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The housekeeping gene xanthine oxidoreductase is necessary for milk fat  

E-print Network

, 2002. Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is a housekeeping gene that encodes a molybdenum iron-sulfur flavin and catalytically independent subunits, each containing two [2Fe­2S] groups, one FAD, and one molybdopterin

Capecchi, Mario R.


NADPH-dependent reductive biotransformation with Escherichia coli and its pfkA deletion mutant: influence on global gene expression and role of oxygen supply.  


An Escherichia coli ?pfkA mutant lacking the major phosphofructokinase possesses a partially cyclized pentose phosphate pathway leading to an increased NADPH per glucose ratio. This effect decreases the amount of glucose required for NADPH regeneration in reductive biotransformations, such as the conversion of methyl acetoacetate (MAA) to (R)-methyl 3-hydroxybutyrate (MHB) by an alcohol dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus brevis. Here, global transcriptional analyses were performed to study regulatory responses during reductive biotransformation. DNA microarray analysis revealed amongst other things increased expression of soxS, supporting previous results indicating that a high NADPH demand contributes to the activation of SoxR, the transcriptional activator of soxS. Furthermore, several target genes of the ArcAB two-component system showed a lower mRNA level in the reference strain than in the ?pfkA mutant, pointing to an increased QH2 /Q ratio in the reference strain. This prompted us to analyze yields and productivities of MAA reduction to MHB under different oxygen regimes in a bioreactor. Under anaerobic conditions, the specific MHB production rates of both strains were comparable (7.4?±?0.2?mmolMHB ?h(-1) ?gcdw (-1) ) and lower than under conditions of 15% dissolved oxygen, where those of the reference strain (12.8?mmol?h(-1) ?gcdw (-1) ) and of the ?pfkA mutant (11.0?mmol?h(-1) ?gcdw (-1) ) were 73% and 49% higher. While the oxygen transfer rate (OTR) of the reference strain increased after the addition of MAA, presumably due to the oxidation of the acetate accumulated before MAA addition, the OTR of the ?pfkA strain strongly decreased, indicating a very low respiration rate despite sufficient oxygen supply. The latter effect can likely be attributed to a restricted conversion of NADPH into NADH via the soluble transhydrogenase SthA, as the enzyme is outcompeted in the presence of MAA by the recombinant NADPH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase. The differences in respiration rates can explain the suggested higher ArcAB activity in the reference strain. PMID:24771245

Siedler, Solvej; Bringer, Stephanie; Polen, Tino; Bott, Michael



A NADPH-dependent (S)-imine reductase (SIR) from Streptomyces sp. GF3546 for asymmetric synthesis of optically active amines: purification, characterization, gene cloning, and expression.  


A NADPH-dependent (S)-imine reductase (SIR) was purified to be homogeneous from the cell-free extract of Streptomyces sp. GF3546. SIR appeared to be a homodimer protein with subunits of 30.5 kDa based on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and HPLC gel filtration. It also catalyzed the (S)-enantioselective reduction of not only 2-methyl-1-pyrroline (2-MPN) but also 1-methyl-3,4-dihydroisoquinoline and 6,7-dimethoxy-1-methyl-3,4-dihydroisoquinoline. Specific activities for their imines were 130, 44, and 2.6 nmol?min(-1)?mg(-1), and their optical purities were 92.7 % ee, 96.4 % ee, and >99 % ee, respectively. Using a NADPH-regenerating system, 10 mM 2-MPN was converted to amine with 100 % conversion and 92 % ee after 24 h. The amino acid sequence analysis revealed that SIR showed about 60 % identity to 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase. However, it showed only 37 % identity with Streptomyces sp. GF3587 (R)-imine reductase. Expression of SIR in Escherichia coli was achieved, and specific activity of the cell-free extract was about two times higher than that of the cell-free extract of Streptomyces sp. GF3546. PMID:23263364

Mitsukura, Koichi; Kuramoto, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Toyokazu; Kimoto, Norihiro; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Nagasawa, Toru



Functional characterization of three genes encoding putative oxidoreductases required for cercosporin toxin biosynthesis in the fungus Cercospora nicotianae.  


Cercosporin is a non-host-selective, photoactivated polyketide toxin produced by many phytopathogenic Cercospora species, which plays a crucial role during pathogenesis on host plants. Upon illumination, cercosporin converts oxygen molecules to toxic superoxide and singlet oxygen that damage various cellular components and induce lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage. Three genes (CTB5, CTB6 and CTB7) encoding putative FAD/FMN- or NADPH-dependent oxidoreductases in the cercosporin toxin biosynthetic pathway of C. nicotianae were functionally analysed. Replacement of each gene via double recombination was utilized to create null mutant strains that were completely impaired in cercosporin production as a consequence of specific interruption at the CTB5, CTB6 or CTB7 locus. Expression of CTB1, CTB5, CTB6, CTB7 and CTB8 was drastically reduced or nearly abolished when CTB5, CTB6 or CTB7 was disrupted. Production of cercosporin was revived when a functional gene cassette was introduced into the respective mutants. All ctb5, ctb6 and ctb7 null mutants retained wild-type levels of resistance against toxicity of cercosporin or singlet-oxygen-generating compounds, indicating that none of the genes plays a role in self-protection. PMID:17660442

Chen, Hui-Qin; Lee, Miin-Huey; Chung, Kuang-Ren



Characterization of the gene encoding hydroxylamine oxidoreductase in Nitrosomonas europaea.  

PubMed Central

Hydroxylamine oxidoreductase (HAO) catalyzes the oxidation of hydroxylamine to nitrite in Nitrosomonas europaea. The electrons released in the reaction are partitioned to ammonium monooxygenase and to the respiratory chain. The immediate acceptor of electrons from HAO is believed to be cytochrome c-554 (Cyt c-554). We have isolated a genomic DNA fragment containing the structural gene encoding HAO (hao) and a part of the gene for Cyt c-554. The nucleotide sequence of hao was determined, and its transcription was analyzed. The open reading frame (ORF) encodes amino acid sequences matching the purified peptides of HAO. A 64.28-kDa protein is encoded in this ORF, in close agreement with the empirically determined molecular mass of 63 kDa. The N terminus was located 24 amino acids from the start codon, suggesting the presence of a leader sequence. The putative eight heme-binding peptides were localized in this ORF. The gene for Cyt c-554 was located 1,200 bp downstream from the 3' end of hao. An ORF was identified in the upstream region from hao and may encode a protein of unknown function. Data bank searches did not reveal proteins with substantial similarities to HAO, but they did reveal similarities between Cyt c-554 and other c-type cytochromes. Images PMID:8288544

Sayavedra-Soto, L A; Hommes, N G; Arp, D J



Evolutionary dynamics of light-independent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase genes in the secondary plastids of cryptophyte algae.  


Plastid genes encoding light-independent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (LIPOR) subunits were isolated from cryptophyte algae, the first example of such genes in plastids of secondary endosymbiotic origin. The presence of functional and nonfunctional copies of LIPOR genes in cryptophytes suggests that light-independent chlorophyll biosynthesis is a nonessential pathway in these organisms. PMID:18178774

Fong, Anna; Archibald, John M



NADPH-dependent coenzyme Q reductase is the main enzyme responsible for the reduction of non-mitochondrial CoQ in cells.  


We purified an NADPH-dependent coenzyme Q reductase (NADPH-CoQ reductase) in rat liver cytosol and compared its enzymatic properties with those of the other CoQ10 reductases such as NADPH: quinone acceptor oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), lipoamide dehydrogenase, thioredoxine reductase and glutathione reductase. NADPH-CoQ reductase was the only enzyme that preferred NADPH to NADH as an electron donor and was also different from the other CoQ10 reductases in the sensitivities to its inhibitors and stimulators. Especially, Zn2+ was the most powerful inhibitor for NADPH-CoQ reductase, but CoQ10 reduction by the other CoQ10 reductases could not be inhibited by Zn2+. Furthermore, the reduction of the CoQ9 incorporated into HeLa cells was also inhibited by Zn2+ in the presence of pyrithione, a zinc ionophore. Moreover, NQO1 gene silencing in HeLa cells by transfection of a small interfering RNA resulted in lowering of both the NQO1 protein level and the NQO1 activity by about 75%. However, this transfection did not affect the NADPH-CoQ reductase activity and the reduction of CoQ9 incorporated into the cells. These results suggest that the NADPH-CoQ reductase located in cytosol may be the main enzyme responsible for the reduction of non-mitochondrial CoQ in cells. PMID:19096101

Takahashi, Takayuki; Okuno, Masaaki; Okamoto, Tadashi; Kishi, Takeo



Glutaric acidemia type II: gene structure and mutations of the electron transfer flavoprotein:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF:QO) gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutaric acidemia type II is a human inborn error of metabolism which can be due to defects in either subunit of electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) or in ETF:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF:QO), but few disease-causing mutations have been described. The ETF:QO gene is located on 4q33, and contains 13 exons. Primers to amplify these exons are presented, together with mutations identified by

Stephen I Goodman; Robert J Binard; Michael R Woontner; Frank E Frerman



Cloning and molecular characterization of a flavin-dependent oxidoreductase gene from barley.  


Oxophytodienoate reductases (OPRs) are a small group of flavin-dependent oxidoreductases in plants. In this study, a new member of the OPR gene family (HvOPR2) was cloned from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The full-length cDNA of HvOPR2 was 1,206 bp with an open reading frame of 1,101 bp, encoding a 366 amino acids long polypeptide with a predicted molecular weight of 40.52 and a theoretical isoelectric point of 6.21. The corresponding genomic clone of HvOPR2 was isolated using the PCR amplification technique and was found to consist of five exons and four introns. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that the deduced HvOPR2 has a considerable homology with other plant OPRs and possessed the flavin oxidoreductase/NADH oxidase substrate-binding domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that HvOPR2 codes for the OPR of subgroup I, which contains enzymes that are not required for jasmonic acid biosynthesis. Time-course transcriptional profiling of HvOPR2 was analyzed in response to a variety of abiotic stresses and hormonal treatments by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The HvOPR2 gene was induced in response to drought, hydrogen peroxide, and wounding. Moreover, the corresponding mRNA transcripts were increased in response to jasmonic acid and salicylic acid, but not in response to abscisic acid. These results strongly suggested a role for HvOPR2 in barley defense/response to abiotic stresses and signaling molecules. PMID:24961571

Al-Momany, Bayan; Abu-Romman, Saeid



Fur Activates Expression of the 2-Oxoglutarate Oxidoreductase Genes (oorDABC) in Helicobacter pylori  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori is a highly successful pathogen that colonizes the gastric mucosa of ?50% of the world's population. Within this colonization niche, the bacteria encounter large fluctuations in nutrient availability. As such, it is critical that this organism regulate expression of key metabolic enzymes so that they are present when environmental conditions are optimal for growth. One such enzyme is the 2-oxoglutarate (?-ketoglutarate) oxidoreductase (OOR), which catalyzes the conversion of ?-ketoglutarate to succinyl coenzyme A (succinyl-CoA) and CO2. Previous studies from our group suggested that the genes that encode the OOR are activated by iron-bound Fur (Fe-Fur); microarray analysis showed that expression of oorD, oorA, and oorC was altered in a fur mutant strain of H. pylori. The goal of the present work was to more thoroughly characterize expression of the oorDABC genes in H. pylori as well as to define the role of Fe-Fur in this process. Here we show that these four genes are cotranscribed as an operon and that expression of the operon is decreased in a fur mutant strain. Transcriptional start site mapping and promoter analysis revealed the presence of a canonical extended ?10 element but a poorly conserved ?35 element upstream of the +1. Additionally, we identified a conserved Fur binding sequence ?130 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site. Transcriptional analysis using promoter fusions revealed that this binding sequence was required for Fe-Fur-mediated activation. Finally, fluorescence anisotropy assays indicate that Fe-Fur specifically bound this Fur box with a relatively high affinity (dissociation constant [Kd] = 200 nM). These findings provide novel insight into the genetic regulation of a key metabolic enzyme and add to our understanding of the diverse roles Fur plays in gene regulation in H. pylori. PMID:23002221

Gilbreath, Jeremy J.; West, Abby L.; Pich, Oscar Q.; Carpenter, Beth M.; Michel, Sarah



Ancestral gene fusion in cellobiose dehydrogenases reflects a specific evolution of GMC oxidoreductases in fungi.  


Cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDHs) are extracellular hemoflavoenzymes that are thought to be involved in the degradation of two of the most abundant biopolymers in the biosphere, cellulose and lignin. To date, these enzymes, consisting of a cytochrome domain and a flavin domain, have been detected and sequenced exclusively in the kingdom of fungi. Independent phylogenetic analyses of two distinct domains of CDH genes reveal that they evolved in parallel as fused genes. Whereas the cytochrome domains are unique sequence motifs, the flavin domains clearly belong to the glucose-methanol-choline (GMC) oxidoreductase family--an evolution line of widespread flavoproteins extending from the Archae to higher eukaryotes. The most probable unrooted phylogenetic tree obtained from our analysis of 52 selected GMC members reveals five principal evolutionary branches: cellobiose dehydrogenase, cholesterol oxidase (COX), hydroxynitrile lyase, alcohol oxidase (AOX)/glucose oxidase (GOX)/choline dehydrogenase, and a branch of dehydrogenases with various specificities containing also an Archaeon open reading frame (ORF). Cellobiose dehydrogenases cluster with cholesterol oxidases and the clade of various specificities, whereas hydroxynitrile lyases are closely related to glucose oxidases, alcohol oxidases, and choline dehydrogenases. The results indicate that the evolutionary line from a primordial GMC flavoprotein to extant cellobiose dehydrogenases was augmented after an early acquisition of the cytochrome domain to form two distinct branches for basidiomycetes and ascomycetes. One ascomycetous evolutionary line of CDHs has acquired a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) of type 1, the sequence of which is similar to that of corresponding domains in several glycosidases. This is the first attempt towards a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of cellobiose dehydrogenases. PMID:15302401

Zámocký, Marcel; Hallberg, Martin; Ludwig, Roland; Divne, Christina; Haltrich, Dietmar



Dramatic down-regulation of oxidoreductases in human hepatocellular carcinoma hepG2 cells: proteomics and gene ontology unveiling new frontiers in cancer enzymology  

PubMed Central

Background Oxidoreductases are enzymes that catalyze many redox reactions in normal and neoplastic cells. Their actions include catalysis of the transformation of free, neutral oxygen gas into oxygen free radicals, superoxide, hydroperoxide, singlet oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. These activated forms of oxygen contribute to oxidative stress that modifies lipids, proteins, DNA and carbohydrates. On the other hand, oxidoreductases constitute one of the most important free radical scavenger systems typified by catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. In this work, proteomics, Gene Ontology mapping and Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAG) are employed to detect and quantify differential oxidoreductase enzyme expressions between HepG2 cells and normal human liver tissues. Results For the set of bioinformatics calculations whose BLAST searches are performed using the BLAST program BLASTP 2.2.13 [Nov-27-2005], DAG of the Gene Ontology's Molecular Function annotations show that oxidoreductase activity parent node of the liver proteome contains 331 annotated protein sequences, 7 child nodes and an annotation score of 188.9, whereas that of HepG2 cells has 188 annotated protein sequences, 3 child nodes and an annotation score of only 91.9. Overwhelming preponderance of oxidoreductases in the liver is additionally supported by the isomerase DAGs: nearly all the reactions described in the normal liver isomerase DAG are oxidoreductase isomerization reactions, whereas only one of the three child nodes in the HepG2 isomerase DAG is oxidoreductase. Upon normalization of the annotation scores to the parent Molecular Function nodes, oxidoreductases are down-regulated in HepG2 cells by 58%. Similarly, for the set of bioinformatics calculations whose BLAST searches are carried out using BLASTP 2.2.15 [Oct-15-2006], oxidoreductases are down-regulated in HepG2 cells by 56%. Conclusion Proteomics and Gene Ontology reveal, for the first time, differential enzyme activities between HepG2 cells and normal human liver tissues, which may be a promising new prognostic marker of Hepatocellular carcinoma. Two independent sets of bioinformatics calculations that employ two BLAST program versions, and searched different databases, arrived at essentially the same conclusion: oxidoreductases are down-regulated in HepG2 cells by approximately 57%, when compared to normal human liver tissues. Down-regulation of oxidoreductases in hepatoma is additionally supported by Gene Ontology analysis of isomerises. PMID:18950483

Ngoka, Lambert CM



Posttranslational influence of NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase C on enzymes in tetrapyrrole synthesis.  


The NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase C (NTRC) is involved in redox-related regulatory processes in chloroplasts and nonphotosynthetic active plastids. Together with 2-cysteine peroxiredoxin, it forms a two-component peroxide-detoxifying system that acts as a reductant under stress conditions. NTRC stimulates in vitro activity of magnesium protoporphyrin IX monomethylester (MgPMME) cyclase, most likely by scavenging peroxides. Reexamination of tetrapyrrole intermediate levels of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) knockout ntrc reveals lower magnesium protoporphyrin IX (MgP) and MgPMME steady-state levels, the substrate and the product of MgP methyltransferase (CHLM) preceding MgPMME cyclase, while MgP strongly accumulates in mutant leaves after 5-aminolevulinic acid feeding. The ntrc mutant has a reduced capacity to synthesize 5-aminolevulinic acid and reduced CHLM activity compared with the wild type. Although transcript levels of genes involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis are not significantly altered in 2-week-old ntrc seedlings, the contents of glutamyl-transfer RNA reductase1 (GluTR1) and CHLM are reduced. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay confirms a physical interaction of NTRC with GluTR1 and CHLM. While ntrc contains partly oxidized CHLM, the wild type has only reduced CHLM. As NTRC also stimulates CHLM activity in vitro, it is proposed that NTRC has a regulatory impact on the redox status of conserved cysteine residues of CHLM. It is hypothesized that a deficiency of NTRC leads to a lower capacity to reduce cysteine residues of GluTR1 and CHLM, affecting the stability and, thereby, altering the activity in the entire tetrapyrrole synthesis pathway. PMID:23569108

Richter, Andreas S; Peter, Enrico; Rothbart, Maxi; Schlicke, Hagen; Toivola, Jouni; Rintamäki, Eevi; Grimm, Bernhard



A case of Antley-Bixler syndrome caused by compound heterozygous mutations of the cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase gene.  


Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS) is a skeletal malformation syndrome primarily affecting the skull and limbs. Although causal mutations in the FGFR2 gene have been found in some patients, mutations in the electron donor enzyme P450 oxidoreductase gene (POR) have recently been found to cause ABS in other patients. In addition to skeletal malformations, POR deficiency also causes glucocorticoid deficiency and congenital adrenal hyperplasia with ambiguous genitalia in both sexes. Here, we report on a 7-month-old Korean girl with ABS and ambiguous genitalia who was confirmed by POR gene analysis. Our patient showed typical skeletal findings with brachycephaly, mid-face hypoplasia, and radiohumeral synostosis. She also had partial labial fusion and a single urogenital orifice, as well as increased 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone levels, suggesting a 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Cortisol and DHEA-sulfate response to rapid adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation was inadequate. Direct sequencing of the POR gene revealed compound heterozygous mutations (I444fsX449 and R457H). This is the first report of a Korean patient with ABS caused by POR gene mutations. PMID:18853185

Ko, Jung Min; Cheon, Chong-Kun; Kim, Gu-Hwan; Yoo, Han-Wook



The Aflatoxin Biosynthesis Cluster Gene, aflX, Encodes an Oxidoreductase Involved in Conversion of Versicolorin A to Demethylsterigmatocystin  

PubMed Central

Biosynthesis of the toxic and carcinogenic aflatoxins by the fungus Aspergillus flavus is a complicated process involving more that 27 enzymes and regulatory factors encoded by a clustered group of genes. Previous studies found that three enzymes, encoded by verA, ver-1, and aflY, are required for conversion of versicolorin A (VA), to demethylsterigmatocystin. We now show that a fourth enzyme, encoded by the previously uncharacterized gene, aflX (ordB), is also required for this conversion. A homolog of this gene, stcQ, is present in the A. nidulans sterigmatocystin (ST) biosynthesis cluster. Disruption of aflX in Aspergillus flavus gave transformants that accumulated ?4-fold more VA and fourfold less aflatoxin than the untransformed strain. Southern and Northern blot analyses confirmed that aflX was the only gene disrupted in these transformants. Feeding ST or O-methylsterigmatocystin, but not VA or earlier precursor metabolites, restored normal levels of AF production. The protein encoded by aflX is predicted to have domains typical of an NADH-dependent oxidoreductase. It has 27% amino acid identity to a protein encoded by the aflatoxin cluster gene, aflO (avfA). Some of domains in the protein are similar to those of epoxide hydrolases. PMID:16461654

Cary, Jeffrey W.; Ehrlich, Kenneth C.; Bland, John M.; Montalbano, Beverly G.



The pc-1 phenotype of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii results from a deletion mutation in the nuclear gene for NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pc-1 mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been shown to be incapable of protochlorophyllide photoconversion in vivo and is thought to be defective in light-dependent NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase activity. We have isolated and characterized the nuclear genes encoding this enzyme from wild-type and pc-1 mutant Chlamydomonas cells. The wild-type CRlpcr-1 gene encodes a 397 amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal

Jianming Li; Michael P. Tirnko



Synergistic effect of NADH on NADPH-dependent acetaminophen activation in liver microsomes and its inhibition by cyanide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of NADH and cyanide on NADPH-dependent acetaminophen activation in rat and mouse liver microsomes were studied. In both rat and mouse microsomes, NADPH-dependent acetaminophen-glutathione conjugate production was synergistically enhanced by the addition of NADH, whereas NADH alone did not initiate this reaction. The data suggest that the second electron in this reaction may be transferred from NADH. The

Chifumi Sato; Fumiaki Marumo



Cloning, sequencing, and analysis of a gene cluster from Chelatobacter heintzii ATCC 29600 encoding nitrilotriacetate monooxygenase and NADH:flavin mononucleotide oxidoreductase.  

PubMed Central

Nitrilotriacetate (NTA) is an important chelating agent in detergents and has also been used extensively in processing radionuclides. In Chelatobacter heintzii ATCC 29600, biodegradation of NTA is initiated by NTA monooxygenase that oxidizes NTA to iminodiacetate and glyoxylate. The NTA monooxygenase activity requires two component proteins, component A and component B, but the function of each component is unclear. We have cloned and sequenced a gene cluster encoding components A and B (nmoA and nmoB) and two additional open reading frames, nmoR and nmoT, downstream of nmoA. Based on sequence similarities, nmoR and nmoT probably encode a regulatory protein and a transposase, respectively. The NmoA sequence was similar to a monooxygenase that uses reduced flavin mononucleotide (FMNH2) as reductant; NmoB was similar to an NADH:flavin mononucleotide (FMN) oxidoreductase. On the basis of this information, we tested the function of each component. Purified component B was shown to be an NADH:FMN oxidoreductase, and its activity could be separated from that of component A. When the Photobacterium fischeri NADH:FMN oxidoreductase was substituted for component B in the complete reaction, NTA was oxidized, showing that the substrate specificity of the reaction resides in component A. Component A is therefore an NTA monooxygenase that uses FMNH2 and O2 to oxidize NTA, and component B is an NADH:FMN oxidoreductase that provides FMNH2 for NTA oxidation. PMID:9023192

Xu, Y; Mortimer, M W; Fisher, T S; Kahn, M L; Brockman, F J; Xun, L



Development of an NADPH-dependent homophenylalanine dehydrogenase by protein engineering.  


l-Homophenylalanine is a nonproteinogenic amino acid and can be used as a versatile pharmaceutical intermediate. Production of l-homophenylalanine involves amination of the keto acid precursor 2-oxo-4-phenylbutyric acid (2-OPBA), which can be accomplished by bioenzymatic processes. Current biocatalysts for this reaction include transaminases and NADH-dependent phenylalanine dehydrogenases, which are not optimal for metabolic engineering of whole-cell biocatalysis. Here, we report the development of an NADPH-dependent homophenylalanine dehydrogenase by engineering the NADPH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) from Escherichia coli, which provides a new tool for in vitro catalysis and in vivo metabolic engineering. We took a stepwise substrate walking strategy: the first round directed evolution switched GDH's substrate specificity from its natural substrate 2-ketoglutarate to the intermediate target phenylpyruvate, which has similar structure as 2-OPBA; and the second round further improved the enzyme's catalytic efficiency toward the final target 2-OPBA. Compared to wild type GDH, the catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of the final mutant was ?100 fold higher for 2-OPBA and ?3000 fold lower for the original substrate 2-ketoglutarate. When overexpressed in E. coli, the engineered GDH aminated 2-OPBA to l-homophenylalanine more effectively than the transaminases and NADH-dependent phenylalanine dehydrogenase, possibly because it utilizes the strong anabolic driving force NADPH under aerobic condition. PMID:24053171

Li, Han; Liao, James C



Randomly selected suppressor mutations in genes for NADH?:?quinone oxidoreductase-1, which rescue motility of a Salmonella ubiquinone-biosynthesis mutant strain.  


The primary mobile electron-carrier in the aerobic respiratory chain of Salmonella is ubiquinone. Demethylmenaquinone and menaquinone are alternative electron-carriers involved in anaerobic respiration. Ubiquinone biosynthesis was disrupted in strains bearing deletions of the ubiA or ubiE genes. In soft tryptone agar both mutant strains swam poorly. However, the ubiA deletion mutant strain produced suppressor mutant strains with somewhat rescued motility and growth. Six independent suppressor mutants were purified and comparative genome sequence analysis revealed that they each bore a single new missense mutation, which localized to genes for subunits of NADH?:?quinone oxidoreductase-1. Four mutants bore an identical nuoG(Q297K) mutation, one mutant bore a nuoM(A254S) mutation and one mutant bore a nuoN(A444E) mutation. The NuoG subunit is part of the hydrophilic domain of NADH?:?quinone oxidoreductase-1 and the NuoM and NuoN subunits are part of the hydrophobic membrane-embedded domain. Respiration was rescued and the suppressed mutant strains grew better in Luria-Bertani broth medium and could use l-malate as a sole carbon source. The quinone pool of the cytoplasmic membrane was characterized by reversed-phase HPLC. Wild-type cells made ubiquinone and menaquinone. Strains with a ubiA deletion mutation made demethylmenaquinone and menaquinone and the ubiE deletion mutant strain made demethylmenaquinone and 2-octaprenyl-6-methoxy-1,4-benzoquinone; the total quinone pool was reduced. Immunoblotting found increased NADH?:?quinone oxidoreductase-1 levels for ubiquinone-biosynthesis mutant strains and enzyme assays measured electron transfer from NADH to demethylmenaquinone or menaquinone. Under certain growth conditions the suppressor mutations improved electron flow activity of NADH?:?quinone oxidoreductase-1 for cells bearing a ubiA deletion mutation. PMID:24692644

Barker, Clive S; Meshcheryakova, Irina V; Sasaki, Toshio; Roy, Michael C; Sinha, Prem Kumar; Yagi, Takao; Samatey, Fadel A



The Drosophila melanogaster gene for the NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase acyl carrier protein: developmental expression analysis and evidence for alternatively spliced forms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have isolated the Drosophila melanogaster gene encoding the mitochondrial acyl carrier protein (mtACP), a subunit of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase involved in de\\u000a novo fatty acid synthesis in the mitochondrion. This gene expresses two distinct mature transcripts by alternative splicing,\\u000a which encode mature polypeptides of 86 (mtACP1A) and 88 (mtACP1B) amino acids, respectively. Drosophila mtACP1 is 72% identical to mammalian mtACP,

G. Ragone; R. Caizzi; R. Moschetti; P. Barsanti; V. De Pinto; C. Caggese



Catalog of 320 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 20 quinone oxidoreductase and sulfotransferase genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes, transporters, receptors, and other drug\\u000a targets have been widely implicated as contributors to differences among individuals as regards the efficacy and toxicity\\u000a of many medications, as well as the susceptibility to complex diseases. By combining the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique\\u000a with direct sequencing, we screened genomic DNAs from 48 Japa-nese

Aritoshi Iida; Akihiro Sekine; Susumu Saito; Yuri Kitamura; Takuya Kitamoto; Saori Osawa; Chihiro Mishima; Yusuke Nakamura



Expansion and evolution of insect GMC oxidoreductases  

PubMed Central

Background The GMC oxidoreductases comprise a large family of diverse FAD enzymes that share a homologous backbone. The relationship and origin of the GMC oxidoreductase genes, however, was unknown. Recent sequencing of entire genomes has allowed for the evolutionary analysis of the GMC oxidoreductase family. Results Although genes that encode enzyme families are rarely linked in higher eukaryotes, we discovered that the majority of the GMC oxidoreductase genes in the fruit fly (D. melanogaster), mosquito (A. gambiae), honeybee (A. mellifera), and flour beetle (T. castaneum) are located in a highly conserved cluster contained within a large intron of the flotillin-2 (Flo-2) gene. In contrast, the genomes of vertebrates and the nematode C. elegans contain few GMC genes and lack a GMC cluster, suggesting that the GMC cluster and the function of its resident genes are unique to insects or arthropods. We found that the development patterns of expression of the GMC cluster genes are highly complex. Among the GMC oxidoreductases located outside of the GMC gene cluster, the identities of two related enzymes, glucose dehydrogenase (GLD) and glucose oxidase (GOX), are known, and they play major roles in development and immunity. We have discovered that several additional GLD and GOX homologues exist in insects but are remotely similar to fungal GOX. Conclusion We speculate that the GMC oxidoreductase cluster has been conserved to coordinately regulate these genes for a common developmental or physiological function related to ecdysteroid metabolism. Furthermore, we propose that the GMC gene cluster may be the birthplace of the insect GMC oxidoreductase genes. Through tandem duplication and divergence within the cluster, new GMC genes evolved. Some of the GMC genes have been retained in the cluster for hundreds of millions of years while others might have transposed to other regions of the genome. Consistent with this hypothesis, our analysis indicates that insect GOX and GLD arose from a different ancestral GMC gene than that of fungal GOX. PMID:17498303

Iida, Kaori; Cox-Foster, Diana L; Yang, Xiaolong; Ko, Wen-Ya; Cavener, Douglas R



Posttranslational Influence of NADPH-Dependent Thioredoxin Reductase C on Enzymes in Tetrapyrrole Synthesis[W][OA  

PubMed Central

The NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase C (NTRC) is involved in redox-related regulatory processes in chloroplasts and nonphotosynthetic active plastids. Together with 2-cysteine peroxiredoxin, it forms a two-component peroxide-detoxifying system that acts as a reductant under stress conditions. NTRC stimulates in vitro activity of magnesium protoporphyrin IX monomethylester (MgPMME) cyclase, most likely by scavenging peroxides. Reexamination of tetrapyrrole intermediate levels of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) knockout ntrc reveals lower magnesium protoporphyrin IX (MgP) and MgPMME steady-state levels, the substrate and the product of MgP methyltransferase (CHLM) preceding MgPMME cyclase, while MgP strongly accumulates in mutant leaves after 5-aminolevulinic acid feeding. The ntrc mutant has a reduced capacity to synthesize 5-aminolevulinic acid and reduced CHLM activity compared with the wild type. Although transcript levels of genes involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis are not significantly altered in 2-week-old ntrc seedlings, the contents of glutamyl-transfer RNA reductase1 (GluTR1) and CHLM are reduced. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay confirms a physical interaction of NTRC with GluTR1 and CHLM. While ntrc contains partly oxidized CHLM, the wild type has only reduced CHLM. As NTRC also stimulates CHLM activity in vitro, it is proposed that NTRC has a regulatory impact on the redox status of conserved cysteine residues of CHLM. It is hypothesized that a deficiency of NTRC leads to a lower capacity to reduce cysteine residues of GluTR1 and CHLM, affecting the stability and, thereby, altering the activity in the entire tetrapyrrole synthesis pathway. PMID:23569108

Richter, Andreas S.; Peter, Enrico; Rothbart, Maxi; Schlicke, Hagen; Toivola, Jouni; Rintamaki, Eevi; Grimm, Bernhard



Reconstruction of an Acetogenic 2,3-Butanediol Pathway Involving a Novel NADPH-Dependent Primary-Secondary Alcohol Dehydrogenase  

PubMed Central

Acetogenic bacteria use CO and/or CO2 plus H2 as their sole carbon and energy sources. Fermentation processes with these organisms hold promise for producing chemicals and biofuels from abundant waste gas feedstocks while simultaneously reducing industrial greenhouse gas emissions. The acetogen Clostridium autoethanogenum is known to synthesize the pyruvate-derived metabolites lactate and 2,3-butanediol during gas fermentation. Industrially, 2,3-butanediol is valuable for chemical production. Here we identify and characterize the C. autoethanogenum enzymes for lactate and 2,3-butanediol biosynthesis. The putative C. autoethanogenum lactate dehydrogenase was active when expressed in Escherichia coli. The 2,3-butanediol pathway was reconstituted in E. coli by cloning and expressing the candidate genes for acetolactate synthase, acetolactate decarboxylase, and 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase. Under anaerobic conditions, the resulting E. coli strain produced 1.1 ± 0.2 mM 2R,3R-butanediol (23 ?M h?1 optical density unit?1), which is comparable to the level produced by C. autoethanogenum during growth on CO-containing waste gases. In addition to the 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase, we identified a strictly NADPH-dependent primary-secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (CaADH) that could reduce acetoin to 2,3-butanediol. Detailed kinetic analysis revealed that CaADH accepts a range of 2-, 3-, and 4-carbon substrates, including the nonphysiological ketones acetone and butanone. The high activity of CaADH toward acetone led us to predict, and confirm experimentally, that C. autoethanogenum can act as a whole-cell biocatalyst for converting exogenous acetone to isopropanol. Together, our results functionally validate the 2,3-butanediol pathway from C. autoethanogenum, identify CaADH as a target for further engineering, and demonstrate the potential of C. autoethanogenum as a platform for sustainable chemical production. PMID:24657865

Köpke, Michael; Gerth, Monica L.; Maddock, Danielle J.; Mueller, Alexander P.; Liew, FungMin



In Vitro Reconstitution of an NADPH-Dependent Superoxide Reduction Pathway from Pyrococcus furiosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scheme for the detoxification of superoxide in Pyrococcus furiosus has been previously proposed in which superoxide reductase (SOR) reduces (rather than dismutates) superoxide to hydrogen peroxide by using electrons from reduced rubredoxin (Rd). Rd is reduced with electrons from NAD(P)H by the enzyme NAD(P)H: rubredoxin oxidoreductase (NROR). The goal of the present work was to reconstitute this pathway in

Amy M. Grunden; Francis E. Jenney; K. Ma; M. Ji; M. V. Weinberg; M. W. W. Adams



A Single Eubacterial Origin of Eukaryotic Pyruvate:Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase Genes: Implications for the Evolution of Anaerobic Eukaryotes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The iron sulfur protein pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFO) is central to energy metabolism in amitochondriate eukaryotes, including those with hydrogenosomes. Thus, revealing the evolutionary history of PFO is critical to understanding the origin(s) of eukaryote anaerobic energy metabolism. We determined a complete PFO sequence for Spironucleus barkhanus, a large fragment of a PFO sequence from Clostridium pasteurianum,and a fragment of a

David S. Horner; Robert P. Hirt; T. Martin Embley


Role of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase encoded by drgA gene in reduction of exogenous quinones in cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 cells.  


Insertion mutant Ins2 of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, lacking NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQR) encoded by drgA gene, was characterized by higher sensitivity to quinone-type inhibitors (menadione and plumbagin) than wild type (WT) cells. In photoautotrophically grown cyanobacterial cells more than 60% of NADPH:quinone-reductase activity, as well as all NADPH:dinoseb-reductase activity, was associated with the function of NQR. NQR activity was observed only in soluble fraction of cyanobacterial cells, but not in membrane fraction. The effects of menadione and menadiol on the reduction of Photosystem I reaction center (P700(+)) after its photooxidation in the presence of DCMU were studied using the EPR spectroscopy. The addition of menadione increased the rate of P700(+) reduction in WT cells, whereas in Ins2 mutant the reduction of P700(+) was strongly inhibited. In the presence of menadiol the reduction of P700(+) was accelerated both in WT and Ins2 mutant cells. These data suggest that NQR protects the cyanobacterial cells from the toxic effect of exogenous quinones by their reduction to hydroquinones. These data may also indicate the probable functional homology of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 NQR with mammalian and plant NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductases (DT-diaphorases). PMID:15000679

Elanskaya, I V; Grivennikova, V G; Groshev, V V; Kuznetsova, G V; Semina, M E; Timofeev, K N



Three-dimensional Structure and Enzymatic Function of Proapoptotic Human p53-inducible Quinone Oxidoreductase PIG3*  

PubMed Central

Tumor suppressor p53 regulates the expression of p53-induced genes (PIG) that trigger apoptosis. PIG3 or TP53I3 is the only known member of the medium chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily induced by p53 and is used as a proapoptotic marker. Although the participation of PIG3 in the apoptotic pathway is proven, the protein and its mechanism of action were never characterized. We analyzed human PIG3 enzymatic function and found NADPH-dependent reductase activity with ortho-quinones, which is consistent with the classification of PIG3 in the quinone oxidoreductase family. However, the activity is much lower than that of ?-crystallin, a better known quinone oxidoreductase. In addition, we report the crystallographic structure of PIG3, which allowed the identification of substrate- and cofactor-binding sites, with residues fully conserved from bacteria to human. Tyr-59 in ?-crystallin (Tyr-51 in PIG3) was suggested to participate in the catalysis of quinone reduction. However, kinetics of Tyr/Phe and Tyr/Ala mutants of both enzymes demonstrated that the active site Tyr is not catalytic but may participate in substrate binding, consistent with a mechanism based on propinquity effects. It has been proposed that PIG3 contribution to apoptosis would be through oxidative stress generation. We found that in vitro activity and in vivo overexpression of PIG3 accumulate reactive oxygen species. Accordingly, an inactive PIG3 mutant (S151V) did not produce reactive oxygen species in cells, indicating that enzymatically active protein is necessary for this function. This supports that PIG3 action is through oxidative stress produced by its enzymatic activity and provides essential knowledge for eventual control of apoptosis. PMID:19349281

Porté, Sergio; Valencia, Eva; Yakovtseva, Evgenia A.; Borràs, Emma; Shafqat, Naeem; Debreczeny, Judit É.; Pike, Ashley C. W.; Oppermann, Udo; Farrés, Jaume; Fita, Ignacio; Parés, Xavier



Interaction of ferredoxin:NADP+ oxidoreductase with model membranes.  


The ferredoxin:NADP+ oxidoreductase (FNR) is a plant enzyme, catalyzing the last step of photosynthetic linear electron transport, and involved also in cyclic electron transport around photosystem I. In this study we present the first evidence of FNR (isolated from spinach and from wheat) interaction directly with a model membrane without the mediation of any additional protein. The monomolecular layer technique measurements showed a significant increase in surface pressure after the injection of enzyme solution beneath a monolayer consisting of chloroplast lipids: monogalactosyldiacylglycerol or digalactosyldiacylglycerol. An ATR FTIR study revealed also the presence of FNR in a bilayer composed of these lipids. The secondary structure of the protein was significantly impaired by lipids, as with a pH-induced shift. The stabilization of FNR in the presence of lipids leads to an increase in the rate of NADPH-dependent reduction of dibromothymoquinone catalyzed by the enzyme. The biological significance of FNR-membrane interaction is discussed. PMID:17996845

Grzyb, Joanna; Gago?, Mariusz; Gruszecki, Wies?aw I; Bojko, Monika; Strza?ka, Kazimierz



[Expression of drgA gene encoding NAD(P)H:quinone-oxidoreductase in cells of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803].  


The gene drgA of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 encoding soluble NAD(P)H:quinone-oxidoreductase is involved in NADPH oxidation and controls cell sensitivity to nitroaromatic inhibitors as well as resistance to the oxidative stress inducer menadione. The expression of drgA was analyzed by means of Northern blot hybridization and RT-PCR technique. Two transcripts, which gave a positive hybridization signal with a drgA probe were observed in photoautotrophycally grown cells. One of them (0.6 kb) corresponds in size to mRNA read from the drgA gene; another transcript (1.3 kb), to mRNA transcribed from two genes: drgA and slr1718 located upstream of drgA and having homology with genes of the family comB. The expression of genes drgA and slr1718 was repressed during cell incubation in the dark, but the addition of glucose led to a drastically enhanced expression both in the dark and after illumination of cells. Menadione or nitrophenolic herbicide dinoseb did not induce drgA or slr1718 expression. The results obtained suggest that the expression of these genes in the cytoplasm of cyanobacterium cells is regulated by the NADPH content. PMID:17025155

Karandashova, I V; Semina, M E; Muronets, E M; Elanskaia, I V



A geographically widespread plasmid from Thiobacillus ferrooxidans has genes for ferredoxin-, FNR-, prismane- and NADH-oxidoreductase-like proteins which are also located on the chromosome.  


During a search for genes encoding electron transport proteins from a Thiobacillus ferroxidans ATCC 33020 gene bank, a 19.8 kb plasmid, pTF5, which conferred increased sensitivity to the antimicrobial agent metronidazole upon an Escherichia coli mutant, was isolated and cloned in E. coli. The plasmid had an identical restriction enzyme map to a plasmid which has been found in T. ferrooxidans strains isolated from many different parts of the world. The plasmid was present at between two and four copies per genome and contained a region of approximately 5-6 kb which was also found on the chromosome. This region was sequenced and found to have four complete ORFs, which when translated had high percentage amino acid similarity to [3Fe-4S,4Fe-4S] ferredoxins, proteins of the FNR regulator family, prismane-like proteins and the NADH oxidoreductase subunit of a methane monooxygenase. In vitro protein analysis using an E. coli-derived transcription-translation system indicated that three of the four products (FdxA, PsmA and RedA) were expressed in the heterologous system. Ferredoxins, prismane-like proteins and NADH oxidoreductases are redox-active proteins and it is likely that the proteins on pTF5 represent an electron transport system of as yet unknown function. Surprisingly, although genes for redox-active proteins have been isolated from other bacteria by screening gene banks for increased sensitivity to metronidazole, the region of pTF5 containing the genes for these proteins was not responsible for the increase in metronidazole sensitivity conferred by the plasmid. The region of pTF5 which did confer increased metronidazole sensitivity to an E. coli metronidazole-resistant mutant was a 319 bp region of DNA close to the origin of plasmid replication. This region contained no ORFs and was identical to that previously reported for the replicon of a 9.8 kb T. ferrooxidans plasmid, pTF191. PMID:9353917

Dominy, C N; Deane, S M; Rawlings, D E



Dramatic down-regulation of oxidoreductases in human hepatocellular carcinoma hepG2 cells: proteomics and gene ontology unveiling new frontiers in cancer enzymology  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Oxidoreductases are enzymes that catalyze many redox reactions in normal and neoplastic cells. Their actions include catalysis of the transformation of free, neutral oxygen gas into oxygen free radicals, superoxide, hydroperoxide, singlet oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. These activated forms of oxygen contribute to oxidative stress that modifies lipids, proteins, DNA and carbohydrates. On the other hand, oxidoreductases constitute one

Lambert CM Ngoka; Paul L. Foster



Identification of a novel Nrf2-regulated antioxidant response element (ARE) in the mouse NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 gene: reassessment of the ARE consensus sequence.  

PubMed Central

NQO1 [NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1] has an integral role in cellular responses to oxidative stress. The expression of NQO1 is up-regulated in the mouse following challenge with electrophilic chemicals, in an Nrf2 (NF-E2 p45-related factor 2)-dependent fashion, but the molecular basis for this observation remains unexplained. Through characterization of the murine nqo1 5'-upstream region, we now show that Nrf2 regulates this gene directly via an ARE (antioxidant response element) that lies within a 24 bp region spanning nt -444 to -421. A comprehensive mutation study of this ARE revealed that it does not conform to the currently accepted ARE consensus sequence [(5'-TMAnnRTGAYnnnGCRwwww-3', with essential nucleotides shown in capitals); two cytosine residues (shown in bold in the following sequence) that have been designated 'n' previously because they were thought to be redundant (5'-gagTcA C aGTgAGt C ggCAaaatt-3') have now been found to be essential for enhancer activity; two guanines (also shown in bold) previously regarded as essential for ARE function (5'-gagTcACaGT g AGtCg g CAaaatt-3') have proven to be dispensable]. Examination of wild-type and nrf2 (-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts demonstrated that Nrf2 is essential for both constitutive expression of NQO1 and its induction by sulphoraphane. Electrophoretic mobility-shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that Nrf2 associates, in low amounts, with the nqo1 ARE under constitutive conditions, and following sulphoraphane challenge of cells, Nrf2 is recruited to the ARE in substantially greater quantities, as a heterodimer with the small Maf (musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma virus) protein, MafK. Also, MafK was found to bind the nqo1 ARE in an Nrf2-independent fashion, and may contribute to transcriptional repression of the oxidoreductase gene. These findings allow a model for transcriptional control of nqo1 through the ARE to be proposed. Furthermore, our results indicate that distinct AREs have differential sequence requirements, and a universally applicable consensus sequence cannot be derived. PMID:12816537

Nioi, Paul; McMahon, Michael; Itoh, Ken; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Hayes, John D



Identification and cloning of an NADPH-dependent hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA double bond reductase involved in dihydrochalcone formation in Malus×domestica Borkh.  


The apple tree (Malus sp.) is an agriculturally and economically important source of food and beverages. Many of the health beneficial properties of apples are due to (poly)phenolic metabolites that they contain, including various dihydrochalcones. Although many of the genes and enzymes involved in polyphenol biosynthesis are known in many plant species, the specific reactions that lead to the biosynthesis of the dihydrochalcone precursor, p-dihydrocoumaroyl-CoA (3), are unknown. To identify genes involved in the synthesis of these metabolites, existing genome databases of the Rosaceae were screened for apple genes with significant sequence similarity to Arabidopsis alkenal double bond reductases. Herein described are the isolation and characterization of a Malus hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA double bond reductase, which catalyzed the NADPH-dependent reduction of p-coumaroyl-CoA and feruloyl-CoA to p-dihydrocoumaroyl-CoA and dihydroferuloyl-CoA, respectively. Its apparent Km values for p-coumaroyl-CoA, feruloyl-CoA and NADPH were 96.6, 92.9 and 101.3?M, respectively. The Malus double bond reductase preferred feruloyl-CoA to p-coumaroyl-CoA as a substrate by a factor of 2.1 when comparing catalytic efficiencies in vitro. Expression analysis of the hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA double bond reductase gene revealed that its transcript levels showed significant variation in tissues of different developmental stages, but was expressed when expected for involvement in dihydrochalcone formation. Thus, the hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA double bond reductase appears to be responsible for the reduction of the ?,?-unsaturated double bond of p-coumaroyl-CoA, the first step of dihydrochalcone biosynthesis in apple tissues, and may be involved in the production of these compounds. PMID:25152451

Ibdah, Mwafaq; Berim, Anna; Martens, Stefan; Valderrama, Andrea Lorena Herrera; Palmieri, Luisa; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Gang, David R



Identification of two differentially regulated isoforms of protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase ( POR ) from tobacco revealed a wide variety of light- and development-dependent regulations of POR gene expression among angiosperms  

Microsoft Academic Search

NADPH-protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) catalyzes the light-dependent reduction of protochlorophyllide a in the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. Here, we identified two distinct POR cDNAs from tobacco. Both POR isoforms are encoded by a respective single copy gene in tobacco genome. The overall deduced\\u000a amino acid sequences of two tobacco cDNAs, designated here POR1 and POR2, displayed significant identities (?75%), but showed different

Tatsuru Masuda; Naoki Fusada; Toshihiko Shiraishi; Hirofumi Kuroda; Koichiro Awai; Hiroshi Shimada; Hiroyuki Ohta; Ken-ichiro Takamiya



Cell-specific expression of tryptophan decarboxylase and 10-hydroxygeraniol oxidoreductase, key genes involved in camptothecin biosynthesis in Camptotheca acuminata Decne (Nyssaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background Camptotheca acuminata is a major natural source of the terpenoid indole alkaloid camptothecin (CPT). At present, little is known about the cellular distribution of the biosynthesis of CPT, which would be useful knowledge for developing new strategies and technologies for improving alkaloid production. Results The pattern of CPT accumulation was compared with the expression pattern of some genes involved in CPT biosynthesis in C. acuminata [i.e., Ca-TDC1 and Ca-TDC2 (encoding for tryptophan decarboxylase) and Ca-HGO (encoding for 10-hydroxygeraniol oxidoreductase)]. Both CPT accumulation and gene expression were investigated in plants at different degrees of development and in plantlets subjected to drought-stress. In all organs, CPT accumulation was detected in epidermal idioblasts, in some glandular trichomes, and in groups of idioblast cells localized in parenchyma tissues. Drought-stress caused an increase in CPT accumulation and in the number of glandular trichomes containing CPT, whereas no increase in epidermal or parenchymatous idioblasts was observed. In the leaf, Ca-TDC1 expression was detected in some epidermal cells and in groups of mesophyll cells but not in glandular trichomes; in the stem, it was observed in parenchyma cells of the vascular tissue; in the root, no expression was detected. Ca-TDC2 expression was observed exclusively in leaves of plantlets subjected to drought-stress, in the same sites described for Ca-TDC1. In the leaf, Ca-HGO was detected in all chlorenchyma cells; in the stem, it was observed in the same sites described for Ca-TDC1; in the root, no expression was detected. Conclusions The finding that the sites of CPT accumulation are not consistently the same as those in which the studied genes are expressed demonstrates an organ-to-organ and cell-to-cell translocation of CPT or its precursors. PMID:20403175



Overexpression of chloroplast NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase in Arabidopsis enhances leaf growth and elucidates in vivo function of reductase and thioredoxin domains  

PubMed Central

Plant chloroplasts have versatile thioredoxin systems including two thioredoxin reductases and multiple types of thioredoxins. Plastid-localized NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase (NTRC) contains both reductase (NTRd) and thioredoxin (TRXd) domains in a single polypeptide and forms homodimers. To study the action of NTRC and NTRC domains in vivo, we have complemented the ntrc knockout line of Arabidopsis with the wild type and full-length NTRC genes, in which 2-Cys motifs either in NTRd, or in TRXd were inactivated. The ntrc line was also transformed either with the truncated NTRd or TRXd alone. Overexpression of wild-type NTRC promoted plant growth by increasing leaf size and biomass yield of the rosettes. Complementation of the ntrc line with the full-length NTRC gene containing an active reductase but an inactive TRXd, or vice versa, recovered wild-type chloroplast phenotype and, partly, rosette biomass production, indicating that the NTRC domains are capable of interacting with other chloroplast thioredoxin systems. Overexpression of truncated NTRd or TRXd in ntrc background did not restore wild-type phenotype. Modeling of the three-dimensional structure of the NTRC dimer indicates extensive interactions between the NTR domains and the TRX domains further stabilize the dimeric structure. The long linker region between the NTRd and TRXd, however, allows flexibility for the position of the TRXd in the dimer. Supplementation of the TRXd in the NTRC homodimer model by free chloroplast thioredoxins indicated that TRXf is the most likely partner to interact with NTRC. We propose that overexpression of NTRC promotes plant biomass yield both directly by stimulation of chloroplast biosynthetic and protective pathways controlled by NTRC and indirectly via free chloroplast thioredoxins. Our data indicate that overexpression of chloroplast thiol redox-regulator has a potential to increase biofuel yield in plant and algal species suitable for sustainable bioenergy production. PMID:24115951

Toivola, Jouni; Nikkanen, Lauri; Dahlstrom, Kathe M.; Salminen, Tiina A.; Lepisto, Anna; Vignols, hb Florence; Rintamaki, Eevi



Lack of Association between NADPH Quinone Oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) Gene C609T Polymorphism and Lung Cancer: A Case-Control Study and a Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The association between NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) gene C609T polymorphism (rs1800566) and lung cancer has been widely evaluated, and a definitive answer so far is lacking. We first conducted a case-control study to assess this association in northeastern Han Chinese, and then performed a meta-analysis to further address this issue. Methodology/Principal Findings This case-control study involved 684 patients clinically diagnosed as lung cancer and 602 age-matched cancer-free controls from Harbin city, Heilongjiang province, China. Genotyping was conducted using the PCR-LDR (ligase detection reactions) method. Meta-analysis was managed by STATA software. Data and study quality were assessed in duplicate. Our case-control association study indicated no significant difference in the genotype and allele distributions of C609T polymorphism between lung cancer patients and controls, consistent with the results of the further meta-analysis involving 7286 patients and 9167 controls under both allelic (odds ratio (OR)?=?0.99; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.92–1.06; P?=?0.692) and dominant (OR?=?0.98; 95% CI: 0.89–1.08; P?=?0.637) models. However, there was moderate evidence of between-study heterogeneity and low probability of publication bias. Further subgroup analyses by ethnicity, source of controls and sample size detected no positive associations in this meta-analysis. Conclusions Our study in northeastern Han Chinese, along with the meta-analysis, failed to confirm the association of NQO1 gene C609T polymorphism with lung cancer risk, even across different ethnic populations. PMID:23110137

Guo, Shujie; Gao, Min; Li, Xiaobo; Li, Yuqiong; Chu, Shaoli; Zhu, Dingliang; Niu, Wenquan



Identification of a five-oxidoreductase-gene cluster from Acetobacter pasteurianus conferring ethanol-dependent acidification in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Acetobacter pasteurianus, a Gram-negative bacterium belonging to the ?-divison of Proteobacteria, produces acetic acid through ethanol oxidation. A genomic bank of A. pasteurianus 386B DNA was cloned in the low-copy cosmid pRG930Cm vector and the resulting clones were screened for the production of protease using the skimmed-milk agar assay whereby a clearing zone around the inoculated spots indicates casein degradation. Several positive clones were selected and restriction analysis revealed that many contained the same inserts. One clone was further analyzed and the cosmid DNA subjected to in vitro transposon insertion. After electroporation, several clones having lost the capacity to cause casein degradation were isolated and the sequence of the transposon-flanking regions analyzed. The majority of insertions mapped to one gene encoding an NAD(P)+-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) of the PNTB superfamily, whereas one insert was found upstream in a gene encoding an ethanol dehydrogenase. Addition of phenol red to the medium confirmed the ethanol-dependent acidification around the inoculated spots of the clones without transposon insertion, suggesting that casein degradation is due to the production of acetic acid as a result of the combined activities of the alcohol dehydrogenase and ALDH. Quantitative data and pH measurements confirmed a significant acidification, and the presence of acetic acid. PMID:22950009

Garcia-Armisen, Tamara; Vercammen, Ken; Rimaux, Tom; Vrancken, Gino; Vuyst, Luc De; Cornelis, Pierre



Identification of a five-oxidoreductase-gene cluster from Acetobacter pasteurianus conferring ethanol-dependent acidification in Escherichia coli.  


Acetobacter pasteurianus, a Gram-negative bacterium belonging to the ?-divison of Proteobacteria, produces acetic acid through ethanol oxidation. A genomic bank of A. pasteurianus 386B DNA was cloned in the low-copy cosmid pRG930Cm vector and the resulting clones were screened for the production of protease using the skimmed-milk agar assay whereby a clearing zone around the inoculated spots indicates casein degradation. Several positive clones were selected and restriction analysis revealed that many contained the same inserts. One clone was further analyzed and the cosmid DNA subjected to in vitro transposon insertion. After electroporation, several clones having lost the capacity to cause casein degradation were isolated and the sequence of the transposon-flanking regions analyzed. The majority of insertions mapped to one gene encoding an NAD(P)(+)-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) of the PNTB superfamily, whereas one insert was found upstream in a gene encoding an ethanol dehydrogenase. Addition of phenol red to the medium confirmed the ethanol-dependent acidification around the inoculated spots of the clones without transposon insertion, suggesting that casein degradation is due to the production of acetic acid as a result of the combined activities of the alcohol dehydrogenase and ALDH. Quantitative data and pH measurements confirmed a significant acidification, and the presence of acetic acid. PMID:22950009

Garcia-Armisen, Tamara; Vercammen, Ken; Rimaux, Tom; Vrancken, Gino; Vuyst, Luc De; Cornelis, Pierre



Mangrove trees affect the community structure and distribution of anammox bacteria at an anthropogenic-polluted mangrove in the Pearl River Delta reflected by 16S rRNA and hydrazine oxidoreductase (HZO) encoding gene analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacterial community structures were investigated in surface (1–2 cm) and lower (20–21 cm)\\u000a layers of mangrove sediments at sites located immediately to the mangrove trees (S0), 10 m (S1) and 1000 m (S2) away from\\u000a mangrove trees in a polluted area of the Pearl River Delta. At S0, both 16S rRNA and hydrazine oxidoreductase (HZO) encoding\\u000a genes of anammox

Meng Li; Yi-Guo Hong; Hui-Luo Cao; Ji-Dong Gu


Pharmacogenomics of human P450 oxidoreductase  

PubMed Central

Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) supports reactions of microsomal cytochrome P450 which metabolize drugs and steroid hormones. Mutations in POR cause disorders of sexual development. P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD) was initially identified in patients with Antley–Bixler syndrome (ABS) but now it has been established as a separate disorder of sexual development (DSD). Here we are summarizing the work on variations in POR related to metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics. We have compiled mutation data on reported cases of PORD from clinical studies. Mutations found in patients with defective steroid profiles impact metabolism of steroid hormones as well as drugs. Some trends are emerging that establish certain founder mutations in distinct populations, with Japanese (R457H), Caucasian (A287P), and Turkish (399–401) populations showing repeated findings of similar mutations. Most other mutations are found as single occurrences. A large number of different variants in POR gene with more than 130 amino acid changes are now listed in databases. Among the polymorphisms, the A503V is found in about 30% of all alleles but there are some differences across different population groups. PMID:24847272

Pandey, Amit V.; Sproll, Patrick



Alkaloid cluster gene ccsA of the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea encodes chanoclavine I synthase, a flavin adenine dinucleotide-containing oxidoreductase mediating the transformation of N-methyl-dimethylallyltryptophan to chanoclavine I.  


Ergot alkaloids are indole-derived secondary metabolites synthesized by the phytopathogenic ascomycete Claviceps purpurea. In wild-type strains, they are exclusively produced in the sclerotium, a hibernation structure; for biotechnological applications, submerse production strains have been generated by mutagenesis. It was shown previously that the enzymes specific for alkaloid biosynthesis are encoded by a gene cluster of 68.5 kb. This ergot alkaloid cluster consists of 14 genes coregulated and expressed under alkaloid-producing conditions. Although the role of some of the cluster genes in alkaloid biosynthesis could be confirmed by a targeted knockout approach, further functional analyses are needed, especially concerning the early pathway-specific steps up to the production of clavine alkaloids. Therefore, the gene ccsA, originally named easE and preliminarily annotated as coding for a flavin adenine dinucleotide-containing oxidoreductase, was deleted in the C. purpurea strain P1, which is able to synthesize ergot alkaloids in axenic culture. Five independent knockout mutants were analyzed with regard to alkaloid-producing capability. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC), ultrapressure liquid chromatography (UPLC), and mass spectrometry (MS) analyses revealed accumulation of N-methyl-dimethylallyltryptophan (Me-DMAT) and traces of dimethylallyltryptophan (DMAT), the first pathway-specific intermediate. Since other alkaloid intermediates could not be detected, we conclude that deletion of ccsA led to a block in alkaloid biosynthesis beyond Me-DMAT formation. Complementation with a ccsA/gfp fusion construct restored alkaloid biosynthesis. These data indicate that ccsA encodes the chanoclavine I synthase or a component thereof catalyzing the conversion of N-methyl-dimethylallyltryptophan to chanoclavine I. PMID:20118373

Lorenz, Nicole; Olsovská, Jana; Sulc, Miroslav; Tudzynski, Paul



Bacterial NADH-quinone oxidoreductases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NADH-quinone oxidoreductases of the bacterial respiratory chain could be divided in two groups depending on whether they bear an energy-coupling site. Those enzymes that bear the coupling site are designated as NADH dehydrogenase 1 (NDH-1) and those that do not as NADH dehydrogenase 2 (NDH-2). All members of the NDH-1 group analyzed to date are multiple polypeptide enzymes and

Takao Yagi



Quinone Oxidoreductases and Vitamin K Metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitamin K1, K2, and K3 are essential nutrients associated with blood clotting and bone metabolism. Quinone oxidoreductases [NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and NRH:quinone oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2)] are among the selected enzymes that catalyze reduction of vitamin K to vitamin K hydroquinone. NQO1 catalyzes high affinity reduction of vitamin K3 but has only weak affinity for reduction of vitamin K1 and

Xing Gong; Ramana Gutala; Anil K. Jaiswal



Structure and expression of 12-oxophytodienoate reductase (subgroup I) genes in pea, and characterization of the oxidoreductase activities of their recombinant products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, we observed that expression of a pea gene ( S64) encoding an oxophytodienoic acid reductase (OPR) was induced by a suppressor of pea defense responses, secreted by the pea pathogen Mycosphaerella pinodes. Because it is known that OPRs are usually encoded by families of homologous genes, we screened for genomic and cDNA clones encoding members of this putative OPR

H. Matsui; G. Nakamura; Y. Ishiga; H. Toshima; Y. Inagaki; K. Toyoda; T. Shiraishi; Y. Ichinose



Glyceraldehyde3Phosphate Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase from Methanococcus maripaludis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genome sequence of the non-sugar-assimilating mesophile Methanococcus maripaludis contains three genes encoding enzymes: a nonphosphorylating NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydroge- nase (GAPN), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate ferre- doxin oxidoreductase (GAPOR); all these enzymes are potentially capable of catalyzing glyceraldehyde-3- phosphate (G3P) metabolism. GAPOR, whose homologs have been found mainly in archaea, catalyzes the reduction of ferredoxin coupled with oxidation of

Myong-Ok Park; Taeko Mizutani; Patrik R. Jones



Characterization of a rat NADPH-dependent aldo-keto reductase (AKR1B13) induced by oxidative stress.  


A rat aldo-keto reductase (AKR1B13) was identified as a hepatoma-derived protein, exhibiting high sequence identity with mouse fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-induced reductase, AKR1B8. In this study, AKR1B13 was characterized in terms of its enzymatic properties, tissue distribution and regulation. Recombinant AKR1B13 exhibited NADPH-linked reductase activity towards various aldehydes and alpha-dicarbonyl compounds, which include reactive compounds such as methylglyoxal, glyoxal, acrolein, 4-hydroxynonenal and 3-deoxyglucosone. The enzyme exhibited low NADP(+)-linked dehydrogenase activity towards aliphatic and aromatic alcohols, and was inhibited by aldose reductase inhibitors, flavonoids, benzbromarone and hexestrol. Immunochemical and reverse transcription-PCR analyses revealed that the enzyme is expressed in many rat tissues, endothelial cells and fibroblasts. Gene expression in YPEN-1 and NRK cells was up-regulated by treatments with submicromolar concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and 1,4-naphthoquinone, but not with FGF-1, FGF-2, 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone and 17beta-estradiol. These results indicate that AKR1B13 differs from AKR1B8 in tissue distribution and gene regulation, and suggest that it functions as a defense system against oxidative stress in rat tissues. PMID:18845131

Endo, Satoshi; Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Mamiya, Hiroaki; Hara, Akira; Kitade, Yukio; Tajima, Kazuo; El-Kabbani, Ossama



[Novel NADPH-dependent L-aspartate dehydrogenases from the mesophilic nitrogen-fixing bacteria Rhodopseudomonas palustris and Bradyrhizobium japonicum].  


