridization of the PCR fragment to a maize genomic library allowed isolation of a full-length cytokinin oxidase gene (ckx1). The gene encodes a protein of approximately 57 kDa that possesses a signal peptide, eight consensus N-glycosylation sequences and a consensus FAD binding sequence. Expression of ckx1 in Pichia caused secretion of active glycosylated cytokinin oxidase that contains a substrate-reducible FAD. The gene displays sequence homology with a putative oxidoreductase from Arabidopsis thaliana and with the fas5 gene from Rhodococcus fascians. PMID:10049708

Morris, R O; Bilyeu, K D; Laskey, J G; Cheikh, N N

1999-02-16

349

Carbohydrate metabolism genes and pathways in insects: insights from the honey bee genome  

PubMed Central

Carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes may have particularly interesting roles in the honey bee, Apis mellifera, because this social insect has an extremely carbohydrate-rich diet, and nutrition plays important roles in caste determination and socially mediated behavioural plasticity. We annotated a total of 174 genes encoding carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes and 28 genes encoding lipid-metabolizing enzymes, based on orthology to their counterparts in the fly, Drosophila melanogaster, and the mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. We found that the number of genes for carbohydrate metabolism appears to be more evolutionarily labile than for lipid metabolism. In particular, we identified striking changes in gene number or genomic organization for genes encoding glycolytic enzymes, cellulase, glucose oxidase and glucose dehydrogenases, glucose-methanol-choline (GMC) oxidoreductases, fucosyltransferases, and lysozymes.

Kunieda, T; Fujiyuki, T; Kucharski, R; Foret, S; Ament, S A; Toth, A L; Ohashi, K; Takeuchi, H; Kamikouchi, A; Kage, E; Morioka, M; Beye, M; Kubo, T; Robinson, G E; Maleszka, R

2006-01-01

350

Association of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) null with numbers of basal cell carcinomas: use of a multivariate model to rank the relative importance of this polymorphism and those at other relevant loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutathione S-transferase GSTM1 B and GSTT1 null, and cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 EM have been associated with cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC) numbers, although their quantitative effects show that predisposition to many BCC is determined by an unknown number of further loci. We speculate that other loci that determine response to oxidative stress, such as NAD(H):quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) are candidates. Accordingly,

Annette Clairmont; Helmut Sies; Sudarshan Ramachandran; John T. Lear; Andrew G. Smith; Bill Bowers; Peter W. Jones; Anthony A. Fryer; Richard C. Strange

351

PAH Particles Perturb Prenatal Processes and Phenotypes: Protection from Deficits in Object Discrimination Afforded by Dampening of Brain Oxidoreductase Following In Utero Exposure to Inhaled Benzo(a)pyrene  

PubMed Central

The wild-type (WT) Cprlox/lox (cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase, Cpr) mouse is an ideal model to assess the contribution of P450 enzymes to the metabolic activation and disposition of environmental xenobiotics. In the present study, we examined the effect of in utero exposure to benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] aerosol on Sp4 and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)–dependent systems as well as a resulting behavioral phenotype (object discrimination) in Cpr offspring. Results from in utero exposure of WT Cprlox/lox mice were compared with in utero exposed brain-Cpr-null offspring mice. Null mice were used as they do not express brain cytochrome P4501B1–associated NADPH oxidoreductase (CYP1B1-associated NADPH oxidoreductase), thus reducing their capacity to produce neural B(a)P metabolites. Subsequent to in utero (E14–E17) exposure to B(a)P (100 ?g/m3), Cprlox/lox offspring exhibited: (1) elevated B(a)P metabolite and F2-isoprostane neocortical tissue burdens, (2) elevated concentrations of cortical glutamate, (3) premature developmental expression of Sp4, (4) decreased subunit ratios of NR2B:NR2A, and (5) deficits in a novelty discrimination phenotype monitored to in utero exposed brain-Cpr-null offspring. Collectively, these findings suggest that in situ generation of metabolites by CYP1B1-associated NADPH oxidoreductase promotes negative effects on NMDA-mediated signaling processes during the period when synapses are first forming as well as effects on a subsequent behavioral phenotype.

Chadalapaka, Gayathri; Ramesh, Aramandla; Khoshbouei, Habibeh; Maguire, Mark; Safe, Stephen; Rhoades, Raina E.; Clark, Ryan; Jules, George; McCallister, Monique; Aschner, Michael; Hood, Darryl B.

2012-01-01

352

A super-family of medium-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (MDR). Sub-lines including zeta-crystallin, alcohol and polyol dehydrogenases, quinone oxidoreductase enoyl reductases, VAT-1 and other proteins.  

