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1

Silencing of NADPH-dependent oxidoreductase genes (yqhD and dkgA) in furfural-resistant ethanologenic Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Low concentrations of furfural are formed as a side product during the dilute acid hydrolysis of hemicellulose. Growth is inhibited by exposure to furfural but resumes after the complete reduction of furfural to the less toxic furfuryl alcohol. Growth-based selection was used to isolate a furfural-resistant mutant of ethanologenic Escherichia coli LY180, designated strain EMFR9. Based on mRNA expression levels in the parent and mutant in response to furfural challenge, genes encoding 12 oxidoreductases were found to vary by more than twofold (eight were higher in EMFR9; four were higher in the parent). All 12 genes were cloned. When expressed from plasmids, none of the eight genes in the first group increased furfural tolerance in the parent (LY180). Expression of three of the silenced genes (yqhD, dkgA, and yqfA) in EMFR9 was found to decrease furfural tolerance compared to that in the parent. Purified enzymes encoded by yqhD and dkgA were shown to have NADPH-dependent furfural reductase activity. Both exhibited low K(m) values for NADPH (8 microM and 23 microM, respectively), similar to those of biosynthetic reactions. Furfural reductase activity was not associated with yqfA. Deleting yqhD and dkgA in the parent (LY180) increased furfural tolerance, but not to the same extent observed in the mutant EMFR9. Together, these results suggest that the process of reducing furfural by using an enzyme with a low K(m) for NADPH rather than a direct inhibitory action is the primary cause for growth inhibition by low concentrations of furfural. PMID:19429550

Miller, E N; Jarboe, L R; Yomano, L P; York, S W; Shanmugam, K T; Ingram, L O

2009-05-08

2

The catalytic and kinetic mechanisms of NADPH-dependent alkenal/one oxidoreductase.  

PubMed

NADPH-dependent alkenal/one oxidoreductase (AOR) from the rat is a phase 2/antioxidative enzyme that is known to catalyze the reduction of the carbon-carbon double bond of alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes and ketones. It is also known for its leukotriene B(4) 12-hydroxydehydrogenase activity. In order to begin to understand these dual catalytic activities and validate its classification as a reductase of the medium-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family, an investigation of the mechanism of its NADPH-dependent activity was undertaken. Recombinant AOR and a 3-nonen-2-one substrate were used to perform steady-state initial velocity, product inhibition, and dead end inhibition experiments, which elucidated an ordered Theorell-Chance kinetic mechanism with NADPH binding first and NADP(+) leaving last. A nearly 20-fold preference for NADPH over NADH was also observed. The dependence of kinetic parameters V and V/K on pH suggests the involvement of a general acid with a pK of 9.2. NADPH isomers stereospecifically labeled with deuterium at the 4-position were used to determine that AOR catalyzes the transfer of the pro-R hydride to the beta-carbon of an alpha,beta-unsaturated ketone, illudin M. Two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser effect NMR spectra demonstrate that this atom becomes the R-hydrogen at this position on the metabolite. Using [4R-(2)H]NADPH, small primary kinetic isotope effects of 1.16 and 1.73 for V and V/K, respectively, were observed and suggest that hydride transfer is not rate-limiting. Atomic absorption spectroscopy indicated an absence of Zn(2+) from active preparations of AOR. Thus, AOR fits predictions made for medium-chain reductases and bears similar characteristics to well known medium-chain alcohol dehydrogenases. PMID:14966122

Dick, Ryan A; Kensler, Thomas W

2004-02-13

3

Chloroplastic NADPH-dependent alkenal/one oxidoreductase contributes to the detoxification of reactive carbonyls produced under oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Lipid peroxide-derived reactive carbonyls (RCs) can cause serious damage to plant functions. A chloroplastic NADPH-dependent alkenal/one oxidoreductase (AOR) detoxifies RCs, but its physiological significance remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the biological impacts of AOR using an AOR-knock out Arabidopsis line (aor). Methyl viologen treatment, mainly to enhance photosystem (PS) I-originated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, caused more severe damage to aor than wild type (Col-0). In contrast, the high light treatment used to enhance PSII-originated ROS production resulted in no difference in PSII damage between Col-0 and aor. In conclusion, AOR can contribute to detoxify stromal RCs produced under oxidative stress. PMID:22575657

Yamauchi, Yasuo; Hasegawa, Ayaka; Mizutani, Masaharu; Sugimoto, Yukihiro

2012-03-17

4

Gene cloning of an NADPH-dependent menadione reductase from Candida macedoniensis, and its application to chiral alcohol production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gene encoding an NADPH-dependent menadione reductase of Candida macedoniensis AKU4588 was cloned and sequenced. A 1035bp nucleotide fragment (mer) was confirmed to be the gene encoding the enzyme based on the agreement of N-terminal and internal amino acid sequences. The mer encodes 345 amino acid residues, and the deduced amino acid sequence shows high similarity with those of hypothetical

Michihiko Kataoka; Akiko Hoshino-Hasegawa; Rungruedee Thiwthong; Nanami Higuchi; Takeru Ishige; Sakayu Shimizu

2006-01-01

5

The Pseudomonas aeruginosa rhlG Gene Encodes an NADPH-Dependent ?-Ketoacyl Reductase Which Is Specifically Involved in Rhamnolipid Synthesis  

PubMed Central

A Pseudomonas aeruginosa gene homologous to the fabG gene, which encodes the NADPH-dependent ?-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase required for fatty acid synthesis, was identified. The insertional mutation of this fabG homolog (herein called rhlG) produced no apparent effect on the growth rate and total lipid content of P. aeruginosa cells, but the production of rhamnolipids was completely abrogated. These results suggest that the synthetic pathway for the fatty acid moiety of rhamnolipids is separate from the general fatty acid synthetic pathway, starting with a specific ketoacyl reduction step catalyzed by the RhlG protein. In addition, the synthesis of poly-?-hydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is delayed in this mutant, suggesting that RhlG participates in PHA synthesis, although it is not the only reductase involved in this pathway. Traits regulated by the quorum-sensing response, other than rhamnolipid production, including production of proteases, pyocyanine, and the autoinducer butanoyl-homoserine lactone (PAI-2), were not affected by the rhlG mutation. We conclude that the P. aeruginosa rhlG gene encodes an NADPH-dependent ?-ketoacyl reductase absolutely required for the synthesis of the ?-hydroxy acid moiety of rhamnolipids and that it has a minor role in PHA production. Expression of rhlG mRNA under different culture conditions is consistent with this conclusion.

Campos-Garcia, Jesus; Caro, Alma Delia; Najera, Rebeca; Miller-Maier, Raina M.; Al-Tahhan, Ragheb A.; Soberon-Chavez, Gloria

1998-01-01

6

A novel NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y-12632 involved in the detoxification of aldehyde inhibitors derived from lignocellulosic biomass conversion.  

PubMed

Aldehyde inhibitors such as furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, anisaldehyde, benzaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde, and phenylaldehyde are commonly generated during lignocellulosic biomass conversion process for low-cost cellulosic ethanol production that interferes with subsequent microbial growth and fermentation. In situ detoxification of the aldehyde inhibitors is possible by the tolerant ethanologenic yeast that involves multiple genes including numerous functional reductases. In this study, we report a novel aldehyde reductase gene clone Y63 from ethanologenic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y12632, representing the uncharacterized ORF YGL157W, which demonstrated NADPH-dependent reduction activities toward at least 14 aldehyde substrates. The identity of gene clone Y63 is the same with YGL157W of SGD since a variation of only 35 nucleotides in genomic sequence and three amino acid residues were observed between the two that share the same length of 347 residues in size. As one among the highly induced genes, YGL157W of Y-12632 showed significantly high levels of transcript abundance in response to furfural and HMF challenges. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence and the most conserved functional motif analyses including closely related reductases from five other yeast species to this date, YGL157W was identified as a member of the subclass 'intermediate' of the SDR (short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase) superfamily with the following typical characteristics: the most conserved catalytic site to lie at Tyr(169)-X-X-X-Lys(173); an indispensable reduction catalytic triad at Ser(131), Tyr(169), and Lys(173), and an approved cofactor-binding motif at Gly(11)-X-X-Gly(14)-X-X-Ala(17) near the N-terminus. YGL039W, YDR541C, and YOL151W (GRE2) appeared to be the similar type of enzymes falling into the same category of the intermediate subfamily. PMID:19577617

Liu, Z Lewis; Moon, Jaewoong

2009-07-03

7

Characterization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae YMR318C (ADH6) gene product as a broad specificity NADPH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase: relevance in aldehyde reduction.  

PubMed Central

YMR318C represents an open reading frame from Saccharomyces cerevisiae with unknown function. It possesses a conserved sequence motif, the zinc-containing alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) signature, specific to the medium-chain zinc-containing ADHs. In the present study, the YMR318C gene product has been purified to homogeneity from overexpressing yeast cells, and found to be a homodimeric ADH, composed of 40 kDa subunits and with a pI of 5.0-5.4. The enzyme was strictly specific for NADPH and was active with a wide variety of substrates, including aliphatic (linear and branched-chain) and aromatic primary alcohols and aldehydes. Aldehydes were processed with a 50-fold higher catalytic efficiency than that for the corresponding alcohols. The highest k(cat)/K(m) values were found with pentanal>veratraldehyde > hexanal > 3-methylbutanal >cinnamaldehyde. Taking into consideration the substrate specificity and sequence characteristics of the YMR318C gene product, we have proposed this gene to be called ADH6. The disruption of ADH6 was not lethal for the yeast under laboratory conditions. Although S. cerevisiae is considered a non lignin-degrading organism, the catalytic activity of ADHVI can direct veratraldehyde and anisaldehyde, arising from the oxidation of lignocellulose by fungal lignin peroxidases, to the lignin biodegradation pathway. ADHVI is the only S. cerevisiae enzyme able to significantly reduce veratraldehyde in vivo, and its overexpression allowed yeast to grow under toxic concentrations of this aldehyde. The enzyme may also be involved in the synthesis of fusel alcohols. To our knowledge this is the first NADPH-dependent medium-chain ADH to be characterized in S. cerevisiae.

Larroy, Carol; Fernandez, M Rosario; Gonzalez, Eva; Pares, Xavier; Biosca, Josep A

2002-01-01

8

Expression pattern of a chloroplast NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase in Chlorella vulgaris during hardening and its interaction with 2-Cys peroxiredoxin.  

PubMed

A chloroplastic NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase gene was identified from Chlorella vulgaris and designated CvNTRC. Mature CvNTRC protein (mCvNTRC) was expressed in Escherichia coli, and it showed both NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase (NTR) and thioredoxin (Trx)-like dithiol-disulfide oxidoreductase activities. The transcript of CvNTRC increased throughout 24-h hardening, whereas the encoded protein amount and total NTR activity decreased once and then increased during hardening. By in vitro pull-down assay, a 21.2-kDa protein bound to mCvNTRC was isolated and identified as a 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (2-Cys Prx) based on the N-terminal sequence. These data suggest that CvNTRC is maintained at a constant level during hardening and functions as an antioxidant with 2-Cys Prx in the acquisition of freezing tolerance of Chlorella. PMID:19270395

Machida, Takeshi; Kato, Eri; Ishibashi, Akiko; Sato, Jun-ichi; Kawasaki, Shinji; Niimura, Youichi; Honjoh, Ken-ichi; Miyamoto, Takahisa

2009-03-07

9

A NADPH-dependent (S)-imine reductase (SIR) from Streptomyces sp. GF3546 for asymmetric synthesis of optically active amines: purification, characterization, gene cloning, and expression.  

PubMed

A NADPH-dependent (S)-imine reductase (SIR) was purified to be homogeneous from the cell-free extract of Streptomyces sp. GF3546. SIR appeared to be a homodimer protein with subunits of 30.5 kDa based on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and HPLC gel filtration. It also catalyzed the (S)-enantioselective reduction of not only 2-methyl-1-pyrroline (2-MPN) but also 1-methyl-3,4-dihydroisoquinoline and 6,7-dimethoxy-1-methyl-3,4-dihydroisoquinoline. Specific activities for their imines were 130, 44, and 2.6 nmol?min(-1)?mg(-1), and their optical purities were 92.7 % ee, 96.4 % ee, and >99 % ee, respectively. Using a NADPH-regenerating system, 10 mM 2-MPN was converted to amine with 100 % conversion and 92 % ee after 24 h. The amino acid sequence analysis revealed that SIR showed about 60 % identity to 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase. However, it showed only 37 % identity with Streptomyces sp. GF3587 (R)-imine reductase. Expression of SIR in Escherichia coli was achieved, and specific activity of the cell-free extract was about two times higher than that of the cell-free extract of Streptomyces sp. GF3546. PMID:23263364

Mitsukura, Koichi; Kuramoto, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Toyokazu; Kimoto, Norihiro; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Nagasawa, Toru

2012-12-21

10

Functional characterization of three genes encoding putative oxidoreductases required for cercosporin toxin biosynthesis in the fungus Cercospora nicotianae.  

PubMed

Cercosporin is a non-host-selective, photoactivated polyketide toxin produced by many phytopathogenic Cercospora species, which plays a crucial role during pathogenesis on host plants. Upon illumination, cercosporin converts oxygen molecules to toxic superoxide and singlet oxygen that damage various cellular components and induce lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage. Three genes (CTB5, CTB6 and CTB7) encoding putative FAD/FMN- or NADPH-dependent oxidoreductases in the cercosporin toxin biosynthetic pathway of C. nicotianae were functionally analysed. Replacement of each gene via double recombination was utilized to create null mutant strains that were completely impaired in cercosporin production as a consequence of specific interruption at the CTB5, CTB6 or CTB7 locus. Expression of CTB1, CTB5, CTB6, CTB7 and CTB8 was drastically reduced or nearly abolished when CTB5, CTB6 or CTB7 was disrupted. Production of cercosporin was revived when a functional gene cassette was introduced into the respective mutants. All ctb5, ctb6 and ctb7 null mutants retained wild-type levels of resistance against toxicity of cercosporin or singlet-oxygen-generating compounds, indicating that none of the genes plays a role in self-protection. PMID:17660442

Chen, Hui-Qin; Lee, Miin-Huey; Chung, Kuang-Ren

2007-08-01

11

Characterization of the gene encoding hydroxylamine oxidoreductase in Nitrosomonas europaea.  

PubMed Central

Hydroxylamine oxidoreductase (HAO) catalyzes the oxidation of hydroxylamine to nitrite in Nitrosomonas europaea. The electrons released in the reaction are partitioned to ammonium monooxygenase and to the respiratory chain. The immediate acceptor of electrons from HAO is believed to be cytochrome c-554 (Cyt c-554). We have isolated a genomic DNA fragment containing the structural gene encoding HAO (hao) and a part of the gene for Cyt c-554. The nucleotide sequence of hao was determined, and its transcription was analyzed. The open reading frame (ORF) encodes amino acid sequences matching the purified peptides of HAO. A 64.28-kDa protein is encoded in this ORF, in close agreement with the empirically determined molecular mass of 63 kDa. The N terminus was located 24 amino acids from the start codon, suggesting the presence of a leader sequence. The putative eight heme-binding peptides were localized in this ORF. The gene for Cyt c-554 was located 1,200 bp downstream from the 3' end of hao. An ORF was identified in the upstream region from hao and may encode a protein of unknown function. Data bank searches did not reveal proteins with substantial similarities to HAO, but they did reveal similarities between Cyt c-554 and other c-type cytochromes. Images

Sayavedra-Soto, L A; Hommes, N G; Arp, D J

1994-01-01

12

Expansion of the silkworm GMC oxidoreductase genes is associated with immunity.  

PubMed

The glucose-methanol-choline (GMC) oxidoreductases constitute a large gene family in insects. Some of these enzymes play roles in developmental or physiological process, such as ecdysteroid metabolism. However, little is known about the functional diversity of the insect GMC family. Here, we identified 43 GMC genes in the silkworm genome, the largest number of GMC genes among all the insect genomes sequenced to date. Similar to the other insects, there is a highly conserved GMC cluster within the second intron of the silkworm flotillin-2 (flo-2) gene. However, the silkworm GMC genes outside of the conserved GMC cluster have experienced a large expansion. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the silkworm GMC? subfamily contained 22 copies and made a major contribution to expansion of the silkworm GMC genes. Eighteen of the 22 members of the silkworm GMC? subfamily are located outside of the conserved GMC cluster, and are known as silkworm expansion genes (SEs). Relative-rate tests showed that SEs evolved significantly faster than the GMC? genes inside the conserved GMC cluster. Accordingly, the third position GC content (GC3s) and codon bias of SEs are significantly different from those of the GMC? genes in the conserved GMC cluster. The elevated evolutionary rate of the silkworm GMC? genes outside of the conserved GMC cluster may reflect the evolution of function diversity. At least 24 of the 43 silkworm GMC genes were differently transcribed and expressed in a tissue- or stage-specific manner during the larval stage. Strikingly, microarray data revealed that four different pathogens upregulated most of the silkworm GMC? genes. Furthermore, RNA interference of representative upregulated GMC? genes reduced the survival rate of the silkworm when infected by pathogens. Taken together, the results suggested that expansion of the silkworm GMC oxidoreductase genes is associated with immunity. PMID:23022604

Sun, Wei; Shen, Yi-Hong; Yang, Wen-Juan; Cao, Yun-Feng; Xiang, Zhong-Huai; Zhang, Ze

2012-09-25

13

Isolation and Characterization of the Alkane-Inducible NADPH-Cytochrome P-450 Oxidoreductase Gene from 'Candida tropicalis'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The gene coding for the Candida tropicalis NADPH-cytochrome P-450 oxidoreductase was isolated by immunoscreening of a C. tropicalis (lambda)gt11 expression library and colony hybridization of a C. tropicalis genomic library. The C. tropicalis CPR gene pro...

T. R. Sutter D. Sanglard J. C. Loper

1990-01-01

14

Protein Method for Investigating Mercuric Reductase Gene Expression in Aquatic Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A colorimetric assay for NADPH-dependent, mercuric ion-specific oxidoreductase activity was developed to facilitate the investigation of mercuric reductase gene expression in polluted aquatic ecosystems. Protein molecules extracted directly from unseeded freshwater and samples seeded with Pseudomonas aeruginosa PU21(Rip64) were quantitatively assayed for mercuric reductase activity in microtiter plates by stoichiometric coupling of mercuric ion reduction to a colorimetric redox chain

O. A. OGUNSEITAN

1998-01-01

15

A case of Antley-Bixler syndrome caused by compound heterozygous mutations of the cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS) is a skeletal malformation syndrome primarily affecting the skull and limbs. Although causal\\u000a mutations in the FGFR2 gene have been found in some patients, mutations in the electron donor enzyme P450 oxidoreductase gene (POR) have recently been found to cause ABS in other patients. In addition to skeletal malformations, POR deficiency also causes\\u000a glucocorticoid deficiency and congenital

Jung Min Ko; Chong-Kun Cheon; Gu-Hwan Kim; Han-Wook Yoo

2009-01-01

16

An NADPH-dependent genetic switch regulates plant infection by the rice blast fungus.  

PubMed

To cause rice blast disease, the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae breaches the tough outer cuticle of the rice leaf by using specialized infection structures called appressoria. These cells allow the fungus to invade the host plant and proliferate rapidly within leaf tissue. Here, we show that a unique NADPH-dependent genetic switch regulates plant infection in response to the changing nutritional and redox conditions encountered by the pathogen. The biosynthetic enzyme trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (Tps1) integrates control of glucose-6-phosphate metabolism and nitrogen source utilization by regulating the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, the generation of NADPH, and the activity of nitrate reductase. We report that Tps1 directly binds to NADPH and, thereby, regulates a set of related transcriptional corepressors, comprising three proteins, Nmr1, Nmr2, and Nmr3, which can each bind NADP. Targeted deletion of any of the Nmr-encoding genes partially suppresses the nonpathogenic phenotype of a ?tps1 mutant. Tps1-dependent Nmr corepressors control the expression of a set of virulence-associated genes that are derepressed during appressorium-mediated plant infection. When considered together, these results suggest that initiation of rice blast disease by M. oryzae requires a regulatory mechanism involving an NADPH sensor protein, Tps1, a set of NADP-dependent transcriptional corepressors, and the nonconsuming interconversion of NADPH and NADP acting as signal transducer. PMID:21115813

Wilson, Richard A; Gibson, Robert P; Quispe, Cristian F; Littlechild, Jennifer A; Talbot, Nicholas J

2010-11-29

17

Expansion and evolution of insect GMC oxidoreductases  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The GMC oxidoreductases comprise a large family of diverse FAD enzymes that share a homologous backbone. The relationship and origin of the GMC oxidoreductase genes, however, was unknown. Recent sequencing of entire genomes has allowed for the evolutionary analysis of the GMC oxidoreductase family. RESULTS: Although genes that encode enzyme families are rarely linked in higher eukaryotes, we discovered

Kaori Iida; Diana L Cox-Foster; Xiaolong Yang; Wen-Ya Ko; Douglas R Cavener

2007-01-01

18

A Variant in the Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase Gene Is Associated with Breast Cancer Risk in African Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in the cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) gene, a key regulator of type II cytochrome P450 enzymes, may affect exposure to endogenous steroid hormones and breast cancer risk.We sequenced the POR locus and tested candi- date polymorphisms G5G and A503V for association with breast cancer risk among women in the Multiethnic Cohort Study (1,615 cases and 1,962 controls).The single nucleotide

Christopher A. Haiman; V. Wendy Setiawan; Lucy Y. Xia; Loic Le Marchand; Giske Ursin; Leslie Bernstein; Esther M. John; Brian E. Henderson

19

Biochemical characterisation of a NADPH-dependent carbonyl reductase from Neurospora crassa reducing ?- and ?-keto esters.  

PubMed

A gene encoding an NADPH-dependent carbonyl reductase from Neurospora crassa (nccr) was cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The enzyme (NcCR) was purified and biochemically characterised. NcCR exhibited a restricted substrate spectrum towards various ketones, and the highest activity (468U/mg) was observed with dihydroxyacetone. However, NcCR proved to be very selective in the reduction of different ?- and ?-keto esters. Several compounds were converted to the corresponding hydroxy ester in high enantiomeric excess (ee) at high conversion rates. The enantioselectivity of NcCR for the reduction of ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate showed a strong dependence on temperature. This effect was studied in detail, revealing that the ee could be substantially increased by decreasing the temperature from 40 °C (78.8%) to -3 °C (98.0%). When the experimental conditions were optimised to improve the optical purity of the product, (S)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate (ee 98.0%) was successfully produced on a 300 mg (1.8 mmol) scale using NcCR at -3 °C. PMID:22113019

Richter, Nina; Hummel, Werner

2011-02-12

20

Human carbonyl reductase 4 is a mitochondrial NADPH-dependent quinone reductase.  

PubMed

A protein encoded in the gene Cbr4 on human chromosome 4q32.3 belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family. Contrary to the functional annotation as carbonyl reductase 4 (CBR4), we show that the recombinant tetrameric protein, composed of 25-kDa subunits, exhibits NADPH-dependent reductase activity for o- and p-quinones, but not for other aldehydes and ketones. The enzyme was insensitive to dicumarol and quercetin, potent inhibitors of cytosolic quinone reductases. The 25-kDa CBR4 was detected in human liver, kidney and cell lines on Western blotting using anti-CBR4 antibodies. The overexpression of CBR4 in bovine endothelial cells reveals that the enzyme has a non-cleavable mitochondrial targeting signal. We further demonstrate that the in vitro quinone reduction by CBR4 generates superoxide through the redox cycling, and suggest that the enzyme may be involved in the induction of apoptosis by cytotoxic 9,10-phenanthrenequinone. PMID:19000905

Endo, Satoshi; Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Kitade, Yukio; Ohno, Satoshi; Tajima, Kazuo; El-Kabbani, Ossama; Hara, Akira

2008-11-10

21

Fur Activates Expression of the 2-Oxoglutarate Oxidoreductase Genes (oorDABC) in Helicobacter pylori  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori is a highly successful pathogen that colonizes the gastric mucosa of ?50% of the world's population. Within this colonization niche, the bacteria encounter large fluctuations in nutrient availability. As such, it is critical that this organism regulate expression of key metabolic enzymes so that they are present when environmental conditions are optimal for growth. One such enzyme is the 2-oxoglutarate (?-ketoglutarate) oxidoreductase (OOR), which catalyzes the conversion of ?-ketoglutarate to succinyl coenzyme A (succinyl-CoA) and CO2. Previous studies from our group suggested that the genes that encode the OOR are activated by iron-bound Fur (Fe-Fur); microarray analysis showed that expression of oorD, oorA, and oorC was altered in a fur mutant strain of H. pylori. The goal of the present work was to more thoroughly characterize expression of the oorDABC genes in H. pylori as well as to define the role of Fe-Fur in this process. Here we show that these four genes are cotranscribed as an operon and that expression of the operon is decreased in a fur mutant strain. Transcriptional start site mapping and promoter analysis revealed the presence of a canonical extended ?10 element but a poorly conserved ?35 element upstream of the +1. Additionally, we identified a conserved Fur binding sequence ?130 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site. Transcriptional analysis using promoter fusions revealed that this binding sequence was required for Fe-Fur-mediated activation. Finally, fluorescence anisotropy assays indicate that Fe-Fur specifically bound this Fur box with a relatively high affinity (dissociation constant [Kd] = 200 nM). These findings provide novel insight into the genetic regulation of a key metabolic enzyme and add to our understanding of the diverse roles Fur plays in gene regulation in H. pylori.

Gilbreath, Jeremy J.; West, Abby L.; Pich, Oscar Q.; Carpenter, Beth M.; Michel, Sarah

2012-01-01

22

The housekeeping gene xanthine oxidoreductase is necessary for milk fat droplet enveloping and secretion: gene sharing in the lactating mammary gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is the rate-limiting enzyme in purine catabolism occurring in most cell types. However, this housekeeping gene is expressed at very high levels in a number of mammalian tissues including the lactating mammary epithelium, suggesting additional roles for XOR in these tissues. Mice with targeted disruption of XOR were generated to assess these potential additional roles. XOR?\\/? mice

Claudia Vorbach; Alistair Scriven; Mario R. Capecchi

2002-01-01

23

Sulfide oxidation by gene expressions of sulfide-quinone oxidoreductase and ubiquinone-8 biosynthase in Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfides (S2?,SH?) such as hydrogen sulfide belong to a class of sulfur compounds with unpleasant odors. In order to confer sulfide-oxidizing ability on the intestine-inhabiting bacteria, the sulfide-quinone oxidoreductase gene (sqr) in Rhodobacter capsulatus DSM-155 and genes for quinone biosynthesis (ubiC, ubiA and ispB) in Escherichia coli XL1 Blue-MRF' were transduced into E. coli BL21(DE3). Plasmids pT7-7 and pSTV were

Hiroomi Shibata; Mika Takahashi; Ikuko Yamaguchi; Shigeki Kobayashi

1999-01-01

24

Dramatic down-regulation of oxidoreductases in human hepatocellular carcinoma hepG2 cells: proteomics and gene ontology unveiling new frontiers in cancer enzymology  

PubMed Central

Background Oxidoreductases are enzymes that catalyze many redox reactions in normal and neoplastic cells. Their actions include catalysis of the transformation of free, neutral oxygen gas into oxygen free radicals, superoxide, hydroperoxide, singlet oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. These activated forms of oxygen contribute to oxidative stress that modifies lipids, proteins, DNA and carbohydrates. On the other hand, oxidoreductases constitute one of the most important free radical scavenger systems typified by catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. In this work, proteomics, Gene Ontology mapping and Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAG) are employed to detect and quantify differential oxidoreductase enzyme expressions between HepG2 cells and normal human liver tissues. Results For the set of bioinformatics calculations whose BLAST searches are performed using the BLAST program BLASTP 2.2.13 [Nov-27-2005], DAG of the Gene Ontology's Molecular Function annotations show that oxidoreductase activity parent node of the liver proteome contains 331 annotated protein sequences, 7 child nodes and an annotation score of 188.9, whereas that of HepG2 cells has 188 annotated protein sequences, 3 child nodes and an annotation score of only 91.9. Overwhelming preponderance of oxidoreductases in the liver is additionally supported by the isomerase DAGs: nearly all the reactions described in the normal liver isomerase DAG are oxidoreductase isomerization reactions, whereas only one of the three child nodes in the HepG2 isomerase DAG is oxidoreductase. Upon normalization of the annotation scores to the parent Molecular Function nodes, oxidoreductases are down-regulated in HepG2 cells by 58%. Similarly, for the set of bioinformatics calculations whose BLAST searches are carried out using BLASTP 2.2.15 [Oct-15-2006], oxidoreductases are down-regulated in HepG2 cells by 56%. Conclusion Proteomics and Gene Ontology reveal, for the first time, differential enzyme activities between HepG2 cells and normal human liver tissues, which may be a promising new prognostic marker of Hepatocellular carcinoma. Two independent sets of bioinformatics calculations that employ two BLAST program versions, and searched different databases, arrived at essentially the same conclusion: oxidoreductases are down-regulated in HepG2 cells by approximately 57%, when compared to normal human liver tissues. Down-regulation of oxidoreductases in hepatoma is additionally supported by Gene Ontology analysis of isomerises.

Ngoka, Lambert CM

2008-01-01

25

Evolutionary Dynamics of Light-Independent Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase Genes in the Secondary Plastids of Cryptophyte Algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biosynthesis of chlorophyll is an indispensable process in photosynthetic prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In plants and algae, chlorophyll synthesis occurs in the plastid (chloroplast) and involves two evolutionarily distinct enzymes, both of which catalyze the reduction of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide (30). Light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase is ubiquitous among eukaryotic phototrophs and is comprised of nucleus-encoded subunits that are targeted to the

Anna Fong; John M. Archibald

2008-01-01

26

Clostridium scindens baiCD and baiH genes encode stereo-specific 7?/7?-hydroxy-3-oxo-?4-cholenoic acid oxidoreductases *  

PubMed Central

Secondary bile acids, formed by intestinal bacteria, are suggested to play a significant role in cancers of the gastrointestinal tract in humans. Bile acid 7?/?-dehydroxylation is carried out by a few species of intestinal clostridia which harbor a multi-gene bile acid inducible (bai) operon. Several genes encoding enzymes in this pathway have been cloned and characterized. However, no gene product(s) has yet been assigned to the production of 3-oxo-?4-cholenoic acid intermediates of cholic acid (CA), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) or ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). We previously reported the baiH gene encodes an NADH:flavin oxidoreductase (NADH:FOR); however, the role of this protein in bile acid 7-dehydroxylation is unclear. Homology searches and secondary structural alignments suggest this protein to be similar to flavoproteins which reduce ?/?-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. The baiH gene product was expressed in E. coli, purified and discovered to be a stereospecific NAD(H)-dependent 7?-hydroxy-3-oxo-?4-cholenoic acid oxidoreductase. Additionally, high sequence similarity between the baiH and baiCD gene products suggests the baiCD gene may encode a 3-oxo-?4-cholenoic acid oxidoreductase specific for CDCA and CA. We tested this hypothesis using cell extracts prepared from E. coli overexpressing the baiCD gene and discovered that it encodes a stereo-specific NAD(H)-dependent 7?-hydroxy-3-oxo-?4-cholenoic acid oxidoreductase.

Kang, Dae-Joong; Ridlon, Jason M.; Moore, Doyle Ray; Barnes, Stephen; Hylemon, Phillip B.