The genes encoding putative L-aspartate dehydrogenases (EC, ADH) from the mesophilic nitrogen-fixing bacteria Rhodopseudomonas palustris and Bradyrhizobium japonicum were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The respective enzymes in the form of hybrid proteins with N-terminal hexahistidine tags were purified to apparent homogeneity. Both enzymes catalyzed in vitro the reductive amination of oxaloacetate to L-aspartate by an order faster than the reverse reaction at a respective pH optimum of 8.0-9.0 and 9.8; also, the enzymes only catalyzed amination under physiological conditions (pH 7.0-8.0). Their specificity to NADPH was higher by 1-2 orders of magnitude than that to NADH. The apparent KM values of ADHs from R. palustris for oxaloacetate, ammonium, and NADPH at pH 9.0 were 9.2, 11.3, and 0.21 mM, respectively, and the corresponding KM values of ADH from B. japonicum were 21, 4.3, and 0.032 mM, respectively. The amination activity of novel ADHs may be important for the fixation of inorganic nitrogen in vivo and used for the construction of a bacterial strain-producer of L-aspartate by metabolic engineering methods. PMID:23795474

Kuvaeva, T M; Katashkina, Zh I; Kivero, A D; Smirnov, S V



Activation of the NADPH-dependent H2O2-generating system in pig thyroid particulate fraction by limited proteolysis and Zn2+ treatment.  

PubMed Central

The NADPH-dependent H2O2-generating system in a pig thyroid particulate fraction requires micromolar concentrations of Ca2+ for activity. The H2O2 generator could be Ca(2+)-desensitized (i.e. made fully active in the absence of Ca2+) by limited proteolysis with alpha-chymotrypsin or by treatment with ZnCl2. The Zn2+ effect was temperature- and dose-dependent with an apparent half-maximum concentration of 0.15 mM at 40 degrees C. Ca2+ desensitization was not reversed by adding the Zn2+ chelators, 1,10-phenanthroline and EGTA, but about one-third of the Ca(2+)-sensitivity was recovered after addition of 10 mM-dithiothreitol. The proteolysed enzyme and the Zn(2+)-treated enzyme had different Km values for NADPH. The Zn2+ effect did not seem to involve proteolysis or membrane fusion. These results indicate that Ca2+ regulation occurs via an autoinhibitory domain or inhibitory protein component of the H2O2-generator system. Its inhibitory effect may be removed by proteolysis or conformational changes, making the catalytic site accessible to the substrate NADPH and/or enabling electrons to be transferred from NADPH to O2. PMID:1315520

Dupuy, C; Virion, A; De Sandro, V; Ohayon, R; Kaniewski, J; Pommier, J; Deme, D



Directed Evolution and Structural Analysis of NADPH-Dependent Acetoacetyl Coenzyme A (Acetoacetyl-CoA) Reductase from Ralstonia eutropha Reveals Two Mutations Responsible for Enhanced Kinetics  

PubMed Central

NADPH-dependent acetoacetyl-coenzyme A (acetoacetyl-CoA) reductase (PhaB) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)], along with ?-ketothiolase (PhaA) and polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase (PhaC). In this study, PhaB from Ralstonia eutropha was engineered by means of directed evolution consisting of an error-prone PCR-mediated mutagenesis and a P(3HB) accumulation-based in vivo screening system using Escherichia coli. From approximately 20,000 mutants, we obtained two mutant candidates bearing Gln47Leu (Q47L) and Thr173Ser (T173S) substitutions. The mutants exhibited kcat values that were 2.4-fold and 3.5-fold higher than that of the wild-type enzyme, respectively. In fact, the PhaB mutants did exhibit enhanced activity and P(3HB) accumulation when expressed in recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum. Comparative three-dimensional structural analysis of wild-type PhaB and highly active PhaB mutants revealed that the beneficial mutations affected the flexibility around the active site, which in turn played an important role in substrate recognition. Furthermore, both the kinetic analysis and crystal structure data supported the conclusion that PhaB forms a ternary complex with NADPH and acetoacetyl-CoA. These results suggest that the mutations affected the interaction with substrates, resulting in the acquirement of enhanced activity. PMID:23913421

Matsumoto, Ken'ichiro; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Motohashi, Ren; Ikeda, Koji; Tobitani, Kota; Yao, Min; Tanaka, Isao



Gene Cluster of Rhodothermus marinus High-Potential Iron-Sulfur Protein:Oxygen Oxidoreductase, a caa3-Type Oxidase Belonging to the Superfamily of Heme-Copper Oxidases  

PubMed Central

The respiratory chain of the thermohalophilic bacterium Rhodothermus marinus contains an oxygen reductase, which uses HiPIP (high potential iron-sulfur protein) as an electron donor. The structural genes encoding the four subunits of this HiPIP:oxygen oxidoreductase were cloned and sequenced. The genes for subunits II, I, III, and IV (named rcoxA to rcoxD) are found in this order and seemed to be organized in an operon of at least five genes with a terminator structure a few nucleotides downstream of rcoxD. Examination of the amino acid sequence of the Rcox subunits shows that the subunits of the R. marinus enzyme have homology to the corresponding subunits of oxidases belonging to the superfamily of heme-copper oxidases. RcoxB has the conserved histidines involved in binding the binuclear center and the low-spin heme. All of the residues proposed to be involved in proton transfer channels are conserved, with the exception of the key glutamate residue of the D-channel (E278, Paracoccus denitrificans numbering). Analysis of the homology-derived structural model of subunit I shows that the phenol group of a tyrosine (Y) residue and the hydroxyl group of the following serine (S) may functionally substitute the glutamate carboxyl in proton transfer. RcoxA has an additional sequence for heme C binding, after the CuA domain, that is characteristic of caa3 oxidases belonging to the superfamily. Homology modeling of the structure of this cytochrome domain of subunit II shows no marked electrostatic character, especially around the heme edge region, suggesting that the interaction with a redox partner is not of an electrostatic nature. This observation is analyzed in relation to the electron donor for this caa3 oxidase, the HiPIP. In conclusion, it is shown that an oxidase, which uses an iron-sulfur protein as an electron donor, is structurally related to the caa3 class of heme-copper cytochrome c oxidases. The data are discussed in the framework of the evolution of oxidases within the superfamily of heme-copper oxidases. PMID:11133964

Santana, Margarida; Pereira, Manuela M.; Elias, Nuno P.; Soares, Claudio M.; Teixeira, Miguel



Purification and characterization of NADPH-dependent cytosolic 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine binding protein in rat kidney.  


The NADPH-dependent cytosolic 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine(T3)-binding protein (CTBP) has been purified over 30,000-fold from rat kidney by using charcoal extraction, Mono Q-Sepharose, Blue Sepharose CL-6B, and Sephacryl S-200 column chromatography. Purified CTBP had a sedimentation coefficient of 4.7 S, Stokes radius of 32.5A, and calculated molecular weight of 58,000. The apparently homogeneous protein consisted of a single polypeptide chain with Mr of 58,000 as estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Scatchard analysis of T3 binding showed that NADPH increases maximal binding capacity without changes in the affinity constant (Ka = 2.43 X 10(9) M-1). Double reciprocal analysis of NADPH and binding capacity gave maximal binding capacity of 16,400 pmol/mg of CTBP, Mr = 58,000. The order of affinity of iodothyronine analogues to purified CTBP was as follows: L-T3 = D-T3 greater than triiodothyroacetic acid greater than L-thyroxine. [125I]T3 bound to purified CTBP spontaneously dissociated from CTBP at 20 degrees C (t 1/2 = 22 min) in the absence of NADPH, whereas the dissociation was not observed in the presence of NADPH. The optimal pH for T3 binding was 7.2-7.5 Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ (0-200 mM) did not influence T3 binding to CTBP. The purified CTBP did not bind to DNA and was not adsorbed to concanavalin A-Sepharose. PMID:2925671

Hashizume, K; Miyamoto, T; Ichikawa, K; Yamauchi, K; Kobayashi, M; Sakurai, A; Ohtsuka, H; Nishii, Y; Yamada, T



Exposure to low- vs iso-osmolar contrast agents reduces NADPH-dependent reactive oxygen species generation in a cellular model of renal injury.  


Contrast-induced nephropathy represents the third cause of hospital-acquired acute renal failure. This study investigated the effects of low- vs iso-osmolar contrast medium (CM) exposure on NADPH-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by tubular cells. X-ray attenuation of iohexol, iopamidol, and iodixanol was assessed at equimolar iodine concentrations and their effects on human renal proximal tubular cells (PTCs) were evaluated with equally attenuating solutions of each CM. Cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and necrosis were investigated by trypan blue exclusion, MTT assay, and annexin V/propidium iodide assay, respectively. ROS production was assessed by DCF assay, NADPH oxidase activity by the lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence method, and Nox4 expression by immunoblot. Yielding the same X-ray attenuation, CM cytotoxicity was assessed in PTCs at equimolar iodine concentrations. More necrosis was present after incubation with iohexol and iopamidol than after incubation with equal concentrations of iodixanol. Iohexol and iodixanol at low iodine concentrations induced less cytotoxicity than iopamidol. Moreover, both iohexol and iopamidol induced more apoptosis than iodixanol, with a dose-dependent effect. ROS generation was significantly higher with iopamidol and iohexol compared to iodixanol. NADPH oxidase activity and Nox4 protein expression significantly increased after exposure to iopamidol and iohexol, with a dose-dependent effect, compared with iodixanol. CM-induced Nox4 expression and activity depended upon Src activation. In conclusion, at angiographic concentrations, iodixanol induces fewer cytotoxic effects on cultured tubular cells than iohexol and iopamidol along with a lower induction of Nox4-dependent ROS generation. This enzyme may, thus, represent a potential therapeutic target to prevent iodinated CM-related oxidative stress. PMID:24300339

Netti, Giuseppe Stefano; Prattichizzo, Clelia; Montemurno, Eustacchio; Simone, Simona; Cafiero, Cesira; Rascio, Federica; Stallone, Giovanni; Ranieri, Elena; Grandaliano, Giuseppe; Gesualdo, Loreto



Time- and NADPH-dependent inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 by the cyclopentapeptide cilengitide: significance of the guanidine group and accompanying spectral changes.  


Cilengitide is a stable cyclic pentapeptide containing an Arg-Gly-Asp motif responsible for selective binding to ?V?3 and ?V?5 integrins. The candidate drug showed unexpected inhibition of cytochrome P450 (P450) 3A4 at high concentrations, that is, a 15-mM concentration caused attenuation of P450 3A4 activity (depending on the probe substrate): 15-19% direct inhibition, 10-23% time-dependent inhibition (30-minute preincubation), and 54-60% metabolism-dependent inhibition (30-minute preincubation). The inactivation efficiency determined with human liver microsomes was 0.003 ± 0.001 min(-1) mM(-1) and was 0.04 ± 0.01 min(-1) mM(-1) with baculovirus-based microsomes containing recombinant P450 3A4. Neither heme loss nor covalent binding to apoprotein could explain the observed reductions in residual activity. Slowly forming type II difference spectra were observed, with maximum spectral changes after 2 hours. Binding to both reduced and oxidized P450 3A4 was observed, with apparent Kd values of 0.66 ?M and 6 ?M. The significance of the guanidine group in inhibition was demonstrated using ligand binding spectral changes and inactivation assays with guanidine analogs (debrisoquine, N-acetylarginine-O-methyl ester) and the acetylated ornithine derivative of cilengitide. The observed inhibition could be explained by direct inhibition, plus by formation of stable complexes with both ferric and ferrous forms of heme iron and to some extent by the formation of reactive species capable to react to the protein or heme. Formation of the complex required time and NADPH and is attributed to the guanidino group. Thus, the NADPH-dependent inhibition is considered to be mainly due to the formation of a stable complex rather than the formation of reactive species. PMID:24985702

Boji?, Mirza; Barbero, Luca; Dolgos, Hugues; Freisleben, Achim; Gallemann, Dieter; Riva, Simona; Guengerich, F Peter



Lactic acid-producing yeast cells having nonfunctional L- or D-lactate:ferricytochrome C oxidoreductase cells  


Yeast cells having an exogenous lactate dehydrogenase gene ae modified by reducing L- or D-lactate:ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase activity in the cell. This leads to reduced consumption of lactate by the cell and can increase overall lactate yields in a fermentation process. Cells having the reduced L- or D-lactate:ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase activity can be screened for by resistance to organic acids such as lactic or glycolic acid.

Miller, Matthew (Boston, MA); Suominen, Pirkko (Maple Grove, MN); Aristidou, Aristos (Highland Ranch, CO); Hause, Benjamin Matthew (Currie, MN); Van Hoek, Pim (Camarillo, CA); Dundon, Catherine Asleson (Minneapolis, MN)



Discovering the electronic circuit diagram of life: structural relationships among transition metal binding sites in oxidoreductases.  


Oxidoreductases play a central role in catalysing enzymatic electron-transfer reactions across the tree of life. To first order, the equilibrium thermodynamic properties of these proteins are governed by protein folds associated with specific transition metals and ligands at the active site. A global analysis of holoenzyme structures and functions suggests that there are fewer than approximately 500 fundamental oxidoreductases, which can be further clustered into 35 unique groups. These catalysts evolved in prokaryotes early in the Earth's history and are largely responsible for the emergence of non-equilibrium biogeochemical cycles on the planet's surface. Although the evolutionary history of the amino acid sequences in the oxidoreductases is very difficult to reconstruct due to gene duplication and horizontal gene transfer, the evolution of the folds in the catalytic sites can potentially be used to infer the history of these enzymes. Using a novel, yet simple analysis of the secondary structures associated with the ligands in oxidoreductases, we developed a structural phylogeny of these enzymes. The results of this 'composome' analysis suggest an early split from a basal set of a small group of proteins dominated by loop structures into two families of oxidoreductases, one dominated by ?-helices and the second by ?-sheets. The structural evolutionary patterns in both clades trace redox gradients and increased hydrogen bond energy in the active sites. The overall pattern suggests that the evolution of the oxidoreductases led to decreased entropy in the transition metal folds over approximately 2.5 billion years, allowing the enzymes to use increasingly oxidized substrates with high specificity. PMID:23754810

Kim, J Dongun; Senn, Stefan; Harel, Arye; Jelen, Benjamin I; Falkowski, Paul G



The Campylobacter jejuni NADH:Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase (Complex I) Utilizes Flavodoxin Rather than NADH?  

PubMed Central

Campylobacter jejuni encodes 12 of the 14 subunits that make up the respiratory enzyme NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (also called complex I). The two nuo genes not present in C. jejuni encode the NADH dehydrogenase, and in their place in the operon are the novel genes designated Cj1575c and Cj1574c. A series of mutants was generated in which each of the 12 nuo genes (homologues to known complex I subunits) was disrupted or deleted. Each of the nuo mutants will not grow in amino acid-based medium unless supplemented with an alternative respiratory substrate such as formate. Unlike the nuo genes, Cj1574c is an essential gene and could not be disrupted unless an intact copy of the gene was provided at an unrelated site on the chromosome. A nuo deletion mutant can efficiently respire formate but is deficient in ?-ketoglutarate respiratory activity compared to the wild type. In C. jejuni, ?-ketoglutarate respiration is mediated by the enzyme 2-oxoglutarate:acceptor oxidoreductase; mutagenesis of this enzyme abolishes ?-ketoglutarate-dependent O2 uptake and fails to reduce the electron transport chain. The electron acceptor for 2-oxoglutarate:acceptor oxidoreductase was determined to be flavodoxin, which was also determined to be an essential protein in C. jejuni. A model is presented in which CJ1574 mediates electron flow into the respiratory transport chain from reduced flavodoxin and through complex I. PMID:18065531

Weerakoon, Dilan R.; Olson, Jonathan W.



Oxidoreductases that Act as Conditional Virulence Suppressors in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium  

PubMed Central

In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, oxidoreductases of the thioredoxin superfamily contribute to bacterial invasiveness, intracellular replication and to the virulence in BALB/c mice as well as in the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The scsABCD gene cluster, present in many but not all enteric bacteria, codes for four putative oxidoreductases of the thioredoxin superfamily. Here we have analyzed the potential role of the scs genes in oxidative stress tolerance and virulence in S. Typhimurium. An scsABCD deletion mutant showed moderate sensitization to the redox-active transition metal ion copper and increased protein carbonylation upon exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Still, the scsABCD mutant was not significantly affected for invasiveness or intracellular replication in respectively cultured epithelial or macrophage-like cells. However, we noted a significant copper chloride sensitivity of SPI1 T3SS mediated invasiveness that strongly depended on the presence of the scs genes. The scsABCD deletion mutant was not attenuated in animal infection models. In contrast, the mutant showed a moderate increase in its competitive index upon intraperitoneal challenge and enhanced invasiveness in small intestinal ileal loops of BALB/c mice. Moreover, deletion of the scsABCD genes restored the invasiveness of a trxA mutant in epithelial cells and its virulence in C. elegans. Our findings thus demonstrate that the scs gene cluster conditionally affects virulence and underscore the complex interactions between oxidoreductases of the thioredoxin superfamily in maintaining host adaptation of S. Typhimurium. PMID:23750221

Anwar, Naeem; Sem, Xiao Hui; Rhen, Mikael



Functional Analysis of Paralogous Thiol-disulfide Oxidoreductases in Streptococcus gordonii*  

PubMed Central

Disulfide bonds are important for the stability of many extracellular proteins, including bacterial virulence factors. Formation of these bonds is catalyzed by thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases (TDORs). Little is known about their formation in Gram-positive bacteria, particularly among facultative anaerobic Firmicutes, such as streptococci. To investigate disulfide bond formation in Streptococcus gordonii, we identified five putative TDORs from the sequenced genome. Each of the putative TDOR genes was insertionally inactivated with an erythromycin resistance cassette, and the mutants were analyzed for autolysis, extracellular DNA release, biofilm formation, bacteriocin production, and genetic competence. This analysis revealed a single TDOR, SdbA, which exhibited a pleiotropic mutant phenotype. Using an in silico analysis approach, we identified the major autolysin AtlS as a natural substrate of SdbA and showed that SdbA is critical to the formation of a disulfide bond that is required for autolytic activity. Analysis by BLAST search revealed homologs to SdbA in other Gram-positive species. This study provides the first in vivo evidence of an oxidoreductase, SdbA, that affects multiple phenotypes in a Gram-positive bacterium. SdbA shows low sequence homology to previously identified oxidoreductases, suggesting that it may belong to a different class of enzymes. Our results demonstrate that SdbA is required for disulfide bond formation in S. gordonii and indicate that this enzyme may represent a novel type of oxidoreductase in Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:23615907

Davey, Lauren; Ng, Crystal K. W.; Halperin, Scott A.; Lee, Song F.



Soapwort oxidoreductase is involved in trinitrotoluene detoxification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant enzymes participating in degradation of nitroaromatic compounds have not been biochemically characterized in details\\u000a so far. From suspension culture of soapwort (Saponaria officinalis L.) we isolated a novel plant oxidoreductase involved in degradation of trinitrotoluene (TNT). The enzyme catalyses first\\u000a steps of reduction of TNT nitro groups in the presence of NAD(P)H under anaerobic conditions. The enzyme is monomeric

R. Podlipná; A. Nepovím; P. Soudek; M. Vágner; T. Van?k



NAD(P)H:Quinone oxidoreductase 1 (DT-diaphorase) expression in normal and tumor tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

NAD(P)H:Quinone Oxidoreductase1 (NQO1) also known as DT-diaphorase is a flavoprotein that catalyzes the two-electron reduction of quinones, quinone imines and azo-dyes and thereby protects cells against mutagenicity and carcinogenicity resulting from free radicals and toxic oxygen metabolites generated by the oneelectron reductions catalyzed by cytochromes P450 and other enzymes. High levels of NQO1 gene expression have been observed in liver,

Martin Belinsky; Anil K. Jaiswal



Phosphorylation of Nrf2 at Ser40 by protein kinase C in response to antioxidants leads to the release of Nrf2 from INrf2, but is not required for Nrf2 stabilization/accumulation in the nucleus and transcriptional activation of antioxidant response element-mediated NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 gene expression.  


The antioxidant response element (ARE) and transcription factor Nrf2 regulate basal expression and antioxidant induction of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1) and other detoxifying genes. Under normal conditions, Nrf2 is targeted for proteasomal degradation by INrf2. Oxidative stress causes release of Nrf2 from INrf2. Nrf2 translocates to the nucleus, binds to the ARE, and activates gene expression. In this study, we demonstrate that protein kinase C (PKC) plays a significant role in the regulation of ARE-mediated NQO1 gene expression and induction in response to t-butylhydroquinone. Treatment of HepG2 cells with the PKC inhibitors staurosporine and calphostin C repressed ARE-mediated induction of a luciferase reporter as well as that of the endogenous NQO1 gene. Similar experiments with inhibitors of MEK/ERK, p38, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and tyrosine kinases failed to repress ARE-mediated gene expression. The PKC inhibitor staurosporine blocked the nuclear translocation of Nrf2, suggesting that Nrf2 might be the target for PKC regulation. A Prosite search revealed the presence of seven putative PKC sites in mouse Nrf2. The PKC site at Ser40 is conserved among species and lies in the Neh2 domain, which interacts with INrf2. We demonstrate that phosphorylation of Ser40 is necessary for Nrf2 release from INrf2, but is not required for Nrf2 stabilization/accumulation in the nucleus and transcriptional activation of ARE-mediated NQO1 gene expression. A peptide that competes with endogenous Nrf2 for INrf2 binding was able to induce ARE activity more effectively than t-butylhydroquinone, and Nrf2 that accumulated in the nucleus as a result was not phosphorylated. PMID:12947090

Bloom, David A; Jaiswal, Anil K



From cyclohydrolase to oxidoreductase: Discovery of nitrile reductase activity in a common fold  

PubMed Central

The enzyme YkvM from Bacillus subtilis was identified previously along with three other enzymes (YkvJKL) in a bioinformatics search for enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of queuosine, a 7-deazaguanine modified nucleoside found in tRNAGUN of Bacteria and Eukarya. Genetic analysis of ykvJKLM mutants in Acinetobacter confirmed that each was essential for queuosine biosynthesis, and the genes were renamed queCDEF. QueF exhibits significant homology to the type I GTP cyclohydrolases characterized by FolE. Given that GTP is the precursor to queuosine and that a cyclohydrolase-like reaction was postulated as the initial step in queuosine biosynthesis, QueF was proposed to be the putative cyclohydrolase-like enzyme responsible for this reaction. We have cloned the queF genes from B. subtilis and Escherichia coli and characterized the recombinant enzymes. Contrary to the predictions based on sequence analysis, we discovered that the enzymes, in fact, catalyze a mechanistically unrelated reaction, the NADPH-dependent reduction of 7-cyano-7-deazaguanineto7-aminomethyl-7-deazaguanine, a late step in the biosynthesis of queuosine. We report here in vitro and in vivo studies that demonstrate this catalytic activity, as well as preliminary biochemical and bioinformatics analysis that provide insight into the structure of this family of enzymes. PMID:15767583

Van Lanen, Steven G.; Reader, John S.; Swairjo, Manal A.; de Crecy-Lagard, Valerie; Lee, Bobby; Iwata-Reuyl, Dirk



Replacing Escherichia coli NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) with a NADP-dependent enzyme from Clostridium acetobutylicum facilitates NADPH dependent pathways.  


Reactions requiring reducing equivalents, NAD(P)H, are of enormous importance for the synthesis of industrially valuable compounds such as carotenoids, polymers, antibiotics and chiral alcohols among others. The use of whole-cell biocatalysis can reduce process cost by acting as catalyst and cofactor regenerator at the same time; however, product yields might be limited by cofactor availability within the cell. Thus, our study focussed on the genetic manipulation of a whole-cell system by modifying metabolic pathways and enzymes to improve the overall production process. In the present work, we genetically engineered an Escherichia coli strain to increase NADPH availability to improve the productivity of products that require NADPH in its biosynthesis. The approach involved an alteration of the glycolysis step where glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GAP) is oxidized to 1,3 bisphophoglycerate (1,3-BPG). This reaction is catalyzed by NAD-dependent endogenous glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) encoded by the gapA gene. We constructed a recombinant E. coli strain by replacing the native NAD-dependent gapA gene with a NADP-dependent GAPDH from Clostridium acetobutylicum, encoded by the gene gapC. The beauty of this approach is that the recombinant E. coli strain produces 2 mol of NADPH, instead of NADH, per mole of glucose consumed. Metabolic flux analysis showed that the flux through the pentose phosphate (PP) pathway, one of the main pathways that produce NADPH, was reduced significantly in the recombinant strain when compared to that of the parent strain. The effectiveness of the NADPH enhancing system was tested using the production of lycopene and epsilon-caprolactone as model systems using two different background strains. The recombinant strains, with increased NADPH availability, consistently showed significant higher productivity than the parent strains. PMID:18852061

Martínez, Irene; Zhu, Jiangfeng; Lin, Henry; Bennett, George N; San, Ka-Yiu



Endoplasmic reticulum chaperones and oxidoreductases: critical regulators of tumor cell survival and immunorecognition.  


Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones and oxidoreductases are abundant enzymes that mediate the production of fully folded secretory and transmembrane proteins. Resisting the Golgi and plasma membrane-directed "bulk flow," ER chaperones and oxidoreductases enter retrograde trafficking whenever they are pulled outside of the ER by their substrates. Solid tumors are characterized by the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), combined with reduced blood flow that leads to low oxygen supply and ER stress. Under these conditions, hypoxia and the unfolded protein response upregulate their target genes. When this occurs, ER oxidoreductases and chaperones become important regulators of tumor growth. However, under these conditions, these proteins not only promote the folding of proteins, but also alter the properties of the plasma membrane and hence modulate tumor immune recognition. For instance, high levels of calreticulin serve as an "eat-me" signal on the surface of tumor cells. Conversely, both intracellular and surface BiP/GRP78 promotes tumor growth. Other ER folding assistants able to modulate the properties of tumor tissue include protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), Ero1? and GRP94. Understanding the roles and mechanisms of ER chaperones in regulating tumor cell functions and immunorecognition will lead to important insight for the development of novel cancer therapies. PMID:25386408

Gutiérrez, Tomás; Simmen, Thomas



Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperones and Oxidoreductases: Critical Regulators of Tumor Cell Survival and Immunorecognition  

PubMed Central

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones and oxidoreductases are abundant enzymes that mediate the production of fully folded secretory and transmembrane proteins. Resisting the Golgi and plasma membrane-directed “bulk flow,” ER chaperones and oxidoreductases enter retrograde trafficking whenever they are pulled outside of the ER by their substrates. Solid tumors are characterized by the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), combined with reduced blood flow that leads to low oxygen supply and ER stress. Under these conditions, hypoxia and the unfolded protein response upregulate their target genes. When this occurs, ER oxidoreductases and chaperones become important regulators of tumor growth. However, under these conditions, these proteins not only promote the folding of proteins, but also alter the properties of the plasma membrane and hence modulate tumor immune recognition. For instance, high levels of calreticulin serve as an “eat-me” signal on the surface of tumor cells. Conversely, both intracellular and surface BiP/GRP78 promotes tumor growth. Other ER folding assistants able to modulate the properties of tumor tissue include protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), Ero1? and GRP94. Understanding the roles and mechanisms of ER chaperones in regulating tumor cell functions and immunorecognition will lead to important insight for the development of novel cancer therapies. PMID:25386408

Gutiérrez, Tomás; Simmen, Thomas



Engineering oxidoreductases: maquette proteins designed from scratch.  


The study of natural enzymes is complicated by the fact that only the most recent evolutionary progression can be observed. In particular, natural oxidoreductases stand out as profoundly complex proteins in which the molecular roots of function, structure and biological integration are collectively intertwined and individually obscured. In the present paper, we describe our experimental approach that removes many of these often bewildering complexities to identify in simple terms the necessary and sufficient requirements for oxidoreductase function. Ours is a synthetic biology approach that focuses on from-scratch construction of protein maquettes designed principally to promote or suppress biologically relevant oxidations and reductions. The approach avoids mimicry and divorces the commonly made and almost certainly false ascription of atomistically detailed functionally unique roles to a particular protein primary sequence, to gain a new freedom to explore protein-based enzyme function. Maquette design and construction methods make use of iterative steps, retraceable when necessary, to successfully develop a protein family of sturdy and versatile single-chain three- and four-?-helical structural platforms readily expressible in bacteria. Internally, they prove malleable enough to incorporate in prescribed positions most natural redox cofactors and many more simplified synthetic analogues. External polarity, charge-patterning and chemical linkers direct maquettes to functional assembly in membranes, on nanostructured titania, and to organize on selected planar surfaces and materials. These protein maquettes engage in light harvesting and energy transfer, in photochemical charge separation and electron transfer, in stable dioxygen binding and in simple oxidative chemistry that is the basis of multi-electron oxidative and reductive catalysis. PMID:22616867

Lichtenstein, Bruce R; Farid, Tammer A; Kodali, Goutham; Solomon, Lee A; Anderson, J L Ross; Sheehan, Molly M; Ennist, Nathan M; Fry, Bryan A; Chobot, Sarah E; Bialas, Chris; Mancini, Joshua A; Armstrong, Craig T; Zhao, Zhenyu; Esipova, Tatiana V; Snell, David; Vinogradov, Sergei A; Discher, Bohdana M; Moser, Christopher C; Dutton, P Leslie



NADPH P450 oxidoreductase: structure, function, and pathology of diseases.  


Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is an enzyme that is essential for multiple metabolic processes, chiefly among them are reactions catalyzed by cytochrome P450 proteins for metabolism of steroid hormones, drugs and xenobiotics. Mutations in POR cause a complex set of disorders that often resemble defects in steroid metabolizing enzymes 17?-hydroxylase, 21-hydroxylase and aromatase. Since our initial reports of POR mutations in 2004, more than 200 different mutations and polymorphisms in POR gene have been identified. Several missense variations in POR have been tested for their effect on activities of multiple steroid and drug metabolizing P450 proteins. Mutations in POR may have variable effects on different P450 partner proteins depending on the location of the mutation. The POR mutations that disrupt the binding of co-factors have negative impact on all partner proteins, while mutations causing subtle structural changes may lead to altered interaction with specific partner proteins and the overall effect may be different for each partner. This review summarizes the recent discoveries related to mutations and polymorphisms in POR and discusses these mutations in the context of historical developments in the discovery and characterization of POR as an electron transfer protein. The review is focused on the structural, enzymatic and clinical implications of the mutations linked to newly identified disorders in humans, now categorized as POR deficiency. PMID:23353702

Pandey, Amit V; Flück, Christa E



Efficient production of 1,3-propanediol from glycerol upon constitutive expression of the 1,3-propanediol oxidoreductase gene in engineered Klebsiella pneumoniae with elimination of by-product formation.  


In the present study, we developed an efficient method of 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) production from glycerol by genetic engineering of Klebsiella pneumoniae AK mutant strains. The proposed approach eliminated by-product formation and IPTG induction resulted in maximal production of 1,3-PD. A series of recombinant strains was designed to constitutively express the dhaB and/or dhaT genes, using the bacteriophage T5 P(DE20) promoter and the rho-independent transcription termination signal of the Rahnella aquatilis levansucrase gene. Among these strains, AK/pConT expressing dhaT alone gave the highest yield of 1,3-PD. Fed-batch fermentation resulted in efficient production of 1,3-PD from either pure or crude glycerol, without by-product formation. PMID:23361186

Oh, Baek-Rock; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Heo, Sun-Yeon; Luo, Lian Hua; Hong, Won-Kyung; Park, Don-Hee; Kim, Chul-Ho



Dicumarol Inhibition of NADPH:Quinone Oxidoreductase Induces Growth Inhibition of Pancreatic Cancer via a Superoxide-mediated Mechanism1  

Microsoft Academic Search

NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), a homodimeric, ubiquitous, flavoprotein, catalyzes the two-electron reduction of quinones to hydro- quinones. This reaction prevents the one-electron reduction of quinones by cytochrome P450 reductase and other flavoproteins that would result in oxidative cycling with generation of superoxide (O2 ). NQO1 gene regulation may be up-regulated in some tumors to accommodate the needs of rapidly metabolizing cells

Joseph J. Cullen; Marilyn M. Hinkhouse; Matthew Grady; Andrew W. Gaut; Jingru Liu; Yu Ping Zhang; Christine J. Darby Weydert; Frederick E. Domann; Larry W. Oberley


Assignment of Electron Transfer Flavoprotein-Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase (ETF-QO) to Human Chromosome 4q33 by Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization and Somatic Cell Hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF-QO) is a nuclear-encoded protein located in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Inherited defects of ETF-QO cause glutaric acidemia type II. We here describe the localization of the ETF-QO gene to human chromosome 4q33 by somatic cell hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization.

Elaine B. Spector; William K. Seltzer; Stephen I. Goodman



Tryphostin AG879, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor: prevention of transcriptional activation of the electrophile and the aromatic hydrocarbon response elements 1 1 Abbreviations: EPRE, electrophile response element; AHRE, aromatic hydrocarbon response element; MRE, metal response element; Nqo1 and NQO1, mouse NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase [also called NMO1, quinone reductase, DT-diaphorase] gene and mRNA; Cyp1a1 and CYP1A1, mouse cytochrome P450 1A1 gene and mRNA; Mt1 and MT1, mouse metallothionein-1 gene and mRNA; Sod, mouse Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase gene; SOD, rat Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase gene; SOD, mouse and rat Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase mRNA and protein; Luc and LUC, firefly luciferase gene and enzyme; BGAL, ?-galactosidase enzyme activity; tBHQ, tert-butylhydroquinone; dioxin (also TCDD), 2,3,7,8-tetrahydro chlorodibenzo- p-dioxin; SSC, standard sodium citrate; and SET, sodium ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) Tris buffer  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate a possible role of phosphorylation in the signal transduction pathways responsible for transcriptional regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes, we tested seven specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors (tyrphostins) for their effects on NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1) mRNA levels in mouse hepatoma Hepa-1c1c7 (Hepa-1) cells and chose to study AG879 further. The potent electrophile tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) is known to activate NQO1 gene transcription

Matthew Z Dieter; Sarah L Freshwater; Willy A Solis; Daniel W Nebert; Timothy P Dalton



Tethering of ferredoxin:NADP+ oxidoreductase to thylakoid  

E-print Network

Tethering of ferredoxin:NADP+ oxidoreductase to thylakoid membranes is mediated by novel in the chloroplast thylakoid membranes produce a linear electron flow from H2O to NADP+ . Final electron transfer we describe TROL (thylakoid rhodanese-like protein), a nuclear- encoded component of thylakoid

Allen, John F.


Structural and Biochemical Identification of a Novel Bacterial Oxidoreductase*  

E-print Network

Structural and Biochemical Identification of a Novel Bacterial Oxidoreductase* Received in the majority of Gram-negative bacteria. The identified operon encodes for a proposed heterodimer, Yed the only molybdoenzyme isolated from E. coli characterized by the presence of this cofactor form. We have

Strynadka, Natalie


Announcement Photosystem II: The Light-Driven Water: Plastoquinone Oxidoreductase,  

E-print Network

of Photosys- tem II: Volume 4 (Oxygenic Photosynthesis: The Light Reactions, edited by Donald R. Ort: The Light Reactions (34 Chapters; 682 pages; 1996; edited by Donald R. Ort and Charles F. Yocum, from USAAnnouncement Photosystem II: The Light-Driven Water: Plastoquinone Oxidoreductase, edited by Thomas

Govindjee "Gov"


Oxidoreductase HepG2 Huh7 Hepatocytes  

E-print Network

Oxidoreductase HepG2 Huh7 Hepatocytes 0 25 50 75 100 Not changed Increased Decreased * * p.001 Percent Transferase HepG2 Huh7 Hepatocytes 0 25 50 75 100 * Percent Detoxification HepG2 Huh7 Hepatocytes hepatocyte cultures, established hepatoma cell lines and liver tissues K.M. Olsavsky1, J.L. Page1, M

Omiecinski, Curtis


The Bifunctional Pyruvate Decarboxylase/Pyruvate Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase from Thermococcus guaymasensis  

PubMed Central

The hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus guaymasensis produces ethanol as a metabolic end product, and an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) catalyzing the reduction of acetaldehyde to ethanol has been purified and characterized. However, the enzyme catalyzing the formation of acetaldehyde has not been identified. In this study an enzyme catalyzing the production of acetaldehyde from pyruvate was purified and characterized from T. guaymasensis under strictly anaerobic conditions. The enzyme had both pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) and pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (POR) activities. It was oxygen sensitive, and the optimal temperatures were 85°C and >95°C for the PDC and POR activities, respectively. The purified enzyme had activities of 3.8 ± 0.22?U?mg?1 and 20.2 ± 1.8?U?mg?1, with optimal pH-values of 9.5 and 8.4 for each activity, respectively. Coenzyme A was essential for both activities, although it did not serve as a substrate for the former. Enzyme kinetic parameters were determined separately for each activity. The purified enzyme was a heterotetramer. The sequences of the genes encoding the subunits of the bifunctional PDC/POR were determined. It is predicted that all hyperthermophilic ?-keto acids ferredoxin oxidoreductases are bifunctional, catalyzing the activities of nonoxidative and oxidative decarboxylation of the corresponding ?-keto acids. PMID:24982594



Primary structure and eubacterial relationships of the pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase of the amitochondriate eukaryote Trichomonas vaginalis.  


In the eukaryotic unicellular organism Trichomonas vaginalis a key step of energy metabolism, the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate with the formation of acetyl-CoA, is catalyzed by the iron-sulfur protein pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFO) and not by the almost-ubiquitous pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex. This enzyme is localized in the hydrogenosome, an organelle bounded by a double membrane. PFO and its closely related homolog, pyruvate:flavodoxin oxidoreductase, are enzymes found in a number of archaebacteria and eubacteria. The presence of these enzymes in eukaryotes is restricted, however, to a few amitochondriate groups. To gain more insight into the evolutionary relationships of T. vaginalis PFO we determined the primary structure of its two genes (pfoA and pfoB). The deduced amino acid sequences showed 95% positional identity. Motifs implicated in related enzymes in liganding the Fe-S centers and thiamine pyrophosphate were well conserved. The T. vaginalis PFOs were found to be homologous to eubacterial pyruvate:flavodoxin oxidoreductases and showed about 40% amino acid identity to these enzymes over their entire length. Lack of eubacterial PFO sequences precluded a comparison. pfoA and pfoB revealed a greater distance from related enzymes of Archaebacteria. The conceptual translation of the nucleotide sequences predicted an amino-terminal pentapeptide not present in the mature protein. This processed leader sequence was similar to but shorter than leader sequences noted in other hydrogenosomal proteins.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7563125

Hrdý, I; Müller, M



A unifying kinetic framework for modeling oxidoreductase-catalyzed reactions  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Oxidoreductases are a fundamental class of enzymes responsible for the catalysis of oxidation–reduction reactions, crucial in most bioenergetic metabolic pathways. From their common root in the ancient prebiotic environment, oxidoreductases have evolved into diverse and elaborate protein structures with specific kinetic properties and mechanisms adapted to their individual functional roles and environmental conditions. While accurate kinetic modeling of oxidoreductases is thus important, current models suffer from limitations to the steady-state domain, lack empirical validation or are too specialized to a single system or set of conditions. Results: To address these limitations, we introduce a novel unifying modeling framework for kinetic descriptions of oxidoreductases. The framework is based on a set of seven elementary reactions that (i) form the basis for 69 pairs of enzyme state transitions for encoding various specific microscopic intra-enzyme reaction networks (micro-models), and (ii) lead to various specific macroscopic steady-state kinetic equations (macro-models) via thermodynamic assumptions. Thus, a synergistic bridge between the micro and macro kinetics can be achieved, enabling us to extract unitary rate constants, simulate reaction variance and validate the micro-models using steady-state empirical data. To help facilitate the application of this framework, we make available RedoxMech: a Mathematica™ software package that automates the generation and customization of micro-models. Availability: The Mathematica™ source code for RedoxMech, the documentation and the experimental datasets are all available from: Contact: Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:23613486

Chang, Ivan; Baldi, Pierre



Phycocyanobilin:Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120  

Microsoft Academic Search

In cyanobacteria, the biosynthesis of the phycobili- protein and phytochrome chromophore precursor phy- cocyanobilin is catalyzed by the ferredoxin-dependent enzyme phycocyanobilin:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PcyA), which mediates an atypical four-electron reduc- tion of biliverdin IX. Here we describe the expression, affinity purification, and biochemical characterization of recombinant PcyA from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. A monomeric protein with a native Mr of 30,400

Nicole Frankenberg; J. Clark Lagarias


NtcA is responsible for accumulation of the small isoform of ferredoxin:NADP oxidoreductase.  


In several cyanobacteria, petH, the gene encoding ferredoxin:NADP oxidoreductase (FNR), is transcribed from at least two promoters depending on growth conditions. Two transcripts (short and long) are translated from two different translation initiation sites, resulting in two isoforms (large and small, respectively). Here, we show that in Synechocystis PCC6803 the global transcriptional regulator NtcA activates transcription from the distal petH promoter. Modification of the NtcA-binding site prevents NtcA binding to the promoter in vitro and abolishes accumulation of the small isoform of FNR in vivo. We also demonstrate that a similar petH transcription and translation regime occurs in other cyanobacteria. The conditions under which this system operates provide hints for the function of each FNR isoform. PMID:24464800

Omairi-Nasser, Amin; Galmozzi, Carla V; Latifi, Amel; Muro-Pastor, M Isabel; Ajlani, Ghada



Ero1-? and PDIs constitute a hierarchical electron transfer network of endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductases.  


Ero1-? and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) oxidoreductases of the protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family promote the efficient introduction of disulfide bonds into nascent polypeptides in the ER. However, the hierarchy of electron transfer among these oxidoreductases is poorly understood. In this paper, Ero1-?-associated oxidoreductases were identified by proteomic analysis and further confirmed by surface plasmon resonance. Ero1-? and PDI were found to constitute a regulatory hub, whereby PDI induced conformational flexibility in an Ero1-? shuttle cysteine (Cys99) facilitated intramolecular electron transfer to the active site. In isolation, Ero1-? also oxidized ERp46, ERp57, and P5; however, kinetic measurements and redox equilibrium analysis revealed that PDI preferentially oxidized other oxidoreductases. PDI accepted electrons from the other oxidoreductases via its a' domain, bypassing the a domain, which serves as the electron acceptor from reduced glutathione. These observations provide an integrated picture of the hierarchy of cooperative redox interactions among ER oxidoreductases in mammalian cells. PMID:24043701

Araki, Kazutaka; Iemura, Shun-ichiro; Kamiya, Yukiko; Ron, David; Kato, Koichi; Natsume, Tohru; Nagata, Kazuhiro



Ethnic variation in the prevalence of a common NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase polymorphism and its implications for anti-cancer chemotherapy.  

PubMed Central

The NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1:EC is an important biotransformation enzyme system that is also known to metabolize important novel chemotherapeutic compounds. The gene that codes for this enzyme has recently been found to be polymorphic in humans. Here, we describe the ethnic distribution of the polymorphism and note that this may have implications for anti-tumour drug development and use. PMID:9328142

Kelsey, K. T.; Ross, D.; Traver, R. D.; Christiani, D. C.; Zuo, Z. F.; Spitz, M. R.; Wang, M.; Xu, X.; Lee, B. K.; Schwartz, B. S.; Wiencke, J. K.



Pyruvate:Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase Is Coupled to Light-independent Hydrogen Production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii*  

PubMed Central

In anaerobiosis, the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii evolves molecular hydrogen (H2) as one of several fermentation products. H2 is generated mostly by the [Fe-Fe]-hydrogenase HYDA1, which uses plant type ferredoxin PETF/FDX1 (PETF) as an electron donor. Dark fermentation of the alga is mainly of the mixed acid type, because formate, ethanol, and acetate are generated by a pyruvate:formate lyase pathway similar to Escherichia coli. However, C. reinhardtii also possesses the pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase PFR1, which, like pyruvate:formate lyase and HYDA1, is localized in the chloroplast. PFR1 has long been suggested to be responsible for the low but significant H2 accumulation in the dark because the catalytic mechanism of pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase involves the reduction of ferredoxin. With the aim of proving the biochemical feasibility of the postulated reaction, we have heterologously expressed the PFR1 gene in E. coli. Purified recombinant PFR1 is able to transfer electrons from pyruvate to HYDA1, using the ferredoxins PETF and FDX2 as electron carriers. The high reactivity of PFR1 toward oxaloacetate indicates that in vivo, fermentation might also be coupled to an anaerobically active glyoxylate cycle. Our results suggest that C. reinhardtii employs a clostridial type H2 production pathway in the dark, especially because C. reinhardtii PFR1 was also able to allow H2 evolution in reaction mixtures containing Clostridium acetobutylicum 2[4Fe-4S]-ferredoxin and [Fe-Fe]-hydrogenase HYDA. PMID:23258532

Noth, Jens; Krawietz, Danuta; Hemschemeier, Anja; Happe, Thomas



Purification of NADH: hypothiocyanite oxidoreductase in Streptococcus sanguis.  


NADH: hypothiocyanite oxidoreductase (NHOR) activity, found in some oral Streptococci, is postulated to protect these microorganisms against salivary peroxidase-produced hypothiocyanite. NHOR, however, has not been purified so far. The purification of NHOR from crude extracts of Streptococcus sanguis NCTC 7863 strain (by ultrafiltration and anion-exchange chromatography) revealed one fraction of 125 +/- kDa. However, SDS-PAGE electrophoresis provided a single protein of 21.1 +/- 1.2 kDa. This last discovery suggests that NHOR enzyme is a hexameric complex having six subunits. PMID:8733891

Courtois, P H; Pourtois, M



Specific immobilization of in vivo biotinylated bacterial luciferase and FMN:NAD(P)H oxidoreductase.  


Bacterial bioluminescence, catalyzed by FMN:NAD(P)H oxidoreductase and luciferase, has been used as an analytical tool for quantitating the substrates of NAD(P)H-dependent enzymes. The development of inexpensive and sensitive biosensors based on bacterial bioluminescence would benefit from a method to immobilize the oxidoreductase and luciferase with high specific activity. Toward this end, oxidoreductase and luciferase were fused with a segment of biotin carboxy carrier protein and produced in Escherichia coli. The in vivo biotinylated luciferase and oxidoreductase were immobilized on avidin-conjugated agarose beads with little loss of activity. Coimmobilized enzymes had eight times higher bioluminescence activity than the free enzymes at low enzyme concentration and high NADH concentration. In addition, the immobilized enzymes were more stable than the free enzymes. This immobilization method is also useful to control enzyme orientation, which could increase the efficiency of sequentially operating enzymes like the oxidoreductase-luciferase system. PMID:10328774

Min, D J; Andrade, J D; Stewart, R J




SciTech Connect

Klebsiella pneumoniae, a gram-negative enteric bacterium, is found in nosocomial infections which are acquired during hospital stays for about 10% of hospital patients in the United States. The crystal structure of a putative oxidoreductase from K. pneumoniae has been determined. The structural information of this K. pneumoniae protein was used to understand its function. Crystals of the putative oxidoreductase enzyme were obtained by the sitting drop vapor diffusion method using Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350, Bis-Tris buffer, pH 5.5 as precipitant. These crystals were used to collect X-ray data at beam line X12C of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The crystal structure was determined using the SHELX program and refi ned with CNS 1.1. This protein, which is involved in the catalysis of an oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction, has an alpha/beta structure. It utilizes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) or nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to perform its function. This structure could be used to determine the active and co-factor binding sites of the protein, information that could help pharmaceutical companies in drug design and in determining the protein’s relationship to disease treatment such as that for pneumonia and other related pathologies.

Baig, M.; Brown, A.; Eswaramoorthy, S.; Swaminathan, S.



Radical reactions of thiamin pyrophosphate in 2-oxoacid oxidoreductases?  

PubMed Central

Thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) is essential in carbohydrate metabolism in all forms of life. TPP-dependent decarboxylation reactions of 2-oxo-acid substrates result in enamine adducts between the thiazolium moiety of the coenzyme and decarboxylated substrate. These central enamine intermediates experience different fates from protonation in pyruvate decarboxylase to oxidation by the 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase complexes, the pyruvate oxidases, and 2-oxoacid oxidoreductases. Virtually all of the TPP-dependent enzymes, including pyruvate decarboxylase, can be assayed by 1-electron redox reactions linked to ferricyanide. Oxidation of the enamines is thought to occur via a 2-electron process in the 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase complexes, wherein acyl group transfer is associated with reduction of the disulfide of the lipoamide moiety. However, discrete 1-electron steps occur in the oxidoreductases, where one or more [4Fe-4S] clusters mediate the electron transfer reactions to external electron acceptors. These radical intermediates can be detected in the absence of the acyl-group acceptor, coenzyme A (CoASH). The ?-electron system of the thiazolium ring stabilizes the radical. The extensively delocalized character of the radical is evidenced by quantitative analysis of nuclear hyperfine splitting tensors as detected by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and by electronic structure calculations. The second electron transfer step is markedly accelerated by the presence of CoASH. While details of the second electron transfer step and its facilitation by CoASH remain elusive, expected redox properties of potential intermediates limit possible scenarios. PMID:22178227

Reed, George H.; Ragsdale, Stephen W.; Mansoorabadi, Steven O.



Neuronal expression of a single-subunit yeast NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Ndi1) extends Drosophila lifespan  

PubMed Central

The ‘rate of living’ theory predicts that longevity should be inversely correlated with the rate of mitochondrial respiration. However, recent studies in a number of model organisms, including mice, have reported that interventions that retard the aging process are, in fact, associated with an increase in mitochondrial activity. To better understand the relationship between energy metabolism and longevity, we supplemented the endogenous respiratory chain machinery of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster with the alternative single-subunit NADH–ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Ndi1) of the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we report that expression of Ndi1 in fly mitochondria leads to an increase in NADH–ubiquinone oxidoreductase activity, oxygen consumption and ATP levels. In addition, exogenous Ndi1 expression results in increased CO2 production in living flies. Using an inducible gene expression system, we expressed Ndi1 in different cells and tissues and examined the impact on longevity. In doing so, we discovered that targeted expression of Ndi1 in fly neurons significantly increases lifespan without compromising fertility or physical activity. These findings are consistent with the idea that enhanced respiratory chain activity in neuronal tissue can prolong fly lifespan. PMID:20089120

Bahadorani, Sepehr; Cho, Jaehyoung; Lo, Thomas; Contreras, Heidy; Lawal, Hakeem O.; Krantz, David E.; Bradley, Timothy J; Walker, David W.



Xanthine oxidoreductase is central to the evolution and function of the  

E-print Network

and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY, UK 3 Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Human Genetics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA The housekeeping enzyme xanthine oxidoreductase

Capecchi, Mario R.


Purification and characterization of malate:quinone oxidoreductase from thermophilic Bacillus sp. PS3.  


Several bacteria possess membrane-bound dehydrogenases other than cytosolic dehydrogenases in their respiratory chains. In many cases, the membrane-bound malate:quinone oxidoreductases (MQOs) are essential for growth. However, these MQOs are absent in mammalian mitochondria, and therefore may be a potential drug target for pathogenic bacteria. To characterize the kinetic properties of MQOs, we purified MQO from Bacillus sp. PS3, which is a gram-positive and thermophilic bacterium, and cloned the gene encoding MQO based on the obtained partial N-terminus sequence. Purified MQOs showed a molecular mass of ~90 kDa, which was estimated using gel filtration, and it consists of two subunits with a molecular mass of ~50 kDa. Phylogenetic analysis showed a high similarity to the MQO of the Geobacillus group rather than the Bacillus group. Additionally, the purified enzyme was thermostable and it retained menaquinol reduction activity at high temperatures. Although it is difficult to conduct experiments using menaquinol because of its instability, we were able to measure the oxidase activity of cytochrome bd-type quinol oxidase by using menaquinol-1 by coupling this molecule with the menaquinol reduction reaction using purified MQOs. PMID:23143325

Kabashima, Yoshiki; Sone, Nobuhito; Kusumoto, Tomoichirou; Sakamoto, Junshi



New Insights into Type II NAD(P)H:Quinone Oxidoreductases  

PubMed Central

Type II NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductases (NDH-2) catalyze the two-electron transfer from NAD(P)H to quinones, without any energy-transducing site. NDH-2 accomplish the turnover of NAD(P)H, regenerating the NAD(P)+ pool, and may contribute to the generation of a membrane potential through complexes III and IV. These enzymes are usually constituted by a nontransmembrane polypeptide chain of ?50 kDa, containing a flavin moiety. There are a few compounds that can prevent their activity, but so far no general specific inhibitor has been assigned to these enzymes. However, they have the common feature of being resistant to the complex I classical inhibitors rotenone, capsaicin, and piericidin A. NDH-2 have particular relevance in yeasts like Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in several prokaryotes, whose respiratory chains are devoid of complex I, in which NDH-2 keep the [NADH]/[NAD+] balance and are the main entry point of electrons into the respiratory chains. Our knowledge of these proteins has expanded in the past decade, as a result of contributions at the biochemical level and the sequencing of the genomes from several organisms. The latter showed that most organisms contain genes that potentially encode NDH-2. An overview of this development is presented, with special emphasis on microbial enzymes and on the identification of three subfamilies of NDH-2. PMID:15590775

Melo, Ana M. P.; Bandeiras, Tiago M.; Teixeira, Miguel



Activation of Plant Quinate:NAD+ 3-oxidoreductase by Ca2+ and Calmodulin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quinate:NAD+ 3-oxidoreductase (EC from carrot cell suspension cultures has previously been shown to be activated by phosphorylation and inactivated by dephosphorylation. Here it is shown that the reactivation of the inactivated quinate:NAD+ oxidoreductase is an enzyme-mediated process that requires ATP and protein kinase activity. The reactivation is completely inhibited by EGTA and can be restored by the addition of

Raoul Ranjeva; Germain Refeno; Alain M. Boudet; Dieter Marme



Ã?Â?NADPH: Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase-Structure, Catalytic Function, and Role in Prolamellar Body Formation and Morphogenesis  

SciTech Connect

The biosynthesis of chlorophyll is a critical biochemical step in the development of photosynthetic vascular plants and green algae. From photosynthetic bacteria (cyanobacteria) to algae, non-vascular plants, gymnosperms and vascular plants, mechanisms have evolved for protochlorophyllide reduction a key step in chlorophyll synthesis. Protochlorophyllide reduction is carried out by both a light-dependent (POR) and light-independent (LIPOR) mechanisms. NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (EC, abbreviated POR) catalyzes the light-dependent reduction of protochlorophyllide (PChlide) to chlorophyllide (Chlide). In contrast, a light-independent protochlorophyllide reductase (LIPOR) involves three plastid gene products (chlL, chlN, and chlB) and several nuclear factors. Our work focused on characterization of both the POR and LIPOR catalyzed processes.

Michael P. Timko



Deficiency of NRH:Quinone Oxidoreductase 2 Increases Susceptibility to 7,12- Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and Benzo(a)pyrene-Induced Skin Carcinogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

NRH:Quinone oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2) is an enzyme that catalyzes the reductive metabolism of quinones. C57BL\\/6 NQO2\\/ mice lacking NQO2 gene expression were generated in our laboratory. The dorsal skin of NQO2-deficient mice was exposed to 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) or benzo(a)pyrene alone (complete carcinogen) or with 12-O- tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) (initiation\\/promotion model) to determine the in vivo role of NQO2 in chemical carcinogenesis.

Karim Iskander; Marilene Paquet; Cory Brayton; Anil K. Jaiswal


The energy-transducing NADH: quinone oxidoreductase, complex I.  


The energy-transducing NADH: quinone (Q) oxidoreductase (complex I) is the largest and most complicated enzyme complex in the oxidative phosphorylation system. Complex I is a redox pump that uses the redox energy to translocate H(+) (or Na(+)) ions across the membrane, resulting in a significant contribution to energy production. The need to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of complex I has greatly increased. Many devastating neurodegenerative disorders have been associated with complex I deficiency. The structural and functional complexities of complex I have already been established. However, intricate biogenesis and activity regulation functions of complex I have just been identified. Based upon these recent developments, it is apparent that complex I research is entering a new era. The advancement of our knowledge of the molecular mechanism of complex I will not only surface from bioenergetics, but also from many other fields as well, including medicine. This review summarizes the current status of our understanding of complex I and sheds light on new theories and the future direction of complex I studies. PMID:12231006

Yano, Takahiro



Physicochemical and kinetic properties of purified sheep's milk xanthine oxidoreductase.  


Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) was purified for the first time from sheep's milk. The ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrum was essentially identical to those of the corresponding bovine, human, and goats' milk enzymes and showed an A280/A450 ratio of 5.35 +/- 0.24, indicating a high degree of purity. Like milk XOR from other species, sheep's milk enzyme showed a single band on SDS-PAGE corresponding to a subunit with approximate Mr 150,000. Xanthine oxidase activity of purified sheep's milk XOR (0.69 +/- 0.04 micromole urate min(-1) mg(-1)) was low relative to that of the bovine milk enzyme (1.83 +/- 0.02 micromole urate min(-1) mg(-1)), but higher than those of human or goats' milk XOR. As in the latter 2 cases, the low activity of sheep's milk XOR can be attributed to its relatively low molybdenum content (0.18 atoms per subunit), compared with that of the bovine milk enzyme (0.56 atoms Mo per subunit). Consistent with this, NADH oxidase activity of sheep's milk XOR was similar to that of enzymes purified from bovine, human, or goats' milk. The presence of desulpho-enzyme in sheep's milk XOR was demonstrated by resulfuration experiments, whereby xanthine oxidase activity was increased by approximately 75%. PMID:15453470

Benboubetra, Mustapha; Baghiani, Abderahmene; Atmani, Djebbar; Harrison, Roger



Goats' milk xanthine oxidoreductase is grossly deficient in molybdenum.  


Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) was purified from goats' milk. The u.v.-visible absorption spectrum was essentially identical to those of the corresponding bovine and human milk enzymes and showed an A280/A450 ratio of 5.20+/-0.12, indicating a high degree of purity. Like bovine and human milk XORs, enzyme purified from goats' milk showed a single band on SDS-PAGE corresponding to a subunit with approximate Mr 150,000. On Western blotting, mouse monoclonal anti-human XOR antibody cross-reacted with purified caprine and bovine XORs. The specific xanthine oxidase activity of goats' milk XOR, however, was very much lower than that of bovine XOR, although NADH oxidase activities of XOR from the two sources were similar. In these respects, the caprine milk XOR mirrors the human milk enzyme, in which case the kinetic effects have previously been attributed to relatively low molybdenum content. The molybdenum content of goats' milk XOR also was shown to be relatively low, with 0.09 atoms Mo per subunit, compared with 055 atoms Mo per subunit for the bovine enzyme. A parallel purification of human milk XOR showed 0.03 atoms Mo per subunit. The possible physiological significance of the low molybdenum content of the caprine milk enzyme and of its correspondingly low enzymic activity is discussed. PMID:15068060

Atmani, Djebbar; Benboubetra, Mustapha; Harrison, Roger



Elementary tetrahelical protein design for diverse oxidoreductase functions.  


Emulating functions of natural enzymes in man-made constructs has proven challenging. Here we describe a man-made protein platform that reproduces many of the diverse functions of natural oxidoreductases without importing the complex and obscure interactions common to natural proteins. Our design is founded on an elementary, structurally stable 4-?-helix protein monomer with a minimalist interior malleable enough to accommodate various light- and redox-active cofactors and with an exterior tolerating extensive charge patterning for modulation of redox cofactor potentials and environmental interactions. Despite its modest size, the construct offers several independent domains for functional engineering that targets diverse natural activities, including dioxygen binding and superoxide and peroxide generation, interprotein electron transfer to natural cytochrome c and light-activated intraprotein energy transfer and charge separation approximating the core reactions of photosynthesis, cryptochrome and photolyase. The highly stable, readily expressible and biocompatible characteristics of these open-ended designs promise development of practical in vitro and in vivo applications. PMID:24121554

Farid, Tammer A; Kodali, Goutham; Solomon, Lee A; Lichtenstein, Bruce R; Sheehan, Molly M; Fry, Bryan A; Bialas, Chris; Ennist, Nathan M; Siedlecki, Jessica A; Zhao, Zhenyu; Stetz, Matthew A; Valentine, Kathleen G; Anderson, J L Ross; Wand, A Joshua; Discher, Bohdana M; Moser, Christopher C; Dutton, P Leslie



Chlorophyllide a oxidoreductase works as one of the divinyl reductases specifically involved in bacteriochlorophyll a biosynthesis.  


Bacteriochlorophyll a is widely distributed among anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria. In bacteriochlorophyll a biosynthesis, the reduction of the C8 vinyl group in 8-vinyl-chlorophyllide a is catalyzed to produce chlorophyllide a by an 8-vinyl reductase called divinyl reductase (DVR), which has been classified into two types, BciA and BciB. However, previous studies demonstrated that mutants lacking the DVR still synthesize normal bacteriochlorophyll a with the C8 ethyl group and suggested the existence of an unknown "third" DVR. Meanwhile, we recently observed that chlorophyllide a oxidoreductase (COR) of a purple bacterium happened to show the 8-vinyl reduction of 8-vinyl-chlorophyllide a in vitro. In this study, we made a double mutant lacking BciA and COR of the purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides in order to investigate whether the mutant still produces pigments with the C8 ethyl group or if COR actually works as the third DVR. The single mutant deleting BciA or COR showed production of the C8 ethyl group pigments, whereas the double mutant accumulated 8-vinyl-chlorophyllide, indicating that there was no enzyme other than BciA and COR functioning as the unknown third DVR in Rhodobacter sphaeroides (note that this bacterium has no bciB gene). Moreover, some COR genes derived from other groups of anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria were introduced into the double mutant, and all of the complementary strains produced normal bacteriochlorophyll a. This observation indicated that COR of these bacteria performs two functions, reductions of the C8 vinyl group and the C7=C8 double bond, and that such an activity is probably conserved in the widely ranging groups. PMID:24637023

Harada, Jiro; Mizoguchi, Tadashi; Tsukatani, Yusuke; Yokono, Makio; Tanaka, Ayumi; Tamiaki, Hitoshi



Ferredoxin:NADP+ Oxidoreductase Association with Phycocyanin Modulates Its Properties*  

PubMed Central

In photosynthetic organisms, ferredoxin:NADP+ oxidoreductase (FNR) is known to provide NADPH for CO2 assimilation, but it also utilizes NADPH to provide reduced ferredoxin. The cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803 produces two FNR isoforms, a small one (FNRS) similar to the one found in plant plastids and a large one (FNRL) that is associated with the phycobilisome, a light-harvesting complex. Here we show that a mutant lacking FNRL exhibits a higher NADP+/NADPH ratio. We also purified to homogeneity a phycobilisome subcomplex comprising FNRL, named FNRL-PC. The enzymatic activities of FNRL-PC were compared with those of FNRS. During NADPH oxidation, FNRL-PC exhibits a 30% decrease in the Michaelis constant Km(NADPH), and a 70% increase in Km(ferredoxin), which is in agreement with its predicted lower activity of ferredoxin reduction. During NADP+ reduction, the FNRL-PC shows a 29/43% decrease in the rate of single electron transfer from reduced ferredoxin in the presence/absence of NADP+. The increase in Km(ferredoxin) and the rate decrease of single reduction are attributed to steric hindrance by the phycocyanin moiety of FNRL-PC. Both isoforms are capable of catalyzing the NADP+ reduction under multiple turnover conditions. Furthermore, we obtained evidence that, under high ionic strength conditions, electron transfer from reduced ferredoxin is rate limiting during this process. The differences that we observe might not fully explain the in vivo properties of the Synechocystis mutants expressing only one of the isoforms. Therefore, we advocate that FNR localization and/or substrates availability are essential in vivo. PMID:19759024

Korn, Anja; Ajlani, Ghada; Lagoutte, Bernard; Gall, Andrew; Setif, Pierre



Protein conformational gating of enzymatic activity in xanthine oxidoreductase  

PubMed Central

In mammals, xanthine oxidoreductase can exist as xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) and xanthine oxidase (XO). The two enzymes possess common redox active cofactors, which form an electron transfer (ET) pathway terminated by a flavin cofactor. In spite of identical protein primary structures, the redox potential difference between XDH and XO for the flavin semi-quinone/hydroquinone pair (Esq/hq) is ~170 mV, a striking difference. The former greatly prefers NAD+ as ultimate substrate for ET from the iron-sulfur cluster FeS-II via flavin while the latter only accepts dioxygen. In XDH (without NAD+), however, the redox potential of the electron donor FeS-II is 180 mV higher than that for the acceptor flavin, yielding an energetically uphill ET. Based on new 1.65, 2.3, 1.9 and 2.2 Å resolution crystal structures for XDH, XO, the NAD+- and NADH- complexed XDH, Esq/hq were calculated to better understand how the enzyme activates an ET from FeS-II to flavin. The majority of the Esq/hq difference between XDH and XO originates from a conformational change in the loop at positions 423-433 near the flavin binding site, causing the differences in stability of the semiquinone state. There was no large conformational change observed in response to NAD+ binding at XDH. Instead, the positive charge of NAD+ ring, deprotonation of Asp429 and the capping of the bulk surface of the flavin by the NAD+ molecule all contribute to alter Esq/hq upon NAD+ binding to XDH. PMID:22145797

Ishikita, Hiroshi; Eger, Bryan T.; Okamoto, Ken; Nishino, Takeshi; Pai, Emil F.