PubMed

The protein super-family of medium-chain alcohol dehydrogenases (and glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase), polyol dehydrogenases, threonine dehydrogenase, archaeon glucose dehydrogenase, and eye lens reductase-active zeta-crystallins also includes Escherichia coli quinone oxidoreductase, Torpedo VAT-1 protein, and enoyl reductases of mammalian fatty acid and yeast erythronolide synthases. In addition, two proteins with hitherto unknown function are shown to belong to this super-family of medium-chain dehydrogenases and reductases (MDR). Alignment of zeta-crystallins/quinone oxidoreductases/VAT-1 reveals 38 strictly conserved residues, of which approximately half are glycine residues, including those at several space-restricted turn positions and critical coenzyme-binding positions in the alcohol dehydrogenases. This indicates a conserved three-dimensional structure at the corresponding parts of these distantly related proteins and a conserved binding of a coenzyme in the two proteins with hitherto unknown function, thus ascribing a likely oxidoreductase function to these proteins. When all forms are aligned, including enoyl reductases, a zeta-crystallin homologue from Leishmania and the two proteins with hitherto unknown function, only three residues are strictly conserved among the 106 proteins characterised within the superfamily, and significantly these residues are all glycines, corresponding to Gly66, Gly86 and Gly201 of mammalian class I alcohol dehydrogenase. Notably, these residues are located in different domains. Hence, a distant origin and divergent functions, but related forms and interactions, appear to apply to the entire chains of the many prokaryotic and eukaryotic members. Additionally, in the zeta-crystallins/quinone oxidoreductases, a highly conserved tyrosine residue is found. This residue, in the three-dimensional structure of the homologous alcohol dehydrogenase, is positioned at the subunit cleft that contains the active site and could therefore be involved in catalysis. If so, this residue and its role may resemble the pattern of a conserved tyrosine residue in the different family of short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR). PMID:7957243

Persson, B; Zigler, J S; Jörnvall, H

1994-11-15

353

The influence of glycerol and chloroplast lipids on the spectral shifts of pigments associated with NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase from Avena sativa L. 1 1 Dedicated to Professor Otto Kandler on the occasion of his 80th birthday  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dark-grown angiosperm seedlings lack chlorophylls, but accumulate protochlorophyllide a complexed with the light-dependent enzyme NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase. Previous investigators correlated spectral heterogeneity of in vivo protochlorophyllide forms and a shift of chlorophyllide forms from 680 to 672 nm (Shibata shift) occurring after irradiation, with intact membrane structures which are destroyed by solubilization. We demonstrate here that the various protochlorophyllide forms and

Harald Klement; Ulrike Oster; Wolfhart Rüdiger

2000-01-01

354

H2S exposure elicits differential expression of candidate genes in fish adapted to sulfidic and non-sulfidic environments.  

PubMed

Disentangling the effects of plasticity, genetic variation, and their interactions on organismal responses to environmental stressors is a key objective in ecological physiology. We quantified the expression of five candidate genes in response to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) exposure in fish (Poecilia mexicana, Poeciliidae) from a naturally sulfide-rich environment as well as an ancestral, non-sulfidic population to test for constitutive and environmentally dependent population differences in gene expression patterns. Common garden raised individuals that had never encountered environmental H2S during their lifetime were subjected to short or long term H2S exposure treatments or respective non-sulfidic controls. The expression of genes involved in responses to H2S toxicity (cytochrome c oxidase, vascular endothelial growth factor, and cytochrome P450-2J6), H2S detoxification (sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase), and endogenous H2S production (cystathionine ? lyase) was determined in both gill and liver tissues by real time PCR. The results indicated complex changes in expression patterns that - depending on the gene - not only differed between organs and populations, but also on the type of H2S exposure. Populations differences, both constitutive and H2S exposure dependent (i.e., plastic), in gene expression were particularly evident for sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase, vascular endothelial growth factor, and to a lesser degree for cytochrome P450-2J6. Our study uncovered putatively adaptive modifications in gene regulation that parallel previously documented adaptive changes in phenotypic traits. PMID:24813672

Tobler, Michael; Henpita, Chathurika; Bassett, Brandon; Kelley, Joanna L; Shaw, Jennifer H

2014-09-01

355

Evaluation of the fluorescent probes Nile Red and 25-NBD-cholesterol as substrates for steroid-converting oxidoreductases using pure enzymes and microorganisms.  