2008-01-01

27

Hydroxyl radicals are not involved in NADPH dependent microsomal lipid peroxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary NADPH dependent H2O2 formation in microsomes in the presence of chelated iron leads to formation of hydroxyl radicals. Enhancement of hydroxyl radical generation (via ferric-EDTA or sodium azide) did not result in a concomitant increase in lipid peroxidation; rather, a decrease was observed. Moreover, the hydroxyl radical scavenger DMSO did not inhibit lipid peroxidation. This comparison of hydroxyl radical

A. Bast; M. H. M. Steeghs

1986-01-01

28

Efficient removal of sulfide following integration of multiple copies of the sulfide-quinone oxidoreductase gene ( sqr) into the Escherichia coli chromosome  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the oxidation and removal of hydrogen sulfide, which causes an offensive odor from the contents of animal intestines, recombinant strains of Escherichia coli were constructed. The sulfide-quinone oxidoreductase gene (sqr) from Rhodobacter capsulatus was integrated in low copy numbers into the chromosome of Escherichia coli W3110. Multiple copies of sqr on plasmids were also delivered into the cytoplasm of

Hiroomi Shibata; Mika Takahashi; Ikuko Yamaguchi; Shigeki Kobayashi

2001-01-01

29

Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the gene of the molybdenum-containing aldehyde oxido-reductase of Desulfovibrio gigas. The deduced amino acid sequence shows similarity to xanthine dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

In this report, we describe the isolation of a 4020-bp genomic PstI fragment of Desulfovibrio gigas harboring the aldehyde oxido-reductase gene. The aldehyde oxido-reductase gene spans 2718 bp of genomic DNA and codes for a protein with 906 residues. The protein sequence shows an average 52% (+/- 1.5%) similarity to xanthine dehydrogenase from different organisms. The codon usage of the aldehyde oxidoreductase is almost identical to a calculated codon usage of the Desulfovibrio bacteria. PMID:8143744

Thoenes, U; Flores, O L; Neves, A; Devreese, B; Van Beeumen, J J; Huber, R; Romão, M J; LeGall, J; Moura, J J; Rodrigues-Pousada, C

1994-03-15

30

Resistance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to High Concentrations of Furfural Is Based on NADPH-Dependent Reduction by at Least Two Oxireductases ? †  

PubMed Central

Biofuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass hold promises for a sustainable fuel economy, but several problems hamper their economical feasibility. One important problem is the presence of toxic compounds in processed lignocellulosic hydrolysates, with furfural as a key toxin. While Saccharomyces cerevisiae has some intrinsic ability to reduce furfural to the less-toxic furfuryl alcohol, higher resistance is necessary for process conditions. By comparing an evolved, furfural-resistant strain and its parent in microaerobic, glucose-limited chemostats at increasing furfural challenge, we elucidate key mechanism and the molecular basis of both natural and high-level furfural resistance. At lower concentrations of furfural, NADH-dependent oxireductases are the main defense mechanism. At furfural concentrations above 15 mM, however, 13C-flux and global array-based transcript analysis demonstrated that the NADPH-generating flux through the pentose phosphate pathway increases and that NADPH-dependent oxireductases become the major resistance mechanism. The transcript analysis further revealed that iron transmembrane transport is upregulated in response to furfural. While these responses occur in both strains, high-level resistance in the evolved strain was based on strong induction of ADH7, the uncharacterized open reading frame (ORF) YKL071W, and four further, likely NADPH-dependent, oxireductases. By overexpressing the ADH7 gene and the ORF YKL071W, we inversely engineered significantly increased furfural resistance in the parent strain, thereby demonstrating that these two enzymes are key elements of the resistance phenotype.

Heer, Dominik; Heine, Daniel; Sauer, Uwe

2009-01-01

31

Resistance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to high concentrations of furfural is based on NADPH-dependent reduction by at least two oxireductases.  

PubMed

Biofuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass hold promises for a sustainable fuel economy, but several problems hamper their economical feasibility. One important problem is the presence of toxic compounds in processed lignocellulosic hydrolysates, with furfural as a key toxin. While Saccharomyces cerevisiae has some intrinsic ability to reduce furfural to the less-toxic furfuryl alcohol, higher resistance is necessary for process conditions. By comparing an evolved, furfural-resistant strain and its parent in microaerobic, glucose-limited chemostats at increasing furfural challenge, we elucidate key mechanism and the molecular basis of both natural and high-level furfural resistance. At lower concentrations of furfural, NADH-dependent oxireductases are the main defense mechanism. At furfural concentrations above 15 mM, however, (13)C-flux and global array-based transcript analysis demonstrated that the NADPH-generating flux through the pentose phosphate pathway increases and that NADPH-dependent oxireductases become the major resistance mechanism. The transcript analysis further revealed that iron transmembrane transport is upregulated in response to furfural. While these responses occur in both strains, high-level resistance in the evolved strain was based on strong induction of ADH7, the uncharacterized open reading frame (ORF) YKL071W, and four further, likely NADPH-dependent, oxireductases. By overexpressing the ADH7 gene and the ORF YKL071W, we inversely engineered significantly increased furfural resistance in the parent strain, thereby demonstrating that these two enzymes are key elements of the resistance phenotype. PMID:19854918

Heer, Dominik; Heine, Daniel; Sauer, Uwe

2009-10-23

32

Production of (3S)-acetoin from diacetyl by using stereoselective NADPH-dependent carbonyl reductase and glucose dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

Production of (3S)-acetoin ((3S)-AC), an important platform chemical, is desirable but difficult to perform. An NADPH-dependent carbonyl reductase (Gox0644) from Gluconobacter oxydans DSM 2003 was confirmed to have a good ability to reduce diacetyl (DA) to produce (3S)-AC. In this work, the NADPH-dependent carbonyl reductase was expressed and purified. Glucose dehydrogenase from Bacillus subtilis 168 was coupled with the NADPH-dependent carbonyl reductase to produce (3S)-AC from DA. Under the optimal conditions, 12.2 g l(-1) (3S)-AC was produced from 14.3 g l(-1) DA in 75 min. Because DA can be biotechnological produced, the two-enzymes coupling system might be a promising alternative for the (3S)-AC production. PMID:23587814

Gao, Chao; Zhang, Lijie; Xie, Yingjian; Hu, Chunhui; Zhang, Yue; Li, Lixiang; Wang, Yu; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

2013-03-07

33

Construction and Screening of Metagenomic Libraries Derived from Enrichment Cultures: Generation of a Gene Bank for Genes Conferring Alcohol Oxidoreductase Activity on Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Enrichment of microorganisms with special traits and the construction of metagenomic libraries by direct cloning of environmental DNA have great potential for identifying genes and gene products for biotechnological purposes. We have combined these techniques to isolate novel genes conferring oxidation of short-chain (C2 to C4) polyols or reduction of the corresponding carbonyls. In order to favor the growth of microorganisms containing the targeted genes, samples collected from four different environments were incubated in the presence of glycerol and 1,2-propanediol. Subsequently, the DNA was extracted from the four samples and used to construct complex plasmid libraries. Approximately 100,000 Escherichia coli strains of each library per test substrate were screened for the production of carbonyls from polyols on indicator agar. Twenty-four positive E. coli clones were obtained during the initial screen. Sixteen of them contained a plasmid (pAK101 to pAK116) which conferred a stable carbonyl-forming phenotype. Eight of the positive clones exhibited NAD(H)-dependent alcohol oxidoreductase activity with polyols or carbonyls as the substrates in crude extracts. Sequencing revealed that the inserts of pAK101 to pAK116 encoded 36 complete and 17 incomplete presumptive protein-encoding genes. Fifty of these genes showed similarity to sequenced genes from a broad collection of different microorganisms. The genes responsible for the carbonyl formation of E. coli were identified for nine of the plasmids (pAK101, pAK102, pAK105, pAK107 to pAK110, pAK115, and pAK116). Analyses of the amino acid sequences deduced from these genes revealed that three (orf12, orf14, and orf22) encoded novel alcohol dehydrogenases of different types, four (orf5, sucB, fdhD, and yabF) encoded novel putative oxidoreductases belonging to groups distinct from alcohol dehydrogenases, one (glpK) encoded a putative glycerol kinase, and one (orf1) encoded a protein which showed no similarity to any other known gene product.

Knietsch, Anja; Waschkowitz, Tanja; Bowien, Susanne; Henne, Anke; Daniel, Rolf

2003-01-01

34

Characterization of the baiH gene encoding a bile acid-inducible NADH:flavin oxidoreductase from Eubacterium sp. strain VPI 12708.  

PubMed Central

A cholate-inducible, NADH-dependent flavin oxidoreductase from the intestinal bacterium Eubacterium sp. strain VPI 12708 was purified 372-fold to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity. The subunit and native molecular weights were estimated to be 72,000 and 210,000, respectively, suggesting a homotrimeric organization. Three peaks of NADH:flavin oxidoreductase activity (forms I, II, and III) eluted from a DEAE-high-performance liquid chromatography column. Absorption spectra revealed that purified form III, but not form I, contained bound flavin, which dissociated during purification to generate form I. Enzyme activity was inhibited by sulfhydryl-reactive compounds, acriflavine, o-phenanthroline, and EDTA. Activity assays and Western blot (immunoblot) analysis confirmed that expression of the enzyme was cholate inducible. The first 25 N-terminal amino acid residues of purified NADH:flavin oxidoreductase were determined, and a corresponding oligonucleotide probe was synthesized for use in cloning of the associated gene, baiH. Restriction mapping, sequence data, and RNA blot analysis suggested that the baiH gene was located on a previously described, cholate-inducible operon > or = 10 kb long. The baiH gene encoded a 72,006-Da polypeptide containing 661 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of the baiH gene was homologous to that of NADH oxidase from Thermoanaerobium brockii, trimethylamine dehydrogenase from methylotrophic bacterium W3A1, Old Yellow Enzyme from Saccharomyces carlsbergensis, and the product of the baiC gene of Eubacterium sp. strain VPI 12708, located upstream from the baiH gene in the cholate-inducible operon. Alignment of these five sequences revealed potential ligands for an iron-sulfur cluster, a putative flavin adenine dinucleotide-binding domain, and two other well-conserved domains of unknown function. Images

Franklund, C V; Baron, S F; Hylemon, P B

1993-01-01

35

Expansion and evolution of insect GMC oxidoreductases  

PubMed Central

Background The GMC oxidoreductases comprise a large family of diverse FAD enzymes that share a homologous backbone. The relationship and origin of the GMC oxidoreductase genes, however, was unknown. Recent sequencing of entire genomes has allowed for the evolutionary analysis of the GMC oxidoreductase family. Results Although genes that encode enzyme families are rarely linked in higher eukaryotes, we discovered that the majority of the GMC oxidoreductase genes in the fruit fly (D. melanogaster), mosquito (A. gambiae), honeybee (A. mellifera), and flour beetle (T. castaneum) are located in a highly conserved cluster contained within a large intron of the flotillin-2 (Flo-2) gene. In contrast, the genomes of vertebrates and the nematode C. elegans contain few GMC genes and lack a GMC cluster, suggesting that the GMC cluster and the function of its resident genes are unique to insects or arthropods. We found that the development patterns of expression of the GMC cluster genes are highly complex. Among the GMC oxidoreductases located outside of the GMC gene cluster, the identities of two related enzymes, glucose dehydrogenase (GLD) and glucose oxidase (GOX), are known, and they play major roles in development and immunity. We have discovered that several additional GLD and GOX homologues exist in insects but are remotely similar to fungal GOX. Conclusion We speculate that the GMC oxidoreductase cluster has been conserved to coordinately regulate these genes for a common developmental or physiological function related to ecdysteroid metabolism. Furthermore, we propose that the GMC gene cluster may be the birthplace of the insect GMC oxidoreductase genes. Through tandem duplication and divergence within the cluster, new GMC genes evolved. Some of the GMC genes have been retained in the cluster for hundreds of millions of years while others might have transposed to other regions of the genome. Consistent with this hypothesis, our analysis indicates that insect GOX and GLD arose from a different ancestral GMC gene than that of fungal GOX.

Iida, Kaori; Cox-Foster, Diana L; Yang, Xiaolong; Ko, Wen-Ya; Cavener, Douglas R

2007-01-01

36

Isolation and Characterization of a Soluble NADPH-Dependent Fe(III) Reductase from Geobacter sulfurreducens  

Microsoft Academic Search

apparent homogeneity in a four-step procedure. Its specific activity for Fe(III) reduction was 65 mmol z min21 z mg21. The soluble Fe(III) reductase was specific for NADPH and did not utilize NADH as an electron donor. Although the enzyme reduced several forms of Fe(III), Fe(III)-NTA was the preferred electron acceptor. The protein possessed methyl viologen:NADP1 oxidoreductase activity and catalyzed the

FRANZ KAUFMANN; DEREK R. LOVLEY

2001-01-01

37

Electron transfer pathways and dynamics of chloroplast NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase C (NTRC).  

PubMed

NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductases (NTRs) contain a flavin cofactor and a disulfide as redox-active groups. The catalytic mechanism of standard NTR involves a large conformational change between two configurations. Oxygenic photosynthetic organisms possess a plastid-localized NTR, called NTRC, with a thioredoxin module fused at the C terminus. NTRC is an efficient reductant of 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (2-Cys Prxs) and thus is involved in the protection against oxidative stress, among other functions. Although the mechanism of electron transfer of canonical NTRs is well established, it is not yet known in NTRC. By employing stopped-flow spectroscopy, we have carried out a comparative kinetic study of the electron transfer reactions involving NTRC, the truncated NTR module of NTRC, and NTRB, a canonical plant NTR. Whereas the three NTRs maintain the conformational change associated with the reductive cycle of catalysis, NTRC intramolecular electron transfer to the thioredoxin module presents two kinetic components (k(ET) of ~2 and 0.1 s(-1)), indicating the occurrence of additional dynamic motions. Moreover, the dynamic features associated with the electron transfer to the thioredoxin module are altered in the presence of 2-Cys Prx. NTRC shows structural constraints that may locate the thioredoxin module in positions with different efficiencies for electron transfer, the presence of 2-Cys Prx shifting the conformational equilibrium of the thioredoxin module to a specific position, which is not the most efficient. PMID:22833674

Bernal-Bayard, Pilar; Hervás, Manuel; Cejudo, Francisco J; Navarro, José A

2012-07-25

38

Electron Transfer Pathways and Dynamics of Chloroplast NADPH-dependent Thioredoxin Reductase C (NTRC)*  

PubMed Central

NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductases (NTRs) contain a flavin cofactor and a disulfide as redox-active groups. The catalytic mechanism of standard NTR involves a large conformational change between two configurations. Oxygenic photosynthetic organisms possess a plastid-localized NTR, called NTRC, with a thioredoxin module fused at the C terminus. NTRC is an efficient reductant of 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (2-Cys Prxs) and thus is involved in the protection against oxidative stress, among other functions. Although the mechanism of electron transfer of canonical NTRs is well established, it is not yet known in NTRC. By employing stopped-flow spectroscopy, we have carried out a comparative kinetic study of the electron transfer reactions involving NTRC, the truncated NTR module of NTRC, and NTRB, a canonical plant NTR. Whereas the three NTRs maintain the conformational change associated with the reductive cycle of catalysis, NTRC intramolecular electron transfer to the thioredoxin module presents two kinetic components (kET of ?2 and 0.1 s?1), indicating the occurrence of additional dynamic motions. Moreover, the dynamic features associated with the electron transfer to the thioredoxin module are altered in the presence of 2-Cys Prx. NTRC shows structural constraints that may locate the thioredoxin module in positions with different efficiencies for electron transfer, the presence of 2-Cys Prx shifting the conformational equilibrium of the thioredoxin module to a specific position, which is not the most efficient.

Bernal-Bayard, Pilar; Hervas, Manuel; Cejudo, Francisco J.; Navarro, Jose A.

2012-01-01

39

Structure of Hordeum vulgare NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase 2. Unwinding the reaction mechanism.  

PubMed

Thioredoxins (Trxs) are protein disulfide reductases that regulate the intracellular redox environment and are important for seed germination in plants. Trxs are in turn regulated by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductases (NTRs), which provide reducing equivalents to Trx using NADPH to recycle Trxs to the active form. Here, the first crystal structure of a cereal NTR, HvNTR2 from Hordeum vulgare (barley), is presented, which is also the first structure of a monocot plant NTR. The structure was determined at 2.6 A resolution and refined to an R(cryst) of 19.0% and an R(free) of 23.8%. The dimeric protein is structurally similar to the structures of AtNTR-B from Arabidopsis thaliana and other known low-molecular-weight NTRs. However, the relative position of the two NTR cofactor-binding domains, the FAD and the NADPH domains, is not the same. The NADPH domain is rotated by 25 degrees and bent by a 38% closure relative to the FAD domain in comparison with AtNTR-B. The structure may represent an intermediate between the two conformations described previously: the flavin-oxidizing (FO) and the flavin-reducing (FR) conformations. Here, analysis of interdomain contacts as well as phylogenetic studies lead to the proposal of a new reaction scheme in which NTR-Trx interactions mediate the FO to FR transformation. PMID:19690371

Kirkensgaard, Kristine G; Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte; Henriksen, Anette

2009-08-14

40

Effects of NADH kinase on NADPH-dependent biotransformation processes in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Sufficient supply of NADPH is one of the most important factors affecting the productivity of biotransformation processes. In this study, construction of an efficient NADPH-regenerating system was attempted using direct phosphorylation of NADH by NADH kinase (Pos5p) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae for producing guanosine diphosphate (GDP)-L-fucose and ?-caprolactone in recombinant Escherichia coli. Expression of Pos5p in a fed-batch culture of recombinant E. coli producing GDP-L-fucose resulted in a maximum GDP-L-fucose concentration of 291.5 mg/l, which corresponded to a 51 % enhancement compared with the control strain. In a fed-batch Baeyer-Villiger (BV) oxidation of cyclohexanone using recombinant E. coli expressing Pos5p, a maximum ?-caprolactone concentration of 21.6 g/l was obtained, which corresponded to a 96 % enhancement compared with the control strain. Such an increase might be due to the enhanced availability of NADPH in recombinant E. coli expressing Pos5p. These results suggested that efficient regeneration of NADPH was possible by functional expression of Pos5p in recombinant E. coli, which can be applied to other NADPH-dependent biotransformation processes in E. coli. PMID:23053084

Lee, Won-Heong; Kim, Jin-Woo; Park, Eun-Hee; Han, Nam Soo; Kim, Myoung-Dong; Seo, Jin-Ho

2012-10-02

41

Structure of Hordeum vulgare NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase 2. Unwinding the reaction mechanism  

PubMed Central

Thioredoxins (Trxs) are protein disulfide reductases that regulate the intracellular redox environment and are important for seed germination in plants. Trxs are in turn regulated by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductases (NTRs), which provide reducing equivalents to Trx using NADPH to recycle Trxs to the active form. Here, the first crystal structure of a cereal NTR, HvNTR2 from Hordeum vulgare (barley), is presented, which is also the first structure of a monocot plant NTR. The structure was determined at 2.6?Å resolution and refined to an R cryst of 19.0% and an R free of 23.8%. The dimeric protein is structurally similar to the structures of AtNTR-B from Arabidopsis thaliana and other known low-molecular-weight NTRs. However, the relative position of the two NTR cofactor-binding domains, the FAD and the NADPH domains, is not the same. The NADPH domain is rotated by 25° and bent by a 38% closure relative to the FAD domain in comparison with AtNTR-B. The structure may represent an intermediate between the two conformations described pre­viously: the flavin-oxidizing (FO) and the flavin-reducing (FR) conformations. Here, analysis of interdomain contacts as well as phylogenetic studies lead to the proposal of a new reaction scheme in which NTR–Trx interactions mediate the FO to FR transformation.

Kirkensgaard, Kristine G.; Hagglund, Per; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte; Henriksen, Anette

2009-01-01

42

Purification and properties of a NADPH-dependent erythrose reductase from the newly isolated Torula corallina.  

PubMed

Torula corallina (KCCM-10171) is a yeast strain that is currently used for the industrial production of erythritol and has the highest erythritol yield ever reported for an erythritol-producing microorganism. Production of erythritol in T. corallina is catalyzed by erythrose reductase, an enzyme that converts erythrose to erythritol using NADPH as a cofactor. In this study, NADPH-dependent erythrose reductase was purified to homogeneity from the newly isolated T. corallina. The relative molecular weight of the erythrose reductase as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and size exclusion chromatography was 35.4 and 71.0 kDa, respectively, indicating that the enzyme is dimeric. This enzyme catalyzed both erythrose reduction and erythritol oxidation; both enzyme activities required NADP(H). The pH and temperature optima for erythrose reduction and erythritol oxidation were 6.0, 40 degrees C and 8.0, 45 degrees C, respectively. The sequence of the first 10 amino acids of this enzyme was N-V-K-N-F-Y-Q-P-N-D. The affinity (K(m)( )()= 7.12 mM) of the enzyme for erythrose was comparable to that of other known erythrose reductases, and the specificity for erythrose was very high, resulting in no production of other polyols, which may explain the high erythritol yield observed in this strain. PMID:12675593

Lee, Jung-Kul; Hong, Kwang-Won; Kim, Sang-Yong

43

NADPH-dependent reductases and polyol formation in human leukemia cell lines.  

PubMed

Because of the limited availability of human tissues, leukemia cell lines are often utilized as the models for human leukocytes. In this study, we investigated the NADPH-dependent reductases and polyol pathway in commonly utilized human leukemia cell lines. The relative amounts of aldose and aldehyde reductases were estimated by separating two enzymes with chromatofocusing. The flux of glucose through the polyol pathway was examined by 19F-NMR using 3-fluoro-3-deoxy-D-glucose (3FG) as substrate. Sugar alcohol analysis was conducted by gas chromatography. In myelocytic leukemia cells, the major reductase was aldehyde reductase, and levels of aldose reductase were extremely low. Although lymphocytic cells also contained both aldose and aldehyde reductases, the levels of aldose reductase appeared to be higher in lymphocytic cells than myeolcytic cells. In two lymphocytic cells MOLT-4 and SKW6.4, aldose reductase is clearly dominant. When incubated in medium containing D-galactose, all cell lines quickly accumulated galactitol. There was correlation between galactitol levels and aldose reductase levels. The aldose reductase inhibitor FK 366 significantly reduced the formation of galactitol. 19F-NMR of the cells cultured with 3FG as substrate demonstrated the formation of 3-fluoro-3-dexoy-sorbitol in all the cell lines examined in this study. The relative amounts of sorbitol and fructose varied significantly among the cells. The data confirm that the polyol pathway is present in both myelocytic and lymphocytic leukemia cell lines. However, there is a large variation among the cell lines in the levels of enzymes and flux of glucose through the polyol pathway. PMID:12604223

Sato, Sanai; Secchi, E Filippo; Sakurai, Shinichi; Ohta, Nobuo; Fukase, Shigeru; Lizak, Martin J

2003-02-01

44

Comparative study of the tissue distribution of NADH and NADPH-dependent chloral hydrate reducing enzymes in the rat  

SciTech Connect

Chloral hydrate (CH), an intermediate metabolite of trichloroethylene, is reduced to trichloroethanol (TCE) by alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde reductase. Alcohol dehydrogenase requires reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), and aldehyde reductase requires reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). No reports have appeared concerning comparative studies of the tissue distribution of CH-reducing enzymes. In this report, NADH and NADPH-dependent CH-reducing activities were investigated in various organs of the rat.

Ogino, Keiki; Hobara, Tatsuya; Kobayashi, Haruo; Iwamoto, Susumu (Yamaguchi Univ. School of Medicine, Kogushi Ube (Japan))

1990-03-01

45

A Single Eubacterial Origin of Eukaryotic Pyruvate:Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase Genes: Implications for the Evolution of Anaerobic Eukaryotes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The iron sulfur protein pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFO) is central to energy metabolism in amitochondriate eukaryotes, including those with hydrogenosomes. Thus, revealing the evolutionary history of PFO is critical to understanding the origin(s) of eukaryote anaerobic energy metabolism. We determined a complete PFO sequence for Spironucleus barkhanus, a large fragment of a PFO sequence from Clostridium pasteurianum,and a fragment of a

David S. Horner; Robert P. Hirt; T. Martin Embley

46

Vibrio harveyi NADPH-flavin oxidoreductase: cloning, sequencing and overexpression of the gene and purification and characterization of the cloned enzyme.  

PubMed Central

NAD(P)H-flavin oxidoreductases (flavin reductases) from luminous bacteria catalyze the reduction of flavin by NAD(P)H and are believed to provide the reduced form of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) for luciferase in the bioluminescence reaction. By using an oligonucleotide probe based on the partial N-terminal amino acid sequence of the Vibrio harveyi NADPH-FMN oxidoreductase (flavin reductase P), a recombinant plasmid, pFRP1, was obtained which contained the frp gene encoding this enzyme. The DNA sequence of the frp gene was determined; the deduced amino acid sequence for flavin reductase P consists of 240 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 26,312. The frp gene was overexpressed, apparently through induction, in Escherichia coli JM109 cells harboring pFRP1. The cloned flavin reductase P was purified to homogeneity by following a new and simple procedure involving FMN-agarose chromatography as a key step. The same chromatography material was also highly effective in concentrating diluted flavin reductase P. The purified enzyme is a monomer and is unusual in having a tightly bound FMN cofactor. Distinct from the free FMN, the bound FMN cofactor showed a diminished A375 peak and a slightly increased 8-nm red-shifted A453 peak and was completely or nearly nonfluorescent. The Kms for FMN and NADPH and the turnover number of this flavin reductase were determined. In comparison with other flavin reductases and homologous proteins, this flavin reductase P shows a number of distinct features with respect to primary sequence, redox center, and/or kinetic mechanism. Images

Lei, B; Liu, M; Huang, S; Tu, S C

1994-01-01

47

Molecular Genetics Evidence for the in Vivo Roles of the Two Major NADPH-dependent Disulfide Reductases in the Malaria Parasite*  

PubMed Central

Malaria-associated pathology is caused by the continuous expansion of Plasmodium parasites inside host erythrocytes. To maintain a reducing intracellular milieu in an oxygen-rich environment, malaria parasites have evolved a complex antioxidative network based on two central electron donors, glutathione and thioredoxin. Here, we dissected the in vivo roles of both redox pathways by gene targeting of the respective NADPH-dependent disulfide reductases. We show that Plasmodium berghei glutathione reductase and thioredoxin reductase are dispensable for proliferation of the pathogenic blood stages. Intriguingly, glutathione reductase is vital for extracellular parasite development inside the insect vector, whereas thioredoxin reductase is dispensable during the entire parasite life cycle. Our findings suggest that glutathione reductase is the central player of the parasite redox network, whereas thioredoxin reductase fulfils a specialized and dispensable role for P. berghei. These results also indicate redundant roles of the Plasmodium redox pathways during the pathogenic blood phase and query their suitability as promising drug targets for antimalarial intervention strategies.

Buchholz, Kathrin; Putrianti, Elyzana D.; Rahlfs, Stefan; Schirmer, R. Heiner; Becker, Katja; Matuschewski, Kai

2010-01-01

48

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the NADPH-dependent 3-quinuclidinone reductase from Rhodotorula rubra.  

PubMed

(R)-3-Quinuclidinol is a useful compound that is applicable to the synthesis of various pharmaceuticals. The NADPH-dependent carbonyl reductase 3-quinuclidinone reductase from Rhodotorula rubra catalyzes the stereospecific reduction of 3-quinuclidinone to (R)-3-quinuclidinol and is expected to be utilized in industrial production of this alcohol. 3-Quinuclidinone reductase from R. rubra was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using Ni-affinity and ion-exchange column chromatography. Crystals of the protein were obtained by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 8000 as the precipitant. The crystals belonged to space group P4(1)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 91.3, c = 265.4 A, and diffracted X-rays to 2.2 A resolution. The asymmetric unit contained four molecules of the protein and the solvent content was 48.4%. PMID:19478454

Takeshita, Daijiro; Kataoka, Michihiko; Miyakawa, Takuya; Miyazono, Ken-ichi; Uzura, Atsuko; Nagata, Koji; Shimizu, Sakayu; Tanokura, Masaru

2009-05-23

49

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the NADPH-dependent 3-quinuclidinone reductase from Rhodotorula rubra  

PubMed Central

(R)-3-Quinuclidinol is a useful compound that is applicable to the synthesis of various pharmaceuticals. The NADPH-dependent carbonyl reductase 3-­quinuclidinone reductase from Rhodotorula rubra catalyzes the stereospecific reduction of 3-quinuclidinone to (R)-3-quinuclidinol and is expected to be utilized in industrial production of this alcohol. 3-Quinuclidinone reductase from R. rubra was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using Ni-affinity and ion-exchange column chromatography. Crystals of the protein were obtained by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 8000 as the precipitant. The crystals belonged to space group P41212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 91.3, c = 265.4?Å, and diffracted X-rays to 2.2?Å resolution. The asymmetric unit contained four molecules of the protein and the solvent content was 48.4%.

Takeshita, Daijiro; Kataoka, Michihiko; Miyakawa, Takuya; Miyazono, Ken-ichi; Uzura, Atsuko; Nagata, Koji; Shimizu, Sakayu; Tanokura, Masaru

2009-01-01

50

Deletion of copies of the gene encoding old yellow enzyme (TcOYE), a NAD(P)H flavin oxidoreductase, associates with in vitro-induced benznidazole resistance in Trypanosoma cruzi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Old yellow enzyme (OYE) is a NAD(P)H flavin oxidoreductase that in Trypanosoma cruzi (TcOYE) catalyzes prostaglandin PGF2? synthesis and reduction of some trypanocidal drugs. We performed DNA microarray analysis and it revealed that the levels of transcription of the TcOYE gene were six-fold lower in a T. cruzi population with in vitro-induced resistance to benznidazole (BZ) (17LER) than in the

Silvane M. F. Murta; Marco A. Krieger; Luciana R. Montenegro; Fernanda F. M. Camposa; Christian M. Probst; Andréa R. Ávila; Nair H. Muto; Regina C. de Oliveira; Luiz R. Nunes; Philippe Nirdé; Oscar Bruna-Romero; Samuel Goldenberg; Alvaro J. Romanha

2006-01-01

51

Identification of two differentially regulated isoforms of protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase ( POR ) from tobacco revealed a wide variety of light- and development-dependent regulations of POR gene expression among angiosperms  

Microsoft Academic Search

NADPH-protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) catalyzes the light-dependent reduction of protochlorophyllide a in the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. Here, we identified two distinct POR cDNAs from tobacco. Both POR isoforms are encoded by a respective single copy gene in tobacco genome. The overall deduced\\u000a amino acid sequences of two tobacco cDNAs, designated here POR1 and POR2, displayed significant identities (?75%), but showed different

Tatsuru Masuda; Naoki Fusada; Toshihiko Shiraishi; Hirofumi Kuroda; Koichiro Awai; Hiroshi Shimada; Hiroyuki Ohta; Ken-ichiro Takamiya

2002-01-01

52

Overexpression of chloroplast NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase in Arabidopsis enhances leaf growth and elucidates in vivo function of reductase and thioredoxin domains  

PubMed Central

Plant chloroplasts have versatile thioredoxin systems including two thioredoxin reductases and multiple types of thioredoxins. Plastid-localized NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase (NTRC) contains both reductase (NTRd) and thioredoxin (TRXd) domains in a single polypeptide and forms homodimers. To study the action of NTRC and NTRC domains in vivo, we have complemented the ntrc knockout line of Arabidopsis with the wild type and full-length NTRC genes, in which 2-Cys motifs either in NTRd, or in TRXd were inactivated. The ntrc line was also transformed either with the truncated NTRd or TRXd alone. Overexpression of wild-type NTRC promoted plant growth by increasing leaf size and biomass yield of the rosettes. Complementation of the ntrc line with the full-length NTRC gene containing an active reductase but an inactive TRXd, or vice versa, recovered wild-type chloroplast phenotype and, partly, rosette biomass production, indicating that the NTRC domains are capable of interacting with other chloroplast thioredoxin systems. Overexpression of truncated NTRd or TRXd in ntrc background did not restore wild-type phenotype. Modeling of the three-dimensional structure of the NTRC dimer indicates extensive interactions between the NTR domains and the TRX domains further stabilize the dimeric structure. The long linker region between the NTRd and TRXd, however, allows flexibility for the position of the TRXd in the dimer. Supplementation of the TRXd in the NTRC homodimer model by free chloroplast thioredoxins indicated that TRXf is the most likely partner to interact with NTRC. We propose that overexpression of NTRC promotes plant biomass yield both directly by stimulation of chloroplast biosynthetic and protective pathways controlled by NTRC and indirectly via free chloroplast thioredoxins. Our data indicate that overexpression of chloroplast thiol redox-regulator has a potential to increase biofuel yield in plant and algal species suitable for sustainable bioenergy production.