P450 oxidoreductase deficiency: a new disorder of steroidogenesis.  


Microsomal P450 enzymes, which metabolize drugs and catalyze steroid biosynthesis require electron donation from NADPH via P450 oxidoreductase (POR). POR knockout mice are embryonically lethal, but we found recessive human POR missense mutations causing disordered steroidogenesis and Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS), a skeletal malformation syndrome featuring craniosynostosis. Dominant mutations in exons 8 and 10 of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) cause phenotypically related craniosynostosis syndromes and were reported in patients with ABS and normal steroidogenesis. Sequencing POR and FGFR2 exons in 32 patients with ABS and/or hormonal findings suggesting POR deficiency showed complete genetic segregation of POR and FGFR2 mutations. Fifteen patients carried POR mutations on both alleles, four carried POR mutations on 1 allele, nine carried FGFR2/3 mutations on one allele and no mutation was found in three patients. The 34 affected POR alleles included 10 with A287P, 7 with R457H, 9 other missense mutations and 7 frameshifts. These 11 missense mutations and 10 others identified by database mining were expressed in E. coli, purified to apparent homogeneity, and their catalytic capacities were measured in four assays: reduction of cytochrome c, oxidation of NADPH, and support of the 17alpha-hydroxylase and 17,20 lyase activities of human P450c17. As assessed by Vmax/Km, 17,20 lyase activity provided the best correlation with clinical findings. Modeling human POR on the X-ray crystal structure of rat POR shows that these mutant activities correlate well with their locations in the structure. POR deficiency is a new disease, distinct from the craniosynostosis syndromes caused by FGFR mutations. PMID:16467261

Miller, Walter L; Huang, Ningwu; Pandey, Amit V; Flück, Christa E; Agrawal, Vishal



Protein Conformational Gating of Enzymatic Activity in Xanthine Oxidoreductase  

SciTech Connect

In mammals, xanthine oxidoreductase can exist as xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) and xanthine oxidase (XO). The two enzymes possess common redox active cofactors, which form an electron transfer (ET) pathway terminated by a flavin cofactor. In spite of identical protein primary structures, the redox potential difference between XDH and XO for the flavin semiquinone/hydroquinone pair (E{sub sq/hq}) is {approx}170 mV, a striking difference. The former greatly prefers NAD{sup +} as ultimate substrate for ET from the iron-sulfur cluster FeS-II via flavin while the latter only accepts dioxygen. In XDH (without NAD{sup +}), however, the redox potential of the electron donor FeS-II is 180 mV higher than that for the acceptor flavin, yielding an energetically uphill ET. On the basis of new 1.65, 2.3, 1.9, and 2.2 {angstrom} resolution crystal structures for XDH, XO, the NAD{sup +}- and NADH-complexed XDH, E{sub sq/hq} were calculated to better understand how the enzyme activates an ET from FeS-II to flavin. The majority of the E{sub sq/hq} difference between XDH and XO originates from a conformational change in the loop at positions 423-433 near the flavin binding site, causing the differences in stability of the semiquinone state. There was no large conformational change observed in response to NAD{sup +} binding at XDH. Instead, the positive charge of the NAD{sup +} ring, deprotonation of Asp429, and capping of the bulk surface of the flavin by the NAD{sup +} molecule all contribute to altering E{sub sq/hq} upon NAD{sup +} binding to XDH.

Ishikita, Hiroshi; Eger, Bryan T.; Okamoto, Ken; Nishino, Takeshi; Pai, Emil F. (Toronto); (Kyoto)



P450 Oxidoreductase Deficiency: A Disorder of Steroidogenesis with Multiple Clinical Manifestations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cytochrome P450 enzymes catalyze the biosynthesis of steroid hormones and metabolize drugs. There are seven human type I P450 enzymes in mitochondria and 50 type II enzymes in endoplasmic reticulum. Type II enzymes, including both drug-metabolizing and some steroidogenic enzymes, require electron donation from a two-flavin protein, P450 oxidoreductase (POR). Although knockout of the POR gene causes embryonic lethality in mice, we discovered human POR deficiency as a disorder of steroidogenesis associated with the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome and found mild POR mutations in phenotypically normal adults with infertility. Assay results of mutant forms of POR using the traditional but nonphysiologic assay (reduction of cytochrome c) did not correlate with patient phenotypes; assays based on the 17,20 lyase activity of P450c17 (CYP17) correlated with clinical phenotypes. The POR sequence in 842 normal individuals revealed many polymorphisms; amino acid sequence variant A503V is encoded by ~28% of human alleles. POR A503V has about 60% of wild-type activity in assays with CYP17, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4, but nearly wild-type activity with P450c21, CYP1A2, and CYP2C19. Activity of a particular POR variant with one P450 enzyme will not predict its activity with another P450 enzyme: Each POR-P450 combination must be studied individually. Human POR transcription, initiated from an untranslated exon, is regulated by Smad3/4, thyroid receptors, and the transcription factor AP-2. A promoter polymorphism reduces transcription to 60% in liver cells and to 35% in adrenal cells. POR deficiency is a newly described disorder of steroidogenesis, and POR variants may account for some genetic variation in drug metabolism.

Walter L. Miller (San Francisco;University of California REV)



Clinical, Genetic, and Enzymatic Characterization of P450 Oxidoreductase Deficiency in Four Patients  

PubMed Central

Context: P450 oxidoreductase (POR) deficiency causes disordered steroidogenesis; severe mutations cause genital ambiguity in both sexes plus the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome, whereas mild mutations can cause adult infertility. Objective: We describe four patients with POR deficiency and identify and characterize the activities of their mutations. A 46,XY male with micropenis and two 46,XX female infants with genital ambiguity presented with skeletal malformations, and a 46,XX adolescent presented with primary amenorrhea, elevated 17?-hydroxyprogesterone, and low sex steroids. Methods: The coding regions of the POR gene were sequenced, and the identified mutations were recreated in human POR cDNA expression vectors lacking 27 N-terminal residues. POR and human P450c17 were expressed in bacteria. POR activity was measured by four assays: reduction of cytochrome c, oxidation of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, and support of the 17?-hydroxylase and 17,20 lyase activities of P450c17. Results: All four patients were compound heterozygotes for POR mutations, including five novel mutations: L577R, N185K, delE217, and frameshift mutations 1363delC and 697–698insGAAC. N185K and delE217 lacked measurable activity in the assays based on P450c17 but retained partial activity in the assays based on cytochrome c. As assessed by Vmax/Km, L577R supported 46% of 17?-hydroxylase activity but only 27% of 17,20 lyase activity. Computational modeling of these novel mutants revealed the structural basis for their reduced or absent activities. Conclusion: These patients illustrate the broad clinical spectrum of POR deficiency, including amenorrhea and infertility as the sole manifestation. POR assays based on P450c17 correlate well with hormonal and clinical phenotypes. PMID:19837910

Sahakitrungruang, Taninee; Huang, Ningwu; Tee, Meng Kian; Agrawal, Vishal; Russell, William E.; Crock, Patricia; Murphy, Nuala; Migeon, Claude J.; Miller, Walter L.



Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 nifJ mutant lacking pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase.  


The nifJ gene codes for pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR), which reduces ferredoxin during fermentative catabolism of pyruvate to acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA). A nifJ knockout mutant was constructed that lacks one of two pathways for the oxidation of pyruvate in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002. Remarkably, the photoautotrophic growth rate of this mutant increased by 20% relative to the wild-type (WT) rate under conditions of light-dark cycling. This result is attributed to an increase in the quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) charge separation as measured by photosynthetic electron turnover efficiency determined using fast-repetition-rate fluorometry (F(v)/F(m)). During autofermentation, the excretion of acetate and lactate products by nifJ mutant cells decreased 2-fold and 1.2-fold, respectively. Although nifJ cells displayed higher in vitro hydrogenase activity than WT cells, H(2) production in vivo was 1.3-fold lower than the WT level. Inhibition of acetate-CoA ligase and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex by glycerol eliminated acetate production, with a resulting loss of reductant and a 3-fold decrease in H(2) production by nifJ cells compared to WT cells. Continuous electrochemical detection of dissolved H(2) revealed two temporally resolved phases of H(2) production during autofermentation, a minor first phase and a major second phase. The first phase was attributed to reduction of ferredoxin, because its level decreased 2-fold in nifJ cells. The second phase was attributed to glycolytic NADH production and decreased 20% in nifJ cells. Measurement of the intracellular NADH/NAD(+) ratio revealed that the reductant generated by PFOR contributing to the first phase of H(2) production was not in equilibrium with bulk NADH/NAD(+) and that the second phase corresponded to the equilibrium NADH-mediated process. PMID:21317262

McNeely, Kelsey; Xu, Yu; Ananyev, Gennady; Bennette, Nicholas; Bryant, Donald A; Dismukes, G Charles



Characterization of the Type III sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase from Caldivirga maquilingensis and its membrane binding  

PubMed Central

Sulfide:quinone oxidoreductases (SQRs) are ubiquitous enzymes which have multiple roles: sulfide detoxification, energy generation by providing electrons to respiratory or photosynthetic electron transfer chains, and sulfide homeostasis. A recent structure-based classification defines 6 groups of putative SQRs (I – VI), and representatives of all but group III have been confirmed to have sulfide oxidase activity. In the current work, we report the first characterization of a predicted group III SQR from Caldivirga maquilingensis, and confirm that this protein is a sulfide oxidase. The gene encoding the enzyme was cloned, and the protein was expressed in E. coli and purified. The enzyme oxidizes sulfide using decylubiquinone as an electron acceptor, and is inhibited by aurachin C and iodoacetamide. Analysis of the amino acid sequence indicates that the C. maquilingensis SQR has two amphiphilic helices at the C-terminus but lacks any transmembrane helices. This suggests that C. maquilingensis SQR interacts with the membrane surface and that the interactions are mediated by the C-terminal amphiphilic helices. Mutations within the last C-terminal amphiphilic helix resulted in a water-soluble form of the enzyme which, remarkably, retains full SQR activity using decylubiquinone as the electron acceptor. Mutations at one position, L379, also located in the C-terminal amphiphilic helix, inactivated the enzyme by preventing the interaction with decylubiquinone. It is concluded that the C-terminal amphiphilic helix is important for membrane binding and for forming part of the pathway providing access of the quinone substrate to the protein-bound flavin at the enzyme active site. PMID:23103448

Lencina, Andrea M.; Ding, Ziqiao; Schurig-Briccio, Lici A.; Gennis, Robert B.



A second isoform of the ferredoxin:NADP oxidoreductase generated by an in-frame initiation of translation  

PubMed Central

Ferredoxin:NADP oxidoreductases (FNRs) constitute a family of flavoenzymes that catalyze the exchange of reducing equivalents between one-electron carriers and the two-electron-carrying NADP(H). The main role of FNRs in cyanobacteria and leaf plastids is to provide the NADPH for photoautotrophic metabolism. In root plastids, a distinct FNR isoform is found that has been postulated to function in the opposite direction, providing electrons for nitrogen assimilation at the expense of NADPH generated by heterotrophic metabolism. A multiple gene family encodes FNR isoenzymes in plants, whereas there is only one FNR gene (petH) in cyanobacteria. Nevertheless, we detected two FNR isoforms in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803. One of them (FNRS ?34 kDa) is similar in size to the plastid FNR and specifically accumulates under heterotrophic conditions, whereas the other one (FNRL ?46 kDa) contains an extra N-terminal domain that allows its association with the phycobilisome. Site-directed mutants allowed us to conclude that the smaller isoform, FNRS, is produced from an internal ribosome entry site within the petH ORF. Thus we have uncovered a mechanism by which two isoforms are produced from a single gene, which is, to our knowledge, novel in photosynthetic bacteria. Our results strongly suggest that FNRL is an NADP+ reductase, whereas FNRS is an NADPH oxidase. PMID:17116880

Thomas, Jean-Claude; Ughy, Bettina; Lagoutte, Bernard; Ajlani, Ghada



40 CFR 174.524 - Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247 in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247 in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a...PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances...Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247 in all plants; exemption from the requirement of...



40 CFR 174.524 - Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247 in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247 in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a...PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances...Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247 in all plants; exemption from the requirement of...



10.1101/gad.1032702Access the most recent version at doi: 2002 16: 3223-3235Genes & Dev.  

E-print Network

, 2002. Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is a housekeeping gene that encodes a molybdenum iron-sulfur flavin and catalytically independent subunits, each containing two [2Fe­2S] groups, one FAD, and one molybdopterin

Mather, Ian


Roles of the Sodium-Translocating NADH:Quinone Oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR) on Vibrio cholerae Metabolism, Motility and Osmotic Stress Resistance  

PubMed Central

The Na+ translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR) is a unique respiratory enzyme catalyzing the electron transfer from NADH to quinone coupled with the translocation of sodium ions across the membrane. Typically, Vibrio spp., including Vibrio cholerae, have this enzyme but lack the proton-pumping NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I). Thus, Na+-NQR should significantly contribute to multiple aspects of V. cholerae physiology; however, no detailed characterization of this aspect has been reported so far. In this study, we broadly investigated the effects of loss of Na+-NQR on V. cholerae physiology by using Phenotype Microarray (Biolog), transcriptome and metabolomics analyses. We found that the V. cholerae ?nqrA-F mutant showed multiple defects in metabolism detected by Phenotype Microarray. Transcriptome analysis revealed that the V. cholerae ?nqrA-F mutant up-regulates 31 genes and down-regulates 55 genes in both early and mid-growth phases. The most up-regulated genes included the cadA and cadB genes, encoding a lysine decarboxylase and a lysine/cadaverine antiporter, respectively. Increased CadAB activity was further suggested by the metabolomics analysis. The down-regulated genes include sialic acid catabolism genes. Metabolomic analysis also suggested increased reductive pathway of TCA cycle and decreased purine metabolism in the V. cholerae ?nqrA-F mutant. Lack of Na+-NQR did not affect any of the Na+ pumping-related phenotypes of V. cholerae suggesting that other secondary Na+ pump(s) can compensate for Na+ pumping activity of Na+-NQR. Overall, our study provides important insights into the contribution of Na+-NQR to V. cholerae physiology. PMID:24811312

Minato, Yusuke; Halang, Petra; Quinn, Matthew J.; Faulkner, Wyatt J.; Aagesen, Alisha M.; Steuber, Julia; Stevens, Jan F.; Hase, Claudia C.



Roles of the sodium-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR) on vibrio cholerae metabolism, motility and osmotic stress resistance.  


The Na+ translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR) is a unique respiratory enzyme catalyzing the electron transfer from NADH to quinone coupled with the translocation of sodium ions across the membrane. Typically, Vibrio spp., including Vibrio cholerae, have this enzyme but lack the proton-pumping NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I). Thus, Na+-NQR should significantly contribute to multiple aspects of V. cholerae physiology; however, no detailed characterization of this aspect has been reported so far. In this study, we broadly investigated the effects of loss of Na+-NQR on V. cholerae physiology by using Phenotype Microarray (Biolog), transcriptome and metabolomics analyses. We found that the V. cholerae ?nqrA-F mutant showed multiple defects in metabolism detected by Phenotype Microarray. Transcriptome analysis revealed that the V. cholerae ?nqrA-F mutant up-regulates 31 genes and down-regulates 55 genes in both early and mid-growth phases. The most up-regulated genes included the cadA and cadB genes, encoding a lysine decarboxylase and a lysine/cadaverine antiporter, respectively. Increased CadAB activity was further suggested by the metabolomics analysis. The down-regulated genes include sialic acid catabolism genes. Metabolomic analysis also suggested increased reductive pathway of TCA cycle and decreased purine metabolism in the V. cholerae ?nqrA-F mutant. Lack of Na+-NQR did not affect any of the Na+ pumping-related phenotypes of V. cholerae suggesting that other secondary Na+ pump(s) can compensate for Na+ pumping activity of Na+-NQR. Overall, our study provides important insights into the contribution of Na+-NQR to V. cholerae physiology. PMID:24811312

Minato, Yusuke; Fassio, Sara R; Kirkwood, Jay S; Halang, Petra; Quinn, Matthew J; Faulkner, Wyatt J; Aagesen, Alisha M; Steuber, Julia; Stevens, Jan F; Häse, Claudia C



Regeneration of lipophilic antioxidants by NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?The aim of this work was to study the activity of NAD(P)H:(quinone acceptor) oxidoreductase 1 (EC in the regeneration\\u000a of lipophilic antioxidants, alpha-tocopherol, and reduced-coenzyme Q analogs. First, we tested whether or not two isoforms\\u000a of the NAD(P)H:(quinone acceptor) oxidoreductase 1 designated as “hydrophilic” and “hydrophobic” (H.?J. Prochaska and P. Talalay,\\u000a Journal of Biological Chemistry 261: 1372–1378, 1986) show

Rosario I. Bello; Valerian E. Kagan; Vladimir Tyurin; Francisco Navarro; Francisco J. Alcaín; José M. Villalba



[Control of buccal peroxidases by a bacterial NADH-hypothiocyanite oxidoreductase].  


Oral peroxidases (myeloperoxidase, sialoperoxidase) catalyze thiocyanate peroxidation into hypothiocyanite which is bacteriostatic or bactericidal against numerous bacterial species. NADH-hypothiocyanite-oxidoreductase is thought to protect bacteria which can express it; up to now, this enzyme activity was never purified. The present study analyzes, on one hand, the susceptibility of periodontal bacteria against hypothiocyanite and, on the other hand, proposes a purification design for the NADH-hypothiocyanite-oxidoreductase from Streptococcus sanguis, a commensal micro-organism of dental surfaces. The data suggest the importance of the bacterial biofilm on dental surfaces for production of antiseptic oxidants and for the control of their toxicity. PMID:9491629

Courtois, P



Benzofuran-, benzothiophene-, indazole- and benzisoxazole- quinones: excellent substrates for NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1  

PubMed Central

A series of heterocyclic quinones based on benzofuran, benzothiophene, indazole and benzisoxazole has been synthesized, and evaluated for their ability to function as substrates for recombinant human NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), a two-electron reductase upregulated in tumor cells. Overall, the quinones are excellent substrates for NQO1, approaching the reduction rates observed for menadione PMID:23635904

Newsome, Jeffery J.; Hassani, Mary; Swann, Elizabeth; Bibby, Jane M.; Beall, Howard D.; Moody, Christopher J.



The mechanism of superoxide production by NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) from bovine heart mitochondria  

Microsoft Academic Search

NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is a major source of reactive oxygen species in mitochondria and a significant contributor to cellular oxidative stress. Here, we describe the kinetic and molecular mechanism of superoxide production by complex I isolated from bovine heart mitochondria and confirm that it produces predominantly superoxide, not hydrogen peroxide. Redox titrations and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy exclude the

Lothar Kussmaul; Judy Hirst



Activation of plant quinate:NAD+ 3-oxidoreductase by Ca2+ and calmodulin  

PubMed Central

Quinate:NAD+ 3-oxidoreductase (EC from carrot cell suspension cultures has previously been shown to be activated by phosphorylation and inactivated by dephosphorylation. Here it is shown that the reactivation of the inactivated quinate:NAD+ oxidoreductase is an enzyme-mediated process that requires ATP and protein kinase activity. The reactivation is completely inhibited by EGTA and can be restored by the addition of Ca2+. Cyclic AMP at concentrations up to 5 ?M did not have any effect on the reactivation either with or without EGTA in the medium. Calmodulin-depleted fractions containing quinate:NAD+ oxidoreductase were obtained by passage of the crude extracts through an affinity column of 2-chloro-10-(3-aminopropyl)phenothiazine coupled to Sepharose 4B. The enzyme in this calmodulin-deficient fraction could be inactivated but not reactivated even in the presence of ATP and Ca2+. However, addition of bovine brain calmodulin completely restored the activity of the enzyme. Half-maximal activation occurred at 130 nM calmodulin. We conclude from these data that the quinate:NAD+ oxidoreductase is activated by a Ca2+ - and calmodulin-dependent plant protein kinase. PMID:16593360

Ranjeva, Raoul; Refeno, Germain; Boudet, Alain M.; Marmé, Dieter



Regeneration of lipophilic antioxidants by NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1.  


The aim of this work was to study the activity of NAD(P)H:(quinone acceptor) oxidoreductase 1 (EC in the regeneration of lipophilic antioxidants, alpha-tocopherol, and reduced-coenzyme Q analogs. First, we tested whether or not two isoforms of the NAD(P)H:(quinone acceptor) oxidoreductase 1 designated as "hydrophilic" and "hydrophobic" (H. J. Prochaska and P. Talalay, Journal of Biological Chemistry 261: 1372-1378, 1986) show differential enzyme activities towards hydrophilic or hydrophobic ubiquinone homologs. By chromatography on phenyl Sepharose, we purified the two isoforms from pig liver cytosol and measured their reduction of several ubiquinone homologs of different side chain length. We also studied by electron paramagnetic resonance the effect of NAD(P)H:(quinone acceptor) oxidoreductase 1 on steady-state levels of chromanoxyl radicals generated by linoleic acid and lipooxygenase and confirmed the enzyme's ability to protect alpha-tocopherol against oxidation induced with H(2)O(2)-Fe(2+). Our results demonstrated that the different hydrophobicities of the isoforms do not reflect different reactivities towards ubiquinones of different side chain length. In addition, electron paramagnetic resonance studies showed that in systems containing the reductase plus NADH, levels of chromanoxyl radicals were dramatically reduced. Morever, in the presence of oxidants, alpha-tocopherol was preserved by NAD(P)H:(quinone acceptor) oxidoreductase 1, supporting our hypothesis that regeneration of alpha-tocopherol may be one of the physiologic functions of this enzyme. PMID:12768350

Bello, Rosario I; Kagan, Valerian E; Tyurin, Vladimir; Navarro, Francisco; Alcaín, Francisco J; Villalba, José M



Xanthine oxidoreductase catalyses the reduction of nitrates and nitrite to nitric oxide under hypoxic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) catalyses the reduction of the therapeutic organic nitrate, nitroglycerin (glyceryl trinitrate, GTN), as well as inorganic nitrate and nitrite, to nitric oxide (NO) under hypoxic conditions in the presence of NADH. Generation of nitric oxide is not detectable under normoxic conditions and is inhibited by the molybdenum site-specific inhibitors, oxypurinol and (?)BOF 4272. These enzymic reactions provide

Timothy M Millar; Cliff R Stevens; Nigel Benjamin; Robert Eisenthal; Roger Harrison; David R Blake



The human B22 subunit of the NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase maps to the region of chromosome 8 involved in Branchio-oto-renal syndrome  

SciTech Connect

To identify candidate genes for Branchio-oto-renal (BOR) syndrome, we have made use of a set of cosmids that map to 8q13.3, which has previously been shown to be involved in this syndrome. These cosmids were used as genomic clones in the attempts to isolate corresponding cDNAs using a modified hybrid selection technique. cDNAs using a modified hybrid selection technique. cDNAs from the region were identified and used to search for sequence similarity in human or other species. One cDNA clone was found to have 89% sequence similarity to the bovine B22 subunit of NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase, a mitochondrial protein in the respiratory electron transport chain. Given the history of other mitochondrial mutations being involved in hearing loss syndromes, this gene should be considered a strong candidate for involvement in BOR.

Gu, J.Z.; Lin, Xin; Wells, D.E. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States)] [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States)



Toward High-Throughput Screening of NAD(P)-Dependent Oxidoreductases Using Boron-Doped Diamond Microelectrodes and Microfluidic Devices.  


Although oxidoreductases are widely used in many applications, such as biosensors and biofuel cells, improvements in the function of existing oxidoreductases or the discovery of novel oxidoreductases with greater activities is desired. To increase the activity of oxidoreductases by directed evolution, a powerful screening technique for oxidoreductases is required. In this study, we demonstrate the utility of boron-doped diamond (BDD) microelectrodes for quantitative and potentially high-throughput measurement of the activity of NAD(P)-dependent oxidoreductases. We first confirmed that BDD microelectrodes can quantify the activity of low concentrations (10-100 pM) of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase with a measuring time of 1 ms per sample. In addition, we found that poisoning of BDD microelectrodes can be repressed by optimizing the pH and by adding l-arginine to the enzyme solution as an antiaggregation agent. Finally, we fabricated a microfluidic device containing a BDD electrode for the first time and observed the elevation of the oxidation current of NADH with increasing flow rate. These results imply that the combination of a BDD microelectrode and microfluidics can be used for high-throughput screening of an oxidoreductase library containing a large number (>10(6)) of samples, each with a small (nanoliter) sample volume. PMID:25211652

Oyobiki, Ryo; Kato, Taisuke; Katayama, Michinobu; Sugitani, Ai; Watanabe, Takeshi; Einaga, Yasuaki; Matsumoto, Yoshinori; Horisawa, Kenichi; Doi, Nobuhide



NADH-O2 oxidoreductase activity and mRNA expression of complex I (51 kDa, ND1) in postnatal intrinsic muscle of rat tongue  

PubMed Central

Complex I is one of the respiratory chain enzymes related to NADH dehydrogenase and is an encoded gene product derived from both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Transcription levels of ND1 (mitochondrial) and 51 kDa (nuclear) subunits of complex I in the postnatal development of the intrinsic muscle in rat tongues were determined by Northern blot analysis. Enzyme activity levels were determined by NADH staining with tetrazolum salt, and oxygen consumption of NADH-O2 oxidoreductase activity using a Clark-type electrode. The detailed structure of the mitochondria was observed using electron microscopy. The cross-sectional area of the mitochondria gradually increased during postnatal development, and the cristae also became complex, despite the length of mitochondria in muscle fibre being constant. The mitochondria density increased from birth to 15 days of age, and declined slightly afterwards. This pattern of density resembled that of NADH-O2 oxidoreductase activity. The level of mRNA for ND1 through Northern blot analysis gradually increased from birth to 15 days of age and was highest at 21 days. For 51 kDa, the level was highest at 0 days and fell thereafter to a constant low. This suggests that the production of NADH dehydrogenase is limited by 51 kDa of Complex I derived from nuclear genomes rather than by the increase in mitochondria and composition of muscle fibre types due to changes in feeding behaviour. PMID:12647870

Fujita, Toshiya; Sato, Iwao



Interaction of the molecular chaperone Hsp70 with human NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1.  


NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (EC; DT-Diaphorase, NQO1) is predominantly a cytosolic flavoenzyme that catalyzes a two-electron reduction. Using human tumor cell lines devoid of NQO1 enzymatic activity, we have previously identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (NQO1*2 allele) in the human NQO1 gene. This mutation has been characterized as a genetic polymorphism (NQO1*2), which leads to greatly diminished levels of protein due to rapid degradation of the NQO1*2 protein by the ubiquitin proteasomal pathway (UPP). In an attempt to decipher the mechanism responsible for the differential stability of wild-type NQO1*1 and mutant NQO1*2 proteins, we have investigated the interactions of these proteins with molecular chaperones of the Hsp family. Using co-immunoprecipitation studies (co-IPs), no association was observed between Hsp90 and either wild-type NQO1*1 or mutant NQO1*2 proteins. Hsp70, however, was found to associate with NQO1*1 protein in cells when co-IPs were performed with an anti-NQO1 antibody followed by immunoblotting with an anti-Hsp70 antibody or vice versa. Hsp40 could also be detected in the immunoprecipitated protein complex. Experiments were also performed using either the NQO1*1 or NQO1*2 coding regions in an in vitro transcription/translation system employing rabbit reticulocyte lysates (RRLs). Consistent with the cellular data, co-IP experiments in RRLs demonstrated an association of Hsp70 with wild-type NQO1*1 protein but not with NQO1*2 protein. To further elucidate the role of the association of Hsp70 with the NQO1*1 protein, site-directed mutagenesis was used to modify a proposed Hsp70 binding site near the N terminus of the NQO1 protein. We generated a plasmid containing an NQO1*1 coding region with a mutated Hsp70 binding site (isoleucine to aspartic acid at position 8, NQO1*1/I8D). In contrast to the NQO1*1 protein translated in RRLs, the NQO1*1/I8D protein did not associate with Hsp70, as demonstrated by co-IP, was catalytically inactive, and was degraded by the UPP. These data suggest that the association of Hsp70 with NQO1*1 may play an important role in the stability and functionality of the NQO1 protein. PMID:11821413

Anwar, Adil; Siegel, David; Kepa, Jadwiga K; Ross, David



NAD(P)H Cytochrome b5 Oxidoreductase Deficiency in Leishmania major Results in Impaired Linoleate Synthesis Followed by Increased Oxidative Stress and Cell Death*  

PubMed Central

NAD(P)H cytochrome b5 oxidoreductase (Ncb5or), comprising cytochrome b5 and cytochrome b5 reductase domains, is widely distributed in eukaryotic organisms. Although Ncb5or plays a crucial role in lipid metabolism of mice, so far no Ncb5or gene has been reported in the unicellular parasitic protozoa Leishmania species. We have cloned, expressed, and characterized Ncb5or gene from Leishmania major. Steady state catalysis and spectral studies show that NADH can quickly reduce the ferric state of the enzyme to the ferrous state and is able to donate an electron(s) to external acceptors. To elucidate its exact physiological role in Leishmania, we attempted to create NAD(P)H cytochrome b5 oxidoreductase from L. major (LmNcb5or) knock-out mutants by targeted gene replacement technique. A free fatty acid profile in knock-out (KO) cells reveals marked deficiency in linoleate and linolenate when compared with wild type (WT) or overexpressing cells. KO culture has a higher percentage of dead cells compared with both WT and overexpressing cells. Increased O2 uptake, uncoupling and ATP synthesis, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential are evident in KO cells. Flow cytometric analysis reveals the presence of a higher concentration of intracellular H2O2, indicative of increased oxidative stress in parasites lacking LmNcb5or. Cell death is significantly reduced when the KO cells are pretreated with BSA bound linoleate. Real time PCR studies demonstrate a higher ?12 desaturase, superoxide dismutase, and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) mRNA with a concomitant fall in ?9 desaturase mRNA expression in LmNcb5or null cell line. Together these findings suggest that decreased linoleate synthesis, and increased oxidative stress and apoptosis are the major consequences of LmNcb5or deficiency in Leishmania. PMID:22923617

Mukherjee, Supratim; Sen Santara, Sumit; Das, Shantanabha; Bose, Moumita; Roy, Jayasree; Adak, Subrata



NxrB encoding the beta subunit of nitrite oxidoreductase as functional and phylogenetic marker for nitrite-oxidizing Nitrospira.  


Nitrospira are the most widespread and diverse known nitrite-oxidizing bacteria and key nitrifiers in natural and engineered ecosystems. Nevertheless, their ecophysiology and environmental distribution are understudied because of the recalcitrance of Nitrospira to cultivation and the lack of a molecular functional marker, which would allow the detection of Nitrospira in the environment. Here we introduce nxrB, the gene encoding subunit beta of nitrite oxidoreductase, as a functional and phylogenetic marker for Nitrospira. Phylogenetic trees based on nxrB of Nitrospira were largely congruent to 16S ribosomal RNA-based phylogenies. By using new nxrB-selective polymerase chain reaction primers, we obtained almost full-length nxrB sequences from Nitrospira cultures, two activated sludge samples, and several geographically and climatically distinct soils. Amplicon pyrosequencing of nxrB fragments from 16 soils revealed a previously unrecognized diversity of terrestrial Nitrospira with 1801 detected species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (using an inferred species threshold of 95% nxrB identity). Richness estimates ranged from 10 to 946 coexisting Nitrospira species per soil. Comparison with an archaeal amoA dataset obtained from the same soils [Environ. Microbiol. 14: 525-539 (2012)] uncovered that ammonia-oxidizing archaea and Nitrospira communities were highly correlated across the soil samples, possibly indicating shared habitat preferences or specific biological interactions among members of these nitrifier groups. PMID:24118804

Pester, Michael; Maixner, Frank; Berry, David; Rattei, Thomas; Koch, Hanna; Lücker, Sebastian; Nowka, Boris; Richter, Andreas; Spieck, Eva; Lebedeva, Elena; Loy, Alexander; Wagner, Michael; Daims, Holger



ArxA, a new clade of arsenite oxidase within the DMSO reductase family of molybdenum oxidoreductases.  


Arsenotrophy, growth coupled to autotrophic arsenite oxidation or arsenate respiratory reduction, occurs only in the prokaryotic domain of life. The enzymes responsible for arsenotrophy belong to distinct clades within the DMSO reductase family of molybdenum-containing oxidoreductases: specifically arsenate respiratory reductase, ArrA, and arsenite oxidase, AioA (formerly referred to as AroA and AoxB). A new arsenite oxidase clade, ArxA, represented by the haloalkaliphilic bacterium Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii strain MLHE-1 was also identified in the photosynthetic purple sulfur bacterium Ectothiorhodospira sp. strain PHS-1. A draft genome sequence of PHS-1 was completed and an arx operon similar to MLHE-1 was identified. Gene expression studies showed that arxA was strongly induced with arsenite. Microbial ecology investigation led to the identification of additional arxA-like sequences in Mono Lake and Hot Creek sediments, both arsenic-rich environments in California. Phylogenetic analyses placed these sequences as distinct members of the ArxA clade of arsenite oxidases. ArxA-like sequences were also identified in metagenome sequences of several alkaline microbial mat environments of Yellowstone National Park hot springs. These results suggest that ArxA-type arsenite oxidases appear to be widely distributed in the environment presenting an opportunity for further investigations of the contribution of Arx-dependent arsenotrophy to the arsenic biogeochemical cycle. PMID:22404962

Zargar, Kamrun; Conrad, Alison; Bernick, David L; Lowe, Todd M; Stolc, Viktor; Hoeft, Shelley; Oremland, Ronald S; Stolz, John; Saltikov, Chad W



Identification of a Cytochrome b-Type NAD(P)H Oxidoreductase Ubiquitously Expressed in Human Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytochrome b-type NAD(P)H oxidoreductases are involved in many physiological processes, including iron uptake in yeast, the respiratory burst, and perhaps oxygen sensing in mammals. We have identified a cytosolic cytochrome b-type NAD(P)H oxidoreductase in mammals, a flavohemoprotein (b5+b5R) containing cytochrome b5 (b5) and b5 reductase (b5R) domains. A genetic approach, using BLAST searches against DBEST for FAD-, NAD(P)H-binding sequences followed

Hao Zhu; Huawei Qiu; Hae-Won Patricia Yoon; Shuning Huang; H. Franklin Bunn



Reaction mechanism of azoreductases suggests convergent evolution with quinone oxidoreductases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Azoreductases are involved in the bioremediation by bacteria of azo dyes found in waste water. In the gut flora, they activate\\u000a azo pro-drugs, which are used for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, releasing the active component 5-aminosalycilic\\u000a acid. The bacterium P. aeruginosa has three azoreductase genes, paAzoR1, paAzoR2 and paAzoR3, which as recombinant enzymes have been shown to have different

Ali Ryan; Chan-Ju Wang; Nicola Laurieri; Isaac Westwood; Edith Sim



Reaction of electron-transfer flavoprotein with electron-transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxidative half-reaction of electron-transfer flavoprotein (ETF), electron transfer from ETF to electron-transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF-QO), is dependent on complementary surface charges on the two proteins. ETF is the positively charged member of the redox pair. The evidence is based on the pH and ionic strength dependencies of the comproportionation of oxidized ETF and ETF hydroquinone catalyzed by ETF-QO and

Joe D. Beckmann; Frank E. Frerman



The role of the [2Fe–2S] cluster centers in xanthine oxidoreductase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xanthine oxidoreductases (XOR), xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH, EC1.1.1.204) and xanthine oxidase (XO, EC1.2.3.2), are the best-studied molybdenum-containing iron–sulfur flavoproteins. The mammalian enzymes exist originally as the dehydrogenase form (XDH) but can be converted to the oxidase form (XO) either reversibly by oxidation of sulfhydryl residues of the protein molecule or irreversibly by proteolysis. The active form of the enzyme is a

Takeshi Nishino; Ken Okamoto



Iron (III) reduction: A novel activity of the human NAD(P)H:oxidoreductase  

Microsoft Academic Search

NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1; EC catalyzes a two-electron transfer involved in the protection of cells from reactive oxygen species. These reactive oxygen species are often generated by the one-electron reduction of quinones or quinone analogs. We report here on the previously unreported Fe(III) reduction activity of human NQO1. Under steady state conditions with Fe(III) citrate, the apparent Michaelis–Menten constant (Kmapp)

Rob U. Onyenwoke; Juergen. Wiegel



Modulation of quinate: NAD + oxidoreductase activity through reversible phosphorylation in carrot cell suspensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quinate: NAD+ oxidoreductase (EC from carrot cells was deactivated by incubating partially purified extract with MgCl2 at 30°C. The deactivation process was prevented by adding fluoride, a phosphatase inhibitor. Once inactivated, the enzyme could recover its initial activity on incubation with ATP-Mg either in combination with or not in combination with an exogenous protein kinase. 32PO4 was incorporated into

Germain Refeno; Raoul Ranjeva; Alain M. Boudet



Immunodetection and photostability of NADPH-protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase in Pinus pinea L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibody against the light-dependent NADPH-protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase of oat was used to detect a protein of the same molecular weight in cotyledons of 40-day-old dark-grown seedlings of Pinus pinea L. Exposure of the seedlings to light resulted in a rapid decrease in protochlorophyllide content without the concomitant decrease in 38 kDa protein which is observed on transfer of dark-grown angiosperm seedlings

Keli Ou; Nicolle Packer; Heather Adamson



Characterization of a polymorphism in NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase (DT-diaphorase)  

Microsoft Academic Search

NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1, EC is an obligate two-electron reductase that can either bioactivate or detoxify quinones and has been proposed to play an important role in chemoprevention. We have previously characterized a homozygous point mutation in the BE human colon carcinoma cell line that leads to a loss of NQO1 activity. Sequence analysis showed that this mutation was at

D Siegel; HD Beall; RM Phillips; NW Gibson; WA Franklin; D Ross



Herbicide-resistant tobacco plants expressing the fused enzyme between rat cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) and yeast NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase.  

PubMed Central

Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Xanthi) plants expressing a genetically engineered fused enzyme between rat cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) and yeast NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase were produced. The expression plasmid pGFC2 for the fused enzyme was constructed by insertion of the corresponding cDNA into the expression vector pNG01 under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and nopaline synthase gene terminator. The fused enzyme cDNA was integrated into tobacco genomes by Agrobacterium infection techniques. In transgenic tobacco plants, the fused enzyme protein was localized primarily in the microsomal fraction. The microsomal monooxygenase activities were approximately 10 times higher toward both 7-ethoxycoumarin and benzo[a]pyrene than in the control plant. The transgenic plants also showed resistance to the herbicide chlortoluron. PMID:7972515

Shiota, N; Nagasawa, A; Sakaki, T; Yabusaki, Y; Ohkawa, H



Diversity and Function of Mutations in P450 Oxidoreductase in Patients with Antley-Bixler Syndrome and Disordered Steroidogenesis  

PubMed Central

P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the obligatory flavoprotein intermediate that transfers electrons from reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes. Although mouse Por gene ablation causes embryonic lethality, POR missense mutations cause disordered steroidogenesis, ambiguous genitalia, and Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS), which has also been attributed to fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) mutations. We sequenced the POR gene and FGFR2 exons 8 and 10 in 32 individuals with ABS and/or hormonal findings that suggested POR deficiency. POR and FGFR2 mutations segregated completely. Fifteen patients carried POR mutations on both alleles, 4 carried mutations on only one allele, 10 carried FGFR2 or FGFR3 mutations, and 3 patients carried no mutations. The 34 affected POR alleles included 10 with A287P (all from whites) and 7 with R457H (four Japanese, one African, two whites); 17 of the 34 alleles carried 16 “private” mutations, including 9 missense and 7 frameshift mutations. These 11 missense mutations, plus 10 others found in databases or reported elsewhere, were recreated by site-directed mutagenesis and were assessed by four assays: reduction of cytochrome c, oxidation of NADPH, support of 17?-hydroxylase activity, and support of 17,20 lyase using human P450c17. Assays that were based on cytochrome c, which is not a physiologic substrate for POR, correlated poorly with clinical phenotype, but assays that were based on POR’s support of catalysis by P450c17—the enzyme most closely associated with the hormonal phenotype—provided an excellent genotype/phenotype correlation. Our large survey of patients with ABS shows that individuals with an ABS-like phenotype and normal steroidogenesis have FGFR mutations, whereas those with ambiguous genitalia and disordered steroidogenesis should be recognized as having a distinct new disease: POR deficiency. PMID:15793702

Huang, Ningwu; Pandey, Amit V.; Agrawal, Vishal; Reardon, William; Lapunzina, Pablo D.; Mowat, David; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; Vliet, Guy Van; Sack, Joseph; Flück, Christa E.; Miller, Walter L.



Diversity and function of mutations in p450 oxidoreductase in patients with Antley-Bixler syndrome and disordered steroidogenesis.  


P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the obligatory flavoprotein intermediate that transfers electrons from reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes. Although mouse Por gene ablation causes embryonic lethality, POR missense mutations cause disordered steroidogenesis, ambiguous genitalia, and Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS), which has also been attributed to fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) mutations. We sequenced the POR gene and FGFR2 exons 8 and 10 in 32 individuals with ABS and/or hormonal findings that suggested POR deficiency. POR and FGFR2 mutations segregated completely. Fifteen patients carried POR mutations on both alleles, 4 carried mutations on only one allele, 10 carried FGFR2 or FGFR3 mutations, and 3 patients carried no mutations. The 34 affected POR alleles included 10 with A287P (all from whites) and 7 with R457H (four Japanese, one African, two whites); 17 of the 34 alleles carried 16 "private" mutations, including 9 missense and 7 frameshift mutations. These 11 missense mutations, plus 10 others found in databases or reported elsewhere, were recreated by site-directed mutagenesis and were assessed by four assays: reduction of cytochrome c, oxidation of NADPH, support of 17alpha-hydroxylase activity, and support of 17,20 lyase using human P450c17. Assays that were based on cytochrome c, which is not a physiologic substrate for POR, correlated poorly with clinical phenotype, but assays that were based on POR's support of catalysis by P450c17--the enzyme most closely associated with the hormonal phenotype--provided an excellent genotype/phenotype correlation. Our large survey of patients with ABS shows that individuals with an ABS-like phenotype and normal steroidogenesis have FGFR mutations, whereas those with ambiguous genitalia and disordered steroidogenesis should be recognized as having a distinct new disease: POR deficiency. PMID:15793702

Huang, Ningwu; Pandey, Amit V; Agrawal, Vishal; Reardon, William; Lapunzina, Pablo D; Mowat, David; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; Van Vliet, Guy; Sack, Joseph; Flück, Christa E; Miller, Walter L



Comparative Genomics of Thiol Oxidoreductases Reveals Widespread and Essential Functions of Thiol-based Redox Control of Cellular Processes  

PubMed Central

Abstract Aims: Redox regulation of cellular processes is an important mechanism that operates in organisms from bacteria to mammals. Much of the redox control is provided by thiol oxidoreductases: proteins that employ cysteine residues for redox catalysis. We wanted to identify thiol oxidoreductases on a genome-wide scale and use this information to obtain insights into the general principles of thiol-based redox control. Results: Thiol oxidoreductases were identified by three independent methods that took advantage of the occurrence of selenocysteine homologs of these proteins and functional linkages among thiol oxidoreductases revealed by comparative genomics. Based on these searches, we describe thioredoxomes, which are sets of thiol oxidoreductases in organisms. Their analyses revealed that these proteins are present in all living organisms, generally account for 0.5%–1% of the proteome and that their use correlates with proteome size, distinguishing these proteins from those involved in core metabolic functions. We further describe thioredoxomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and humans, including proteins which have not been characterized previously. Thiol oxidoreductases occur in various cellular compartments and are enriched in the endoplasmic reticulum and cytosol. Innovation: We developed bioinformatics methods and used them to characterize thioredoxomes on a genome-wide scale, which in turn revealed properties of thioredoxomes. Conclusion: These data provide information about organization and properties of thiol-based redox control, whose use is increased with the increase in complexity of organisms. Our data also show an essential combined function of a set of thiol oxidoreductases, and of thiol-based redox regulation in general, in all living organisms. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 16, 193–201. PMID:21902454




NSDL National Science Digital Library

Illustration of the placement of genes in a chromosome. A gene can be defined as a region of DNA that controls a hereditary characteristic. It usually corresponds to a sequence used in the production of a specific protein or RNA. A gene carries biological information in a form that must be copied and transmitted from each cell to all its progeny. This includes the entire functional unit: coding DNA sequences, non-coding regulatory DNA sequences, and introns. Genes can be as short as 1000 base pairs or as long as several hundred thousand base pairs. It can even be carried by more than one chromosome. The estimate for the number of genes in humans has decreased as our knowledge has increased. As of 2001, humans are thought to have between 30,000 and 40,000 genes.

Excellence, Access



Indolepyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. A new enzyme involved in peptide fermentation.  


Pyrococcus furiosus is a strictly anaerobic archaeon that grows optimally at 100 degrees C by a fermentative-type metabolism in which complex peptide mixtures such as yeast extract and Tryptone, and also certain sugars, are oxidized to organic acids, H2 and CO2. Enzymes involved in the utilization of peptides such as proteases, aromatic amino transferases, and glutamate dehydrogenase have been previously purified from this organism. It is shown here that P. furiosus also contains significant cytoplasmic concentrations of a new enzyme termed indolepyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (IOR). This catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of aryl pyruvates, which are generated by the transamination of aromatic amino acids, to the corresponding aryl acetyl-CoA. IOR is a tetramer (alpha 2 beta 2) of two identical subunits (66,000 and 23,000 Da) with a molecular weight of 180,000. The enzyme contains one molecule of thiamine pyrophosphate and four [4Fe-4S]2+,1+ and one [3Fe-4S]0,1+ cluster, as determined by iron analyses and EPR spectroscopy. Significant amounts of other metals such as copper and zinc were not detected. IOR was virtually inactive at 25 degrees C and exhibited optimal activity above 90 degrees C (at pH 8.0) and at pH 8.5-10.5 (at 80 degrees C). The enzyme was sensitive to inactivation by O2, losing 50% of its activity after exposure to air for 20 min at 23 degrees C, and was quite thermostable, with a half-life of activity at 80 degrees C (under anaerobic conditions) of about 80 min. The Km values (in microM) for indolepyruvate, p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate, phenylpyruvate, CoASH, and P. furiosus ferredoxin, the physiological electron carrier, were 250, 110, 90, 17, and 48, respectively. IOR was inhibited by KCN (apparent Ki = 7.5 mM), but not by CO (1 atm). An enzyme analogous to IOR has not been reported previously. Curiously, it has few properties in common with the pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase of P. furiosus, even though the two enzymes catalyze virtually identical reactions. In fact, of known ketoacid oxidoreductases, the catalytic mechanism of IOR appears to be most similar to that of the pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima. PMID:8206994

Mai, X; Adams, M W



Genetics of P450 oxidoreductase: Sequence variation in 842 individuals of four ethnicities and activities of 15 missense mutations  

PubMed Central

P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is an electron-donating flavoprotein required for the activity of all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes. We sequenced 5,655 bp of the POR gene in a representative population of 842 healthy unrelated individuals in four ethnic groups: 218 African Americans, 260 Caucasian Americans, 179 Chinese Americans, and 185 Mexican Americans. One hundred forty SNPs were detected, of which 43 were found in ?1% of alleles. Twelve SNPs were in the POR promoter region. Fifteen of 32 exonic variations altered the POR amino acid sequence; 13 of these 15 are previously undescribed missense variations. We found eight indels, only one of which was in the coding region. A previously described variant, A503V, was found on 27.9% of all alleles with some ethnic predilection (19.1% in African Americans, 26.4% in Caucasian Americans, 36.7% Chinese Americans, and 31.0% in Mexican Americans). We built cDNA expression vectors for the 13 previously undescribed missense variants, expressed each protein lacking 27 N-terminal residues in Escherichia coli, and assayed the apparent Km and Vmax of each in four assays: reduction of cytochrome c, oxidation of NADPH, 17?-hydroxylase activity of P450c17, and 17,20 lyase activity of P450c17. The catalytic activities of several missense mutants differed substantially in these assays, indicating that each POR mutant must be assayed separately with each potential target P450 enzyme. The activity of A503V was reduced to a modest but statistically significant degree in all four assays, suggesting that it may play an important role in interindividual variation in drug response. PMID:18230729

Huang, Ningwu; Agrawal, Vishal; Giacomini, Kathleen M.; Miller, Walter L.



Interplay between the oxidoreductase PDIA6 and microRNA-322 controls the response to disrupted endoplasmic reticulum calcium homeostasis.  


The disruption of the energy or nutrient balance triggers endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, a process that mobilizes various strategies, collectively called the unfolded protein response (UPR), which reestablish homeostasis of the ER and cell. Activation of the UPR stress sensor IRE1? (inositol-requiring enzyme 1?) stimulates its endoribonuclease activity, leading to the generation of the mRNA encoding the transcription factor XBP1 (X-box binding protein 1), which regulates the transcription of genes encoding factors involved in controlling the quality and folding of proteins. We found that the activity of IRE1? was regulated by the ER oxidoreductase PDIA6 (protein disulfide isomerase A6) and the microRNA miR-322 in response to disruption of ER Ca2+ homeostasis. PDIA6 interacted with IRE1? and enhanced IRE1? activity as monitored by phosphorylation of IRE1? and XBP1 mRNA splicing, but PDIA6 did not substantially affect the activity of other pathways that mediate responses to ER stress. ER Ca2+ depletion and activation of store-operated Ca2+ entry reduced the abundance of the microRNA miR-322, which increased PDIA6 mRNA stability and, consequently, IRE1? activity during the ER stress response. In vivo experiments with mice and worms showed that the induction of ER stress correlated with decreased miR-322 abundance, increased PDIA6 mRNA abundance, or both. Together, these findings demonstrated that ER Ca2+, PDIA6, IRE1?, and miR-322 function in a dynamic feedback loop modulating the UPR under conditions of disrupted ER Ca2+ homeostasis. PMID:24917591

Groenendyk, Jody; Peng, Zhenling; Dudek, Elzbieta; Fan, Xiao; Mizianty, Marcin J; Dufey, Estefanie; Urra, Hery; Sepulveda, Denisse; Rojas-Rivera, Diego; Lim, Yunki; Kim, Do Han; Baretta, Kayla; Srikanth, Sonal; Gwack, Yousang; Ahnn, Joohong; Kaufman, Randal J; Lee, Sun-Kyung; Hetz, Claudio; Kurgan, Lukasz; Michalak, Marek



A Transcriptome-proteome Integrated Network Identifies Endoplasmic Reticulum thiol oxidoreductase (ERp57) as a Hub that Mediates Bone Metastasis*  

PubMed Central

Bone metastasis is the most common distant relapse in breast cancer. The identification of key proteins involved in the osteotropic phenotype would represent a major step toward the development of new prognostic markers and therapeutic improvements. The aim of this study was to characterize functional phenotypes that favor bone metastasis in human breast cancer. We used the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and its osteotropic BO2 subclone to identify crucial proteins in bone metastatic growth. We identified 31 proteins, 15 underexpressed and 16 overexpressed, in BO2 cells compared with parental cells. We employed a network-modeling approach in which these 31 candidate proteins were prioritized with respect to their potential in metastasis formation, based on the topology of the protein-protein interaction network and differential expression. The protein-protein interaction network provided a framework to study the functional relationships between biological molecules by attributing functions to genes whose functions had not been characterized. The combination of expression profiles and protein interactions revealed an endoplasmic reticulum-thiol oxidoreductase, ERp57, functioning as a hub that retained four down-regulated nodes involved in antigen presentation associated with the human major histocompatibility complex class I molecules, including HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-E, and HLA-F. Further analysis of the interaction network revealed an inverse correlation between ERp57 and vimentin, which influences cytoskeleton reorganization. Moreover, knockdown of ERp57 in BO2 cells confirmed its bone organ-specific prometastatic role. Altogether, ERp57 appears as a multifunctional chaperone that can regulate diverse biological processes to maintain the homeostasis of breast cancer cells and promote the development of bone metastasis. PMID:23625662

Santana-Codina, Naiara; Carretero, Rafael; Sanz-Pamplona, Rebeca; Cabrera, Teresa; Guney, Emre; Oliva, Baldo; Clezardin, Philippe; Olarte, Omar E.; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo; Mendez-Lucas, Andres; Perales, Jose Carlos; Sierra, Angels



Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Chloroplasts Contain a Homodimeric Pyruvate:Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase That Functions with FDX11[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Eukaryotic algae have long been known to live in anoxic environments, but interest in their anaerobic energy metabolism has only recently gained momentum, largely due to their utility in biofuel production. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii figures remarkably in this respect, because it efficiently produces hydrogen and its genome harbors many genes for anaerobic metabolic routes. Central to anaerobic energy metabolism in many unicellular eukaryotes (protists) is pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFO), which decarboxylates pyruvate and forms acetyl-coenzyme A with concomitant reduction of low-potential ferredoxins or flavodoxins. Here, we report the biochemical properties of the homodimeric PFO of C. reinhardtii expressed in Escherichia coli. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of the recombinant enzyme (Cr-rPFO) showed three distinct [4Fe-4S] iron-sulfur clusters and a thiamine pyrophosphate radical upon reduction by pyruvate. Purified Cr-rPFO exhibits a specific decarboxylase activity of 12 µmol pyruvate min?1 mg?1 protein using benzyl viologen as electron acceptor. Despite the fact that the enzyme is very oxygen sensitive, it localizes to the chloroplast. Among the six known chloroplast ferredoxins (FDX1–FDX6) in C. reinhardtii, FDX1 and FDX2 were the most efficient electron acceptors from Cr-rPFO, with comparable apparent Km values of approximately 4 µm. As revealed by immunoblotting, anaerobic conditions that lead to the induction of CrPFO did not increase levels of either FDX1 or FDX2. FDX1, being by far the most abundant ferredoxin, is thus likely the partner of PFO in C. reinhardtii. This finding postulates a direct link between CrPFO and hydrogenase and provides new opportunities to better study and engineer hydrogen production in this protist. PMID:23154536

van Lis, Robert; Baffert, Carole; Coute, Yohann; Nitschke, Wolfgang; Atteia, Ariane



The End of the Line: Can Ferredoxin and Ferredoxin NADP(H) Oxidoreductase Determine the Fate of Photosynthetic Electrons?  

PubMed Central

At the end of the linear photosynthetic electron transfer (PET) chain, the small soluble protein ferredoxin (Fd) transfers electrons to Fd:NADP(H) oxidoreductase (FNR), which can then reduce NADP+ to support C assimilation. In addition to this linear electron flow (LEF), Fd is also thought to mediate electron flow back to the membrane complexes by different cyclic electron flow (CEF) pathways: either antimycin A sensitive, NAD(P)H complex dependent, or through FNR located at the cytochrome b6f complex. Both Fd and FNR are present in higher plant genomes as multiple gene copies, and it is now known that specific Fd iso-proteins can promote CEF. In addition, FNR iso-proteins vary in their ability to dynamically interact with thylakoid membrane complexes, and it has been suggested that this may also play a role in CEF. We will highlight work on the different Fd-isoproteins and FNR-membrane association found in the bundle sheath (BSC) and mesophyll (MC) cell chloroplasts of the C4 plant maize. These two cell types perform predominantly CEF and LEF, and the properties and activities of Fd and FNR in the BSC and MC are therefore specialized for CEF and LEF respectively. A diversity of Fd isoproteins and dynamic FNR location has also been recorded in C3 plants, algae and cyanobacteria. This indicates that the principles learned from the extreme electron transport situations in the BSC and MC of maize might be usefully applied to understanding the dynamic transition between these states in other systems. PMID:24678667

Goss, Tatjana; Hanke, Guy



The end of the line: can ferredoxin and ferredoxin NADP(H) oxidoreductase determine the fate of photosynthetic electrons?  


At the end of the linear photosynthetic electron transfer (PET) chain, the small soluble protein ferredoxin (Fd) transfers electrons to Fd:NADP(H) oxidoreductase (FNR), which can then reduce NADP+ to support C assimilation. In addition to this linear electron flow (LEF), Fd is also thought to mediate electron flow back to the membrane complexes by different cyclic electron flow (CEF) pathways: either antimycin A sensitive, NAD(P)H complex dependent, or through FNR located at the cytochrome b6f complex. Both Fd and FNR are present in higher plant genomes as multiple gene copies, and it is now known that specific Fd iso-proteins can promote CEF. In addition, FNR iso-proteins vary in their ability to dynamically interact with thylakoid membrane complexes, and it has been suggested that this may also play a role in CEF. We will highlight work on the different Fd-isoproteins and FNR-membrane association found in the bundle sheath (BSC) and mesophyll (MC) cell chloroplasts of the C4 plant maize. These two cell types perform predominantly CEF and LEF, and the properties and activities of Fd and FNR in the BSC and MC are therefore specialized for CEF and LEF respectively. A diversity of Fd isoproteins and dynamic FNR location has also been recorded in C3 plants, algae and cyanobacteria. This indicates that the principles learned from the extreme electron transport situations in the BSC and MC of maize might be usefully applied to understanding the dynamic transition between these states in other systems. PMID:24678667

Goss, Tatjana; Hanke, Guy



Simultaneous Involvement of a Tungsten-Containing Aldehyde:Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase and a Phenylacetaldehyde Dehydrogenase in Anaerobic Phenylalanine Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic phenylalanine metabolism in the denitrifying betaproteobacterium Aromatoleum aromaticum is initiated by conversion of phenylalanine to phenylacetate, which is further metabolized via benzoyl-coenzyme A (CoA). The formation of phenylacetate is catalyzed by phenylalanine transaminase, phenylpyruvate decarboxylase, and a phenylacetaldehyde-oxidizing enzyme. The presence of these enzymes was detected in extracts of cells grown with phenylalanine and nitrate. We found that two distinct enzymes are involved in the oxidation of phenylacetaldehyde to phenylacetate, an aldehyde:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (AOR) and a phenylacetaldehyde dehydrogenase (PDH). Based on sequence comparison, growth studies with various tungstate concentrations, and metal analysis of the enriched enzyme, AOR was shown to be a tungsten-containing enzyme, necessitating specific cofactor biosynthetic pathways for molybdenum- and tungsten-dependent enzymes simultaneously. We predict from the genome sequence that most enzymes of molybdopterin biosynthesis are shared, while the molybdate/tungstate uptake systems are duplicated and specialized paralogs of the sulfur-inserting MoaD and the metal-inserting MoeA proteins seem to be involved in dedicating biosynthesis toward molybdenum or tungsten cofactors. We also characterized PDH biochemically and identified both NAD+ and NADP+ as electron acceptors. We identified the gene coding for the enzyme and purified a recombinant Strep-tagged PDH variant. The homotetrameric enzyme is highly specific for phenylacetaldehyde, has cooperative kinetics toward the substrate, and shows considerable substrate inhibition. Our data suggest that A. aromaticum utilizes PDH as the primary enzyme during anaerobic phenylalanine degradation, whereas AOR is not essential for the metabolic pathway. We hypothesize a function as a detoxifying enzyme if high aldehyde concentrations accumulate in the cytoplasm, which would lead to substrate inhibition of PDH. PMID:24214948

Debnar-Daumler, Carlotta; Seubert, Andreas; Schmitt, Georg



The Role of Oxidoreductases in Determining the Function of the Neisserial Lipid A Phosphoethanolamine Transferase Required for Resistance to Polymyxin  

PubMed Central

The decoration of the lipid A headgroups of the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) by the LOS phosphoethanolamine (PEA) transferase (LptA) in Neisseria spp. is central for resistance to polymyxin. The structure of the globular domain of LptA shows that the protein has five disulphide bonds, indicating that it is a potential substrate of the protein oxidation pathway in the bacterial periplasm. When neisserial LptA was expressed in Escherichia coli in the presence of the oxidoreductase, EcDsbA, polymyxin resistance increased 30-fold. LptA decorated one position of the E. coli lipid A headgroups with PEA. In the absence of the EcDsbA, LptA was degraded in E. coli. Neisseria spp. express three oxidoreductases, DsbA1, DsbA2 and DsbA3, each of which appear to donate disulphide bonds to different targets. Inactivation of each oxidoreductase in N. meningitidis enhanced sensitivity to polymyxin with combinatorial mutants displaying an additive increase in sensitivity to polymyxin, indicating that the oxidoreductases were required for multiple pathways leading to polymyxin resistance. Correlates were sought between polymyxin sensitivity, LptA stability or activity and the presence of each of the neisserial oxidoreductases. Only meningococcal mutants lacking DsbA3 had a measurable decrease in the amount of PEA decoration on lipid A headgroups implying that LptA stability was supported by the presence of DsbA3 but did not require DsbA1/2 even though these oxidoreductases could oxidise the protein. This is the first indication that DsbA3 acts as an oxidoreductase in vivo and that multiple oxidoreductases may be involved in oxidising the one target in N. meningitidis. In conclusion, LptA is stabilised by disulphide bonds within the protein. This effect was more pronounced when neisserial LptA was expressed in E. coli than in N. meningitidis and may reflect that other factors in the neisserial periplasm have a role in LptA stability. PMID:25215579

Piek, Susannah; Wang, Zhirui; Ganguly, Jhuma; Lakey, Adam M.; Bartley, Stephanie N.; Mowlaboccus, Shakeel; Anandan, Anandhi; Stubbs, Keith A.; Scanlon, Martin J.; Vrielink, Alice; Azadi, Parastoo; Carlson, Russell W.; Kahler, Charlene M.