PubMed

The fluorescent probes Nile Red (nonsteroidal dye) and 25-{N-[(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)-methyl]amino}-27-norcholesterol (25-NBD-cholesterol) (a cholesterol analog) were evaluated as novel substrates for steroid-converting oxidoreductases. Docking simulations with autodock showed that Nile Red fits well into the substrate-binding site of cytochrome P450 17?-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17A1) (binding energy value of -8.3 kcal·mol?¹). Recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Yarrowia lipolytica, both expressing CYP17A1, were found to catalyze the conversion of Nile Red into two N-dealkylated derivatives. The conversion by the yeasts was shown to increase in the cases of coexpression of electron-donating partners of CYP17A1. The highest specific activity value (1.30 ± 0.02 min?¹) was achieved for the strain Y. lipolytica DC5, expressing CYP17A1 and the yeast's NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. The dye was also metabolized by pure CYP17A1 into the N-dealkylated derivatives, and gave a type I difference spectrum when titrated into low-spin CYP17A1. Analogously, docking simulations demonstrated that 25-NBD-cholesterol binds into the active site of the microbial cholesterol oxidase (CHOX) from Brevibacterium sterolicum (binding energy value of -5.6 kcal·mol?¹). The steroid was found to be converted into its 4-en-3-one derivative by CHOX (K(m) and k(cat) values were estimated to be 58.1 ± 5.9 ?M and 0.66 ± 0.14 s?¹, respectively). The 4-en-3-one derivative was also detected as the product of 25-NBD-cholesterol oxidation with both pure microbial cholesterol dehydrogenase (CHDH) and a pathogenic bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, possessing CHOXs and CHDHs. These results provide novel opportunities for investigation of the structure-function relationships of the aforementioned oxidoreductases, which catalyze essential steps of steroid bioconversion in mammals (CYP17A1) and bacteria (CHOX and CHDH), with fluorescence-based techniques. PMID:23551929

Faletrov, Yaroslav V; Frolova, Nina S; Hlushko, Hanna V; Rudaya, Elena V; Edimecheva, Irina P; Mauersberger, Stephan; Shkumatov, Vladimir M

2013-07-01

356

The Two CcdA Proteins of Bacillus anthracis Differentially Affect Virulence Gene Expression and Sporulation  

PubMed Central

The cytochrome c maturation system influences the expression of virulence factors in Bacillus anthracis. B. anthracis carries two copies of the ccdA gene, encoding predicted thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases that contribute to cytochrome c maturation, while the closely related organism Bacillus subtilis carries only one copy of ccdA. To investigate the roles of the two ccdA gene copies in B. anthracis, strains were constructed without each ccdA gene, and one strain was constructed without both copies simultaneously. Loss of both ccdA genes results in a reduction of cytochrome c production, an increase in virulence factor expression, and a reduction in sporulation efficiency. Complementation and expression analyses indicate that ccdA2 encodes the primary CcdA in B. anthracis, active in all three pathways. While CcdA1 retains activity in cytochrome c maturation and virulence control, it has completely lost its activity in the sporulation pathway. In support of this finding, expression of ccdA1 is strongly reduced when cells are grown under sporulation-inducing conditions. When the activities of CcdA1 and CcdA2 were analyzed in B. subtilis, neither protein retained activity in cytochrome c maturation, but CcdA2 could still function in sporulation. These observations reveal the complexities of thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase function in pathways relevant to virulence and physiology.

Han, Hesong

2013-01-01

357

The two CcdA proteins of Bacillus anthracis differentially affect virulence gene expression and sporulation.  

PubMed

The cytochrome c maturation system influences the expression of virulence factors in Bacillus anthracis. B. anthracis carries two copies of the ccdA gene, encoding predicted thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases that contribute to cytochrome c maturation, while the closely related organism Bacillus subtilis carries only one copy of ccdA. To investigate the roles of the two ccdA gene copies in B. anthracis, strains were constructed without each ccdA gene, and one strain was constructed without both copies simultaneously. Loss of both ccdA genes results in a reduction of cytochrome c production, an increase in virulence factor expression, and a reduction in sporulation efficiency. Complementation and expression analyses indicate that ccdA2 encodes the primary CcdA in B. anthracis, active in all three pathways. While CcdA1 retains activity in cytochrome c maturation and virulence control, it has completely lost its activity in the sporulation pathway. In support of this finding, expression of ccdA1 is strongly reduced when cells are grown under sporulation-inducing conditions. When the activities of CcdA1 and CcdA2 were analyzed in B. subtilis, neither protein retained activity in cytochrome c maturation, but CcdA2 could still function in sporulation. These observations reveal the complexities of thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase function in pathways relevant to virulence and physiology. PMID:24056109

Han, Hesong; Wilson, Adam C

2013-12-01

358

[Gene-enzyme relationships of the arom aggregate of Schizosaccharomyces pombe].  