Toivola, Jouni; Nikkanen, Lauri; Dahlstrom, Kathe M.; Salminen, Tiina A.; Lepisto, Anna; Vignols, hb Florence; Rintamaki, Eevi

2013-01-01

53

Overexpression of chloroplast NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase in Arabidopsis enhances leaf growth and elucidates in vivo function of reductase and thioredoxin domains.  

PubMed

Plant chloroplasts have versatile thioredoxin systems including two thioredoxin reductases and multiple types of thioredoxins. Plastid-localized NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase (NTRC) contains both reductase (NTRd) and thioredoxin (TRXd) domains in a single polypeptide and forms homodimers. To study the action of NTRC and NTRC domains in vivo, we have complemented the ntrc knockout line of Arabidopsis with the wild type and full-length NTRC genes, in which 2-Cys motifs either in NTRd, or in TRXd were inactivated. The ntrc line was also transformed either with the truncated NTRd or TRXd alone. Overexpression of wild-type NTRC promoted plant growth by increasing leaf size and biomass yield of the rosettes. Complementation of the ntrc line with the full-length NTRC gene containing an active reductase but an inactive TRXd, or vice versa, recovered wild-type chloroplast phenotype and, partly, rosette biomass production, indicating that the NTRC domains are capable of interacting with other chloroplast thioredoxin systems. Overexpression of truncated NTRd or TRXd in ntrc background did not restore wild-type phenotype. Modeling of the three-dimensional structure of the NTRC dimer indicates extensive interactions between the NTR domains and the TRX domains further stabilize the dimeric structure. The long linker region between the NTRd and TRXd, however, allows flexibility for the position of the TRXd in the dimer. Supplementation of the TRXd in the NTRC homodimer model by free chloroplast thioredoxins indicated that TRXf is the most likely partner to interact with NTRC. We propose that overexpression of NTRC promotes plant biomass yield both directly by stimulation of chloroplast biosynthetic and protective pathways controlled by NTRC and indirectly via free chloroplast thioredoxins. Our data indicate that overexpression of chloroplast thiol redox-regulator has a potential to increase biofuel yield in plant and algal species suitable for sustainable bioenergy production. PMID:24115951

Toivola, Jouni; Nikkanen, Lauri; Dahlström, Käthe M; Salminen, Tiina A; Lepistö, Anna; Vignols, Hb Florence; Rintamäki, Eevi

2013-10-08

54

Identification of the gene encoding the major NAD(P)H-flavin oxidoreductase of the bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri ATCC 7744.  

PubMed Central

The gene encoding the major NAD(P)H-flavin oxidoreductase (flavin reductase) of the luminous bacterium Vibrio fischeri ATCC 7744 was isolated by using synthetic oligonucleotide probes corresponding to the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the enzyme. Nucleotide sequence analysis suggested that the major flavin reductase of V. fischeri consisted of 218 amino acids and had a calculated molecular weight of 24,562. Cloned flavin reductase expressed in Escherichia coli was purified virtually to homogeneity, and its basic biochemical properties were examined. As in the major flavin reductase in crude extracts of V. fischeri, cloned flavin reductase showed broad substrate specificity and served well as a catalyst to supply reduced flavin mononucleotide (FMNH2) to the bioluminescence reaction. The major flavin reductase of V. fischeri not only showed significant similarity in amino acid sequence to oxygen-insensitive NAD(P)H nitroreductases of Salmonella typhimurium, Enterobacter cloacae, and E. coli but also was associated with a low level of nitroreductase activity. The major flavin reductase of V. fischeri and the nitroreductases of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae would thus appear closely related in evolution and form a novel protein family. Images

Zenno, S; Saigo, K; Kanoh, H; Inouye, S

1994-01-01

55

ArsH from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is an efficient NADPH-dependent quinone reductase.  

PubMed

The cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 possesses an arsenic resistance operon that encodes, among others, an ArsH protein. ArsH is a flavin mononucleotide (FMN)-containing protein of unknown function and a member of the family of NADPH-dependent FMN reductases. The nature of its final electron acceptor and the role of ArsH in the resistance to arsenic remained to be clarified. Here we have expressed and purified Synechocystis ArsH and conducted an intensive biochemical study. We present kinetic evidence supporting a quinone reductase activity for ArsH, with a preference for quinones with hydrophobic substituents. By using steady-state activity measurements, as well as stopped-flow and laser-flash photolysis kinetic analyses, it has been possible to establish the mechanism of the process and estimate the values of the kinetic constants. Although the enzyme is able to stabilize the anionic semiquinone form of the FMN, reduction of quinones involves the hydroquinone form of the flavin cofactor, and the enzymatic reaction occurs through a ping-pong-type mechanism. ArsH is able to catalyze one-electron reactions (oxygen and cytocrome c reduction), involving the FMN semiquinone form, but with lower efficiency. In addition, arsH mutants are sensitive to the oxidizing agent menadione, suggesting that ArsH plays a role in the response to oxidative stress caused by arsenite. PMID:22304305

Hervás, Manuel; López-Maury, Luis; León, Pilar; Sánchez-Riego, Ana M; Florencio, Francisco J; Navarro, José A

2012-02-03

56

Gene-specific disruption in the filamentous fungus Cercospora nicotianae using a split-marker approach.  

PubMed

To determine if DNA configuration, gene locus, and flanking sequences will affect homologous recombination in the phytopathogenic fungus Cercospora nicotianae, we evaluated and compared disruption efficiency targeting four cercosporin toxin biosynthetic genes encoding a polyketide synthase (CTB1), a monooxygenase/O-methyltransferase (CTB3), a NADPH-dependent oxidoreductase (CTB5), and a FAD/FMN-dependent oxidoreductase (CTB7). Transformation of C. nicotianae using a circular plasmid resulted in low disruption frequency. The use of endonucleases or a selectable marker DNA fragment flanked by homologous sequence either at one end or at both ends in the transformation procedures, increased disruption efficiency in some but not all CTB genes. A split-marker approach, using two DNA fragments overlapping within the selectable marker, increased the frequency of targeted gene disruption and homologous integration as high as 50%, depending on the target gene and on the length of homologous DNA sequence flanking the selectable marker. The results indicate that the split-marker approach favorably decreased ectopic integration and thus, greatly facilitated targeted gene disruption in this important fungal pathogen. PMID:19506835

You, Bang-Jau; Lee, Miin-Huey; Chung, Kuang-Ren

2009-06-09

57

NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) C609T gene polymorphism association with digestive tract cancer: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) C609T gene polymorphisms have been reported to influence the risk for digestive tract cancer (DTC) in many studies; however, the results remain controversial and ambiguous. We therefore carried out a meta-analysis of published case-control studies to derive a more precise estimation of any associations. Electronic searches were conducted on links between this variant and DTC in several databases through April 2012. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to estimate the strength of associations in fixed or random effect models. Heterogeneity and publication bias were also assessed. A total of 21 case-control studies were identified, including 6,198 cases and 7,583 controls. Overall, there was a statistically significant association between the NQO1 C609T polymorphism and DTC risk (TT vs. CC: OR=1.224, 95%CI=1.055-1.421; TT/CT vs. CC: OR=1.195, 95%CI=1.073-1.330; TT vs. CT/CC: OR=1.183, 95%CI=1.029-1.359; T vs. C: OR=1.180, 95%CI=1.080-1.290). When stratified for tumor location, the results based on all studies showed the variant allele 609T might have a significantly increased risk of upper digest tract cancer (UGIC), but not colorectal cancer. In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, we observed a significantly risk for DTC in Caucasians. For esophageal and gastric cancer, a significantly risk was found in both populations, and for colorectal, a weak risk was observed in Caucasians, but not Asians. This meta-analysis suggested that the NQO1 C609T polymorphism may increase the risk of DTC, especially in the upper gastric tract. PMID:23725139

Zhu, Cheng-Lin; Huang, Qiang; Liu, Chen-Hai; Lin, Xian-Sheng; Xie, Fang; Shao, Feng

2013-01-01

58

Induction, isolation, and some properties of the NADPH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase from the nonheterocystous cyanobacterium Phormidium laminosum.  

PubMed Central

The level of the NADPH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase activity (EC 1.4.1.4) from nitrate-grown cells of the thermophilic non-N2-fixing cyanobacterium Phormidium laminosum OH-1-p.Cl1 could be significantly enhanced by the presence of ammonium or nitrite, as well as by L-methionine-DL-sulfoximine and other sources of organic nitrogen (L-Glu, L-Gln, and methylamine). The enzyme was purified more than 4,400-fold by ultracentrifugation, ion-exchange chromatography, and affinity chromatography, and at 30 degrees C it showed a specific activity of 32.9 mumol of NADPH oxidized per min per mg of protein. The purified enzyme showed no aminotransferase activity and catalyzed the amination of 2-oxoglutarate preferentially to the reverse catabolic reaction. The enzyme was very specific for its substrates 2-oxoglutarate (Km = 1.25 mM) and NADPH (Km = 64 microM), for which hyperbolic kinetics were obtained. However, negative cooperativity (Hill coefficient h = 0.89) and [S]0.5 of 18.2 mM were observed for ammonium. The mechanism of the aminating reaction was of a random type with independent sites. The purified enzyme showed its maximal activity at 60 degrees C (Ea = 5.1 kcal/mol [21.3 kJ/mol]) and optimal pH values of 8.0 and 7.5 when assayed in Tris hydrochloride and potassium phosphate buffers, respectively. The native molecular mass of the enzyme was about 280 kilodaltons. The possible physiological role of the enzyme in ammonia assimilation is discussed.

Martinez-Bilbao, M; Martinez, A; Urkijo, I; Llama, M J; Serra, J L

1988-01-01

59

Identification of two Arabidopsis genes encoding a peroxisomal oxidoreductase-like protein and an acyl-CoA synthetase-like protein that are required for responses to pro-auxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxybutyric acid (2,4-DB) are metabolised by peroxisomal ?-oxidation to active\\u000a auxins that inhibit root growth. We screened Arabidopsis mutants for resistance to IBA and 2,4-DB and identified two new 2,4-DB\\u000a resistant mutants. The mutant genes encode a putative oxidoreductase (SDRa) and a putative acyl-activating enzyme (AAE18).\\u000a Both proteins are localised to peroxisomes. SDRa is coexpressed with

Andrew A. G. Wiszniewski; Wenxu Zhou; Steven M. Smith; John D. Bussell

2009-01-01

60

Construction and Screening of Metagenomic Libraries Derived from Enrichment Cultures: Generation of a Gene Bank for Genes Conferring Alcohol Oxidoreductase Activity on Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enrichment of microorganisms with special traits and the construction of metagenomic libraries by direct cloning of environmental DNA have great potential for identifying genes and gene products for biotechnological purposes. We have combined these techniques to isolate novel genes conferring oxidation of short-chain (C2 to C4) polyols or reduction of the corresponding carbonyls. In order to favor the growth of

Anja Knietsch; Tanja Waschkowitz; Susanne Bowien; Anke Henne; Rolf Daniel

2003-01-01

61

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase I from Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

Thioredoxin reductase 1 (Trr1) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a member of the family of pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductases capable of reducing the redox-active disulfide bond of the cytosolic thioredoxin 1 (Trx1) and thioredoxin 2 (Trx2). NADPH, Trr1 and Trx1 (or Trx2) comprise the thioredoxin system, which is involved in several biological processes, including the reduction of disulfide bonds and response to oxidative stress. Recombinant Trr1 was expressed in Escherichia coli as a His6-tagged fusion protein and purified by nickel-affinity chromatography. The protein was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method in the presence of PEG 3000 as precipitant after treatment with hydrogen peroxide. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a maximum resolution of 2.4?Å using a synchrotron-radiation source. The crystal belongs to the centred monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 127.97, b = 135.41, c = 75.81?Å, ? = 89.95°. The crystal structure was solved by molecular-replacement methods and structure refinement is in progress.

de Oliveira, Marcos Antonio; Discola, Karen Fulan; Alves, Simone Vidigal; Barbosa, Joao Alexandre Ribeiro Goncalves; Medrano, Francisco Javier; Netto, Luis Eduardo Soares; Guimaraes, Beatriz Gomes

2005-01-01

62

Soil oxidoreductases and FDA hydrolysis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The oxidoreductases (E.C. 1.) comprise the largest enzyme group and consist of enzymes that catalyze reactions between two compounds, one of which is oxidized (the donor) while reducing the other (the acceptor) (Dixon and Webb, 1979). In common with all redox reactions, the reaction mechanism involv...

63

Cloning and analysis of structural genes from Streptomyces pristinaespiralis encoding enzymes involved in the conversion of pristinamycin IIB to pristinamycin IIA (PIIA): PIIA synthase and NADH:riboflavin 5'-phosphate oxidoreductase.  

PubMed Central

In Streptomyces pristinaespiralis, two enzymes are necessary for conversion of pristinamycin IIB (PIIB) to pristinamycin IIA (PIIA), the major component of pristinamycin (D. Thibaut, N. Ratet, D. Bisch, D. Faucher, L. Debussche, and F. Blanche, J. Bacteriol. 177:5199-5205, 1995); these enzymes are PIIA synthase, a heterodimer composed of the SnaA and SnaB proteins, which catalyzes the oxidation of PIIB to PIIA, and the NADH:riboflavin 5'-phosphate oxidoreductase (hereafter called FMN reductase), the SnaC protein, which provides the reduced form of flavin mononucleotide for the reaction. By using oligonucleotide probes designed from limited peptide sequence information of the purified proteins, the corresponding genes were cloned from a genomic library of S. pristinaespiralis. SnaA and SnaB showed no significant similarity with proteins from databases, but SnaA and SnaB had similar protein domains. Disruption of the snaA gene in S. pristinaespiralis led to accumulation of PIIB. Complementation of a S. pristinaespiralis PIIA-PIIB+ mutant with the snaA and snaB genes, cloned in a low-copy-number plasmid, partially restored production of PIIA. The deduced amino acid sequence of the snaC gene showed no similarity to the sequences of other FMN reductases but was 39% identical with the product of the actVB gene of the actinorhodin cluster of Streptomyces coelicolor A(3)2, likely to be involved in the dimerization step of actinorhodin biosynthesis. Furthermore, an S. coelicolor A(3)2 mutant blocked in this step was successfully complemented by the snaC gene, restoring the production of actinorhodin.

Blanc, V; Lagneaux, D; Didier, P; Gil, P; Lacroix, P; Crouzet, J

1995-01-01

64

Peroxiredoxins and NADPH-Dependent Thioredoxin Systems in the Model Legume Lotus japonicus1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Peroxiredoxins (Prxs), thioredoxins (Trxs), and NADPH-thioredoxin reductases (NTRs) constitute central elements of the thiol-disulfide redox regulatory network of plant cells. This study provides a comprehensive survey of this network in the model legume Lotus japonicus. The aims were to identify and characterize these gene families and to assess whether the NTR-Trx systems are operative in nodules. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunological and proteomic approaches were used for expression profiling. We identified seven Prx, 14 Trx, and three NTR functional genes. The PrxQ1 gene was found to be transcribed in two alternative spliced variants and to be expressed at high levels in leaves, stems, petals, pods, and seeds and at low levels in roots and nodules. The 1CPrx gene showed very high expression in the seed embryos and low expression in vegetative tissues and was induced by nitric oxide and cytokinins. In sharp contrast, cytokinins down-regulated all other Prx genes, except PrxQ1, in roots and nodules, but only 2CPrxA and PrxQ1 in leaves. Gene-specific changes in Prx expression were also observed in response to ethylene, abscisic acid, and auxins. Nodules contain significant mRNA and protein amounts of cytosolic PrxIIB, Trxh1, and NTRA and of plastidic NTRC. Likewise, they express cytosolic Trxh3, Trxh4, Trxh8, and Trxh9, mitochondrial PrxIIF and Trxo, and plastidic Trxm2, Trxm4, and ferredoxin-Trx reductase. These findings reveal a complex regulation of Prxs that is dependent on the isoform, tissue, and signaling molecule and support that redox NTR-Trx systems are functional in the cytosol, mitochondria, and plastids of nodules.

Tovar-Mendez, Alejandro; Matamoros, Manuel A.; Bustos-Sanmamed, Pilar; Dietz, Karl-Josef; Cejudo, Francisco Javier; Rouhier, Nicolas; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Becana, Manuel

2011-01-01

65

Identification of the genes encoding NAD(P)H-flavin oxidoreductases that are similar in sequence to Escherichia coli Fre in four species of luminous bacteria: Photorhabdus luminescens, Vibrio fischeri, Vibrio harveyi, and Vibrio orientalis.  

PubMed Central

Genes encoding NAD(P)H-flavin oxidoreductases (flavin reductases) similar in both size and sequence to Fre, the most abundant flavin reductase in Escherichia coli, were identified in four species of luminous bacteria, Photorhabdus luminescens (ATCC 29999), Vibrio fischeri (ATCC 7744), Vibrio harveyi (ATCC 33843), and Vibrio orientalis (ATCC 33934). Nucleotide sequence analysis showed Fre-like flavin reductases in P. luminescens and V. fischeri to consist of 233 and 236 amino acids, respectively. As in E. coli Fre, Fre-like enzymes in luminous bacteria preferably used riboflavin as an electron acceptor when NADPH was used as an electron donor. These enzymes also were good suppliers of reduced flavin mononucleotide (FMNH2) to the bioluminescence reaction. In V. fischeri, the Fre-like enzyme is a minor flavin reductase representing < 10% of the total FMN reductase. That the V. fischeri Fre-like enzyme has no appreciable homology in amino acid sequence to the major flavin reductase in V. fischeri, FRase I, indicates that at least two different types of flavin reductases supply FMNH2 to the luminescence system in V. fischeri. Although Fre-like flavin reductases are highly similar in sequence to luxG gene products (LuxGs), Fre-like flavin reductases and LuxGs appear to constitute two separate groups of flavin-associated proteins. Images

Zenno, S; Saigo, K

1994-01-01

66

The formate:oxygen oxidoreductase supercomplex of Escherichia coli aerobic respiratory chain.  

PubMed

The Escherichia coli formate:oxygen oxidoreductase supercomplex (FdOx) was investigated with respect to function and composition. Formate oxidoreductase activity was detected in blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) resolved membranes of E. coli, which were also capable of cyanide sensitive formate:oxygen oxidoreductase activity. The latter was compromised in strains devoid of specific oxygen reductases, particularly, in those devoid of cytochrome bo3 or bdI. A principal component analysis (PCA) integrating E. coli aerobic respiratory chain gene transcription, enzyme activity and growth dynamics was performed, correlating formate:oxygen oxidoreductase activity and the transcription of the genes encoding cytochromes bo3 and bdI, and corroborating previous evidence that associated these complexes in FdOx. PMID:23827816

Sousa, Pedro M F; Videira, Marco A M; Melo, Ana M P

2013-07-02

67

Oxygen radicals as second messengers for expression of the monocyte chemoattractant protein, JE/MCP-1, and the monocyte colony-stimulating factor, CSF-1, in response to tumor necrosis factor-alpha and immunoglobulin G. Evidence for involvement of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent oxidase.  

PubMed Central

The potential involvement of reactive oxygen species in the expression of genes involved in immune response was examined in mesangial cells. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) and aggregated (aggr.) IgG increased mRNA levels for the monocyte chemoattractant protein, JE/MCP-1, and the colony-stimulating factor, CSF-1. Scavengers for free radicals such as di- and tetra-methylthiourea (DMTU and TMTU) attenuated the increase in mRNA levels in response to TNF-alpha and aggr. IgG. Generation of superoxide anion by xanthine oxidase and hypoxanthine increased mRNA levels of these genes, but exogenous H2O2 did not. Addition of NADPH to activate a membrane-bound NADPH-oxidase generated superoxide and caused a dose-dependent increase in mRNA levels and further enhanced the stimulation by TNF-alpha or aggr. IgG. An inhibitor of NADPH-dependent oxidase 4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxy-acetophenone attenuated the rise in mRNA levels in response to TNF-alpha and aggr. IgG. By nuclear run-on experiments TNF-alpha, aggr. IgG and NADPH increased the transcription rates for JE/MCP-1 and CSF-1, effects inhibited by TMTU. We conclude that generation of reactive oxygen species, possibly by NADPH-dependent oxidase, are involved in the induction of the JE/MCP-1 and CSF-1 genes by TNF-alpha and IgG complexes. The concerted expression of leukocyte-directed cytokines represents a general response to tissue injury. Images

Satriano, J A; Shuldiner, M; Hora, K; Xing, Y; Shan, Z; Schlondorff, D

1993-01-01

68

Genetics Home Reference: Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency On this page: Description Genetic changes ... Glossary definitions Reviewed December 2009 What is cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency? Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency is a ...

69

Mangrove trees affect the community structure and distribution of anammox bacteria at an anthropogenic-polluted mangrove in the Pearl River Delta reflected by 16S rRNA and hydrazine oxidoreductase (HZO) encoding gene analyses.  

PubMed

Anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacterial community structures were investigated in surface (1-2 cm) and lower (20-21 cm) layers of mangrove sediments at sites located immediately to the mangrove trees (S0), 10 m (S1) and 1000 m (S2) away from mangrove trees in a polluted area of the Pearl River Delta. At S0, both 16S rRNA and hydrazine oxidoreductase (HZO) encoding genes of anammox bacteria showed high diversity in lower layer sediments, but they were not detectable in lower layer sediments in mangrove forest. S1 and S2 shared similar anammox bacteria communities in both surface and lower layers, which were quite different from that of S0. At all three locations, higher richness of anammox bacteria was detected in the surface layer than the lower layer; 16S rRNA genes revealed anammox bacteria were composed by four phylogenetic clusters affiliated with the "Scalindua" genus, and one group related to the potential anammox bacteria; while the hzo genes showed that in addition to sequences related to the "Scalindua", sequences affiliated with genera of "Kuenenia", "Brocadia", and "Jettenia" were also detected in mangrove sediments. Furthermore, hzo gene abundances decreased from 36.5 × 10(4) to 11.0 × 10(4) copies/gram dry sediment in lower layer sediments while increased from below detection limit to 31.5 × 10(4) copies/gram dry sediment in lower layer sediments from S0 to S2. The results indicated that anammox bacteria communities might be strongly influenced by mangrove trees. In addition, the correlation analysis showed the redox potential and the molar ratio of ammonium to nitrite in sediments might be important factors affecting the diversity and distribution of anammox bacteria in mangrove sediments. PMID:21735127

Li, Meng; Hong, Yi-Guo; Cao, Hui-Luo; Gu, Ji-Dong

2011-07-07

70

Inhibition of the Staphylococcus aureus NADPH-dependent enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase by triclosan and hexachlorophene.  

PubMed

Enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (FabI) plays a determinant role in completing cycles of elongation in type II fatty acid synthase systems and is an important target for antibacterial drugs. The FabI component of Staphylococcus aureus (saFabI) was identified, and its properties were compared with Escherichia coli FabI (ecFabI). ecFabI and saFabI had similar specific activities, and saFabI expression complemented the E. coli fabI(Ts) mutant, illustrating that the Gram-positive FabI was interchangeable with the Gram-negative FabI enzyme. However, ecFabI was specific for NADH, whereas saFabI exhibited specific and positive cooperative binding of NADPH. Triclosan and hexachlorophene inhibited both ecFabI and saFabI. The triclosan-resistant ecFabI(G93V) protein was also refractory to hexachlorophene inhibition, illustrating that both drugs bind at the FabI active site. Both the introduction of a plasmid expressing the safabI gene or a missense mutation in the chromosomal safabI gene led to triclosan resistance in S. aureus; however, these strains did not exhibit cross-resistance to hexachlorophene. The replacement of the ether linkage in triclosan by a carbon bridge in hexachlorophene prevented the formation of a stable FabI-NAD(P)(+)-drug ternary complex. Thus, the formation of this ternary complex is a key determinant of the antibacterial activity of FabI inhibitors. PMID:10671494

Heath, R J; Li, J; Roland, G E; Rock, C O

2000-02-18

71

Glyceraldehyde3Phosphate Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase from Methanococcus maripaludis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genome sequence of the non-sugar-assimilating mesophile Methanococcus maripaludis contains three genes encoding enzymes: a nonphosphorylating NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydroge- nase (GAPN), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate ferre- doxin oxidoreductase (GAPOR); all these enzymes are potentially capable of catalyzing glyceraldehyde-3- phosphate (G3P) metabolism. GAPOR, whose homologs have been found mainly in archaea, catalyzes the reduction of ferredoxin coupled with oxidation of

Myong-Ok Park; Taeko Mizutani; Patrik R. Jones

2007-01-01

72

The activity of barley NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase C is independent of the oligomeric state of the protein: tetrameric structure determined by cryo-electron microscopy.  

PubMed

Thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase can regulate cell metabolism through redox regulation of disulfide bridges or through removal of H(2)O(2). These two enzymatic functions are combined in NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase C (NTRC), which contains an N-terminal thioredoxin reductase domain fused with a C-terminal thioredoxin domain. Rice NTRC exists in different oligomeric states, depending on the absence or presence of its NADPH cofactor. It has been suggested that the different oligomeric states may have diverse activity. Thus, the redox status of the chloroplast could influence the oligomeric state of NTRC and thereby its activity. We have characterized the oligomeric states of NTRC from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). This also includes a structural model of the tetrameric NTRC derived from cryo-electron microscopy and single-particle reconstruction. We conclude that the tetrameric NTRC is a dimeric arrangement of two NTRC homodimers. Unlike that of rice NTRC, the quaternary structure of barley NTRC complexes is unaffected by addition of NADPH. The activity of NTRC was tested with two different enzyme assays. The N-terminal part of NTRC was tested in a thioredoxin reductase assay. A peroxide sensitive Mg-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester (MPE) cyclase enzyme system of the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway was used to test the catalytic ability of both the N- and C-terminal parts of NTRC. The different oligomeric assembly states do not exhibit significantly different activities. Thus, it appears that the activities are independent of the oligomeric state of barley NTRC. PMID:21456578

Wulff, Ragna Peterson; Lundqvist, Joakim; Rutsdottir, Gudrun; Hansson, Andreas; Stenbaek, Anne; Elmlund, Dominika; Elmlund, Hans; Jensen, Poul Erik; Hansson, Mats

2011-04-15

73

The mechanism and substrate specificity of the NADPH:flavin oxidoreductase from Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

The NAD(P)H:flavin oxidoreductase from Escherichia coli, Fre, is a monomer of 26.2 kDa that catalyzes the reduction of free flavins by NADPh or NADH. Overexpression in E. coli now allows the preparation of large amounts of pure protein. Structural requirements for recognition of flavins as substrates and not as cofactors were studied by steady-state kinetics with a variety of flavin analogs. The entire isoalloxazine ring was found to be the essential part of the flavin molecule for interaction with the polypeptide chain. Methyl groups at C-7 and C-8 of the isoalloxazine ring and the N-3 of riboflavin also play an important role in that interaction, whereas the ribityl chain of the riboflavin is not required for binding to the protein. On the other hand, the presence of the 2'-OH of the ribityl chain stimulates the NADPH-dependent reaction significantly. Moreover, a study of competitive inhibitors for both substrates demonstrated that Fre follows a sequential ordered mechanism in which NADPH binds first followed by riboflavin. Lumichrome, a very good inhibitor of Fre, may be used to inhibit flavin reductase in E. coli growing cells. As a consequence, it can enhance the antiproliferative effect of hydroxyurea, a cell-specific ribonucleotide reductase inactivator. PMID:8530465

Fieschi, F; Nivière, V; Frier, C; Décout, J L; Fontecave, M

1995-12-22

74

The Gene sml0013 of Synechocystis Species Strain PCC 6803 Encodes for a Novel Subunit of the NAD(P)H Oxidoreductase or Complex I That Is Ubiquitously Distributed among Cyanobacteria.  

PubMed

The NAD(P)H oxidoreductase or complex I (NDH1) complex participates in many processes such as respiration, cyclic electron flow, and inorganic carbon concentration in the cyanobacterial cell. Despite immense progress in our understanding of the structure-function relation of the cyanobacterial NDH1 complex, the subunits catalyzing NAD(P)H docking and oxidation are still missing. The gene sml0013 of Synechocystis 6803 encodes for a small protein of unknown function for which homologs exist in all completely known cyanobacterial genomes. The protein exhibits weak similarities to the NDH-dependent flow6 (NDF6) protein, which was reported from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) chloroplasts as a NDH subunit. An sml0013 inactivation mutant of Synechocystis 6803 was generated and characterized. It showed only weak differences regarding growth and pigmentation in various culture conditions; most remarkably, it exhibited a glucose-sensitive phenotype in the light. The genome-wide expression pattern of the ?sml0013::Km mutant was almost identical to the wild type when grown under high CO2 conditions as well as after shifts to low CO2 conditions. However, measurements of the photosystem I redox kinetic in cells of the ?sml0013::Km mutant revealed differences, such as a decreased capability of cyclic electron flow as well as electron flow into respiration in comparison with the wild type. These results suggest that the Sml0013 protein (named NdhP) represents a novel subunit of the cyanobacterial NDH1 complex, mediating its coupling either to the respiratory or the photosynthetic electron flow. PMID:24089436

Schwarz, Doreen; Schubert, Hendrik; Georg, Jens; Hess, Wolfgang R; Hagemann, Martin

2013-10-02

75

Mutagenesis of the genes encoding subunits A, C, H, I, J and K of the plastid NAD(P)H-plastoquinone-oxidoreductase in tobacco by polyethylene glycol-mediated plastome transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastids contain a NAD(P)H-plastoquinone-oxidoreductase (NDH complex) which is homologous to the eubacterial and mitochondrial\\u000a NADH-ubiquinone-oxidoreductase (complex I), but the metabolic function of the enzyme is unknown. The enzyme consists of at\\u000a least eleven subunits (A-K), which are all encoded on the plastid chromosome. We have mutagenized ndhC and ndhJ by insertion, and ndhK and ndhA-I by deletion and insertion, of

W. Kofer; H.-U. Koop; G. Wanner; K. Steinmüller

1998-01-01

76

Functional characterization and role of INrf2 in antioxidant response element-mediated expression and antioxidant induction of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase1 gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant response element (ARE) and nuclear transcription factor Nrf2 are known to regulate expression and coordinated induction of NQO1 and other detoxifying enzyme genes in response to antioxidants and xenobiotics. A cytosolic inhibitor of Nrf2, INrf2, that retains Nrf2 in the cytoplasm, was cloned and sequenced. Treatment of cells with antioxidants and xenobiotics results in the release of Nrf2 from

Saravanakumar Dhakshinamoorthy; Anil K Jaiswal

2001-01-01

77

Increased Furfural Tolerance Due to Overexpression of NADH-Dependent Oxidoreductase FucO in Escherichia coli Strains Engineered for the Production of Ethanol and Lactate?  