Structure modeling and inhibitor prediction ofNADP oxidoreductase enzyme from Methanobrevibacter smithii.  


The F420-dependent NADP oxidoreductase enzyme from Methanobrevibacter smithii catalyzes the important electron transfer step during methanogenesis. Therefore, it may act as potential target for blocking the process of methane formation. Its protein sequence is available in GenBank (accession number: ABQ86254.1) however no report has been found about its 3D protein structure. In this work, we first time claim 3D model structure of F420-dependent NADP oxidoreductase enzyme from Methanobrevibacter smithii by comparative homology modeling method. Swiss model and ESyPred3d (via Modeller 6v2) software's were generated the 3D model by detecting 1JAX (A) as template along with sequence identities of 34.272% and 35.40%. Furthermore, PROCHECK with Ramachandran plot and ProSA analysis revealed that swiss model produced better model than Modeller6v2 with 98.90% of residues in favored and additional allowed regions (RM plot) as well as with ProSA Z score of -7.26. In addition, we investigated that the substrate F420 bound at the cavity of the model. Subsequently, inhibitor prediction study revealed that Lovastatin (-22.07 Kcal/mol) and Compactin (Mevastatin) (-21.91 Kcal/mol) produced more affinity for model structure of NADP oxidoreducatse as compared to F420 (-14.40 Kcal/mol). It indicates that the Lovastatin and Compactin (Mevastatin) compounds (Negative regulator) may act as potential inhibitor of F420 dependent NADP oxidoreducatse protein. PMID:21464839

Sharma, Ashwani; Chaudhary, Prem Prashant; Sirohi, Sunil Kumar; Saxena, Jyoti



Structure modeling and inhibitor prediction ofNADP oxidoreductase enzyme from Methanobrevibacter smithii  

PubMed Central

The F420-dependent NADP oxidoreductase enzyme from Methanobrevibacter smithii catalyzes the important electron transfer step during methanogenesis. Therefore, it may act as potential target for blocking the process of methane formation. Its protein sequence is available in GenBank (accession number: ABQ86254.1) however no report has been found about its 3D protein structure. In this work, we first time claim 3D model structure of F420-dependent NADP oxidoreductase enzyme from Methanobrevibacter smithii by comparative homology modeling method. Swiss model and ESyPred3d (via Modeller 6v2) software's were generated the 3D model by detecting 1JAX (A) as template along with sequence identities of 34.272% and 35.40%. Furthermore, PROCHECK with Ramachandran plot and ProSA analysis revealed that swiss model produced better model than Modeller6v2 with 98.90% of residues in favored and additional allowed regions (RM plot) as well as with ProSA Z score of -7.26. In addition, we investigated that the substrate F420 bound at the cavity of the model. Subsequently, inhibitor prediction study revealed that Lovastatin (-22.07 Kcal/mol) and Compactin (Mevastatin) (-21.91 Kcal/mol) produced more affinity for model structure of NADP oxidoreducatse as compared to F420 (-14.40 Kcal/mol). It indicates that the Lovastatin and Compactin (Mevastatin) compounds (Negative regulator) may act as potential inhibitor of F420 dependent NADP oxidoreducatse protein. PMID:21464839

Sharma, Ashwani; Chaudhary, Prem Prashant; Sirohi, Sunil Kumar; Saxena, Jyoti



Glucagon activation of the thiol:protein disulfide oxidoreductase in isolated, rat, hepatic microsomes  

SciTech Connect

Thiol:protein disulfide oxidoreductase catalyzes the GSH reduction of protein disulfides to sulfhydryl groups. The authors determined this activity in washed rat hepatic microsomes (1) by a coupled reaction in which GSSG is reduced by GSH reductase and NADPH is oxidized and (2) by the cleavage of (/sup 125/I)-insulin (insulinase). Physiological concentrations of glucagon (GLU)(1 nM) with GSH (1 mM) increased both activities (NADPH oxidae - 1.1 nmol/min-mg prot (control)(C) to 4.3 (GLU); insulinase - 36 (C) to 83 (GLU)). For both assays stimulation was only seen with low protein concentrations (< 100, probably due to nonspecific GLU binding rather than proteolysis of the GLU since both reactions were linear for at least 30 min. The stimulation of NADPH oxidase had a P50 for GLU of 0.78 nM. GLU stimulation of insulinase was only observed in the presence of a GSH reducing system. Basal insulinase activity was unaffected by GSH reductase. These two observation suggest that the stimulation may be inhibited by the presence of GSSG. This effect was not due to depletion of GSH since the same effect was observed with higher GSH (5 mM). Although the effect on NADPH oxidase could represent activation of a GSH peroxidase, the insulinase data support the hypothesis that GLU may act by stimulating the thiol:protein disulfide oxidoreductase catalyzed reduction of protein disulfides.

McConkey, D.J.; Crankshaw, D.L.; Holtzman, J.L.



Crystal structures of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 quinone oxidoreductase and its complex with NADPH  

SciTech Connect

Zeta-crystallin-like quinone oxidoreductase is NAD(P)H-dependent and catalyzes one-electron reduction of certain quinones to generate semiquinone. Here we present the crystal structures of zeta-crystallin-like quinone oxidoreductase from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (PtoQOR) and its complexes with NADPH determined at 2.4 and 2.01 A resolutions, respectively. PtoQOR forms as a homologous dimer, each monomer containing two domains. In the structure of the PtoQOR-NADPH complex, NADPH locates in the groove between the two domains. NADPH binding causes obvious conformational changes in the structure of PtoQOR. The putative substrate-binding site of PtoQOR is wider than that of Escherichia coli and Thermus thermophilus HB8. Activity assays show that PtoQOR has weak 1,4-benzoquinone catalytic activity, and very strong reduction activity towards large substrates such as 9,10-phenanthrenequinone. We propose a model to explain the conformational changes which take place during reduction reactions catalyzed by PtoQOR.

Pan, Xiaowei [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China) [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Hongmei; Gao, Yu; Li, Mei [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China)] [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China); Chang, Wenrui, E-mail: [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China)] [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China)



Expression of 1,3-propanediol oxidoreductase and its isoenzyme in Klebsiella pneumoniae for bioconversion of glycerol into 1,3-propanediol.  


In the Klebsiella pneumoniae reduction pathway for 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) synthesis, glycerol is first dehydrated to 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) and then reduced to 1,3-PD with NADH consumption. Rapid conversion of 3-HPA to 1,3-PD is one of the ways to improve the yield of 1,3-PD from glycerol and to avoid 3-HPA accumulation, which depends on enzyme activity of the reaction and the amount of reducing equivalents available from the oxidative pathway of glycerol. In the present study, the yqhD gene, encoding 3-propanediol oxidoreductase isoenzyme from Escherichia coli and the dhaT gene, encoding 3-propanediol oxidoreductase from K. pneumoniae were expressed individually and co-expressed in K. pneumoniae using the double tac promoter expression plasmid pEtac-dhaT-tac-yqhD. The three resultant recombinant strains (K. pneumoniae/pEtac-yqhD, K. pneumoniae/pEtac-dhaT, and K. pneumoniae/pEtac-dhaT-tac-yqhD) were used for fermentation studies. Experimental results showed that the peak values for 3-HPA production in broth of the three recombinant strains were less than 25% of that of the parent strain. Expression of dhaT reduced formation of by-products (ethanol and lactic acid) and increased molar yield of 1,3-PD slightly, while expression of yqhD did not enhance molar yield of 1,3-PD, but increased ethanol concentration in broth as NADPH participation in transforming 3-HPA to 1,3-PD allowed more cellular NADH to be used to produce ethanol. Co-expression of both genes therefore decreased by-products and increased the molar yield of 1,3-PD by 11.8%, by catalyzing 3-HPA conversion to 1,3-propanediol using two cofactors (NADH and NADPH). These results have important implications for further studies involving use of YqhD and DhaT for bioconversion of glycerol into 1,3-PD. PMID:20499228

Zhuge, Bin; Zhang, Cheng; Fang, Huiying; Zhuge, Jian; Permaul, Kugen



Adaptive Hepatic and Intestinal Alterations in Mice after Deletion of NADPH-Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase (Cpr) in Hepatocytes.  


Cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450) play an important role in first-pass metabolism in both the intestine and liver. NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (Cpr) is an essential electron transfer protein required for microsomal P450 activity. Mice with conditional knockout of Cpr in hepatocytes develop normally and survive even with complete loss of liver microsomal P450 activity. Our current studies were performed to determine whether alternative drug-metabolizing pathways increase in an attempt to maintain whole-body homeostasis. In addition to the liver, Cpr is mainly expressed in tissues such as lung, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract. In livers of H-Cpr-null mice, there is a marked increase in mRNA expression of phase I enzymes (Aldh1a1, 1a7, 3a2; Ces1b2, 2a6, and 2a12), antioxidant enzymes (Ho-1, Nqo1, and epoxide hydrolase), phase II enzymes (Ugt1a9; Gsta1/2, m3, m4, m6, t1, and t3; and Sult1a1 and 1d1), and drug transporters (Oatp1a4, Oct3, Mate1, Mdr1a, and Mrp3 and 4). In addition, glucuronide-conjugated bilirubin concentrations are doubled in serum of H-Cpr-null mice. Both constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein in nuclei are higher in the livers of H-Cpr-null mice, indicating that CAR and Nrf2 are activated. In the small intestine of H-Cpr-null mice, mRNA expression of Cyp3a11 and Mdr1a, two genes critical for intestinal first-pass metabolism, are markedly up-regulated. In addition, nutrient (Pept1) and cholesterol (Npc1l1) transporters are induced in the small intestine of H-Cpr-null mice. In conclusion, in H-Cpr-null mice, adaptive regulation of alternative detoxification genes in liver and small intestine appear to partially compensate for the loss of microsomal P450 function in liver. PMID:25147274

Cheng, Xingguo; Gu, Jun; Klaassen, Curtis D



The Rate-limiting Step in the Cytochrome bc1 Complex (Ubiquinol-Cytochrome c Oxidoreductase) Is Not Changed by  

E-print Network

Hampshire 03755 Quinol oxidation at center P of the cytochrome bc1 complex involves bifurcated electron in center P. The cytochrome bc1 complex couples the oxidation of a two- electron carrier molecule of quinolThe Rate-limiting Step in the Cytochrome bc1 Complex (Ubiquinol-Cytochrome c Oxidoreductase

Trumpower, Bernard L.


Disulfide Bond Oxidoreductase DsbA2 of Legionella pneumophila Exhibits Protein Disulfide Isomerase Activity  

PubMed Central

The extracytoplasmic assembly of the Dot/Icm type IVb secretion system (T4SS) of Legionella pneumophila is dependent on correct disulfide bond (DSB) formation catalyzed by a novel and essential disulfide bond oxidoreductase DsbA2 and not by DsbA1, a second nonessential DSB oxidoreductase. DsbA2, which is widely distributed in the microbial world, is phylogenetically distinct from the canonical DsbA oxidase and the DsbC protein disulfide isomerase (PDI)/reductase of Escherichia coli. Here we show that the extended N-terminal amino acid sequence of DsbA2 (relative to DsbA proteins) contains a highly conserved 27-amino-acid dimerization domain enabling the protein to form a homodimer. Complementation tests with E. coli mutants established that L. pneumophila dsbA1, but not the dsbA2 strain, restored motility to a dsbA mutant. In a protein-folding PDI detector assay, the dsbA2 strain, but not the dsbA1 strain, complemented a dsbC mutant of E. coli. Deletion of the dimerization domain sequences from DsbA2 produced the monomer (DsbA2N), which no longer exhibited PDI activity but complemented the E. coli dsbA mutant. PDI activity was demonstrated in vitro for DsbA2 but not DsbA1 in a nitrocefin-based mutant TEM ?-lactamase folding assay. In an insulin reduction assay, DsbA2N activity was intermediate between those of DsbA2 and DsbA1. In L. pneumophila, DsbA2 was maintained as a mixture of thiol and disulfide forms, while in E. coli, DsbA2 was present as the reduced thiol. Our studies suggest that DsbA2 is a naturally occurring bifunctional disulfide bond oxidoreductase that may be uniquely suited to the majority of intracellular bacterial pathogens expressing T4SSs as well as in many slow-growing soil and aquatic bacteria. PMID:23435972

Kpadeh, Zegbeh Z.; Jameson-Lee, Max; Yeh, Anthony J.; Chertihin, Olga; Shumilin, Igor A.; Dey, Rafik; Day, Shandra R.



Enantiocomplementary Yarrowia lipolytica Oxidoreductases: Alcohol Dehydrogenase 2 and Short Chain Dehydrogenase/Reductase  

PubMed Central

Enzymes of the non-conventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica seem to be tailor-made for the conversion of lipophilic substrates. Herein, we cloned and overexpressed the Zn-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase ADH2 from Yarrowia lipolytica in Escherichia coli. The purified enzyme was characterized in vitro. The substrate scope for YlADH2 mediated oxidation and reduction was investigated spectrophotometrically and the enzyme showed a broader substrate range than its homolog from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A preference for secondary compared to primary alcohols in oxidation direction was observed for YlADH2. 2-Octanone was investigated in reduction mode in detail. Remarkably, YlADH2 displays perfect (S)-selectivity and together with a highly (R)-selective short chain dehydrogenase/ reductase from Yarrowia lipolytica it is possible to access both enantiomers of 2-octanol in >99% ee with Yarrowia lipolytica oxidoreductases. PMID:24970175

Napora-Wijata, Kamila; Strohmeier, Gernot A.; Sonavane, Manoj N.; Avi, Manuela; Robins, Karen; Winkler, Margit



Immobilization as a strategy for improving enzyme properties-application to oxidoreductases.  


The main objective of the immobilization of enzymes is to enhance the economics of biocatalytic processes. Immobilization allows one to re-use the enzyme for an extended period of time and enables easier separation of the catalyst from the product. Additionally, immobilization improves many properties of enzymes such as performance in organic solvents, pH tolerance, heat stability or the functional stability. Increasing the structural rigidity of the protein and stabilization of multimeric enzymes which prevents dissociation-related inactivation. In the last decade, several papers about immobilization methods have been published. In our work, we present a relation between the influence of immobilization on the improvement of the properties of selected oxidoreductases and their commercial value. We also present our view on the role that different immobilization methods play in the reduction of enzyme inhibition during biotechnological processes. PMID:24979403

Guzik, Urszula; Hupert-Kocurek, Katarzyna; Wojcieszy?ska, Danuta



A new concept for ferredoxin-NADP(H) oxidoreductase binding to plant thylakoids.  


During the evolution of photosynthesis, regulatory circuits were established that allow the precise coupling of light-driven electron transfer chains with downstream processes such as carbon fixation. The ferredoxin (Fd):ferredoxin-NADP(+) oxidoreductase (FNR) couple is an important mediator for these processes because it provides the transition from exclusively membrane-bound light reactions to the mostly stromal metabolic pathways. Recent progress has allowed us to revisit how FNR is bound to thylakoids and to revaluate the current view that only membrane-bound FNR is active in photosynthetic reactions. We argue that the vast majority of thylakoid-bound FNR of higher plants is not necessary for photosynthesis. We furthermore propose that the correct distribution of FNR between stroma and thylakoids is used to efficiently regulate Fd-dependent electron partitioning in the chloroplast. PMID:20851663

Benz, J Philipp; Lintala, Minna; Soll, Jürgen; Mulo, Paula; Bölter, Bettina



[Screening of yeasts producing stable L-lactate cytochrome c oxidoreductase and regulation of enzyme synthesis].  


Screening of strains producing a stable form of L-lactate cytochrome c oxidoreductase (flavocytochrome b2, FC b2) was carried out among 14 yeast species. Enzyme activity was detected in polyacrylamide gel after the electrophoresis of cell-free extracts. The FC b2 of Hansenula polymorpha, Rhodotorula pilimanae, and Kluyveromyces lactis are characterized by high thermostability; in particular, the FC b2 of H. polymorpha retains its activity and tetrameric structure even after heating at 60 degrees C for 10 min. Constitutive synthesis of FC b2 was observed in H. polymorpha grown on either glucose, ethanol, or glycerol. L-Lactate induces de novo synthesis of FC b2, as proved by the use of cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis. PMID:16579440

Smutok, O V; Os'mak, G S; Ga?da, G Z; Gonchar, M V



Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of NADH:rubredoxin oxidoreductase from Clostridium acetobutylicum  

PubMed Central

NADH:rubredoxin oxidoreductase (NROR), an O2-inducible protein, is a versatile electron donor for scavengers of O2 and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Clostridium acetobutylicum. Recombinant NROR was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity; it was subsequently crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method at 293?K. Preliminary crystallo­graphic analysis revealed that the crystals belonged to space group P4122 or P4322, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 98.6, c = 88.3?Å, and diffracted to 2.1?Å resolution. Assuming that the crystals contained one molecule per asymmetric unit, the Matthews coefficient was calculated to be 2.7?Å3?Da?1 and the solvent content to be 54.1%. PMID:20057062

Nishikawa, Koji; Shomura, Yasuhito; Kawasaki, Shinji; Niimura, Youichi; Higuchi, Yoshiki



Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Caused by P450 Oxidoreductase Deficiency  

PubMed Central

Context: Mutations in the electron donor enzyme P450 oxidoreductase (POR) result in congenital adrenal hyperplasia with apparent combined 17?-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase and 21-hydroxylase deficiencies, also termed P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD). Major clinical features present in PORD are disordered sex development in affected individuals of both sexes, glucocorticoid deficiency, and multiple skeletal malformations. Objective: The objective of the study was to establish a noninvasive approach to prenatal diagnosis of PORD including assessment of malformation severity to facilitate optimized prenatal diagnosis and timely treatment. Design: We analyzed 20 pregnancies with children homozygous or compound heterozygous for disease-causing POR mutations and 1 pregnancy with a child carrying a heterozygous POR mutation by recording clinical and biochemical presentations and fetal ultrasound findings. In 4 of the pregnancies (3 homozygous and 1 heterozygous for disease-causing POR mutations), prenatal analysis of steroid metabolite excretion in maternal urine was carried out by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry during gestational weeks 11–23. Results: Pregnancy complications in our cohort included maternal virilization (6 of 20) with onset in the second trimester. Seven pregnant women presented with low unconjugated estriol at prenatal screening (triple or quadruple antenatal screening test). Overt dysmorphic features were noted in 19 of the 20 babies at birth but observed in only 5 by prenatal ultrasound. These 5 had the most severe malformation phenotypes and poor outcome, whereas the other babies showed normal development. Steroid profiling of maternal urine revealed significantly increased steroids of fetal origin, namely the pregnenolone metabolite epiallopregnanediol and the androgen metabolite androsterone, with concomitant low values for estriol. Diagnostic steroid ratios conclusively indicated PORD as early as gestational week 12. In the heterozygous pregnancy, steroid ratios were only slightly elevated and estriol excretion was normal. Conclusion: Prenatal diagnosis in PORD is readily established via urinary steroid metabolite analysis of maternal urine. Visible malformations at prenatal ultrasound predict a severe malformation phenotype. PMID:23365120

Reisch, Nicole; Idkowiak, Jan; Hughes, Beverly A.; Ivison, Hannah E.; Abdul-Rahman, Omar A.; Hendon, Laura G.; Olney, Ann Haskins; Nielsen, Shelly; Harrison, Rachel; Blair, Edward M.; Dhir, Vivek; Krone, Nils; Shackleton, Cedric H. L.



Regulation of gap junction function and Connexin 43 expression by cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CYPOR)  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} Humans with severe forms of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CYPOR) mutations show bone defects as observed in Antley-Bixler Syndrome. {yields} First report showing knockdown of CYPOR in osteoblasts decreased Connexin 43 (Cx43) protein levels. Cx43 is known to play an important role in bone modeling. {yields} Knockdown of CYPOR decreased Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication and hemichannel activity. {yields} Knockdown of CYPOR decreased Cx43 in mouse primary calvarial osteoblasts. {yields} Decreased Cx43 expression was observed at the transcriptional level. -- Abstract: Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CYPOR) is a microsomal electron-transferring enzyme containing both FAD and FMN as co-factors, which provides the reducing equivalents to various redox partners, such as cytochromes P450 (CYPs), heme oxygenase (HO), cytochrome b{sub 5} and squalene monooxygenase. Human patients with severe forms of CYPOR mutation show bone defects such as cranio- and humeroradial synostoses and long bone fractures, known as Antley-Bixler-like Syndrome (ABS). To elucidate the role of CYPOR in bone, we knocked-down CYPOR in multiple osteoblast cell lines using RNAi technology. In this study, knock-down of CYPOR decreased the expression of Connexin 43 (Cx43), known to play a critical role in bone formation, modeling, and remodeling. Knock-down of CYPOR also decreased Gap Junction Intercellular Communication (GJIC) and hemichannel activity. Promoter luciferase assays revealed that the decrease in expression of Cx43 in CYPOR knock-down cells was due to transcriptional repression. Primary osteoblasts isolated from bone specific Por knock-down mice calvariae confirmed the findings in the cell lines. Taken together, our study provides novel insights into the regulation of gap junction function by CYPOR and suggests that Cx43 may play an important role(s) in CYPOR-mediated bone defects seen in patients.

Polusani, Srikanth R.; Kar, Rekha; Riquelme, Manuel A.; Masters, Bettie Sue [The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, Department of Biochemistry, San Antonio, TX 78229 (United States)] [The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, Department of Biochemistry, San Antonio, TX 78229 (United States); Panda, Satya P., E-mail: [The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, Department of Biochemistry, San Antonio, TX 78229 (United States)



NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase of Vibrio alginolyticus: purification, properties, and reconstitution of the Na+ pump.  


The Na+-activated NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase of Vibrio alginolyticus was extracted from the membranes with lauryldimethylamine-N-oxide and purified by two successive anion exchange columns. This preparation, yielding four major and several minor stained bands after SDS-PAGE, retained the NADH-dehydrogenase activity (with menadione as an artificial electron acceptor) and ubiquinone-1 (Q) reductase activity. On further fractionation of the enzyme, the Q-reductase activity essentially disappeared. Chemical analyses revealed the presence of FAD but not FMN, of non-heme iron and of acid-labile sulfur and tightly-bound ubiquinone-8 in the purified Q-reductase preparation. The participation of an iron-sulfur cluster of the [2Fe-2S] type in the electron translocation was demonstrated by the appearance of a typical EPR signal for this prosthetic group after the reduction of Q-reductase with NADH. A strong EPR signal typical for a radical observed upon reduction of the enzyme might arise from the formation of quinone radicals. In the absence of Na+, the path of the electrons apparently ends with the reduction of ubiquinone-1 to the semiquinone derivative which in the presence of O2 becomes reoxidized with concomitant formation of superoxide radicals. In the presence of Na+, these oxygen radicals are not formed and the semiquinone is further reduced to the quinol derivative. These results indicate that the Na+-dependent step in the electron transfer catalyzed by NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase is the reduction of ubisemiquinone to ubiquinol. After reconstitution of the purified Q-reductase into proteoliposomes, NADH oxidation by ubiquinone-1 was coupled to Na+ transport with an apparent stoichiometry of 0.5 Na+ per NADH oxidized. The transport was stimulated by valinomycin (+ K+) or by the uncoupler carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP). The transport of Na+ is therefore a primary event and does not involve the intermediate formation of a proton gradient. PMID:8639563

Pfenninger-Li, X D; Albracht, S P; van Belzen, R; Dimroth, P



Synthetic seleno-glutaredoxin 3 analogues are highly reducing oxidoreductases with enhanced catalytic efficiency.  


Selenoenzymes have a central role in maintaining cellular redox potential. These enzymes have selenenylsulfide bonds in their active sites that catalyze the reduction of peroxides, sulfoxides, and disulfides. The selenol/disufide exchange reaction is common to all of these enzymes, and the active site redox potential reflects the ratio between the forward and reverse rates of this reaction. The preparation of enzymes containing selenocysteine (Sec) is experimentally challenging. As a result, little is known about the kinetic role of selenols in enzyme active sites, and the redox potential of a selenenylsulfide or diselenide bond in a protein has not been experimentally determined. To fully evaluate the effects of Sec on oxidoreductase redox potential and kinetics, glutaredoxin 3 (Grx3) and all three Sec variants of its conserved (11)CXX(14)C active site were chemically synthesized. Grx3, Grx3(C11U), and Grx3(C14U) exhibited redox potentials of -194, -260, and -275 mV, respectively. The position of redox equilibrium between Grx3(C11U-C14U) (-309 mV) and thioredoxin (Trx) (-270 mV) suggests a possible role for diselenide bonds in biological systems. Kinetic analysis is consistent with the hypothesis that the lower redox potentials of the Sec variants result primarily from the greater nucleophilicity of the active site selenium rather than its role as either a leaving group or a "central atom" in the exchange reaction. The 10(2)-10(4)-fold increase in the rate of Trx reduction by the seleno-Grx3 analogues demonstrates that oxidoreductases containing either selenenyl-sulfide or diselenide bonds can have physiologically compatible redox potentials and enhanced reduction kinetics in comparison with their sulfide counterparts. PMID:17177418

Metanis, Norman; Keinan, Ehud; Dawson, Philip E



Role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Oxidoreductases Bdh1p and Ara1p in the Metabolism of Acetoin and 2,3-Butanediol ?  

PubMed Central

NAD-dependent butanediol dehydrogenase (Bdh1p) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae reversibly transforms acetoin to 2,3-butanediol in a stereospecific manner. Deletion of BDH1 resulted in an accumulation of acetoin and a diminution of 2,3-butanediol in two S. cerevisiae strains under two different growth conditions. The concentrations of (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol are mostly dependent on Bdh1p activity, while those of (meso)-2,3-butanediol are also influenced by the activity of NADP(H)-dependent oxidoreductases. One of them has been purified and shown to be d-arabinose dehydrogenase (Ara1p), which converts (R/S)-acetoin to meso-2,3-butanediol and (2S,3S)-2,3-butanediol. Deletion of BDH2, a gene adjacent to BDH1, whose encoded protein is 51% identical to Bdh1p, does not significantly alter the levels of acetoin or 2,3-butanediol in comparison to the wild-type strain. Furthermore, we have expressed Bdh2p with a histidine tag and have shown it to be inactive toward 2,3-butanediol. A whole-genome expression analysis with microarrays demonstrates that BDH1 and BDH2 are reciprocally regulated. PMID:19966022

Gonzalez, Eva; Fernandez, M. Rosario; Marco, Didac; Calam, Eduard; Sumoy, Lauro; Pares, Xavier; Dequin, Sylvie; Biosca, Josep A.



A discovery study of daunorubicin induced cardiotoxicity in a sample of acute myeloid leukemia patients prioritizes P450 oxidoreductase polymorphisms as a potential risk factor  

PubMed Central

Anthracyclines are very effective chemotherapeutic agents; however, their use is hampered by the treatment-induced cardiotoxicity. Genetic variants that help define patient's sensitivity to anthracyclines will greatly improve the design of optimal chemotherapeutic regimens. However, identification of such variants is hampered by the lack of analytical approaches that address the complex, multi-genic character of anthracycline induced cardiotoxicity (AIC). Here, using a multi-SNP based approach, we examined 60 genes coding for proteins involved in drug metabolism and efflux and identified the P450 oxidoreductase (POR) gene to be most strongly associated with daunorubicin induced cardiotoxicity in a population of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients (FDR adjusted p-value of 0.15). In this sample of cancer patients, variation in the POR gene is estimated to account for some 11.6% of the variability in the drop of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) after daunorubicin treatment, compared to the estimated 13.2% accounted for by the cumulative dose and ethnicity. In post-hoc analysis, this association was driven by 3 SNPs—the rs2868177, rs13240755, and rs4732513—through their linear interaction with cumulative daunorubicin dose. The unadjusted odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) for rs2868177 and rs13240755 were estimated to be 1.89 (95% CI: 0.7435–4.819; p = 0.1756) and 3.18 (95% CI: 1.223–8.27; p = 0.01376), respectively. Although the contribution of POR variants is expected to be overestimated due to the multiple testing performed in this small pilot study, given that cumulative anthracycline dose is virtually the only factor used clinically to predict the risk of cardiotoxicity, the contribution that genetic analyses of POR can make to the assessment of this risk is worthy of follow up in future investigations. PMID:24273552

Lubieniecka, Joanna M.; Graham, Jinko; Heffner, Daniel; Mottus, Randy; Reid, Ronald; Hogge, Donna; Grigliatti, Tom A.; Riggs, Wayne K.



A discovery study of daunorubicin induced cardiotoxicity in a sample of acute myeloid leukemia patients prioritizes P450 oxidoreductase polymorphisms as a potential risk factor.  


Anthracyclines are very effective chemotherapeutic agents; however, their use is hampered by the treatment-induced cardiotoxicity. Genetic variants that help define patient's sensitivity to anthracyclines will greatly improve the design of optimal chemotherapeutic regimens. However, identification of such variants is hampered by the lack of analytical approaches that address the complex, multi-genic character of anthracycline induced cardiotoxicity (AIC). Here, using a multi-SNP based approach, we examined 60 genes coding for proteins involved in drug metabolism and efflux and identified the P450 oxidoreductase (POR) gene to be most strongly associated with daunorubicin induced cardiotoxicity in a population of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients (FDR adjusted p-value of 0.15). In this sample of cancer patients, variation in the POR gene is estimated to account for some 11.6% of the variability in the drop of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) after daunorubicin treatment, compared to the estimated 13.2% accounted for by the cumulative dose and ethnicity. In post-hoc analysis, this association was driven by 3 SNPs-the rs2868177, rs13240755, and rs4732513-through their linear interaction with cumulative daunorubicin dose. The unadjusted odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) for rs2868177 and rs13240755 were estimated to be 1.89 (95% CI: 0.7435-4.819; p = 0.1756) and 3.18 (95% CI: 1.223-8.27; p = 0.01376), respectively. Although the contribution of POR variants is expected to be overestimated due to the multiple testing performed in this small pilot study, given that cumulative anthracycline dose is virtually the only factor used clinically to predict the risk of cardiotoxicity, the contribution that genetic analyses of POR can make to the assessment of this risk is worthy of follow up in future investigations. PMID:24273552

Lubieniecka, Joanna M; Graham, Jinko; Heffner, Daniel; Mottus, Randy; Reid, Ronald; Hogge, Donna; Grigliatti, Tom A; Riggs, Wayne K



Synechocystis ferredoxin-NADP + oxidoreductase is capable of functioning as ferric reductase and of driving the Fenton reaction in the absence or presence of free flavin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We purified free flavin-independent NADPH oxidoreductase from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 based on NADPH oxidation activity elicited during reduction of t-butyl hydroperoxide in the presence of Fe(III)-EDTA. The N-terminal sequencing of the purified enzyme revealed it to be ferredoxin-NADP+ oxidoreductase (FNR\\u000a S\\u000a ). The purified enzyme reacted with cytochrome c, ferricyanide and 2,6-dichloroindophenol (DCIP). The substrate specificity of the enzyme was

Junichi SatoKouji; Kouji Takeda; Rika Nishiyama; Toshihiro Watanabe; Mitsuru Abo; Etsuro Yoshimura; Junichi Nakagawa; Akira Abe; Shinji Kawasaki; Youichi Niimura



In vivo Role of NAD(P)H:Quinone Oxidoreductase 1 in Metabolic Activation of Mitomycin Cand Bone Marrow C ytotoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1? \\/? (NQO1? \\/? ), NQO1+\\/? along with NRH:quinone oxidoreductase 2? \\/? (NQO2? \\/? ), and wild-type (WT) mice were exposed to five once weekly doses of mitomycin C. The mice were euthanized 15 weeks after the first dose. Blood cell counts and histologic analyses were done. WT and NQO2? \\/? mice showed hypocellularity and a sig- nificant

Anbu Karani Adikesavan; Roberto Barrios; Anil K. Jaiswal


Failure to detect delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase activity in the preimplantation rabbit embryo  

SciTech Connect

Preimplantation rabbit embryos were incubated with pregnenolone and dehydroisoandrosterone under conditions which gave formazan precipitation by the histochemical technique. The metabolic fate of the labeled steroids were assessed simultaneously. There was no concomitant transformation of pregnenolone to progesterone and dehydroisoandrosterone was not transformed to androstenedione. It is concluded that the formazan precipitation is coupled with an activity other than delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase.

Bleau, G.



NADH-Quinone Oxidoreductase: PSST Subunit Couples Electron Transfer from Iron-Sulfur Cluster N2 to Quinone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proton-translocating NADH-quinone oxidoreductase (EC is the largest and least understood enzyme complex of the respiratory chain. The mammalian mitochondrial enzyme (also called complex I) contains more than 40 subunits, whereas its structurally simpler bacterial counterpart (NDH-1) in Paracoccus denitrificans and Thermus thermophilus HB-8 consists of 14 subunits. A major unsolved question is the location and mechanism of the

Franz Schuler; Takahiro Yano; Salvatore di Bernardo; Takao Yagi; Victoria Yankovskaya; Thomas P. Singer; John E. Casida



Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of formate oxidase, an enzyme of the glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase family.  


Formate oxidase (FOD), which catalyzes the oxidation of formate to yield carbon dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, belongs to the glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase (GMCO) family. FOD from Aspergillus oryzae RIB40, which has a modified FAD as a cofactor, was crystallized at 293 K by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystal was orthorhombic and belonged to space group C222(1). Diffraction data were collected from a single crystal to 2.4 A resolution. PMID:20823527

Maeda, Yoshifumi; Doubayashi, Daiju; Ootake, Takumi; Oki, Masaya; Mikami, Bunzo; Uchida, Hiroyuki



Efficient protection of glucose-fructose oxidoreductase from Zymomonas mobilis against irreversible inactivation during its catalytic action  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of cell-free glucose-fructose oxidoreductase (GFOR) from Zymomonas mobilis in a continuous process for the simultaneous production of sorbitol and gluconic acid requires efficient stabilization of the enzyme. Whereas GFOR was found to be stable in the presence or absence of any of its substrates or products at 25°C, the enzyme was rapidly inactivated during the time course of its

Dorothee Gollhofer; Bernd Nidetzky; Monika Fuerlinger; Klaus D. Kulbe



NRH:quinone oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2) catalyzes metabolic activation of quinones and anti-tumor drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

NRH:quinone oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2) is a cytosolic flavoprotein that utilizes NRH as electron donor. The present studies investigate the role of NQO2 in metabolic detoxification\\/activation of quinones and quinone based anti-tumor drugs. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably overexpressing cDNA derived mouse NQO2 and mouse keratinocytes from DMBA-induced skin tumors in wild-type and NQO2-null mice were generated. The CHO cells

Claudia M. Celli; Namphuong Tran; Richard Knox; Anil K. Jaiswal



Staphylococcus aureus DsbA is a membrane-bound lipoprotein with thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

DsbA proteins, the primary catalysts of protein disulfide bond formation, are known to affect virulence and penicillin resistance\\u000a in Gram-negative bacteria. We identified a putative DsbA homologue in the Gram-positive pathogen Staphylococcus aureus that was able to restore the motility phenotype of an Escherichia coli dsbA mutant and thus demonstrated a functional thiol oxidoreductase activity. The staphylococcal DsbA (SaDsbA) had

Alexis Dumoulin; Ulla Grauschopf; Markus Bischoff; Linda Thöny-Meyer; Brigitte Berger-Bächi



Specific Modification of a Na+ Binding Site in NADH:Quinone Oxidoreductase from Klebsiella pneumoniae with Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 16 September 2005\\/Accepted 13 February 2006 The respiratory NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (complex I) (NDH-1) is a multisubunit enzyme that trans- locates protons (or in some cases Na) across energy-conserving membranes from bacteria or mitochondria. We studied the reaction of the Na-translocating complex I from the enterobacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae with N,N-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), with the aim of identifying a subunit critical for

Irini Vgenopoulou; Anja C. Gemperli; Julia Steuber



Antiparasitic Drug Nitazoxanide Inhibits the Pyruvate Oxidoreductases of Helicobacter pylori, Selected Anaerobic Bacteria and Parasites, and Campylobacter jejuni  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitazoxanide (NTZ) exhibits broad-spectrum activity against anaerobic bacteria and parasites and the ulcer-causing pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Here we show that NTZ is a noncompetitive inhibitor (Ki ,2t o 10 M) of the pyruvate:ferredoxin\\/flavodoxin oxidoreductases (PFORs) of Trichomonas vaginalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens, H. pylori, and Campylobacter jejuni and is weakly active against the pyruvate dehydrogenase of

Paul S. Hoffman; Gary Sisson; Matthew A. Croxen; Kevin Welch; W. Dean Harman; Nunilo Cremades; Michael G. Morash



Mixed-Disulfide Folding Intermediates between Thyroglobulin and Endoplasmic Reticulum Resident Oxidoreductases ERp57 and Protein Disulfide Isomerase  

PubMed Central

We present the first identification of transient folding intermediates of endogenous thyroglobulin (Tg; a large homodimeric secretory glycoprotein of thyrocytes), which include mixed disulfides with endogenous oxidoreductases servicing Tg folding needs. Formation of disulfide-linked Tg adducts with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) oxidoreductases begins cotranslationally. Inhibition of ER glucosidase activity blocked formation of a subgroup of Tg adducts containing ERp57 while causing increased Tg adduct formation with protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), delayed adduct resolution, perturbed oxidative folding of Tg monomers, impaired Tg dimerization, increased Tg association with BiP/GRP78 and GRP94, activation of the unfolded protein response, increased ER-associated degradation of a subpopulation of Tg, partial Tg escape from ER quality control with increased secretion of free monomers, and decreased overall Tg secretion. These data point towards mixed disulfides with the ERp57 oxidoreductase in conjunction with calreticulin/calnexin chaperones acting as normal early Tg folding intermediates that can be “substituted” by PDI adducts only at the expense of lower folding efficiency with resultant ER stress. PMID:16260597

Di Jeso, Bruno; Park, Young-nam; Ulianich, Luca; Treglia, A. Sonia; Urbanas, Malene L.; High, Stephen; Arvan, Peter



Mutagenesis alters the catalytic mechanism of the light-driven enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase.  


The light-activated enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) catalyzes an essential step in the synthesis of the most abundant pigment on Earth, chlorophyll. This unique reaction involves the sequential addition of a hydride and proton across the C17=C18 double bond of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) by dynamically coupled quantum tunneling and is an important model system for studying the mechanism of hydrogen transfer reactions. In the present work, we have combined site-directed mutagenesis studies with a variety of sensitive spectroscopic and kinetic measurements to provide new insights into the mechanistic role of three universally conserved Cys residues in POR. We show that mutation of Cys-226 dramatically alters the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme. In contrast to wild-type POR, the characteristic charge-transfer intermediate, formed upon hydride transfer from NADPH to the C17 position of Pchlide, is absent in C226S variant enzymes. This suggests a concerted hydrogen transfer mechanism where proton transfer only is rate-limiting. Moreover, Pchlide reduction does not require the network of solvent-coupled conformational changes that play a key role in the proton transfer step of wild-type POR. We conclude that this globally important enzyme is finely tuned to facilitate efficient photochemistry, and the removal of a key interaction with Pchlide in the C226S variants significantly affects the local active site structure in POR, resulting in a shorter donor-acceptor distance for proton transfer. PMID:19850924

Menon, Binuraj R K; Davison, Paul A; Hunter, C Neil; Scrutton, Nigel S; Heyes, Derren J



Iron (III) reduction: A novel activity of the human NAD(P)H:oxidoreductase  

SciTech Connect

NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1; EC catalyzes a two-electron transfer involved in the protection of cells from reactive oxygen species. These reactive oxygen species are often generated by the one-electron reduction of quinones or quinone analogs. We report here on the previously unreported Fe(III) reduction activity of human NQO1. Under steady state conditions with Fe(III) citrate, the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (K{sub m}{sup app}) was {approx}0.3nM and the apparent maximum velocity (V{sub max}{sup app}) was 16Umg{sup -1}. Substrate inhibition was observed above 5nM. NADH was the electron donor, K{sub m}{sup app}=340{mu}M and V{sub max}{sup app}=46Umg{sup -1}. FAD was also a cofactor with a K{sub m}{sup app} of 3.1{mu}M and V{sub max}{sup app} of 89Umg{sup -1}. The turnover number for NADH oxidation was 25s{sup -1}. Possible physiological roles of the Fe(III) reduction by this enzyme are discussed.

Onyenwoke, Rob U. [Department of Microbiology, University of Georgia, 1000 Cedar Street, Athens, GA 30602-2605 (United States); Wiegel, Juergen [Department of Microbiology, University of Georgia, 1000 Cedar Street, Athens, GA 30602-2605 (United States)]. E-mail:



Mutations Associated with Functional Disorder of Xanthine Oxidoreductase and Hereditary Xanthinuria in Humans  

PubMed Central

Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) catalyzes the conversion of hypoxanthine to xanthine and xanthine to uric acid with concomitant reduction of either NAD+ or O2. The enzyme is a target of drugs to treat hyperuricemia, gout and reactive oxygen-related diseases. Human diseases associated with genetically determined dysfunction of XOR are termed xanthinuria, because of the excretion of xanthine in urine. Xanthinuria is classified into two subtypes, type I and type II. Type I xanthinuria involves XOR deficiency due to genetic defect of XOR, whereas type II xanthinuria involves dual deficiency of XOR and aldehyde oxidase (AO, a molybdoflavo enzyme similar to XOR) due to genetic defect in the molybdenum cofactor sulfurase. Molybdenum cofactor deficiency is associated with triple deficiency of XOR, AO and sulfite oxidase, due to defective synthesis of molybdopterin, which is a precursor of molybdenum cofactor for all three enzymes. The present review focuses on mutation or chemical modification studies of mammalian XOR, as well as on XOR mutations identified in humans, aimed at understanding the reaction mechanism of XOR and the relevance of mutated XORs as models to estimate the possible side effects of clinical application of XOR inhibitors. PMID:23203137

Ichida, Kimiyoshi; Amaya, Yoshihiro; Okamoto, Ken; Nishino, Takeshi



Structure of ADP-aluminium fluoride-stabilized protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase complex  

PubMed Central

Photosynthesis uses chlorophylls for the conversion of light into chemical energy, the driving force of life on Earth. During chlorophyll biosynthesis in photosynthetic bacteria, cyanobacteria, green algae and gymnosperms, dark-operative protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (DPOR), a nitrogenase-like metalloenzyme, catalyzes the chemically challenging two-electron reduction of the fully conjugated ring system of protochlorophyllide a. The reduction of the C-17=C-18 double bond results in the characteristic ring architecture of all chlorophylls, thereby altering the absorption properties of the molecule and providing the basis for light-capturing and energy-transduction processes of photosynthesis. We report the X-ray crystallographic structure of the substrate-bound, ADP-aluminium fluoride–stabilized (ADP·AlF3-stabilized) transition state complex between the DPOR components L2 and (NB)2 from the marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus marinus. Our analysis permits a thorough investigation of the dynamic interplay between L2 and (NB)2. Upon complex formation, substantial ATP-dependent conformational rearrangements of L2 trigger the protein–protein interactions with (NB)2 as well as the electron transduction via redox-active [4Fe–4S] clusters. We also present the identification of artificial “small-molecule substrates” of DPOR in correlation with those of nitrogenase. The catalytic differences and similarities between DPOR and nitrogenase have broad implications for the energy transduction mechanism of related multiprotein complexes that are involved in the reduction of chemically stable double and/or triple bonds. PMID:23341615

Moser, Jurgen; Lange, Christiane; Krausze, Joern; Rebelein, Johannes; Schubert, Wolf-Dieter; Ribbe, Markus W.; Heinz, Dirk W.; Jahn, Dieter



Functional and structural characterization of protein disulfide oxidoreductase from Thermus thermophilus HB27.  


The paper reports the characterization of a protein disulfide oxidoreductase (PDO) from the thermophilic Gram negative bacterium Thermus thermophilus HB27, identified as TTC0486 by genome analysis and named TtPDO. PDO members are involved in the oxidative folding, redox balance and detoxification of peroxides in thermophilic prokaryotes. Ttpdo was cloned and expressed in E. coli and the recombinant purified protein was assayed for the dithiol-reductase activity using insulin as substrate and compared with other PDOs characterized so far. In the thermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus PDOs work as thiol-reductases constituting a peculiar redox couple with Thioredoxin reductase (SsTr). To get insight into the role of TtPDO, a hybrid redox couple with SsTr, homologous to putative Trs of T. thermophilus, was assayed. The results showed that SsTr was able to reduce TtPDO in a concentration dependent manner with a calculated K M of 34.72 ?M, suggesting the existence of a new redox system also in thermophilic bacteria. In addition, structural characterization of TtPDO by light scattering and circular dichroism revealed the monomeric structure and the high thermostability of the protein. The analysis of the genomic environment suggested a possible clustering of Ttpdo with TTC0487 and TTC0488 (tlpA). Accordingly, transcriptional analysis showed that Ttpdo is transcribed as polycistronic messenger. Primer extension analysis allowed the determination of its 5'end and the identification of the promoter region. PMID:24839097

Pedone, Emilia; Fiorentino, Gabriella; Pirone, Luciano; Contursi, Patrizia; Bartolucci, Simonetta; Limauro, Danila



The mechanism of superoxide production by NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) from bovine heart mitochondria  

PubMed Central

NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is a major source of reactive oxygen species in mitochondria and a significant contributor to cellular oxidative stress. Here, we describe the kinetic and molecular mechanism of superoxide production by complex I isolated from bovine heart mitochondria and confirm that it produces predominantly superoxide, not hydrogen peroxide. Redox titrations and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy exclude the iron-sulfur clusters and flavin radical as the source of superoxide, and, in the absence of a proton motive force, superoxide formation is not enhanced during turnover. Therefore, superoxide is formed by the transfer of one electron from fully reduced flavin to O2. The resulting flavin radical is unstable, so the remaining electron is probably redistributed to the iron-sulfur centers. The rate of superoxide production is determined by a bimolecular reaction between O2 and reduced flavin in an empty active site. The proportion of the flavin that is thus competent for reaction is set by a preequilibrium, determined by the dissociation constants of NADH and NAD+, and the reduction potentials of the flavin and NAD+. Consequently, the ratio and concentrations of NADH and NAD+ determine the rate of superoxide formation. This result clearly links our mechanism for the isolated enzyme to studies on intact mitochondria, in which superoxide production is enhanced when the NAD+ pool is reduced. Therefore, our mechanism forms a foundation for formulating causative connections between complex I defects and pathological effects. PMID:16682634

Kussmaul, Lothar; Hirst, Judy



Purification and Characterization of Cinnamoyl-Coenzyme A:NADP Oxidoreductase in Eucalyptus gunnii.  

PubMed Central

Cinnamoyl-coenzyme A:NADP oxidoreductase (CCR, EC, the entry-point enzyme into the monolignol biosynthetic pathway, was purified to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity from differentiating xylem of Eucalyptus gunnii Hook. The purified protein is a monomer of 38 kD and has an isoelectric point of 7. Although Eucalyptus gunnii CCR has approximately equal affinities for all possible substrates (p-coumaroyl-coenzyme A, feruloyl-coenzyme A, and sinapoyl-coenzyme A), it is approximately three times more effective at converting feruloyl-coenzyme A than the other substrates. To gain a better understanding of the catalytic regulation of Eucalyptus CCR, a variety of compounds were tested to determine their effect on CCR activity. CCR activity is inhibited by NADP and coenzyme A. Effectors that bind lysine and cysteine residues also inhibit CCR activity. As a prerequisite to the study of the regulation of CCR at the molecular level, polyclonal antibodies were obtained. PMID:12232355

Goffner, D.; Campbell, M. M.; Campargue, C.; Clastre, M.; Borderies, G.; Boudet, A.; Boudet, A. M.



Sulfide : quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) from the lugworm Arenicola marina shows cyanide- and thioredoxin-dependent activity.  


The lugworm Arenicola marina inhabits marine sediments in which sulfide concentrations can reach up to 2 mM. Although sulfide is a potent toxin for humans and most animals, because it inhibits mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase at micromolar concentrations, A. marina can use electrons from sulfide for mitochondrial ATP production. In bacteria, electron transfer from sulfide to quinone is catalyzed by the membrane-bound flavoprotein sulfide : quinone oxidoreductase (SQR). A cDNA from A. marina was isolated and expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which lacks endogenous SQR. The heterologous enzyme was active in mitochondrial membranes. After affinity purification, Arenicola SQR isolated from yeast mitochondria reduced decyl-ubiquinone (K(m) = 6.4 microm) after the addition of sulfide (K(m) = 23 microm) only in the presence of cyanide (K(m) = 2.6 mM). The end product of the reaction was thiocyanate. When cyanide was substituted by Escherichia coli thioredoxin and sulfite, SQR exhibited one-tenth of the cyanide-dependent activity. Six amino acids known to be essential for bacterial SQR were exchanged by site-directed mutagenesis. None of the mutant enzymes was active after expression in yeast, implicating these amino acids in the catalytic mechanism of the eukaryotic enzyme. PMID:18248458

Theissen, Ursula; Martin, William



Role of NADH: quinone oxidoreductase-1 in the tight junctions of colonic epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

NADH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is known to be involved in the regulation of energy synthesis and metabolism, and the functional studies of NQO1 have largely focused on metabolic disorders. Here, we show for the first time that compared to NQO1-WT mice, NQO1-KO mice exhibited a marked increase of permeability and spontaneous inflammation in the gut. In the DSS-induced colitis model, NQO1-KO mice showed more severe inflammatory responses than NQO1-WT mice. Interestingly, the transcript levels of claudin and occludin, the major tight junction molecules of gut epithelial cells, were significantly decreased in NQO1-KO mice. The colons of NQO1-KO mice also showed high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity, which are known to affect transcriptional regulation. Taken together, these novel findings indicate that NQO1 contributes to the barrier function of gut epithelial cells by regulating the transcription of tight junction molecules. [BMB Reports 2014;47(9): 494-499] PMID:24393524

Nam, Seung Taek; Hwang, Jung Hwan; Kim, Dae Hong; Park, Mi Jung; Lee, Ik Hwan; Nam, Hyo Jung; Kang, Jin Ku; Kim, Sung Kuk; Hwang, Jae Sam; Chung, Hyo Kyun; Shong, Minho; Lee, Chul-Ho; Kim, Ho



Rescue of ER oxidoreductase function through polyphenolic phytochemical intervention: implications for subcellular traffic and neurodegenerative disorders.  


Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), the chief endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident oxidoreductase chaperone that catalyzes maturation of disulfide-bond-containing proteins is involved in the pathogenesis of both Parkinson's (PD) and Alzheimer's (AD) diseases. S-nitrosylation of PDI cysteines due to nitrosative stress is associated with cytosolic debris accumulation and Lewy-body aggregates in PD and AD brains. We demonstrate that the polyphenolic phytochemicals curcumin and masoprocol can rescue PDI from becoming S-nitrosylated and maintain its catalytic function under conditions mimicking nitrosative stress by forming stable NOx adducts. Furthermore, both polyphenols intervene to prevent the formation of PDI-resistant polymeric misfolded protein forms that accumulate upon exposure to oxidative stress. Our study suggests that curcumin and masoprocol can serve as lead-candidate prophylactics for reactive oxygen species induced chaperone damage, protein misfolding and neurodegenerative disease; importantly, they can play a vital role in sustaining traffic along the ER's secretory pathway by preserving functional integrity of PDI. PMID:20097158

Pal, Rituraj; Cristan, Elaine A; Schnittker, Karina; Narayan, Mahesh



A bacterial quercetin oxidoreductase QuoA-mediated perturbation in the phenylpropanoid metabolic network increases lignification with a concomitant decrease in phenolamides in Arabidopsis.  


Metabolic perturbations by a gain-of-function approach provide a means to alter steady states of metabolites and query network properties, while keeping enzyme complexes intact. A combination of genetic and targeted metabolomics approach was used to understand the network properties of phenylpropanoid secondary metabolism pathways. A novel quercetin oxidoreductase, QuoA, from Pseudomonas putida, which converts quercetin to naringenin, thus effectively reversing the biosynthesis of quercetin through a de novo pathway, was expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana. QuoA transgenic lines selected for low, medium, and high expression levels of QuoA RNA had corresponding levels of QuoA activity and hypocotyl coloration resulting from increased anthocyanin accumulation. Stems of all three QuoA lines had increased tensile strength resulting from increased lignification. Sixteen metabolic intermediates from anthocyanin, lignin, and shikimate pathways had increased accumulation, of which 11 paralleled QuoA expression levels in the transgenic lines. The concomitant upregulation of the above pathways was explained by a significant downregulation of the phenolamide pathway and its precursor, spermidine. In a tt6 mutant line, lignifications as well as levels of the lignin pathway metabolites were much lower than those of QuoA transgenic lines. Unlike QuoA lines, phenolamides and spermidine were not affected in the tt6 line. Taken together, these results suggest that phenolamide pathway plays a major role in directing metabolic intermediates into the lignin pathway. Metabolic perturbations were accompanied by downregulation of five genes associated with branch-point enzymes and upregulation of their corresponding products. These results suggest that gene-metabolite pairs are likely to be co-ordinately regulated at critical branch points. Thus, these perturbations by a gain-of-function approach have uncovered novel properties of the phenylpropanoid metabolic network. PMID:24085580

Reuben, Sheela; Rai, Amit; Pillai, Bhinu V S; Rodrigues, Amrith; Swarup, Sanjay



Glutathione S-transferase P1 and NADPH quinone oxidoreductase polymorphisms are associated with aberrant promoter methylation of P16(INK4a) and O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase in sputum.  


Inactivation of the p16(INK4a) tumor suppressor gene and O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) DNA repair gene by aberrant promoter methylation appears to be an important step in respiratory carcinogenesis after exposure to tobacco smoke and radon progeny. The determinants of aberrant promoter methylation are not well characterized. Polymorphic variants of genes of which the products are involved in pathways that modulate and repair DNA damage after carcinogen exposure may affect the occurrence of de novo promoter methylation. On the basis of their associations with risk of lung cancer, we hypothesized that functional polymorphic variants of the NADPH quinone oxidoreductase, glutathione S-transferases P1 and M1, myeloperoxidase, and XRCC1 genes are associated with p16 and/or MGMT promoter methylation in sputum from cancer-free subjects at high risk for developing lung cancer. This hypothesis was tested by conducting a cross-sectional study of 70 former uranium miners from the Uranium Epidemiological Study cohort who were at high risk for lung cancer. The polymorphic variant genotypes were characterized through PCR-RFLP on DNA isolated from peripheral lymphocytes, and the methylation status of the p16 and MGMT promoters was determined by methylation-specific PCR on DNA isolated from sputum. Subjects who had at least one GSTP1 polymorphic allele (A-to-G at bp 104) had an increased risk for MGMT methylation [odds ratio (OR), 4.8; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.2-18.6] or for either p16 or MGMT methylation (OR, 4.4; 95% CI, 1.3-14.2). Lack of a wild-type NADPH quinone oxidoreductase allele (C at bp 609) was also associated with methylation of either p16 or MGMT (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.0-9.2). These results provide the first link between germ-line functional deficits in pathways that protect the cell from tobacco- and radon-induced DNA damage, and the development of aberrant promoter methylation of the p16 and MGMT genes in the respiratory epithelium of individuals at high risk for lung cancer. PMID:11956078

Gilliland, Frank D; Harms, Heidi J; Crowell, Richard E; Li, Yu-Fen; Willink, Randy; Belinsky, Steven A



Genetic polymorphisms and haplotypes of por, encoding cytochrome p450 oxidoreductase, in a Japanese population.  


Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transfers electrons from NADPH to all microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and is necessary for microsomal CYP activities. In this study, to find genetic variations and to elucidate the haplotype structures of POR, we comprehensively screened the genetic variations in the 5'-flanking region, all the exons and their flanking introns of POR for 235 Japanese subjects. Seventy-five genetic variations including 26 novel ones were found: 7 were in the 5'-flanking region, 2 in the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR, non-coding exon 1), 16 in the coding exons (10 nonsynonymous and 6 synonymous), 45 in the introns, 4 in the 3'-UTR and 1 in the 3'-flanking region. Of these, 4 novel nonsynonymous variations, 86C>T (T29M), 1648C>T (R550W), 1708C>T (R570C) and 1975G>A (A659T), were detected with allele frequencies of 0.002. We also detected known nonsynonymous SNPs 683C>T (P228L), 1237G>A (G413S), 1453G>A (A485T), 1508C>T (A503V), 1510G>A (G504R) and 1738G>C (E580Q) with frequencies of 0.002, 0.009, 0.002, 0.434, 0.002 and 0.002, respectively. Based on the linkage disequilibrium (LD) profiles, the analyzed region could be divided into two LD blocks. For Blocks 1 and 2, 14 and 46 haplotypes were inferred, respectively, and 2 and 6 common haplotypes found in more than 0.03 frequencies accounted for more than 81% of the inferred haplotypes. This study provides fundamental and useful information for the pharmacogenetic studies of drugs metabolized by CYPs in the Japanese population. PMID:21084761

Saito, Yoshiro; Yamamoto, Noboru; Katori, Noriko; Maekawa, Keiko; Fukushima-Uesaka, Hiromi; Sugimoto, Daisuke; Kurose, Kouichi; Sai, Kimie; Kaniwa, Nahoko; Sawada, Jun-Ichi; Kunitoh, Hideo; Ohe, Yuichiro; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Matsumura, Yasuhiro; Saijo, Nagahiro; Okuda, Haruhiro; Tamura, Tomohide



Dietary nitrate ameliorates pulmonary hypertension: cytoprotective role for endothelial nitric oxide synthase and xanthine oxidoreductase  

PubMed Central

Background Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a multi-factorial disease characterized by increased pulmonary vascular resistance and right ventricular failure; morbidity and mortality remain unacceptably high. Loss of nitric oxide (NO) bioactivity is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of PH and agents that augment pulmonary NO signaling are clinically effective in the disease. Inorganic nitrate (NO3?) and nitrite (NO2?) elicit a reduction in systemic blood pressure in healthy individuals; this effect is underpinned by endogenous and sequential reduction to NO. Herein, we determined whether dietary nitrate and nitrite might be preferentially reduced to NO by the hypoxia associated with PH, and thereby offer a convenient, inexpensive method of supplementing NO functionality to reduce disease severity. Methods & Results Dietary nitrate reduced the right ventricular pressure and hypertrophy, and pulmonary vascular re-modeling, in wild-type mice exposed to 3 weeks hypoxia; this beneficial activity was mirrored largely by dietary nitrite. The cytoprotective effects of dietary nitrate were associated with increased plasma & lung concentrations of nitrite and cGMP. The beneficial effects of dietary nitrate and nitrite were reduced in mice lacking endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) or treated with the xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) inhibitor allopurinol. Conclusions These data demonstrate that dietary nitrate, and to a lesser extent dietary nitrite, elicit pulmonary dilatation, prevent pulmonary vascular remodeling, and reduce the RVH characteristic of PH. This favorable pharmacodynamic profile is dependent on eNOS and XOR -catalyzed reduction of nitrite to NO. Exploitation of this mechanism (i.e. dietary nitrate/nitrite supplementation) represents a viable, orally-active therapy for PH. PMID:22572914

Baliga, Reshma S; Milsom, Alexandra B; Ghosh, Suborno M; Trinder, Sarah L; MacAllister, Raymond J; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Hobbs, Adrian J



Synergistic enhancement of antitumor effect of ?-Lapachone by photodynamic induction of quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1).  


?-Lapachone is a phytochemotherapeutic originally isolated from Lapacho tree whose extract has been used medicinally for centuries. It is well known that NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) activity is the principal determinant of ?-Lapachone cytotoxicity. As NQO1 is overexpressed in most common carcinomas, recent investigations suggest its potential application against cancer. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinically approved and rapidly developing cancer treatment. PDT involves the administration of photosensitizer (PS) followed by local illumination with visible light of specific wavelength. In the presence of oxygen molecules, the light illumination of PS can lead to a series of photochemical reactions and consequently the generation of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS). It has been reported that ?-Lapachone synergistically interacts with ionizing radiation, hyperthermia and cisplatin and that the sensitivity of cells to ?-Lapachone is closely related to the activity of NQO1. So, the present study aimed to investigate the feasibility of PDT to increase the anticancer effect of ?-Lapachone by up-regulating NQO1 expression on breast cancer MCF-7c3 cells. NQO1 expression was evaluated by Western blot analysis at different times after PDT using ME-ALA as PS. The cytotoxicity of the photodynamic treatment and ?-Lapachone alone or in combination was determined by MTT assay and the combination index (CI)-isobologram method and the dose reduction index (DRI) analysis were used to assess the effect of drug combinations. Our studies for the first time demonstrated that the expression of NQO1 is induced 24h after photodynamic treatment. The sensitivity of cancer cells to ?-Lapachone treatment increased 24h after PDT and a synergistic inhibitory effect on MCF-7c3 cells was showed. Taken together, these results lead us to conclude that the synergistic interaction between ?-Lapachone and PDT in killing cells was consistent with the up-regulation of NQO1. The combination of ?-Lapachone and PDT is a potentially promising modality for the treatment of cancer. PMID:23746950

Lamberti, María Julia; Vittar, Natalia Belén Rumie; da Silva, Fernando de Carvalho; Ferreira, Vitor Francisco; Rivarola, Viviana Alicia



WWOX gene restoration prevents lung cancer growth in vitro and in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The WWOX (WW domain containing oxidoreductase) gene at the common fragile site, FRA16D, is altered in many types of cancer, including lung cancer. We have examined the tumor suppressor function of WWOX in preclinical lung cancer models. The WWOX gene was expressed in lung cancer cell lines through recombinant adenovirus (Ad) infection (Ad-WWOX), and through a drug [ponasterone A, (ponA)]-inducible

Muller Fabbri; Dimitrios Iliopoulos; Francesco Trapasso; Rami I. Aqeilan; Amelia Cimmino; Nicola Zanesi; Sai Yendamuri; Shuang-Yin Han; Dino Amadori; Kay Huebner; Carlo M. Croce



NAD(P)H:Quinone Oxidoreductase 1 and its Potential Protective Role in Cardiovascular Diseases and Related Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO) represents a family of flavoproteins that catalyze the two-electron reduction of quinones\\u000a and their derivatives. In mammalian systems, there are two members of NQO, namely, NQO1 and NQO2. NQO1 utilizes NAD(P)H, whereas\\u000a NQO2 employs dihydronicotinamide riboside (NRH) as the electron donors. In addition to the well-documented action in reducing\\u000a quinone compounds and preventing the formation of reactive

Hong Zhu; Yunbo Li


Inflammatory cytokines suppress NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 and induce oxidative stress in cholangiocarcinoma cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of inflammation on NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1), the xenobiotic\\u000a metabolizing and antioxidant enzyme protecting cells against electrophiles and reactive oxygen species in biliary cancer (cholangiocarcinoma)\\u000a cells.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Human cholangiocarcinoma cell line, KKU-OCA17 and HeLa Chang liver cells were treated with inflammatory cytokine combinations\\u000a (interferon-?, interleukin-1? and tumor necrosis factor-?) for 48 h

Auemduan Prawan; Benjaporn Buranrat; Upa Kukongviriyapan; Banchob Sripa; Veerapol Kukongviriyapan



Identification of NAD(P)H Quinone Oxidoreductase Activity in Azoreductases from P. aeruginosa: Azoreductases and NAD(P)H Quinone Oxidoreductases Belong to the Same FMN-Dependent Superfamily of Enzymes  

PubMed Central

Water soluble quinones are a group of cytotoxic anti-bacterial compounds that are secreted by many species of plants, invertebrates, fungi and bacteria. Studies in a number of species have shown the importance of quinones in response to pathogenic bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. Two electron reduction is an important mechanism of quinone detoxification as it generates the less toxic quinol. In most organisms this reaction is carried out by a group of flavoenzymes known as NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductases. Azoreductases have previously been separate from this group, however using azoreductases from Pseudomonas aeruginosa we show that they can rapidly reduce quinones. Azoreductases from the same organism are also shown to have distinct substrate specificity profiles allowing them to reduce a wide range of quinones. The azoreductase family is also shown to be more extensive than originally thought, due to the large sequence divergence amongst its members. As both NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductases and azoreductases have related reaction mechanisms it is proposed that they form an enzyme superfamily. The ubiquitous and diverse nature of azoreductases alongside their broad substrate specificity, indicates they play a wide role in cellular survival under adverse conditions. PMID:24915188

Ryan, Ali; Kaplan, Elise; Nebel, Jean-Christophe; Polycarpou, Elena; Crescente, Vincenzo; Lowe, Edward; Preston, Gail M.; Sim, Edith



Identification of NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase activity in azoreductases from P. aeruginosa: azoreductases and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductases belong to the same FMN-dependent superfamily of enzymes.  