PubMed

The gene-enzyme relationships of the arom multienzyme complex of Schizosaccharomyces pombe that catalyzes steps two through six in the prechorismate polyaromatic amino acid biosynthetic pathway have been studied. The various mutants were subjected to biochemical analysis by direct enzymic assays. These studies have established that aro-3A, aro-3B, aro-3C, aro-3D, and aro-3E mutants lack, respectively, the enzymic activities 5-dehydroquinate synthase, 5-dehydroquinase, shekimate kinase, 3-enolpyruvylshikimate 5-phosphate synthase, and shikimate: NADP oxidoreductase. In S. pombe lack enzymic activities for the inducible quinate catabolic pathway. The functional significance of the arom aggregate is discussed. PMID:6613166

Bode, R

1983-01-01

359

Indolequinone antitumor agents: correlation between quinone structure, rate of metabolism by recombinant human NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase, and in vitro cytotoxicity.  

PubMed

A series of indolequinones bearing various functional groups has been synthesized, and the effects of substituents on the metabolism of the quinones by recombinant human NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) were studied. Thus 5-methoxyindolequinones were prepared by the Nenitzescu reaction, followed by functional group interconversions. The methoxy group was subsequently displaced by amine nucleophiles to give a series of amine-substituted quinones. Metabolism of the quinones by NQO1 revealed that, in general, compounds with electron-withdrawing groups at the indole 3-position were among the best substrates, whereas those with amine groups at the 5-position were poor substrates. Compounds with a leaving group at the 3-indolyl methyl position generally inactivated the enzyme. The toxicity toward non-small-cell lung cancer cells with either high NQO1 activity (H460) or no detectable activity (H596) was also studied in representative quinones. Compounds which were good substrates for NQO1 showed the highest selectivity between the two cell lines. PMID:9822546

Beall, H D; Winski, S; Swann, E; Hudnott, A R; Cotterill, A S; O'Sullivan, N; Green, S J; Bien, R; Siegel, D; Ross, D; Moody, C J

1998-11-19

360

Analysis of experimental errors in bioprocesses. 1. Production of lactobionic acid and sorbitol using the GFOR (glucose-fructose oxidoreductase) enzyme from permeabilized cells of Zymomonas mobilis.  

PubMed

The proper determination of experimental errors in bioprocesses can be very important because experimental errors can exert a major impact on the analysis of experimental results. Despite this, the effect of experimental errors on the analysis of bioprocess data has been largely overlooked in the literature. For this reason, we performed detailed statistical analyses of experimental errors obtained during the production of lactobionic acid and sorbitol in a system utilizing as catalyst the GFOR (glucose-fructose oxidoreductase) enzyme from permeabilized cells of the bacteria Zymomonas mobilis. The magnitude of the experimental errors thus obtained were then correlated with the process operation conditions and with the composition of the culture media used for bacterial growth. It is shown that experimental errors can depend very significantly on the operation conditions and affect the interpretation of available experimental data. More specifically, in this study, experimental errors depended on the nutritional supplements added to the cultivation medium, the inoculation process, and the reaction time, which may be of fundamental importance for actual process development. The results obtained also indicate, for the first time, that GFOR activity can be affected by the composition of the medium in which cells are cultivated. PMID:21328074

Severo, João B; Pinto, José C; Ferraz, Helen C; Alves, Tito L M

2011-09-01

361

Structural data on the periplasmic aldehyde oxidoreductase PaoABC from Escherichia coli: SAXS and preliminary X-ray crystallography analysis.  

PubMed

The periplasmic aldehyde oxidoreductase PaoABC from Escherichia coli is a molybdenum enzyme involved in detoxification of aldehydes in the cell. It is an example of an ??? heterotrimeric enzyme of the xanthine oxidase family of enzymes which does not dimerize via its molybdenum cofactor binding domain. In order to structurally characterize PaoABC, X-ray crystallography and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) have been carried out. The protein crystallizes in the presence of 20% (w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350 using the hanging-drop vapour diffusion method. Although crystals were initially twinned, several experiments were done to overcome twinning and lowering the crystallization temperature (293 K to 277 K) was the solution to the problem. The non-twinned crystals used to solve the structure diffract X-rays to beyond 1.80 Å and belong to the C2 space group, with cell parameters a = 109.42 Å, b = 78.08 Å, c = 151.77 Å, ? = 99.77°, and one molecule in the asymmetric unit. A molecular replacement solution was found for each subunit separately, using several proteins as search models. SAXS data of PaoABC were also collected showing that, in solution, the protein is also an ??? heterotrimer. PMID:24492481

Otrelo-Cardoso, Ana Rita; da Silva Correia, Márcia Alexandra; Schwuchow, Viola; Svergun, Dmitri I; Romão, Maria João; Leimkühler, Silke; Santos-Silva, Teresa

2014-01-01

362

Sorbitol promotes growth of Zymomonas mobilis in environments with high concentrations of sugar: evidence for a physiological function of glucose-fructose oxidoreductase in osmoprotection.  