PubMed Central

Furfural is an important fermentation inhibitor in hemicellulose sugar syrups derived from woody biomass. The metabolism of furfural by NADPH-dependent oxidoreductases, such as YqhD (low Km for NADPH), is proposed to inhibit the growth and fermentation of xylose in Escherichia coli by competing with biosynthesis for NADPH. The discovery that the NADH-dependent propanediol oxidoreductase (FucO) can reduce furfural provided a new approach to improve furfural tolerance. Strains that produced ethanol or lactate efficiently as primary products from xylose were developed. These strains included chromosomal mutations in yqhD expression that permitted the fermentation of xylose broths containing up to 10 mM furfural. Expression of fucO from plasmids was shown to increase furfural tolerance by 50% and to permit the fermentation of 15 mM furfural. Product yields with 15 mM furfural were equivalent to those of control strains without added furfural (85% to 90% of the theoretical maximum). These two defined genetic traits can be readily transferred to enteric biocatalysts designed to produce other products. A similar strategy that minimizes the depletion of NADPH pools by native detoxification enzymes may be generally useful for other inhibitory compounds in lignocellulosic sugar streams and with other organisms.

Wang, X.; Miller, E. N.; Yomano, L. P.; Zhang, X.; Shanmugam, K. T.; Ingram, L. O.

2011-01-01

78

NADH- and NADPH-dependent lipid peroxidation in bovine heart submitochondrial particles. Dependence on the rate of electron flow in the respiratory chain and an antioxidant role of ubiquinol.  

PubMed Central

Malondialdehyde formations by bovine heart submitochondrial particles supported by NADH or NADPH in the presence of ADP and FeCl3 was studied. The NADH-dependent reaction was maximal at very low rate of electron input from NADH to the respiratory chain and it decreased when the rate became high. The reaction was stimulated by rotenone and inhibited by antimycin A when the input was fast, whereas it was not affected by the inhibitors when the input was slow. The input rate of the electrons from NADPH was also so low that the reaction supported by NADPH was not affected by the inhibitors. Most of the endogenous ubiquinone in the particles treated with antimycin A was reduced by NADH even in the presence of ADP-Fe3+ chelate, but uniquinone was not reduced by NADPH when ADP-Fe3+ was present. Succinate strongly inhibited both NADH- and NADPH-dependent lipid peroxidation. The inhibition was abolished when uniquinone was removed from the particles, and it appeared again when uniquinone was reincorporated into the particles. Reduced uniquinone-2 also inhibited the peroxidation, but duroquinol, which reduces cytochrome b without reducing endogenous uniquinone, did not. Thus the malondialdehyde formation appeared to be inversely related to the extent of the reduction of endogenous uniquinone. These observations suggest that both NADH- and NADPH-dependent liquid-peroxidation reactions are closely related to the respiratory chain and that the peroxidation is controlled by the concentration of reduced ubiquinone.

Takayanagi, R; Takeshige, K; Minakami, S

1980-01-01

79

New oxidoreductases from cyanobacteria: Exploring nature's diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for new and efficient biocatalysts for asymmetric synthesis is caused by the increasing demand for enantiopure chiral alcohols in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. One approach to find new enzymes for technical applications is the screening of biodiversity. The identification of a novel oxidoreductase in the freshwater cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942, which is capable of enantioselectively

Kathrin Hölsch; Dirk Weuster-Botz

2010-01-01

80

An oxidoreductase from 'Alphonso' mango catalyzing biosynthesis of furaneol and reduction of reactive carbonyls.  

PubMed

Two furanones, furaneol (4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone) and mesifuran (2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-3(2H)-furanone), are important constituents of flavor of the Alphonso cultivar of mango (Mangifera indica). To get insights into the biosynthesis of these furanones, we isolated an enone oxidoreductase gene from the Alphonso mango. It has high sequence similarity to an alkenal/one oxidoreductase from cucumber (79% identity) and enone oxidoreductases from tomato (73% identity) and strawberry (72% identity). The complete open reading frame was expressed in E. coli and the (his)6-tagged recombinant protein was purified by affinity chromatography. The purified protein assayed with NADH as a reducing agent converted D-fructose-1,6-diphosphate into furaneol, the immediate precursor of mesifuran. The enzyme was also able to convert two highly reactive carbonyls, 3-buten-2-one and 1-penten-3-one, produced by lipid peroxidation in plants, into their saturated derivatives. Expression profiling in various ripening stages of Alphonso fruits depicted an expression maxima at 10 days after harvest stage, shortly before the appearance of the maximum amount of furanones (completely ripe stage, 15 days after harvest). Although no furanones were detected at the 0 day after harvest stage, significant expression of this gene was detected in the fruits at this stage. Overall, the results suggest that this oxidoreductase plays important roles in Alphonso mango fruits. PMID:24133645

Kulkarni, Ram; Chidley, Hemangi; Deshpande, Ashish; Schmidt, Axel; Pujari, Keshav; Giri, Ashok; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Gupta, Vidya

2013-10-01

81

Close genetic relationship between Nitrobacter hamburgensis nitrite oxidoreductase and Escherichia coli nitrate reductases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nitrite oxidoreductase (NOR) from the facultative nitrite-oxidizing bacterium Nitrobacter hamburgensis X14 was investigated genetically. In order to develop a probe for the gene norB, the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the NOR ß-subunit (NorB) was determined. Based on that amino acid sequence, an oligo-nucleotide was derived that was used for the identification and cloning of gene norB. Sequence analysis

Karin Kirstein; Eberhard Bock

1993-01-01

82

Functional analysis of paralogous thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases in Streptococcus gordonii.  

PubMed

Disulfide bonds are important for the stability of many extracellular proteins, including bacterial virulence factors. Formation of these bonds is catalyzed by thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases (TDORs). Little is known about their formation in Gram-positive bacteria, particularly among facultative anaerobic Firmicutes, such as streptococci. To investigate disulfide bond formation in Streptococcus gordonii, we identified five putative TDORs from the sequenced genome. Each of the putative TDOR genes was insertionally inactivated with an erythromycin resistance cassette, and the mutants were analyzed for autolysis, extracellular DNA release, biofilm formation, bacteriocin production, and genetic competence. This analysis revealed a single TDOR, SdbA, which exhibited a pleiotropic mutant phenotype. Using an in silico analysis approach, we identified the major autolysin AtlS as a natural substrate of SdbA and showed that SdbA is critical to the formation of a disulfide bond that is required for autolytic activity. Analysis by BLAST search revealed homologs to SdbA in other Gram-positive species. This study provides the first in vivo evidence of an oxidoreductase, SdbA, that affects multiple phenotypes in a Gram-positive bacterium. SdbA shows low sequence homology to previously identified oxidoreductases, suggesting that it may belong to a different class of enzymes. Our results demonstrate that SdbA is required for disulfide bond formation in S. gordonii and indicate that this enzyme may represent a novel type of oxidoreductase in Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:23615907

Davey, Lauren; Ng, Crystal K W; Halperin, Scott A; Lee, Song F

2013-04-24

83

Oxidoreductases that Act as Conditional Virulence Suppressors in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium  

PubMed Central

In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, oxidoreductases of the thioredoxin superfamily contribute to bacterial invasiveness, intracellular replication and to the virulence in BALB/c mice as well as in the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The scsABCD gene cluster, present in many but not all enteric bacteria, codes for four putative oxidoreductases of the thioredoxin superfamily. Here we have analyzed the potential role of the scs genes in oxidative stress tolerance and virulence in S. Typhimurium. An scsABCD deletion mutant showed moderate sensitization to the redox-active transition metal ion copper and increased protein carbonylation upon exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Still, the scsABCD mutant was not significantly affected for invasiveness or intracellular replication in respectively cultured epithelial or macrophage-like cells. However, we noted a significant copper chloride sensitivity of SPI1 T3SS mediated invasiveness that strongly depended on the presence of the scs genes. The scsABCD deletion mutant was not attenuated in animal infection models. In contrast, the mutant showed a moderate increase in its competitive index upon intraperitoneal challenge and enhanced invasiveness in small intestinal ileal loops of BALB/c mice. Moreover, deletion of the scsABCD genes restored the invasiveness of a trxA mutant in epithelial cells and its virulence in C. elegans. Our findings thus demonstrate that the scs gene cluster conditionally affects virulence and underscore the complex interactions between oxidoreductases of the thioredoxin superfamily in maintaining host adaptation of S. Typhimurium.

Anwar, Naeem; Sem, Xiao Hui; Rhen, Mikael

2013-01-01

84

Oxidoreductases that act as conditional virulence suppressors in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.  

PubMed

In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, oxidoreductases of the thioredoxin superfamily contribute to bacterial invasiveness, intracellular replication and to the virulence in BALB/c mice as well as in the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The scsABCD gene cluster, present in many but not all enteric bacteria, codes for four putative oxidoreductases of the thioredoxin superfamily. Here we have analyzed the potential role of the scs genes in oxidative stress tolerance and virulence in S. Typhimurium. An scsABCD deletion mutant showed moderate sensitization to the redox-active transition metal ion copper and increased protein carbonylation upon exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Still, the scsABCD mutant was not significantly affected for invasiveness or intracellular replication in respectively cultured epithelial or macrophage-like cells. However, we noted a significant copper chloride sensitivity of SPI1 T3SS mediated invasiveness that strongly depended on the presence of the scs genes. The scsABCD deletion mutant was not attenuated in animal infection models. In contrast, the mutant showed a moderate increase in its competitive index upon intraperitoneal challenge and enhanced invasiveness in small intestinal ileal loops of BALB/c mice. Moreover, deletion of the scsABCD genes restored the invasiveness of a trxA mutant in epithelial cells and its virulence in C. elegans. Our findings thus demonstrate that the scs gene cluster conditionally affects virulence and underscore the complex interactions between oxidoreductases of the thioredoxin superfamily in maintaining host adaptation of S. Typhimurium. PMID:23750221

Anwar, Naeem; Sem, Xiao Hui; Rhen, Mikael

2013-06-04

85

An oxidoreductase is involved in cercosporin degradation by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. zinniae.  

PubMed

The polyketide toxin cercosporin plays a key role in pathogenesis by fungal species of the genus Cercospora. The bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. zinniae is able to rapidly degrade this toxin. Growth of X. campestris pv. zinniae strains in cercosporin-containing medium leads to the breakdown of cercosporin and to the formation of xanosporic acid, a nontoxic breakdown product. Five non-cercosporin-degrading mutants of a strain that rapidly degrades cercosporin (XCZ-3) were generated by ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis and were then transformed with a genomic library from the wild-type strain. All five mutants were complemented with the same genomic clone, which encoded a putative transcriptional regulator and an oxidoreductase. Simultaneous expression of these two genes was necessary to complement the mutant phenotype. Sequence analysis of the mutants showed that all five mutants had point mutations in the oxidoreductase gene and no mutations in the regulator. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) showed that the expression of both of these genes in the wild-type strain is upregulated after exposure to cercosporin. Both the oxidoreductase and transcriptional regulator genes were transformed into three non-cercosporin-degrading bacteria to determine if they are sufficient for cercosporin degradation. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed that the oxidoreductase was expressed in all transconjugants. However, none of the transconjugants were able to degrade cercosporin, suggesting that additional factors are required for cercosporin degradation. Further study of cercosporin degradation in X. campestris pv. zinniae may allow for the engineering of Cercospora-resistant plants by using a suite of genes. PMID:16957231

Taylor, Tanya V; Mitchell, Thomas K; Daub, Margaret E

2006-09-01

86

An Oxidoreductase Is Involved in Cercosporin Degradation by the Bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. zinniae  

PubMed Central

The polyketide toxin cercosporin plays a key role in pathogenesis by fungal species of the genus Cercospora. The bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. zinniae is able to rapidly degrade this toxin. Growth of X. campestris pv. zinniae strains in cercosporin-containing medium leads to the breakdown of cercosporin and to the formation of xanosporic acid, a nontoxic breakdown product. Five non-cercosporin-degrading mutants of a strain that rapidly degrades cercosporin (XCZ-3) were generated by ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis and were then transformed with a genomic library from the wild-type strain. All five mutants were complemented with the same genomic clone, which encoded a putative transcriptional regulator and an oxidoreductase. Simultaneous expression of these two genes was necessary to complement the mutant phenotype. Sequence analysis of the mutants showed that all five mutants had point mutations in the oxidoreductase gene and no mutations in the regulator. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) showed that the expression of both of these genes in the wild-type strain is upregulated after exposure to cercosporin. Both the oxidoreductase and transcriptional regulator genes were transformed into three non-cercosporin-degrading bacteria to determine if they are sufficient for cercosporin degradation. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed that the oxidoreductase was expressed in all transconjugants. However, none of the transconjugants were able to degrade cercosporin, suggesting that additional factors are required for cercosporin degradation. Further study of cercosporin degradation in X. campestris pv. zinniae may allow for the engineering of Cercospora-resistant plants by using a suite of genes.

Taylor, Tanya V.; Mitchell, Thomas K.; Daub, Margaret E.

2006-01-01

87

NAD(P)H:Quinone oxidoreductase 1 (DT-diaphorase) expression in normal and tumor tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

NAD(P)H:Quinone Oxidoreductase1 (NQO1) also known as DT-diaphorase is a flavoprotein that catalyzes the two-electron reduction of quinones, quinone imines and azo-dyes and thereby protects cells against mutagenicity and carcinogenicity resulting from free radicals and toxic oxygen metabolites generated by the oneelectron reductions catalyzed by cytochromes P450 and other enzymes. High levels of NQO1 gene expression have been observed in liver,

Martin Belinsky; Anil K. Jaiswal

1993-01-01

88

Cloning and functional characterization of two cDNAs encoding NADPH-dependent 3-ketoacyl-CoA reductased from developing cotton fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genes encoding enzymes involved in biosynthesis of very long chain fatty acids were significantly up-regulated during early cotton fiber development. Two cDNAs, GhKCR1 and GhKCR2 encoding putative cotton 3-ketoacyl-CoA reductases that catalyze the second step in fatty acid elongation, were isolated from developing cotton fibers. GhKCR1 and 2 contain open reading frames of 963 bp and 924 bp encoding proteins

Yong Mei QIN; Francois MA PUJOL; Yong Hui SHI; Jian Xun FENG; Yi Ming LIU; Alexander J KASTANIOTIS; J Kalervo HILTUNEN; Yu Xian ZHU

2005-01-01

89

Replacing Escherichia coli NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) with a NADP-dependent enzyme from Clostridium acetobutylicum facilitates NADPH dependent pathways.  

PubMed

Reactions requiring reducing equivalents, NAD(P)H, are of enormous importance for the synthesis of industrially valuable compounds such as carotenoids, polymers, antibiotics and chiral alcohols among others. The use of whole-cell biocatalysis can reduce process cost by acting as catalyst and cofactor regenerator at the same time; however, product yields might be limited by cofactor availability within the cell. Thus, our study focussed on the genetic manipulation of a whole-cell system by modifying metabolic pathways and enzymes to improve the overall production process. In the present work, we genetically engineered an Escherichia coli strain to increase NADPH availability to improve the productivity of products that require NADPH in its biosynthesis. The approach involved an alteration of the glycolysis step where glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GAP) is oxidized to 1,3 bisphophoglycerate (1,3-BPG). This reaction is catalyzed by NAD-dependent endogenous glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) encoded by the gapA gene. We constructed a recombinant E. coli strain by replacing the native NAD-dependent gapA gene with a NADP-dependent GAPDH from Clostridium acetobutylicum, encoded by the gene gapC. The beauty of this approach is that the recombinant E. coli strain produces 2 mol of NADPH, instead of NADH, per mole of glucose consumed. Metabolic flux analysis showed that the flux through the pentose phosphate (PP) pathway, one of the main pathways that produce NADPH, was reduced significantly in the recombinant strain when compared to that of the parent strain. The effectiveness of the NADPH enhancing system was tested using the production of lycopene and epsilon-caprolactone as model systems using two different background strains. The recombinant strains, with increased NADPH availability, consistently showed significant higher productivity than the parent strains. PMID:18852061

Martínez, Irene; Zhu, Jiangfeng; Lin, Henry; Bennett, George N; San, Ka-Yiu

2008-09-23

90

Mechanism of Inhibition of Xanthine Oxidoreductase by Allopurinol: Crystal Structure of Reduced Bovine Milk Xanthine Oxidoreductase Bound with Oxipurinol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhibitors of xanthine oxidoreductase block conversion of xanthine to uric acid and are therefore potentially useful for treatment of hyperuricemia or gout. We determined the crystal structure of reduced bovine milk xanthine oxidoreductase complexed with oxipurinol at 2.0 Å resolution. Clear electron density was observed between the N2 nitrogen of oxipurinol and the molybdenum atom of the molybdopterin cofactor, indicating

Ken Okamoto; Bryan T. Eger; Tomoko Nishino; Emil F. Pai; Takeshi Nishino

2008-01-01

91

Esculetin-induced protection of human hepatoma HepG2 cells against hydrogen peroxide is associated with the Nrf2-dependent induction of the NAD(P)H: Quinone oxidoreductase 1 gene.  

PubMed

Esculetin (6,7-dihydroxy coumarin), is a potent antioxidant that is present in several plant species. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of protection of esculetin in human hepatoma HepG2 cells against reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by hydrogen peroxide. Cell viability, cell integrity, intracellular glutathione levels, generation of reactive oxygen species and expression of antioxidant enzymes were used as markers to measure cellular oxidative stress and response to ROS. The protective effect of esculetin was compared to a well-characterized chemoprotective compound quercetin. Pre-treatment of HepG2 cells with sub-lethal (10-25 ?M) esculetin for 8h prevented cell death and maintained cell integrity following exposure to 0.9 mM hydrogen peroxide. An increase in the generation of ROS following hydrogen peroxide treatment was significantly attenuated by 8h pre-treatment with esculetin. In addition, esculetin ameliorated the decrease in intracellular glutathione caused by hydrogen peroxide exposure. Moreover, treatment with 25 ?M esculetin for 8h increased the expression of NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) at both protein and mRNA levels significantly, by 12-fold and 15-fold, respectively. Esculetin treatment also increased nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 by 8-fold indicating that increased NQO1 expression is Nrf2-mediated. These results indicate that esculetin protects human hepatoma HepG2 cells from hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative injury and that this protection is provided through the induction of protective enzymes as part of an adaptive response mediated by Nrf2 nuclear accumulation. PMID:20933534

Subramaniam, Sudhakar R; Ellis, Elizabeth M

2010-10-08

92

Development of a substrate-coupled biocatalytic process driven by an NADPH-dependent sorbose reductase from Candida albicans for the asymmetric reduction of ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate.  

PubMed

A substrate-coupled biocatalytic process was developed based on the reactions catalyzed by an NADPH-dependent sorbose reductase (SOU1) from Candida albicans in which ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate (COBE) was reduced to (S)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate [(S)-CHBE], while NADPH was regenerated by the same enzyme via oxidation of sugar alcohols. (S)-CHBE yields of 1,140, 1,150, and 780 mM were obtained from 1,220 mM COBE when sorbitol, mannitol, and xylitol were used as co-substrates, respectively. Optimization of COBE and sorbitol proportions resulted in a maximum yield of (S)-CHBE (2,340 mM) from 2,500 mM COBE, and the enantiomeric excess was 99.6 %. The substrate-coupled system driven by SOU1 maintained a stable pH and a robust intracellular NADPH circulation; thus, pH adjustment and addition of extra coenzymes were unnecessary. PMID:22918792

Cai, Ping; An, Mingdong; Xu, Lin; Xu, Sheng; Hao, Ning; Li, Yan; Guo, Kai; Yan, Ming

2012-08-24

93

Evaluation of hydroxylamine oxidoreductase as a functional and phylogenetic marker to differentiate Nitrosomonas spp.  

PubMed

Nitrosomonas genus belongs to beta-subclass of Proteobacteria and encompasses closely related species. Sequence independent techniques like single strand confirmation polymorphism (SSCP) was attempted in the present study to resolve AOB using ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) and hydroxylamine oxidoreductase (hao) gene fragments, unique to AOB. Variation in hydroxylamine oxidoreductase (HAO) enzyme zymogram of isolates observed in the study was also explored as an additional sequence independent method to substantiate the observations. Nitrosomonas europaea (standard strain) and 12 isolates, obtained by enriching environmental samples, were differentiated into six and four groups by SSCP analyses of amoA and hao gene fragments, respectively, whereas they could be resolved into six distinct groups through activity staining of HAO enzyme. amoA gene fragment was therefore found to be better than hao gene fragment in resolving the studied AOB based on richness and evenness with Simpson's index of diversity - 0.85. However, the ensembled use of these molecular methods (SSCP of amoA and hao gene fragments) and HAO enzyme zymogram in fingerprinting AOB provide better resolution and evenness, contributing significantly in AOB diversity studies. Grouping of AOB isolates by hao gene SSCP analysis followed almost the same pattern as that by 16S rRNA gene based sequence analysis, hence it is suitable as a phylogenetic marker. PMID:23553651

Keluskar, Radhika; Desai, Anjana

2013-04-01

94

Engineering oxidoreductases: maquette proteins designed from scratch  

PubMed Central

The study of natural enzymes is complicated by the fact that only the most recent evolutionary progression can be observed. In particular, natural oxidoreductases stand out as profoundly complex proteins in which the molecular roots of function, structure and biological integration are collectively intertwined and individually obscured. In the present paper, we describe our experimental approach that removes many of these often bewildering complexities to identify in simple terms the necessary and sufficient requirements for oxidoreductase function. Ours is a synthetic biology approach that focuses on from-scratch construction of protein maquettes designed principally to promote or suppress biologically relevant oxidations and reductions. The approach avoids mimicry and divorces the commonly made and almost certainly false ascription of atomistically detailed functionally unique roles to a particular protein primary sequence, to gain a new freedom to explore protein-based enzyme function. Maquette design and construction methods make use of iterative steps, retraceable when necessary, to successfully develop a protein family of sturdy and versatile single-chain three- and four-?-helical structural platforms readily expressible in bacteria. Internally, they prove malleable enough to incorporate in prescribed positions most natural redox cofactors and many more simplified synthetic analogues. External polarity, charge-patterning and chemical linkers direct maquettes to functional assembly in membranes, on nanostructured titania, and to organize on selected planar surfaces and materials. These protein maquettes engage in light harvesting and energy transfer, in photochemical charge separation and electron transfer, in stable dioxygen binding and in simple oxidative chemistry that is the basis of multi-electron oxidative and reductive catalysis.

Lichtenstein, Bruce R.; Farid, Tammer A.; Kodali, Goutham; Solomon, Lee A.; Anderson, J.L. Ross; Sheehan, Molly M.; Ennist, Nathan M.; Fry, Bryan A.; Chobot, Sarah E.; Bialas, Chris; Mancini, Joshua A.; Armstrong, Craig T.; Zhao, Zhenyu; Esipova, Tatiana V.; Snell, David; Vinogradov, Sergei A.; Discher, Bohdana M.; Moser, Christopher C.; Dutton, P. Leslie

2012-01-01

95

Molecular and phylogenetic characterization of pyruvate and 2-ketoisovalerate ferredoxin oxidoreductases from Pyrococcus furiosus and pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase from Thermotoga maritima.  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown that the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus contains four distinct cytoplasmic 2-ketoacid oxidoreductases (ORs) which differ in their substrate specificities, while the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima contains only one, pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (POR). These enzymes catalyze the synthesis of the acyl (or aryl) coenzyme A derivative in a thiamine PPi-dependent oxidative decarboxylation reaction with reduction of ferredoxin. We report here on the molecular analysis of the POR (por) and 2-ketoisovalerate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (vor) genes from P. furiosus and of the POR gene from T. maritima, all of which comprise four different subunits. The operon organization for P. furiosus POR and VOR was porG-vorDAB-porDAB, wherein the gamma subunit is shared by the two enzymes. The operon organization for T. maritima POR was porGDAB. The three enzymes were 46 to 53% identical at the amino acid level. Their delta subunits each contained two ferredoxin-type [4Fe-4S] cluster binding motifs (CXXCXXCXXXCP), while their beta subunits each contained four conserved cysteines in addition to a thiamine PPi-binding domain. Amino-terminal sequence comparisons show that POR, VOR, indolepyruvate OR, and 2-ketoglutarate OR of P. furiosus all belong to a phylogenetically homologous OR family. Moreover, the single-subunit pyruvate ORs from mesophilic and moderately thermophilic bacteria and from an amitochondriate eucaryote each contain four domains which are phylogenetically homologous to the four subunits of the hyperthermophilic ORs (27% sequence identity). Three of these subunits are also homologous to the dimeric POR from a mesophilic archaeon, Halobacterium halobium (21% identity). A model is proposed to account for the observed phenotypes based on genomic rearrangements of four ancestral OR subunits.

Kletzin, A; Adams, M W

1996-01-01

96

Characterization of Apoptosis-Related Oxidoreductases from Neurospora crassa  

PubMed Central

The genome from Neurospora crassa presented three open reading frames homologous to the genes coding for human AIF and AMID proteins, which are flavoproteins with oxidoreductase activities implicated in caspase-independent apoptosis. To investigate the role of these proteins, namely within the mitochondrial respiratory chain, we studied their cellular localization and characterized the respective null mutant strains. Efficiency of the respiratory chain was analyzed by oxygen consumption studies and supramolecular organization of the OXPHOS system was assessed through BN-PAGE analysis in the respective null mutant strains. The results demonstrate that, unlike in mammalian systems, disruption of AIF in Neurospora does not affect either complex I assembly or function. Furthermore, the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes of the mutant strains display a similar supramolecular organization to that observed in the wild type strain. Further characterization revealed that N. crassa AIF appears localized to both the mitochondria and the cytoplasm, whereas AMID was found exclusively in the cytoplasm. AMID2 was detected in both mitochondria and cytoplasm of the amid mutant strain, but was barely discernible in wild type extracts, suggesting overlapping functions for the two proteins.

Carneiro, Patricia; Duarte, Margarida; Videira, Arnaldo

2012-01-01

97

Catalytic Properties of NAD(P)H:Quinone Oxidoreductase2 (NQO2), a Dihydronicotinamide Riboside Dependent Oxidoreductase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human NAD(P)H:quinone acceptor oxidoreductase-2 (NQO2) has been prepared using anEscherichia coliexpression method. NQO2 is thought to be an isoform of DT-diaphorase (EC 1.6.99.2) [also referred to as NAD(P)H:quinone acceptor oxidoreductase] because there is a 49% identity between their amino acid sequences. The present investigation has revealed that like DT-diaphorase, NQO2 is a dimer enzyme with one FAD prosthetic group per

Kebin Wu; Richard Knox; Xiu Zhu Sun; Pius Joseph; Anil K. Jaiswal; Di Zhang; Paulis S.-K. Deng; Shiuan Chen

1997-01-01

98

Overexpression of Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase C Regulates Oxidative Stress in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Light absorbed by colored intermediates of chlorophyll biosynthesis is not utilized in photosynthesis; instead, it is transferred to molecular oxygen, generating singlet oxygen (1O2). As there is no enzymatic detoxification mechanism available in plants to destroy 1O2, its generation should be minimized. We manipulated the concentration of a major chlorophyll biosynthetic intermediate i.e., protochlorophyllide in Arabidopsis by overexpressing the light-inducible protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase C (PORC) that effectively phototransforms endogenous protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide leading to minimal accumulation of the photosensitizer protochlorophyllide in light-grown plants. In PORC overexpressing (PORCx) plants exposed to high-light, the 1O2 generation and consequent malonedialdehyde production was minimal and the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II remained unaffected demonstrating that their photosynthetic apparatus and cellular organization were intact. Further, PORCx plants treated with 5-aminolevulinicacid when exposed to light, photo-converted over-accumulated protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide, reduced the generation of 1O2 and malonedialdehyde production and reduced plasma membrane damage. So PORCx plants survived and bolted whereas, the 5-aminolevulinicacid-treated wild-type plants perished. Thus, overexpression of PORC could be biotechnologically exploited in crop plants for tolerance to 1O2-induced oxidative stress, paving the use of 5-aminolevulinicacid as a selective commercial light-activated biodegradable herbicide. Reduced protochlorophyllide content in PORCx plants released the protochlorophyllide-mediated feed-back inhibition of 5-aminolevulinicacid biosynthesis that resulted in higher 5-aminolevulinicacid production. Increase of 5-aminolevulinicacid synthesis upregulated the gene and protein expression of several downstream chlorophyll biosynthetic enzymes elucidating a regulatory net work of expression of genes involved in 5-aminolevulinicacid and tetrapyrrole biosynthesis.

Pattanayak, Gopal K.; Tripathy, Baishnab C.

2011-01-01

99

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate ferredoxin oxidoreductase from Methanococcus maripaludis.  

PubMed

The genome sequence of the non-sugar-assimilating mesophile Methanococcus maripaludis contains three genes encoding enzymes: a nonphosphorylating NADP(+)-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPN), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (GAPOR); all these enzymes are potentially capable of catalyzing glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) metabolism. GAPOR, whose homologs have been found mainly in archaea, catalyzes the reduction of ferredoxin coupled with oxidation of G3P. GAPOR has previously been isolated and characterized only from a sugar-assimilating hyperthermophile, Pyrococcus furiosus (GAPOR(Pf)), and contains the rare metal tungsten as an irreplaceable cofactor. Active recombinant M. maripaludis GAPOR (GAPOR(Mm)) was purified from Escherichia coli grown in minimal medium containing 100 muM sodium molybdate. In contrast, GAPOR(Mm) obtained from cells grown in medium containing tungsten (W) and W and molybdenum (Mo) or in medium without added W and Mo did not display any activity. Activity and transcript analysis of putative G3P-metabolizing enzymes and corresponding genes were performed with M. maripaludis cultured under autotrophic conditions in chemically defined medium. The activity of GAPOR(Mm) was constitutive throughout the culture period and exceeded that of GAPDH at all time points. As GAPDH activity was detected in only the gluconeogenic direction and GAPN activity was completely absent, only GAPOR(Mm) catalyzes oxidation of G3P in M. maripaludis. Recombinant GAPOR(Mm) is posttranscriptionally regulated as it exhibits pronounced and irreversible substrate inhibition and is completely inhibited by 1 muM ATP. With support from flux balance analysis, it is concluded that the major physiological role of GAPOR(Mm) in M. maripaludis most likely involves only nonoptimal growth conditions. PMID:17704226

Park, Myong-Ok; Mizutani, Taeko; Jones, Patrik R

2007-08-17

100

NAD(P)H: Quinone Oxidoreductase 1 and NRH:Quinone Oxidoreductase 2 Polymorphisms in Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma: Correlation with Phenotype  

PubMed Central

Purpose NAD(P)H:Quinone Oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) C609T missense variant (NQO1*2) and 29 basepair (bp)-insertion/deletion (I29/D) polymorphism of the NRH:Quinone Oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2) gene promoter have been proposed as predictive and prognostic factors for cancer development and progression. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between NQO1/NQO2 genotype and clinico-pathological features of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). Materials and Methods Genomic DNA was isolated from 243 patients; and clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. NQO1*2 and tri-allelic polymorphism of NQO2 were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Results PTMC with NQO1*2 frequently exhibited extra-thyroidal extension as compared to PTMC with wild-type NQO1 (p=0.039). There was a significant relationship between I29/I29 homozygosity of NQO2 and lymph node metastasis (p=0.042). Multivariate analysis showed that the I29/I29 genotype was associated with an increased risk of lymph node metastasis (OR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.10-4.56; p=0.026). Conclusion NQO1*2 and I29 allele of the NQO2 are associated with aggressive clinical phenotypes of PTMC, and the I29 allele represents a putative prognostic marker for PTMC.

Lee, Junguee; Kim, Koon Soon; Lee, Min Ho; Kim, Yeon Soo; Lee, Min Hee; Lee, Seong Eun; Kim, Yong Kyung; Ryu, Min Jeong; Kim, Soung Jung; Choi, Min Jeong

2013-01-01

101

Regulation of yeast replicative life span by thiol oxidoreductases  

PubMed Central

Thiol-based redox reactions are involved in the regulation of a variety of biological functions, such as protection against oxidative stress, signal transduction and protein folding. Some proteins involved in redox regulation have been shown to modulate life span in organisms from yeast to mammals. To assess the role of thiol oxidoreductases in aging on a genome-wide scale, we analyzed the replicative life span of yeast cells lacking known and candidate thiol oxidoreductases. The data suggest the role of several pathways in regulation of yeast aging, including thioredoxin reduction, protein folding and degradation, peroxide reduction, PIP3 signaling, and ATP synthesis.