Water soluble quinones are a group of cytotoxic anti-bacterial compounds that are secreted by many species of plants, invertebrates, fungi and bacteria. Studies in a number of species have shown the importance of quinones in response to pathogenic bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. Two electron reduction is an important mechanism of quinone detoxification as it generates the less toxic quinol. In most organisms this reaction is carried out by a group of flavoenzymes known as NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductases. Azoreductases have previously been separate from this group, however using azoreductases from Pseudomonas aeruginosa we show that they can rapidly reduce quinones. Azoreductases from the same organism are also shown to have distinct substrate specificity profiles allowing them to reduce a wide range of quinones. The azoreductase family is also shown to be more extensive than originally thought, due to the large sequence divergence amongst its members. As both NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductases and azoreductases have related reaction mechanisms it is proposed that they form an enzyme superfamily. The ubiquitous and diverse nature of azoreductases alongside their broad substrate specificity, indicates they play a wide role in cellular survival under adverse conditions. PMID:24915188

Ryan, Ali; Kaplan, Elise; Nebel, Jean-Christophe; Polycarpou, Elena; Crescente, Vincenzo; Lowe, Edward; Preston, Gail M; Sim, Edith



The nature and magnitude of the charge-separation reactions of ubiquinol cytochrome c2 oxidoreductase.  


The transdielectric charge separation reaction catalyzed by the ubiquinol-cytochrome c2 oxidoreductase is achieved in two fractional steps. We present a detailed analysis which addresses the nature of the charge transferred, the redox groups directly involved in charge separation and the contributions of each to the full charge separation catalyzed by the enzyme. Accounting for light saturation effects, reaction centers unconnected to cytochrome c2 and the fraction of total cytochrome bc1 turning over per flash permits detailed quantitation of: (1) the red carotenoid bandshift associated with electron transfer between ubiquinol at site Qz and the high- (2Fe2S center, cytochrome c1) and low-potential (cytochrome bL, cytochrome bH) components of cytochrome bc1; (2) the blue bandshift accompanying reduction of cytochrome bH by ubiquinol via site Qc (the reverse of the physiological reaction); and (3) the effect of delta psi on the Qc-cytochrome bH redox equilibrium. Studies were performed at pH values above and below the redox-linked pK values of the redox centers known to be involved in each reaction at equilibrium. The conclusions of this study may be summarized as follows: (1) there is no transdielectric charge separation apparent in the redox reactions between Qz and cytochrome bL, 2Fe2S and cytochrome c1 (in agreement with Glaser, E. and Crofts, A.R. (1984) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 766, 223-235), i.e., charge separation accompanies electron transfer between cytochrome bL and cytochrome bH; (2) the redox reactions between cytochrome bL and cytochrome bH and between cytochrome bH and Qc constitute the full electrogenic span; (3) electron transfer between cytochrome bL and cytochrome bH contributes approx. 60% of this span; (4) electron transfer between cytochrome bH and Qc contributes 45-55% as calculated from the blue bandshift or the delta psi-dependent equilibrium shift; (5) there is no discernable pH dependence of the Qz-cytochrome bH or Qc-cytochrome bH charge-separation reactions; (6) cytochrome bL, Qz, 2Fe2S, and cytochrome c1 are on the periplasmic side out of the low dielectric part of the membrane while cytochrome bH is buried in the low dielectric medium; (7) electron transfer is the predominant if not the sole contributor to charge separation; (8) Qz and Qc are on opposite sides of the membrane dielectric profile. PMID:2844257

Robertson, D E; Dutton, P L



Convenient microtiter plate-based, oxygen-independent activity assays for flavin-dependent oxidoreductases based on different redox dyes  

PubMed Central

Flavin-dependent oxidoreductases are increasingly recognized as important biocatalysts for various industrial applications. In order to identify novel activities and to improve these enzymes in engineering approaches, suitable screening methods are necessary. We developed novel microtiter-plate-based assays for flavin-dependent oxidases and dehydrogenases using redox dyes as electron acceptors for these enzymes. 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol, methylene green, and thionine show absorption changes between their oxidized and reduced forms in the visible range, making it easy to judge visually changes in activity. A sample set of enzymes containing both flavoprotein oxidases and dehydrogenases – pyranose 2-oxidase, pyranose dehydrogenase, cellobiose dehydrogenase, d-amino acid oxidase, and l-lactate oxidase – was selected. Assays for these enzymes are based on a direct enzymatic reduction of the redox dyes and not on the coupled detection of a reaction product as in the frequently used assays based on hydrogen peroxide formation. The different flavoproteins show low Michaelis constants with these electron acceptor substrates, and therefore these dyes need to be added in only low concentrations to assure substrate saturation. In conclusion, these electron acceptors are useful in selective, reliable and cheap MTP-based screening assays for a range of flavin-dependent oxidoreductases, and offer a robust method for library screening, which could find applications in enzyme engineering programs. PMID:24376171

Brugger, Dagmar; Krondorfer, Iris; Zahma, Kawah; Stoisser, Thomas; Bolivar, Juan M; Nidetzky, Bernd; Peterbauer, Clemens K; Haltrich, Dietmar



Ferredoxin:NADP+ oxidoreductase in junction with CdSe/ZnS quantum dots: characteristics of an enzymatically active nanohybrid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ferredoxin:NADP+ oxidoreductase (FNR) is a plant and cyanobacterial photosynthetic enzyme, also found in non-photosynthetic tissues, where it is involved in redox reactions of biosynthetic pathways. In vivo it transfers electrons to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+), forming its reduced version, NADPH, while in vitro it can also use NADPH to reduce several substrates, such as ferricyanide, various quinones and nitriles. As an oxidoreductase catalyzing reaction of a broad range of substrates, FNR may be used in biotechnological processes. Quantum dots are semiconductor nanocrystals of a few to several nanometers diameter, having very useful luminescent properties. We present the spectroscopic and functional characteristics of a covalent conjugation of FNR and CdSe/ZnS quantum dots. Two types of quantum dots, of different diameter and emission maximum (550 and 650 nm), were used for comparison. Steady-state fluorescence and gel electrophoresis confirmed efficient conjugation, while fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) allowed for determination of the conjugates’ radii. The nanohybrids sustained enzymatic activity; however, changes in maximal reaction rates and Michaelis constant were found. Detailed analysis of the kinetic parameters showed that the changes in the enzyme activity depend on the substrate used for activity measurement but also on the size of the quantum dots. The presented nanohybrids, as the first example using plant and photosynthetic enzyme as a protein partner, may became a tool to study photosynthesis as well as other biosynthetic and biotechnological processes, involving enzymatically catalyzed electron transfer.

Szczepaniak, Krzysztof; Worch, Remigiusz; Grzyb, Joanna



Energy Conservation by the H2:Heterodisulfide Oxidoreductase from Methanosarcina mazei Gö1: Identification of Two Proton-Translocating Segments  

PubMed Central

The membrane-bound H2:heterodisulfide oxidoreductase system of the methanogenic archaeon Methanosarcina mazei Gö1 catalyzed the H2-dependent reduction of 2-hydroxyphenazine and the dihydro-2-hydroxyphenazine-dependent reduction of the heterodisulfide of HS-CoM and HS-CoB (CoM-S-S-CoB). Washed inverted vesicles of this organism were found to couple both processes with the transfer of protons across the cytoplasmic membrane. The maximal H+/2e? ratio was 0.9 for each reaction. The electrochemical proton gradient (??H+) thereby generated was shown to drive ATP synthesis from ADP plus Pi, exhibiting stoichiometries of 0.25 ATP synthesized per two electrons transported for both partial reactions. ATP synthesis and the generation of ??H+ were abolished by the uncoupler 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzylidenemalononitrile (SF 6847). The ATP synthase inhibitor N,N?-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide did not affect H+ translocation but led to an almost complete inhibition of ATP synthesis and decreased the electron transport rates. The latter effect was relieved by the addition of SF 6847. Thus, the energy-conserving systems showed a stringent coupling which resembles the phenomenon of respiratory control. The results indicate that two different proton-translocating segments are present in the H2:heterodisulfide oxidoreductase system; the first involves the 2-hydroxyphenazine-dependent hydrogenase, and the second involves the heterodisulfide reductase. PMID:10383977

Ide, Tina; Bäumer, Sebastian; Deppenmeier, Uwe



Chemical constituents from the rice fermented with the edible mushroom Pleurotus eryngii and their quinone oxidoreductase 1 inducing effect.  


The fruiting bodies or mycelia of mushrooms have been used as food and food-flavoring material for centuries due to their nutritional and medicinal values and the diversity of their bioactive components. The present research was the first to study the chemical components in rice fermented with the edible mushroom Pleurotus eryngii and the quinone oxidoreductase 1 inducing effect of these compounds. Through chemical investigation, one new compound, ((6S,7S)-6,7-dihydroxy-6-methyl-2-(3-methylbutanoyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzofuran-3-yl)methyl acetate (1) and eight known compounds (2-9) were isolated from the P. eryngii-fermented rice. All of these compounds were isolated from rice fermented with the edible mushroom P. eryngii for the first time. Their structures were elucidated by MS and NMR data analyses. Alternariol-5-O-methyl ether (2) showed strong quinone oxidoreductase 1 inducing effect with an IR value of 2.58 at the concentration of 20 ?g/ml. The content of adenosine (8) in the fermented rice (175.64 ?g/g) is much higher than that of non-fermented rice (14.38 ?g/g). PMID:23933238

Liu, Shun; Dong, Yanan; Li, Yongxia; Bao, Li; Liu, Hongwei; Li, Heran



Different respiratory-defective phenotypes of Neurospora crassa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae after inactivation of the gene encoding the mitochondrial acyl carrier protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nuclear genes (acp-1, ACP 1) encoding the mitochondrial acyl carrier protein were disrupted in Neurospora crassa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In N. crassa acp-1 is a peripheral subunit of the respiratory NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I). S. cerevisiae lacks complex I and its ACP1 appears to be located in the mitochondrial matrix. The loss of acp-1 in N. crassa causes

Regina Schneider; Michael Massow; Thomas Lisowsky; Hanns Weiss



Diversity and Spatial Distribution of Hydrazine Oxidoreductase (hzo) Gene in the Oxygen Minimum Zone Off Costa Rica  

E-print Network

Anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox) as an important nitrogen loss pathway has been reported in marine oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), but the community composition and spatial distribution of anammox bacteria in the eastern ...

Kong, Liangliang


Sulfur oxidation of Paracoccus pantotrophus: the sulfur-binding protein SoxYZ is the target of the periplasmic thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase SoxS.  


The periplasmic thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase SoxS is essential for chemotrophic growth of Paracoccus pantotrophus with thiosulfate. To trap its periplasmic partner, the cysteine residues of the CysXaaXaaCys motif of SoxS (11 kDa) were changed to alanine by site-directed mutagenesis. The disrupted soxS gene of the homogenote mutant G OmegaS was complemented with plasmids carrying the mutated soxS[C13A] or soxS[C16A] gene. Strain G OmegaS(pRD179.6[C16A](S)) displayed a marginal thiosulfate-oxidizing activity, suggesting that Cys13(S) binds the target protein. Evidence is presented that SoxS specifically binds SoxY. (i) Immunoblot analysis using non-reducing SDS gel electrophoresis and anti-SoxS and anti-SoxYZ antibodies identified the respective antigens of strain G OmegaS(pRD179.6[C16A](S)) at the 25 kDa position, suggesting an adduct of about 14 kDa, close to the value expected for SoxY migration. (ii) A mutant unable to produce SoxYZ, such as strain G OmegaX(pRD187.7[C16A](S)), did not form a SoxS(C16A) adduct, while addition of homogeneous SoxYZ resulted in the 25 kDa adduct. (iii) The SoxY and SoxZ subunits were distinguished by site-directed mutagenesis of the cysteine residue in SoxZ. SoxYZ(C53S) formed the 25 kDa adduct with SoxS(C16A). These results demonstrate that the target of SoxS is the sulfur-binding protein SoxY of the SoxYZ complex. As SoxYZ is reversibly inactivated, SoxS may activate SoxYZ as a crucial function for chemotrophy of P. pantotrophus. PMID:18599826

Rother, Dagmar; Ringk, Josefina; Friedrich, Cornelius G



Contribution of rubredoxin:oxygen oxidoreductases and hybrid cluster proteins of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough to survival under oxygen and nitrite stress.  


A genomic island (GEI) of the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, found to be able to migrate between two tRNA-Met loci of the genome, contains genes for rubredoxin:oxygen oxidoreductase-1 (roo1) and hybrid cluster protein-1 (hcp1) with additional copies for these genes (roo2 and hcp2) being found elsewhere on the chromosome. A suite of mutants was created in which roo2 and/or hcp2 and/or the GEI were either present or missing. The GEI and roo2 increased survival under microaerobic conditions and allowed growth in closer proximity to the air-water interface of soft agar tubes, two properties which appeared to be closely linked. When Hcp2(+) GEI(+) or Hcp2(-) GEI(+) cells, harbouring cytochrome c nitrite reductase (NrfHA) and growing on lactate and sulfate, were amended with 10?mM nitrite at mid-log phase (8-10?mM sulfide), all nitrite was reduced within 30?h with a rate of 3.0?mmol?(g biomass)(-1) ?h(-1) after which sulfate reduction resumed. However, Hcp2(+) GEI(-) or Hcp2(-) GEI(-) cells were unable to use lactate, causing sulfide to be used as electron donor for nitrite reduction at a sixfold lower rate. Complementation studies indicated that hcp1, not roo1, enhanced the rate of nitrite reduction under these conditions. Hcp2 enhanced the rate of nitrite reduction when, in addition to lactate, hydrogen was also present as an electron donor. These results indicate a critical role of Hcps in alleviating nitrite stress in D.?vulgaris Hildenborough by maintaining the integrity of electron transport chains from lactate or H(2) to NrfHA through removal of reactive nitrogen species. It thus appears that the GEI contributes considerably to the fitness of the organism, allowing improved growth in microaerobic environments found in sulfide-oxygen gradients and in environments, containing both sulfide and nitrite, through the action of Roo1 and Hcp1 respectively. PMID:22947039

Yurkiw, Marcy A; Voordouw, Johanna; Voordouw, Gerrit



The mitochondrial small heat-shock protein protects NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase of the electron transport chain during heat stress in plants  

E-print Network

of complex I electron transport in pre-heat-stressed plants. Addition of purified lmw Hsp to submitochondrial roughly 70% amino acid ho- mology among all known members of mitochondrial lmw Hsp [19] and strongly and protection of electron transport from the succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase com- plex (complex II

Heckathorn, Scott


Pseudomonas aeruginosa MdaB and WrbA are water-soluble two-electron quinone oxidoreductases with the potential to defend against oxidative stress.  


Water-soluble quinone oxidoreductases capable of reducing quinone substrates via a concerted two-electron mechanism have been implicated in bacterial antioxidant defence. Twoelectron transfer avoids formation of dangerously reactive semi-quinone intermediates, moreover previous work in Pseudomonas putida indicated a direct protective effect for the quinols generated by an over-expressed oxidoreductase. Here, the Pseudomonas aeruginosa orthologs of five quinone oxidoreductases - MdaB, ChrR, WrbA, NfsB, and NQO1 - were tested for their possible role in defending P. aeruginosa against H2O2 challenge. In in vitro assays, each enzyme was shown to reduce quinone substrates with only minimal semiquinone formation. However, when each was individually over-expressed in P. aeruginosa no overt H2O2-protective phenotype was observed. It was shown that this was due to a masking effect of the P. aeruginosa catalase, KatA; in a katA mutant, H2O2 challenged strains over-expressing the WrbA and MdaB orthologs grew significantly better than the empty plasmid control. A growth advantage was also observed for H2O2 challenged P. putida strains over-expressing P. aeruginosa wrbA, mdaB or katA. Despite not conferring a growth advantage to wild type P. aeruginosa, it is possible that these quinone oxidoreductases defend against H2O2 toxicity at lower concentrations. PMID:25085734

Green, Laura K; La Flamme, Anne C; Ackerley, David F



A novel potato defence-related alcohol:NADP + oxidoreductase induced in response to Erwinia carotovora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of Solanum tuberosum genes responsive to culture filtrates (CF) from Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora led to the isolation of a full-length cDNA with high sequence similarity to several alcohol dehydrogenases. Accumulation of transcripts corresponding to this defence-related alcohol dehydrogenase (drd-1) was rapidly induced in CF-treated and wounded plants. The gene was also responsive to molecules involved in defence signalling

Marcos Montesano; Heidi Hyytiäinen; Rodolfo Wettstein; E. Tapio Palva



The two common polymorphic forms of human NRH-quinone oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2) have different biochemical properties  

PubMed Central

There are two common forms of NRH-quinone oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2) in the human population resulting from SNP rs1143684. One has phenylalanine at position 47 (NQO2-F47) and the other leucine (NQO2-L47). Using recombinant proteins, we show that these variants have similar steady state kinetic parameters, although NQO2-L47 has a slightly lower specificity constant. NQO2-L47 is less stable towards proteolytic digestion and thermal denaturation than NQO2-F47. Both forms are inhibited by resveratrol, but NQO2-F47 shows negative cooperativity with this inhibitor. Thus these data demonstrate, for the first time, clear biochemical differences between the variants which help explain previous biomedical and epidemiological findings. PMID:24631540

Megarity, Clare F.; Gill, James R.E.; Clare Caraher, M.; Stratford, Ian J.; Nolan, Karen A.; Timson, David J.



The two common polymorphic forms of human NRH-quinone oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2) have different biochemical properties.  


There are two common forms of NRH-quinone oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2) in the human population resulting from SNP rs1143684. One has phenylalanine at position 47 (NQO2-F47) and the other leucine (NQO2-L47). Using recombinant proteins, we show that these variants have similar steady state kinetic parameters, although NQO2-L47 has a slightly lower specificity constant. NQO2-L47 is less stable towards proteolytic digestion and thermal denaturation than NQO2-F47. Both forms are inhibited by resveratrol, but NQO2-F47 shows negative cooperativity with this inhibitor. Thus these data demonstrate, for the first time, clear biochemical differences between the variants which help explain previous biomedical and epidemiological findings. PMID:24631540

Megarity, Clare F; Gill, James R E; Caraher, M Clare; Stratford, Ian J; Nolan, Karen A; Timson, David J



Spectroscopic characterization of the number and type of iron-sulfur clusters in NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase.  


The number and type of iron-sulfur clusters present in the NADH dehydrogenase of the mammalian respiratory chain were studied by a combination of low temperature magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) and quantitative electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies. MCD was used with the high molecular weight, soluble enzyme, and EPR was used with both the purified enzyme and Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase). The results of the EPR experiments of the two types of preparations agreed with each other, as well as with the data in the literature for various types of membrane-bound preparations. The two methods gave concordant results showing the presence of one binuclear and of three tetranuclear NADH-reducible iron-sulfur clusters. Earlier studies using the cluster extrusion technique indicated a higher ratio of binuclear to tetranuclear clusters which may be explained by cluster interconversion during the extrusion process. PMID:3087991

Kowal, A T; Morningstar, J E; Johnson, M K; Ramsay, R R; Singer, T P



Genes associated with lignin degradation in the polyphagous white-rot pathogen Heterobasidion irregulare show substrate-specific regulation.  


The pathogenic white-rot basidiomycete Heterobasidion irregulare is able to remove lignin and hemicellulose prior to cellulose during the colonization of root and stem xylem of conifer and broadleaf trees. We identified and followed the regulation of expression of genes belonging to families encoding ligninolytic enzymes. In comparison with typical white-rot fungi, the H. irregulare genome has exclusively the short-manganese peroxidase type encoding genes (6 short-MnPs) and thereby a slight contraction in the pool of class II heme-containing peroxidases, but an expansion of the MCO laccases with 17 gene models. Furthermore, the genome shows a versatile set of other oxidoreductase genes putatively involved in lignin oxidation and conversion, including 5 glyoxal oxidases, 19 quinone-oxidoreductases and 12 aryl-alcohol oxidases. Their genetic multiplicity and gene-specific regulation patterns on cultures based on defined lignin, cellulose or Norway spruce lignocellulose substrates suggest divergent specificities and physiological roles for these enzymes. While the short-MnP encoding genes showed similar transcript levels upon fungal growth on heartwood and reaction zone (RZ), a xylem defense tissue rich in phenolic compounds unique to trees, a subset of laccases showed higher gene expression in the RZ cultures. In contrast, other oxidoreductases depending on initial MnP activity showed generally lower transcript levels on RZ than on heartwood. These data suggest that the rate of fungal oxidative conversion of xylem lignin differs between spruce RZ and heartwood. It is conceivable that in RZ part of the oxidoreductase activities of laccases are related to the detoxification of phenolic compounds involved in host-defense. Expression of the several short-MnP enzymes indicated an important role for these enzymes in effective delignification of wood by H. irregulare. PMID:23665189

Yakovlev, Igor A; Hietala, Ari M; Courty, Pierre-Emmanuel; Lundell, Taina; Solheim, Halvor; Fossdal, Carl Gunnar



Human NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase type I (hNQO1) activation of quinone propionic acid trigger groups†  

PubMed Central

NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase type I (NQO1) is a target enzyme for triggered delivery of drugs at inflamed tissue and tumor sites, particularly those that challenge traditional therapies. Prodrugs, macromolecules, and molecular assemblies possessing trigger groups that can be cleaved by environmental stimuli are vehicles with the potential to yield active drug only at prescribed sites. Furthermore, quinone propionic acids (QPAs) covalently attached to prodrugs or liposome surfaces can be removed by application of a reductive trigger stimulus, such as that from NQO1; their rates of reductive activation should be tunable via QPA structure. We explored in detail the recombinant human NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase type I (rhNQO1)-catalyzed NADH reduction of a family of substituted QPAs and obtained high precision kinetic parameters. It is found that small changes in QPA structure—in particular, single atom and function group substitutions on the quinone ring at R1—lead to significant impacts on the Michaelis constant (Km), maximum velocity (Vmax), catalytic constant (kcat), and catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km). Molecular docking simulations demonstrate that alterations in QPA structure result in large changes in QPA alignment and placement with respect to the flavin isoalloxazine ring in the active site of rhNQO1; a qualitative relationship exists between the kinetic parameters and the depth of QPA penetration into the rhNQO1 active site. From a quantitative perspective, a very good correlation is observed between log(kcat/Km) and the molecular-docking-derived distance between flavin hydride donor site and quinone hydride acceptor site in the QPAs, an observation that is in agreement with developing theories. The comprehensive kinetic and molecular modeling knowledge obtained for the interaction of recombinant human NQO1 with the quinone propionic acid analogues provides insight into the design and implementation of the QPA trigger groups for drug delivery applications. PMID:22989153

Mendoza, Maria F.; Hollabaugh, Nicole M.; Hettiarachchi, Suraj U.; McCarley, Robin L.



Mechanism of Porcine Liver Xanthine Oxidoreductase Mediated N-Oxide Reduction of Cyadox as Revealed by Docking and Mutagenesis Studies  

PubMed Central

Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is a cytoplasmic molybdenum-containing oxidoreductase, catalyzing both endogenous purines and exogenous compounds. It is suggested that XOR in porcine hepatocytes catalyzes the N-oxide reduction of quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxides (QdNOs). To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying this metabolism, the cDNA of porcine XOR was cloned and heterologously expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells. The bovine XOR, showing sequence identity of 91% to porcine XOR, was employed as template for homology modeling. By docking cyadox, a representative compound of QdNOs, into porcine XOR model, eight amino acid residues, Gly47, Asn352, Ser360, Arg427, Asp430, Asp431, Ser1227 and Lys1230, were located at distances of less than 4Å to cyadox. Site-directed mutagenesis was performed to analyze their catalytic functions. Compared with wild type porcine XOR, G47A, S360P, D431A, S1227A, and K1230A displayed altered kinetic parameters in cyadox reduction, similarly to that in xanthine oxidation, indicating these mutations influenced electron-donating process of xanthine before subsequent electron transfer to cyadox to fulfill the N-oxide reduction. Differently, R427E and D430H, both located in the 424–434 loop, exhibited a much lower Km and a decreased Vmax respectively in cyadox reduction. Arg427 may be related to the substrate binding of porcine XOR to cyadox, and Asp430 is suggested to be involved in the transfer of electron to cyadox. This study initially reveals the possible catalytic mechanism of porcine XOR in cyadox metabolism, providing with novel insights into the structure-function relationship of XOR in the reduction of exogenous di-N-oxides. PMID:24040113

Hao, Haihong; Dai, Menghong; Wang, Xu; Huang, Lingli; Liu, Zhenli; Yuan, Zonghui



Inhibitory Effects of Tart Cherry (Prunus cerasus) Juice on Xanthine Oxidoreductase Activity and its Hypouricemic and Antioxidant Effects on Rats.  


The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of tart cherry juice on serum uric acid levels, hepatic xanthine oxidoreductase activity and two non-invasive biomarkers of oxidative stress (total antioxidant capacity and malondialdehyde concentration), in normal and hyperuricemic rats. Tart cherry juice (5 ml/kg) was given by oral gavage to rats for 2 weeks. Allopurinol (5 mg/kg) was used as a positive control and was also given by oral gavage. Data showed that tart cherry juice treatment did not cause any significant reduction in the serum uric acid levels in normal rats, but significantly reduced (P<0.05) the serum uric acid levels of hyperuricemic rats in a time-dependent manner. Tart cherry juice treatment also inhibited hepatic xanthine oxidase/dehydrogenase activity. Moreover, a significant increase (P<0.05) in serum total antioxidant capacity was observed in tart cherry juice treated-rats in both normal and hyperuricemic groups. The oral administration of tart cherry juice also led to a significant reduction (P<0.05) in MDA concentration in the hyperuricemic rats. Although the hypouricemic effect of allopurinol, as a putative inhibitor of xanthine oxidoreductase, was much higher than that of tart cherry, it could not significantly change anti-oxidative parameters. These features of tart cherry make it an attractive candidate for the prophylactic treatment of hyperuricaemia, particularly if it is to be taken on a long-term basis. Further investigations to define its clinical efficacy would be highly desirable. PMID:22691805

Haidari, F; Mohammad Shahi, M; Keshavarz, S A; Rashidi, M R



The structure of Aquifex aeolicus sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase, a basis to understand sulfide detoxification and respiration  

PubMed Central

Sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) is a flavoprotein with homologues in all domains of life except plants. It plays a physiological role both in sulfide detoxification and in energy transduction. We isolated the protein from native membranes of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus, and we determined its X-ray structure in the “as-purified,” substrate-bound, and inhibitor-bound forms at resolutions of 2.3, 2.0, and 2.9 ?, respectively. The structure is composed of 2 Rossmann domains and 1 attachment domain, with an overall monomeric architecture typical of disulfide oxidoreductase flavoproteins. A. aeolicus SQR is a surprisingly trimeric, periplasmic integral monotopic membrane protein that inserts about 12 ? into the lipidic bilayer through an amphipathic helix–turn–helix tripodal motif. The quinone is located in a channel that extends from the si side of the FAD to the membrane. The quinone ring is sandwiched between the conserved amino acids Phe-385 and Ile-346, and it is possibly protonated upon reduction via Glu-318 and/or neighboring water molecules. Sulfide polymerization occurs on the re side of FAD, where the invariant Cys-156 and Cys-347 appear to be covalently bound to polysulfur fragments. The structure suggests that FAD is covalently linked to the polypeptide in an unusual way, via a disulfide bridge between the 8-methyl group and Cys-124. The applicability of this disulfide bridge for transferring electrons from sulfide to FAD, 2 mechanisms for sulfide polymerization and channeling of the substrate, S2?, and of the product, Sn, in and out of the active site are discussed. PMID:19487671

Marcia, Marco; Ermler, Ulrich; Peng, Guohong; Michel, Hartmut



A macrophage migration inhibitory factor like oxidoreductase from pearl oyster Pinctada fucata involved in innate immune responses.  


Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an important cytokine and plays a crucial role as a pivotal regulator of innate immunity. In this study, a MIF cDNA was identified and characterized from the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata (designated as PoMIF). The full-length of PoMIF was 1544 bp and consisted of a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 45 bp, a 3'-UTR of 1139 bp with a polyadenylation signal (AATAAA) at 12 nucleotides upstream of the poly (A) tail. The open reading frame (ORF) of PoMIF was 360 bp which encoded a polypeptide of 120 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 13.3 kDa and a predicted pI of 6.1. SMART analysis showed that PoMIF contained the catalytic-sites P² and K³³ for tautomerase activity, a motif C??GSV?? for oxidoreductase activity and a MIF family signature D??PCGSVEVYSIGALG??. Homology analysis revealed that the PoMIF shared 40.3-65.5% similarity and 26.9-45.0% identity to other known MIF sequences. PoMIF mRNA was constitutively expressed in seven selected tissues of healthy pearl oysters, with the highest expression level in digestive gland. Eight hours after P. fucata was injected with Vibrio alginolyticus, the expression of PoMIF mRNA was significantly up-regulated in digestive gland, gills, hemocytes and intestine. The cDNA fragment encoding mature protein of PoMIF was subcloned to expression vector pRSET and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant PoMIF (rPoMIF) was expressed and purified under optimized conditions. Function analysis showed that rPoMIF had oxidoreductase activity and could utilize dithiothreitol (DTT) as reductant to reduce insulin. PMID:21496487

Cui, Shuge; Zhang, Dianchang; Jiang, Shigui; Pu, Hanlin; Hu, Yuting; Guo, Huayang; Chen, Mingqiang; Su, Tanfeng; Zhu, Caiyan



Human Monoamine Oxidase A and B Genes Exhibit Identical Exon-Intron Organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monoamine oxidases A and B ]MAOA and MAOB; amine:oxygen oxidoreductase (deaminating) (flavin-containing), EC play important roles in the metabolism of neuroactive, vasoactive amines and the Parkinsonismproducing neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl- 1,2,3,6 -tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Human MAOA and MAOB genes isolated from X chromosome-specific libraries span at least 60 kilobases, consist of 15 exons, and exhibit identical exon-intron organization. Exon 12 codes for

Joseph Grimsby; Kevin Chen; Li-Jia Wang; Nancy C. Lan; Jean C. Shih



Murine and Human b Locus Pigmentation Genes Encode a Glycoprotein (gp75) with Catalase Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melanogenesis is regulated in large part by tyrosinase (monophenol monooxygenase; monophenol, L-dopa:oxygen oxidoreductase, EC, and defective tyrosinase leads to albinism. The mechanisms for other pigmentation determinants (e.g., those operative in tyrosinase-positive albinism and in murine coat-color mutants) are not yet known. One murine pigmentation gene, the brown (b) locus, when mutated leads to a brown (b\\/b) or hypopigmented (Blt\\/Blt)

Ruth Halaban; Gisela Moellmann



Deficiency of NRH:Quinone Oxidoreductase 2 Differentially Regulates TNF Signaling in Keratinocytes: Up-regulation of Apoptosis Correlates with Down-regulation of Cell Survival Kinases  

Microsoft Academic Search

NRH:quinone oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2) is a cytosolic flavopro- tein that catalyzes the two-electron reduction of quinones and quinoid compounds to hydroquinones. Although the role of a homologue, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), is well defined in oxidative stress, neoplasia, and carcinogenesis, little is known about the mechanism of actions of NQO2 in these cellular responses. Whether NQO2 has any role in

Kwang Seok Ahn; Xing Gong; Gautam Sethi; Madan M. Chaturvedi; Anil K. Jaiswal; Bharat B. Aggarwal



Identification of the NF-E2-related Factor2-dependent Genes Conferring Protection against Oxidative Stress in Primary Cortical Astrocytes Using Oligonucleotide Microarray Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant responsive element (ARE) mediates transcriptional regulation of phase II detoxification en- zymes and antioxidant proteins such as NAD(P)H:qui- none oxidoreductase (NQO1), glutathione S-trans- ferases, and glutamate-cysteine ligase. In this study, we demonstrate that NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) plays a major role in transcriptional activation of ARE-driven genes and identify Nrf2-dependent genes by oligonu- cleotide microarray analysis using primary cortical

Jong-Min Lee; Marcus J. Calkins; Kaimin Chan; Yuet Wai Kan; Jeffrey A. Johnson



Reduction of mitomycin C is catalysed by human recombinant NRH:quinone oxidoreductase 2 using reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide as an electron donating co-factor  

PubMed Central

NRH:Quinone Oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2) has been described as having no enzymatic activity with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) or NADPH as electron donating cosubstrates. Mitomycin C (MMC) is both a substrate for and a mechanistic inhibitor of the NQO2 homologue NQO1. NRH:quinone oxidoreductase 2 catalysed the reduction of MMC at pH 5.8 with NADH as a co-factor. This reaction results in species that inhibit the NQO2-mediated metabolism of CB1954. In addition, MMC caused an increase in DNA cross-links in a cell line transfected to overexpress NQO2 to an extent comparable to that observed with an isogenic NQO1-expressing cell line. These data indicate that NQO2 may contribute to the metabolism of MMC to cytotoxic species. PMID:17031400

Jamieson, D; Tung, A T Y; Knox, R J; Boddy, A V



Biophysical and structural studies of novel F420-dependent oxidoreductases in Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

E-print Network

-phosphate dehydrogenase FMN flavin mononucleotide GST glutathione S-transferase His polyhistidine tag HTS high-throughput screening HPLC high-pressure liquid chromatography IC50 half maximal inhibitory concentration iNOS nitric oxide synthase IPTG isopropyl... thiogalactoside ITC isothermal titration calorimetry KEGG Kyoto Encyclopedia for Genes and Genomes LB Luria-Bertani LC liquid chromatography LLM luciferase-like monooxygenase MBP maltose binding protein MDR-TB muti-drug resistant tuberculosis MIC minimum...

Mashalidis, Ellene H.



Light-independent and light-dependent protochlorophyllide-reducing activities and two distinct NADPH-protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase polypeptides in mountain pine ( Pinus mugo )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lower plants and gymnosperms synthesize chlorophyll and develop photosynthetically competent chloroplasts even when grown in the dark. In cell-free extracts of pine (Pinus mugo, Turra, ssp. mugo) seedlings, light-independent and light-dependent protochlorophyllide-reducing activities are present. Two distinct NADPH-protochlorophyllide-oxidoreductase (POR) polypeptides can be detected immunologically with an antiserum raised against the POR of barley. The subcellular localization and amounts of the

Christoph Forreiter; Klaus Apel



Electron spin relaxation enhancement measurements of interspin distances in human, porcine, and Rhodobacter electron transfer flavoprotein–ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF–QO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron transfer flavoprotein–ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF–QO) is a membrane-bound electron transfer protein that links primary flavoprotein dehydrogenases with the main respiratory chain. Human, porcine, and Rhodobacter sphaeroides ETF–QO each contain a single [4Fe–4S]2+,1+ cluster and one equivalent of FAD, which are diamagnetic in the isolated enzyme and become paramagnetic on reduction with the enzymatic electron donor or with dithionite. The anionic

Alistair J. Fielding; Robert J. Usselman; Nicholas Watmough; Martin Simkovic; Frank E. Frerman; Gareth R. Eaton; Sandra S. Eaton



Production of glucose-fructose oxidoreductase and ethanol by Zymomonas mobilis ATCC 29191 in medium containing corn steep liquor as a source of vitamins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different concentrations of corn steep liquor (CSL) were tested in the cultivation of Zymomonas mobilis. Cell growth, ethanol production, and the formation of glucose-fructose oxidoreductase (GFOR) and glucono-'-lactonase (GL), the enzymes responsible for the bio-production of gluconic acid and sorbitol, were examined. The cell yields using 25 g CSL l-1 and 40 g CSL l-1 (YX\\/SƸ.031 g g-1) were close

M. M. Silveira; E. Wisbeck; I. Hoch; R. Jonas



Membrane-bound NADPH dehydrogenase- and ferredoxin: NADP oxidoreductase activity involved in electron transport during acetate oxidation to CO 2 in Desulfobacter postgatei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desulfobacter postgatei grows on acetate and sulfate as energy source. The oxidation of acetate to 2 CO2 proceeds via the citric acid cycle involving membrane-bound succinate dehydrogenase and membrane-bound malate dehydrogenase. We report here that the organism contains membrane-bound NADPH dehydrogenase and ferredoxin: NADP oxidoreductase for the reoxidation of NADPH and reduced ferredoxin generated during isocitrate- and 2-oxoglutarate oxidation, respectively.

Dieter Möller-Zinkhan; Rudolf K. Thauer



In vitro-mutagenesis of NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase B: two distinctive protochlorophyllide binding sites participate in enzyme catalysis and assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) B is a key enzyme for the light-induced greening of etiolated angiosperm plants. It is nucleus-encoded, imported into the plastids posttranslationally, and assembled into larger light-harvesting POR:protochlorophyllide complexes termed LHPP (Reinbothe et al., Nature 397:80–84, 1999). An in vitro-mutagenesis approach was taken to study the role of the evolutionarily conserved Cys residues in pigment binding. Four Cys

Christiane Reinbothe; Frank Buhr; Sandra Bartsch; Claire Desvignes; Françoise Quigley; Hélène Pesey; Steffen Reinbothe



Anticancer action of cub? insecticide: Correlation for rotenoid constituents between inhibition of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase and induced ornithine decarboxylase activities  

PubMed Central

Rotenone and rotenoid-containing botanicals, important insecticides and fish poisons, are reported to have anticancer activity in rats and mice. The toxic action of rotenone is attributed to inhibition of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase activity and the purported cancer chemopreventive effect of deguelin analogs has been associated with inhibition of phorbol ester-induced ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity. This study defines a possible relationship between these two types of activity important in evaluating the toxicology of rotenoid pesticides and the suitability of the anticancer model. Fractionation of cubé resin (the commercial rotenoid pesticide) establishes that the activity in both assays is due primarily to rotenone (IC50 = 0.8–4 nM), secondarily to deguelin, and in small part to rotenolone and tephrosin. In addition, the potency of 29 rotenoids from cubé insecticide for inhibiting NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase in vitro assayed with bovine heart electron transport particles satisfactorily predicts their potency in vivo in the induced ODC assay using noncytotoxic rotenoid concentrations with cultured MCF-7 human breast cancer cells (r = 0.86). Clearly the molecular features of rotenoids essential for inhibiting NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase are similar to those for blocking ODC induction. This apparent correlation extends to 11 flavonoids and stilbenoids from cubé resin (r = 0.98) and genistein and resveratrol except for lower potency and less selectivity than the rotenoids relative to cytotoxicity. These findings on cubé insecticide constituents and our earlier study comparing rotenone and pyridaben miticide indicate that inhibition of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase activity lowers the level of induced ODC activity leading to the antiproliferative effect and anticancer action. PMID:9520374

Fang, Nianbai; Casida, John E.



Biphasic Kinetic Behavior of E. coli WrbA, an FMN-Dependent NAD(P)H:Quinone Oxidoreductase  

PubMed Central

The E. coli protein WrbA is an FMN-dependent NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase that has been implicated in oxidative defense. Three subunits of the tetrameric enzyme contribute to each of four identical, cavernous active sites that appear to accommodate NAD(P)H or various quinones, but not simultaneously, suggesting an obligate tetramer with a ping-pong mechanism in which NAD departs before oxidized quinone binds. The present work was undertaken to evaluate these suggestions and to characterize the kinetic behavior of WrbA. Steady-state kinetics results reveal that WrbA conforms to a ping-pong mechanism with respect to the constancy of the apparent Vmax to Km ratio with substrate concentration. However, the competitive/non-competitive patterns of product inhibition, though consistent with the general class of bi-substrate reactions, do not exclude a minor contribution from additional forms of the enzyme. NMR results support the presence of additional enzyme forms. Docking and energy calculations find that electron-transfer-competent binding sites for NADH and benzoquinone present severe steric overlap, consistent with the ping-pong mechanism. Unexpectedly, plots of initial velocity as a function of either NADH or benzoquinone concentration present one or two Michaelis-Menten phases depending on the temperature at which the enzyme is held prior to assay. The effect of temperature is reversible, suggesting an intramolecular conformational process. WrbA shares these and other details of its kinetic behavior with mammalian DT-diaphorase, an FAD-dependent NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase. An extensive literature review reveals several other enzymes with two-plateau kinetic plots, but in no case has a molecular explanation been elucidated. Preliminary sedimentation velocity analysis of WrbA indicates a large shift in size of the multimer with temperature, suggesting that subunit assembly coupled to substrate binding may underlie the two-plateau behavior. An additional aim of this report is to bring under wider attention the apparently widespread phenomenon of two-plateau Michaelis-Menten plots. PMID:22952804

Kishko, Iryna; Harish, Balasubramanian; Zayats, Vasilina; Reha, David; Tenner, Brian; Beri, Dhananjay; Gustavsson, Tobias; Ettrich, Rudiger; Carey, Jannette



The structure of the periplasmic thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase SoxS from Paracoccus pantotrophus indicates a triple Trx/Grx/DsbC functionality in chemotrophic sulfur oxidation.  


The periplasmic thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase SoxS is beneficial for the sulfur-oxidizing (Sox) phenotype of the facultative chemotrophic bacterium Paracoccus pantotrophus and is not part of the Sox enzyme system. SoxS combines features of thioredoxins, glutaredoxins and the thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases of the Dsb family in structure, target specificity and reaction. The structure of SoxS was solved in oxidized and reduced forms at 2.1 and 1.9 A resolution, respectively. SoxS revealed high structural homology to typical cytoplasmic bacterial thioredoxins. In contrast, SoxS contained the active-site motif Pro-Gly-Cys-Leu-Tyr-Cys that is not present in other thioredoxins. Interestingly, the sequence of this motif is closely related to the Pro-Gly-Cys-Pro-Tyr-Cys sequence of some glutaredoxins and to the Pro-Xaa-Cys-Xaa-Tyr-Cys sequences of some members of the DsbC and DsbG subfamilies of thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases. Furthermore, the proposed substrate of SoxS, the interprotein disulfide of SoxY, Cys110(Y)-Cys110(Y), is structurally similar to oxidized glutathione. However, SoxS is proposed to specifically reduce the interprotein disulfide between two SoxY subunits, releasing a heterodimeric SoxYZ as an active part of the sulfur-oxidation cycle. PMID:19237745

Carius, Yvonne; Rother, Dagmar; Friedrich, Cornelius G; Scheidig, Axel J



Ipsdienol dehydrogenase (IDOLDH): a novel oxidoreductase important for Ips pini pheromone production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ipsdienone (2-methyl-6-methylene-2,7-octadien-4-one) is an important intermediate in the biosynthesis of pheromonal ipsdienol (2-methyl-6-methylene-2,7-octadien-4-ol) and ipsenol (2-methyl-6-methylene-7-octen-4-ol) in male pine engraver beetles, Ips pini (Say). A novel ipsdienol dehydrogenase (IDOLDH) with a pheromone biosynthetic gene expression pattern was cloned, expressed, functionally characterized, and its cellular localization analyzed. The cDNA has a 762 nt ORF encoding a 253 amino acid predicted translation

Rubi Figueroa-Teran; William H. Welch; Gary J. Blomquist; Claus Tittiger


Insights into MHC class I peptide loading from the structure of the Tapasin-ERp57 thiol oxidoreductase heterodimer  

SciTech Connect

Tapasin is a glycoprotein critical for loading major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules with high-affinity peptides. It functions within the multimeric peptide-loading complex (PLC) as a disulfide-linked, stable heterodimer with the thiol oxidoreductase ERp57, and this covalent interaction is required to support optimal PLC activity. Here, we present the 2.6 {angstrom} resolution structure of the tapasin-ERp57 core of the PLC. The structure revealed that tapasin interacts with both ERp57 catalytic domains, accounting for the stability of the heterodimer, and provided an example of a protein disulfide isomerase family member interacting with substrate. Mutational analysis identified a conserved surface on tapasin that interacted with MHC class I molecules and was critical for peptide loading and editing functions of the tapasin-ERp57 heterodimer. By combining the tapasin-ERp57 structure with those of other defined PLC components, we present a molecular model that illuminates the processes involved in MHC class I peptide loading.

Dong, G.; Wearsch, P.A.; Peaper, D.R.; Cresswell, P.; Reinisch, K.M.; (Yale-MED)



Central role of the Na+-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR) in sodium bioenergetics of Vibrio cholerae.  


Abstract Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative bacterium that lives in brackish or sea water environments. Strains of V. cholerae carrying the pathogenicity islands infect the human gut and cause the fatal disease cholera. Vibrio cholerae maintains a Na+ gradient at its cytoplasmic membrane that drives substrate uptake, motility, and efflux of antibiotics. Here, we summarize the major Na+-dependent transport processes and describe the central role of the Na+-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR), a primary Na+ pump, in maintaining a Na+-motive force. The Na+-NQR is a membrane protein complex with a mass of about 220 kDa that couples the exergonic oxidation of NADH to the transport of Na+ across the cytoplasmic membrane. We describe the molecular architecture of this respiratory complex and summarize the findings how electron transport might be coupled to Na+-translocation. Moreover, recent advances in the determination of the three-dimensional structure of this complex are reported. PMID:25205724

Steuber, Julia; Halang, Petra; Vorburger, Thomas; Steffen, Wojtek; Vohl, Georg; Fritz, Günter



Deletion of P399_E401 in NADPH cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase results in partial mixed oxidase deficiency.  


P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the electron donor for all microsomal P450s including steroidogenic enzymes CYP17A1, CYP19A1 and CYP21A2. We found a novel POR mutation P399_E401del in two unrelated Turkish patients with 46,XX disorder of sexual development. Recombinant POR proteins were produced in yeast and tested for their ability to support steroid metabolizing P450 activities. In comparison to wild-type POR, the P399_E401del protein was found to decrease catalytic efficiency of 21-hydroxylation of progesterone by 68%, 17?-hydroxylation of progesterone by 76%, 17,20-lyase action on 17OH-pregnenolone by 69%, aromatization of androstenedione by 85% and cytochrome c reduction activity by 80%. Protein structure analysis of the three amino acid deletion P399_E401 revealed reduced stability and flexibility of the mutant. In conclusion, P399_E401del is a novel mutation in POR that provides valuable genotype-phenotype and structure-function correlation for mutations in a different region of POR compared to previous studies. Characterization of P399_E401del provides further insight into specificity of different P450s for interaction with POR as well as nature of metabolic disruptions caused by more pronounced effect on specific P450s like CYP17A1 and aromatase. PMID:21843508

Flück, Christa E; Mallet, Delphine; Hofer, Gaby; Samara-Boustani, Dinane; Leger, Juliane; Polak, Michel; Morel, Yves; Pandey, Amit V



The Crystal Structure and Mechanism of an Unusual Oxidoreductase, GilR, Involved in Gilvocarcin V Biosynthesis  

SciTech Connect

GilR is a recently identified oxidoreductase that catalyzes the terminal step of gilvocarcin V biosynthesis and is a unique enzyme that establishes the lactone core of the polyketide-derived gilvocarcin chromophore. Gilvocarcin-type compounds form a small distinct family of anticancer agents that are involved in both photo-activated DNA-alkylation and histone H3 cross-linking. High resolution crystal structures of apoGilR and GilR in complex with its substrate pregilvocarcin V reveals that GilR belongs to the small group of a relatively new type of the vanillyl-alcohol oxidase flavoprotein family characterized by bicovalently tethered cofactors. GilR was found as a dimer, with the bicovalently attached FAD cofactor mediated through His-65 and Cys-125. Subsequent mutagenesis and functional assays indicate that Tyr-445 may be involved in reaction catalysis and in mediating the covalent attachment of FAD, whereas Tyr-448 serves as an essential residue initiating the catalysis by swinging away from the active site to accommodate binding of the 6R-configured substrate and consequently abstracting the proton of the hydroxyl residue of the substrate hemiacetal 6-OH group. These studies lay the groundwork for future enzyme engineering to broaden the substrate specificity of this bottleneck enzyme of the gilvocarcin biosynthetic pathway for the development of novel anti-cancer therapeutics.

Noinaj, Nicholas; Bosserman, Mary A.; Schickli, M. Alexandra; Piszczek, Grzegorz; Kharel, Madan K.; Pahari, Pallab; Buchanan, Susan K.; Rohr, Jürgen (NIH); (Kentucky)



Computational investigation of the initial two-electron, two-proton steps in the reaction mechanism of hydroxylamine oxidoreductase.  


Reported here is a computational study based on density functional theory that presents the first attempt to investigate the 2-electron 2-proton reaction of Fe(III)-H2NOH to Fe(III)-HNO in the catalytic cycle of hydroxylamine oxidoreductase-a multiheme-containing enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of hydroxylamine (HA) to nitrite in nitrifying bacteria. Two subsequent protonation events are proposed to initiate the process, of which the second is suggested to be concerted with a one-electron oxidation. The final one-electron oxidation is further proposed to be accompanied by a third deprotonation process, suggesting that Fe(III)-HNO may not be an isolable intermediate in the HAO catalytic cycle. Further explorations are suggested to be focused on the following steps in the catalytic cycle, the influence of the lateral substituents of the heme (and especially of the Cys and Tyr cross-links), the comparative study of hydrazine oxidation, the proton delivery network in the distal site and, possibly, on linkage isomerism. PMID:25277374

Attia, Amr A A; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu



NAD(P)H:quinone acceptor oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), a multifunctional antioxidant enzyme and exceptionally versatile cytoprotector  

PubMed Central

NAD(P)H:quinone acceptor oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is a widely-distributed FAD-dependent flavoprotein that promotes obligatory 2-electron reductions of quinones, quinoneimines, nitroaromatics, and azo dyes, at rates that are comparable with NADH or NADPH. These reductions depress quinone levels and thereby minimize opportunities for generation of reactive oxygen intermediates by redox cycling, and for depletion of intracellular thiol pools. NQO1 is a highly-inducible enzyme that is regulated by the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway. Evidence for the importance of the antioxidant functions of NQO1 in combating oxidative stress is provided by demonstrations that induction of NQO1 levels or their depletion (knockout, or knockdown) are associated with decreased and increased susceptibilities to oxidative stress, respectively. Furthermore, benzene genotoxicity is markedly enhanced when NQO1 activity is compromised. Not surprisingly, human polymorphisms that suppress NQO1 activities are associated with increased predisposition to disease. Recent studies have uncovered protective roles for NQO1 that apparently are unrelated to its enzymatic activities. NQO1 binds to and thereby stabilizes the important tumor suppressor p53 against proteasomal degradation. Indeed, NQO1 appears to regulate the degradative fate of other proteins. These findings suggest that NQO1 may exercise a selective “gatekeeping” role in regulating the proteasomal degradation of specific proteins, thereby broadening the cytoprotective role of NQO1 far beyond its highly effective antioxidant functions. PMID:20361926

Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T.; Talalay, Paul



Identification and Characterization of the Rhizobium sp. Strain GIN611 Glycoside Oxidoreductase Resulting in the Deglycosylation of Ginsenosides  

PubMed Central

Using enrichment culture, Rhizobium sp. strain GIN611 was isolated as having activity for deglycosylation of a ginsenoside, compound K (CK). The purified heterodimeric protein complex from Rhizobium sp. GIN611 consisted of two subunits with molecular masses of 63.5 kDa and 17.5 kDa. In the genome, the coding sequence for the small subunit was located right after the sequence for the large subunit, with one nucleotide overlapping. The large subunit showed CK oxidation activity, and the deglycosylation of compound K was performed via oxidation of ginsenoside glucose by glycoside oxidoreductase. Coexpression of the small subunit helped soluble expression of the large subunit in recombinant Escherichia coli. The purified large subunit also showed oxidation activity against other ginsenoside compounds, such as Rb1, Rb2, Rb3, Rc, F2, CK, Rh2, Re, F1, and the isoflavone daidzin, but at a much lower rate. When oxidized CK was extracted and incubated in phosphate buffer with or without enzyme, (S)-protopanaxadiol [PPD(S)] was detected in both cases, which suggests that deglycosylation of oxidized glucose is spontaneous. PMID:22020506

Kim, Eun-Mi; Kim, Juhan; Seo, Joo-Hyun; Park, Jun-Seong; Kim, Duck-Hee



Arabidopsis tic62 trol mutant lacking thylakoid-bound ferredoxin-NADP+ oxidoreductase shows distinct metabolic phenotype.  


Ferredoxin-NADP+ oxidoreductase (FNR), functioning in the last step of the photosynthetic electron transfer chain, exists both as a soluble protein in the chloroplast stroma and tightly attached to chloroplast membranes. Surface plasmon resonance assays showed that the two FNR isoforms, LFNR1 and LFNR2, are bound to the thylakoid membrane via the C-terminal domains of Tic62 and TROL proteins in a pH-dependent manner. The tic62 trol double mutants contained a reduced level of FNR, exclusively found in the soluble stroma. Although the mutant plants showed no visual phenotype or defects in the function of photosystems under any conditions studied, a low ratio of NADPH/NADP+ was detected. Since the CO? fixation capacity did not differ between the tic62 trol plants and wild-type, it seems that the plants are able to funnel reducing power to most crucial reactions to ensure survival and fitness of the plants. However, the activity of malate dehydrogenase was down-regulated in the mutant plants. Apparently, the plastid metabolism is able to cope with substantial changes in directing the electrons from the light reactions to stromal metabolism and thus only few differences are visible in steady-state metabolite pool sizes of the tic62 trol plants. PMID:24043709

Lintala, Minna; Schuck, Natalie; Thormählen, Ina; Jungfer, Andreas; Weber, Katrin L; Weber, Andreas P M; Geigenberger, Peter; Soll, Jürgen; Bölter, Bettina; Mulo, Paula



Spectroscopic and kinetic characterization of the light-dependent enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) using monovinyl and divinyl substrates.  


The enzyme POR [Pchlide (protochlorophyllide) oxidoreductase] catalyses the reduction of Pchlide to chlorophyllide, which is a key step in the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway. This light-dependent reaction has previously been studied in great detail but recent reports suggest that a mixture of MV (monovinyl) and DV (divinyl) Pchlides may have influenced some of these properties of the reaction. Low-temperature absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy have revealed several spectral differences between MV and DV Pchlides, which were purified from a Rhodobacter capsulatus strain that was shown to contain a mixture of the two pigments. A thorough steady-state kinetic characterization using both Pchlide forms demonstrates that neither pigment appears to affect the kinetic properties of the enzyme. The reaction has also been monitored following illumination at low temperatures and was shown to consist of an initial photochemical step followed by four 'dark' steps for both pigments. However, minor differences were observed in the spectral properties of some of the intermediates, although the temperature dependency of each step was nearly identical for the two pigments. This work provides the first detailed kinetic and spectroscopic study of this unique enzyme using biologically important MV and DV substrate analogues. It also has significant implications for the DV reductase enzyme, which is responsible for converting DV pigments into their MV counterparts, and its position in the sequence of reactions that comprise the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway. PMID:16274361

Heyes, Derren J; Kruk, Jerzy; Hunter, C Neil



Functional Characterization and Partial Purification of the Ubiquinol-Cytochrome c Oxidoreductase from Higher Plant Mitochondria (Helianthus tuberosus) 1  

PubMed Central

The functional and thermodynamic characteristics of the ubiquinolcytochrome (Cyt) c oxidoreductase in a Cyt b/c1-enriched fraction (defined S-1) isolated from Jerusalem artichoke mitochondria (JAM) (Helianthus tuberosus), have been analyzed. Fraction S-1, obtained through deoxycholate-KCl fractionation procedure, contained one Cyt of c type (formally c1 with Em7.0 of +240 millivolts), two b type Cyt with Em7.0 values of +100 and ?25 millivolts, ferredoxin-like centers presumably linked to succinic- and NADH-dehydrogenases, and a Rieske-type iron sulfur center (gy = 1.89). The ubiquinol-dependent Cyt c reduction by fraction S-1 showed sensitivity to antimycin A, myxothiazol, and n-2-hepthyl-1-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide with I50 of 12 nanomolar, 30 nanomolar, and 0.1 micromolar, respectively. Oxidation-induced extra b type reduction, a widespread phenomenon of bacterial and mitochondrial respiratory systems, has also been observed in both intact mitochondria and S-1 fraction. The data seem to blur previous experiments in which both spectral and functional differences between higher plant and mammalian mitochondria have been underlined. PMID:16664130

Esposti, Mauro Degli; Flamini, Emanuela; Zannoni, Davide



Electron paramagnetic resonance and magnetic circular dichroism studies of electron-transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase from pig liver.  


Pig liver electron-transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase has been investigated by room temperature UV-visible, low-temperature electron paramagnetic resonance and low-temperature magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopies. The results provide unambiguous evidence for the presence of a single [4Fe-4S] cluster that is diamagnetic in the isolated enzyme and becomes paramagnetic with an S = 1/2 ground state on reduction with dithionite or enzymatically with the physiological electron donor. The EPR data for samples at pH 7.8 indicate that FAD is reduced by one electron to the anionic semiquinone form in the enzymatically reduced enzyme, and by two electrons to the hydroquinone form by excess dithionite. The possibility of weak spin-spin interaction between the FAD semiquinone and the [4Fe-4S]1+ center is discussed in the light of the observation of a small increase in the linewidth of the Fe-S EPR in enzymatically reduced samples. PMID:2826249

Johnson, M K; Morningstar, J E; Oliver, M; Frerman, F E



Overproduction of stromal ferredoxin:NADPH oxidoreductase in H2O 2-accumulating Brassica napus leaf protoplasts.  


The isolation of Brassica napus leaf protoplasts induces reactive oxygen species generation and accumulation in the chloroplasts. An activated isoform of NADPH oxidase-like protein was detected in the protoplasts and the protoplast chloroplasts. The purpose of this study is to define the NADH oxidase-like activities in the H2O2-accumulating protoplast chloroplasts. Proteomic analysis of this protein revealed an isoform of ferredoxin:NADPH oxidoreductase (FNR1). While leaves highly expressed the LFNR1 transcript, protoplasts decreased the expression significantly. The protoplast chloroplasts predominantly expressed soluble FNR1 proteins. While the albino leaves of white kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala f. tricolor cv. white pigeon) expressed FNR1 protein at the same level as B. napus leaves, the protoplasts of albino leaves displayed reduced FNR1 expression. The albino leaf protoplasts of white kale generated and accumulated H2O2 in the cytoplasm and on the plasma membrane. Intracellular pH showed that the chloroplasts were acidic, which suggest that excess H(+) was generated in chloroplast stroma. NADPH content of the protoplast chloroplasts increased by over sixfold during the isolation of protoplasts. This study reports a possibility of mediating electrons to oxygen by an overproduced soluble FNR, and suggests that the FNR has a function in utilizing any excess reducing power of NADPH. PMID:25255860

Tewari, Rajesh Kumar; Satoh, Mamoru; Kado, Sayaka; Mishina, Kohei; Anma, Misato; Enami, Kazuhiko; Hanaoka, Mitsumasa; Watanabe, Masami



Ipsdienol dehydrogenase (IDOLDH): a novel oxidoreductase important for Ips pini pheromone production.  


Ipsdienone (2-methyl-6-methylene-2,7-octadien-4-one) is an important intermediate in the biosynthesis of pheromonal ipsdienol (2-methyl-6-methylene-2,7-octadien-4-ol) and ipsenol (2-methyl-6-methylene-7-octen-4-ol) in male pine engraver beetles, Ips pini (Say). A novel ipsdienol dehydrogenase (IDOLDH) with a pheromone-biosynthetic gene expression pattern was cloned, expressed, functionally characterized, and its cellular localization analyzed. The cDNA has a 762nt ORF encoding a 253 amino acid predicted translation product of 28kDa and pI 5.8. The protein has conserved motifs of the Cp2 subfamily of "classical" short-chain dehydrogenases. Transcript levels were highest in pheromone producing tissue: the anterior midgut of fed males. The protein was detected only in male midguts and localized in the cytosolic fraction of midgut cells. Recombinant IDOLDH was produced in Sf9 cells using a baculovirus expression system. Enzyme assays of protein preparations showed IDOLDH used both NAD? and NADP? as coenzymes with specific activities in the nanomole range. Enzyme assays and GC/MS analysis showed that IDOLDH catalyzed the oxidation of racemic ipsdienol and (4R)-(-)-ipsdienol to form ipsdienone, while (4S)-(+)-ipsdienol was not a substrate. These data strongly implicate IDOLDH as an enzyme involved in terminal pheromone-biosynthetic steps, likely functioning to "tune" ipsdienol enantiomeric ratios. PMID:22101251

Figueroa-Teran, Rubi; Welch, William H; Blomquist, Gary J; Tittiger, Claus



Reference genes for gene expression studies in wheat flag leaves grown under different farming conditions  

PubMed Central

Background Internal control genes with highly uniform expression throughout the experimental conditions are required for accurate gene expression analysis as no universal reference genes exists. In this study, the expression stability of 24 candidate genes from Triticum aestivum cv. Cubus flag leaves grown under organic and conventional farming systems was evaluated in two locations in order to select suitable genes that can be used for normalization of real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) reactions. The genes were selected among the most common used reference genes as well as genes encoding proteins involved in several metabolic pathways. Findings Individual genes displayed different expression rates across all samples assayed. Applying geNorm, a set of three potential reference genes were suitable for normalization of RT-qPCR reactions in winter wheat flag leaves cv. Cubus: TaFNRII (ferredoxin-NADP(H) oxidoreductase; AJ457980.1), ACT2 (actin 2; TC234027), and rrn26 (a putative homologue to RNA 26S gene; AL827977.1). In addition of these three genes that were also top-ranked by NormFinder, two extra genes: CYP18-2 (Cyclophilin A, AY456122.1) and TaWIN1 (14-3-3 like protein, AB042193) were most consistently stably expressed. Furthermore, we showed that TaFNRII, ACT2, and CYP18-2 are suitable for gene expression normalization in other two winter wheat varieties (Tommi and Centenaire) grown under three treatments (organic, conventional and no nitrogen) and a different environment than the one tested with cv. Cubus. Conclusions This study provides a new set of reference genes which should improve the accuracy of gene expression analyses when using wheat flag leaves as those related to the improvement of nitrogen use efficiency for cereal production. PMID:21951810



Effect of solvent, pressure and temperature on reaction rates of the multiheme hydroxylamine oxidoreductase. Evidence for conformational change.  