PubMed Central

The gram-negative ethanologenic bacterium Zymomonas mobilis is able to grow in media containing high concentrations of glucose or other sugars. A novel compatible solute for bacteria, sorbitol, which enhances growth of Z. mobilis at glucose concentrations exceeding 0.83 M (15%), is described. Added sorbitol was accumulated intracellularly up to 1 M to counteract high external glucose concentrations (up to 1.66 M or 30%). Accumulation of sorbitol was triggered by a glucose upshift (e.g., from 0.33 to 1.27 M or 6 to 23%) and was prevented by the uncoupler CCCP (carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone; 100 microM). The sorbitol transport system followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with an apparent Km of 34 mM and a Vmax of 11.2 nmol.min-1.mg-1 (dry mass). Sorbitol was produced by the cells themselves and was accumulated when growing on sucrose (1 M or 36%) by the action of the periplasmic enzyme glucose-fructose oxidoreductase, which converts glucose and fructose to gluconolactone and sorbitol. Thus, Z. mobilis can form and accumulate the compatible solute sorbitol from a natural carbon source, sucrose, in order to overcome osmotic stress in high-sugar media. No other major compatible solute (betaine, proline, glutamate, or trehalose) was detected.

Loos, H; Kramer, R; Sahm, H; Sprenger, G A

1994-01-01

363

Characterization of a subcomplex of mitochondrial NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) lacking the flavoprotein part of the N-module.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase is the largest and most complicated proton pump of the respiratory chain. Here we report the preparation and characterization of a subcomplex of complex I selectively lacking the flavoprotein part of the N-module. Removing the 51-kDa and the 24-kDa subunit resulted in loss of catalytic activity. The redox centers of the subcomplex could be reduced neither by NADH nor NADPH demonstrating that physiological electron input into complex I occurred exclusively via the N-module and that the NADPH binding site in the 39-kDa subunit and further potential nucleotide binding sites are isolated from the electron transfer pathway within the enzyme. Taking advantage of the selective removal of two of the eight iron-sulfur clusters of complex I and providing additional evidence by redox titration and site-directed mutagenesis, we could for the first time unambiguously assign cluster N1 of fungal complex I to mammalian cluster N1b. PMID:17448440

Zickermann, Volker; Zwicker, Klaus; Tocilescu, Maja A; Kerscher, Stefan; Brandt, Ulrich

2007-05-01

364

CYP119 plus a Sulfolobus tokodaii strain 7 ferredoxin and 2-oxoacid:ferredoxin oxidoreductase constitute a high-temperature cytochrome P450 catalytic system.  

PubMed

The cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes catalyzes a broad range of oxidative processes involved in the metabolism of fatty acids, biosynthesis of sterols, and elimination of drugs and xenobiotics. Application of the unique properties of P450 enzymes as fine biocatalysts in biotechnology is limited due to their thermal instability and the requirement for auxiliary electron-donor proteins and cofactors. CYP119, a thermophilic P450 enzyme from Sulfolobus solfataricus, was characterized some time ago, but no high-temperature redox partners have been available for it. Here we report reconstitution of CYP119 with a novel high-temperature electron-donor system consisting of a ferredoxin and 2-oxoacid:ferredoxin oxidoreductase from Sulfolobus tokodaii strain 7 that, unlike all other known P450 electron-donor partners, utilizes coenzyme-A and pyruvic acid rather than NADH or NADPH as the source of electrons. The oxidation of lauric acid by the reconstituted system increased 16-fold as the temperature increased from 25 to 70 degrees C and was functional for more than 30 min at the higher temperature. This first in vitro high-temperature P450 catalytic system is a key step in the development of practical high-temperature monooxygenase systems. PMID:12392414

Puchkaev, Andrei V; Wakagi, Takayoshi; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R

2002-10-30

365

A twin-track approach has optimized proton and hydride transfer by dynamically coupled tunneling during the evolution of protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase.  