Hacioglu, Elise; Esmer, Isil; Fomenko, Dmitri E.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Koc, Ahmet

2011-01-01

102

Role and Function of Quinone-Reaction Domains of the Quinol: Cytochrome 'C' Oxidoreductase.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A thesis on quinol:cytochrome c oxidoreductase is presented. Areas covered are: Respiration in biology; Mechanism of quinol:cytochrome c oxidoreductase; The Q-reaction domains in the quinol:cytochrome c oxidoreductase; Rapid-quench techniques as tools to ...

A. N. van Hoek

1989-01-01

103

Regulation of MUC5AC expression by NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1  

PubMed Central

Neutrophil elastase (NE), a potent neutrophil inflammatory mediator, increases MUC5AC mucin gene expression through undefined pathways involving reactive oxygen species. To determine the source of NE-generated reactive oxygen species, we used pharmacologic inhibitors of oxidoreductases to test whether they blocked NE-regulated MUC5AC mRNA expression. We found that dicumarol, an inhibitor of the NADP(H) quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), inhibited MUC5AC mRNA expression in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells and primary normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells. We further tested the role of NQO1 in mediating NE-induced MUC5AC expression by inhibiting NQO1 expression using siRNA. Transfection with short interfering RNA (siRNA) specific for NQO1 suppressed NQO1 expression and significantly abrogated MUC5AC mRNA expression. NE treatment caused lipid peroxidation in A549 cells; this effect was inhibited by pretreatment with dicumarol, suggesting that NQO1 also regulates oxidant stress in A549 cells following NE exposure. NE exposure increased NQO1 protein and activity levels; NQO1 expression and activity were limited to the cytosol and did not translocate to the plasma membrane. Our results indicate that NQO1 has an important role as a key mediator of NE-regulated oxidant stress and MUC5AC mucin gene expression.

Zheng, Shuo; Byrd, Angela S.; Fischer, Bernard M.; Grover, Amy R.; Ghio, Andrew J.; Voynow, Judith A.

2007-01-01

104

Study of the Thiol/Disulfide Redox Systems of the Anaerobe Desulfovibrio vulgaris Points Out Pyruvate:Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase as a New Target for Thioredoxin 1  

PubMed Central

Sulfate reducers have developed a multifaceted adaptative strategy to survive against oxidative stresses. Along with this oxidative stress response, we recently characterized an elegant reversible disulfide bond-dependent protective mechanism in the pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) of various Desulfovibrio species. Here, we searched for thiol redox systems involved in this mechanism. Using thiol fluorescent labeling, we show that glutathione is not the major thiol/disulfide balance-controlling compound in four different Desulfovibrio species and that no other plentiful low molecular weight thiol can be detected. Enzymatic analyses of two thioredoxins (Trxs) and three thioredoxin reductases allow us to propose the existence of two independent Trx systems in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (DvH). The TR1/Trx1 system corresponds to the typical bacterial Trx system. We measured a TR1 apparent Km value for Trx1 of 8.9 ?m. Moreover, our results showed that activity of TR1 was NADPH-dependent. The second system named TR3/Trx3 corresponds to an unconventional Trx system as TR3 used preferentially NADH (Km for NADPH, 743 ?m; Km for NADH, 5.6 ?m), and Trx3 was unable to reduce insulin. The Km value of TR3 for Trx3 was 1.12 ?m. In vitro experiments demonstrated that the TR1/Trx1 system was the only one able to reactivate the oxygen-protected form of Desulfovibrio africanus PFOR. Moreover, ex vivo pulldown assays using the mutant Trx1C33S as bait allowed us to capture PFOR from the DvH extract. Altogether, these data demonstrate that PFOR is a new target for Trx1, which is probably involved in the protective switch mechanism of the enzyme.

Pieulle, Laetitia; Stocker, Pierre; Vinay, Manon; Nouailler, Matthieu; Vita, Nicolas; Brasseur, Gael; Garcin, Edwige; Sebban-Kreuzer, Corinne; Dolla, Alain

2011-01-01

105

Characterization of a Thermostable Short-Chain Alcohol Dehydrogenase from the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Thermococcus sibiricus?  

PubMed Central

Short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase, encoded by the gene Tsib_0319 from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus sibiricus, was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and characterized as an NADPH-dependent enantioselective oxidoreductase with broad substrate specificity. The enzyme exhibits extremely high thermophilicity, thermostability, and tolerance to organic solvents and salts.

Stekhanova, Tatiana N.; Mardanov, Andrey V.; Bezsudnova, Ekaterina Y.; Gumerov, Vadim M.; Ravin, Nikolai V.; Skryabin, Konstantin G.; Popov, Vladimir O.

2010-01-01

106

The in vitro NADPH-dependent inhibition by CCl sub 4 of the ATP-dependent calcium uptake of hepatic microsomes from male rats. Studies on the mechanism of the inactivation of the hepatic microsomal calcium pump by the CCl sub 3 radical  

SciTech Connect

The hepatotoxicity of CCl4 is mediated through its initial reduction by cytochrome P-450 to the CCl3 radical. This radical then damages important metabolic systems such as the ATP-dependent microsomal Ca2+ pump. Previous studies from our laboratory on isolated microsomes have shown that NADPH in the absence of toxic agents inhibits this pump. We have now found in in vitro incubations that CCl4 (0.5-2.5 mM) enhanced the NADPH-dependent inhibition of Ca2+ uptake from 28% without CCl4 to a maximum of 68%. These concentrations are in the range found in the livers and blood of lethally intoxicated animals and are toxic to cultured hepatocytes. The inhibition of Ca2+ uptake was due both to a decrease in the Ca2(+)-dependent ATPase and to an enhanced release of Ca2+ from the microsomes. The NADPH-dependent CCl4 inhibition was greater under N2 and was totally prevented by CO. GSH (1-10 mM) added during the incubation with CCl4 prevented the inhibition. This protection was also seen when the incubations were performed under nitrogen. When samples were preincubated with CCl4, the CCl4 metabolism was stopped, and then the Ca2+ uptake was determined; GSH reversed the CCl4 inhibition of Ca2+ uptake. This reversal showed saturation kinetics for GSH with two Km values of 0.315 and 93 microM when both the preincubation and the Ca2+ uptake were performed under air, and 0.512 and 31 microM when both were performed under nitrogen. Cysteine did not prevent the NADPH-dependent CCl4 inhibition of Ca2+ uptake. CCl4 increased lipid peroxidation in air, but no lipid peroxidation was seen under nitrogen. Lipid peroxidation was only modestly reversed by GSH. GSH did not remove 14C bound to samples preincubated with the 14CCl4.

Srivastava, S.P.; Chen, N.Q.; Holtzman, J.L. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis (USA))

1990-05-25

107

Purification and characterization of succinate:menaquinone oxidoreductase from Corynebacterium glutamicum.  

PubMed

Succinate:menaquinone oxidoreductase from Corynebacterium glutamicum, a high-G+C, Gram-positive bacterium, was purified to homogeneity. The enzyme contained two heme B molecules and three polypeptides with apparent molecular masses of 67, 29 and 23 kDa, which corresponded to SdhA (flavoprotein), SdhB (iron-sulfur protein), and SdhC (membrane anchor protein), respectively. In non-denaturating polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the enzyme migrated as a single band with an apparent molecular mass of 410 kDa, suggesting that it existed as a trimer. The succinate dehydrogenase activity assayed using 2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-6-decyl-1,4-benzoquinone and 2,6-dichloroindophenol as the electron acceptor was inhibited by 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide (HQNO), and the Dixon plots were biphasic. In contrast, the succinate dehydrogenase activity assayed using phenazine methosulfate and 2,6-dichloroindophenol was inhibited by p-benzoquinone and not by HQNO. These findings suggested that the C. glutamicum succinate:menaquinone oxidoreductase had two quinone binding sites. In the phylogenetic tree of SdhA, Corynebacterium species do not belong to the high-G+C group, which includes Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Streptomyces coelicolor, but are rather close to the group of low-G+C, Gram-positive bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis. This situation may have arisen due to the horizontal gene transfer. PMID:15883782

Kurokawa, Tatsuki; Sakamoto, Junshi

2005-05-10

108

Proceedings of the SMBE Tri-National Young Investigators' Workshop 2005 Relaxation of Functional Constraint on Light-Independent Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase in Thuja  

Microsoft Academic Search

The light-independent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (DPOR) plays a key role in the ability of nonflowering plants and algae to synthesize chlorophyll in darkness. This enzyme consists of three subunits encoded by the chlB, chlL, and chlN genes in the plastid genome. Previously, we found a high nonsynonymous substitution rate (dN) of the chlL gene in the lineage of Thuja standishii, a

Junko Kusumi; Aya Sato; Hidenori Tachida

109

Sulfide:quinone Oxidoreductase from Echiuran Worm Urechis unicinctus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfide is a natural, widely distributed, poisonous substance, and sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) has been identified\\u000a to be responsible for the initial oxidation of sulfide in mitochondria. In this study, full-length SQR cDNA was cloned from\\u000a the echiuran worm Urechis unicinctus, a benthic organism living in marine sediments. The protein consisted of 451 amino acids with a theoretical pI of 8.98

Yu-Bin Ma; Zhi-Feng Zhang; Ming-Yu Shao; Kyoung-Ho Kang; Zhi Tan; Jin-Long Li

2011-01-01

110

Mouse Mammary Gland Xanthine Oxidoreductase: Purification, Characterization, and Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) has been purified from lactating mouse mammary tissue and its properties and developmental expression have been characterized. XOR was purified 80-fold in two steps using benzamidine–Sepharose affinity chromatography. The purified enzyme had a specific activity of 5.7 U\\/mg and an activity to flavin ratio of 192. SDS–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that it was composed of a single

J. L. McManaman; M. C. Neville; R. M. Wright

1999-01-01

111

Identification of a renal-specific oxido-reductase in newborn diabetic mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aldose reductase (ALR2), a NADPH-dependent aldo-keto reductase (AKR), is widely distributed in mammalian tissues and has been implicated in complications of diabetes, including diabetic nephropathy. To identify a renal-specific reductase belonging to the AKR family, representational difference analyses of cDNA from diabetic mouse kidney were performed. A full-length cDNA with an ORF of 855 nt and yielding a 1.5-kb mRNA

Qiwei Yang; Bharat Dixit; Jun Wada; Yufeng Tian; Elisabeth I. Wallner; Satish K. Srivastva; Yashpal S. Kanwar

2000-01-01

112

Identification and characterization of a NADH oxidoreductase involved in phenylacetic acid degradation pathway from Streptomyces peucetius.  

PubMed

Annotation of genome of Streptomyces peucetius revealed a putative phenylacetic acid degradation NADH oxidoreductase. RT-PCR analysis of the gene readily showed notable transcription in its native state. The transcription level of paaE when the host is grown on phenylacetic acid showed increased transcription. paaE was cloned into a pET32a(+) vector to overexpress the protein coupled with fusion tags in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography using His-tag. The flavin released from heat-denatured PaaE was identical to that of authentic FAD in HPLC analysis. The purified protein efficiently reduced p-nitroblue tetrazolium (an electron acceptor) in presence of NADH. Cell growth analysis of S. peucetius in phenylacetic acid evidently revealed its involvement in degradation of phenylacetic acid - a key environmental pollutant. PMID:20116224

Niraula, Narayan Prasad; Shrestha, Pramod; Oh, Tae-Jin; Sohng, Jae Kyung

2010-01-29

113

40 CFR 174.524 - Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247 in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247 in all...Tolerance Exemptions § 174.524 Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247 in all...requirement of a tolerance. Residues of the Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247...

2009-07-01

114

40 CFR 174.524 - Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247 in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247 in all...Tolerance Exemptions § 174.524 Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247 in all...requirement of a tolerance. Residues of the Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247...

2010-07-01

115

CRYSTAL STRUCTURE ANALYSIS OF A PUTATIVE OXIDOREDUCTASE FROM KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE  

SciTech Connect

Klebsiella pneumoniae, a gram-negative enteric bacterium, is found in nosocomial infections which are acquired during hospital stays for about 10% of hospital patients in the United States. The crystal structure of a putative oxidoreductase from K. pneumoniae has been determined. The structural information of this K. pneumoniae protein was used to understand its function. Crystals of the putative oxidoreductase enzyme were obtained by the sitting drop vapor diffusion method using Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350, Bis-Tris buffer, pH 5.5 as precipitant. These crystals were used to collect X-ray data at beam line X12C of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The crystal structure was determined using the SHELX program and refi ned with CNS 1.1. This protein, which is involved in the catalysis of an oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction, has an alpha/beta structure. It utilizes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) or nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to perform its function. This structure could be used to determine the active and co-factor binding sites of the protein, information that could help pharmaceutical companies in drug design and in determining the protein’s relationship to disease treatment such as that for pneumonia and other related pathologies.

Baig, M.; Brown, A.; Eswaramoorthy, S.; Swaminathan, S.

2009-01-01

116

NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 is induced by progesterone in cardiomyocytes.  

PubMed

NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is a ubiquitous flavoenzyme that catalyzes two-electron reduction of various quinones by utilizing NAD(P)H as an electron donor. Our previous study found that progesterone (PG) can protect cardiomyocytes from apoptosis induced by doxorubicin (Dox). Microarray analyses of genes induced by PG had led to the discovery of induction of NQO1 mRNA. We report here that PG induces NQO1 protein and its activity in a dose-dependent manner. Whereas NQO1 is well known as a target gene of Nrf2 transcription factor due to the presence of antioxidant response element (ARE) in the promoter, PG did not activate the ARE, suggesting Nrf2-independent induction of NQO1. To address the role of NQO1 induction in PG-induced cytoprotection, we tested the effect of NQO1 inducer ?-naphthoflavone and inhibitor dicoumarol. Induction of NQO1 by ?-naphthoflavone decreased Dox-induced apoptosis and potentiated the protective effect of PG as measured by caspase-3 activity. PG-induced NQO1 activity was inhibited with dicoumarol, which did not affect PG-induced cytoprotection. Dicoumarol treatment alone potentiated Dox-induced caspase-3 activity. These data suggest that while NQO1 plays a role in PG-induced cytoprotection, there are additional components contributing to PG-induced cytoprotection. PMID:21947872

Morrissy, Stephen; Strom, Joshua; Purdom-Dickinson, Sally; Chen, Qin M

2012-06-01

117

Impact of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 on pigmentation.  

PubMed

We obtained metastasized melanoma tissue from a primary acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) patient and established a melanoma cell line named primary culture of melanoma cell derived from lymph node (PML)-1. PML-1 cells had a light brown color and decreased the expression of melanogenesis markers, including tyrosinase (TYR), microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, and tyrosinase-related protein-1. To identify genes differentially regulated in PML-1 melanoma cells, we performed DNA microarray and two-dimensional matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry analyses. Among the candidate genes identified, we chose NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1) for further study. Reverse transcription-PCR and western blot analyses showed that NQO1 was markedly decreased in PML-1 cells and in several amelanotic melanoma cell lines. To investigate whether NQO1 affects the melanogenesis, we treated the cultured normal human melanocytes (NHMC) and zebrafish with NQO1 inhibitors, ES936 and dicoumarol. Interestingly, melanogenesis was significantly decreased by the addition of NQO1 inhibitors in both NHMC and zebrafish models. In contrast, overexpression of NQO1 using a recombinant adenovirus clearly induced melanogenesis, concomitantly with an increase of TYR protein level. These results suggest that NQO1 is a positive regulator of the pigmentation process. PMID:19759547

Choi, Tae-Young; Sohn, Kyung-Cheol; Kim, Jin-Hwa; Kim, Seong-Min; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Hwang, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jeung-Hoon; Kim, Chang Deok; Yoon, Tae-Jin

2009-09-17

118

Structural and functional insights into sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase.  

PubMed

A sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) was isolated from the membranes of the hyperthermoacidophilic archaeon Acidianus ambivalens, and its X-ray structure, the first reported for an SQR, was determined to 2.6 A resolution. This enzyme was functionally and structurally characterized and was shown to have two redox active sites: a covalently bound FAD and an adjacent pair of cysteine residues. Most interestingly, the X-ray structure revealed the presence of a chain of three sulfur atoms bridging those two cysteine residues. The possible implications of this observation in the catalytic mechanism for sulfide oxidation are discussed, and the role of SQR in the sulfur dependent bioenergetics of A. ambivalens, linked to oxygen reduction, is addressed. PMID:19438211

Brito, José A; Sousa, Filipa L; Stelter, Meike; Bandeiras, Tiago M; Vonrhein, Clemens; Teixeira, Miguel; Pereira, Manuela M; Archer, Margarida

2009-06-23

119

Neuronal expression of a single-subunit yeast NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Ndi1) extends Drosophila lifespan  

PubMed Central

The ‘rate of living’ theory predicts that longevity should be inversely correlated with the rate of mitochondrial respiration. However, recent studies in a number of model organisms, including mice, have reported that interventions that retard the aging process are, in fact, associated with an increase in mitochondrial activity. To better understand the relationship between energy metabolism and longevity, we supplemented the endogenous respiratory chain machinery of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster with the alternative single-subunit NADH–ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Ndi1) of the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we report that expression of Ndi1 in fly mitochondria leads to an increase in NADH–ubiquinone oxidoreductase activity, oxygen consumption and ATP levels. In addition, exogenous Ndi1 expression results in increased CO2 production in living flies. Using an inducible gene expression system, we expressed Ndi1 in different cells and tissues and examined the impact on longevity. In doing so, we discovered that targeted expression of Ndi1 in fly neurons significantly increases lifespan without compromising fertility or physical activity. These findings are consistent with the idea that enhanced respiratory chain activity in neuronal tissue can prolong fly lifespan.

Bahadorani, Sepehr; Cho, Jaehyoung; Lo, Thomas; Contreras, Heidy; Lawal, Hakeem O.; Krantz, David E.; Bradley, Timothy J; Walker, David W.

2010-01-01

120

A Single-Electron Reducing Quinone Oxidoreductase Is Necessary to Induce Haustorium Development in the Root Parasitic Plant Triphysaria[C][W  

PubMed Central

Parasitic plants in the Orobanchaceae develop haustoria in response to contact with host roots or chemical haustoria-inducing factors. Experiments in this manuscript test the hypothesis that quinolic-inducing factors activate haustorium development via a signal mechanism initiated by redox cycling between quinone and hydroquinone states. Two cDNAs were previously isolated from roots of the parasitic plant Triphysaria versicolor that encode distinct quinone oxidoreductases. QR1 encodes a single-electron reducing NADPH quinone oxidoreductase similar to ?-crystallin. The QR2 enzyme catalyzes two electron reductions typical of xenobiotic detoxification. QR1 and QR2 transcripts are upregulated in a primary response to chemical-inducing factors, but only QR1 was upregulated in response to host roots. RNA interference technology was used to reduce QR1 and QR2 transcripts in Triphysaria roots that were evaluated for their ability to form haustoria. There was a significant decrease in haustorium development in roots silenced for QR1 but not in roots silenced for QR2. The infrequent QR1 transgenic roots that did develop haustoria had levels of QR1 similar to those of nontransgenic roots. These experiments implicate QR1 as one of the earliest genes on the haustorium signal transduction pathway, encoding a quinone oxidoreductase necessary for the redox bioactivation of haustorial inducing factors.

Bandaranayake, Pradeepa C.G.; Filappova, Tatiana; Tomilov, Alexey; Tomilova, Natalya B.; Jamison-McClung, Denneal; Ngo, Quy; Inoue, Kentaro; Yoder, John I.

2010-01-01

121

Quinone reduction by Rhodothermus marinus succinate:menaquinone oxidoreductase is not stimulated by the membrane potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Succinate:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR), a di-haem enzyme purified from Rhodothermus marinus, reveals an HQNO-sensitive succinate:quinone oxidoreductase activity with several menaquinone analogues as electron acceptors that decreases with lowering the redox midpoint potential of the quinones. A turnover with the low-potential 2,3-dimethyl-1,4-naphthoquinone that is the closest analogue of menaquinone, although low, can be detected in liposome-reconstituted SQR. Reduction of the quinone is

Andreia S. Fernandes; Alexander A. Konstantinov; Miguel Teixeira; Manuela M.. Pereira

2005-01-01

122

Renal-specific oxidoreductase biphasic expression under high glucose ambience during fetal versus neonatal development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renal-specific oxidoreductase biphasic expression under high glucose ambience during fetal vs. neonatal development.BackgroundRenal-specific oxidoreductase (RSOR) has been recently identified in mice kidneys of diabetic animals, and it is developmentally regulated. Its expression during fetal, neonatal, and postnatal periods was assessed under high glucose ambience.MethodsWhole-mount immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy were performed to assess the effect of high glucose on the morphogenesis

YASHPAL S KANWAR; SHIGERU AKAGI; BAIBASWATA NAYAK; LIN SUN; JUN WADA; PING XIE; ARUN THAKUR; SUMANT S CHUGH; FARHAD R DANESH

2005-01-01

123

Functional analysis of three sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase homologs in Chlorobaculum tepidum.  

PubMed

Sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) catalyzes sulfide oxidation during sulfide-dependent chemo- and phototrophic growth in bacteria. The green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum (formerly Chlorobium tepidum) can grow on sulfide as the sole electron donor and sulfur source. C. tepidum contains genes encoding three SQR homologs: CT0117, CT0876, and CT1087. This study examined which, if any, of the SQR homologs possess sulfide-dependent ubiquinone reduction activity and are required for growth on sulfide. In contrast to CT0117 and CT0876, transcripts of CT1087 were detected only when cells actively oxidized sulfide. Mutation of CT0117 or CT1087 in C. tepidum decreased SQR activity in membrane fractions, and the CT1087 mutant could not grow with >or=6 mM sulfide. Mutation of both CT0117 and CT1087 in C. tepidum completely abolished SQR activity, and the double mutant failed to grow with >or=4 mM sulfide. A C-terminal His(6)-tagged CT1087 protein was membrane localized, as was SQR activity. Epitope-tagged CT1087 was detected only when sulfide was actively consumed by cells. Recombinantly produced CT1087 and CT0117 proteins had SQR activity, while CT0876 did not. In summary, we conclude that, under the conditions tested, both CT0117 and CT1087 function as SQR proteins in C. tepidum. CT0876 may support the growth of C. tepidum at low sulfide concentrations, but no evidence was found for SQR activity associated with this protein. PMID:19028893

Chan, Leong-Keat; Morgan-Kiss, Rachael M; Hanson, Thomas E

2008-11-21

124

Roles of sulfite oxidoreductase and sulfite reductase in improving desulfurization by Rhodococcus erythropolis.  

PubMed

Rhodococcus erythropolis has been widely studied for desulfurization. However, activity levels required for commercial application have not been achieved. A major limitation of the current work in biodesulfurization is inadequate information regarding sulfur metabolism generally, and in particular the metabolism of the sulfur obtained from dibenzothiophene (DBT) metabolism via the 4S pathway. In this work, we have investigated the possible routes taken by the sulfur from DBT to convert into biomass or other metabolites. We propose two alternate hypotheses. In the first, we hypothesize that the cell can convert via sulfite reductase (SR) the sulfite from the metabolism of DBT into sulfide that can be assimilated into biomass. However, in the process, it may convert any excess sulfite into extracellular sulfate via sulfite oxidoreductase (SOR) to avoid the toxic effects of sulfite. In the second, we speculate that the cell cannot assimilate the sulfite directly into biomass via SR. It must first use SOR to produce extracellular sulfate, and then recapture that sulfate into biomass via SR. Thus, either way, we propose that SOR and SR activities, in addition to dsz genes and cofactors, may be critical in increasing desulfurization levels significantly. In particular, we suggest that the simultaneous increase in SOR activity and decrease in SR activity can enable increased desulfurization activity. PMID:22832889

Aggarwal, Shilpi; Karimi, I A; Kilbane Ii, John J; Lee, Dong Yup

2012-10-01

125

NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 is essential for ozone-induced oxidative stress in mice and humans.  

PubMed

One host susceptibility factor for ozone identified in epidemiologic studies is NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). We hypothesized that after ozone exposure, NQO1 is required to increase 8-isoprostane (also known as F(2)-isoprostane) production, a recognized marker of ozone-induced oxidative stress, and to enhance airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness. In this report, we demonstrate that in contrast to wild-type mice, NQO1-null mice are resistant to ozone and have blunted responses, including decreased production of F(2)-isoprostane and keratinocyte chemokine, decreased airway inflammation, and diminished airway hyperresponsiveness. Importantly, these results in mice correlate with in vitro findings in humans. In primary human airway epithelial cells, inhibition of NQO1 by dicumarol blocks ozone-induced F(2)-isoprostane production and IL-8 gene expression. Together, these results demonstrate that NQO1 modulates cellular redox status and influences the biologic and physiologic effects of ozone. PMID:19059883

Voynow, Judith A; Fischer, Bernard M; Zheng, Shuo; Potts, Erin N; Grover, Amy R; Jaiswal, Anil K; Ghio, Andrew J; Foster, W Michael

2008-12-04

126

Structure-activity characterization of sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase variants.  

PubMed

Sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) is a peripheral membrane protein that catalyzes the oxidation of sulfide species to elemental sulfur. The enzymatic reaction proceeds in two steps. The electrons from sulfides are transferred first to the enzyme cofactor, FAD, which, in turn, passes them onto the quinone pool in the membrane. Several wild-type SQR structures have been reported recently. However, the enzymatic mechanism of SQR has not been fully delineated. In order to understand the role of the catalytically essential residues in the enzymatic mechanism of SQR we produced a number of variants of the conserved residues in the catalytic site including the cysteine triad of SQR from the acidophilic, chemolithotrophic bacterium Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. These were structurally characterized and their activities for each reaction step were determined. In addition, the crystal structures of the wild-type SQR with sodium selenide and gold(I) cyanide have been determined. Previously we proposed a mechanism for the reduction of sulfides to elemental sulfur involving nucleophilic attack of Cys356 on C(4A) atom of FAD. Here we also consider an alternative anionic radical mechanism by direct electron transfer from Cys356 to the isoalloxazine ring of FAD. PMID:22542586

Cherney, Maia M; Zhang, Yanfei; James, Michael N G; Weiner, Joel H

2012-04-19

127

Bacterial Na+-translocating ferredoxin:NAD+ oxidoreductase.  

PubMed

The anaerobic acetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium woodii carries out a unique type of Na(+)-motive, anaerobic respiration with caffeate as electron acceptor, termed "caffeate respiration." Central, and so far the only identified membrane-bound reaction in this respiration pathway, is a ferredoxin:NAD(+) oxidoreductase (Fno) activity. Here we show that inverted membrane vesicles of A. woodii couple electron transfer from reduced ferredoxin to NAD(+) with the transport of Na(+) from the outside into the lumen of the vesicles. Na(+) transport was electrogenic, and accumulation was inhibited by sodium ionophores but not protonophores, demonstrating a direct coupling of Fno activity to Na(+) transport. Results from inhibitor studies are consistent with the hypothesis that Fno activity coupled to Na(+) translocation is catalyzed by the Rnf complex, a membrane-bound, iron-sulfur and flavin-containing electron transport complex encoded by many bacterial and some archaeal genomes. Fno is a unique type of primary Na(+) pump and represents an early evolutionary mechanism of energy conservation that expands the redox range known to support life. In addition, it explains the lifestyle of many anaerobic bacteria and gives a mechanistic explanation for the enigma of the energetic driving force for the endergonic reduction of ferredoxin with NADH plus H(+) as reductant in a number of aerobic bacteria. PMID:20921383

Biegel, Eva; Müller, Volker

2010-10-04

128

Photoprotective role of NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase A  

PubMed Central

A homology model of NADPH:protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) oxidoreductase A (POR; E.C. 1.3.33.1) of barley is developed and verified by site-directed mutagenesis. PORA is considered a globular protein consisting of nine ?-helices and seven ?-strands. The model predicts the presence of two functionally distinctive Pchlide binding sites where the pigment is coordinated by cystein residues. The pigment bound to the first, high-affinity Pchlide binding site is used for the formation of the photoactive state of the enzyme. The pigment bound to the second, low-affinity Pchlide binding site is involved in the PORA:PORB interaction, allowing for resonance energy transfer between the neighboring PORs in the complex. In the in vitro reconstituted light-harvesting POR:Pchlide complex (LHPP), light absorbed by PORA-bound Pchlide b is transferred to PORB-bound Pchlide a. That induces the conversion of Pchlide a to chlorophyllide (Chlide) a. This energy transfer eliminates the possibility of Pchlide b photoreduction and prevents that excited triplet states of either Pchlides a or b accumulate and provoke singlet oxygen production. Together, our results provide a photoprotective role of PORA during greening.

Buhr, Frank; El Bakkouri, Majida; Valdez, Oscar; Pollmann, Stephan; Lebedev, Nikolai; Reinbothe, Steffen; Reinbothe, Christiane

2008-01-01

129

Selenoprotein oxidoreductase with specificity for thioredoxin and glutathione systems  

PubMed Central

Thioredoxin (Trx) and glutathione (GSH) systems are considered to be two major redox systems in animal cells. They are reduced by NADPH via Trx reductase (TR) or oxidized GSH (GSSG) reductase and further supply electrons for deoxyribonucleotide synthesis, antioxidant defense, and redox regulation of signal transduction, transcription, cell growth, and apoptosis. We cloned and characterized a pyridine nucleotide disulfide oxidoreductase, Trx and GSSG reductase (TGR), that exhibits specificity for both redox systems. This enzyme contains a selenocysteine residue encoded by the TGA codon. TGR can reduce Trx, GSSG, and a GSH-linked disulfide in in vitro assays. This unusual substrate specificity is achieved by an evolutionary conserved fusion of the TR and glutaredoxin domains. These observations, together with the biochemical probing and molecular modeling of the TGR structure, suggest a mechanism whereby the C-terminal selenotetrapeptide serves a role of a protein-linked GSSG and shuttles electrons from the disulfide center within the TR domain to either the glutaredoxin domain or Trx.

Sun, Qi-An; Kirnarsky, Leo; Sherman, Simon; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

2001-01-01

130

Comparison of Catalytic Activity and Inhibitors of Quinone Reactions of Succinate Dehydrogenase (Succinate–Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase) and Fumarate Reductase (Menaquinol–Fumarate Oxidoreductase) from Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Escherichia coli succinate–ubiquinone oxidoreductase (SQR) and menaquinol–fumarate reductase (QFR) are excellent model systems to understand the function of eukaryotic Complex II. They have structural and catalytic properties similar to their eukaryotic counterpart. An exception is that potent inhibitors of mammalian Complex II, such as thenoyltrifluoroacetone and carboxanilides, only weakly inhibit their bacterial counterparts. This lack of good inhibitors of quinone

Elena Maklashina; Gary Cecchini

1999-01-01

131

Escherichia coli pyruvate:flavodoxin oxidoreductase, YdbK - regulation of expression and biological roles in protection against oxidative stress.  