Hydroxylamine oxidoreductase (HAO) of the ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas catalyzes the oxidation: NH2OH + H2O----HNO2 + 2e- + 2 H+. The heme-like chromophore P460 is part of a site which binds substrate, extracts electrons and then passes them to the many c hemes of the enzyme. Reduction of the c hemes by hydroxylamine is biphasic with apparent first-order rate constants k1 and k2. CO binds to ferrous P460 with apparent first-order rate constants, k1,CO. In this work we have measured the binding of CO to ferrous P460 of hydroxylamine oxidoreductase and the reduction by substrate of some of the 24 c hemes of the ferric enzyme. These reactions have been studied in water and 40% ethylene glycol, at temperatures ranging from -15 degrees C to 20.7 degrees C and at hydrostatic pressures ranging over 0.1-80 MPa. From the measurements, thermodynamic parameters delta V+ (activation volume), delta G+, delta H+, and delta S+ have been calculated. CO binding. Binding of CO to ferrous P460 was similar to the binding of CO to ferrous horseradish peroxidase. The change of solvent had only a limited effect on delta V+ (-30 ml.mol-1), delta G+, delta H+ or delta S+ and did not cause an inflection in the Arrhenius plot or downward displacement of the linear relationship between ln k1,CO and P at a critical temperature. Binding was exothermic at high temperatures. The response of the binding of CO to solvent, temperature and pressure suggested that the CO binding site had little access to solvent and was not susceptible to change in protein conformation. Fast phase of reduction of c hemes. Changing the solvent from water to 40% ethylene glycol resulted in a decrease from 90% to 50% in the relative number of c hemes reduced during the fast phase, an increase in activation volume from -3.6 ml.mol-1 to 57 ml.mol-1 and changes in other thermodynamic parameters. The activation volume increased with decreasing temperature. The Arrhenius plot had a downward inflection at about 0 degrees C and, in water or ethylene glycol, the linear dependence of ln k1 on P was displaced downwards as the temperature changed from 3.5 degrees C to -15 degrees C. Slow phase of reduction of c hemes. Changing the solvent from water to 40% ethylene glycol resulted in an increase in the relative number of c hemes reduced during the slow phase from 10% to 50%. The activation volume, which was not measurable in water because of the low absorbance change, was -30 ml.mol-1 in ethylene glycol. The activation volume increased with increasing temperature.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3416874

Balny, C; Hooper, A B



Roles of bound quinone in the single subunit NADH-quinone oxidoreductase (Ndi1) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  


To understand the biochemical basis for the function of the rotenone-insensitive internal NADH-quinone (Q) oxidoreductase (Ndi1), we have overexpressed mature Ndi1 in Escherichia coli membranes. The Ndi1 purified from the membranes contained one FAD and showed enzymatic activities comparable with the original Ndi1 isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When extracted with Triton X-100, the isolated Ndi1 did not contain Q. The Q-bound form was easily reconstituted by incubation of the Q-free Ndi1 enzyme with ubiquinone-6. We compared the properties of Q-bound Ndi1 enzyme with those of Q-free Ndi1 enzyme, with higher activity found in the Q-bound enzyme. Although both are inhibited by low concentrations of AC0-11 (IC(50) = 0.2 microm), the inhibitory mode of AC0-11 on Q-bound Ndi1 was distinct from that of Q-free Ndi1. The bound Q was slowly released from Ndi1 by treatment with NADH or dithionite under anaerobic conditions. This release of Q was prevented when Ndi1 was kept in the reduced state by NADH. When Ndi1 was incorporated into bovine heart submitochondrial particles, the Q-bound form, but not the Q-free form, established the NADH-linked respiratory activity, which was insensitive to piericidin A but inhibited by KCN. Furthermore, Ndi1 produces H(2)O(2) as isolated regardless of the presence of bound Q, and this H(2)O(2) was eliminated when the Q-bound Ndi1, but not the Q-free Ndi1, was incorporated into submitochondrial particles. The data suggest that Ndi1 bears at least two distinct Q sites: one for bound Q and the other for catalytic Q. PMID:17200125

Yamashita, Tetsuo; Nakamaru-Ogiso, Eiko; Miyoshi, Hideto; Matsuno-Yagi, Akemi; Yagi, Takao



Deletion of P399{sub E}401 in NADPH cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase results in partial mixed oxidase deficiency  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} Mutations in human POR cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia. {yields} We are reporting a novel 3 amino acid deletion mutation in POR P399{sub E}401del. {yields} POR mutation P399{sub E}401del decreased P450 activities by 60-85%. {yields} Impairment of steroid metabolism may be caused by multiple hits. {yields} Severity of aromatase inhibition is related to degree of in utero virilization. -- Abstract: P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the electron donor for all microsomal P450s including steroidogenic enzymes CYP17A1, CYP19A1 and CYP21A2. We found a novel POR mutation P399{sub E}401del in two unrelated Turkish patients with 46,XX disorder of sexual development. Recombinant POR proteins were produced in yeast and tested for their ability to support steroid metabolizing P450 activities. In comparison to wild-type POR, the P399{sub E}401del protein was found to decrease catalytic efficiency of 21-hydroxylation of progesterone by 68%, 17{alpha}-hydroxylation of progesterone by 76%, 17,20-lyase action on 17OH-pregnenolone by 69%, aromatization of androstenedione by 85% and cytochrome c reduction activity by 80%. Protein structure analysis of the three amino acid deletion P399{sub E}401 revealed reduced stability and flexibility of the mutant. In conclusion, P399{sub E}401del is a novel mutation in POR that provides valuable genotype-phenotype and structure-function correlation for mutations in a different region of POR compared to previous studies. Characterization of P399{sub E}401del provides further insight into specificity of different P450s for interaction with POR as well as nature of metabolic disruptions caused by more pronounced effect on specific P450s like CYP17A1 and aromatase.

Flueck, Christa E., E-mail: [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, University Children's Hospital, Bern (Switzerland); Mallet, Delphine [Service d'Endocrinologie Moleculaire et Maladies Rares, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Bron (France)] [Service d'Endocrinologie Moleculaire et Maladies Rares, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Bron (France); Hofer, Gaby [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, University Children's Hospital, Bern (Switzerland)] [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, University Children's Hospital, Bern (Switzerland); Samara-Boustani, Dinane [Hopital Necker-Enfants malades, Paris (France)] [Hopital Necker-Enfants malades, Paris (France); Leger, Juliane [Hopital Robert Debre, Paris (France)] [Hopital Robert Debre, Paris (France); Polak, Michel [Hopital Necker-Enfants malades, Paris (France)] [Hopital Necker-Enfants malades, Paris (France); Morel, Yves [Service d'Endocrinologie Moleculaire et Maladies Rares, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Bron (France)] [Service d'Endocrinologie Moleculaire et Maladies Rares, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Bron (France); Pandey, Amit V., E-mail: [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, University Children's Hospital, Bern (Switzerland)



Substrate-specific modulation of CYP3A4 activity by genetic variants of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR)  

PubMed Central

Objectives CYP3A4 receives electrons from P450 oxidoreductase (POR) to metabolize about 50% of clinically used drugs. There is substantial inter-individual variation in CYP3A4 catalytic activity that is not explained by CYP3A4 genetic variants. CYP3A4 is flexible and distensible, permitting it to accommodate substrates varying in shape and size. To elucidate mechanisms of variability in CYP3A4 catalysis, we examined the effects of genetic variants of POR, and explored the possibility that substrate-induced conformational changes in CYP3A4 differentially affect the ability of POR variants to support catalysis. Methods We expressed human CYP3A4 and four POR variants (Q153R, A287P, R457H, A503V) in bacteria, reconstituted them in vitro and measured the Michaelis constant and maximum velocity with testosterone, midazolam, quinidine and erythromycin as substrates. Results POR A287P and R457H had low activity with all substrates; Q153R had 76–94% of wild type (WT) activity with midazolam and erythromycin, but 129–150% activity with testosterone and quinidine. The A503V polymorphism reduced CYP3A4 activity to 61–77% of wild type with testosterone and midazolam, but had nearly wild type activity with quinidine and erythromycin. Conclusion POR variants affect CYP3A4 activities. The impact of a POR variant on catalysis by CYP3A4 is substrate-specific, probably due to substrate-induced conformational changes in CYP3A4. PMID:20697309

Agrawal, Vishal; Choi, Ji Ha; Giacomini, Kathleen M.; Miller, Walter L.



Electron spin relaxation enhancement measurements of interspin distances in human, porcine, and Rhodobacter electron transfer flavoprotein ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF QO)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF-QO) is a membrane-bound electron transfer protein that links primary flavoprotein dehydrogenases with the main respiratory chain. Human, porcine, and Rhodobacter sphaeroides ETF-QO each contain a single [4Fe-4S] 2+,1+ cluster and one equivalent of FAD, which are diamagnetic in the isolated enzyme and become paramagnetic on reduction with the enzymatic electron donor or with dithionite. The anionic flavin semiquinone can be reduced further to diamagnetic hydroquinone. The redox potentials for the three redox couples are so similar that it is not possible to poise the proteins in a state where both the [4Fe-4S] + cluster and the flavoquinone are fully in the paramagnetic form. Inversion recovery was used to measure the electron spin-lattice relaxation rates for the [4Fe-4S] + between 8 and 18 K and for semiquinone between 25 and 65 K. At higher temperatures the spin-lattice relaxation rates for the [4Fe-4S] + were calculated from the temperature-dependent contributions to the continuous wave linewidths. Although mixtures of the redox states are present, it was possible to analyze the enhancement of the electron spin relaxation of the FAD semiquinone signal due to dipolar interaction with the more rapidly relaxing [4Fe-4S] + and obtain point-dipole interspin distances of 18.6 ± 1 Å for the three proteins. The point-dipole distances are within experimental uncertainty of the value calculated based on the crystal structure of porcine ETF-QO when spin delocalization is taken into account. The results demonstrate that electron spin relaxation enhancement can be used to measure distances in redox poised proteins even when several redox states are present.

Fielding, Alistair J.; Usselman, Robert J.; Watmough, Nicholas; Simkovic, Martin; Frerman, Frank E.; Eaton, Gareth R.; Eaton, Sandra S.



Down-regulation of WW domain-containing oxidoreductase induces Tau phosphorylation in vitro. A potential role in Alzheimer's disease.  


Numerous enzymes hyperphosphorylate Tau in vivo, leading to the formation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the neurons of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Compared with age-matched normal controls, we demonstrated here that the protein levels of WW domain-containing oxidoreductase WOX1 (also known as WWOX or FOR), its Tyr33-phosphorylated form, and WOX2 were significantly down-regulated in the neurons of AD hippocampi. Remarkably knock-down of WOX1 expression by small interfering RNA in neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells spontaneously induced Tau phosphorylation at Thr212/Thr231 and Ser515/Ser516, enhanced phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3beta) and ERK, and enhanced NFT formation. Also an increased binding of phospho-GSK-3beta with phospho-Tau was observed in these WOX1 knock-down cells. In comparison, increased phosphorylation of Tau, GSK-3beta, and ERK, as well as NFT formation, was observed in the AD hippocampi. Activation of JNK1 by anisomycin further increased Tau phosphorylation, and SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor) and PD-98059 (an MEK1/2 inhibitor) blocked Tau phosphorylation and NFT formation in these WOX1 knock-down cells. Ectopic or endogenous WOX1 colocalized with Tau, JNK1, and GSK-3beta in neurons and cultured cells. 17Beta-estradiol, a neuronal protective hormone, increased the binding of WOX1 and GSK-3beta with Tau. Mapping analysis showed that WOX1 bound Tau via its COOH-terminal short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase/reductase domain. Together WOX1 binds Tau via its short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase/reductase domain and is likely to play a critical role in regulating Tau hyperphosphorylation and NFT formation in vivo. PMID:15126504

Sze, Chun-I; Su, Meng; Pugazhenthi, Subbiah; Jambal, Purevsuren; Hsu, Li-Jin; Heath, John; Schultz, Lori; Chang, Nan-Shan



Quinol-cytochrome c Oxidoreductase and Cytochrome c4 Mediate Electron Transfer during Selenate Respiration in Thauera selenatis*  

PubMed Central

Selenate reductase (SER) from Thauera selenatis is a periplasmic enzyme that has been classified as a type II molybdoenzyme. The enzyme comprises three subunits SerABC, where SerC is an unusual b-heme cytochrome. In the present work the spectropotentiometric characterization of the SerC component and the identification of redox partners to SER are reported. The mid-point redox potential of the b-heme was determined by optical titration (Em + 234 ± 10 mV). A profile of periplasmic c-type cytochromes expressed in T. selenatis under selenate respiring conditions was undertaken. Two c-type cytochromes were purified (?24 and ?6 kDa), and the 24-kDa protein (cytc-Ts4) was shown to donate electrons to SerABC in vitro. Protein sequence of cytc-Ts4 was obtained by N-terminal sequencing and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, and based upon sequence similarities, was assigned as a member of cytochrome c4 family. Redox potentiometry, combined with UV-visible spectroscopy, showed that cytc-Ts4 is a diheme cytochrome with a redox potential of +282 ± 10 mV, and both hemes are predicted to have His-Met ligation. To identify the membrane-bound electron donors to cytc-Ts4, growth of T. selenatis in the presence of respiratory inhibitors was monitored. The specific quinol-cytochrome c oxidoreductase (QCR) inhibitors myxothiazol and antimycin A partially inhibited selenate respiration, demonstrating that some electron flux is via the QCR. Electron transfer via a QCR and a diheme cytochrome c4 is a novel route for a member of the DMSO reductase family of molybdoenzymes. PMID:20388716

Lowe, Elisabeth C.; Bydder, Sarah; Hartshorne, Robert S.; Tape, Hannah L. U.; Dridge, Elizabeth J.; Debieux, Charles M.; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Singleton, Ian; Lewis, Richard J.; Santini, Joanne M.; Richardson, David J.; Butler, Clive S.



NRH:quinone oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2) catalyzes metabolic activation of quinones and anti-tumor drugs.  


NRH:quinone oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2) is a cytosolic flavoprotein that utilizes NRH as electron donor. The present studies investigate the role of NQO2 in metabolic detoxification/activation of quinones and quinone based anti-tumor drugs. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably overexpressing cDNA derived mouse NQO2 and mouse keratinocytes from DMBA-induced skin tumors in wild-type and NQO2-null mice were generated. The CHO cells overexpressing NQO2 and mouse keratinocytes expressing or deficient in NQO2 were treated with varying concentrations of mitomycin C (MMC), CB1954, MMC analog BMY25067, EO9, menadione and BP-3,6-quinone, in the absence and presence of NRH. The cytotoxicity of the drugs was evaluated by colony formation. The CHO cells overexpressing higher levels of mouse NQO2 showed significantly increased cytotoxicity to menadione, BP-3,6-quinone and to the anti-tumor drugs MMC and CB1954 when compared to CHO cells expressing endogenous NQO2. The cytotoxicity increased in presence of NRH. Similar results were also observed with BMY25067 and EO9 treatments, but to a lesser extent. The results on keratinocytes deficient in NQO2 supported the data from CHO cells. The inclusion of NRH had no effect on cytotoxicity of quinones and drugs in keratinocytes deficient in NQO2. Mouse NQO2 protein was expressed in bacteria, purified and used to study the role of NQO2 in MMC-induced DNA cross-linking. Bacterially expressed and purified NQO2 efficiently catalyzed MMC activation that led to DNA cross-linking. These results concluded that NQO2 plays a significant role in the metabolic activation of both quinones and anti-tumor drugs leading to cytotoxicity and cell death. PMID:16765324

Celli, Claudia M; Tran, Namphuong; Knox, Richard; Jaiswal, Anil K



The short-chain oxidoreductase Q9HYA2 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 contains an atypical catalytic center  

PubMed Central

The characteristic oxidation or reduction reaction mechanisms of short-chain oxidoreductase (SCOR) enzymes involve a highly conserved Asp-Ser-Tyr-Lys catalytic tetrad. The SCOR enzyme Q9HYA2 from the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa was recognized to possess an atypical catalytic tetrad composed of Lys118-Ser146-Thr159-Arg163. Orthologs of Q9HYA2 containing the unusual catalytic tetrad along with conserved substrate and cofactor recognition residues were identified in 27 additional species, the majority of which are bacterial pathogens. However, this atypical catalytic tetrad was not represented within the Protein Data Bank. The crystal structures of unligated and NADPH-complexed Q9HYA2 were determined at 2.3 Å resolution. Structural alignment to a polyketide ketoreductase (KR), a typical SCOR, demonstrated that Q9HYA2's Lys118, Ser146, and Arg163 superimposed upon the KR's catalytic Asp114, Ser144, and Lys161, respectively. However, only the backbone of Q9HYA2's Thr159 overlapped KR's catalytic Tyr157. The Thr159 hydroxyl in apo Q9HYA2 is poorly positioned for participating in catalysis. In the Q9HYA2–NADPH complex, the Thr159 side chain was modeled in two alternate rotamers, one of which is positioned to interact with other members of the tetrad and the bound cofactor. A chloride ion is bound at the position normally occupied by the catalytic tyrosine hydroxyl. The putative active site of Q9HYA2 contains a chemical moiety at each catalytically important position of a typical SCOR enzyme. This is the first observation of a SCOR protein with this alternate catalytic center that includes threonine replacing the catalytic tyrosine and an ion replacing the hydroxyl moiety of the catalytic tyrosine. PMID:20340135

Huether, Robert; Mao, Qilong; Duax, William L; Umland, Timothy C



Assembly and activation of the NADPH:O2 oxidoreductase in human neutrophils after stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate.  


Phagocytic leukocytes contain an activatable NADPH:O2 oxidoreductase. Components of this enzyme system include cytochrome b558, and three soluble oxidase components (SOC I, SOC II, and SOC III) found in the cytosol of resting cells. Previously, we found that SOC II copurifies with, and is probably identical to, a 47-kDa substrate of protein kinase C. In the present study we investigated the change in location of several of these oxidase components after activation of intact neutrophils with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and separation of subcellular fraction on sucrose density gradients. On Western blots with fractions of resting cells, the alpha subunit of cytochrome b558 was detected with a monoclonal antibody as a doublet of Mr 22,000 and 24,000 in the specific granules and as a single band of Mr 24,000 in the plasma membrane. PMA induced an increase of cytochrome b558 in the plasma membrane, including the Mr 22,000 band. PMA also induced translocation of the 47-kDa protein from the cytosol to the membrane fraction, as revealed by in vitro phosphorylation experiments. When NADPH oxidase activity was determined in a cell-free system in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate and GTP with plasma membranes from resting cells, cytosol from PMA-treated cells was deficient compared with cytosol from resting cells. This deficiency could be partially restored by the addition of SOC I. Concomitantly, SOC I activity appeared in the plasma membranes of PMA-treated cells. These studies support the hypothesis that PMA stimulation of neutrophils results in assembly of oxidase components from the cytosol and the specific granules in the plasma membrane with subsequent expression of NADPH oxidase activity. PMID:2153119

Ambruso, D R; Bolscher, B G; Stokman, P M; Verhoeven, A J; Roos, D



Biosynthesis of (bacterio)chlorophylls: ATP-dependent transient subunit interaction and electron transfer of dark operative protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase.  


Dark operative protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (DPOR) catalyzes the light-independent two-electron reduction of protochlorophyllide a to form chlorophyllide a, the last common precursor of chlorophyll a and bacteriochlorophyll a biosynthesis. During ATP-dependent DPOR catalysis the homodimeric ChlL(2) subunit carrying a [4Fe-4S] cluster transfers electrons to the corresponding heterotetrameric catalytic subunit (ChlN/ChlB)(2), which also possesses a redox active [4Fe-4S] cluster. To investigate the transient interaction of both subcomplexes and the resulting electron transfer reactions, the ternary DPOR enzyme holocomplex comprising subunits ChlN, ChlB, and ChlL from the cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus marinus was trapped as an octameric (ChlN/ChlB)(2)(ChlL(2))(2) complex after incubation with the nonhydrolyzable ATP analogs adenosine 5'-(gamma-thio)triphosphate, adenosine 5'-(beta,gamma-imido)triphosphate, or MgADP in combination with AlF(4)(-). Additionally, a mutant ChlL(2) protein, with a deleted Leu(153) in the switch II region also allowed for the formation of a stable octameric complex. Furthermore, efficient complex formation required the presence of protochlorophyllide. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of ternary DPOR complexes revealed a reduced [4Fe-4S] cluster located on ChlL(2), indicating that complete ATP hydrolysis is a prerequisite for intersubunit electron transfer. Circular dichroism spectroscopic experiments indicated nucleotide-dependent conformational changes for ChlL(2) after ATP binding. A nucleotide-dependent switch mechanism triggering ternary complex formation and electron transfer was concluded. From these results a detailed redox cycle for DPOR catalysis was deduced. PMID:20075073

Bröcker, Markus J; Wätzlich, Denise; Saggu, Miguel; Lendzian, Friedhelm; Moser, Jürgen; Jahn, Dieter



Electron Transfer in Subunit NuoI (TYKY) of Escherichia coli NADH:Quinone Oxidoreductase (NDH-1)*  

PubMed Central

Bacterial proton-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (NDH-1) consists of a peripheral and a membrane domain. The peripheral domain catalyzes the electron transfer from NADH to quinone through a chain of seven iron-sulfur (Fe/S) clusters. Subunit NuoI in the peripheral domain contains two [4Fe-4S] clusters (N6a and N6b) and plays a role in bridging the electron transfer from cluster N5 to the terminal cluster N2. We constructed mutants for eight individual Cys-coordinating Fe/S clusters. With the exception of C63S, all mutants had damaged architecture of NDH-1, suggesting that Cys-coordinating Fe/S clusters help maintain the NDH-1 structure. Studies of three mutants (C63S-coordinating N6a, P110A located near N6a, and P71A in the vicinity of N6b) were carried out using EPR measurement. These three mutations did not affect the EPR signals from [2Fe-2S] clusters and retained electron transfer activities. Signals at gz = 2.09 disappeared in C63S and P110A but not in P71A. Considering our data together with the available information, gz,x = 2.09, 1.88 signals are assigned to cluster N6a. It is of interest that, in terms of gz,x values, cluster N6a is similar to cluster N4. In addition, we investigated the residues (Ile-94 and Ile-100) that are predicted to serve as electron wires between N6a and N6b and between N6b and N2, respectively. Replacement of Ile-100 and Ile-94 with Ala/Gly did not affect the electron transfer activity significantly. It is concluded that conserved Ile-100 and Ile-94 are not essential for the electron transfer. PMID:22474289

Sinha, Prem Kumar; Nakamaru-Ogiso, Eiko; Torres-Bacete, Jesus; Sato, Motoaki; Castro-Guerrero, Norma; Ohnishi, Tomoko; Matsuno-Yagi, Akemi; Yagi, Takao



Amixicile, a novel inhibitor of pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase, shows efficacy against Clostridium difficile in a mouse infection model.  


Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a serious diarrheal disease that often develops following prior antibiotic usage. One of the major problems with current therapies (oral vancomycin and metronidazole) is the high rate of recurrence. Nitazoxanide (NTZ), an inhibitor of pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) in anaerobic bacteria, parasites, Helicobacter pylori, and Campylobacter jejuni, also shows clinical efficacy against CDI. From a library of ?250 analogues of NTZ, we identified leads with increased potency for PFOR. MIC screens indicated in vitro activity in the 0.05- to 2-?g/ml range against C. difficile. To improve solubility, we replaced the 2-acetoxy group with propylamine, producing amixicile, a soluble (10 mg/ml), nontoxic (cell-based assay) lead that produced no adverse effects in mice by oral or intraperitoneal (i.p.) routes at 200 mg/kg of body weight/day. In initial efficacy testing in mice treated (20 mg/kg/day, 5 days each) 1 day after receiving a lethal inoculum of C. difficile, amixicile showed slightly less protection than did vancomycin by day 5. However, in an optimized CDI model, amixicile showed equivalence to vancomycin and fidaxomicin at day 5 and there was significantly greater survival produced by amixicile than by the other drugs on day 12. All three drugs were comparable by measures of weight loss/gain and severity of disease. Recurrence of CDI was common for mice treated with vancomycin or fidaxomicin but not for mice receiving amixicile or NTZ. These results suggest that gut repopulation with beneficial (non-PFOR) bacteria, considered essential for protection against CDI, rebounds much sooner with amixicile therapy than with vancomycin or fidaxomicin. If the mouse model is indeed predictive of human CDI disease, then amixicile, a novel PFOR inhibitor, appears to be a very promising new candidate for treatment of CDI. PMID:22585229

Warren, Cirle A; van Opstal, Edward; Ballard, T Eric; Kennedy, Andrew; Wang, Xia; Riggins, Mary; Olekhnovich, Igor; Warthan, Michelle; Kolling, Glynis L; Guerrant, Richard L; Macdonald, Timothy L; Hoffman, Paul S



Chromogenic Identification of Genetic Regulatory Signals in Bacillus subtilis Based on Expression of a Cloned Pseudomonas Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method to isolate fragments of DNA that promote gene expression in Bacillus subtilis is described. The system is based on production of catechol 2,3-dioxygenase [CatO2ase; catechol:oxygen 2,3-oxidoreductase (decyclizing), EC] encoded by the Pseudomonas putida TOL plasmid gene xylE. The gene was transferred to a B. subtilis\\/Escherichia coli plasmid vector to construct pTG402. Although xylE is functionally expressed in

Mark M. Zukowski; Dairena F. Gaffney; Denis Speck; Muriel Kauffmann; Annie Findeli; Anne Wisecup; Jean-Pierre Lecocq



The Structural and Functional Basis of Catalysis Mediated by NAD(P)H:acceptor Oxidoreductase (FerB) of Paracoccus denitrificans  

PubMed Central

FerB from Paracoccus denitrificans is a soluble cytoplasmic flavoprotein that accepts redox equivalents from NADH or NADPH and transfers them to various acceptors such as quinones, ferric complexes and chromate. The crystal structure and small-angle X-ray scattering measurements in solution reported here reveal a head-to-tail dimer with two flavin mononucleotide groups bound at the opposite sides of the subunit interface. The dimers tend to self-associate to a tetrameric form at higher protein concentrations. Amino acid residues important for the binding of FMN and NADH and for the catalytic activity are identified and verified by site-directed mutagenesis. In particular, we show that Glu77 anchors a conserved water molecule in close proximity to the O2 of FMN, with the probable role of facilitating flavin reduction. Hydride transfer is shown to occur from the 4-pro-S position of NADH to the solvent-accessible si side of the flavin ring. When using deuterated NADH, this process exhibits a kinetic isotope effect of about 6 just as does the NADH-dependent quinone reductase activity of FerB; the first, reductive half-reaction of flavin cofactor is thus rate-limiting. Replacing the bulky Arg95 in the vicinity of the active site with alanine substantially enhances the activity towards external flavins that obeys the standard bi-bi ping-pong reaction mechanism. The new evidence for a cryptic flavin reductase activity of FerB justifies the previous inclusion of this enzyme in the protein family of NADPH-dependent FMN reductases. PMID:24817153

Sedlacek, Vojtech; Klumpler, Tomas; Marek, Jaromir; Kucera, Igor



Identification of rice genes associated with cosmic-ray response via co-expression gene network analysis.  


In order to better understand the biological systems that are affected in response to cosmic ray (CR), we conducted weighted gene co-expression network analysis using the module detection method. By using the Pearson's correlation coefficient (PCC) value, we evaluated complex gene-gene functional interactions between 680 CR-responsive probes from integrated microarray data sets, which included large-scale transcriptional profiling of 1000 microarray samples. These probes were divided into 6 distinct modules that contained 20 enriched gene ontology (GO) functions, such as oxidoreductase activity, hydrolase activity, and response to stimulus and stress. In particular, modules 1 and 2 commonly showed enriched annotation categories such as oxidoreductase activity, including enriched cis-regulatory elements known as ROS-specific regulators. These results suggest that the ROS-mediated irradiation response pathway is affected by CR in modules 1 and 2. We found 243 ionizing radiation (IR)-responsive probes that exhibited similarities in expression patterns in various irradiation microarray data sets. The expression patterns of 6 randomly selected IR-responsive genes were evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction following treatment with CR, gamma rays (GR), and ion beam (IB); similar patterns were observed among these genes under these 3 treatments. Moreover, we constructed subnetworks of IR-responsive genes and evaluated the expression levels of their neighboring genes following GR treatment; similar patterns were observed among them. These results of network-based analyses might provide a clue to understanding the complex biological system related to the CR response in plants. PMID:24631263

Hwang, Sun-Goo; Kim, Dong Sub; Hwang, Jung Eun; Han, A-Reum; Jang, Cheol Seong



FaQR, Required for the Biosynthesis of the Strawberry Flavor Compound 4-Hydroxy-2,5-Dimethyl-3(2H)-Furanone, Encodes an Enone Oxidoreductase  

PubMed Central

The flavor of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruit is dominated by an uncommon group of aroma compounds with a 2,5-dimethyl-3(H)-furanone structure. We report the characterization of an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDMF; Furaneol), the key flavor compound in strawberries. Protein extracts were partially purified, and the observed distribution of enzymatic activity correlated with the presence of a single polypeptide of ?37 kD. Sequence analysis of two peptide fragments showed total identity with the protein sequence of a strongly ripening-induced, auxin-dependent putative quinone oxidoreductase, Fragaria × ananassa quinone oxidoreductase (FaQR). The open reading frame of the FaQR cDNA consists of 969 bp encoding a 322–amino acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 34.3 kD. Laser capture microdissection followed by RNA extraction and amplification demonstrated the presence of FaQR mRNA in parenchyma tissue of the strawberry fruit. The FaQR protein was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli, and the monomer catalyzed the formation of HDMF. After chemical synthesis and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry analysis, 4-hydroxy-5-methyl-2-methylene-3(2H)-furanone was confirmed as a substrate of FaQR and the natural precursor of HDMF. This study demonstrates the function of the FaQR enzyme in the biosynthesis of HDMF as enone oxidoreductase and provides a foundation for the improvement of strawberry flavor and the biotechnological production of HDMF. PMID:16517758

Raab, Thomas; Lopez-Raez, Juan Antonio; Klein, Dorothee; Caballero, Jose Luis; Moyano, Enriqueta; Schwab, Wilfried; Munoz-Blanco, Juan



Ferredoxin:NADP+ oxidoreductase bound to cytochrome b?f complex is active in plastoquinone reduction: implications for cyclic electron transport.  


In this study, we have compared three isolation methods of cytochrome b?f complex, obtained from spinach (Spinacia oleracea), differing in the preservation of the cytochrome b?f-associated ferredoxin:NADP+ oxidoreductase (FNR). Although the complexes isolated by all the methods showed the presence of the FNR peptide(s), when incorporated into liposome membranes, the NADPH-PQ (plastoquinone) oxidoreductase activity was not detected for the cytochrome b?f complex isolated with the original method including a NaBr wash. Some activity was found for the complex isolated with the omission of the wash, but the highest activity was detected for the complex isolated with the use of digitonin. The reaction rate of PQ reduction of the investigated complexes in liposomes was not significantly influenced by the addition of free FNR or ferredoxin. The reaction was inhibited by about 60% in the presence of 2 µM 2-n-nonyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide, an inhibitor of the cytochrome b? f complex at the Q(i) site, while it was not affected by triphenyltin or isobutyl cyanide that interacts with the recently identified heme c(i) . The obtained data indicate that FNR associated with the cytochrome b? f complex can participate in the cyclic electron transport as PSI-PQ or NADPH-PQ oxidoreductase. Moreover, we have shown that PQ can be non-enzymatically reduced by ascorbate in liposomes and this reaction might be involved in non-photochemical reduction pathways of the PQ-pool in chloroplasts. PMID:21114674

Szyma?ska, Renata; D?u?ewska, Jolanta; Slesak, Ireneusz; Kruk, Jerzy



Tropine Forming Tropinone Reductase Gene from Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha): Biochemical Characteristics of the Recombinant Enzyme and Novel Physiological Overtones of Tissue-Wide Gene Expression Patterns  

PubMed Central

Withania somnifera is one of the most reputed medicinal plants of Indian systems of medicine synthesizing diverse types of secondary metabolites such as withanolides, alkaloids, withanamides etc. Present study comprises cloning and E. coli over-expression of a tropinone reductase gene (WsTR-I) from W. somnifera, and elucidation of biochemical characteristics and physiological role of tropinone reductase enzyme in tropane alkaloid biosynthesis in aerial tissues of the plant. The recombinant enzyme was demonstrated to catalyze NADPH-dependent tropinone to tropine conversion step in tropane metabolism, through TLC, GC and GC-MS-MS analyses of the reaction product. The functionally active homodimeric ?60 kDa enzyme catalyzed the reaction in reversible manner at optimum pH 6.7. Catalytic kinetics of the enzyme favoured its forward reaction (tropine formation). Comparative 3-D models of landscape of the enzyme active site contours and tropinone binding site were also developed. Tissue-wide and ontogenic stage-wise assessment of WsTR-I transcript levels revealed constitutive expression of the gene with relatively lower abundance in berries and young leaves. The tissue profiles of WsTR-I expression matched those of tropine levels. The data suggest that, in W. somnifera, aerial tissues as well possess tropane alkaloid biosynthetic competence. In vivo feeding of U-[14C]-sucrose to orphan shoot (twigs) and [14C]-chasing revealed substantial radiolabel incorporation in tropinone and tropine, confirming the de novo synthesizing ability of the aerial tissues. This inherent independent ability heralds a conceptual novelty in the backdrop of classical view that these tissues acquire the alkaloids through transportation from roots rather than synthesis. The TR-I gene expression was found to be up-regulated on exposure to signal molecules (methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid) and on mechanical injury. The enzyme's catalytic and structural properties as well as gene expression profiles are discussed with respect to their physiological overtones. PMID:24086372

Kushwaha, Amit Kumar; Sangwan, Neelam Singh; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Negi, Arvind Singh; Misra, Laxminarain; Sangwan, Rajender Singh



Modulation of biofilm-formation in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium by the periplasmic DsbA/DsbB oxidoreductase system requires the GGDEF-EAL domain protein STM3615.  


In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), biofilm-formation is controlled by the cytoplasmic intracellular small-molecular second messenger cyclic 3', 5'-di- guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) through the activities of GGDEF and EAL domain proteins. Here we describe that deleting either dsbA or dsbB, respectively encoding a periplasmic protein disulfide oxidase and a cytoplasmic membrane disulfide oxidoreductase, resulted in increased biofilm-formation on solid medium. This increased biofilm-formation, defined as a red, dry and rough (rdar) colony morphotype, paralleled with enhanced expression of the biofilm master regulator CsgD and the biofilm-associated fimbrial subunit CsgA. Deleting csgD in either dsb mutant abrogated the enhanced biofilm-formation. Likewise, overexpression of the c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase YhjH, or mutationally inactivating the CsgD activator EAL-domain protein YdiV, reduced biofilm-formation in either of the dsb mutants. Intriguingly, deleting the GGDEF-EAL domain protein gene STM3615 (yhjK), previously not connected to rdar morphotype development, also abrogated the escalated rdar morphotype formation in dsb mutant backgrounds. Enhanced biofilm-formation in dsb mutants was furthermore annulled by exposure to the protein disulfide catalyst copper chloride. When analyzed for the effect of exogenous reducing stress on biofilm-formation, both dsb mutants initially showed an escalated rdar morphotype development that later dissolved to reveal a smooth mucoid colony morphotype. From these results we conclude that biofilm-development in S. Typhimurium is affected by periplasmic protein disulphide bond status through CsgD, and discuss the involvement of selected GGDEF/EAL domain protein(s) as signaling mediators. PMID:25153529

Anwar, Naeem; Rouf, Syed Fazle; Römling, Ute; Rhen, Mikael



Gene expression of sternohyoid and diaphragm muscles in type 2 diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Background Type 2 diabetes differs from type 1 diabetes in its pathogenesis. Type 1 diabetic diaphragm has altered gene expression which includes lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, ubiquitination and oxidoreductase activity. The objectives of the present study were to assess respiratory muscle gene expression changes in type 2 diabetes and to determine whether they are greater for the diaphragm than an upper airway muscle. Methods Diaphragm and sternohyoid muscle from Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats were analyzed with Affymetrix gene expression arrays. Results The two muscles had 97 and 102 genes, respectively, with at least ± 1.5-fold significantly changed expression with diabetes, and these were assigned to gene ontology groups based on over-representation analysis. Several significantly changed groups were common to both muscles, including lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, muscle contraction, ion transport and collagen, although the number of genes and the specific genes involved differed considerably for the two muscles. In both muscles there was a shift in metabolism gene expression from carbohydrate metabolism toward lipid metabolism, but the shift was greater and involved more genes in diabetic diaphragm than diabetic sternohyoid muscle. Groups present in only diaphragm were blood circulation and oxidoreductase activity. Groups present in only sternohyoid were immune & inflammation and response to stress & wounding, with complement genes being a prominent component. Conclusion Type 2 diabetes-induced gene expression changes in respiratory muscles has both similarities and differences relative to previous data on type 1 diabetes gene expression. Furthermore, the diabetic alterations in gene expression differ between diaphragm and sternohyoid. PMID:24199937



Characterization of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase gene from the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera.  


A complete cDNA encoding the NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (haCPR) and its genomic sequence from the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera were cloned and sequenced. The open reading frame of haCPR codes for a protein of 687 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 77.4kDa. The haCPR gene spans over 11 kb and its coding region is interrupted by 11 introns. haCPR is ubiquitously expressed in various tissues and at various stages of development. Escherichia coli produced haCPR enzyme exhibited catalytic activity for NADPH-dependent reduction of cytochrome c, following Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The functionality of CPR was further demonstrated by its capacity to support cytochrome P450 (e.g. haCYP9A14 and chicken CYP1A5) mediated O-dealkylation activity of alkoxyresorufins. The flavoprotein-specific inhibitor (diphenyleneiodonium chloride, DPI) showed a potent inhibition to haCPR activity (IC50=1.69 ?M). Inhibitory effect of secondary metabolites in the host plants (tannic acid, quercetin and gossypol) on CPR activity (with an IC50 value ranged from 15 to 90 ?M) was also observed. PMID:24768738

Liu, Dong; Zhou, Xiaojie; Li, Mei; Zhu, Shunyi; Qiu, Xinghui



Differential endometrial gene expression in pregnant and nonpregnant sows.  


In an attempt to unveil molecular processes controlling the porcine placentation, we have investigated the pregnancy-induced gene expression in the endometrium using the Affymetrix GeneChip Porcine Genome Array. At Day 14 after insemination, at the time of initial placentation, samples were obtained from the endometrium of pregnant sows and sows inseminated with inactivated semen. Analysis of the microarray data revealed 263 genes to be significantly differentially expressed between the pregnant and nonpregnant sows. Most gene ontology terms significantly enriched at pregnancy had allocated more up-regulated genes than down-regulated genes. These terms included developmental process, transporter activity, calcium ion binding, apoptosis, cell motility, enzyme-linked receptor protein signaling pathway, positive regulation of cell proliferation, ion homeostasis, and hormone activity. Only the three terms oxidoreductase activity, lipid metabolic process, and organic acid metabolic process had an overrepresentation of down-regulated genes. A gene interaction network based on the genes identified in the gene ontology term developmental processes identified genes likely to be involved in the process of placentation. Pregnancy-specific localization of IL11RA to the surface epithelium of the endometrium suggests a role of interleukin 11 signaling in formation of the porcine epitheliochorial placenta. Furthermore, up-regulation of FGF9 mRNA in pregnant endometrium and localization of FGF9 to the apical cell domain of the glandular epithelium suggest the concept of endometrial FGF9 acting as an embryonic growth factor in the pig. PMID:20393170

Østrup, Esben; Bauersachs, Stefan; Blum, Helmut; Wolf, Eckhard; Hyttel, Poul



Residence of Habitat-Specific Anammox Bacteria in the Deep-Sea Subsurface Sediments of the South China Sea: Analyses of Marker Gene Abundance with Physical Chemical Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) has been recognized as an important process for the global nitrogen cycle. In this\\u000a study, the occurrence and diversity of anammox bacteria in the deep-sea subsurface sediments of the South China Sea (SCS)\\u000a were investigated. Results indicated that the anammox bacterial sequences recovered from this habitat by amplifying both 16S\\u000a rRNA gene and hydrazine oxidoreductase encoding

Yi-Guo Hong; Meng Li; Huiluo Cao; Ji-Dong Gu


Structural and Functional Insights into the Catalytic Inactivity of the Major Fraction of Buffalo Milk Xanthine Oxidoreductase  

PubMed Central

Background Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) existing in two interconvertible forms, xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) and xanthine oxidase (XO), catabolises xanthine to uric acid that is further broken down to antioxidative agent allantoin. XOR also produces free radicals serving as second messenger and microbicidal agent. Large variation in the XO activity has been observed among various species. Both hypo and hyper activity of XOR leads to pathophysiological conditions. Given the important nutritional role of buffalo milk in human health especially in south Asia, it is crucial to understand the functional properties of buffalo XOR and the underlying structural basis of variations in comparison to other species. Methods and Findings Buffalo XO activity of 0.75 U/mg was almost half of cattle XO activity. Enzymatic efficiency (kcat/Km) of 0.11 sec?1 µM?1 of buffalo XO was 8–10 times smaller than that of cattle XO. Buffalo XOR also showed lower antibacterial activity than cattle XOR. A CD value (??430 nm) of 46,000 M?1 cm?1 suggested occupancy of 77.4% at Fe/S I centre. Buffalo XOR contained 0.31 molybdenum atom/subunit of which 48% existed in active sulfo form. The active form of XO in buffalo was only 16% in comparison to ?30% in cattle. Sequencing revealed 97.4% similarity between buffalo and cattle XOR. FAD domain was least conserved, while metal binding domains (Fe/S and Molybdenum) were highly conserved. Homology modelling of buffalo XOR showed several variations occurring in clusters, especially close to FAD binding pocket which could affect NAD+ entry in the FAD centre. The difference in XO activity seems to be originating from cofactor deficiency, especially molybdenum. Conclusion A major fraction of buffalo milk XOR exists in a catalytically inactive form due to high content of demolybdo and desulfo forms. Lower Fe/S content and structural factors might be contributing to lower enzymatic efficiency of buffalo XOR in a minor way. PMID:24498153

Gadave, Kaustubh S.; Panda, Santanu; Singh, Surender; Kalra, Shalini; Malakar, Dhruba; Mohanty, Ashok K.; Kaushik, Jai K.



The antidote effect of quinone oxidoreductase 2 inhibitor against paraquat-induced toxicity in vitro and in vivo  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The mechanisms of paraquat (PQ)-induced toxicity are poorly understood and PQ poisoning is often fatal due to a lack of effective antidotes. In this study we report the effects of N-[2-(2-methoxy-6H-dipyrido{2,3-a:3,2-e}pyrrolizin-11-yl)ethyl]-2-furamide (NMDPEF), a melatonin-related inhibitor of quinone oxidoreductase2 (QR2) on the toxicity of PQ in vitro & in vivo. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Prevention of PQ-induced toxicity was tested in different cells, including primary pneumocytes and astroglial U373 cells. Cell death and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were analysed by flow cytometry and fluorescent probes. QR2 silencing was achieved by lentiviral shRNAs. PQ (30 mg·kg?1) and NMDPEF were administered i.p. to Wistar rats and animals were monitored for 28 days. PQ toxicity in the substantia nigra (SN) was tested by a localized microinfusion and electrocorticography. QR2 activity was measured by fluorimetry of N-benzyldihydronicotinamide oxidation. KEY RESULTS NMDPEF potently antagonized non-apoptotic PQ-induced cell death, ROS generation and inhibited cellular QR2 activity. In contrast, the cytoprotective effect of melatonin and apocynin was limited and transient compared with NMDPEF. Silencing of QR2 attenuated PQ-induced cell death and reduced the efficacy of NMDPEF. Significantly, NMDPEF (4.5 mg·kg?1) potently antagonized PQ-induced systemic toxicity and animal mortality. Microinfusion of NMDPEF into SN prevented severe behavioural and electrocortical effects of PQ which correlated with inhibition of malondialdehyde accumulation in cells and tissues. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS NMDPEF protected against PQ-induced toxicity in vitro and in vivo, suggesting a key role for QR2 in the regulation of oxidative stress. LINKED ARTICLE This article is commented on by Baltazar et al., pp. 44–45 of this issue. To view this commentary visit PMID:22289031

Janda, Elzbieta; Parafati, Maddalena; Aprigliano, Serafina; Carresi, Cristina; Visalli, Valeria; Sacco, Iolanda; Ventrice, Domenica; Mega, Tiziana; Vadalá, Nuria; Rinaldi, Stefano; Musolino, Vincenzo; Palma, Ernesto; Gratteri, Santo; Rotiroti, Domenicantonio; Mollace, Vincenzo



Investigation of protein FTT1103 electroactivity using carbon and mercury electrodes. Surface-inhibition approach for disulfide oxidoreductases using silver amalgam powder.  


Recently, it was shown that electrochemical methods can be used for analysis of poorly water-soluble proteins and for study of their structural changes and intermolecular (protein-ligand) interactions. In this study, we focused on complex electrochemical investigation of recombinant protein FTT1103, a disulfide oxidoreductase with structural similarity to well described DsbA proteins. This thioredoxin-like periplasmic lipoprotein plays an important role in virulence of bacteria Francisella tularensis. For electrochemical analyses, adsorptive transfer (ex situ) square-wave voltammetry with pyrolytic graphite electrode, and alternating-current voltammetry and constant-current chronopotentiometric stripping analysis with mercury electrodes, including silver solid amalgam electrode (AgSAE) were used. AgSAE was used in poorly water-soluble protein analysis for the first time. In addition to basic redox, electrocatalytic and adsorption/desorption characterization of FTT1103, electrochemical methods were also used for sensitive determination of the protein at nanomolar level and study of its interaction with surface of AgSA microparticles. Proposed electrochemical protocol and AgSA surface-inhibition approach presented here could be used in future for biochemical studies focused on proteins associated with membranes as well as on those with disulfide oxidoreductase activity. PMID:24856508

Ve?erková, Renata; Hernychová, Lenka; Dobeš, Petr; Vrba, Ji?í; Josyp?uk, Bohdan; Bartošík, Martin; Vacek, Jan



A Dual Function ?-Dioxygenase-Peroxidase and NAD+ Oxidoreductase Active Enzyme from Germinating Pea Rationalizing ?-Oxidation of Fatty Acids in Plants12  

PubMed Central

An enzyme with fatty acid ?-oxidation activity (49 nkat mg?1; substrate: lauric acid) was purified from germinating pea (Pisum sativum) by a five-step procedure to apparent homogeneity. The purified protein was found to be a 230-kD oligomer with two dominant subunits, i.e. a 50-kD subunit with NAD+ oxidoreductase activity and a 70-kD subunit, homolog to a pathogen-induced oxygenase, which in turn shows significant homology to animal cyclooxygenase. On-line liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry revealed rapid ?-oxidation of palmitic acid incubated at 0°C with the purified ?-oxidation enzyme, leading to (R)-2-hydroperoxypalmitic acid as the major product together with (R)-2-hydroxypalmitic acid, 1-pentadecanal, and pentadecanoic acid. Inherent peroxidase activity of the 70-kD fraction decreased the amount of the (R)-2-hydroperoxy product rapidly and increased the level of (R)-2-hydroxypalmitic acid. Incubations at room temperature accelerated the decline toward the chain-shortened aldehyde. With the identification of the dual function ?-dioxygenase-peroxidase (70-kD unit) and the related NAD+ oxidoreductase (50-kD unit) we provided novel data to rationalize all steps of the classical scheme of ?-oxidation in plants. PMID:10938370

Saffert, Alexander; Hartmann-Schreier, Jenny; Schon, Astrid; Schreier, Peter



Probing the Flexibility of the DsbA Oxidoreductase from Vibrio cholerae—a 15N - 1H Heteronuclear NMR Relaxation Analysis of Oxidized and Reduced Forms of DsbA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have determined the structure of the reduced form of the DsbA oxidoreductase from Vibrio cholerae. The reduced structure shows a high level of similarity to the crystal structure of the oxidized form and is typical of this class of enzyme containing a thioredoxin domain with an inserted ?-helical domain. Proteolytic and thermal stability measurements show that the reduced form

James Horne; Edward J. d’Auvergne; Murray Coles; Tony Velkov; Yanni Chin; William N. Charman; Richard Prankerd; Paul R. Gooley; Martin J. Scanlon



H2S exposure elicits differential expression of candidate genes in fish adapted to sulfidic and non-sulfidic environments.  


Disentangling the effects of plasticity, genetic variation, and their interactions on organismal responses to environmental stressors is a key objective in ecological physiology. We quantified the expression of five candidate genes in response to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) exposure in fish (Poecilia mexicana, Poeciliidae) from a naturally sulfide-rich environment as well as an ancestral, non-sulfidic population to test for constitutive and environmentally dependent population differences in gene expression patterns. Common garden raised individuals that had never encountered environmental H2S during their lifetime were subjected to short or long term H2S exposure treatments or respective non-sulfidic controls. The expression of genes involved in responses to H2S toxicity (cytochrome c oxidase, vascular endothelial growth factor, and cytochrome P450-2J6), H2S detoxification (sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase), and endogenous H2S production (cystathionine ? lyase) was determined in both gill and liver tissues by real time PCR. The results indicated complex changes in expression patterns that--depending on the gene--not only differed between organs and populations, but also on the type of H2S exposure. Populations differences, both constitutive and H2S exposure dependent (i.e., plastic), in gene expression were particularly evident for sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase, vascular endothelial growth factor, and to a lesser degree for cytochrome P450-2J6. Our study uncovered putatively adaptive modifications in gene regulation that parallel previously documented adaptive changes in phenotypic traits. PMID:24813672

Tobler, Michael; Henpita, Chathurika; Bassett, Brandon; Kelley, Joanna L; Shaw, Jennifer H



Preimplantation genetic diagnosis of P450 oxidoreductase deficiency and Huntington Disease using three different molecular approaches simultaneously  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Description of the confluence of different molecular techniques to detect three different mutations in one cell. The man carries\\u000a a 20 base pair insertion in exon 12 of the POR gene (c.1551_1552ins20), and the woman carries a point mutation in exon 8 of the POR gene (c.859G>C) plus a triplet repeat expansion in the HTT gene.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Huntington Disease (HD) had

Trinitat M. Alberola; Rosa Bautista-Llácer; Esther Fernández; Xavier Vendrell; Manuel Pérez-Alonso



Human carbonyl reductase (CBR) localized to band 21q22. 1 by high-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization displays gene dosage effects in trisomy 21 cells  

SciTech Connect

Human carbonyl reductase (CBR) belongs to a group of NADPH-dependent enzymes called aldo-keto reductases. The enzyme can function as an aldo-keto reductase or as a quinone reductase with potential for modulating quinone-mediated oxygen free radicals. The CBR gene was mapped by high-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization to band 21q22.12, very close to the SOD1 locus at position 2lq22.11. CBR displayed gene dosage effects in trisomy 21 human lymphoblasts at the DNA and mRNA levels. Lymphoblasts with increasing chromosome 21 ploidy also showed increased aldo-keto reductase activity and increased quinone reductase activity. Both aldo-keto reductase activity and quinone reductase activity have been shown to be associated with carbonyl reductase. The location of CBR near SOD1 and the increased enzyme activity and potential for free radical modulation in trisomy 21 cells implicate CBR as a candidate for contributing to the pathology of certain diseases such as Down syndrome and Alzheimer disease. 28 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Lemieux, N. (Universite de Montreal (Canada)); Malfoy, B. (Institut Curie Section de Biologie, Paris (France)); Forrest, G.L. (Beckman Research Institute at the City of Hope, Duarte, CA (United States))



Purification and biochemical characterization of a moderately halotolerant NADPH dependent xylose reductase from Debaryomyces nepalensis NCYC 3413.  


A Xylose reductase (XR) from the halotolerant yeast, Debaryomyces nepalensis NCYC 3413 was purified to apparent homogeneity. The enzyme has a molecular mass of 74 kDa with monomeric subunit of 36.4 kDa (MALDI-TOF/MS) and pI of 6.0. The enzyme exhibited its maximum activity at pH 7.0 and 45 °C (21.2U/mg). In situ gel digestion and peptide mass fingerprinting analysis showed 12-22% sequence homology with XR from other yeasts. Inhibition of the enzyme by DEPC (diethylpyrocarbonate) confirmed the presence of histidine residue in its active site. The enzyme exhibited high preference for pentoses over hexoses with greater catalytic efficiency for arabinose than xylose. The enzyme also showed absolute specificity with NADPH over NADH. The enzyme retained 90% activity with 100 mM of NaCl or KCl and 40% activity with 1 M KCl which suggest that the enzyme is moderately halotolerant and can be utilized for commercial production of xylitol under conditions where salts are present. PMID:21855330

Kumar, Sawan; Gummadi, Sathyanarayana N



Comparative Studies on Ferredoxin-NADP+ Oxidoreductase Isoenzymes Derived from Different Organs by Antibodies Specific for the Radish Root- and Leaf-Enzymes.  


Determination of the prosthetic group and titration of sulfhydryl group of ferredoxin-NADP+ oxidoreductase (FNR) from roots of radish (Raphanus sativus var acanthiformis cv Miyashige) confirmed its similarity to leaf-FNR. Antisera directed against radish root-FNR and leaf-FNR distinguished the enzyme forms from roots and leaves of radish as well as other flowering plants. The FNR isoenzymes showed organ-specific distributions. In horsetail (Equisetum arvense L.) and cultured liverwort cells (Marchantia polymorpha), at least two FNR isoenzymes were distinguished by the antisera. FNR from Chlorella vulgaris reacted only with the anti-root-FNR antiserum. FNR from a cyanobacterium, Spirulina spp., failed to react with either antiserum. PMID:12231952

Morigasaki, S.; Jin, T.; Wada, K.



A secondary mode of action of polymyxins against Gram-negative bacteria involves the inhibition of NADH-quinone oxidoreductase activity.  


Polymyxin B and colistin were examined for their ability to inhibit the type II NADH-quinone oxidoreductases (NDH-2) of three species of Gram-negative bacteria. Polymyxin B and colistin inhibited the NDH-2 activity in preparations from all of the isolates in a concentration-dependent manner. The mechanism of NDH-2 inhibition by polymyxin B was investigated in detail with Escherichia coli inner membrane preparations and conformed to a mixed inhibition model with respect to ubiquinone-1 and a non-competitive inhibition model with respect to NADH. These suggest that the inhibition of vital respiratory enzymes in the bacterial inner membrane represents one of the secondary modes of action for polymyxins. PMID:24169795

Deris, Zakuan Z; Akter, Jesmin; Sivanesan, Sivashangarie; Roberts, Kade D; Thompson, Philip E; Nation, Roger L; Li, Jian; Velkov, Tony



Transcriptional analysis of Pleurotus ostreatus laccase genes.  


Fungal laccases (p-diphenol:oxygen oxidoreductase; EC are multi-copper-containing oxidases that catalyse the oxidation of a great variety of phenolic compounds and aromatic amines through simultaneous reduction of molecular oxygen to water. Fungi generally produce several laccase isoenzymes encoded by complex multi-gene families. The Pleurotus ostreatus genome encodes 11 putative laccase coding genes, and only six different laccase isoenzymes have been isolated and characterised so far. Laccase expression was found to be regulated by culture conditions and developmental stages even if the redundancy of these genes still raises the question about their respective functions in vivo. In this context, laccase transcript profiling analysis has been used to unravel the physiological role played by the different isoforms produced by P. ostreatus. Even if reported results depict a complex picture of the transcriptional responses exhibited by the analysed laccase genes, they were allowed to speculate on the isoform role in vivo. Among the produced laccases, LACC10 (POXC) seems to play a major role during vegetative growth, since its transcription is downregulated when the fungus starts the fructification process. Furthermore, a new tessera has been added to the puzzling mosaic of the heterodimeric laccase LACC2 (POXA3). LACC2 small subunit seems to play an additional physiological role during fructification, beside that of LACC2 complex activation/stabilisation. PMID:22395908

Pezzella, Cinzia; Lettera, Vincenzo; Piscitelli, Alessandra; Giardina, Paola; Sannia, Giovanni



Identification of pathways, gene networks and paralogous gene families in Daphnia pulex responding to exposure to the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Although cyanobacteria produce a wide range of natural toxins that impact aquatic organisms, food webs and water quality, the mechanisms of toxicity are still insufficiently understood. Here, we implemented a whole-genome expression microarray to identify pathways, gene networks and paralogous gene families responsive to Microcystis stress in Daphnia pulex. Therefore, neonates of a sensitive isolate were given a diet contaminated with Microcystis to contrast with those given a control diet for sixteen days. The microarray revealed 2247 differentially expressed (DE) genes (7.6% of the array) in response to Microcystis, of which 17% are lineage specific( i.e., these genes have no detectable homology to any other gene in currently available databases) and 49% are gene duplicates (paralogs). We identified four pathways/gene networks and eight paralogous gene families affected by Microcystis. Differential regulation of the ribosome, including 3 paralogous gene families encoding 40S, 60S and mitochondrial ribosomal proteins, suggests an impact of Microcystis on protein synthesis of D. pulex. In addition, differential regulation of the oxidative phosphorylation pathway (including the NADH ubquinone oxidoreductase gene family) and the trypsin paralogous gene family (a major component of the digestive system in D. pulex) could explain why fitness is reduced based on energy budget considerations. PMID:22799445

Asselman, Jana; De Coninck, Dieter IM; Glaholt, Stephen; Colbourne, John K; Janssen, Colin R; Shaw, Joseph R; De Schamphelaere, Karel AC



Isolation, identification and sequence analysis of a thioredoxin h gene, a member of subgroup III of h-type Trxs from grape (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Askari).  


Thioredoxins (Trxs) are small ubiquitous proteins which play a regulatory role in a variety of cellular processes. In contrast to other organisms, plants have a great number of Trx types, consisting of six well-defined groups: f, m, x, and y in chloroplasts, o in mitochondria, and h mainly in cytosol. A full-length cDNA, designated VvCxxS2, encoding Trx h polypeptide was isolated and cloned from grape (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Askari) berries organ by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The cDNA was 381 bp nucleotides in length with a deduced amino acid of 126 residues, possessing a WCIPS active site, which belongs to the subgroup III of h-type Trxs based on phylogenetic analysis. The calculated molecular mass and the predicted isoelectric point of the deduced polypeptide are 14.25 kDa and 4.68, respectively. Nucleotide sequence analysis of genomic DNA fragment of VvCxxS2 gene revealed that this gene possesses two introns at positions identical to the previously sequenced Trx h genes. A modeling analysis indicated that VvCxxS2 shares a common structure with other Trxs, and is preferably reduced by Grx rather than NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase (NTR). The deduced protein sequence showed a high similarity to Trx h from other plants, in particular from castor bean (Ricinus communis), Betula pendula and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). Semiquantitative RT-PCR experiments indicated that the transcripts of VvCxxS2 gene are present in all plant organs and different developmental stages. In addition, the higher expression of the VvCxxS2 gene was observed in berry organ as compared to the other organs. PMID:21732058

Japelaghi, Reza Heidari; Haddad, Raheem; Garoosi, Ghasem-Ali



PAH Particles Perturb Prenatal Processes and Phenotypes: Protection from Deficits in Object Discrimination Afforded by Dampening of Brain Oxidoreductase Following In Utero Exposure to Inhaled Benzo(a)pyrene  

PubMed Central

The wild-type (WT) Cprlox/lox (cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase, Cpr) mouse is an ideal model to assess the contribution of P450 enzymes to the metabolic activation and disposition of environmental xenobiotics. In the present study, we examined the effect of in utero exposure to benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] aerosol on Sp4 and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)–dependent systems as well as a resulting behavioral phenotype (object discrimination) in Cpr offspring. Results from in utero exposure of WT Cprlox/lox mice were compared with in utero exposed brain-Cpr-null offspring mice. Null mice were used as they do not express brain cytochrome P4501B1–associated NADPH oxidoreductase (CYP1B1-associated NADPH oxidoreductase), thus reducing their capacity to produce neural B(a)P metabolites. Subsequent to in utero (E14–E17) exposure to B(a)P (100 ?g/m3), Cprlox/lox offspring exhibited: (1) elevated B(a)P metabolite and F2-isoprostane neocortical tissue burdens, (2) elevated concentrations of cortical glutamate, (3) premature developmental expression of Sp4, (4) decreased subunit ratios of NR2B:NR2A, and (5) deficits in a novelty discrimination phenotype monitored to in utero exposed brain-Cpr-null offspring. Collectively, these findings suggest that in situ generation of metabolites by CYP1B1-associated NADPH oxidoreductase promotes negative effects on NMDA-mediated signaling processes during the period when synapses are first forming as well as effects on a subsequent behavioral phenotype. PMID:21987461

Chadalapaka, Gayathri; Ramesh, Aramandla; Khoshbouei, Habibeh; Maguire, Mark; Safe, Stephen; Rhoades, Raina E.; Clark, Ryan; Jules, George; McCallister, Monique; Aschner, Michael; Hood, Darryl B.



Roles of the Redox-Active Disulfide and Histidine Residues Forming a Catalytic Dyad in Reactions Catalyzed by 2-Ketopropyl Coenzyme M Oxidoreductase/Carboxylase?  

PubMed Central

NADPH:2-ketopropyl-coenzyme M oxidoreductase/carboxylase (2-KPCC), an atypical member of the disulfide oxidoreductase (DSOR) family of enzymes, catalyzes the reductive cleavage and carboxylation of 2-ketopropyl-coenzyme M [2-(2-ketopropylthio)ethanesulfonate; 2-KPC] to form acetoacetate and coenzyme M (CoM) in the bacterial pathway of propylene metabolism. Structural studies of 2-KPCC from Xanthobacter autotrophicus strain Py2 have revealed a distinctive active-site architecture that includes a putative catalytic triad consisting of two histidine residues that are hydrogen bonded to an ordered water molecule proposed to stabilize enolacetone formed from dithiol-mediated 2-KPC thioether bond cleavage. Site-directed mutants of 2-KPCC were constructed to test the tenets of the mechanism proposed from studies of the native enzyme. Mutagenesis of the interchange thiol of 2-KPCC (C82A) abolished all redox-dependent reactions of 2-KPCC (2-KPC carboxylation or protonation). The air-oxidized C82A mutant, as well as wild-type 2-KPCC, exhibited the characteristic charge transfer absorbance seen in site-directed variants of other DSOR enzymes but with a pKa value for C87 (8.8) four units higher (i.e., four orders of magnitude less acidic) than that for the flavin thiol of canonical DSOR enzymes. The same higher pKa value was observed in native 2-KPCC when the interchange thiol was alkylated by the CoM analog 2-bromoethanesulfonate. Mutagenesis of the flavin thiol (C87A) also resulted in an inactive enzyme for steady-state redox-dependent reactions, but this variant catalyzed a single-turnover reaction producing a 0.8:1 ratio of product to enzyme. Mutagenesis of the histidine proximal to the ordered water (H137A) led to nearly complete loss of redox-dependent 2-KPCC reactions, while mutagenesis of the distal histidine (H84A) reduced these activities by 58 to 76%. A redox-independent reaction of 2-KPCC (acetoacetate decarboxylation) was not decreased for any of the aforementioned site-directed mutants. We interpreted and rationalized these results in terms of a mechanism of catalysis for 2-KPCC employing a unique hydrophobic active-site architecture promoting thioether bond cleavage and enolacetone formation not seen for other DSOR enzymes. PMID:21764916

Kofoed, Melissa A.; Wampler, David A.; Pandey, Arti S.; Peters, John W.; Ensign, Scott A.