PubMed

Protein dynamics are crucial for realizing the catalytic power of enzymes, but how enzymes have evolved to achieve catalysis is unknown. The light-activated enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) catalyzes sequential hydride and proton transfers in the photoexcited and ground states, respectively, and is an excellent system for relating the effects of motions to catalysis. Here, we have used the temperature dependence of isotope effects and solvent viscosity measurements to analyze the dynamics coupled to the hydride and proton transfer steps in three cyanobacterial PORs and a related plant enzyme. We have related the dynamic profiles of each enzyme to their evolutionary origin. Motions coupled to light-driven hydride transfer are conserved across all POR enzymes, but those linked to thermally activated proton transfer are variable. Cyanobacterial PORs require complex and solvent-coupled dynamic networks to optimize the proton donor-acceptor distance, but evolutionary pressures appear to have minimized such networks in plant PORs. POR from Gloeobacter violaceus has features of both the cyanobacterial and plant enzymes, suggesting that the dynamic properties have been optimized during the evolution of POR. We infer that the differing trajectories in optimizing a catalytic structure are related to the stringency of the chemistry catalyzed and define a functional adaptation in which active site chemistry is protected from the dynamic effects of distal mutations that might otherwise impact negatively on enzyme catalysis. PMID:21317291

Heyes, Derren J; Levy, Colin; Sakuma, Michiyo; Robertson, David L; Scrutton, Nigel S

2011-04-01

366

Sj?gren-Larsson syndrome. Deficient activity of the fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase component of fatty alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase in cultured fibroblasts.  

PubMed Central

Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) is an inherited disorder associated with impaired fatty alcohol oxidation due to deficient activity of fatty alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase (FAO). FAO is a complex enzyme which consists of two separate proteins that sequentially catalyze the oxidation of fatty alcohol to fatty aldehyde and fatty acid. To determine which enzymatic component of FAO was deficient in SLS, we assayed fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH) and fatty alcohol dehydrogenase in cultured fibroblasts from seven unrelated SLS patients. All SLS cells were selectively deficient in the FALDH component of FAO, and had normal activity of fatty alcohol dehydrogenase. The extent of FALDH deficiency in SLS cells depended on the aliphatic aldehyde used as substrate, ranging from 62% of mean normal activity using propionaldehyde as substrate to 8% of mean normal activity with octadecanal. FALDH activity in obligate SLS heterozygotes was partially decreased to 49 +/- 7% of mean normal activity using octadecanal as substrate. Differential centrifugation studies in fibroblasts indicated that this FALDH enzyme was largely particulate; soluble FALDH activity was normal in SLS cells. Intact SLS fibroblasts oxidized octadecanol to fatty acid at less than 10% of the normal rate, but oxidized free octadecanal normally, suggesting that the FALDH affected in SLS is chiefly involved in the oxidation of fatty alcohol to fatty acid. These results show that the primary enzymatic defect in SLS is the FALDH component of the FAO complex, which leads to deficient oxidation of fatty aldehyde derived from fatty alcohol.

Rizzo, W B; Craft, D A

1991-01-01

367

The MoxR ATPase RavA and Its Cofactor ViaA Interact with the NADH:Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase I in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

MoxR ATPases are widespread throughout bacteria and archaea. The experimental evidence to date suggests that these proteins have chaperone-like roles in facilitating the maturation of dedicated protein complexes that are functionally diverse. In Escherichia coli, the MoxR ATPase RavA and its putative cofactor ViaA are found to exist in early stationary-phase cells at 37°C at low levels of about 350 and 90 molecules per cell, respectively. Both proteins are predominantly localized to the cytoplasm, but ViaA was also unexpectedly found to localize to the cell membrane. Whole genome microarrays and synthetic lethality studies both indicated that RavA-ViaA are genetically linked to Fe-S cluster assembly and specific respiratory pathways. Systematic analysis of mutant strains of ravA and viaA indicated that RavA-ViaA sensitizes cells to sublethal concentrations of aminoglycosides. Furthermore, this effect was dependent on RavA's ATPase activity, and on the presence of specific subunits of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase I (Nuo Complex, or Complex I). Importantly, both RavA and ViaA were found to physically interact with specific Nuo subunits. We propose that RavA-ViaA facilitate the maturation of the Nuo complex.

Wong, Keith S.; Snider, Jamie D.; Graham, Chris; Greenblatt, Jack F.; Emili, Andrew; Babu, Mohan; Houry, Walid A.

2014-01-01

368

The Role and Specificity of the Catalytic and Regulatory Cation-binding Sites of the Na+-pumping NADH:Quinone Oxidoreductase from Vibrio cholerae*  

PubMed Central

The Na+-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase is the entry site for electrons into the respiratory chain and the main sodium pump in Vibrio cholerae and many other pathogenic bacteria. In this work, we have employed steady-state and transient kinetics, together with equilibrium binding measurements to define the number of cation-binding sites and characterize their roles in the enzyme. Our results show that sodium and lithium ions stimulate enzyme activity, and that Na+-NQR enables pumping of Li+, as well as Na+ across the membrane. We also confirm that the enzyme is not able to translocate other monovalent cations, such as potassium or rubidium. Although potassium is not used as a substrate, Na+-NQR contains a regulatory site for this ion, which acts as a nonessential activator, increasing the activity and affinity for sodium. Rubidium can bind to the same site as potassium, but instead of being activated, enzyme turnover is inhibited. Activity measurements in the presence of both sodium and lithium indicate that the enzyme contains at least two functional sodium-binding sites. We also show that the binding sites are not exclusively responsible for ion selectivity, and other steps downstream in the mechanism also play a role. Finally, equilibrium-binding measurements with 22Na+ show that, in both its oxidized and reduced states, Na+-NQR binds three sodium ions, and that the affinity for sodium is the same for both of these states.