PubMed

E. coli YdbK is predicted to be a pyruvate:flavodoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR). However, enzymatic activity and the regulation of gene expression of it are not well understood. In this study, we found that E. coli cells overexpressing the ydbK gene had enhanced PFOR activity, indicating the product of ydbK to be a PFOR. The PFOR was labile to oxygen. The expression of ydbK was induced by superoxide generators such as methyl viologen (MV) in a SoxS-dependent manner after a lag period. We identified a critical element upstream of ydbK gene required for the induction by MV and proved direct binding of SoxS to the element. E. coli ydbK mutant was highly sensitive to MV, which was enhanced by additional inactivation of fpr gene encoding ferredoxin (flavodoxin):NADP(H) reductase (FPR). Aconitase activity, a superoxide sensor, was more extensively decreased by MV in the E. coli ydbK mutant than in wild-type strain. The induction level of soxS gene was higher in E. coli ydbK fpr double mutant than in wild-type strain. These results indicate that YdbK helps to protect cells from oxidative stress. It is possible that YdbK maintains the cellular redox state together with FPR and is involved in the reduction of oxidized proteins including SoxR in the late stages of the oxidative stress response in E. coli. PMID:24025246

Nakayama, Takayuki; Yonekura, Shin-Ichiro; Yonei, Shuji; Zhang-Akiyama, Qiu-Mei

2013-01-01

132

Kinetic mechanism of sheep liver NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase.  

PubMed Central

The kinetic mechanism of the major sheep liver aldehyde reductase (ALR1) was studied with three aldehyde substrates: p-nitrobenzaldehyde, pyridine-3-aldehyde and D-glucuronate. In each case the enzyme mechanism was sequential and product-inhibition studies were consistent with an ordered Bi Bi mechanism, with the coenzymes binding to the free enzyme. Binding studies were used to investigate the interactions of substrates, products and inhibitors with the free enzyme. These provided evidence for the binding of D-glucuronate, L-gulonate and valproate, as well as NADP+ and NADPH. The enzyme was inhibited by high concentrations of D-glucuronate in a non-competitive manner, indicating that this substrate was able to bind to the free enzyme and to the E X NADP+ complex at elevated concentrations. Although the enzyme was inhibited by high pyridine-3-aldehyde concentrations, there was no evidence for the binding of this substrate to the free enzyme. Sheep liver ALR1 was inhibited by the ionized forms of alrestatin, sorbinil, valproate, 2-ethylhexanoate and phenobarbitone, indicating the presence of an anion-binding site similar to that described for the pig liver enzyme, which interacts with inhibitors and substrates containing a carboxy group. Sorbinil, valproate and 2-ethylhexanoate inhibited the enzyme uncompetitively at low concentrations and non-competitively at high concentrations, whereas phenobarbitone and alrestatin were non-competitive and uncompetitive inhibitors respectively. The significance of these results with respect to inhibitor and substrate binding is discussed.

De Jongh, K S; Schofield, P J; Edwards, M R

1987-01-01

133

Sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase from echiuran worm Urechis unicinctus.  

PubMed

Sulfide is a natural, widely distributed, poisonous substance, and sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) has been identified to be responsible for the initial oxidation of sulfide in mitochondria. In this study, full-length SQR cDNA was cloned from the echiuran worm Urechis unicinctus, a benthic organism living in marine sediments. The protein consisted of 451 amino acids with a theoretical pI of 8.98 and molecular weight of 50.5 kDa. Subsequently, the SQR mRNA expression in different tissues was assessed by real-time reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction and showed that the highest expression was in midgut, followed by anal sacs and coelomic fluid cells, and then body wall and hindgut. Furthermore, activated SQR was obtained by dilution refolding of recombinant SQR expression in E. coli, and the refolded product showed optimal activity at 37 °C and pH 8.5 and K (m) for ubiquinone and sulfide at 15.6 µM and 40.3 µM, respectively. EDTA and GSH had an activating effect on refolded SQR, while Zn(2+) caused decreased activity. Western blot showed that SQR in vivo was located in mitochondria and was ? 10 kDa heavier than the recombinant protein. In addition, SQR, detected by immunohistochemistry, was mainly located in the epithelium of all tissues examined. Ultrastructural observations of these tissues' epithelium by transmission electron microscopy provided indirect cytological evidence for its mitochondrial location. Interesting aspects of the U. unicinctus SQR amino acid sequence, its catalytic mechanism, and the different roles of these tissues in sulfide metabolic adaptation are also discussed. PMID:20419499

Ma, Yu-Bin; Zhang, Zhi-Feng; Shao, Ming-Yu; Kang, Kyoung-Ho; Tan, Zhi; Li, Jin-Long

2010-04-25

134

Protein conformational gating of enzymatic activity in xanthine oxidoreductase  

PubMed Central

In mammals, xanthine oxidoreductase can exist as xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) and xanthine oxidase (XO). The two enzymes possess common redox active cofactors, which form an electron transfer (ET) pathway terminated by a flavin cofactor. In spite of identical protein primary structures, the redox potential difference between XDH and XO for the flavin semi-quinone/hydroquinone pair (Esq/hq) is ~170 mV, a striking difference. The former greatly prefers NAD+ as ultimate substrate for ET from the iron-sulfur cluster FeS-II via flavin while the latter only accepts dioxygen. In XDH (without NAD+), however, the redox potential of the electron donor FeS-II is 180 mV higher than that for the acceptor flavin, yielding an energetically uphill ET. Based on new 1.65, 2.3, 1.9 and 2.2 Å resolution crystal structures for XDH, XO, the NAD+- and NADH- complexed XDH, Esq/hq were calculated to better understand how the enzyme activates an ET from FeS-II to flavin. The majority of the Esq/hq difference between XDH and XO originates from a conformational change in the loop at positions 423-433 near the flavin binding site, causing the differences in stability of the semiquinone state. There was no large conformational change observed in response to NAD+ binding at XDH. Instead, the positive charge of NAD+ ring, deprotonation of Asp429 and the capping of the bulk surface of the flavin by the NAD+ molecule all contribute to alter Esq/hq upon NAD+ binding to XDH.

Ishikita, Hiroshi; Eger, Bryan T.; Okamoto, Ken; Nishino, Takeshi; Pai, Emil F.

2011-01-01

135

Suicide inactivation of hydroxylamine oxidoreductase of Nitrosomonas europaea by organohydrazines.  

PubMed

In the presence of a suitable electron acceptor such as mammalian cytochrome c, hydroxylamine oxidoreductase (HAO) from the chemolithotrophic bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea catalyzes the oxidation of hydroxylamine or hydrazine to nitrite or dinitrogen, respectively. Each subunit of HAO contains 7 c-hemes and a chromophore of the active site called heme P460, a c-heme bridged from a methylene carbon to a ring carbon of a tyrosine of the peptide chain. Reaction with either substrate results in reduction of several c-hemes of HAO. The reaction of organohydrazines with HAO was investigated in this work. HAO was inactivated by (phenyl-, (methyl-, or (hydroxyethyl)hydrazine. The process followed first order kinetics and was inhibited by the substrates, hydroxylamine or hydrazine. Complete loss of enzyme activity and absorbancy characteristic of native heme P460 of HAO occurred at a 1:1 ratio of phenylhydrazine and HAO. HAO was covalently derivatized by two molecules of [14C]-phenylhydrazine per subunit. Heme P460 was derivatized with high affinity, and an amino acid residue was derivatized with lower affinity. c-Hemes were not derivatized except for the partial reaction of (hydroxyethyl)hydrazine with one heme. As with hydroxylamine and hydrazine, incubation with organohydrazines resulted in reduction of c-heme of HAO. Derivatized minus native optical difference spectra of ferric or ferrous HAO revealed changes in the optical properties of heme P460 which were generally similar to shifts seen in the reaction of the heme of other hemoproteins with organohydrazines.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7619827

Logan, M S; Hooper, A B

1995-07-18

136

Protein Conformational Gating of Enzymatic Activity in Xanthine Oxidoreductase  

SciTech Connect

In mammals, xanthine oxidoreductase can exist as xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) and xanthine oxidase (XO). The two enzymes possess common redox active cofactors, which form an electron transfer (ET) pathway terminated by a flavin cofactor. In spite of identical protein primary structures, the redox potential difference between XDH and XO for the flavin semiquinone/hydroquinone pair (E{sub sq/hq}) is {approx}170 mV, a striking difference. The former greatly prefers NAD{sup +} as ultimate substrate for ET from the iron-sulfur cluster FeS-II via flavin while the latter only accepts dioxygen. In XDH (without NAD{sup +}), however, the redox potential of the electron donor FeS-II is 180 mV higher than that for the acceptor flavin, yielding an energetically uphill ET. On the basis of new 1.65, 2.3, 1.9, and 2.2 {angstrom} resolution crystal structures for XDH, XO, the NAD{sup +}- and NADH-complexed XDH, E{sub sq/hq} were calculated to better understand how the enzyme activates an ET from FeS-II to flavin. The majority of the E{sub sq/hq} difference between XDH and XO originates from a conformational change in the loop at positions 423-433 near the flavin binding site, causing the differences in stability of the semiquinone state. There was no large conformational change observed in response to NAD{sup +} binding at XDH. Instead, the positive charge of the NAD{sup +} ring, deprotonation of Asp429, and capping of the bulk surface of the flavin by the NAD{sup +} molecule all contribute to altering E{sub sq/hq} upon NAD{sup +} binding to XDH.

Ishikita, Hiroshi; Eger, Bryan T.; Okamoto, Ken; Nishino, Takeshi; Pai, Emil F. (Toronto); (Kyoto)

2012-05-24

137

Ferredoxin:NADP+ Oxidoreductase Association with Phycocyanin Modulates Its Properties*  

PubMed Central

In photosynthetic organisms, ferredoxin:NADP+ oxidoreductase (FNR) is known to provide NADPH for CO2 assimilation, but it also utilizes NADPH to provide reduced ferredoxin. The cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803 produces two FNR isoforms, a small one (FNRS) similar to the one found in plant plastids and a large one (FNRL) that is associated with the phycobilisome, a light-harvesting complex. Here we show that a mutant lacking FNRL exhibits a higher NADP+/NADPH ratio. We also purified to homogeneity a phycobilisome subcomplex comprising FNRL, named FNRL-PC. The enzymatic activities of FNRL-PC were compared with those of FNRS. During NADPH oxidation, FNRL-PC exhibits a 30% decrease in the Michaelis constant Km(NADPH), and a 70% increase in Km(ferredoxin), which is in agreement with its predicted lower activity of ferredoxin reduction. During NADP+ reduction, the FNRL-PC shows a 29/43% decrease in the rate of single electron transfer from reduced ferredoxin in the presence/absence of NADP+. The increase in Km(ferredoxin) and the rate decrease of single reduction are attributed to steric hindrance by the phycocyanin moiety of FNRL-PC. Both isoforms are capable of catalyzing the NADP+ reduction under multiple turnover conditions. Furthermore, we obtained evidence that, under high ionic strength conditions, electron transfer from reduced ferredoxin is rate limiting during this process. The differences that we observe might not fully explain the in vivo properties of the Synechocystis mutants expressing only one of the isoforms. Therefore, we advocate that FNR localization and/or substrates availability are essential in vivo.

Korn, Anja; Ajlani, Ghada; Lagoutte, Bernard; Gall, Andrew; Setif, Pierre

2009-01-01

138

40 CFR 174.524 - Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247 in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247 in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a...PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances...Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247 in all plants; exemption from the requirement of...

2013-07-01

139

HQNO-sensitive NADH:quinone oxidoreductase of Bacillus cereus KCTC 3674.  

PubMed

The enzymatic properties of NADH:quinone oxidoreductase were examined in Triton X-100 extracts of Bacillus cereus membranes by using the artificial electron acceptors ubiquinone-1 and menadione. Membranes were prepared from B. cereus KCTC 3674 grown aerobically on a complex medium and oxidized with NADH exclusively, whereas deamino-NADH was determined to be poorly oxidized. The NADH oxidase activity was lost completely by solubilization of the membranes with Triton X-100. However, by using the artificial electron acceptors ubiquinone-1 and menadione, NADH oxidation could be observed. The activities of NADH:ubiquinone-1 and NADH:menadione oxidoreductase were enhanced approximately 8-fold and 4-fold, respectively, from the Triton X-100 extracted membranes. The maximum activity of FAD-dependent NADH:ubiquinone-1 oxidoreductase was obtained at about pH 6.0 in the presence of 0.1M NaCl, while the maximum activity of FAD-dependent NADH:menadione oxidoreductase was obtained at about pH 8.0 in the presence of 0.1 M NaCl. The activities of the NADH:ubiquinone-1 and NADH:menadione oxidoreductase were very resistant to such respiratory chain inhibitors as rotenone, capsaicin, and AgNO(3), whereas these activities were sensitive to 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide (HQNO). Based on these results, we suggest that the aerobic respiratory chain-linked NADH oxidase system of B. cereus KCTC 3674 possesses an HQNO-sensitive NADH:quinone oxidoreductase that lacks an energy coupling site containing FAD as a cofactor. PMID:17244482

Kang, Jiwon; Kim, Young Jae

2007-01-31

140

Diflavin oxidoreductases activate the bioreductive prodrug PR-104A under hypoxia.  

PubMed

The clinical agent PR-104 is converted systemically to PR-104A, a nitrogen mustard prodrug designed to target tumor hypoxia. Reductive activation of PR-104A is initiated by one-electron oxidoreductases in a process reversed by oxygen. The identity of these oxidoreductases is unknown, with the exception of cytochrome P450 reductase (POR). To identify other hypoxia-selective PR-104A reductases, nine candidate oxidoreductases were expressed in HCT116 cells. Increased PR-104A-cytotoxicity was observed in cells expressing methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), novel diflavin oxidoreductase 1 (NDOR1), and inducible nitric-oxide synthase (NOS2A), in addition to POR. Plasmid-based expression of these diflavin oxidoreductases also enhanced bioreductive metabolism of PR-104A in an anoxia-specific manner. Diflavin oxidoreductase-dependent PR-104A metabolism was suppressed >90% by pan-flavoenzyme inhibition with diphenyliodonium chloride. Antibodies were used to quantify endogenous POR, MTRR, NDOR1, and NOS2A expression in 23 human tumor cell lines; however, only POR protein was detectable and its expression correlated with anoxic PR-104A reduction (r(2) = 0.712). An anti-POR monoclonal antibody was used to probe expression using human tissue microarrays; 13 of 19 cancer types expressed detectable POR with 21% of cores (185 of 874) staining positive; this heterogeneity suggests that POR is a useful biomarker for PR-104A activation. Immunostaining for carbonic anhydrase 9 (CAIX), reportedly an endogenous marker of hypoxia, revealed only moderate coexpression (9.6%) of both CAIX and POR across a subset of five cancer types. PMID:21984255

Guise, Christopher P; Abbattista, Maria R; Tipparaju, Smitha R; Lambie, Neil K; Su, Jiechuang; Li, Dan; Wilson, William R; Dachs, Gabi U; Patterson, Adam V

2011-10-07

141

Structural basis for human NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency  

SciTech Connect

NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CYPOR) is essential for electron donation to microsomal cytochrome P450-mediated monooxygenation in such diverse physiological processes as drug metabolism (approximately 85-90% of therapeutic drugs), steroid biosynthesis, and bioactive metabolite production (vitamin D and retinoic acid metabolites). Expressed by a single gene, CYPOR's role with these multiple redox partners renders it a model for understanding protein-protein interactions at the structural level. Polymorphisms in human CYPOR have been shown to lead to defects in bone development and steroidogenesis, resulting in sexual dimorphisms, the severity of which differs significantly depending on the degree of CYPOR impairment. The atomic structure of human CYPOR is presented, with structures of two naturally occurring missense mutations, V492E and R457H. The overall structures of these CYPOR variants are similar to wild type. However, in both variants, local disruption of H bonding and salt bridging, involving the FAD pyrophosphate moiety, leads to weaker FAD binding, unstable protein, and loss of catalytic activity, which can be rescued by cofactor addition. The modes of polypeptide unfolding in these two variants differ significantly, as revealed by limited trypsin digestion: V492E is less stable but unfolds locally and gradually, whereas R457H is more stable but unfolds globally. FAD addition to either variant prevents trypsin digestion, supporting the role of the cofactor in conferring stability to CYPOR structure. Thus, CYPOR dysfunction in patients harboring these particular mutations may possibly be prevented by riboflavin therapy in utero, if predicted prenatally, or rescued postnatally in less severe cases.

Xia, Chuanwu; Panda, Satya P.; Marohnic, Christopher C.; Martásek, Pavel; Masters, Bettie Sue; Kim, Jung-Ja P. (MCW); (Charles U); (UTSMC)

2012-03-15

142

Characterization of the Type III sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase from Caldivirga maquilingensis and its membrane binding.  

PubMed

Sulfide:quinone oxidoreductases (SQRs) are ubiquitous enzymes which have multiple roles: sulfide detoxification, energy generation by providing electrons to respiratory or photosynthetic electron transfer chains, and sulfide homeostasis. A recent structure-based classification defines 6 groups of putative SQRs (I-VI), and representatives of all but group III have been confirmed to have sulfide oxidase activity. In the current work, we report the first characterization of a predicted group III SQR from Caldivirga maquilingensis, and confirm that this protein is a sulfide oxidase. The gene encoding the enzyme was cloned, and the protein was expressed in E. coli and purified. The enzyme oxidizes sulfide using decylubiquinone as an electron acceptor, and is inhibited by aurachin C and iodoacetamide. Analysis of the amino acid sequence indicates that the C. maquilingensis SQR has two amphiphilic helices at the C-terminus but lacks any transmembrane helices. This suggests that C. maquilingensis SQR interacts with the membrane surface and that the interactions are mediated by the C-terminal amphiphilic helices. Mutations within the last C-terminal amphiphilic helix resulted in a water-soluble form of the enzyme which, remarkably, retains full SQR activity using decylubiquinone as the electron acceptor. Mutations at one position, L379, also located in the C-terminal amphiphilic helix, inactivated the enzyme by preventing the interaction with decylubiquinone. It is concluded that the C-terminal amphiphilic helix is important for membrane binding and for forming part of the pathway providing access of the quinone substrate to the protein-bound flavin at the enzyme active site. PMID:23103448

Lencina, Andrea M; Ding, Ziqiao; Schurig-Briccio, Lici A; Gennis, Robert B

2012-10-25

143

P450 Oxidoreductase Deficiency: A Disorder of Steroidogenesis with Multiple Clinical Manifestations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cytochrome P450 enzymes catalyze the biosynthesis of steroid hormones and metabolize drugs. There are seven human type I P450 enzymes in mitochondria and 50 type II enzymes in endoplasmic reticulum. Type II enzymes, including both drug-metabolizing and some steroidogenic enzymes, require electron donation from a two-flavin protein, P450 oxidoreductase (POR). Although knockout of the POR gene causes embryonic lethality in mice, we discovered human POR deficiency as a disorder of steroidogenesis associated with the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome and found mild POR mutations in phenotypically normal adults with infertility. Assay results of mutant forms of POR using the traditional but nonphysiologic assay (reduction of cytochrome c) did not correlate with patient phenotypes; assays based on the 17,20 lyase activity of P450c17 (CYP17) correlated with clinical phenotypes. The POR sequence in 842 normal individuals revealed many polymorphisms; amino acid sequence variant A503V is encoded by ~28% of human alleles. POR A503V has about 60% of wild-type activity in assays with CYP17, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4, but nearly wild-type activity with P450c21, CYP1A2, and CYP2C19. Activity of a particular POR variant with one P450 enzyme will not predict its activity with another P450 enzyme: Each POR-P450 combination must be studied individually. Human POR transcription, initiated from an untranslated exon, is regulated by Smad3/4, thyroid receptors, and the transcription factor AP-2. A promoter polymorphism reduces transcription to 60% in liver cells and to 35% in adrenal cells. POR deficiency is a newly described disorder of steroidogenesis, and POR variants may account for some genetic variation in drug metabolism.

Walter L. Miller (San Francisco;University of California REV)

2012-10-23

144

Clinical, Genetic, and Enzymatic Characterization of P450 Oxidoreductase Deficiency in Four Patients  

PubMed Central

Context: P450 oxidoreductase (POR) deficiency causes disordered steroidogenesis; severe mutations cause genital ambiguity in both sexes plus the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome, whereas mild mutations can cause adult infertility. Objective: We describe four patients with POR deficiency and identify and characterize the activities of their mutations. A 46,XY male with micropenis and two 46,XX female infants with genital ambiguity presented with skeletal malformations, and a 46,XX adolescent presented with primary amenorrhea, elevated 17?-hydroxyprogesterone, and low sex steroids. Methods: The coding regions of the POR gene were sequenced, and the identified mutations were recreated in human POR cDNA expression vectors lacking 27 N-terminal residues. POR and human P450c17 were expressed in bacteria. POR activity was measured by four assays: reduction of cytochrome c, oxidation of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, and support of the 17?-hydroxylase and 17,20 lyase activities of P450c17. Results: All four patients were compound heterozygotes for POR mutations, including five novel mutations: L577R, N185K, delE217, and frameshift mutations 1363delC and 697–698insGAAC. N185K and delE217 lacked measurable activity in the assays based on P450c17 but retained partial activity in the assays based on cytochrome c. As assessed by Vmax/Km, L577R supported 46% of 17?-hydroxylase activity but only 27% of 17,20 lyase activity. Computational modeling of these novel mutants revealed the structural basis for their reduced or absent activities. Conclusion: These patients illustrate the broad clinical spectrum of POR deficiency, including amenorrhea and infertility as the sole manifestation. POR assays based on P450c17 correlate well with hormonal and clinical phenotypes.

Sahakitrungruang, Taninee; Huang, Ningwu; Tee, Meng Kian; Agrawal, Vishal; Russell, William E.; Crock, Patricia; Murphy, Nuala; Migeon, Claude J.; Miller, Walter L.

2009-01-01

145

Synechococcus sp. Strain PCC 7002 nifJ Mutant Lacking Pyruvate:Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase ? †  

PubMed Central

The nifJ gene codes for pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR), which reduces ferredoxin during fermentative catabolism of pyruvate to acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA). A nifJ knockout mutant was constructed that lacks one of two pathways for the oxidation of pyruvate in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002. Remarkably, the photoautotrophic growth rate of this mutant increased by 20% relative to the wild-type (WT) rate under conditions of light-dark cycling. This result is attributed to an increase in the quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) charge separation as measured by photosynthetic electron turnover efficiency determined using fast-repetition-rate fluorometry (Fv/Fm). During autofermentation, the excretion of acetate and lactate products by nifJ mutant cells decreased 2-fold and 1.2-fold, respectively. Although nifJ cells displayed higher in vitro hydrogenase activity than WT cells, H2 production in vivo was 1.3-fold lower than the WT level. Inhibition of acetate-CoA ligase and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex by glycerol eliminated acetate production, with a resulting loss of reductant and a 3-fold decrease in H2 production by nifJ cells compared to WT cells. Continuous electrochemical detection of dissolved H2 revealed two temporally resolved phases of H2 production during autofermentation, a minor first phase and a major second phase. The first phase was attributed to reduction of ferredoxin, because its level decreased 2-fold in nifJ cells. The second phase was attributed to glycolytic NADH production and decreased 20% in nifJ cells. Measurement of the intracellular NADH/NAD+ ratio revealed that the reductant generated by PFOR contributing to the first phase of H2 production was not in equilibrium with bulk NADH/NAD+ and that the second phase corresponded to the equilibrium NADH-mediated process.

McNeely, Kelsey; Xu, Yu; Ananyev, Gennady; Bennette, Nicholas; Bryant, Donald A.; Dismukes, G. Charles

2011-01-01

146

WW-Domain-Containing Oxidoreductase Is Associated with Low Plasma HDL-C Levels  

PubMed Central

Low serum HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease. We performed targeted genotyping of a 12.4 Mb linked region on 16q to test for association with low HDL-C by using a regional-tag SNP strategy. We identified one SNP, rs2548861, in the WW-domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) gene with region-wide significance for low HDL-C in dyslipidemic families of Mexican and European descent and in low-HDL-C cases and controls of European descent (p = 6.9 × 10?7). We extended our investigation to the population level by using two independent unascertained population-based Finnish cohorts, the cross-sectional METSIM cohort of 4,463 males and the prospective Young Finns cohort of 2,265 subjects. The combined analysis provided p = 4 × 10?4 to 2 × 10?5. Importantly, in the prospective cohort, we observed a significant longitudinal association of rs2548861 with HDL-C levels obtained at four different time points over 21 years (p = 0.003), and the T risk allele explained 1.5% of the variance in HDL-C levels. The rs2548861 resides in a highly conserved region in intron 8 of WWOX. Results from our in vitro reporter assay and electrophoretic mobility-shift assay demonstrate that this region functions as a cis-regulatory element whose associated rs2548861 SNP has a specific allelic effect and that the region forms an allele-specific DNA-nuclear-factor complex. In conclusion, analyses of 9,798 subjects show significant association between HDL-C and a WWOX variant with an allele-specific cis-regulatory function.

Lee, Jenny C.; Weissglas-Volkov, Daphna; Kyttala, Mira; Dastani, Zari; Cantor, Rita M.; Sobel, Eric M.; Plaisier, Christopher L.; Engert, James C.; van Greevenbroek, Marleen M.J.; Kane, John P.; Malloy, Mary J.; Pullinger, Clive R.; Huertas-Vazquez, Adriana; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Tusie-Luna, Teresa; de Bruin, Tjerk W.A.; Aouizerat, Bradley E.; van der Kallen, Carla C.J.; Croce, Carlo M.; Aqeilan, Rami I.; Marcil, Michel; Viikari, Jorma S.A.; Lehtimaki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli T.; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Genest, Jacques; Pajukanta, Paivi

2008-01-01

147

P450 oxidoreductase deficiency: a disorder of steroidogenesis with multiple clinical manifestations.  

PubMed

Cytochrome P450 enzymes catalyze the biosynthesis of steroid hormones and metabolize drugs. There are seven human type I P450 enzymes in mitochondria and 50 type II enzymes in endoplasmic reticulum. Type II enzymes, including both drug-metabolizing and some steroidogenic enzymes, require electron donation from a two-flavin protein, P450 oxidoreductase (POR). Although knockout of the POR gene causes embryonic lethality in mice, we discovered human POR deficiency as a disorder of steroidogenesis associated with the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome and found mild POR mutations in phenotypically normal adults with infertility. Assay results of mutant forms of POR using the traditional but nonphysiologic assay (reduction of cytochrome c) did not correlate with patient phenotypes; assays based on the 17,20 lyase activity of P450c17 (CYP17) correlated with clinical phenotypes. The POR sequence in 842 normal individuals revealed many polymorphisms; amino acid sequence variant A503V is encoded by ~28% of human alleles. POR A503V has about 60% of wild-type activity in assays with CYP17, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4, but nearly wild-type activity with P450c21, CYP1A2, and CYP2C19. Activity of a particular POR variant with one P450 enzyme will not predict its activity with another P450 enzyme: Each POR-P450 combination must be studied individually. Human POR transcription, initiated from an untranslated exon, is regulated by Smad3/4, thyroid receptors, and the transcription factor AP-2. A promoter polymorphism reduces transcription to 60% in liver cells and to 35% in adrenal cells. POR deficiency is a newly described disorder of steroidogenesis, and POR variants may account for some genetic variation in drug metabolism. PMID:23092891

Miller, Walter L

2012-10-23

148

Oxoester oxidoreductase activities in new isolates of Pichia anomala from apple, grape and cane juices.  

PubMed

Thirty-nine yeasts isolated from apple, grape and cane juices were screened for their oxidoreductase activity. The two strains of Pichia, one isolated from apple and one from cane juices, appear to be promising strains for oxidoreductase activity on alpha-oxoesters. They showed similar high yields in converting ethyl pyruvate to ethyl lactate as Saccharomyces spp. (86.6% and 85.3% versus 86.6%), and higher yields in the reduction of alpha-oxocarboxylic esters (ketopantolactone to pantolactone: 74% and 73.3%, respectively) compared to Saccharomyces spp. (yield 60%). PMID:15780669

Pérez-Mendoza, Francisco; Ruiz-Terán, Francisco; Abarca, Blanca Escudero; Navarro-Ocaña, Arturo; Aguilar-Uscanga, Guadalupe; Valerio-Alfaro, Gerardo

2005-04-01

149

Specificity of human aldo-keto reductases, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase, and carbonyl reductases to redox-cycle polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon diones and 4-hydroxyequilenin-o-quinone.  

PubMed

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are suspect human lung carcinogens and can be metabolically activated to remote quinones, for example, benzo[a]pyrene-1,6-dione (B[a]P-1,6-dione) and B[a]P-3,6-dione by the action of either P450 monooxygenase or peroxidases, and to non-K region o-quinones, for example B[a]P-7,8-dione, by the action of aldo keto reductases (AKRs). B[a]P-7,8-dione also structurally resembles 4-hydroxyequilenin o-quinone. These three classes of quinones can redox cycle, generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), and produce the mutagenic lesion 8-oxo-dGuo and may contribute to PAH- and estrogen-induced carcinogenesis. We compared the ability of a complete panel of human recombinant AKRs to catalyze the reduction of PAH o-quinones in the phenanthrene, chrysene, pyrene, and anthracene series. The specific activities for NADPH-dependent quinone reduction were often 100-1000 times greater than the ability of the same AKR isoform to oxidize the cognate PAH-trans-dihydrodiol. However, the AKR with the highest quinone reductase activity for a particular PAH o-quinone was not always identical to the AKR isoform with the highest dihydrodiol dehydrogenase activity for the respective PAH-trans-dihydrodiol. Discrete AKRs also catalyzed the reduction of B[a]P-1,6-dione, B[a]P-3,6-dione, and 4-hydroxyequilenin o-quinone. Concurrent measurements of oxygen consumption, superoxide anion, and hydrogen peroxide formation established that ROS were produced as a result of the redox cycling. When compared with human recombinant NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) and carbonyl reductases (CBR1 and CBR3), NQO1 was a superior catalyst of these reactions followed by AKRs and last CBR1 and CBR3. In A549 cells, two-electron reduction of PAH o-quinones causes intracellular ROS formation. ROS formation was unaffected by the addition of dicumarol, suggesting that NQO1 is not responsible for the two-electron reduction observed and does not offer protection against ROS formation from PAH o-quinones. PMID:21910479

Shultz, Carol A; Quinn, Amy M; Park, Jong-Heum; Harvey, Ronald G; Bolton, Judy L; Maser, Edmund; Penning, Trevor M

2011-09-29

150

Specificity of Human Aldo-Keto Reductases, NAD(P)H: Quinone Oxidoreductase and Carbonyl Reductases to Redox-Cycle Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Diones and 4-Hydroxyequilenin-o-Quinone  

PubMed Central

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are suspect human lung carcinogens and can be metabolically activated to remote quinones, e.g. benzo[a]pyrene-1,6-dione (B[a]P-1,6-dione) and B[a]P-3,6-dione by the action of either P450 monooxygenase or peroxidases and to non-K region o-quinones by aldo-keto reductases (AKRs). B[a]P-7,8-dione also structurally resembles 4-hydroxyequilenin o-quinone. These three classes of quinones can redox cycle, generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and produce the mutagenic lesion 8-oxo-dGuo, and may contribute to PAH- and estrogen-induced carcinogenesis. We compared the ability of a complete panel of human recombinant AKRs to catalyze reduction of PAH o-quinones in the phenanthrene, chrysene, pyrene and anthracene series. The specific activities for NADPH-dependent quinone reduction were often 100-1,000 times greater than the ability of the same AKR isoform to oxidize the cognate PAH-trans-dihydrodiol. However, the AKR with the highest quinone reductase activity for a particular PAH o-quinone was not always identical to the AKR isoform with the highest dihydrodiol dehydrogenase activity for the respective PAH-trans-dihydrodiol. Discrete AKRs also catalyzed the reduction of B[a]P-1,6-dione, B[a]P-3,6-dione and 4-hydroxyequilenin o-quinone. Concurrent measurements of oxygen consumption, superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide formation established that ROS were produced as a result of the redox-cycling. When compared with human recombinant NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) and carbonyl reductases (CBR1 and CBR3), NQO1 was a superior catalyst of these reactions followed by AKRs and lastly CBR1 and CBR3. In A549 cells two-electron reduction of PAH o-quinones causes intracellular ROS formation. ROS formation was unaffected by the addition of dicumarol suggesting that NQO1 is not responsible for the two-electron reduction observed and does not offer protection against ROS formation from PAH o-quinones.