Characterization of Pseudomonas putida Genes Responsive to Nutrient Limitation  

SciTech Connect

The low bioavailability of nutrients and oxygen in the soil environment has hampered successful expression of biodegradation/biocontrol genes that are driven by promoters highly active during routine laboratory conditions of high nutrient- and oxygen-availability. Hence, in the present study, expression of the gus-tagged genes in 12 Tn5-gus mutants of the soil microbe Pseudomonas putida PNL-MK25 was examined under various conditions chosen to mimic the soil environment: low carbon, phosphate, nitrate, or oxygen, and in the rhizosphere. Based on their expression profiles, three nutrient-responsive mutant (NRM) strains, NRM5, NRM7, and NRM17, were selected for identification of the tagged genes. In the mutant strain NRM5, expression of the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdhA) gene was increased between 4.9- to 26.4-fold under various low nutrient conditions. In NRM7, expression of the novel NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase-like (nql) gene was consistently amongst the highest and was synergistically upregulated by low nutrient and anoxic conditions. The cyoD gene in NRM17, which encodes the fourth subunit of the cytochrome o ubiquinol oxidase complex, had decreased expression in low nutrient conditions but its absolute expression levels was still amongst the highest. Additionally, it was independent of oxygen availability, in contrast to that in E. coli.

Syn, Chris K.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Kingsley, Mark T.; Swarup, Sanjay



Mapping of aldose reductase gene sequences to human chromosomes 1, 3, 7, 9, 11, and 13  

SciTech Connect

Aldose reductase (alditol:NAD(P)+ 1-oxidoreductase; EC (AR) catalyzes the reduction of several aldehydes, including that of glucose, to the corresponding sugar alcohol. Using a complementary DNA clone encoding human AR, the authors mapped the gene sequences to human chromosomes 1, 3, 7, 9, 11, 13, 14, and 18 by somatic cell hybridization. By in situ hybridization analysis, sequences were localized to human chromosomes 1q32-q43, 3p12, 7q31-q35, 9q22, 11p14-p15, and 13q14-q21. As a putative functional AR gene has been mapped to chromosome 7 and a putative pseudogene to chromosome 3, the sequences on the other seven chromosomes may represent other active genes, non-aldose reductase homologous sequences, or pseudogenes. 24 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Bateman, J.B.; Kojis, T. (Jules Stein Eye Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States) UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)); Heinzmann, C.; Sparkes, R.S.; Klisak, I.; Diep, A. (UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angels, CA (United States)); Carper, D. (National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)); Nishimura, Chihiro (National Institute of Health, Tokyo (Japan)); Mohandas, T. (Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA (United States))



Induction of phase 2 genes by sulforaphane protects retinal pigment epithelial cells against photooxidative damage  

PubMed Central

The retinal pigment epithelial cell (RPE cell) layer protects the photoreceptors of the retina against oxidative stress. The decline of this capacity is believed to be a major factor in the impairment of vision in age-related macular degeneration. Exposure of human adult RPE cells to UV light at predominantly 320–400 nm (UVA light) in the presence of all-trans-retinaldehyde results in photooxidative cytotoxicity. Significant protection of RPE cells was obtained by prior treatment with phase 2 gene inducers, such as the isothiocyanate sulforaphane or a bis-2-hydroxybenzylideneacetone Michael reaction acceptor. The degree of protection was correlated with the potencies of these inducers in elevating cytoprotective glutathione levels and activities of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase. In embryonic fibroblasts derived from mice in which the genes for the transcription factor Nrf2, the repressor Keap1, or both Nrf2 and Keap1 were disrupted, the magnitude of resistance to photooxidative damage paralleled the basal levels of glutathione and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase in each cell type. Demonstration of protection of RPE cells against photooxidative damage by induction of phase 2 proteins may shed light on the role of oxidative injury in ocular disease. Moreover, the finding that dietary inducers provide indirect antioxidant protection suggests novel strategies for preventing chronic degenerative diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration. PMID:15229324

Gao, Xiangqun; Talalay, Paul



Structural Data on the Periplasmic Aldehyde Oxidoreductase PaoABC from Escherichia coli: SAXS and Preliminary X-ray Crystallography Analysis  

PubMed Central

The periplasmic aldehyde oxidoreductase PaoABC from Escherichia coli is a molybdenum enzyme involved in detoxification of aldehydes in the cell. It is an example of an ??? heterotrimeric enzyme of the xanthine oxidase family of enzymes which does not dimerize via its molybdenum cofactor binding domain. In order to structurally characterize PaoABC, X-ray crystallography and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) have been carried out. The protein crystallizes in the presence of 20% (w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350 using the hanging-drop vapour diffusion method. Although crystals were initially twinned, several experiments were done to overcome twinning and lowering the crystallization temperature (293 K to 277 K) was the solution to the problem. The non-twinned crystals used to solve the structure diffract X-rays to beyond 1.80 Å and belong to the C2 space group, with cell parameters a = 109.42 Å, b = 78.08 Å, c = 151.77 Å, ? = 99.77°, and one molecule in the asymmetric unit. A molecular replacement solution was found for each subunit separately, using several proteins as search models. SAXS data of PaoABC were also collected showing that, in solution, the protein is also an ??? heterotrimer. PMID:24492481

Otrelo-Cardoso, Ana Rita; da Silva Correia, Marcia Alexandra; Schwuchow, Viola; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Romao, Maria Joao; Leimkuhler, Silke; Santos-Silva, Teresa



Identification, Design and Biological Evaluation of Heterocyclic Quinolones Targeting Plasmodium falciparum Type II NADH:Quinone Oxidoreductase (PfNDH2)  

PubMed Central

Following a program undertaken to identify hit compounds against NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (PfNDH2), a novel enzyme target within the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, hit to lead optimization led to identification of CK-2-68, a molecule suitable for further development. In order to reduce ClogP and improve solubility of CK-2-68 incorporation of a variety of heterocycles, within the side chain of the quinolone core, was carried out, and this approach led to a lead compound SL-2-25 (8b). 8b has IC50s in the nanomolar range versus both the enzyme and whole cell P. falciparum (IC50 = 15 nM PfNDH2; IC50 = 54 nM (3D7 strain of P. falciparum) with notable oral activity of ED50/ED90 of 1.87/4.72 mg/kg versus Plasmodium berghei (NS Strain) in a murine model of malaria when formulated as a phosphate salt. Analogues in this series also demonstrate nanomolar activity against the bc1 complex of P. falciparum providing the potential added benefit of a dual mechanism of action. The potent oral activity of 2-pyridyl quinolones underlines the potential of this template for further lead optimization studies. PMID:22364417



Expression of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 in HeLa cells: role of hydrogen peroxide and growth phase.  


The aim of this work was to study the role of H(2)O(2) in the regulation of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1, DT-diaphorase, EC ) with relation to cell density of HeLa cells cultures and the function played by NQO1 in these cells. Levels of NQO1 activity were much higher (40-fold) in confluent HeLa cells than in sparse cells, the former cells being much more resistant to H(2)O(2). Addition of sublethal concentrations of H(2)O(2) (up to 24 microm) produced a significant increase of NQO1 (up to 16-fold at 12 microm) in sparse cells but had no effect in confluent cells. When cells reached confluency in the presence of pyruvate, a H(2)O(2) scavenger, NQO1 activity was decreased compared with cultures grown to confluency without pyruvate. Inhibition of quinone reductases by dicumarol substantially decreased viability of confluent cells in serum-free medium. This is the first demonstration that regulation of NQO1 expression by H(2)O(2) is dependent on the cell density in HeLa cells and that endogenous generation of H(2)O(2) participates in the increase of NQO1 activity as cell density is higher. This enzyme is required to promote survival of confluent cells. PMID:11567026

Bello, R I; Gómez-Díaz, C; Navarro, F; Alcaín, F J; Villalba, J M



The MoxR ATPase RavA and Its Cofactor ViaA Interact with the NADH:Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase I in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

MoxR ATPases are widespread throughout bacteria and archaea. The experimental evidence to date suggests that these proteins have chaperone-like roles in facilitating the maturation of dedicated protein complexes that are functionally diverse. In Escherichia coli, the MoxR ATPase RavA and its putative cofactor ViaA are found to exist in early stationary-phase cells at 37°C at low levels of about 350 and 90 molecules per cell, respectively. Both proteins are predominantly localized to the cytoplasm, but ViaA was also unexpectedly found to localize to the cell membrane. Whole genome microarrays and synthetic lethality studies both indicated that RavA-ViaA are genetically linked to Fe-S cluster assembly and specific respiratory pathways. Systematic analysis of mutant strains of ravA and viaA indicated that RavA-ViaA sensitizes cells to sublethal concentrations of aminoglycosides. Furthermore, this effect was dependent on RavA's ATPase activity, and on the presence of specific subunits of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase I (Nuo Complex, or Complex I). Importantly, both RavA and ViaA were found to physically interact with specific Nuo subunits. We propose that RavA-ViaA facilitate the maturation of the Nuo complex. PMID:24454883

Wong, Keith S.; Snider, Jamie D.; Graham, Chris; Greenblatt, Jack F.; Emili, Andrew; Babu, Mohan; Houry, Walid A.



High-Level Chromate Resistance in Arthrobacter sp. strain FB24 Requires Previously Uncharacterized Accessory Genes  

SciTech Connect

The annotated genome sequence of Arthrobacter sp. strain FB24 revealed a chromate resistance determinant (CRD): a cluster of 8 genes located on a 10.6 kb fragment of a 96 kb plasmid. The CRD includes chrA, which encodes a putative chromate efflux protein, and three genes with amino acid similarities to the amino and carboxy termini of ChrB, a putative regulatory protein. There are also three novel genes that have not been previously associated with chromate resistance in other bacteria; they encode an oxidoreductase (most similar to malate:quinone oxidoreductase), a functionally unknown protein with a WD40 repeat domain and a lipoprotein. A chromate-sensitive mutant (strain D11) was generated by curing FB24 of its 96-kb plasmid. Elemental analysis indicated that chromate-exposed cells of strain D11 accumulated three times more chromium than strain FB24. Introduction of the CRD into strain D11 conferred chromate resistance comparable to wild-type levels, whereas deletion of specific regions of the CRD led to decreased resistance. Using real-time reverse transcriptase PCR, we show that expression of each gene within the CRD is specifically induced in response to chromate but not by lead, hydrogen peroxide or arsenate. Higher levels of chrA expression were achieved when the chrB orthologs and the WD40 repeat domain genes were present, suggesting their regulatory roles. Collectively, our findings indicate that chromate resistance in strain FB24 is primarily achieved by plasmid-mediated chromate efflux with the contribution of previously unrecognized accessory genes.

Henne, Kristene L.; Nakatsu, Cindy N.; Thompson, Dorothea K.; Konopka, Allan



RNA-Seq Analysis Reveals a Six-Gene SoxR Regulon in Streptomyces coelicolor  

PubMed Central

The redox-regulated transcription factor SoxR is conserved in diverse bacteria, but emerging studies suggest that this protein plays distinct physiological roles in different bacteria. SoxR regulates a global oxidative stress response (involving >100 genes) against exogenous redox-cycling drugs in Escherichia coli and related enterics. In the antibiotic producers Streptomyces coelicolor and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, however, SoxR regulates a smaller number of genes that encode membrane transporters and proteins with homology to antibiotic-tailoring enzymes. In both S. coelicolor and P. aeruginosa, SoxR-regulated genes are expressed in stationary phase during the production of endogenously-produced redox-active antibiotics. These observations suggest that SoxR evolved to sense endogenous secondary metabolites and activate machinery to process and transport them in antibiotic-producing bacteria. Previous bioinformatics analysis that searched the genome for SoxR-binding sites in putative promoters defined a five-gene SoxR regulon in S. coelicolor including an ABC transporter, two oxidoreductases, a monooxygenase and an epimerase/dehydratase. Since this in silico screen may have missed potential SoxR-targets, we conducted a whole genome transcriptome comparison of wild type S. coelicolor and a soxR-deficient mutant in stationary phase using RNA-Seq. Our analysis revealed a sixth SoxR-regulated gene in S. coelicolor that encodes a putative quinone oxidoreductase. Knowledge of the full complement of genes regulated by SoxR will facilitate studies to elucidate the function of this regulatory molecule in antibiotic producers. PMID:25162599

Naseer, Nawar; Shapiro, Joshua A.; Chander, Monica



Chromosomal organization of the human dihydrofolate reductase genes: dispersion, selective amplification, and a novel form of polymorphism.  

PubMed Central

The human dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR; tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase; 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate: NADP+ oxidoreductase, EC gene family includes a functional gene (hDHFR) and at least four intronless genes. Three intronless genes (hDHFR-psi 2, hDHFR-psi 3, and hDHFR-psi 4) are identifiable as pseudogenes because of DNA sequence divergence from the functional gene with introns, while one intronless gene (hDHFR-psi 1) is completely homologous to the coding sequences of the functional gene. Analysis of genomic DNA from two panels of somatic human-rodent cell hybrids with specific molecular probes provide insight into the chromosomal organization and assignment of these genes. The five genes are dispersed in that each one is found on a different chromosome. The functional gene hDHFR has been assigned to chromosome 5, and one pseudogene (hDHFR-psi 4), to chromosome 3. In a human cell line (HeLa) that was selected for methotrexate resistance, the functional locus became amplified, while there was no amplification of the four intronless pseudogenes. hDHFR-psi 1 was found to be present in DNA of some individuals and absent from DNA of others, consistent with a recent evolutionary origin of this gene originally suggested by its sequence identity to the coding portions of the functional gene. The presence or absence of this intronless pseudogene represents a previously unreported form of DNA polymorphism. Images PMID:6089182

Anagnou, N P; O'Brien, S J; Shimada, T; Nash, W G; Chen, M J; Nienhuis, A W



Expression profiling in spondyloarthropathy synovial biopsies highlights changes in expression of inflammatory genes in conjunction with tissue remodelling genes  

PubMed Central

Background In the spondyloarthropathies, the underlying molecular and cellular pathways driving disease are poorly understood. By undertaking a study in knee synovial biopsies from spondyloarthropathy (SpA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients we aimed to elucidate dysregulated genes and pathways. Methods RNA was extracted from six SpA, two AS, three osteoarthritis (OA) and four normal control knee synovial biopsies. Whole genome expression profiling was undertaken using the Illumina DASL system, which assays 24000 cDNA probes. Differentially expressed candidate genes were then validated using quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry. Results Four hundred and sixteen differentially expressed genes were identified that clearly delineated between AS/SpA and control groups. Pathway analysis showed altered gene-expression in oxidoreductase activity, B-cell associated, matrix catabolic, and metabolic pathways. Altered "myogene" profiling was also identified. The inflammatory mediator, MMP3, was strongly upregulated (5-fold) in AS/SpA samples and the Wnt pathway inhibitors DKK3 (2.7-fold) and Kremen1 (1.5-fold) were downregulated. Conclusions Altered expression profiling in SpA and AS samples demonstrates that disease pathogenesis is associated with both systemic inflammation as well as local tissue alterations that may underlie tissue damaging modelling and remodelling outcomes. This supports the hypothesis that initial systemic inflammation in spondyloarthropathies transfers to and persists in the local joint environment, and might subsequently mediate changes in genes directly involved in the destructive tissue remodelling. PMID:24330574



Alternative splicing isoform in succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit C causes downregulation of succinate-coenzyme Q oxidoreductase activity in mitochondria  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is localized to the inner mitochondrial membrane and is responsible for the redox of succinic acid. SDH is a tetrameric iron-sulfur flavoprotein of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and respiratory chain. The SDH complex, subunit C (SDHC) transcript has deletion-type alternative splicing sites. Generally, alternative splicing produces variant proteins and expression patterns, as products of different genes. In certain cases, specific alternative splicing variants (ASVs) have been associated with human disease. Due to a frameshift mutation causing loss of the heme binding region, the SDHC ?5 isoform (lacking exon 5) exhibits no SDHC activity. To investigate whether the SDHC splicing variants can function as dominant-negative inhibitors, SDHC ASVs were overexpressed in HCT-15 human colorectal cancer cells. Using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, a dominant-negative effect of the ?5 isoform on SDHC mRNA was shown. In addition, ?5 overexpression increased the levels of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, in the ?5 isoform-overexpressing cells, SDH activity was reduced. SDHC activation is a significant event during the electron transport chain, and the function of the SDHC ?5 variant may be significant for the differentiation of tumor cells.




Structure-Based Computational Study of Two Disease Resistance Gene Homologues (Hm1 and Hm2) in Maize (Zea mays L.) with Implications in Plant-Pathogen Interactions  

PubMed Central

The NADPH-dependent HC-toxin reductases (HCTR1 and 2) encoded by enzymatic class of disease resistance homologous genes (Hm1 and Hm2) protect maize by detoxifying a cyclic tetrapeptide, HC-toxin, secreted by the fungus Cochliobolus carbonum race 1(CCR1). Unlike the other classes' resistance (R) genes, HCTR-mediated disease resistance is an inimitable mechanism where the avirulence (Avr) component from CCR1 is not involved in toxin degradation. In this study, we attempted to decipher cofactor (NADPH) recognition and mode of HC-toxin binding to HCTRs through molecular docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and binding free energy calculation methods. The rationality and the stability of docked complexes were validated by 30-ns MD simulation. The binding free energy decomposition of enzyme-cofactor complex was calculated to find the driving force behind cofactor recognition. The overall binding free energies of HCTR1-NADPH and HCTR2-NADPH were found to be ?616.989 and ?16.9749 kJ mol?1 respectively. The binding free energy decomposition revealed that the binding of NADPH to the HCTR1 is mainly governed by van der Waals and nonpolar interactions, whereas electrostatic terms play dominant role in stabilizing the binding mode between HCTR2 and NADPH. Further, docking analysis of HC-toxin with HCTR-NADPH complexes showed a distinct mode of binding and the complexes were stabilized by a strong network of hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interactions. This study is the first in silico attempt to unravel the biophysical and biochemical basis of cofactor recognition in enzymatic class of R genes in cereal crop maize. PMID:24847713

Maharana, Jitendra; Sahu, Jagajjit; Sen, Priyabrata; Modi, Mahendra Kumar; Choudhury, Manabendra Dutta; Barooah, Madhumita



Gene Cloning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson covers the utilization of gene cloning to isolate and copy a specific gene of interest. The transformation of bacteria with plasmids containing antibiotic resistance genes to make gene libraries and the selection of bacteria colonies that contain the specific gene of interest are described.


Characterization of chlorophenol 4-monooxygenase (TftD) and NADH:FAD oxidoreductase (TftC) of Burkholderia cepacia AC1100.  


Burkholderia cepacia AC1100 completely degrades 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, in which an FADH(2)-dependent monooxygenase (TftD) and an NADH:FAD oxidoreductase (TftC) catalyze the initial steps. TftD oxidizes 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP) to 2,5-dichloro-p-benzoquinone, which is chemically reduced to 2,5-dichloro-p-hydroquinone (2,5-DiCHQ). Then, TftD oxidizes the latter to 5-chloro-2-hydroxy-p-benzoquinone. In those processes, TftC provides all the required FADH(2). We have determined the crystal structures of dimeric TftC and tetrameric TftD at 2.0 and 2.5 A resolution, respectively. The structure of TftC was similar to those of related flavin reductases. The stacked nicotinamide:isoalloxazine rings in TftC and sequential reaction kinetics suggest that the reduced FAD leaves TftC after NADH oxidation. The structure of TftD was also similar to the known structures of FADH(2)-dependent monooxygenases. Its His-289 residue in the re-side of the isoalloxazine ring is within hydrogen bonding distance with a hydroxyl group of 2,5-DiCHQ. An H289A mutation resulted in the complete loss of activity toward 2,5-DiCHQ and a significant decrease in catalytic efficiency toward 2,4,5-TCP. Thus, His-289 plays different roles in the catalysis of 2,4,5-TCP and 2,5-DiCHQ. The results support that free FADH(2) is generated by TftC, and TftD uses FADH(2) to separately transform 2,4,5-TCP and 2,5-DiCHQ. Additional experimental data also support the diffusion of FADH(2) between TftC and TftD without direct physical interaction between the two enzymes. PMID:19915006

Webb, Brian N; Ballinger, Jordan W; Kim, Eunjung; Belchik, Sara M; Lam, Ka-Sum; Youn, Buhyun; Nissen, Mark S; Xun, Luying; Kang, Chulhee



Expression of Human NAD(P)H:Quinone Oxidoreductase (DT-Diaphorase) in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells: Effect on the Toxicity of Antitumor Quinones  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Previous studies have indicated that NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase [DT-diaphorase (NQO1)] plays an important role in the bioreductive activation of quinone-containing antitumor agents. Although these studies demonstrated that purified NQO1 can reduce these compounds in vitro, the importance NQO1 in the intracellular activation of quinone-containing antitumor agents remains controversial. In our study, we transfected human NQO1 into Chinese hamster ovary cells that do not normally express NQO1 activity and obtained stable clones that expressed NQO1 activity of 19–3527 nmol of 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol reduced/min/mg of protein. The level of NQO1 expression correlated with an increased killing by streptonigrin, EO9 (3-hydroxymethyl-5-aziridinyl-1-methyl-2-(1H-indole-4,7-dione)-propenol), and 2,5-diaziridinyl-3,6-dimethyl-1,4-benzoquinone, but mitomycin C sensitivity was independent of this activity. NQO1 expression also led to a slight decrease in the sensitivity of cells to menadione. Our data demonstrate that compounds that are efficient substrates for NQO1 in vitro are also bioactivated in cultured mammalian cells when they are transfected with human NQO1. These results are consistent with the relative abilities of mitomycin C, streptonigrin, EO9, and 2,5-diaziridinyl-3,6-dimethyl-1,4-benzoquinone to serve as substrates for bioreduction by human NQO1, and show that NQO1 levels are not necessarily predictive in terms of sensitivity to mitomycin C. PMID:8863816




Identification, Design and Biological Evaluation of Bisaryl Quinolones Targeting Plasmodium falciparum Type II NADH:Quinone Oxidoreductase (PfNDH2)  

PubMed Central

A program was undertaken to identify hit compounds against NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (PfNDH2), a dehydrogenase of the mitochondrial electron transport chain of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. PfNDH2 has only one known inhibitor, hydroxy-2-dodecyl-4-(1H)-quinolone (HDQ), and this was used along with a range of chemoinformatics methods in the rational selection of 17?000 compounds for high-throughput screening. Twelve distinct chemotypes were identified and briefly examined leading to the selection of the quinolone core as the key target for structure–activity relationship (SAR) development. Extensive structural exploration led to the selection of 2-bisaryl 3-methyl quinolones as a series for further biological evaluation. The lead compound within this series 7-chloro-3-methyl-2-(4-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)benzyl)phenyl)quinolin-4(1H)-one (CK-2-68) has antimalarial activity against the 3D7 strain of P. falciparum of 36 nM, is selective for PfNDH2 over other respiratory enzymes (inhibitory IC50 against PfNDH2 of 16 nM), and demonstrates low cytotoxicity and high metabolic stability in the presence of human liver microsomes. This lead compound and its phosphate pro-drug have potent in vivo antimalarial activity after oral administration, consistent with the target product profile of a drug for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Other quinolones presented (e.g., 6d, 6f, 14e) have the capacity to inhibit both PfNDH2 and P. falciparum cytochrome bc1, and studies to determine the potential advantage of this dual-targeting effect are in progress. PMID:22364416



Role of Ser457 of NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase in catalysis and control of FAD oxidation-reduction potential.  


Site-directed mutagenesis of Ser457 of NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase demonstrates that this residue plays a major role in both hydride transfer from NADPH to FAD and modulation of FAD redox potential. Substitution of Ser457 with alanine or cysteine decreases the rates of reduction of the substrates cytochrome c and potassium ferricyanide approximately 100-fold, while substitution with threonine produces a 20-fold decrease in activity. No changes are observed in k(m)NADPH, KiNADP+, or flavin content, indicating that these substitutions have no effect on cofactor binding but affect catalysis only. k(m)cyt c values are decreased in parallel with the observed decreases in the rates of the reductive half-reaction. Stopped-flow studies with the S457A mutant show a 100-fold decrease in the rate of flavin reduction. The primary deuterium isotope effect on Kcat for cytochrome c reduction increases from 2.7 for the wild-type enzyme to 9.0 for the S457A mutant, consistent with a change in the rate-determining step from NADP+ release in the wild-type enzyme to hydride transfer in the S457A mutant. The primary deuterium isotope effect on K1 for flavin reduction at high ionic strength (I = 535 mM) increases from 12.2 for the wild-type enzyme to > 20 for the S457A mutant, consistent again with an increase in the relative rate limitation of hydride transfer. Furthermore, anaerobic titration of S457A indicates that the redox potential of the FAD semiquinone has been decreased. Data presented in this study support the hypothesis that Ser457 is involved in hydrogen bonding interactions which stabilize both the transition state for hydride transfer and the reduced FAD. PMID:8755724

Shen, A L; Kasper, C B



Electron Spin Relaxation Enhancement Measurements of Interspin Distances in Human, Porcine, and Rhodobacter Electron Transfer Flavoprotein-ubiquinone Oxidoreductase (ETF-QO)  

PubMed Central

Electron transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF-QO) is a membrane-bound electron transfer protein that links primary flavoprotein dehydrogenases with the main respiratory chain. Human, porcine, and Rhodobacter sphaeroides ETF-QO each contain a single [4Fe-4S]2+,1+ cluster and one equivalent of FAD, which are diamagnetic in the isolated enzyme and become paramagnetic on reduction with the enzymatic electron donor or with dithionite. The anionic flavin semiquinone can be reduced further to diamagnetic hydroquinone. The redox potentials for the three redox couples are so similar that it is not possible to poise the proteins in a state where both the [4Fe-4S]+ cluster and the flavoquinone are fully in the paramagnetic form. Inversion recovery was used to measure the electron spin-lattice relaxation rates for the [4Fe-4S]+ between 8 and 18 K and for semiquinone between 25 and 65 K. At higher temperatures the spin-lattice relaxation rates for the [4Fe-4S]+ were calculated from the temperature-dependent contributions to the continuous wave linewidths. Although mixtures of the redox states are present, it was possible to analyze the enhancement of the electron spin relaxation of the FAD semiquinone signal due to dipolar interaction with the more rapidly relaxing [4Fe-4S]+ and obtain point dipole interspin distances of 18.6 ± 1 Å for the three proteins. The point-dipole distances are within experimental uncertainty of the value calculated based on the crystal structure of porcine ETF-QO when spin delocalization is taken into account. The results demonstrate that electron spin relaxation enhancement can be used to measure distances in redox poised proteins even when several redox states are present. PMID:18037314

Fielding, Alistair J.; Usselman, Robert J.; Watmough, Nicholas; Simkovic, Martin; Frerman, Frank E.; Eaton, Gareth R.; Eaton, Sandra S.



ES936 stimulates DNA synthesis in HeLa cells independently on NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 inhibition, through a mechanism involving p38 MAPK.  


The indolequinone ES936 (5-methoxy-1,2-dimethyl-3-[(4-nitrophenol)methyl]-indole-4,7-dione) is a potent mechanism-based inhibitor of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). Here, we report that ES936 significantly stimulated thymidine incorporation in sparse cultures of human adenocarcinoma HeLa cells, but was without effect in dense cultures. Stimulation of DNA synthesis was not related with a DNA repair response because an increase in thymidine incorporation was not observed in cells treated with 2,5 bis-[1-aziridyl]-1,4 benzoquinone, a well-established antitumor quinone that causes DNA damage. Conversely, it was related with an increase of cell growth. NQO1 inhibition was not involved in ES936 stimulation of DNA synthesis, because the same response was observed in cells where NQO1 expression had been knocked down by small interfering RNA. Stimulation of DNA synthesis was reverted by treatment with ambroxol, a SOD mimetic, and by pyruvate, an efficient peroxide scavenger, supporting the involvement of alterations in cellular redox state. Pharmacological inhibition of p38 with either SB203580 or PD169316 completely abolished ES936-stimulated DNA synthesis, indicating the requirement of p38 activity. This is the first report that demonstrates the existence of an ES936-sensitive system which is separate from NQO1, modulating the redox state and cell growth in HeLa cells through a p38-dependent mechanism. Our results show that the effect ES936 exerts on DNA synthesis may be either positive or negative depending on the cellular context and growth conditions. PMID:20433816

González-Aragón, David; Alcaín, Francisco J; Ariza, Julia; Jódar, Laura; Barbarroja, Nuria; López-Pedrera, Chary; Villalba, José M



Structure-function relationship of Vibrio harveyi NADPH-flavin oxidoreductase FRP: essential residues Lys167 and Arg15 for NADPH binding.  


Vibrio harveyi NADPH-FMN oxidoreductase (FRP) catalyzes flavin reduction by NADPH. In comparing amino acid sequence and crystal structure with Escherichia coli NfsA, residues N134, R225, R133, K167, and R15 were targeted for investigation of their possible roles in the binding and utilization of the NADPH substrate. By mutation of each of these five residues to an alanine, steady-state rate analyses showed that the variants K167A and R15A had apparently greatly increased K(m,NADPH) and reduced k(cat)/K(m,NADPH), whereas little or much more modest changes were found for the other variants. The deuterium isotope effects (D)(V/K) for (4R)-[4-(2)H]-NADPH were markedly increased to 6.3 and 7.4 for K167A and R15A, respectively, indicating that the rate constants for NADPH and NADP(+) dissociation were greatly enhanced relative to the hydride transfer steps. Also, anaerobic stopped-flow analyses revealed that the equilibrium dissociation constant for NADPH binding (K(d)) to be 2.5-3.9 and 1.1 mM for K167A and R15A, respectively, much higher than the 0.4 ?M K(d) for the native FRP, whereas the k(cat) of these two variants were similar to that of the wild-type enzyme. Moreover, the K167 to alanine mutation led to even a slight increase in k(cat)/K(m) for NADH. These results, taken together, provide a strong support to the conclusion that K167 and R15 each was critical in the binding of NADPH by FRP. Such a functional role may also exist for other FRP homologous proteins. PMID:22650604

Chung, Hae-Won; Tu, Shiao-Chun



Expression of human electron transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase from a baculovirus vector: kinetic and spectral characterization of the human protein.  

PubMed Central

Electron transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF-QO) is an iron-sulphur flavoprotein and a component of an electron-transfer system that links 10 different mitochondrial flavoprotein dehydrogenases to the mitochondrial bc1 complex via electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) and ubiquinone. ETF-QO is an integral membrane protein, and the primary sequences of human and porcine ETF-QO were deduced from the sequences of the cloned cDNAs. We have expressed human ETF-QO in Sf9 insect cells using a baculovirus vector. The cDNA encoding the entire protein, including the mitochondrial targeting sequence, was present in the vector. We isolated a membrane-bound form of the enzyme that has a molecular mass identical with that of the mature porcine protein as determined by SDS/PAGE and has an N-terminal sequence that is identical with that predicted for the mature holoenzyme. These data suggest that the heterologously expressed ETF-QO is targeted to mitochondria and processed to the mature, catalytically active form. The detergent-solubilized protein was purified by ion-exchange and hydroxyapatite chromatography. Absorption and EPR spectroscopy and redox titrations are consistent with the presence of flavin and iron-sulphur centres that are very similar to those in the equivalent porcine and bovine proteins. Additionally, the redox potentials of the two prosthetic groups appear similar to those of the other eukaryotic ETF-QO proteins. The steady-state kinetic constants of human ETF-QO were determined with ubiquinone homologues, a ubiquinone analogue, and with human wild-type ETF and a Paracoccus-human chimaeric ETF as varied substrates. The results demonstrate that this expression system provides sufficient amounts of human ETF-QO to enable crystallization and mechanistic investigations of the iron-sulphur flavoprotein. PMID:12049629

Simkovic, Martin; Degala, Gregory D; Eaton, Sandra S; Frerman, Frank E



Semiquinone and Cluster N6 Signals in His-tagged Proton-translocating NADH:Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase (Complex I) from Escherichia coli*  

PubMed Central

NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) pumps protons across the membrane using downhill redox energy. The Escherichia coli complex I consists of 13 different subunits named NuoA-N coded by the nuo operon. Due to the low abundance of the protein and some difficulty with the genetic manipulation of its large ?15-kb operon, purification of E. coli complex I has been technically challenging. Here, we generated a new strain in which a polyhistidine sequence was inserted upstream of nuoE in the operon. This allowed us to prepare large amounts of highly pure and active complex I by efficient affinity purification. The purified complex I contained 0.94 ± 0.1 mol of FMN, 29.0 ± 0.37 mol of iron, and 1.99 ± 0.07 mol of ubiquinone/1 mol of complex I. The extinction coefficient of isolated complex I was 495 mm?1 cm?1 at 274 nm and 50.3 mm?1 cm?1 at 410 nm. NADH:ferricyanide activity was 219 ± 9.7 ?mol/min/mg by using HEPES-Bis-Tris propane, pH 7.5. Detailed EPR analyses revealed two additional iron-sulfur cluster signals, N6a and N6b, in addition to previously assigned signals. Furthermore, we found small but significant semiquinone signal(s), which have been reported only for bovine complex I. The line width was ?12 G, indicating its neutral semiquinone form. More than 90% of the semiquinone signal originated from the single entity with P½ (half-saturation power level) = 1.85 milliwatts. The semiquinone signal(s) decreased by 60% when with asimicin, a potent complex I inhibitor. The functional role of semiquinone and the EPR assignment of clusters N6a/N6b are discussed. PMID:23543743

Narayanan, Madhavan; Gabrieli, David J.; Leung, Steven A.; Elguindy, Mahmoud M.; Glaser, Carl A.; Saju, Nitha; Sinha, Subhash C.; Nakamaru-Ogiso, Eiko



Roles of Subunit NuoK (ND4L) in the Energy-transducing Mechanism of Escherichia coli NDH-1 (NADH:Quinone Oxidoreductase)*  

PubMed Central

The bacterial H+-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (NDH-1) catalyzes electron transfer from NADH to quinone coupled with proton pumping across the cytoplasmic membrane. The NuoK subunit (counterpart of the mitochondrial ND4L subunit) is one of the seven hydrophobic subunits in the membrane domain and bears three transmembrane segments (TM1–3). Two glutamic residues located in the adjacent transmembrane helices of NuoK are important for the energy coupled activity of NDH-1. In particular, mutation of the highly conserved carboxyl residue (KGlu-36 in TM2) to Ala led to a complete loss of the NDH-1 activities. Mutation of the second conserved carboxyl residue (KGlu-72 in TM3) moderately reduced the activities. To clarify the contribution of NuoK to the mechanism of proton translocation, we relocated these two conserved residues. When we shifted KGlu-36 along TM2 to positions 32, 38, 39, and 40, the mutants largely retained energy transducing NDH-1 activities. According to the recent structural information, these positions are located in the vicinity of KGlu-36, present in the same helix phase, in an immediately before and after helix turn. In an earlier study, a double mutation of two arginine residues located in a short cytoplasmic loop between TM1 and TM2 (loop-1) showed a drastic effect on energy transducing activities. Therefore, the importance of this cytosolic loop of NuoK (KArg-25, KArg-26, and KAsn-27) for the energy transducing activities was extensively studied. The probable roles of subunit NuoK in the energy transducing mechanism of NDH-1 are discussed. PMID:23105119

Torres-Bacete, Jesus; Sinha, Prem Kumar; Sato, Motoaki; Patki, Gaurav; Kao, Mou-Chieh; Matsuno-Yagi, Akemi; Yagi, Takao



Removal of naphthols and analogues by the combined use of an oxidoreductase polyphenol oxidase and a biopolymer chitosan from aqueous solutions.  


In this study, the combined use of an amino group-containing polymer chitosan and an oxidoreductase polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was applied to the removal of naphthols and dihydroxynaphthalenes (DHNs) from aqueous solutions. The process parameters, such as the pH value, temperature and enzyme dose, were discussed for PPO-catalysed oxidation of 1-naphthol. The optimum conditions of enzymatic oxidation of 1-naphthol were determined to be pH 8.0 and 40 °C. Under the optimum conditions, PPO-catalysed oxidation of 1-naphthol increased with an increase in the enzyme dose. Quinone derivatives enzymatically generated were chemisorbed on chitosan beads and the initial velocity of PPO-catalysed oxidation increased with an increase in the amount of added chitosan beads. A specific initial velocity of 0.0675 ?mol/U·min was obtained in the PPO concentration range below 200 U/cm(3) and 1-naphthol was completely removed within 24 h by quinone adsorption on chitosan beads (0.20 cm(3)/cm(3)) at a PPO concentration of 100 U/cm(3). The removal time was shortened by increasing the enzyme dose or the amount of added chitosan beads. 2-Naphthol was also completely removed at an initial concentration of 0.05 mM or less by prolonging the reaction time, since PPO-catalysed oxidation of 2-naphthol was much slower than that of 1-naphthol. In addition, this procedure was also applied to the removal of DHNs. These results revealed that the procedure constructed in this study was an effective technique to remove naphthols and DHNs from the aqueous medium. PMID:25189838

Kimura, Yuji; Gotoh, Asahi; Shinozaki, Fumiyoshi; Kashiwada, Ayumi; Yamada, Kazunori



Role of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase in the progression of neuronal cell death in vitro and following cerebral ischaemia in vivo.  


A direct involvement of the antioxidant enzyme NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) in neuroprotection has not yet been shown. The aim of this study was to examine changes, localization and role of NQO1 after different neuronal injury paradigms. In primary cultures of rat cortex the activity of NQO1 was measured after treatment with ethylcholine aziridinium (AF64A; 40 micro m), inducing mainly apoptotic cell death, or oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD; 120 min), which combines features of apoptotic and necrotic cell death. After treatment with AF64A a significant NQO1 activation started after 24 h. Sixty minutes after OGD a significant early induction of the enzyme was observed, followed by a second increase 24 h later. Enzyme activity was preferentially localized in glial cells in control and injured cultures, however, expression also occurred in injured neuronal cells. Inhibition of the NQO1 activity by dicoumarol, cibacron blue or chrysin (1-100 nM) protected the cells both after exposure to AF64A or OGD as assessed by the decreased release of lactate dehydrogenase. Comparable results were obtained in vivo using a mouse model of focal cerebral ischaemia. Dicoumarol treatment (30 nmol intracerebroventricular) reduced the infarct volume by 29% (p = 0.005) 48 h after the insult. After chemical induction of NQO1 activity by t-butylhydroquinone in vitro neuronal damage was exaggerated. Our data suggest that the activity of NQO1 is a deteriorating rather than a protective factor in neuronal cell death. PMID:12603827

Kapinya, Krisztian J; Harms, Ulrike; Harms, Christoph; Blei, Katharina; Katchanov, Juri; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Hörtnagl, Heide



Gene Expression Profiling in the Type 1 Diabetes Rat Diaphragm  

PubMed Central

Background Respiratory muscle contractile performance is impaired by diabetes, mechanisms of which included altered carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and changes in membrane electrophysiology. The present study examined to what extent these cellular perturbations involve changes in gene expression. Methodology/Principal Findings Diaphragm muscle from streptozotocin-diabetic rats was analyzed with Affymetrix gene expression arrays. Diaphragm from diabetic rats had 105 genes with at least ±2-fold significantly changed expression (55 increased, 50 decreased), and these were assigned to gene ontology groups based on over-representation analysis using DAVID software. There was increased expression of genes involved in palmitoyl-CoA hydrolase activity (a component of lipid metabolism) (P?=?0.037, n?=?2 genes, fold change 4.2 to 27.5) and reduced expression of genes related to carbohydrate metabolism (P?=?0.000061, n?=?8 genes, fold change ?2.0 to ?8.5). Other gene ontology groups among upregulated genes were protein ubiquitination (P?=?0.0053, n?=?4, fold change 2.2 to 3.4), oxidoreductase activity (P?=?0.024, n?=?8, fold change 2.1 to 6.0), and morphogenesis (P?=?0.012, n?=?10, fold change 2.1 to 4.3). Other downregulated gene groups were extracellular region (including extracellular matrix and collagen) (P?=?0.00032, n?=?13, fold change ?2.2 to ?3.7) and organogenesis (P?=?0.032, n?=?7, fold change ?2.1 to ?3.7). Real-time PCR confirmed the directionality of changes in gene expression for 30 of 31 genes tested. Conclusions/Significance These data indicate that in diaphragm muscle type 1 diabetes increases expression of genes involved in lipid energetics, oxidative stress and protein ubiquitination, decreases expression of genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, and has little effect on expression of ion channel genes. Reciprocal changes in expression of genes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism may change the availability of energetic substrates and thereby directly modulate fatigue resistance, an important issue for a muscle like the diaphragm which needs to contract without rest for the entire lifetime of the organism. PMID:19915678

van Lunteren, Erik; Moyer, Michelle



Expression of an isoflavone reductase-like gene enhanced by pollen tube growth in pistils of Solanum tuberosum.  


Successful sexual reproduction relies on gene products delivered by the pistil to create an environment suitable for pollen tube growth. These compounds are either produced before pollination or formed during the interactions between pistil and pollen tubes. Here we describe the pollination-enhanced expression of the cp100 gene in pistils of Solanum tuberosum. Temporal analysis of gene expression revealed an enhanced expression already one hour after pollination and lasts more than 72 h. Increase in expression also occurred after touching the stigma and was not restricted to the site of touch but spread into the style. The predicted CP100 protein shows similarity to leguminous isoflavone reductases (IFRs), but belongs to a family of IFR-like NAD(P)H-dependent oxidoreductases present in various plant species. PMID:9106515

van Eldik, G J; Ruiter, R K; Colla, P H; van Herpen, M M; Schrauwen, J A; Wullems, G J



Cofactor Regeneration at the Lab Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress made in lab-scale applications of various coenzyme regeneration systems over the last two decades has mainly focused on the applications of NAD +\\/NADH- and NADP +\\/NADPH-dependent oxidoreductase reactions. In situ regeneration systems for these reactions, as well as whole cell, enzymatic, electro-enzymatic, chemical, and photochemical reactions are presented, including details about their efficiency and novelty. The progress of enzyme

R. Wichmann; D. Vasic-Racki


The Iron-Sulfur Cluster of Electron Transfer Flavoprotein-ubiquinone Oxidoreductase (ETF-QO) is the Electron Acceptor for Electron Transfer Flavoprotein†  

PubMed Central

Electron-transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF-QO) accepts electrons from electron-transfer flavoprotein (ETF) and reduces ubiquinone from the ubiquinone-pool. It contains one [4Fe-4S]2+,1+ and one FAD, which are diamagnetic in the isolated oxidized enzyme and can be reduced to paramagnetic forms by enzymatic donors or dithionite. In the porcine protein, threonine 367 is hydrogen bonded to N1 and O2 of the flavin ring of the FAD. The analogous site in Rhodobacter sphaeroides ETF-QO is asparagine 338. Mutations N338T and N338A were introduced into the R. sphaeroides protein by site-directed mutagenesis to determine the impact of hydrogen bonding at this site on redox potentials and activity. The mutations did not alter the optical spectra, EPR g-values, spin-lattice relaxation rates, or the [4Fe-4S]2+,1+ to FAD point-dipole interspin distances. The mutations had no impact on the reduction potential for the iron-sulfur cluster, which was monitored by changes in the continuous wave EPR signals of the [4Fe-4S]+ at 15 K. For the FAD semiquinone, significantly different potentials were obtained by monitoring the titration at 100 or 293 K. Based on spectra at 293 K the N338T mutation shifted the first and second midpoint potentials for the FAD from +47 mV and ?30 mV for wild type to ?11 mV and ?19 mV, respectively. The N338A mutation decreased the potentials to ?37 mV and ?49 mV. Lowering the midpoint potentials resulted in a decrease in the quinone reductase activity and negligible impact on disproportionation of ETF1e? catalyzed by ETF-QO. These observations indicate that the FAD is involved in electron transfer to ubiquinone, but not in electron transfer from ETF to ETF-QO. Therefore the iron-sulfur cluster is the immediate acceptor from ETF. PMID:18672901

Swanson, Michael A.; Usselman, Robert J.; Frerman, Frank E.; Eaton, Gareth R.; Eaton, Sandra S.



Heterologous Expression of Equine CYP3A94 and Investigation of a Tunable System to Regulate Co-Expressed NADPH P450 Oxidoreductase Levels  

PubMed Central

The activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes depends on the enzyme NADPH P450 oxidoreductase (POR). The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of the equine CYP3A94 using a system that allows to regulate the POR protein levels in mammalian cells. CYP3A94 and the equine POR were heterologously expressed in V79 cells. In the system used, the POR protein regulation is based on a destabilizing domain (DD) that transfers its instability to a fused protein. The resulting fusion protein is therefore degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Addition of “Shield-1” prevents the DD fusion protein from degradation. The change of POR levels at different Shield-1 concentrations was demonstrated by cytochrome c reduction, Western immunoblot analysis, and immunocytochemistry. The alteration of CYP3A94 activity was investigated using a substrate (BFC) known to detect CYP3A4 activity. Equine CYP3A94 was demonstrated to be metabolically active and its activity could be significantly elevated by co-expression of POR. Cytochrome c reduction was significantly increased in V79-CYP3A94/DD-POR cells compared to V79-CYP3A94 cells. Surprisingly, incubation with different Shield-1 concentrations resulted in a decrease in POR protein shown by Western immunoblot analysis. Cytochrome c reduction did not change significantly, but the CYP3A94 activity decreased more than 4-fold after incubation with 500 nM and 1 µM Shield-1 for 24 hours. No differences were obtained when V79-CYP3A94 POR cells with and without Shield-1 were compared. The basal activity levels of V79-CYP3A94/DD-POR cells were unexpectedly high, indicating that DD/POR is not degraded without Shield-1. Shield-1 decreased POR protein levels and CYP3A94 activity suggesting that Shield-1 might impair POR activity by an unknown mechanism. Although regulation of POR with the pPTuner system could not be obtained, the cell line V79-CYP3A94/DD-POR system can be used for further experiments to characterize the equine CYP3A94 since the CYP activity was significantly enhanced with co-expressed POR. PMID:25415624

Dettwiler, Ramona; Schmitz, Andrea L.; Plattet, Philippe; Zielinski, Jana; Mevissen, Meike



Cell Growth Defect Factor1/CHAPERONE-LIKE PROTEIN OF POR1 Plays a Role in Stabilization of Light-Dependent Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis[C][W  

PubMed Central

Angiosperms require light for chlorophyll biosynthesis because one reaction in the pathway, the reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to chlorophyllide, is catalyzed by the light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR). Here, we report that Cell growth defect factor1 (Cdf1), renamed here as CHAPERONE-LIKE PROTEIN OF POR1 (CPP1), an essential protein for chloroplast development, plays a role in the regulation of POR stability and function. Cdf1/CPP1 contains a J-like domain and three transmembrane domains, is localized in the thylakoid and envelope membranes, and interacts with POR isoforms in chloroplasts. CPP1 can stabilize POR proteins with its holdase chaperone activity. CPP1 deficiency results in diminished POR protein accumulation and defective chlorophyll synthesis, leading to photobleaching and growth inhibition of plants under light conditions. CPP1 depletion also causes reduced POR accumulation in etioplasts of dark-grown plants and as a result impairs the formation of prolamellar bodies, which subsequently affects chloroplast biogenesis upon illumination. Furthermore, in cyanobacteria, the CPP1 homolog critically regulates POR accumulation and chlorophyll synthesis under high-light conditions, in which the dark-operative Pchlide oxidoreductase is repressed by its oxygen sensitivity. These findings and the ubiquitous presence of CPP1 in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms suggest the conserved nature of CPP1 function in the regulation of POR. PMID:24151298

Lee, Jae-Yong; Lee, Ho-Seok; Song, Ji-Young; Jung, Young Jun; Reinbothe, Steffen; Park, Youn-Il; Lee, Sang Yeol; Pai, Hyun-Sook



One-pot chemoenzymatic synthesis of chiral 1,3-diols using an enantioselective aldol reaction with chiral Zn2+ complex catalysts and enzymatic reduction using oxidoreductases with cofactor regeneration.  


We previously reported on enantioselective aldol reactions of acetone and some aldehydes catalyzed by chiral Zn(2+) complexes of L-prolyl-pendant [12]aneN(4) (L-ZnL(1)) and L-valyl-pendant [12]aneN(4) (L-ZnL(2)) in aqueous solution. Here, we report on the one-pot chemoenzymatic synthesis of chiral 1,3-diols in an aqueous solvent system at room temperature by a combination of enantioselective aldol reactions catalyzed by Zn(2+) complexes of L- and D-phenylalanyl-pendant [12]aneN(4) (L-ZnL(3) and D-ZnL(3) ) and the successive enantioselective reduction of the aldol products using oxidoreductases with the regeneration of the NADH (reduced form of nicotinamine adenine dinucleotide) cofactor. The findings indicate that all four stereoisomers of 1,3-diols can be produced by appropriate selection of a chiral Zn(2+)-complex and an oxidoreductase commercially available from the "Chiralscreen OH" kit. PMID:22174123

Sonoike, Shotaro; Itakura, Toshinari; Kitamura, Masanori; Aoki, Shin



Metronidazole activation and isolation of Clostridium acetobutylicum electron transport genes.  

PubMed Central

An Escherichia coli F19 recA, nitrate reductase-deficient mutant was constructed by transposon mutagenesis and shown to be resistant to metronidazole. This mutant was a most suitable host for the isolation of Clostridium acetobutylicum genes on recombinant plasmids, which activated metronidazole and rendered the E. coli F19 strain sensitive to metronidazole. Twenty-five E. coli F19 clones containing different recombinant plasmids were isolated and classified into five groups on the basis of their sensitivity to metronidazole. The clones were tested for nitrate reductase, pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase, and hydrogenase activities. DNA hybridization and restriction endonuclease mapping revealed that four of the C. acetobutylicum insert DNA fragments on recombinant plasmids were linked in an 11.1-kb chromosomal fragment. DNA sequencing and amino acid homology studies indicated that this DNA fragment contained a flavodoxin gene which encoded a protein of 160 amino acids that activated metronidazole and made the E. coli F19 mutant very sensitive to metronidazole. The flavodoxin and hydrogenase genes which are involved in electron transfer systems were linked on the 11.1-kb DNA fragment from C. acetobutylicum. Images PMID:1991710

Santangelo, J D; Jones, D T; Woods, D R



Cold-Induced Changes in Gene Expression in Brown Adipose Tissue, White Adipose Tissue and Liver  

PubMed Central

Cold exposure imposes a metabolic challenge to mammals that is met by a coordinated response in different tissues to prevent hypothermia. This study reports a transcriptomic analysis in brown adipose tissue (BAT), white adipose (WAT) and liver of mice in response to 24 h cold exposure at 8°C. Expression of 1895 genes were significantly (P<0.05) up- or down-regulated more than two fold by cold exposure in all tissues but only 5 of these genes were shared by all three tissues, and only 19, 14 and 134 genes were common between WAT and BAT, WAT and liver, and BAT and liver, respectively. We confirmed using qRT-PCR, the increased expression of a number of characteristic BAT genes during cold exposure. In both BAT and the liver, the most common direction of change in gene expression was suppression (496 genes in BAT and 590 genes in liver). Gene ontology analysis revealed for the first time significant (P<0.05) down regulation in response to cold, of genes involved in oxidoreductase activity, lipid metabolic processes and protease inhibitor activity, in both BAT and liver, but not WAT. The results reveal an unexpected importance of down regulation of cytochrome P450 gene expression and apolipoprotein, in both BAT and liver, but not WAT, in response to cold exposure. Pathway analysis suggests a model in which down regulation of the nuclear transcription factors HNF4? and PPAR? in both BAT and liver may orchestrate the down regulation of genes involved in lipoprotein and steroid metabolism as well as Phase I enzymes belonging to the cytochrome P450 group in response to cold stress in mice. We propose that the response to cold stress involves decreased gene expression in a range of cellular processes in order to maximise pathways involved in heat production. PMID:23894377

Shore, Andrew M.; Karamitri, Angeliki; Kemp, Paul; Speakman, John R.; Graham, Neil S.; Lomax, Michael A.



Gene Positioning  

PubMed Central

Eukaryotic gene expression is an intricate multistep process, regulated within the cell nucleus through the activation or repression of RNA synthesis, processing, cytoplasmic export, and translation into protein. The major regulators of gene expression are chromatin remodeling and transcription machineries that are locally recruited to genes. However, enzymatic activities that act on genes are not ubiquitously distributed throughout the nucleoplasm, but limited to specific and spatially defined foci that promote preferred higher-order chromatin arrangements. The positioning of genes within the nuclear landscape relative to specific functional landmarks plays an important role in gene regulation and disease. PMID:20484389

Ferrai, Carmelo; de Castro, Ines Jesus; Lavitas, Liron; Chotalia, Mita; Pombo, Ana



Differential Divergence of Three Human Pseudoautosomal Genes and Their Mouse Homologs: Implications for Sex Chromosome Evolution  

PubMed Central

The human pseudoautosomal region 1 (PAR1) is essential for meiotic pairing and recombination, and its deletion causes male sterility. Comparative studies of human and mouse pseudoautosomal genes are valuable in charting the evolution of this interesting region, but have been limited by the paucity of genes conserved between the two species. We have cloned a novel human PAR1 gene, DHRSXY, encoding an oxidoreductase of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family, and isolated a mouse ortholog Dhrsxy. We also searched for mouse homologs of recently reported PGPL and TRAMP genes that flank it within PAR1. We recovered a highly conserved mouse ortholog of PGPL by cross-hybridization, but found no mouse homolog of TRAMP. Like Csf2ra and Il3ra, both mouse homologs are autosomal; Pgpl on chromosome 5, and Dhrsxy subtelomeric on chromosome 4. TRAMP, like the human genes within or near PAR1, is probably very divergent or absent in the mouse genome. We interpret the rapid divergence and loss of pseudoautosomal genes in terms of a model of selection for the concentration of repetitive recombinogenic sequences that predispose to high recombination and translocation. [The sequence data described in this paper have been submitted to the EMBL data library under accession nos. AJ293620, AJ296079, and AJ293619.] PMID:11731500

Gianfrancesco, Fernando; Sanges, Remo; Esposito, Teresa; Tempesta, Sergio; Rao, Ercole; Rappold, Gudrun; Archidiacono, Nicoletta; Graves, Jennifer A.M.; Forabosco, Antonino; D'Urso, Michele



Differential divergence of three human pseudoautosomal genes and their mouse homologs: implications for sex chromosome evolution.  


The human pseudoautosomal region 1 (PAR1) is essential for meiotic pairing and recombination, and its deletion causes male sterility. Comparative studies of human and mouse pseudoautosomal genes are valuable in charting the evolution of this interesting region, but have been limited by the paucity of genes conserved between the two species. We have cloned a novel human PAR1 gene, DHRSXY, encoding an oxidoreductase of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family, and isolated a mouse ortholog Dhrsxy. We also searched for mouse homologs of recently reported PGPL and TRAMP genes that flank it within PAR1. We recovered a highly conserved mouse ortholog of PGPL by cross-hybridization, but found no mouse homolog of TRAMP. Like Csf2ra and Il3ra, both mouse homologs are autosomal; Pgpl on chromosome 5, and Dhrsxy subtelomeric on chromosome 4. TRAMP, like the human genes within or near PAR1, is probably very divergent or absent in the mouse genome. We interpret the rapid divergence and loss of pseudoautosomal genes in terms of a model of selection for the concentration of repetitive recombinogenic sequences that predispose to high recombination and translocation. PMID:11731500

Gianfrancesco, F; Sanges, R; Esposito, T; Tempesta, S; Rao, E; Rappold, G; Archidiacono, N; Graves, J A; Forabosco, A; D'Urso, M



A human alcohol dehydrogenase gene (ADH6) encoding an additional class of isozyme.  

PubMed Central

The human alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC gene family consists of five known loci (ADH1-ADH5), which have been mapped close together on chromosome 4 (4q21-25). ADH isozymes encoded by these genes are grouped in three distinct classes in terms of their enzymological properties. A moderate structural similarity is observed between the members of different classes. We isolated an additional member of the ADH gene family by means of cross-hybridization with the ADH2 (class I) cDNA probe. cDNA clones corresponding to this gene were derived from PCR-amplified libraries as well. The coding sequence of a 368-amino-acid-long open reading frame was interrupted by introns into eight exons and spanned approximately 17 kilobases on the genome. The gene contains a glucocorticoid response element at the 5' region. The transcript was detected in the stomach and liver. The deduced amino acid sequence of the open reading frame showed about 60% positional identity with known human ADHs. This extent of homology is comparable to interclass similarity in the human ADH family. Thus, the newly identified gene, which is designated ADH6, governs the synthesis of an enzyme that belongs to another class of ADHs presumably with a distinct physiological role. Images PMID:1881901

Yasunami, M; Chen, C S; Yoshida, A



cDNA cloning, functional expression and cellular localization of rat liver mitochondrial electron-transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

A membrane-bound protein was purified from rat liver mitochondria. After being digested with V8 protease, two peptides containing\\u000a identical 14 amino acid residue sequences were obtained. Using the 14 amino acid peptide derived DNA sequence as gene specific\\u000a primer, the cDNA of correspondent gene 5?-terminal and 3?-terminal were obtained by RACE technique. The full-length cDNAthat\\u000a encoded a protein of 616

Shengbing Huang; Wei Song; Qishui Lin



Cloning, Overexpression, and Mutagenesis of the Sporobolomyces salmonicolor AKU4429 Gene Encoding a New Aldehyde Reductase, Which Catalyzes the Stereoselective Reduction of Ethyl 4-Chloro-3-Oxobutanoate to Ethyl (S)-4-Chloro-3-Hydroxybutanoate  

PubMed Central

We cloned and sequenced the gene encoding an NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase (ARII) in Sporobolomyces salmonicolor AKU4429, which reduces ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate (4-COBE) to ethyl (S)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate. The ARII gene is 1,032 bp long, is interrupted by four introns, and encodes a 37,315-Da polypeptide. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibited significant levels of similarity to the amino acid sequences of members of the mammalian 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase–plant dihydroflavonol 4-reductase superfamily but not to the amino acid sequences of members of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily or to the amino acid sequence of an aldehyde reductase previously isolated from the same organism (K. Kita, K. Matsuzaki, T. Hashimoto, H. Yanase, N. Kato, M. C.-M. Chung, M. Kataoka, and S. Shimizu, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62:2303–2310, 1996). The ARII protein was overproduced in Escherichia coli about 2,000-fold compared to the production in the original yeast cells. The enzyme expressed in E. coli was purified to homogeneity and had the same catalytic properties as ARII purified from S. salmonicolor. To examine the contribution of the dinucleotide-binding motif G19-X-X-G22-X-X-A25, which is located in the N-terminal region, during ARII catalysis, we replaced three amino acid residues in the motif and purified the resulting mutant enzymes. Substrate inhibition of the G19?A and G22?A mutant enzymes by 4-COBE did not occur. The A25?G mutant enzyme could reduce 4-COBE when NADPH was replaced by an equimolar concentration of NADH. PMID:10583966

Kita, Keiko; Fukura, Takanobu; Nakase, Koh-Ichi; Okamoto, Kenji; Yanase, Hideshi; Kataoka, Michihiko; Shimizu, Sakayu



ABC1, a novel yeast nuclear gene has a dual function in mitochondria: it suppresses a cytochrome b mRNA translation defect and is essential for the electron transfer in the bc 1 complex.  


We have cloned and sequenced a novel yeast nuclear gene ABC1 which suppresses, in multicopy, the cytochrome b mRNA translation defect due to the nuclear mutation cbs2-223. Analysis of the ABC1 gene shows that it is weakly expressed, it could code for a protein of 501 amino acids which has a typical presequence of a protein imported into mitochondria and which does not display a strong similarity to any known protein. Inactivation of the ABC1 gene is not lethal to the cell but leads to a respiratory defect: no oxygen uptake and no growth on non-fermentable media. A total absence of NADH-cytochrome c oxidoreductase and succinate-cytochrome c oxidoreductase activities concomitant with the presence of specific dehydrogenases, suggests a block in the bc 1 segment of the respiratory chain. However, all the cytochromes are spectrally detectable. Cytochrome b is quite efficiently reduced while cytochromes c1 and c are not. The function of ABC1 in the suppression of a defect in apocytochrome b mRNA translation and in the activity of the bc1 complex suggests that the ABC1 protein would be a novel chaperonin involved both in biogenesis and bioenergetics of mitochondria. PMID:1648478

Bousquet, I; Dujardin, G; Slonimski, P P



Influence of sex on gene expression in human corneal epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Purpose Sex-associated differences have been identified in the anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology of the human cornea. We hypothesize that many of these differences are due to fundamental variations in gene expression. Our objective in this study was to determine whether such differences exist in human corneal epithelial cells both in vivo and in vitro. Methods Human corneal epithelial cells were isolated from the corneoscleral rims of male and female donors. Cells were processed either directly for RNA extraction, or first cultured in phenol red-free keratinocyte serum-free media. The RNA samples were examined for differentially expressed mRNAs by using of CodeLink Bioarrays and Affymetrix GeneChips. Data were analyzed with GeneSifter.Net software. Results Our results demonstrate that sex significantly influences the expression of over 600 genes in human corneal epithelial cells in vivo. These genes are involved in a broad spectrum of biologic processes, molecular functions and cellular components, such as metabolic processes, DNA replication, cell migration, RNA binding, oxidoreductase activity and nucleoli. We also identified significant, sex-related effects on gene expression in human corneal epithelial cells in vitro. However, with few exceptions (e.g., X- and Y-linked genes), these sex-related differences in gene expression in vitro were typically different than those in vivo. Conclusions Our findings support our hypothesis that sex-related differences exist in the gene expression of human corneal epithelial cells. Variations in gene expression may contribute to sex-related differences in the prevalence of certain corneal diseases. PMID:20011627

Suzuki, Tomo; Richards, Stephen M.; Liu, Shaohui; Jensen, Roderick V.



Identification of Methylmercury Tolerance Gene Candidates in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Methylmercury (MeHg) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant that preferentially targets the developing nervous system. Variable outcomes of prenatal MeHg exposure within a population point to a genetic component that regulates MeHg toxicity. We therefore sought to identify fundamental MeHg tolerance genes using the Drosophila model for genetic and molecular dissection of a MeHg tolerance trait. We observe autosomal dominance in a MeHg tolerance trait (development on MeHg food) in both wild-derived and laboratory-selected MeHg-tolerant strains of flies. We performed whole-genome transcript profiling of larval brains of tolerant (laboratory selected) and nontolerant (control) strains in the presence and absence of MeHg stress. Pairwise transcriptome comparisons of four conditions (+/?selection and +/?MeHg) identified a “down-down-up” expression signature, whereby MeHg alone and selection alone resulted in a greater number of downregulated transcripts, and the combination of selection + MeHg resulted in a greater number of upregulated transcripts. Functional annotation cluster analyses showed enrichment for monooxygenases/oxidoreductases, which include cytochrome P450 (CYP) family members. Among the 10 CYPs upregulated with selection + MeHg in tolerant strains, CYP6g1, previously identified as the dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane resistance allele in flies, was the most highly expressed and responsive to MeHg. Among all the genes, Turandot A (TotA), an immune pathway–regulated humoral response gene, showed the greatest upregulation with selection + MeHg. Neural-specific transgenic overexpression of TotA enhanced MeHg tolerance during pupal development. Identification of TotA and CYP genes as MeHg tolerance genes is an inroad to investigating the conserved function of immune signaling and phase I metabolism pathways in MeHg toxicity and tolerance in higher organisms. PMID:20375079

Mahapatra, Cecon T.; Bond, Jeffrey; Rand, David M.; Rand, Matthew D.