Juarez, Oscar; Shea, Michael E.; Makhatadze, George I.; Barquera, Blanca

2011-01-01

369

Steady-state kinetic mechanism of the proline:ubiquinone oxidoreductase activity of proline utilization A (PutA) from Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

The multifunctional proline utilization A (PutA) flavoenzyme from Escherichia coli performs the oxidation of proline to glutamate in two catalytic steps using separate proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) and ?(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) dehydrogenase domains. In the first reaction, the oxidation of proline is coupled to the reduction of ubiquinone (CoQ) by the PRODH domain, which has a ?(8)?(8)-barrel structure that is conserved in bacterial and eukaryotic PRODH enzymes. The structural requirements of the benzoquinone moiety were examined by steady-state kinetics using CoQ analogs. PutA displayed activity with all the analogs tested; the highest k(cat)/K(m) was obtained with CoQ(2). The kinetic mechanism of the PRODH reaction was investigated use a variety of steady-state approaches. Initial velocity patterns measured using proline and CoQ(1), combined with dead-end and product inhibition studies, suggested a two-site ping-pong mechanism for PutA. The kinetic parameters for PutA were not strongly influenced by solvent viscosity suggesting that diffusive steps do not significantly limit the overall reaction rate. In summary, the kinetic data reported here, along with analysis of the crystal structure data for the PRODH domain, suggest that the proline:ubiquinone oxidoreductase reaction of PutA occurs via a rapid equilibrium ping-pong mechanism with proline and ubiquinone binding at two distinct sites. PMID:22040654

Moxley, Michael A; Tanner, John J; Becker, Donald F

2011-12-15

370

Sulindac compounds facilitate the cytotoxicity of ?-lapachone by up-regulation of NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase in human lung cancer cells.  

PubMed

?-lapachone, a major component in an ethanol extract of Tabebuia avellanedae bark, is a promising potential therapeutic drug for various tumors, including lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In the first part of this study, we found that apoptotic cell death induced in lung cancer cells by high concentrations of ?-lapachone was mediated by increased activation of the pro-apoptotic factor JNK and decreased activation of the cell survival/proliferation factors PI3K, AKT, and ERK. In addition, ?-lapachone toxicity was positively correlated with the expression and activity of NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) in the tumor cells. In the second part, we found that the FDA-approved non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug sulindac and its metabolites, sulindac sulfide and sulindac sulfone, increased NQO1 expression and activity in the lung adenocarcinoma cell lines CL1-1 and CL1-5, which have lower NQO1 levels and lower sensitivity to ?-lapachone treatment than the A549 cell lines, and that inhibition of NQO1 by either dicoumarol treatment or NQO1 siRNA knockdown inhibited this sulindac-induced increase in ?-lapachone cytotoxicity. In conclusion, sulindac and its metabolites synergistically increase the anticancer effects of ?-lapachone primarily by increasing NQO1 activity and expression, and these two drugs may provide a novel combination therapy for lung cancers. PMID:24505400

Kung, Hsiu-Ni; Weng, Tsai-Yun; Liu, Yu-Lin; Lu, Kuo-Shyan; Chau, Yat-Pang

2014-01-01

371

Flavodoxin cofactor binding induces structural changes that are required for protein-protein interactions with NADP(+) oxidoreductase and pyruvate formate-lyase activating enzyme.  

PubMed

Flavodoxin (Fld) conformational changes, thermal stability, and cofactor binding were studied using circular dichroism (CD), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and limited proteolysis. Thermodynamics of apo and holo-Fld folding were examined to discern the features of this important electron transfer protein and to provide data on apo-Fld. With the exception of fluorescence and UV-vis binding experiments with its cofactor flavin mononucleotide (FMN), apo-Fld is almost completely uncharacterized in Escherichia coli. Fld is more structured when the FMN cofactor is bound; the association is tight and driven by enthalpy of binding. Surface plasmon resonance binding experiments were carried out under anaerobic conditions for both apo- and holo-Fld and demonstrate the importance of structure and conformation for the interaction with binding partners. Holo-Fld is capable of associating with NADP(+)-dependent flavodoxin oxidoreductase (FNR) and pyruvate formate-lyase activating enzyme (PFL-AE) whereas there is no detectable interaction between apo-Fld and either protein. Limited proteolysis experiments were analyzed by LC-MS to identify the regions in Fld that are involved in conformation changes upon cofactor binding. Docking software was used to model the Fld/PFL-AE complex to understand the interactions between these two proteins and gain insight into electron transfer reactions from Fld to PFL-AE. PMID:24016774