Shultz, Carol A.; Quinn, Amy M.; Park, Jong-Heum; Harvey, Ronald G.; Bolton, Judy L; Maser, Edmund; Penning, Trevor M.

2011-01-01

151

NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) loss of function in Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines.  

PubMed

Two-electron reduction of quinones catalyzed by NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) protects cells against oxidative stress and toxic quinones. In fact, low level of NQO1 activity is often associated with increased risk of developing different types of tumours and with toxic effects linked to environmental quinones. In a previous report we analyzed the relationship between the oxidative stress induced by UV radiation and CoQ10 content in Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines compared to HL-60. The basal content of CoQ10 in Raji cells was slightly higher compared to HL-60. Moreover, after irradiation or ubiquinone supplementation in the medium, reduced CoQ10 levels were higher in Raji and Daudi cells compared to HL-60. In the present work, in order to inquire if NQO1 plays a role in the CoQ reducing capacity observed in the lymphoblastoid cell lines, we analyzed the transcription and translation products of this gene in Raji and Daudi cells, compared to cell lines possessing low and high NQO1 activity. The amount of transcripts of this gene in lymphoblastoid cells was comparable to that observed in HL-60 cells (low activity), as well as the level of two alternatively spliced mRNAs; one of which is described for the first time in this work. From the genotype analysis of polymorphisms C609T and C465T we observed that HL-60, Raji and Daudi cells were all heterozygous. Furthermore, NQO1 enzyme activity and protein synthesis in the cytosol of Raji and Daudi cells were undetectable. Therefore in Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines the NQO1 gene is not efficiently translated and this effect is not related to (C609T) polymorphism. Further studies will be necessary to find the enzyme responsible for CoQ10 reducing activity observed in lymphoma cell lines. On the other hand, this result suggests a careful re-evaluation of data concerning loss of NQO1 activity and polymorphisms in tumour cells. PMID:19096102

Bruge, Francesca; Virgili, Samantha; Cacciamani, Tiziana; Principi, Federica; Tiano, Luca; Littarru, Gian Paolo

2008-01-01

152

Effect of dsz D gene expression on benzothiophene degradation of Rhodococcus sp. strain T09  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to enhance benzothiophene (BT) degradation, a flavin–oxidoreductase gene, dsz D from dibenzothiophene (DBT) desulphurizing Rhodococcuserythropolis KA2-5-1 was expressed in BT desulphurizing Rhodococcus sp. strain T09 using a Rhodococcus–E. coli shuttle vector. The BT degradation rate was increased about threefold with BT grown recombinant cell, suggesting that the flavin–oxidoreductase is involved in BT degradation and the dsz D gene

Toru Matsui; Kazuaki Hirasawa; Ken-ichi Koizumi; Kenji Maruhashi; Ryuichiro Kurane

2001-01-01

153

Expression of multiple forms of ferredoxin NADP+ oxidoreductase in wheat leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

In higher plants there are two forms of ferredoxin NADP+ oxidoreductase (FNR), a photosynthetic pFNR primarily required for the photoreduction of NADP+, and a heterotrophic hFNR which generates reduced ferredoxin by utilizing electrons from NADPH pro- duced during carbohydrate oxidation. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of multiple forms of FNR in wheat leaves and the

J. O. Gummadova; G. J. Fletcher; A. Moolna; G. T. Hanke; T. Hase; C. G. Bowsher

2007-01-01

154

Sugar oxidoreductases and veratryl alcohol oxidase as related to lignin degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Properties of cellobiose:quinone oxidoreductase (CBQ), cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH), glyoxal oxidase (GLOX), glucose oxidases and veratryl alcohol oxidase (VAO) are reviewed. There is strong evidence that CDH reduces quinones, phenoxy and cation radicals. Glucose oxidases (glucose 1-oxidase and pyranose 2-oxidase) and VAO have been less investigated but evidence for reduction of the above compounds is accumulating. Pyranose oxidase, glyoxal oxidase and

Paul Ander; Liberato Marzullo

1997-01-01

155

Regulation of P450 oxidoreductase by gonadotropins in rat ovary and its effect on estrogen production  

PubMed Central

Background P450 oxidoreductase (POR) catalyzes electron transfer to microsomal P450 enzymes. Its deficiency causes Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS), and about half the patients with ABS have ambiguous genitalia and/or impaired steroidogenesis. POR mRNA expression is up-regulated when mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiate into steroidogenic cells, suggesting that the regulation of POR gene expression is important for steroidogenesis. In this context we examined the regulation of POR expression in ovarian granulosa cells by gonadotropins, and its possible role in steroidogenesis. Methods Changes in gene expression in MSCs during differentiation into steroidogenic cells were examined by DNA microarray analysis. Changes in mRNA and protein expression of POR in the rat ovary or in granulosa cells induced by gonadotropin treatment were examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Effects of transient expression of wild-type or mutant (R457H or V492E) POR proteins on the production of estrone in COS-7 cells were examined in vitro. Effects of POR knockdown were also examined in estrogen producing cell-line, KGN cells. Results POR mRNA was induced in MSCs following transduction with the SF-1 retrovirus, and was further increased by cAMP treatment. Expression of POR mRNA, as well as Cyp19 mRNA, in the rat ovary were induced by equine chorionic gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin. POR mRNA and protein were also induced by follicle stimulating hormone in primary cultured rat granulosa cells, and the induction pattern was similar to that for aromatase. Transient expression of POR in COS-7 cells, which expressed a constant amount of aromatase protein, greatly increased the rate of conversion of androstenedione to estrone, in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of mutant POR proteins (R457H or V492E), such as those found in ABS patients, had much less effect on aromatase activity than expression of wild-type POR proteins. Knockdown of endogenous POR protein in KGN human granulosa cells led to reduced estrone production, indicating that endogenous POR affected aromatase activity. Conclusion We demonstrated that the expression of POR, together with that of aromatase, was regulated by gonadotropins, and that its induction could up-regulate aromatase activity in the ovary, resulting in a coordinated increase in estrogen production.

Inaoka, Yoshihiko; Yazawa, Takashi; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Kokame, Koichi; Kangawa, Kenji; Uesaka, Miki; Umezawa, Akihiro; Miyamoto, Kaoru

2008-01-01

156

Halothane, isoflurane and sevoflurane inhibit NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) of cardiac mitochondria  

PubMed Central

We have investigated the effects of volatile anaesthetics on electron transport chain activity in the mammalian heart. Halothane, isoflurane and sevoflurane reversibly increased NADH fluorescence (autofluorescence) in intact ventricular myocytes of guinea-pig, suggesting that NADH oxidation was impaired. Using pig heart submitochondrial particles we found that the anaesthetics dose-dependently inhibited NADH oxidation in the order: halothane > isoflurane = sevoflurane. Succinate oxidation was unaffected by either isoflurane or sevoflurane, indicating that these agents selectively inhibit complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase). In addition to inhibiting NADH oxidation, halothane also inhibited succinate oxidation (and succinate dehydrogenase), albeit to a lesser extent. To test the hypothesis that complex I is a target of volatile anaesthetics, we examined the effects of these agents on NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (EC 1.6.99.3) activity using the ubiquinone analogue DBQ (decylubiquinone) as substrate. Halothane, isoflurane and sevoflurane dose-dependently inhibited NADH:DBQ oxidoreductase activity. Unlike the classical inhibitor rotenone, none of the anaesthetics completely inhibited enzyme activity at high concentration, suggesting that these agents bind weakly to the ‘hydrophobic inhibitory site’ of complex I. In conclusion, halothane, isoflurane and sevoflurane inhibit complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) of the electron transport chain. At concentrations of ?2 MAC (minimal alveolar concentration), the activity of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase was reduced by about 20 % in the presence of halothane or isoflurane, and by about 10 % in the presence of sevoflurane. These inhibitory effects are unlikely to compromise cardiac performance at usual clinical concentrations, but may contribute to the mechanism by which volatile anaesthetics induce pharmacological preconditioning.

Hanley, Peter J; Ray, John; Brandt, Ulrich; Daut, Jurgen

2002-01-01

157

ASSOCIATION OF HUMAN NAD(P)H:QUINONE OXIDOREDUCTASE 1 (NQO1) POLYMORPHISM WITH DEVELOPMENT OF ACUTE LUNG INJURY  

PubMed Central

Rationale Acute lung injury (ALI) is a syndrome with significant morbidity and mortality, but its genetic susceptibility is not clearly understood. In the present study, we characterized functional promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the phase II antioxidant gene NQO1 (NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase1) to evaluate its role in susceptibility to ALI. Methods Three previously uncharacterized SNPs in the NQO1 promoter were selected for investigation. Luciferase assays were performed using constructs of each promoter polymorphism to evaluate function. Functional SNPs were genotyped in prospective cohort of major trauma patients (N = 264) and assessed for association with development of ALI. Results The A/C SNP at -1221decreased in vitro transcription of NQO1 at baseline and after exposure to hyperoxia and other oxidant stressors. Patients heterozygous for the -1221 C allele were at significantly lesser risk of ALI after major trauma compared with patients with wild type alleles, even after adjustment for APACHE III score, and mechanism of trauma [OR, 0.46 (95% CI, 0.23, 0.90); p = 0.024]. Conclusions This study demonstrated that the AC genotype at position -1221 in the NQO1 gene caused decreased transcription and was associated with a lower incidence of ALI following major trauma. These novel findings may have important implications in diseases with oxidant stress etiologies.

Reddy, Anita J.; Christie, Jason D.; Aplenc, Richard; Fuchs, Barry; Lanken, Paul N.; Kleeberger, Steven R.

2009-01-01

158

A single-subunit NADH-quinone oxidoreductase renders resistance to mammalian nerve cells against complex I inhibition.  

PubMed

Numerous studies suggest that dysfunction of mitochondrial proton-translocating NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is associated with neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. Development of methods to correct complex I defects seems important. We have previously shown that the single-subunit NADH dehydrogenase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Ndi1P) can work as a replacement for complex I in mammalian cells. Using a recombinant adeno-associated virus vector carrying the NDI1 gene, we now demonstrated that the Ndi1 enzyme was successfully expressed in the dopaminergic cell lines rat PC12 and mouse MN9D. The cells expressing the Ndi1 protein were resistant to known inhibitors of complex I, such as rotenone and pyridaben. In addition, the NDI1-transduced cells were still capable of morphological maturation as examined by induction of neurite outgrowth. Also, it was possible to infect the cells after the maturation. The expressed Ndi1 protein was located both in cell bodies and in neurites and was functionally active. It is conceivable that the NDI1 gene will be a promising tool in the treatment of neurodegenerative conditions caused by complex I inhibition. PMID:12231169

Seo, Byoung Boo; Nakamaru-Ogiso, Eiko; Flotte, Terence R; Yagi, Takao; Matsuno-Yagi, Akemi

2002-09-01

159

Two hydrophobic subunits are essential for the heme b ligation and functional assembly of complex II (succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase) from Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Complex II (succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase) from Escherichia coli is composed of four nonidentical subunits encoded by the sdhCDAB operon. Gene products of sdhC and sdhD are small hydrophobic subunits that anchor the hydrophilic catalytic subunits (flavoprotein and iron-sulfur protein) to the cytoplasmic membrane and are believed to be the components of cytochrome b556 in E. coli complex II. In the present study, to elucidate the role of two hydrophobic subunits in the heme b ligation and functional assembly of complex II, plasmids carrying portions of the sdh gene were constructed and introduced into E. coli MK3, which lacks succinate dehydrogenase and fumarate reductase activities. The expression of polypeptides with molecular masses of about 19 and 17 kDa was observed when sdhC and sdhD were introduced into MK3, respectively, indicating that sdhC encodes the large subunit (cybL) and sdhD the small subunit (cybS) of cytochrome b556. An increase in cytochrome b content was found in the membrane when sdhD was introduced, while the cytochrome b content did not change when sdhC was introduced. However, the cytochrome b expressed by the plasmid carrying sdhD differed from cytochrome b556 in its CO reactivity and red shift of the alpha absorption peak to 557.5 nm at 77 K. Neither hydrophobic subunit was able to bind the catalytic portion to the membrane, and only succinate dehydrogenase activity, not succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase activity, was found in the cytoplasmic fractions of the cells. In contrast, significantly higher amounts of cytochrome b556 were expressed in the membrane when sdhC and sdhD genes were both present, and the catalytic portion was found to be localized in the membrane with succinate-ubiquitnone oxidoreductase and succinate oxidase activities. These results strongly suggest that both hydrophobic subunits are required for heme insertion into cytochrome b556 and are essential for the functional assembly of E. coli complex II in the membrane. Accumulation of the catalytic portion in the cytoplasm was found when sdhCDAB was introduced into a heme synthesis mutant, suggesting the importance of heme in the assembly of E. coli complex II. PMID:8550613

Nakamura, K; Yamaki, M; Sarada, M; Nakayama, S; Vibat, C R; Gennis, R B; Nakayashiki, T; Inokuchi, H; Kojima, S; Kita, K

1996-01-01

160

Characteristics of endogenous flavin fluorescence of Photobacterium leiognathi luciferase and Vibrio fisheri NAD(P)H:FMN-oxidoreductase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioluminescent bacterial enzyme system NAD(P)H:FMN-oxidoreductase-luciferase has been used as a test system for ecological monitoring. One of the modes to quench bioluminescence is the interaction of xenobiotics with the enzymes, which inhibit their activity. The use of endogenous flavin fluorescence for investigation of the interactions of non-fluorescent compounds with the bacterial luciferase from Photobacterium leiognathi and NAD(P)H:FMN-oxidoreductase from Vibrio

E. V. Vetrova; N. S. Kudryasheva; A. J. W. G. Visser; Hoek van A

2005-01-01

161

NAD(P)H Cytochrome b5 Oxidoreductase Deficiency in Leishmania major Results in Impaired Linoleate Synthesis Followed by Increased Oxidative Stress and Cell Death*  

PubMed Central

NAD(P)H cytochrome b5 oxidoreductase (Ncb5or), comprising cytochrome b5 and cytochrome b5 reductase domains, is widely distributed in eukaryotic organisms. Although Ncb5or plays a crucial role in lipid metabolism of mice, so far no Ncb5or gene has been reported in the unicellular parasitic protozoa Leishmania species. We have cloned, expressed, and characterized Ncb5or gene from Leishmania major. Steady state catalysis and spectral studies show that NADH can quickly reduce the ferric state of the enzyme to the ferrous state and is able to donate an electron(s) to external acceptors. To elucidate its exact physiological role in Leishmania, we attempted to create NAD(P)H cytochrome b5 oxidoreductase from L. major (LmNcb5or) knock-out mutants by targeted gene replacement technique. A free fatty acid profile in knock-out (KO) cells reveals marked deficiency in linoleate and linolenate when compared with wild type (WT) or overexpressing cells. KO culture has a higher percentage of dead cells compared with both WT and overexpressing cells. Increased O2 uptake, uncoupling and ATP synthesis, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential are evident in KO cells. Flow cytometric analysis reveals the presence of a higher concentration of intracellular H2O2, indicative of increased oxidative stress in parasites lacking LmNcb5or. Cell death is significantly reduced when the KO cells are pretreated with BSA bound linoleate. Real time PCR studies demonstrate a higher ?12 desaturase, superoxide dismutase, and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) mRNA with a concomitant fall in ?9 desaturase mRNA expression in LmNcb5or null cell line. Together these findings suggest that decreased linoleate synthesis, and increased oxidative stress and apoptosis are the major consequences of LmNcb5or deficiency in Leishmania.

Mukherjee, Supratim; Sen Santara, Sumit; Das, Shantanabha; Bose, Moumita; Roy, Jayasree; Adak, Subrata

2012-01-01

162

ArxA, a new clade of arsenite oxidase within the DMSO reductase family of molybdenum oxidoreductases.  

PubMed

Arsenotrophy, growth coupled to autotrophic arsenite oxidation or arsenate respiratory reduction, occurs only in the prokaryotic domain of life. The enzymes responsible for arsenotrophy belong to distinct clades within the DMSO reductase family of molybdenum-containing oxidoreductases: specifically arsenate respiratory reductase, ArrA, and arsenite oxidase, AioA (formerly referred to as AroA and AoxB). A new arsenite oxidase clade, ArxA, represented by the haloalkaliphilic bacterium Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii strain MLHE-1 was also identified in the photosynthetic purple sulfur bacterium Ectothiorhodospira sp. strain PHS-1. A draft genome sequence of PHS-1 was completed and an arx operon similar to MLHE-1 was identified. Gene expression studies showed that arxA was strongly induced with arsenite. Microbial ecology investigation led to the identification of additional arxA-like sequences in Mono Lake and Hot Creek sediments, both arsenic-rich environments in California. Phylogenetic analyses placed these sequences as distinct members of the ArxA clade of arsenite oxidases. ArxA-like sequences were also identified in metagenome sequences of several alkaline microbial mat environments of Yellowstone National Park hot springs. These results suggest that ArxA-type arsenite oxidases appear to be widely distributed in the environment presenting an opportunity for further investigations of the contribution of Arx-dependent arsenotrophy to the arsenic biogeochemical cycle. PMID:22404962

Zargar, Kamrun; Conrad, Alison; Bernick, David L; Lowe, Todd M; Stolc, Viktor; Hoeft, Shelley; Oremland, Ronald S; Stolz, John; Saltikov, Chad W

2012-03-09

163

Disorder of sex development as a diagnostic clue in the first Spanish known newborn with P450 oxidoreductase deficiency.  

PubMed

We report the first known case of p450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD) in a Spanish boy who presented ambiguous genitalia at birth as a unique feature. He had palpable gonads in the inguinal canal and a normal 46,XY karyotype. Blood tests showed increased lanosterol and androgen precursors (17-OH-pregnenolone and 17-OH-progesterone) and low adrenal androgens (dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulfate). Blood pressure and serum electrolytes were normal. As he had low-testosterone response to human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation but responded to exogenous testosterone with phallic growth, male sex was assigned. Testosterone/dihydrotestosterone ratio and inhibin B were normal. Adrenal insufficiency was detected by corticotropin test. Hydrocortisone replacement treatment was administered. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia was ruled out and molecular analysis of POR gene showed the missense mutation p.Gly539Arg in compound heterozygosity located at splice acceptor site of intron 2 and the coding variant p.Gly80Arg. Surgery for cryptorchidism and hypospadias was performed. PMID:23878291

Sánchez-Garvín, Dunia; Albaladejo, Sonia; Ezquieta, Begoña; Corripio, Raquel

2013-07-22

164

ArxA, a new clade of arsenite oxidase within the DMSO reductase family of molybdenum oxidoreductases  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Arsenotrophy, growth coupled to autotrophic arsenite oxidation or arsenate respiratory reduction, occurs only in the prokaryotic domain of life. The enzymes responsible for arsenotrophy belong to distinct clades within the DMSO reductase family of molybdenum-containing oxidoreductases: specifically arsenate respiratory reductase, ArrA, and arsenite oxidase, AioA (formerly referred to as AroA and AoxB). A new arsenite oxidase clade, ArxA, represented by the haloalkaliphilic bacterium Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii strain MLHE-1 was also identified in the photosynthetic purple sulfur bacterium Ectothiorhodospira sp. strain PHS-1. A draft genome sequence of PHS-1 was completed and an arx operon similar to MLHE-1 was identified. Gene expression studies showed that arxA was strongly induced with arsenite. Microbial ecology investigation led to the identification of additional arxA-like sequences in Mono Lake and Hot Creek sediments, both arsenic-rich environments in California. Phylogenetic analyses placed these sequences as distinct members of the ArxA clade of arsenite oxidases. ArxA-like sequences were also identified in metagenome sequences of several alkaline microbial mat environments of Yellowstone National Park hot springs. These results suggest that ArxA-type arsenite oxidases appear to be widely distributed in the environment presenting an opportunity for further investigations of the contribution of Arx-dependent arsenotrophy to the arsenic biogeochemical cycle.

Zargar, Kamrun; Conrad, Alison; Bernick, David L.; Lowe, Todd M.; Stolc, Viktor; Hoeft, Shelley; Oremland, Ronald S.; Stolz, John; Saltikov, Chad W.

2012-01-01

165

Fenazaquin Acaricide Specific Binding Sites in NADH: Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase and Apparently the ATP Synthase Stalk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fenazaquin [4-(4-tert-butylphenethoxy)quinazoline] is one of several acaricides and insecticides, including rotenone and pyridaben, that are reported to act by inhibiting NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I) (EC 1.6.99.3) in the range 1–10 nM. [3H]Fenazaquin is used here at 0.8 nMas a radioligand with electron transport particles (ETP) of bovine heart mitochondria to develop a new and rapid filtration assay with 42% specific

Edgardo Wood; Bachir Latli; John E. Casida

1996-01-01

166

AhpF and other NADH:peroxiredoxin oxidoreductases, homologues of low Mr thioredoxin reductase  

Microsoft Academic Search

A group of bacterial flavoproteins related to thioredoxin reductase contain an additional < 200-amino-acid domain including a redox-active disulfide center at their N-termini. These flavoproteins, designated NADH:peroxiredoxin oxidoreductases, catalyze the pyridine-nucleotide-dependent reduction of cysteine-based peroxidases (e.g. Salmonella typhimurium AhpC, a member of the peroxiredoxin family) which in turn reduce H2O2 or organic hydroperoxides. These enzymes catalyze rapid electron transfer (kcat

Leslie B. Poole; C. Michael Reynolds; Zachary A. Wood; P. Andrew Karplus; Holly R. Ellis; Marco Li Calzi

2000-01-01

167

NITRITE CONFERS PROTECTION AGAINST MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION: ROLE OF XANTHINE OXIDOREDUCTASE, NADPH OXIDASE AND KATP CHANNELS  

PubMed Central

Reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide during ischemia protects the heart against injury from ischemia/reperfusion. However the optimal dose of nitrite and the mechanisms underlying nitrite-induced cardioprotection are not known. We determined the ability of nitrite and nitrate to confer protection against myocardial infarction in two rat models of ischemia/reperfusion injury and the role of xanthine oxidoreductase, NADPH oxidase, nitric oxide synthase and KATP channels in mediating nitrite-induced cardioprotection. In vivo and in vitro rat models of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury were used to cause infarction. Hearts (n=6/group) were treated with nitrite or nitrate for 15 min prior to 30 min regional ischemia and 180 min reperfusion. Xanthine oxidoreductase activity was measured after 15 min aerobic perfusion and 30 min ischemia. Nitrite reduced myocardial necrosis and decline in ventricular function following ischemia/reperfusion in the intact and isolated rat heart in a dose or concentration-dependent manner with an optimal dose of 4 mg/kg in vivo and concentration of 10 ?M in vitro. Nitrate had no effect on protection. Reduction in infarction by nitrite was abolished by inhibition of flavoprotein reductases and the molybdenum site of xanthine oxidoreductase, and was associated with an increase in activity of xanthine dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidase during ischemia. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase had no effect on nitrite-induced cardioprotection. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase and KATP channels abolished nitrite-induced cardioprotection. Nitrite but not nitrate protects against infarction by a mechanism involving xanthine oxidoreductase, NADPH oxidase and KATP channels.

Baker, John E.; Su, Jidong; Fu, Xiangping; Hsu, Anna; Gross, Garrett J.; Tweddell, James S.; Hogg, Neil

2009-01-01

168

RELEVANCE OF RENAL SPECIFIC OXIDO-REDUCTASE IN TUBULOGENESIS DURING MAMMALIAN NEPHRON DEVELOPMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Renal-specific oxido-reductase (RSOR), an enzyme relevant to diabetic nephropathy, is exclusively expressed in renal tubules. Studies were initiated to determine whether, like other tubular specific proteins, it selectively modulates tubulogenesis. Northern blot analyses revealed a ?1.5 kb transcript, and RSOR expression was detectable in mice embryonic kidneys at day-13, gradually increased,by day-17 and extended,into neo- and post-natal periods. RSOR

Yashpal S. Kanwar; Qiwei Yang; Yufeng Tian; Sun Lin; Jun Wada; Sumant Chugh; Satish K. Srivastava

169

Identification and Characterization of Oxalate Oxidoreductase, a Novel Thiamine Pyrophosphate-dependent 2-Oxoacid Oxidoreductase That Enables Anaerobic Growth on Oxalate*  

PubMed Central

Moorella thermoacetica is an anaerobic acetogen, a class of bacteria that is found in the soil, the animal gastrointestinal tract, and the rumen. This organism engages the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway of anaerobic CO2 fixation for heterotrophic or autotrophic growth. This paper describes a novel enzyme, oxalate oxidoreductase (OOR), that enables M. thermoacetica to grow on oxalate, which is produced in soil and is a common component of kidney stones. Exposure to oxalate leads to the induction of three proteins that are subunits of OOR, which oxidizes oxalate coupled to the production of two electrons and CO2 or bicarbonate. Like other members of the 2-oxoacid:ferredoxin oxidoreductase family, OOR contains thiamine pyrophosphate and three [Fe4S4] clusters. However, unlike previously characterized members of this family, OOR does not use coenzyme A as a substrate. Oxalate is oxidized with a kcat of 0.09 s?1 and a Km of 58 ?m at pH 8. OOR also oxidizes a few other 2-oxoacids (which do not induce OOR) also without any requirement for CoA. The enzyme transfers its reducing equivalents to a broad range of electron acceptors, including ferredoxin and the nickel-dependent carbon monoxide dehydrogenase. In conjunction with the well characterized Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, OOR should be sufficient for oxalate metabolism by M. thermoacetica, and it constitutes a novel pathway for oxalate metabolism.

Pierce, Elizabeth; Becker, Donald F.; Ragsdale, Stephen W.

2010-01-01

170

Reaction mechanism of azoreductases suggests convergent evolution with quinone oxidoreductases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Azoreductases are involved in the bioremediation by bacteria of azo dyes found in waste water. In the gut flora, they activate\\u000a azo pro-drugs, which are used for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, releasing the active component 5-aminosalycilic\\u000a acid. The bacterium P. aeruginosa has three azoreductase genes, paAzoR1, paAzoR2 and paAzoR3, which as recombinant enzymes have been shown to have different

Ali Ryan; Chan-Ju Wang; Nicola Laurieri; Isaac Westwood; Edith Sim

2010-01-01

171

Cell Biological Consequences of Mitochondrial NADH : Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase Deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human complex I (NADH:ubiquino ne oxidoreductas e; EC 1.6.5.3) is the first and largest multi-protein assembly of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system; the final biochemical cascade of events leading to the production of ATP. The complex consists of 46 subunits, 7 encoded by the mitochondrial DNA and the remainder by the nuclear genome. In recent years, numerous gene mutations

Jan A. M. Smeitink; Lambert W. P. J. van den Heuvel; Werner J. H. Koopman; Leo G. J. Nijtmans; Cristina Ugalde; Peter H. G. M. Willems

2004-01-01

172

Novel NADP-linked alcohol--aldehyde/ketone oxidoreductase in thermophilic ethanologenic bacteria.  

PubMed

An NADP-specific alcohol--aldehyde/ketone oxidoreductase was detected in cell extracts of Thermoanaerobium brockii and Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum, but not in Thermobacteroides acetoethylicus or Clostridium thermocellum. The enzyme was purified from Ta. brockii by differential procedures that included heat treatment and an affinity-chromatography step on Blue Dextran--Sepharose. The 44-fold-purified enzyme displayed one band (mol.wt. approx. 40000) after sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The enzyme had a broad substrate specificity that included linear and branched primary alcohols, linear and cyclic secondary alcohols, linear and cyclic ketones, and acetaldehyde. The NADP-specific alcohol--aldehyde/ketone oxidoreductase was considerably more active towards secondary alcohols than towards other substrates. The enzyme had remarkable stability to heating at 86 degrees C for 70 min, but was rapidly denatured on boiling. Secondary-alcohol dehydrogenase activity displayed a noticeable inflexion point at 50 degrees C in Arrhenius plots and a high Q10 value (greater than 2.0). The enzyme was inactivated by the thiol-blocking reagent p-chloromercuribenzoate, but was not significantly inhibited by common metal-ion-binding agents. The NADP-linked alcohol--aldehyde/ketone oxidoreductase of Ta. brockii appears to have properties distinct from those of previously described primary- and secondary-alcohol dehydrogenases. PMID:7030321

Lamed, R J; Zeikus, J G

1981-04-01

173

Galactonolactone oxidoreductase from Trypanosoma cruzi employs a FAD cofactor for the synthesis of vitamin C.  

PubMed

Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas' disease, is unable to salvage vitamin C (l-ascorbate) from its environment and relies on de novo synthesis for its survival. Because humans lack the capacity to synthesize ascorbate, the trypanosomal enzymes involved in ascorbate biosynthesis are interesting targets for drug therapy. The terminal step in ascorbate biosynthesis is catalyzed by flavin-dependent aldonolactone oxidoreductases belonging to the vanillyl-alcohol oxidase (VAO) protein family. Here we studied the properties of recombinant T. cruzi galactonolactone oxidoreductase (TcGAL), refolded from inclusion bodies using a reverse micelles system. The refolded enzyme shows native-like secondary structure and is active with both l-galactono-1,4-lactone and d-arabinono-1,4-lactone. At odd with an earlier claim, TcGAL employs a non-covalently bound FAD as redox-active cofactor. Moreover, it is shown for the first time that TcGAL can use molecular oxygen as electron acceptor. This is in line with the absence of a recently identified gatekeeper residue that prevents aldonolactone oxidoreductases from plants to act as oxidases. PMID:21397737

Kudryashova, Elena V; Leferink, Nicole G H; Slot, Ilse G M; van Berkel, Willem J H

2011-03-21

174

NAD(P)H:Flavin Mononucleotide Oxidoreductase Inactivation during 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene Reduction  

PubMed Central

Bacteria readily transform 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), a contaminant frequently found at military bases and munitions production facilities, by reduction of the nitro group substituents. In this work, the kinetics of nitroreduction were investigated by using a model nitroreductase, NAD(P)H:flavin mononucleotide (FMN) oxidoreductase. Under mediation by NAD(P)H:FMN oxidoreductase, TNT rapidly reacted with NADH to form 2-hydroxylamino-4,6-dinitrotoluene and 4-hydroxylamino-2,6-dinitrotoluene, whereas 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene and 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene were not produced. Progressive loss of activity was observed during TNT reduction, indicating inactivation of the enzyme during transformation. It is likely that a nitrosodinitrotoluene intermediate reacted with the NAD(P)H:FMN oxidoreductase, leading to enzyme inactivation. A half-maximum constant with respect to NADH, KN, of 394 ?M was measured, indicating possible NADH limitation under typical cellular conditions. A mathematical model that describes the inactivation process and NADH limitation provided a good fit to TNT reduction profiles. This work represents the first step in developing a comprehensive enzyme level understanding of nitroarene biotransformation.

Riefler, R. Guy; Smets, Barth F.

2002-01-01

175

Creation and screening of a multi-family bacterial oxidoreductase library to discover novel nitroreductases that efficiently activate the bioreductive prodrugs CB1954 and PR-104A.  