Negative Regulation of DsbA-L Gene Expression by the Transcription Factor Sp1.  


Disulfide-bond A oxidoreductase-like protein (DsbA-L) possesses beneficial effects such as promoting adiponectin multimerization and stability, increasing insulin sensitivity, and enhancing energy metabolism. The expression level of DsbA-L is negatively correlated with obesity in mice and humans, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. To address this question, we generated reporter gene constructs containing the promoter sequence of the mouse DsbA-L gene. Deletion analysis showed that the proximal promoter of mouse DsbA-L is located between -186 and -34 bp relative to the transcription start site. In silico analysis identified a putative Sp1 transcription factor binding site in the first intron of the DsbA-L gene. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis indicated that Sp1 bound to this intron region in vitro and in intact cells. Overexpression of Sp1 or suppressing Sp1 expression by siRNA reduced or increased DsbA-L promoter activity, respectively. The binding activity of Sp1 was gradually decreased during 3T3-L1 cell differentiation and was significantly increased in adipose tissues of obese mice. Our results identify Sp1 as an inhibitor of DsbA-L gene transcription, and the Sp1-mediated inhibition of DsbA-L gene expression may provide a mechanism underlying obesity-induced adiponectin downregulation and insulin resistance. PMID:25024375

Fang, Qichen; Yang, Wenjing; Li, Huating; Hu, Wenxiu; Chen, Lihui; Jiang, Shan; Dong, Kun; Song, Qianqian; Wang, Chen; Chen, Shuo; Liu, Feng; Jia, Weiping



Transcriptional profiling of biomass degradation-related genes during Trichoderma reesei growth on different carbon sources.  


To identify all the gene products involved in cellulosic biomass degradation, we employed RNA sequencing technology to perform a genome-wide comparison of gene expression during growth of Trichoderma reesei QM9414 on cellulose or glucose. Due to their important role in lignocellulose decomposition, we focused on CAZymes and other secreted proteins. In total, 122 CAZymes showed at least a two-fold change in mRNA abundance, and 97 of those were highly induced by cellulose. Compared to the well-characterized cellulases and hemicellulases, a majority of the other upregulated CAZymes showed lower transcriptional levels. In addition, 64 secreted proteins, including oxidoreductases, exhibited at least two-fold upregulation on cellulose medium. To better understand the potential roles of low-abundance CAZymes in cellulose breakdown, we compared the expression patterns of 25 glycoside hydrolase genes under different conditions via real-time PCR. Substantial differences for the 25 genes were observed for individual strains grown on different carbon sources, and between QM9414 and RUTC30 when grown on the same carbon source. Moreover, we identified 3 genes that are coregulated with known cellulases. Collectively, this study highlights a comprehensive transcriptional profile for biomass degradation-related proteins and provides a first step toward the identification of candidates to construct optimized enzyme cocktails. PMID:24445169

Chen, Xiuzhen; Luo, Yingfeng; Yu, Hongtao; Sun, Yuhui; Wu, Hong; Song, Shuhui; Hu, Songnian; Dong, Zhiyang



Flavodoxin:Quinone Reductase (FqrB): a Redox Partner of Pyruvate:Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase That Reversibly Couples Pyruvate Oxidation to NADPH Production in Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter jejuni?  

PubMed Central

Pyruvate-dependent reduction of NADP has been demonstrated in cell extracts of the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. However, NADP is not a substrate of purified pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR), suggesting that other redox active enzymes mediate this reaction. Here we show that fqrB (HP1164), which is essential and highly conserved among the epsilonproteobacteria, exhibits NADPH oxidoreductase activity. FqrB was purified by nickel interaction chromatography following overexpression in Escherichia coli. The protein contained flavin adenine dinucleotide and exhibited NADPH quinone reductase activity with menadione or benzoquinone and weak activity with cytochrome c, molecular oxygen, and 5,5?-dithio-bis-2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB). FqrB exhibited a ping-pong catalytic mechanism, a kcat of 122 s?1, and an apparent Km of 14 ?M for menadione and 26 ?M for NADPH. FqrB also reduced flavodoxin (FldA), the electron carrier of PFOR. In coupled enzyme assays with purified PFOR and FldA, FqrB reduced NADP in a pyruvate- and reduced coenzyme A (CoA)-dependent manner. Moreover, in the presence of NADPH, CO2, and acetyl-CoA, the PFOR:FldA:FqrB complex generated pyruvate via CO2 fixation. PFOR was the rate-limiting enzyme in the complex, and nitazoxanide, a specific inhibitor of PFOR of H. pylori and Campylobacter jejuni, also inhibited NADP reduction in cell-free lysates. These capnophilic (CO2-requiring) organisms contain gaps in pathways of central metabolism that would benefit substantially from pyruvate formation via CO2 fixation. Thus, FqrB provides a novel function in pyruvate metabolism and, together with production of superoxide anions via quinone reduction under high oxygen tensions, contributes to the unique microaerobic lifestyle that defines the epsilonproteobacterial group. PMID:17468253

St. Maurice, Martin; Cremades, Nunilo; Croxen, Matthew A.; Sisson, Gary; Sancho, Javier; Hoffman, Paul S.



Gene Concepts, Gene Talk, and Gene Patents  

E-print Network

concepts have exerted strong effects on institutions such as medicine, the biotechnology industry, politics, and the law. A particularly rich example of this is the interplay between gene concepts and patent law. Over the last century, biology has...

Torrance, Andrew W.



Identification of Phytophthora sojae genes involved in asexual sporogenesis.  


To explore the molecular mechanisms involved in asexual spore development in Phytophthora sojae, the zoospores of strain PS26 were treated with ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. After selection, a mutant progeny, termed PS26-U03, was obtained and demonstrated to exhibit no oospore production. A suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) approach was developed to investigate differences in gene expression between PS26 and PS26-U03 during asexual sporogenesis. Of the 126 sequences chosen for examination, 39 putative unigenes were identified that exhibit high expression in PS26. These sequences are predicted to encode proteins involved in metabolism, cell cycle, protein biosynthesis, cell signalling, cell defence, and transcription regulation. Seven clones were selected for temporal expression analysis using RT-PCR based on the results of the dot-blot screens. Three of the selected genes, developmental protein DG1037 (UB88), glycoside hydrolase (UB149) and a hypothetical protein (UB145), were expressed only in PS26, whereas the transcripts of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase (UB36), FAD-dependent pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductase (UB226) and sugar transporter (UB256) were expressed at very low levels in PS26-U03 but at high levels in PS26. PMID:19700851

Wang, Ziying; Wang, Zhaoxia; Shen, Jie; Wang, Guangyue; Zhu, Xiaoxi; Lu, Hongxia



Assembly of evolved ligninolytic genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  


The ligninolytic enzymatic consortium produced by white-rot fungi is one of the most efficient oxidative systems found in nature, with many potential applications that range from the production of 2nd generation biofuels to chemicals synthesis. In the current study, two high redox potential oxidoreductase fusion genes (laccase -Lac- and versatile peroxidase -Vp-) that had been evolved in the laboratory were re-assembled in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. First, cell viability and secretion were assessed after co-transforming the Lac and Vp genes into yeast. Several expression cassettes were inserted in vivo into episomal bi-directional vectors in order to evaluate inducible promoter and/or terminator pairs of different strengths in an individual and combined manner. The synthetic white-rot yeast model harboring Vp(GAL1/CYC1)-Lac(GAL10/ADH1) displayed up to 1000 and 100 Units per L of peroxidase and laccase activity, respectively, representing a suitable point of departure for future synthetic biology studies. PMID:24830983

Gonzalez-Perez, David; Alcalde, Miguel



NADPH-dependent lipid peroxidation capacity in unfixed tissue sections: characterization of the pro-oxidizing conditions and optimization of the histochemical detection.  


Factors which influence the iron-stimulated lipid peroxidation in rat liver have been studied by incubating unfixed cryostat sections with a pro-oxidant system and using an optimized histochemical detection method for lipid peroxidation products with 3-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid hydrazide and Fast Blue B. We used a method that was slightly different from the one described previously. The final reaction product was exclusively localized in the cytoplasm of liver parenchymal cells with a homogeneous distribution within the liver lobule. The absorbance maximum, as measured cytophotometrically, was found to be 550 nm. Maximum lipid peroxidation was observed when the pro-oxidant system contained 0.2 mM NADPH, 1 mM ADP and 15 microM FeCl2. Some reaction product was found when NADPH was omitted. Iron concentrations higher than 180 microM prevented the formation of lipid peroxidation products in certain areas of the sections, whereas ADP concentrations higher than 1 mM inhibited the reaction in the whole section. A pH dependency was also observed, with the highest lipid peroxidation at pH 7.2. Optimum lipid peroxidation was induced by incubating for 30 min at 37 degrees C with the pro-oxidant system. A linear relationship was found between the thickness of the sections (up to 20 microns) and the amount of lipid peroxidation products. The addition of scavengers of O2-. (superoxide dismutase), hydrogen peroxide (catalase) and OH. (mannitol) to the first step medium did not affect the amount of final reaction product. These findings appear to confirm the hypothesis proposed for events occurring in isolated microsomes, leading to the formation of hydroperoxides and ultimately lipid peroxidation-derived carbonyls.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8206788

Thomas, M; Frederiks, W M; Van Noorden, C J; Bosch, K S; Pompella, A



Alteration of inner-membrane components and damage to electron-transfer activities of bovine heart submitochondrial particles induced by NADPH-dependent lipid peroxidation.  

PubMed Central

We investigated the changes of the inner-membrane components and the electron-transfer activities of bovine heart submitochondrial particles induced by the lipid peroxidation supported by NADPH in the presence of ADP-Fe3+. Most of the polyunsaturated fatty acids were lost as a result of the peroxidation, and phospholipids were changed to polar species. Ubiquinone was also modified to polar substances as the peroxidation proceeded. Sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis showed the disappearance of 27000-Mr and 30000-Mr proteins and the appearance of highly polymerized substances. Flavins and cytochromes were not diminished, but the respiratory activity was lost. The reactions of NADH oxidase and NADH-cytochrome c reductase were most sensitive to the peroxidation, followed by those of succinate oxidase and succinate-cytochrome c reductase. Succinate dehydrogenase and duroquinol-cytochrome c reductase were inactivated by more extensive peroxidation, but cytochrome c oxidase was only partially inactivated. NADH-ferricyanide reductase was not inactivated. The pattern of the inactivation indicated that the lipid peroxidation affected the electron transport intensively between NADH dehydrogenase and ubiquinone, and moderately at the succinate dehydrogenase step and between ubiquinone and cytochrome c. Images Fig. 2. PMID:7082319

Narabayashi, H; Takeshige, K; Minakami, S



Replacing Escherichia coli NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) with a NADP-dependent enzyme from Clostridium acetobutylicum facilitates NADPH dependent pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactions requiring reducing equivalents, NAD(P)H, are of enormous importance for the synthesis of industrially valuable compounds such as carotenoids, polymers, antibiotics and chiral alcohols among others. The use of whole-cell biocatalysis can reduce process cost by acting as catalyst and cofactor regenerator at the same time; however, product yields might be limited by cofactor availability within the cell. Thus, our

Irene Martínez; Jiangfeng Zhu; Henry Lin; George N. Bennett; Ka-Yiu San



Trichoderma genes  


Described herein are novel gene sequences isolated from Trichoderma reesei. Two genes encoding proteins comprising a cellulose binding domain, one encoding an arabionfuranosidase and one encoding an acetylxylanesterase are described. The sequences, CIP1 and CIP2, contain a cellulose binding domain. These proteins are especially useful in the textile and detergent industry and in pulp and paper industry.

Foreman, Pamela (Los Altos, CA); Goedegebuur, Frits (Vlaardingen, NL); Van Solingen, Pieter (Naaldwijk, NL); Ward, Michael (San Francisco, CA)



Gene Puzzles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Science NetLinks lesson, students will examine a fictional pedigree and determine which gene is responsible for a given trait. The genetic information for individuals is depicted as a jigsaw puzzle. Without delving into a complicated explanation of the process, the activity in this lesson will help students build an understanding of how offspring inherit genes from their parents.

Science Netlinks;



Gene Identification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module will examine the "Language" of genes and illustrate how basic statistical methods can be applied to the problem of gene prediction. The merger of computational sciences with biology, and the challenges facing BioinFormatics, will also be explored through the use of analysis tools available at the National Center for Biotechnology InFormation (NCBI).

Daniels, Chuck


Gene Cloning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A basic depiction of the steps in gene cloning. This is the third of a series of seven animations that detail the process of crop genetic engineering. To begin at the beginning, see Overview of Crop Genetic Engineering. (To return to the animation previous to this, go to DNA and DNA Extraction. To go to the next animation, go to Gene Regions.)


Gene Control  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The development of creatures that appear to have nothing in common is directed by a surprisingly small number of genes. In this video segment, learn about the power of master control genes. Footage from The Secret of Life: Birth, Sex & Death.

Foundation, Wgbh E.



Genome-Wide Survey and Expression Analysis Suggest Diverse Roles of Glutaredoxin Gene Family Members During Development and Response to Various Stimuli in Rice  

PubMed Central

Glutaredoxins (GRXs) are glutathione-dependent oxidoreductase enzymes involved in a variety of cellular processes. In this study, our analysis revealed the presence of 48 genes encoding GRX proteins in the rice genome. GRX proteins could be classified into four classes, namely CC-, CGFS-, CPYC- and GRL-type, based on phylogenetic analysis. The classification was supported with organization of predicted conserved putative motifs in GRX proteins. We found that expansion of this gene family has occurred largely via whole genome duplication events in a species-specific manner. We explored rice oligonucleotide array data to gain insights into the function of GRX gene family members during various stages of development and in response to environmental stimuli. The comprehensive expression analysis suggested diverse roles of GRX genes during growth and development in rice. Some of the GRX genes were expressed in specific organs/developmental stages only. The expression of many of rice GRX genes was influenced by various phytohormones, abiotic and biotic stress conditions, suggesting an important role of GRX proteins in response to these stimuli. The identification of GRX genes showing differential expression in specific tissues or in response to environmental stimuli provide a new avenue for in-depth characterization of selected genes of importance. PMID:21044985

Garg, Rohini; Jhanwar, Shalu; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.; Jain, Mukesh



Effect of simulated microgravity on oxidation-sensitive gene expression in PC12 cells.  


Oxygen utilization by and oxygen dependence of cellular processes may be different in biological systems that are exposed to microgravity (micro-g). A baseline in which cellular changes in oxygen sensitive molecular processes occur during micro-g conditions would be important to pursue this question. The objective of this research is to analyze oxidation-sensitive gene expression in a model cell line [rat pheochromocytoma (PC12)] under simulated micro-g conditions. The PC12 cell line is well characterized in its response to oxygen, and is widely recognized as a sensitive model for studying the responses of oxygen-sensitive molecular and cellular processes. This study uses the rotating wall vessel bioreactor (RWV) designed at NASA to simulate micro-g. Gene expression in PC12 cells in response to micro-g was analyzed by DNA microarray technology. The microarray analysis of PC12 cells cultured for 4 days under simulated micro-g under standardized oxygen environment conditions revealed more than 100 genes whose expression levels were changed at least twofold (up-regulation of 65 genes and down-regulation of 39 genes) compared with those from cells in the unit gravity (unit-g) control. This study observed that genes involved in the oxidoreductase activity category were most significantly differentially expressed under micro-g conditions. Also, known oxidation-sensitive transcription factors such as hypoxia-inducible factor-2alpha, c-myc, and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma were changed significantly. Our initial results from the gene expression microarray studies may provide a context in which to evaluate the effect of varying oxygen environments on the background of differential gene regulation of biological processes under variable gravity conditions. PMID:19081771

Kwon, Ohwon; Sartor, Maureen; Tomlinson, Craig R; Millard, Ronald W; Olah, Mark E; Sankovic, John M; Banerjee, Rupak K



1.8 Å crystal structure of the major NAD(P)H:FMN oxidoreductase of a bioluminescent bacterium, Vibrio fischeri: overall structure, cofactor and substrate-analog binding, and comparison with related flavoproteins 1 1 Edited by I. A. Wilson  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have solved the crystal structure of FRase I, the major NAD(P)H:FMN oxidoreductase of Vibrio fischeri, by the multiple isomorphous replacement method (MIR) at 1.8 Å resolution with the conventional R factor of 0.187. The crystal structure of FRase I complexed with its competitive inhibitor, dicoumarol, has also been solved at 2.2 Å resolution with the conventional R factor of

Hideaki Koike; Hiroshi Sasaki; Toshiro Kobori; Shuhei Zenno; Kaoru Saigo; Michael E. P Murphy; Elinor T Adman; Masaru Tanokura



kasT gene of Streptomyces kasugaensis M338-M1 encodes a DNA-binding protein which binds to intergenic region of kasU-kasJ in the kasugamycin biosynthesis gene cluster.  


We previously reported that a 4.2 kb SacI-EcoRI DNA region from Streptomyces kasugaensis M338-M1, a kasugamycin (KSM) producer, included KSM transporter genes (kasKLM). As an extension of that study, a 3.7 kb Psti-SacI DNA region, located at 1.5 approximately 5.2 kb upstream of kasK, was cloned and sequenced, revealing three complete open reading frames, designated kasT, kasU and kasJ. The kasJ gene encodes a protein (KasJ) with a conserved dinucleotide (FAD)-binding motif Homology search for KasJ showed its similarity to NADH: N-amidino-scyllo-inosamine oxidoreductase (StsB) which is involved in biosynthesis of the streptidine moiety of streptomycin (SM) in S. griseus. The kasT gene encodes a DNA-binding protein (KasT), including a helix-turn-helix motif near the center of the sequence. This protein is similar in structure to a pathway-specific activator protein (StrR) that plays a role in regulating the SM biosynthesis gene cluster of S. griseus. A fusion protein (Trx-KasT) clearly showed DNA binding activity with the intergenic region of kasU-kasJ, suggesting that KasT is a pathway-specific regulator of the KSM biosynthesis gene cluster. PMID:12617515

Ikeno, Souichi; Aoki, Daisuke; Sato, Koji; Hamada, Masa; Hori, Makoto; Tsuchiya, Kayoko S



Gene doping.  


Together with the rapidly increasing knowledge on genetic therapies as a promising new branch of regular medicine, the issue has arisen whether these techniques might be abused in the field of sports. Previous experiences have shown that drugs that are still in the experimental phases of research may find their way into the athletic world. Both the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) and the International Olympic Committee (IOC) have expressed concerns about this possibility. As a result, the method of gene doping has been included in the list of prohibited classes of substances and prohibited methods. This review addresses the possible ways in which knowledge gained in the field of genetic therapies may be misused in elite sports. Many genes are readily available which may potentially have an effect on athletic performance. The sporting world will eventually be faced with the phenomena of gene doping to improve athletic performance. A combination of developing detection methods based on gene arrays or proteomics and a clear education program on the associated risks seems to be the most promising preventive method to counteract the possible application of gene doping. PMID:16572366

Haisma, H J; de Hon, O



A mechanistic study on SMOB-ADP1: an NADH:flavin oxidoreductase of the two-component styrene monooxygenase of Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1.  


Two styrene monooxygenase types, StyA/StyB and StyA1/StyA2B, have been described each consisting of an epoxidase and a reductase. A gene fusion which led to the chimeric reductase StyA2B and the occurrence in different phyla are major differences. Identification of SMOA/SMOB-ADP1 of Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 may enlighten the gene fusion event since phylogenetic analysis indicated both proteins to be more related to StyA2B than to StyA/StyB. SMOB-ADP1 is classified like StyB and StyA2B as HpaC-like reductase. Substrate affinity and turnover number of the homo-dimer SMOB-ADP1 were determined for NADH (24 µM, 64 s(-1)) and FAD (4.4 µM, 56 s(-1)). SMOB-ADP1 catalysis follows a random sequential mechanism, and FAD fluorescence is quenched upon binding to SMOB-ADP1 (K d = 1.8 µM), which clearly distinguishes that reductase from StyB of Pseudomonas. In summary, this study confirmes made assumptions and provides phylogenetic and biochemical data for the differentiation of styrene monooxygenase-related flavin reductases. PMID:25116410

Gröning, Janosch A D; Kaschabek, Stefan R; Schlömann, Michael; Tischler, Dirk



Modulation of Nrf2-dependent gene transcription by bilberry anthocyanins in vivo.  


In a human pilot intervention study (healthy + ileostomy probands), the questions were addressed whether in vivo consumption of an anthocyanin-rich bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillius L.) pomace extract (BE) affects (i) the transcription of Nrf2-dependent genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), indicative for systemic effects, and (ii) the level of oxidative DNA damage in these cells. In healthy test subjects transcripts of NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) were significantly elevated throughout the observation period (1-8 h), whereas transcription of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and Nrf2 was significantly decreased. NQO1 and HO-1 transcription remained unchanged in the ileostomy probands, whereas Nrf2-transcription was suppressed in both groups. Decrease in oxidative DNA damage was observed 2 h after BE consumption again only in healthy subjects. In vitro studies using a reporter gene approach (CHO) and qPCR (HT29) indicate that not the intact anthocyanins/anthocyanidins are the activating constituents but the intestinal degradation product phloroglucinol aldehyde (PGA). Taken together, consumption of anthocyanin-rich BE was found to modulate Nrf2-dependent gene expression in PBMCs indicative for systemic activity. Limitation of the effect to healthy test subjects suggests a role of colonic processes for bioactivity, supported by the results on Nrf2-activating properties of the intestinal anthocyanin degradation product PGA. PMID:23349102

Kropat, Christopher; Mueller, Dolores; Boettler, Ute; Zimmermann, Kristin; Heiss, Elke H; Dirsch, Verena M; Rogoll, Dorothee; Melcher, Ralph; Richling, Elke; Marko, Doris



Transcriptional regulation of ferritin and antioxidant genes by HIPK2 under genotoxic stress  

PubMed Central

ATF1 (activating transcription factor 1), a stimulus-induced CREB family transcription factor, plays important roles in cell survival and proliferation. Phosphorylation of ATF1 at Ser63 by PKA (cAMP-dependent protein kinase) and related kinases was the only known post-translational regulatory mechanism of ATF1. Here, we found that HIPK2 (homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2), a DNA-damage-responsive nuclear kinase, is a new ATF1 kinase that phosphorylates Ser198 but not Ser63. ATF1 phosphorylation by HIPK2 activated ATF1 transcription function in the GAL4-reporter system. ATF1 is a transcriptional repressor of ferritin H, the major intracellular iron storage gene, through an ARE (antioxidant-responsive element). HIPK2 overrode the ATF1-mediated ARE repression in a kinase-activity-dependent manner in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, DNA-damage-inducing agents doxorubicin, etoposide and sodium arsenite induced ferritin H mRNA expression in HIPK2+/+ MEF cells, whereas it was significantly impaired in HIPK2?/? MEF cells. Induction of other ARE-regulated detoxification genes such as NQO1 (NADPH quinone oxidoreductase 1), GST (glutathione S-transferase) and HO1 (heme oxygenase 1) by genotoxic stress was also decreased in HIPK2-deficient cells. Taken together, these results suggest that HIPK2 is a new ATF1 kinase involved in the regulation of ferritin H and other antioxidant detoxification genes in genotoxic stress conditions. PMID:20980392

Hailemariam, Kiros; Iwasaki, Kenta; Huang, Bo-Wen; Sakamoto, Kensuke; Tsuji, Yoshiaki



The synthesis and evaluation of 3-aryloxymethyl-1,2-dimethylindole-4,7-diones as mechanism-based inhibitors of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) activity  

PubMed Central

NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 is a proposed target in pancreatic cancer. We describe the synthesis of a series of indolequinones, based on the 5- and 6-methoxy-1,2-dimethylindole-4,7-dione chromophores with a range of phenolic leaving groups at the (indol-3-yl)methyl position. The ability of these indolequinones to function as mechanism-based inhibitors of purified human NQO1 was evaluated, as was their ability to inhibit both NQO1 and cell growth in human pancreatic MIA PaCa-2 tumor cells. The inhibition of rhNQO1 was related to the pKa of the leaving group: compounds with poorer phenolic leaving groups were poor inhibitors whereas those with more acidic leaving groups were more efficient inhibitors. These inhibition data also correlated with the inhibition NQO1 in MIA PaCa-2 cells. However, the data demonstrate that NQO1 inhibition does not correlate with growth inhibitory activity, at least in the MIA PaCa-2 cell line, suggesting that targets in addition to NQO1 need to be considered to explain the potent growth inhibitory activity of this series of indolequinones in human pancreatic cancer cells. PMID:17944451

Colucci, Marie A.; Reigan, Philip; Siegel, David; Chilloux, Aurelie; Ross, David; Moody, Christopher J.



Inhibition of protein translation by the DISC1-Boymaw fusion gene from a Scottish family with major psychiatric disorders.  


The t(1; 11) translocation appears to be the causal genetic lesion with 70% penetrance for schizophrenia, major depression and other psychiatric disorders in a Scottish family. Molecular studies identified the disruption of the disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) gene by chromosome translocation at chromosome 1q42. Our previous studies, however, revealed that the translocation also disrupted another gene, Boymaw (also termed DISC1FP1), on chromosome 11. After translocation, two fusion genes [the DISC1-Boymaw (DB7) and the Boymaw-DISC1 (BD13)] are generated between the DISC1 and Boymaw genes. In the present study, we report that expression of the DB7 fusion gene inhibits both intracellular NADH oxidoreductase activities and protein translation. We generated humanized DISC1-Boymaw mice with gene targeting to examine the in vivo functions of the fusion genes. Consistent with the in vitro studies on the DB7 fusion gene, protein translation activity is decreased in the hippocampus and in cultured primary neurons from the brains of the humanized mice. Expression of Gad67, Nmdar1 and Psd95 proteins are also reduced. The humanized mice display prolonged and increased responses to the NMDA receptor antagonist, ketamine, on various mouse genetic backgrounds. Abnormal information processing of acoustic startle and depressive-like behaviors are also observed. In addition, the humanized mice display abnormal erythropoiesis, which was reported to associate with depression in humans. Expression of the DB7 fusion gene may reduce protein translation to impair brain functions and thereby contribute to the pathogenesis of major psychiatric disorders. PMID:24908665

Ji, Baohu; Higa, Kerin K; Kim, Minjung; Zhou, Lynn; Young, Jared W; Geyer, Mark A; Zhou, Xianjin



Attention Genes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A major problem for developmental science is understanding how the cognitive and emotional networks important in carrying out mental processes can be related to individual differences. The last five years have seen major advances in establishing links between alleles of specific genes and the neural networks underlying aspects of attention. These…

Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.; Sheese, Brad E.



Gene and protein expression profiles of Shewanella oneidensis during anaerobic growth with different electron acceptors.  

SciTech Connect

Changes in mRNA and protein expression profiles of Shewanella oneidenesis MR-1 during switch from aerobic to fumarate-, Fe(III)-, or nitrate-reducing conditions were examined using DNA microarrays and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE). In response to changes in growth conditions, 121 of the 691 arrayed genes displayed at least a two-fold difference in transcript abundance as determined by microarray analysis. Genes involved in aerobic respiration encoding cytochrome c and d oxidases and TCA cycle enzymes were repressed under anaerobic conditions. Genes induced during anaerobic respiration included those involved in cofactor biosynthesis and assembly (moaACE, ccmHF, nosD, cysG), substrate transport (cysUP, cysTWA, dcuB), and anaerobic energy metabolism (dmsAB, psrC, pshA, hyaABC, hydA). Transcription of genes encoding a periplasmic nitrate reductase (napBHGA), cytochrome c{sub 552}, and prismane was elevated 8- to 56-fold in response to the presence of nitrate, while cymA, ifcA, and frdA were specifically induced three- to eightfold under fumarate-reducing conditions. The mRNA levels for two oxidoreductase-like genes of unknown function and several cell envelope genes involved in multidrug resistance increased two- to fivefold specifically under Fe(III)-reducing conditions. Analysis of protein expression profiles under aerobic and anaerobic conditions revealed 14 protein spots that showed significant differences in abundance on 2-D gels. Protein identification by mass spectrometry indicated that the expression of prismane, dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase, and alcaligin siderophore biosynthesis protein correlated with the microarray data.

Beliaev, A. S.; Thompson, D. K.; Khare, T.; Lim, H.; Brandt, C. C.; Li, G.; Murray, A. E.; Heidelberg, J. F.; Giometti, C. S.; Yates, J., III; Nealson, K. H.; Tiedje, J. M.; Zhou, J.; Biosciences Division; ORNL; Scripps Research Inst.; Michigan State Univ.; The Inst. for Genomic Research; Jet Propulsion Laboratory; California Inst. of Tech.



Differential gene expression in Giardia lamblia under oxidative stress: significance in eukaryotic evolution.  


Giardia lamblia is a unicellular, early branching eukaryote causing giardiasis, one of the most common human enteric diseases. Giardia, a microaerophilic protozoan parasite has to build up mechanisms to protect themselves against oxidative stress within the human gut (oxygen concentration 60 ?M) to establish its pathogenesis. G. lamblia is devoid of the conventional mechanisms of the oxidative stress management system, including superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, and glutathione cycling, which are present in most eukaryotes. NADH oxidase is a major component of the electron transport chain of G. lamblia, which in concurrence with disulfide reductase, protects oxygen-labile proteins such as pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase against oxidative stress by sustaining a reduced intracellular environment. It also contains the arginine dihydrolase pathway, which occurs in a number of anaerobic prokaryotes, includes substrate level phosphorylation and adequately active to make a major contribution to ATP production. To study differential gene expression under three types of oxidative stress, a Giardia genomic DNA array was constructed and hybridized with labeled cDNA of cells with or without stress. The transcriptomic data has been analyzed and further validated using real time PCR. We identified that out of 9216 genes represented on the array, more than 200 genes encoded proteins with functions in metabolism, oxidative stress management, signaling, reproduction and cell division, programmed cell death and cytoskeleton. We recognized genes modulated by at least ? 2 fold at a significant time point in response to oxidative stress. The study has highlighted the genes that are differentially expressed during the three experimental conditions which regulate the stress management pathway differently to achieve redox homeostasis. Identification of some unique genes in oxidative stress regulation may help in new drug designing for this common enteric parasite prone to drug resistance. Additionally, these data suggest the major role of this early divergent ancient eukaryote in anaerobic to aerobic organism evolution. PMID:24321693

Raj, Dibyendu; Ghosh, Esha; Mukherjee, Avik K; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Ganguly, Sandipan



Cloning and characterization of the genes encoding nitrilotriacetate monooxygenase of Chelatobacter heintzii ATCC 29600.  

PubMed Central

A 6.2-kb DNA fragment containing the genes for the nitrilotriacetate (NTA) monooxygenase of Chelatobacter heintzii ATCC 29600 was cloned and characterized by DNA sequencing and expression studies. The nucleotide sequence contained three major open reading frames (ORFs). Two of the ORFs, which were oriented divergently with an intergenic region of 307 bp, could be assigned to the NTA monooxygenase components A and B. The predicted N-terminal amino acid sequences of these ORFs were identical with those determined for the purified components. We therefore named these genes ntaA (for component A of NTA monooxygenase) and ntaB (for component B). The ntaA and ntaB genes could be expressed in Escherichia coli DH5alpha, and the gene products were visualized after Western blotting (immunoblotting) and incubation with polyclonal antibodies against component A or B. By mixing overproduced NtaB from E. coli and purified component A from C. heintzii ATCC 29600, reconstitution of a functional NTA monooxygenase complex was possible. The deduced gene product of ntaA showed only significant homology to SoxA (involved in dibenzothiophene degradation) and to SnaA (involved in pristamycin synthesis); that of ntaB shared weak homologies in one domain with other NADH:flavine mononucleotide oxidoreductases. These homologies provide no conclusive answer as to the possible evolutionary origin of the NTA monooxygenase. The deduced gene product of the third ORF (ORF1) had homology in the N-terminal region with the GntR class of bacterial regulator proteins and therefore may encode a regulator protein, possibly involved in regulation of ntaA and ntaB expression. PMID:8892809

Knobel, H R; Egli, T; van der Meer, J R



Characterization of the genes of the 2,3-butanediol operons from Klebsiella terrigena and Enterobacter aerogenes.  

PubMed Central

The genes involved in the 2,3-butanediol pathway coding for alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase, alpha-acetolactate synthase (alpha-ALS), and acetoin (diacetyl) reductase were isolated from Klebsiella terrigena and shown to be located in one operon. This operon was also shown to exist in Enterobacter aerogenes. The budA gene, coding for alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase, gives in both organisms a protein of 259 amino acids. The amino acid similarity between these proteins is 87%. The K. terrigena genes budB and budC, coding for alpha-ALS and acetoin reductase, respectively, were sequenced. The 559-amino-acid-long alpha-ALS enzyme shows similarities to the large subunits of the Escherichia coli anabolic alpha-ALS enzymes encoded by the genes ilvB, ilvG, and ilvI. The K. terrigena alpha-ALS is also shown to complement an anabolic alpha-ALS-deficient E. coli strain for valine synthesis. The 243-amino-acid-long acetoin reductase has the consensus amino acid sequence for the insect-type alcohol dehydrogenase/ribitol dehydrogenase family and has extensive similarities with the N-terminal and internal regions of three known dehydrogenases and one oxidoreductase. Images PMID:8444801

Blomqvist, K; Nikkola, M; Lehtovaara, P; Suihko, M L; Airaksinen, U; Straby, K B; Knowles, J K; Penttila, M E



A nuclear-encoded mitochondrial gene AtCIB22 is essential for plant development in Arabidopsis.  


Complex I (the NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) of the mitochondrial respiratory chain is a complicated, multi-subunit, membrane-bound assembly and contains more than 40 different proteins in higher plants. In this paper, we characterize the Arabidopsis homologue (designated as AtCIB22) of the B22 subunit of eukaryotic mitochondrial Complex I. AtCIB22 is a single-copy gene and is highly conserved throughout eukaryotes. AtCIB22 protein is located in mitochondria and the AtCIB22 gene is widely expressed in different tissues. Mutant Arabidopsis plants with a disrupted AtCIB22 gene display pleiotropic phenotypes including shorter roots, smaller plants and delayed flowering. Stress analysis indicates that the AtCIB22 mutants' seed germination and early seedling growth are severely inhibited by sucrose deprivation stress but more tolerant to ethanol stress. Molecular analysis reveals that in moderate knockdown AtCIB22 mutants, genes including cell redox proteins and stress related proteins are significantly up-regulated, and that in severe knockdown AtCIB22 mutants, the alternative respiratory pathways including NDA1, NDB2, AOX1a and AtPUMP1 are remarkably elevated. These data demonstrate that AtCIB22 is essential for plant development and mitochondrial electron transport chains in Arabidopsis. Our findings also enhance our understanding about the physiological role of Complex I in plants. PMID:21035093

Han, Lihua; Qin, Genji; Kang, Dingming; Chen, Zhangliang; Gu, Hongya; Qu, Li-Jia



Characterization of a putative stereoselective oxidoreductase from Gluconobacter oxydans and its application in producing ethyl (R)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate ester.  


A gene encoding an NADH-dependent short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (gox2036) from Gluconobacter oxydans 621H was cloned and heterogeneously expressed in Escherichia coli. The protein (Gox2036) was purified to homogeneity and biochemically characterized. Gox2036 was a homotetramer with a subunit size of approximately 28 kDa. Gox2036 had a strict requirement for NAD?/NADH as the cofactor. Gox2036 displayed preference for oxidation of secondary alcohols and 2,3-diols as well as for reduction of ?-diketones, hydroxy ketones, ?-ketoesters, and ?-ketoesters. However, Gox2036 was poorly active on 1,2-diols and acetoin and showed no activity on primary alcohols, polyols, and aldehydes. The optimum pH values for the oxidation and reduction reactions were 9 and 6, respectively. Gox2036 was highly selective in the reduction of various ?-ketones and ?-ketoesters. Among the substrates tested, ethyl 4-chloro acetoacetate was reduced to ethyl (R)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate ester with an excellent conversion yield of 96.9 % and optical purity of >99 % e.e. using an efficient in situ NADH-recycling system involving glucose and a glucose dehydrogenase from Bacillus subtilis (BsGDH). PMID:24113812

Liu, Xu; Chen, Rong; Yang, Zhongwei; Wang, Jiale; Lin, Jinping; Wei, Dongzhi



Genetical and Biochemical Characterization of QA-3 Mutants and Revertants in the QA Gene Cluster of NEUROSPORA CRASSA  

PubMed Central

The qa-3 gene, one of the four genes in the qa gene cluster, encodes quinate (shikimate) dehydrogenase (quinate: NAD oxidoreductase, ER, the first enzyme in the inducible quinic acid catabolic pathway in Neurospora crassa. Genetic analyses have localized 26 qa-3 mutants at 11 sites on the qa-3 genetic map on the basis of prototroph frequencies. Certain mutants, e.g., 336–3–10 and 336–3–3, are located at opposite ends of the qa-3 gene. Data from four-point crosses (qa-1S mutant 124 x five different qa-3 mutants in triple mutants qa-3, qa-4, qa-2) indicate the following orientation of the qa-3 gene within the qa cluster: qa-1, qa-3 mutant 336–3–10 ("left" end) qa-3 mutant 336–3–3 ("right" end), qa-4, qa-2. Ultraviolet-induced revertants have been obtained from 14 of the qa-3 mutants. The revertable mutants fall into two major classes: those that revert by changes either at the same site or at a second site within the qa-3 gene, and those that revert by unlinked suppressor mutations. The intragenic revertants can be further distinguished by quantative and/or qualitative differences in their quinate dehydrogenase activities. Some revertants with activities either equivalent to or less than wild type produce a thermostable enzyme, and others an enzyme which is thermolabile in vitro at 35°. A concentration of quinic acid or shikimic acid as low as 50 µm protects the enzyme markedly from heat inactivation. The genetic organization and the orientation of the qa-3 gene are discussed with respect to its direction of transcription and to the possible localization of a promoter (initiator) region(s) within the qa gene cluster. PMID:151647

Case, Mary E.; Pueyo, Carmen; Barea, J. Lopez; Giles, Norman H.



Evolutionary diversification and characterization of the eubacterial gene family encoding DXR type II, an alternative isoprenoid biosynthetic enzyme  

PubMed Central

Background Isoprenoids constitute a vast family of natural compounds performing diverse and essential functions in all domains of life. In most eubacteria, isoprenoids are synthesized through the methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. The production of MEP is usually catalyzed by deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR-I) but a few organisms use an alternative DXR-like enzyme (DXR-II). Results Searches through 1498 bacterial complete proteomes detected 130 sequences with similarity to DXR-II. Phylogenetic analysis identified three well-resolved clades: the DXR-II family (clustering 53 sequences including eleven experimentally verified as functional enzymes able to produce MEP), and two previously uncharacterized NAD(P)-dependent oxidoreductase families (designated DLO1 and DLO2 for DXR-II-like oxidoreductases 1 and 2). Our analyses identified amino acid changes critical for the acquisition of DXR-II biochemical function through type-I functional divergence, two of them mapping onto key residues for DXR-II activity. DXR-II showed a markedly discontinuous distribution, which was verified at several levels: taxonomic (being predominantly found in Alphaproteobacteria and Firmicutes), metabolic (being mostly found in bacteria with complete functional MEP pathways with or without DXR-I), and phenotypic (as no biological/phenotypic property was found to be preferentially distributed among DXR-II-containing strains, apart from pathogenicity in animals). By performing a thorough comparative sequence analysis of GC content, 3:1 dinucleotide frequencies, codon usage and codon adaptation indexes (CAI) between DXR-II sequences and their corresponding genomes, we examined the role of horizontal gene transfer (HGT), as opposed to an scenario of massive gene loss, in the evolutionary origin and diversification of the DXR-II subfamily in bacteria. Conclusions Our analyses support a single origin of the DXR-II family through functional divergence, in which constitutes an exceptional model of acquisition and maintenance of redundant gene functions between non-homologous genes as a result of convergent evolution. Subsequently, although old episodic events of HGT could not be excluded, the results supported a prevalent role of gene loss in explaining the distribution of DXR-II in specific pathogenic eubacteria. Our results highlight the importance of the functional characterization of evolutionary shortcuts in isoprenoid biosynthesis for screening specific antibacterial drugs and for regulating the production of isoprenoids of human interest. PMID:24004839



The supposed tumor suppressor gene WWOX is mutated in an early lethal microcephaly syndrome with epilepsy, growth retardation and retinal degeneration  

PubMed Central

Background WWOX, encoding WW domain-containing oxidoreductase, spans FRA16D, the second most common chromosomal fragile site frequently altered in cancers. It is therefore considered a tumor suppressor gene, but its direct implication in cancerogenesis remains controversial. Methods and results By whole-exome sequencing, we identified a homozygous WWOX nonsense mutation, p.Arg54*, in a girl from a consanguineous family with a severe syndrome of growth retardation, microcephaly, epileptic seizures, retinopathy and early death, a phenotype highly similar to the abormalities reported in lde/lde rats with a spontaneous functional null mutation of Wwox. As in rats, no tumors were observed in the patient or heterozygous mutation carriers. Conclusions Our finding, a homozygous loss-of-function germline mutation in WWOX in a patient with a lethal autosomal recessive syndrome, supports an alternative role of WWOX and indicates its importance for human viability. PMID:24456803



Carnosic acid induces the NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 expression in rat clone 9 cells through the p38/nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 pathway.  


The anticarcinogenic effect of rosemary has been partly attributed to the modulation of the activity and expression of phase II detoxification enzymes. Here we compared the effects of phenolic diterpenes from rosemary on the expression of NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) in rat Clone 9 liver cells. Cells were treated with 1-20 ?mol/L of carnosic acid (CA) or carnosol (CS) for 24 h. Both CA and CS dose dependently increased NQO1 enzyme activity and protein expression, and the induction potency of CA was stronger than that of CS. The increase in NQO1 enzyme activity in cells treated with 10 ?mol/L CA and CS was 4.1- and 1.9-fold, respectively (P < 0.05). RT-PCR showed that CA and CS induced NQO1 mRNA in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, CA dose dependently induced transcription of nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) and antioxidant response element (ARE)-luciferase reporter activity. Silencing of Nrf2 expression alleviated NQO1 protein expression and ARE-luciferase activity by CA. Moreover, the phosphorylation of p38 was mainly stimulated in the presence of CA. Pretreatment with SB203580 or silencing of p38 expression inhibited Nrf2 activation and NQO1 induction. These results suggest that the increased NQO1 expression by CA is likely related to the p38-Nrf2 pathway and help to clarify the possible molecular mechanism of action of rosemary phenolic compounds in drug metabolism and cancer prevention. PMID:22031657

Tsai, Chia-Wen; Lin, Chia-Yuan; Wang, Yu-Jung



Differential gene expression in Schistosoma japonicum schistosomula from Wistar rats and BALB/c mice  

PubMed Central

Background More than 46 species of mammals can be naturally infected with Schistosoma japonicum in the mainland of China. Mice are permissive and may act as the definitive host of the life cycle. In contrast, rats are less susceptible to S. japonicum infection, and are considered to provide an unsuitable micro-environment for parasite growth and development. Since little is known of what effects this micro-environment has on the parasite itself, we have in the present study utilised a S. japonicum oligonucleotide microarray to compare the gene expression differences of 10-day-old schistosomula maintained in Wistar rats with those maintained in BALB/c mice. Results In total 3,468 schistosome genes were found to be differentially expressed, of which the majority (3,335) were down-regulated (? 2 fold) and 133 were up-regulated (? 2 fold) in schistosomula from Wistar rats compared with those from BALB/c mice. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that of the differentially expressed genes with already established functions or close homology to well characterized genes in another organisms, many are related to important biological functions or molecular processes. Among the genes that were down-regulated in schistosomula from Wistar rats, some were associated with metabolism, signal transduction and development. Of these genes related to metabolic processes, areas including translation, protein and amino acid phosphorylation, proteolysis, oxidoreductase activities, catalytic activities and hydrolase activities, were represented. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway analysis of differential expressed genes indicated that of the 328 genes that had a specific KEGG pathway annotation, 324 were down-regulated and were mainly associated with metabolism, growth, redox pathway, oxidative phosphorylation, the cell cycle, ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, protein export and the MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinases) signaling pathway. Conclusions This work presents the first large scale gene expression study identifying the differences between schistosomula maintained in mice and those maintained in rats, and specifically highlights differential expression that may impact on the survival and development of the parasite within the definitive host. The research presented here provides valuable information for the better understanding of schistosome development and host-parasite interactions. PMID:21819550



Quantification of Yeast and Bacterial Gene Transcripts in Retail Cheeses by Reverse Transcription-Quantitative PCR  

PubMed Central

The cheese microbiota contributes to a large extent to the development of the typical color, flavor, and texture of the final product. Its composition is not well defined in most cases and varies from one cheese to another. The aim of the present study was to establish procedures for gene transcript quantification in cheeses by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Total RNA was extracted from five smear-ripened cheeses purchased on the retail market, using a method that does not involve prior separation of microbial cells. 16S rRNA and malate:quinone oxidoreductase gene transcripts of Corynebacterium casei, Brevibacterium aurantiacum, and Arthrobacter arilaitensis and 26S rRNA and beta tubulin gene transcripts of Geotrichum candidum and Debaryomyces hansenii could be detected and quantified in most of the samples. Three types of normalization were applied: against total RNA, against the amount of cheese, and against a reference gene. For the first two types of normalization, differences of reverse transcription efficiencies from one sample to another were taken into account by analysis of exogenous control mRNA. No good correlation was found between the abundances of target mRNA or rRNA transcripts and the viable cell concentration of the corresponding species. However, in most cases, no mRNA transcripts were detected for species that did not belong to the dominant species. The applications of gene expression measurement in cheeses containing an undefined microbiota, as well as issues concerning the strategy of normalization and the assessment of amplification specificity, are discussed. PMID:23124230

Straub, Cecile; Castellote, Jessie; Onesime, Djamila; Bonnarme, Pascal; Irlinger, Francoise



Intronless human dihydrofolate reductase genes are derived from processed RNA molecules.  

PubMed Central

Three groups of recombinant bacteriophage containing coding sequences for dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR; tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase; 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate:NADP+ oxidoreductase, EC were isolated from two human DNA clone libraries. One recombinant (lambda hDHFR-1) contains three exons that encode the COOH-terminal portion of human DHFR. The other two human DHFR genes (hDHFR-psi 1 and hDHRF-psi 2) lack introns. hDHFR-psi 2 contains several in-phase termination codons and is only 93% homologous to the normal human DHFR coding sequences, whereas hDHFR-psi 1 has an open reading frame and is virtually identical to the coding sequence of the normal DHFR gene. The region of DNA sequence homology between each intronless gene and the normal DHFR gene extends 2.9 kilobases beyond the end of the coding sequences. At the 3' end of this homologous sequence, each intronless gene has an A-rich tract. The lack of introns and the presence of the 3' A-rich tract suggest that hDHFR-psi 1 and hDHFR-psi 2 were derived from processed RNA molecules. A short DNA sequence, 60 nucleotides 5' to the ATG start codon in lambda hDHFR-psi 2, is directly repeated immediately after the 3' A-rich tract; such terminal direct repeats also flank integrated proretroviruses and transposable DNA elements and are thought to be the hallmark of inserted DNA sequences. Images PMID:6961421

Chen, M J; Shimada, T; Moulton, A D; Harrison, M; Nienhuis, A W



Functional genes based analysis of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria community in sulfide removing bioreactor.  


Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) are the main microorganisms that participate in the bioremediation of sulfide-rich wastewater. To reveal the SOB community structure and determine which members of SOB contribute to the sulfide oxidation in a sulfide-rich cloth printing and dyeing wastewater treatment plant, specific primer pairs dsrA 625F/877R, soxB 704F/1199R, and sqr 473F/982R based on the SOB functional genes encoding dissimilatory sulfite reductase, sulfate thioesterase/thiohydrolase, and sulfide: quinone oxidoreductase were designed. The restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis showed that the diversity indices and the abundance of each OTU have no significant changes after time, which suggested the SOB community in the sulfide removing bioreactor have high steady phylogenetic analysis of functional gene-based clone libraries detected the SOB from Chlorobia, ?-proteobacteria, ?-proteobacteria, and ?-proteobacteria. The combined clone library showed the presence of dominant members of the SOB species closely related to families Halothiobacillaceae (17%), Hydrogenophilaceae (14%), and Rhodocyclaceae (13%), which may contribute to the sulfide oxidation in wastewater treatment process. This work provides a precise understanding of SOB microbial community within sulfide removing bioreactor, and the result gives assistance for the optimization of the treatment systems for sulfide biological degradation. PMID:21212946

Luo, Jian-Fei; Lin, Wei-Tie; Guo, Yong



IruO Is a Reductase for Heme Degradation by IsdI and IsdG Proteins in Staphylococcus aureus*  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus aureus is a common hospital- and community-acquired bacterium that can cause devastating infections and is often multidrug-resistant. Iron acquisition is required by S. aureus during an infection, and iron acquisition pathways are potential targets for therapies. The gene NWMN2274 in S. aureus strain Newman is annotated as an oxidoreductase of the diverse pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase (PNDO) family. We show that NWMN2274 is an electron donor to IsdG and IsdI catalyzing the degradation of heme, and we have renamed this protein IruO. Recombinant IruO is a FAD-containing NADPH-dependent reductase. In the presence of NADPH and IruO, either IsdI or IsdG degraded bound heme 10-fold more rapidly than with the chemical reductant ascorbic acid. Varying IsdI-heme substrate and monitoring loss of the heme Soret band gave a Km of 15 ± 4 ?m, a kcat of 5.2 ± 0.7 min?1, and a kcat/Km of 5.8 × 103 m?1 s?1. From HPLC and electronic spectra, the major heme degradation products are 5-oxo-?-bilirubin and 15-oxo-?-bilirubin (staphylobilins), as observed with ascorbic acid. Although heme degradation by IsdI or IsdG can occur in the presence of H2O2, the addition of catalase and superoxide dismutase did not disrupt NADPH/IruO heme degradation reactions. The degree of electron coupling between IruO and IsdI or IsdG remains to be determined. Homologs of IruO were identified by sequence similarity in the genomes of Gram-positive bacteria that possess IsdG-family heme oxygenases. A phylogeny of these homologs identifies a distinct clade of pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductases likely involved in iron uptake systems. IruO is the likely in vivo reductant required for heme degradation by S. aureus. PMID:23893407

Loutet, Slade A.; Kobylarz, Marek J.; Chau, Crystal H. T.; Murphy, Michael E. P.



Loss of Nuclear Gene Expression during the Phytochrome A-Mediated Far-Red Block of Greening Response1  

PubMed Central

We have examined the expression of the HEMA1 gene, which encodes the key chlorophyll synthesis enzyme glutamyl-tRNA reductase, during the phytochrome A-mediated far-red light (FR) block of greening response in Arabidopsis. Our results demonstrate that the FR block of greening comprises two separate responses: a white light (WL) intensity-independent response that requires 3 d of FR and is associated with a loss of expression of the nuclear genes HEMA1 and Lhcb following the transfer to WL (transcriptionally coupled response) and a WL intensity-dependent response that is induced by 1 d of FR and is transcriptionally uncoupled. Both responses required phytochrome A. The transcriptionally uncoupled response correlated with a deregulation of tetrapyrrole synthesis and potential photooxidative damage and was inhibited by cytokinin. The transcriptionally coupled FR response was additive with the loss of expression following Norflurazon-induced photobleaching and was absent in the presence of sucrose or after lower fluence rate (1 ?mol m?2 s?1) FR treatments. Both pathways leading to the loss of nuclear gene expression were inhibited by overexpression of NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase, indicating a role for plastid signaling in the FR-mediated pathway. The significance of identifying a distinct phytochrome A-mediated plastid signaling pathway is discussed. PMID:12226519

McCormac, Alex C.; Terry, Matthew J.



Altered Human CYP3A4 Activity Caused by Antley-Bixler Syndrome-Related Variants of NADPH-Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase Measured in a Robust In Vitro System  

PubMed Central

NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CYPOR) variants have been described in patients with perturbed steroidogenesis and sexual differentiation, related to Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS). It is important to determine the effect of these variants on CYP3A4, the major drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (P450) in humans. In this study, 12 CYPOR_ABS variants were separately coexpressed with CYP3A4 in a robust in vitro system to evaluate the effects of these variants on CYP3A4 activity in a milieu that recapitulates the stoichiometry of the mammalian systems. Full-length CYPOR variants were coexpressed with CYP3A4, resulting in relative expression levels comparable to those found in hepatic tissue. Dibenzylfluorescein (DBF), a CYP3A-specific reporter substrate (Biopharm Drug Dispos 24:375–384, 2003), was used to compare the variants and wild-type (WT) CYPOR activities with that of human liver microsomes. CYP3A4, combined with WT CYPOR, demonstrated kinetic parameters (kcat and Km) equal to those for pooled human liver microsomes. CYPOR variants Y181D, Y459H, V492E, L565P, and R616X all demonstrated maximal loss of CYP3A4 catalytic efficiency, whereas R457H and G539R retained ?10 and 30% activities, respectively. Conversely, variants P228L, M263V, A287P, and G413S each showed WT-like capacity (kcat/Km), with the A287P variant being formerly reported to exhibit substantially lower catalytic efficiency. In addition, Q153R exhibited 60% of WT CYPOR capacity to support the DBF O-debenzylation reaction, contradicting increased catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) relative to that for the WT, reported previously. Our data indicate the importance of use of simulated, validated in vitro systems, employing full-length proteins with appropriate stoichiometric incorporation of protein partners, when pharmacogenetic predictions are to be made for P450-mediated biotransformation. PMID:22252407

Moutinho, Daniela; Marohnic, Christopher C.; Panda, Satya P.; Rueff, Jose; Masters, Bettie Sue



Cytochrome b5 and epoxide hydrolase contribute to benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adduct formation catalyzed by cytochrome P450 1A1 under low NADPH:P450 oxidoreductase conditions.  


In previous studies we had administered benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) to genetically engineered mice (HRN) which do not express NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) in hepatocytes and observed higher DNA adduct levels in livers of these mice than in wild-type mice. To elucidate the reason for this unexpected finding we have used two different settings for in vitro incubations; hepatic microsomes from control and BaP-pretreated HRN mice and reconstituted systems with cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), POR, cytochrome b5, and epoxide hydrolase (mEH) in different ratios. In microsomes from BaP-pretreated mice, in which Cyp1a1 was induced, higher levels of BaP metabolites were formed, mainly of BaP-7,8-dihydrodiol. At a low POR:CYP1A1 ratio of 0.05:1 in the reconstituted system, the amounts of BaP diones and BaP-9-ol formed were essentially the same as at an equimolar ratio, but formation of BaP-3-ol was ? 1.6-fold higher. Only after addition of mEH were BaP dihydrodiols found. Two BaP-DNA adducts were formed in the presence of mEH, but only one when CYP1A1 and POR were present alone. At a ratio of POR:CYP1A1 of 0.05:1, addition of cytochrome b5 increased CYP1A1-mediated BaP oxidation to most of its metabolites indicating that cytochrome b5 participates in the electron transfer from NADPH to CYP1A1 required for enzyme activity of this CYP. BaP-9-ol was formed even by CYP1A1 reconstituted with cytochrome b5 without POR. Our results suggest that in livers of HRN mice Cyp1a1, cytochrome b5 and mEH can effectively activate BaP to DNA binding species, even in the presence of very low amounts of POR. PMID:24530354

Stiborová, Marie; Moserová, Michaela; ?erná, V?ra; Indra, Radek; Dra?ínský, Martin; Šulc, Miroslav; Henderson, Colin J; Wolf, C Roland; Schmeiser, Heinz H; Phillips, David H; Frei, Eva; Arlt, Volker M



Gene expression analysis in cucumber leaves primed by root colonization with Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 upon challenge-inoculation with Corynespora cassiicola.  


Root colonization by Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6, a non-pathogenic rhizobacterium, induced systemic resistance in cucumber against target leaf spot caused by Corynespora cassiicola. A cDNA library was constructed using mRNA extracted from cucumber leaves 12 h after inoculation with C. cassiicola, using plants colonized by O6. To identify genes involved in O6-mediated induced systemic resistance (ISR), we employed a subtractive hybridization method using mRNAs extracted from pathogen-challenged cucumber leaves of plants lacking colonization. Differential screening of the cDNA library led to the isolation of six distinct genes encoding a GTP binding protein, a 60S ribosomal protein, a hypersensitive-induced reaction protein, a ubiquitin extension protein, a pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase, and a signal recognition particle receptor. Expression of these genes was not induced by O6 colonization alone. Rather, transcript accumulation of these genes increased significantly faster and stronger in the O6 colonized than in non-colonized plants after challenge infection. Therefore, O6-mediated ISR may be associated with an enhanced capacity for the rapid and effective activation of cellular defence responses after challenge inoculation. PMID:15045660

Kim, M S; Kim, Y C; Cho, B H



Systemic Gene Delivery for Muscle Gene Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The muscular dystrophies (MDs) are a heterogeneous group of monogenetic disorders that affect striated muscles, often throughout\\u000a the body. A promising approach to treating the MDs is to use gene therapy to replace, repair, or modify expression of the\\u000a mutant gene. Accomplishing such a goal requires that gene expression cassettes, which comprise a gene regulatory element driving\\u000a expression of an

Dilip Garikipati; Jeffrey S. Chamberlain


Gene doping: gene delivery for olympic victory  

PubMed Central

With one recently recommended gene therapy in Europe and a number of other gene therapy treatments now proving effective in clinical trials it is feasible that the same technologies will soon be adopted in the world of sport by unscrupulous athletes and their trainers in so called ‘gene doping’. In this article an overview of the successful gene therapy clinical trials is provided and the potential targets for gene doping are highlighted. Depending on whether a doping gene product is secreted from the engineered cells or is retained locally to, or inside engineered cells will, to some extent, determine the likelihood of detection. It is clear that effective gene delivery technologies now exist and it is important that detection and prevention plans are in place. PMID:23082866

Gould, David



Autism and Genes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document defines and discusses autism and how genes play a role in the condition. Answers to the following questions are covered: (1) What are genes? (2) What is autism? (3) What causes autism? (4) Why study genes to learn about autism? (5) How do researchers look for the genes involved in autism? (screen the whole genome; conduct cytogenetic…

National Institutes of Health, 2005



Life with 6000 Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genome of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been completely sequenced through a worldwide collaboration. The sequence of 12,068 kilobases defines 5885 potential protein-encoding genes, approximately 140 genes specifying ribosomal RNA, 40 genes for small nuclear RNA molecules, and 275 transfer RNA genes. In addition, the complete sequence provides information about the higher order organization of yeast's 16 chromosomes and

A. Gofieau; B. G. Barrell; H. Bussey; R. W. Davis; B. Dujon; H. Feldmann; F. Galibert; J. D. Hoheisel; C. Jacq; M. Johnston; E. J. Louis; H. W. Mewes; Y. Murakami; P. Philippsen; H. Tettelin; S. G. Oliver



Gene–environment interdependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modern understanding of genetic influences, of environmental effects, of mental disorder, and of heritabilities is noted. The practical utility of finding susceptibility genes with a very small effect is questioned. The empirical findings and implications of developmental perturbations, epigenetics, gene–environment correlations and interactions are then discussed. It is noted that the genes involved in gene–environment interactions may be concerned

Michael Rutter



Evaluation of Gene, Protein and Neurotrophin Expression in the Brain of Mice Exposed to Space Environment for 91 Days  

PubMed Central

Effects of 3-month exposure to microgravity environment on the expression of genes and proteins in mouse brain were studied. Moreover, responses of neurobiological parameters, nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), were also evaluated in the cerebellum, hippocampus, cortex, and adrenal glands. Spaceflight-related changes in gene and protein expression were observed. Biological processes of the up-regulated genes were related to the immune response, metabolic process, and/or inflammatory response. Changes of cellular components involving in microsome and vesicular fraction were also noted. Molecular function categories were related to various enzyme activities. The biological processes in the down-regulated genes were related to various metabolic and catabolic processes. Cellular components were related to cytoplasm and mitochondrion. The down-regulated molecular functions were related to catalytic and oxidoreductase activities. Up-regulation of 28 proteins was seen following spaceflight vs. those in ground control. These proteins were related to mitochondrial metabolism, synthesis and hydrolysis of ATP, calcium/calmodulin metabolism, nervous system, and transport of proteins and/or amino acids. Down-regulated proteins were related to mitochondrial metabolism. Expression of NGF in hippocampus, cortex, and adrenal gland of wild type animal tended to decrease following spaceflight. As for pleiotrophin transgenic mice, spaceflight-related reduction of NGF occured only in adrenal gland. Consistent trends between various portions of brain and adrenal gland were not observed in the responses of BDNF to spaceflight. Although exposure to real microgravity influenced the expression of a number of genes and proteins in the brain that have been shown to be involved in a wide spectrum of biological function, it is still unclear how the functional properties of brain were influenced by 3-month exposure to microgravity. PMID:22808101

Santucci, Daniela; Kawano, Fuminori; Ohira, Takashi; Terada, Masahiro; Nakai, Naoya; Francia, Nadia; Alleva, Enrico; Aloe, Luigi; Ochiai, Toshimasa; Cancedda, Ranieri; Goto, Katsumasa; Ohira, Yoshinobu



Genes of the N-Methylglutamate Pathway Are Essential for Growth of Methylobacterium extorquens DM4 with Monomethylamine  

PubMed Central

Monomethylamine (MMA, CH3NH2) can be used as a carbon and nitrogen source by many methylotrophic bacteria. Methylobacterium extorquens DM4 lacks the MMA dehydrogenase encoded by mau genes, which in M. extorquens AM1 is essential for growth on MMA. Identification and characterization of minitransposon mutants with an MMA-dependent phenotype showed that strain DM4 grows with MMA as the sole source of carbon, energy, and nitrogen by the N-methylglutamate (NMG) pathway. Independent mutations were found in a chromosomal region containing the genes gmaS, mgsABC, and mgdABCD for the three enzymes of the pathway, ?-glutamylmethylamide (GMA) synthetase, NMG synthase, and NMG dehydrogenase, respectively. Reverse transcription-PCR confirmed the operonic structure of the two divergent gene clusters mgsABC-gmaS and mgdABCD and their induction during growth with MMA. The genes mgdABCD and mgsABC were found to be essential for utilization of MMA as a carbon and nitrogen source. The gene gmaS was essential for MMA utilization as a carbon source, but residual growth of mutant DM4gmaS growing with succinate and MMA as a nitrogen source was observed. Plasmid copies of gmaS and the gmaS homolog METDI4690, which encodes a protein 39% identical to GMA synthetase, fully restored the ability of mutants DM4gmaS and DM4gmaS?metdi4690 to use MMA as a carbon and nitrogen source. Similarly, chemically synthesized GMA, the product of GMA synthetase, could be used as a nitrogen source for growth in the wild-type strain, as well as in DM4gmaS and DM4gmaS?metdi4690 mutants. The NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase respiratory complex component NuoG was also found to be essential for growth with MMA as a carbon source. PMID:24682302

Gruffaz, Christelle; Muller, Emilie E. L.; Louhichi-Jelail, Yousra; Nelli, Yella R.; Guichard, Gilles