Crain, Adam V; Broderick, Joan B

2013-12-01

372

Identification, design and biological evaluation of heterocyclic quinolones targeting Plasmodium falciparum type II NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (PfNDH2).  

PubMed

Following a program undertaken to identify hit compounds against NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (PfNDH2), a novel enzyme target within the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, hit to lead optimization led to identification of CK-2-68, a molecule suitable for further development. In order to reduce ClogP and improve solubility of CK-2-68 incorporation of a variety of heterocycles, within the side chain of the quinolone core, was carried out, and this approach led to a lead compound SL-2-25 (8b). 8b has IC(50)s in the nanomolar range versus both the enzyme and whole cell P. falciparum (IC(50) = 15 nM PfNDH2; IC(50) = 54 nM (3D7 strain of P. falciparum) with notable oral activity of ED(50)/ED(90) of 1.87/4.72 mg/kg versus Plasmodium berghei (NS Strain) in a murine model of malaria when formulated as a phosphate salt. Analogues in this series also demonstrate nanomolar activity against the bc(1) complex of P. falciparum providing the potential added benefit of a dual mechanism of action. The potent oral activity of 2-pyridyl quinolones underlines the potential of this template for further lead optimization studies. PMID:22364417

Leung, Suet C; Gibbons, Peter; Amewu, Richard; Nixon, Gemma L; Pidathala, Chandrakala; Hong, W David; Pacorel, Bénédicte; Berry, Neil G; Sharma, Raman; Stocks, Paul A; Srivastava, Abhishek; Shone, Alison E; Charoensutthivarakul, Sitthivut; Taylor, Lee; Berger, Olivier; Mbekeani, Alison; Hill, Alasdair; Fisher, Nicholas E; Warman, Ashley J; Biagini, Giancarlo A; Ward, Stephen A; O'Neill, Paul M

2012-03-01

373

Electron transport chain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria is inhibited by H2O2 at succinate-cytochrome c oxidoreductase level without lipid peroxidation involvement  

PubMed Central

The deleterious effects of H2O2 on the electron transport chain of yeast mitochondria and on mitochondrial lipid peroxidation were evaluated. Exposure to H2O2 resulted in inhibition of the oxygen consumption in the uncoupled and phosphorylating states to 69% and 65%, respectively. The effect of H2O2 on the respiratory rate was associated with an inhibition of succinate-ubiquinone and succinate-DCIP oxidoreductase activities. Inhibitory effect of H2O2 on respiratory complexes was almost completely recovered by ?-mercaptoethanol treatment. H2O2 treatment resulted in full resistance to QO site inhibitor myxothiazol and thus it is suggested that the quinol oxidase site (QO) of complex III is the target for H2O2. H2O2 did not modify basal levels of lipid peroxidation in yeast mitochondria. However, H2O2 addition to rat brain and liver mitochondria induced an increase in lipid peroxidation. These results are discussed in terms of the known physiological differences between mammalian and yeast mitochondria.

CORTES-ROJO, CHRISTIAN; CALDERON-CORTES, ELIZABETH; CLEMENTE-GUERRERO, MONICA; MANZO-AVALOS, SALVADOR; URIBE, SALVADOR; BOLDOGH, ISTVAN; SAAVEDRA-MOLINA, ALFREDO

2011-01-01

374

Biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyalkanoates) by recombinant bacteria expressing the PHA synthase gene phaC1 from Pseudomonas sp. 61-3.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas sp. 61-3 accumulated a blend of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] homopolymer and a random copolymer consisting of 3-hydroxyalkanoate (3HA) units of 4-12 carbon atoms. The genes encoding beta-ketothiolase (PhbA(Re)) and NADPH-dependent acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (PhbB(Re)) from Ralstonia eutropha were expressed under the control of promoters for Pseudomonas sp. 61-3 pha locus or R. eutropha phb operon together with phaC1(Ps) gene (PHA synthase 1 gene) from Pseudomonas sp. 61-3 in PHA-negative mutants P. putida GPp104 and R. eutropha PHB(-4) to produce copolyesters [P(3HB-co-3HA)] consisting of 3HB and medium-chain-length 3HA units of 6-12 carbon atoms