PubMed

Two potentially complementary approaches to improve the anti-cancer strategy gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) are discovery of more efficient prodrug-activating enzymes, and development of more effective prodrugs. Here we demonstrate the utility of a flexible screening system based on the Escherichia coli SOS response to evaluate novel nitroreductase enzymes and prodrugs in concert. To achieve this, a library of 47 candidate genes representing 11 different oxidoreductase families was created and screened to identify the most efficient activators of two different nitroaromatic prodrugs, CB1954 and PR-104A. The most catalytically efficient nitroreductases were found in the NfsA and NfsB enzyme families, with NfsA homologues generally more active than NfsB. Some members of the AzoR, NemA and MdaB families also exhibited low-level activity with one or both prodrugs. The results of SOS screening in our optimised E. coli reporter strain SOS-R2 were generally predictive of the ability of nitroreductase candidates to sensitise E. coli to CB1954, and of the kcat/Km for each prodrug substrate at a purified protein level. However, we also found that not all nitroreductases express stably in human (HCT-116 colon carcinoma) cells, and that activity at a purified protein level did not necessarily predict activity in stably transfected HCT-116. These results highlight a need for all enzyme-prodrug partners for GDEPT to be assessed in the specific context of the vector and cell line that they are intended to target. Nonetheless, our oxidoreductase library and optimised screens provide valuable tools to identify preferred nitroreductase-prodrug combinations to advance to preclinical evaluation. PMID:23399641

Prosser, Gareth A; Copp, Janine N; Mowday, Alexandra M; Guise, Christopher P; Syddall, Sophie P; Williams, Elsie M; Horvat, Claire N; Swe, Pearl M; Ashoorzadeh, Amir; Denny, William A; Smaill, Jeff B; Patterson, Adam V; Ackerley, David F

2013-02-08

176

Comparative Genomics of Thiol Oxidoreductases Reveals Widespread and Essential Functions of Thiol-based Redox Control of Cellular Processes  

PubMed Central

Abstract Aims: Redox regulation of cellular processes is an important mechanism that operates in organisms from bacteria to mammals. Much of the redox control is provided by thiol oxidoreductases: proteins that employ cysteine residues for redox catalysis. We wanted to identify thiol oxidoreductases on a genome-wide scale and use this information to obtain insights into the general principles of thiol-based redox control. Results: Thiol oxidoreductases were identified by three independent methods that took advantage of the occurrence of selenocysteine homologs of these proteins and functional linkages among thiol oxidoreductases revealed by comparative genomics. Based on these searches, we describe thioredoxomes, which are sets of thiol oxidoreductases in organisms. Their analyses revealed that these proteins are present in all living organisms, generally account for 0.5%–1% of the proteome and that their use correlates with proteome size, distinguishing these proteins from those involved in core metabolic functions. We further describe thioredoxomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and humans, including proteins which have not been characterized previously. Thiol oxidoreductases occur in various cellular compartments and are enriched in the endoplasmic reticulum and cytosol. Innovation: We developed bioinformatics methods and used them to characterize thioredoxomes on a genome-wide scale, which in turn revealed properties of thioredoxomes. Conclusion: These data provide information about organization and properties of thiol-based redox control, whose use is increased with the increase in complexity of organisms. Our data also show an essential combined function of a set of thiol oxidoreductases, and of thiol-based redox regulation in general, in all living organisms. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 16, 193–201.

2012-01-01

177

Diversity and Function of Mutations in P450 Oxidoreductase in Patients with Antley-Bixler Syndrome and Disordered Steroidogenesis  

PubMed Central

P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the obligatory flavoprotein intermediate that transfers electrons from reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes. Although mouse Por gene ablation causes embryonic lethality, POR missense mutations cause disordered steroidogenesis, ambiguous genitalia, and Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS), which has also been attributed to fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) mutations. We sequenced the POR gene and FGFR2 exons 8 and 10 in 32 individuals with ABS and/or hormonal findings that suggested POR deficiency. POR and FGFR2 mutations segregated completely. Fifteen patients carried POR mutations on both alleles, 4 carried mutations on only one allele, 10 carried FGFR2 or FGFR3 mutations, and 3 patients carried no mutations. The 34 affected POR alleles included 10 with A287P (all from whites) and 7 with R457H (four Japanese, one African, two whites); 17 of the 34 alleles carried 16 “private” mutations, including 9 missense and 7 frameshift mutations. These 11 missense mutations, plus 10 others found in databases or reported elsewhere, were recreated by site-directed mutagenesis and were assessed by four assays: reduction of cytochrome c, oxidation of NADPH, support of 17?-hydroxylase activity, and support of 17,20 lyase using human P450c17. Assays that were based on cytochrome c, which is not a physiologic substrate for POR, correlated poorly with clinical phenotype, but assays that were based on POR’s support of catalysis by P450c17—the enzyme most closely associated with the hormonal phenotype—provided an excellent genotype/phenotype correlation. Our large survey of patients with ABS shows that individuals with an ABS-like phenotype and normal steroidogenesis have FGFR mutations, whereas those with ambiguous genitalia and disordered steroidogenesis should be recognized as having a distinct new disease: POR deficiency.

Huang, Ningwu; Pandey, Amit V.; Agrawal, Vishal; Reardon, William; Lapunzina, Pablo D.; Mowat, David; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; Vliet, Guy Van; Sack, Joseph; Fluck, Christa E.; Miller, Walter L.

2005-01-01

178

A conserved histidine-aspartate pair is required for exovinyl reduction of biliverdin by a cyanobacterial phycocyanobilin:ferredoxin oxidoreductase.  

PubMed

Phycocyanobilin:ferredoxin oxidoreductase is a member of the ferredoxin-dependent bilin reductase family and catalyzes two vinyl reductions of biliverdin IXalpha to produce phycocyanobilin, the pigment precursor of both phytochrome and phycobiliprotein chromophores in cyanobacteria. Atypically for ferredoxin-dependent enzymes, phycocyanobilin:ferredoxin oxidoreductase mediates direct electron transfers from reduced ferredoxin to its tetrapyrrole substrate without metal ion or organic cofactors. We previously showed that bound bilin radical intermediates could be detected by low temperature electron paramagnetic resonance and absorption spectroscopies (Tu, S., Gunn, A., Toney, M. D., Britt, R. D., and Lagarias, J. C. (2004) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 8682-8693). On the basis of these studies, a mechanism involving sequential electron-coupled proton transfers to protonated bilin substrates buried within the phycocyanobilin:ferredoxin oxidoreductase protein scaffold was proposed. The present investigation was undertaken to identify catalytic residues in phycocyanobilin:ferredoxin oxidoreductase from the cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC7120 through site-specific chemical modification and mutagenesis of candidate proton-donating residues. These studies identified conserved histidine and aspartate residues essential for the catalytic activity of phycocyanobilin:ferredoxin oxidoreductase. Spectroscopic evidence for the formation of stable enzyme-bound biliverdin radicals for the H85Q and D102N mutants support their role as a "coupled" proton-donating pair during the reduction of the biliverdin exovinyl group. PMID:16327013

Tu, Shih-Long; Sughrue, Wesley; Britt, R David; Lagarias, J Clark

2005-12-02

179

Soluble expression and purification of the oxidoreductase component of toluene 4-monooxygenase.  

PubMed

Toluene 4-monooxygenase (T4MO) is a member of the bacterial multicomponent monooxygenases, an enzyme family that utilizes a soluble diiron hydroxylase to oxidize a variety of hydrocarbons as the initial step in their metabolism. The hydroxylases obtain reducing equivalents from NAD(P)H via an electron transfer chain that is initiated by an oxidoreductase containing an N-terminal ferredoxin domain and C-terminal flavin- and NAD-binding domains. T4moF, the NADH oxidoreductase of T4MO, was expressed as a soluble protein in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) from the pUC-derived expression vector pRS205. This vector contains a lac promoter instead of a T7 promoter. A three step purification from the soluble cell lysate yielded approximately 1 mg of T4moF per gram of wet cell paste with greater than 90% purity. The purified protein contained 1 mol of FAD and 2 mol of Fe per mol of T4moF; quantitative EPR spectroscopy showed approximately 1 mol of the S=1/2 signal from the reduced [2Fe-2S] cluster per mol of T4moF. Steady state kinetic analysis of p-cresol formation activity treating T4moF as the variable substrate while all other proteins and substrates were held constant gave apparent K(M-) and apparent k(cat)-values of 0.15 microM and 3.0 s(-1), respectively. This expression system and purification allows for the recovery of the soluble oxidoreductase in yields that facilitate further biochemical and structural characterizations. PMID:17964805

Bailey, Lucas J; Elsen, Nathaniel L; Pierce, Brad S; Fox, Brian G

2007-09-19

180

Alternative quinone substrates and inhibitors of human electron-transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase.  

PubMed

Electron-transfer flavoprotein (ETF)-ubiquinone (2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone) oxidoreductase (ETF-QO) is a membrane-bound iron-sulphur flavoprotein that participates in an electron-transport pathway between eleven mitochondrial flavoprotein dehydrogenases and the ubiquinone pool. ETF is the intermediate electron carrier between the dehydrogenases and ETF-QO. The steady-state kinetic constants of human ETF-QO were determined with ubiquinone homologues and analogues that contained saturated n-alkyl substituents at the 6 position. These experiments show that optimal substrates contain a ten-carbon-atom side chain, consistent with a preliminary crystal structure that shows that only the first two of ten isoprene units of co-enzyme Q10 (CoQ10) interact with the protein. Derivatives with saturated alkyl side chains are very good substrates, indicating that, unlike other ubiquinone oxidoreductases, there is little preference for the methyl branches or rigidity of the CoQ side chain. Few of the compounds that inhibit ubiquinone oxidoreductases inhibit ETF-QO. Compounds found to act as inhibitors of ETF-QO include 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide, a naphthoquinone analogue, 2-(3-methylpentyl)-4,6-dinitrophenol and pentachlorophenol. 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone (DBMIB), which inhibits the mitochondrial bc1 complex and the chloroplast b6 f complex in redox-dependent fashion, can serve as an electron acceptor for human ETF-QO. The observation of simple Michaelis-Menten kinetic patterns and a single type of quinone-binding site, determined by fluorescence titrations of the protein with DBMIB and 6-(10-bromodecyl)ubiquinone, are consistent with one ubiquinone-binding site per ETF-QO monomer. PMID:14640977

Simkovic, Martin; Frerman, Frank E

2004-03-01

181

Alternative quinone substrates and inhibitors of human electron-transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase.  

PubMed Central

Electron-transfer flavoprotein (ETF)-ubiquinone (2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone) oxidoreductase (ETF-QO) is a membrane-bound iron-sulphur flavoprotein that participates in an electron-transport pathway between eleven mitochondrial flavoprotein dehydrogenases and the ubiquinone pool. ETF is the intermediate electron carrier between the dehydrogenases and ETF-QO. The steady-state kinetic constants of human ETF-QO were determined with ubiquinone homologues and analogues that contained saturated n-alkyl substituents at the 6 position. These experiments show that optimal substrates contain a ten-carbon-atom side chain, consistent with a preliminary crystal structure that shows that only the first two of ten isoprene units of co-enzyme Q10 (CoQ10) interact with the protein. Derivatives with saturated alkyl side chains are very good substrates, indicating that, unlike other ubiquinone oxidoreductases, there is little preference for the methyl branches or rigidity of the CoQ side chain. Few of the compounds that inhibit ubiquinone oxidoreductases inhibit ETF-QO. Compounds found to act as inhibitors of ETF-QO include 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide, a naphthoquinone analogue, 2-(3-methylpentyl)-4,6-dinitrophenol and pentachlorophenol. 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone (DBMIB), which inhibits the mitochondrial bc1 complex and the chloroplast b6 f complex in redox-dependent fashion, can serve as an electron acceptor for human ETF-QO. The observation of simple Michaelis-Menten kinetic patterns and a single type of quinone-binding site, determined by fluorescence titrations of the protein with DBMIB and 6-(10-bromodecyl)ubiquinone, are consistent with one ubiquinone-binding site per ETF-QO monomer.

Simkovic, Martin; Frerman, Frank E

2004-01-01

182

Identification of NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases A and B: a branched pathway for light-dependent chlorophyll biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed Central

Illumination releases the arrest in chlorophyll (Chl) biosynthesis in etiolated angiosperm seedlings through the enzymatic photoreduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to chlorophyllide (Chlide), the first light-dependent step in chloroplast biogenesis. NADPH: Pchlide oxidoreductase (POR, EC 1.3.1.33), a nuclear-encoded plastid-localized enzyme, mediates this unique photoreduction. Paradoxically, light also triggers a drastic decrease in the amounts of POR activity and protein before the Chl accumulation rate reaches its maximum during greening. While investigating this seeming contradiction, we identified two distinct Arabidopsis thaliana genes encoding POR, in contrast to previous reports of only one gene in angiosperms. The genes, designated PorA and PorB, by analogy to the principal members of the phytochrome photoreceptor gene family, display dramatically different patterns of light and developmental regulation. PorA mRNA disappears within the first 4 h of greening, whereas PorB mRNA persists even after 16 h of illumination, mirroring the behavior of two distinct POR protein species. Experiments designed to help define the functions of POR A and POR B demonstrate exclusive expression of PorA in young seedlings and of PorB both in seedlings and in adult plants. Accordingly, we propose the existence of a branched light-dependent Chl biosynthesis pathway in which POR A performs a specialized function restricted to the initial stages of greening and POR B maintains Chl levels throughout angiosperm development.

Armstrong, G A; Runge, S; Frick, G; Sperling, U; Apel, K

1995-01-01

183

Affinity purification of bacterial luciferase and NAD(P)H:FMN oxidoreductases by FMN-sepharose for analytical applications.  

PubMed

A modified purification method for bacterial luciferases and NAD(P)H:FMN oxidoreductases is described which uses FMN-Sepharose alone or coupled to DEAE ion exchange chromatography for the simultaneous purification of luciferase and the various oxidoreductases from Vibrio harveyi, a bright mutant of Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio fischeri, and Photobacterium phosphoreum. This purification method is compared with DEAE-Sepharose Cl 6B fractionations from these organisms. Both methods allow the separation of oxidoreductases specific for either NADH or NADPH. The use of FMN-Sepharose coupled to DEAE-Sepharose fractionation allows the isolation of highly purified enzymes. Lacking interfering factors, these are very suitable for various analytical applications based on bacterial bioluminescence enzymes. The partially purified enzymes from the affinity column have higher specific activities than those obtained using DEAE-Sepharose. PMID:2220416

Lavi, J T; Raunio, R P; Stahlberg, T H

184

NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 activity reduces hypertrophy in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.  

PubMed

The nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) pathway responds to oxidative stress via control of several antioxidant defense gene expressions. Recent efforts demonstrate that Nrf2 modulates development of adiposity and adipogenesis. One of the major Nrf2-regulated proteins, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), is implicated in the development of adipose tissue and obesity. However, little is known about in situ disposition of Nrf2, Keap1, and NQO1 during adipogenesis in isolated adipocytes. Based on literature data, we hypothesized that adipocyte differentiation would increase expression of the Nrf2/Keap1 pathway and NQO1. Using murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, we mapped an increase in NQO1 protein at limited clonal expansion and postmitotic growth arrest (Days 1-3) stages and a decrease in terminally differentiated (Day 8) adipocytes that lasted for several days afterward. Conversely, NQO1, Nrf2, and Keap1 mRNA expressions were all increased in differentiated adipocytes (Days 11-14), indicating a discrepancy between steady-state mRNA levels and resulting protein. Treatment of differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes with glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?) inhibitor, LiCl, led to 1.9-fold increase in NQO1 protein. Sulforaphane enhanced NQO1 protein (10.5-fold) and blunted triglyceride and FABP4 accumulation. The decrement in triglyceride content was partially reversed when NQO1 activity was pharmacologically inhibited. These data demonstrate a biphasic response of Nrf2 and NQO1 during adipocyte differentiation that is regulated by Keap1- and GSK-3?-dependent mechanisms, and that hypertrophy is negatively regulated by NQO1 activity. PMID:22683604

Vomhof-DeKrey, Emilie E; Picklo, Matthew J

2012-06-08

185

A transcriptome-proteome integrated network identifies endoplasmic reticulum thiol oxidoreductase (ERp57) as a hub that mediates bone metastasis.  

PubMed

Bone metastasis is the most common distant relapse in breast cancer. The identification of key proteins involved in the osteotropic phenotype would represent a major step toward the development of new prognostic markers and therapeutic improvements. The aim of this study was to characterize functional phenotypes that favor bone metastasis in human breast cancer. We used the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and its osteotropic BO2 subclone to identify crucial proteins in bone metastatic growth. We identified 31 proteins, 15 underexpressed and 16 overexpressed, in BO2 cells compared with parental cells. We employed a network-modeling approach in which these 31 candidate proteins were prioritized with respect to their potential in metastasis formation, based on the topology of the protein-protein interaction network and differential expression. The protein-protein interaction network provided a framework to study the functional relationships between biological molecules by attributing functions to genes whose functions had not been characterized. The combination of expression profiles and protein interactions revealed an endoplasmic reticulum-thiol oxidoreductase, ERp57, functioning as a hub that retained four down-regulated nodes involved in antigen presentation associated with the human major histocompatibility complex class I molecules, including HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-E, and HLA-F. Further analysis of the interaction network revealed an inverse correlation between ERp57 and vimentin, which influences cytoskeleton reorganization. Moreover, knockdown of ERp57 in BO2 cells confirmed its bone organ-specific prometastatic role. Altogether, ERp57 appears as a multifunctional chaperone that can regulate diverse biological processes to maintain the homeostasis of breast cancer cells and promote the development of bone metastasis. PMID:23625662

Santana-Codina, Naiara; Carretero, Rafael; Sanz-Pamplona, Rebeca; Cabrera, Teresa; Guney, Emre; Oliva, Baldo; Clezardin, Philippe; Olarte, Omar E; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo; Méndez-Lucas, Andrés; Perales, Jose Carlos; Sierra, Angels

2013-04-26

186

Succinate-DCPIP and NADH-fumarate oxidoreductases in fresh water snails susceptible and non susceptible to schistosoma infection.  

PubMed

The activities of succinate-DCPIP oxidoreductase (SO) and NADH-fumarate oxidoreductase (FR) were determined in tissue homogenate of Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus, the snail vectors of Schistosomiasia. A parallel study was done on Lymnea truncatula snails which are not susceptible to Schistosoma infection. The Michaelis constant (Km) and maximum velocities (Vmax) for fumarate reduction and succinate oxidation by the tissue homogenates from the three species were determined. The results obtained showed that both susceptible species are aerobic and lactate is the sole end product of anaerobic glycolysis. Lymnea truncatula snails are facultative anaerobic producing succinate as a major end product in the glycolytic pathway. PMID:1571942

Nabih, I; el-Ansary, A

1992-04-01

187

Glucagon activation of the thiol:protein disulfide oxidoreductase in isolated, rat, hepatic microsomes  

SciTech Connect

Thiol:protein disulfide oxidoreductase catalyzes the GSH reduction of protein disulfides to sulfhydryl groups. The authors determined this activity in washed rat hepatic microsomes (1) by a coupled reaction in which GSSG is reduced by GSH reductase and NADPH is oxidized and (2) by the cleavage of (/sup 125/I)-insulin (insulinase). Physiological concentrations of glucagon (GLU)(1 nM) with GSH (1 mM) increased both activities (NADPH oxidae - 1.1 nmol/min-mg prot (control)(C) to 4.3 (GLU); insulinase - 36 (C) to 83 (GLU)). For both assays stimulation was only seen with low protein concentrations (< 100 ..mu..g/ml), probably due to nonspecific GLU binding rather than proteolysis of the GLU since both reactions were linear for at least 30 min. The stimulation of NADPH oxidase had a P50 for GLU of 0.78 nM. GLU stimulation of insulinase was only observed in the presence of a GSH reducing system. Basal insulinase activity was unaffected by GSH reductase. These two observation suggest that the stimulation may be inhibited by the presence of GSSG. This effect was not due to depletion of GSH since the same effect was observed with higher GSH (5 mM). Although the effect on NADPH oxidase could represent activation of a GSH peroxidase, the insulinase data support the hypothesis that GLU may act by stimulating the thiol:protein disulfide oxidoreductase catalyzed reduction of protein disulfides.

McConkey, D.J.; Crankshaw, D.L.; Holtzman, J.L.

1986-05-01

188

Is a Q-cycle-like mechanism operative in dihaemic succinate:quinone and quinol:fumarate oxidoreductases?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Succinate:quinone (SQR) and quinol:fumarate oxidoreductases (QFR) are members of the same enzyme family. These are membrane bound enzymes anchored to the membrane by one or two subunits that may contain two, one or no haems. For the dihaemic enzymes the electron pathway from the flavin at the catalytic centre to the quinones remains to be established. Taking into account that

Manuela M. Pereira; Miguel Teixeira

2003-01-01

189

Benzofuran-, benzothiophene-, indazole- and benzisoxazole-quinones: excellent substrates for NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1.  

PubMed

A series of heterocyclic quinones based on benzofuran, benzothiophene, indazole and benzisoxazole has been synthesized, and evaluated for their ability to function as substrates for recombinant human NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), a two-electron reductase upregulated in tumor cells. Overall, the quinones are excellent substrates for NQO1, approaching the reduction rates observed for menadione. PMID:23635904

Newsome, Jeffery J; Hassani, Mary; Swann, Elizabeth; Bibby, Jane M; Beall, Howard D; Moody, Christopher J

2013-04-06

190

NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase inhibitors block induction of ornithine decarboxylase activity in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Rotenone is the classical inhibitor of NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase and its analogue deguelin is a potent inhibitor of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-induced ornithine decarboxylase mRNA steady state level and enzyme activity in mouse 308 cells (Gerhäuser et al. 1995). In MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, rotenone, deguelin and two structurally-unrelated miticides (pyridaben and fenazaquin) inhibit not only NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase but also induced ornithine decarboxylase activity with IC50 values of < 1 to 70 nM. Rotenone inhibits ornithine decarboxylase activity equally well as induced by TPA, insulin-like growth factor I and 17 beta-oestradiol. Pyridaben is the most potent of the four inhibitors not only for NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase activity (bovine heart enzyme) and TPA-induced ornithine decarboxylase activity and mRNA steady state level but also for TPA-induced reactive oxygen species. It is therefore proposed that NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase inhibitors block multiple and possibly reactive oxygen species-modulated pathways which regulate ornithine decarboxylase activity. PMID:9834970

Rowlands, J C; Casida, J E

1998-11-01

191

Functional Diversity of Cysteine Residues in Proteins and Unique Features of Catalytic Redox-active Cysteines in Thiol Oxidoreductases  

PubMed Central

Thiol-dependent redox systems are involved in regulation of diverse biological processes, such as response to stress, signal transduction, and protein folding. The thiol-based redox control is provided by mechanistically similar, but structurally distinct families of enzymes known as thiol oxidoreductases. Many such enzymes have been characterized, but identities and functions of the entire sets of thiol oxidoreductases in organisms are not known. Extreme sequence and structural divergence makes identification of these proteins difficult. Thiol oxidoreductases contain a redox-active cysteine residue, or its functional analog selenocysteine, in their active sites. Here, we describe computational methods for in silico prediction of thiol oxidoreductases in nucleotide and protein sequence databases and identification of their redox-active cysteines. We discuss different functional categories of cysteine residues, describe methods for discrimination between catalytic and noncatalytic and between redox and non-redox cysteine residues and highlight unique properties of the redox-active cysteines based on evolutionary conservation, secondary and three-dimensional structures, and sporadic replacement of cysteines with catalytically superior selenocysteine residues.

Fomenko, Dmitri E.; Marino, Stefano M.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

2009-01-01

192

The Origin of Cluster N2 of the Energy-Transducing NADH–Quinone Oxidoreductase: Comparisons of Phylogenetically Related Enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

NADH–quinone (Q) oxidoreductase is a large and complex redox proton pump, which utilizes the free energy derived from oxidation of NADH with lipophilic electron\\/proton carrier Q to translocate protons across the membrane to generate an electrochemical proton gradient (\\u000a

Takahiro Yano; Tomoko Ohnishi

2001-01-01

193

Disulfide Bond Oxidoreductase DsbA2 of Legionella pneumophila Exhibits Protein Disulfide Isomerase Activity  

PubMed Central

The extracytoplasmic assembly of the Dot/Icm type IVb secretion system (T4SS) of Legionella pneumophila is dependent on correct disulfide bond (DSB) formation catalyzed by a novel and essential disulfide bond oxidoreductase DsbA2 and not by DsbA1, a second nonessential DSB oxidoreductase. DsbA2, which is widely distributed in the microbial world, is phylogenetically distinct from the canonical DsbA oxidase and the DsbC protein disulfide isomerase (PDI)/reductase of Escherichia coli. Here we show that the extended N-terminal amino acid sequence of DsbA2 (relative to DsbA proteins) contains a highly conserved 27-amino-acid dimerization domain enabling the protein to form a homodimer. Complementation tests with E. coli mutants established that L. pneumophila dsbA1, but not the dsbA2 strain, restored motility to a dsbA mutant. In a protein-folding PDI detector assay, the dsbA2 strain, but not the dsbA1 strain, complemented a dsbC mutant of E. coli. Deletion of the dimerization domain sequences from DsbA2 produced the monomer (DsbA2N), which no longer exhibited PDI activity but complemented the E. coli dsbA mutant. PDI activity was demonstrated in vitro for DsbA2 but not DsbA1 in a nitrocefin-based mutant TEM ?-lactamase folding assay. In an insulin reduction assay, DsbA2N activity was intermediate between those of DsbA2 and DsbA1. In L. pneumophila, DsbA2 was maintained as a mixture of thiol and disulfide forms, while in E. coli, DsbA2 was present as the reduced thiol. Our studies suggest that DsbA2 is a naturally occurring bifunctional disulfide bond oxidoreductase that may be uniquely suited to the majority of intracellular bacterial pathogens expressing T4SSs as well as in many slow-growing soil and aquatic bacteria.

Kpadeh, Zegbeh Z.; Jameson-Lee, Max; Yeh, Anthony J.; Chertihin, Olga; Shumilin, Igor A.; Dey, Rafik; Day, Shandra R.

2013-01-01

194

Pyruvate Oxidoreductases Involved in Glycolytic Anaerobic Metabolism of Polychaetes from the Continental Shelf off Central-South Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of low oxygen conditions in extensive areas of the continental shelf off central-south Chile has important effects on the biochemical adaptations of the organisms living in this ecosystem. Polychaetes assemblages cohabit on the shelf with an extensively distributed prokaryotic community made up of giant filamentous sulfur bacteria (mainly Thioploca sp.). The aim of this research was to characterize the pyruvate oxidoreductases enzymes involved in the biochemical adaptation of these benthic polychaetes. Nine polychaete species ( Paraprionospio pinnata, Nephtys ferruginea, Glycera americana, Haploscoloplos sp., Lumbrineris composita, Sigambra bassi, Aricidea pigmentata , Cossura chilensis, and Pectinaria chilensis) were assayed for lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), octopine dehydrogenase (OPDH), strombine dehydrogenase (STRDH) and alanopine dehydrogenase (ALPDH). Each species had a characteristic number of the pyruvate oxidoreductases assayed ranging from 4 in Paraprionospio pinnata to 1 in Pectinaria chilensis . The pyruvate saturation curves obtained for the enzymes from all species analysed, except L. composita, suggest that NADH can be oxidized at different rates depending on the amino acid used in the reaction with pyruvate. Our results indicate that organisms having more that one pyruvate oxidoreductase present a greater metabolic capacity to cope with functional and environmental hypoxia because these enzymes would better regulate the pyruvate consumption rate during the transition period. Thus, the dominance of Paraprionospio pinnata in the study area and its worldwide distribution is consistent with its higher number of pyruvate oxidoreductases with different pyruvate consumption rates involved in anaerobic metabolism. Finally, a positive allometric relationship was found between body size and the specific activity of ALPDH, STRDH, and maximum pyruvate oxidoreductase specific activity. This latter result suggests a positive scaling of the specific anaerobic metabolism in polychaetes.

González, R. R.; Quiñones, R. A.

2000-10-01

195

A new concept for ferredoxin-NADP(H) oxidoreductase binding to plant thylakoids.  

PubMed

During the evolution of photosynthesis, regulatory circuits were established that allow the precise coupling of light-driven electron transfer chains with downstream processes such as carbon fixation. The ferredoxin (Fd):ferredoxin-NADP(+) oxidoreductase (FNR) couple is an important mediator for these processes because it provides the transition from exclusively membrane-bound light reactions to the mostly stromal metabolic pathways. Recent progress has allowed us to revisit how FNR is bound to thylakoids and to revaluate the current view that only membrane-bound FNR is active in photosynthetic reactions. We argue that the vast majority of thylakoid-bound FNR of higher plants is not necessary for photosynthesis. We furthermore propose that the correct distribution of FNR between stroma and thylakoids is used to efficiently regulate Fd-dependent electron partitioning in the chloroplast. PMID:20851663

Benz, J Philipp; Lintala, Minna; Soll, Jürgen; Mulo, Paula; Bölter, Bettina

2010-09-18

196

Tethering of ferredoxin:NADP+ oxidoreductase to thylakoid membranes is mediated by novel chloroplast protein TROL.  

PubMed

Working in tandem, two photosystems in the chloroplast thylakoid membranes produce a linear electron flow from H(2)O to NADP(+). Final electron transfer from ferredoxin to NADP(+) is accomplished by a flavoenzyme ferredoxin:NADP(+) oxidoreductase (FNR). Here we describe TROL (thylakoid rhodanese-like protein), a nuclear-encoded component of thylakoid membranes that is required for tethering of FNR and sustaining efficient linear electron flow (LEF) in vascular plants. TROL consists of two distinct modules; a centrally positioned rhodanese-like domain and a C-terminal hydrophobic FNR binding region. Analysis of Arabidopsis mutant lines indicates that, in the absence of TROL, relative electron transport rates at high-light intensities are severely lowered accompanied with significant increase in non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). Thus, TROL might represent a missing thylakoid membrane docking site for a complex between FNR, ferredoxin and NADP(+). Such association might be necessary for maintaining photosynthetic redox poise and enhancement of the NPQ. PMID:19682289

Juri?, Snjezana; Hazler-Pilepi?, Kroata; Tomasi?, Ana; Lepedus, Hrvoje; Jelici?, Branka; Puthiyaveetil, Sujith; Bionda, Tihana; Vojta, Lea; Allen, John F; Schleiff, Enrico; Fulgosi, Hrvoje

2009-08-13

197

A soluble NADH dehydrogenase (NADH: ferricyanide oxidoreductase) from Thermus aquaticus strain T351.  

PubMed Central

A soluble NADH dehydrogenase (NADH:ferricyanide oxidoreductase) has been obtained by simple disruption of cells of Thermus aquaticus strain T351, and purified. The enzyme is of low molecular mass, 50 000 Da, and displays many of the properties of the membrane-bound enzyme, including inhibition by both NADH and ferricyanide, and the same Km for ferricyanide. The enzyme contains 0.05 mol of FMN, 0.16 mol of labile sulphur and 2.2 mol of iron per mol of protein. The enzyme is inhibited by NAD and cupferron competitively with ferricyanide, and by ATP (but not ADP) competitively with NADH. The enzyme is particularly thermostable, having a half-life at 95 degrees C of 35 min. The effect of temperature on the molar absorption coefficient and the stability of NADH was determined.

Walsh, K A; Daniel, R M; Morgan, H W

1983-01-01

198

A soluble NADH dehydrogenase (NADH: ferricyanide oxidoreductase) from Thermus aquaticus strain T351.  

PubMed

A soluble NADH dehydrogenase (NADH:ferricyanide oxidoreductase) has been obtained by simple disruption of cells of Thermus aquaticus strain T351, and purified. The enzyme is of low molecular mass, 50 000 Da, and displays many of the properties of the membrane-bound enzyme, including inhibition by both NADH and ferricyanide, and the same Km for ferricyanide. The enzyme contains 0.05 mol of FMN, 0.16 mol of labile sulphur and 2.2 mol of iron per mol of protein. The enzyme is inhibited by NAD and cupferron competitively with ferricyanide, and by ATP (but not ADP) competitively with NADH. The enzyme is particularly thermostable, having a half-life at 95 degrees C of 35 min. The effect of temperature on the molar absorption coefficient and the stability of NADH was determined. PMID:6847628

Walsh, K A; Daniel, R M; Morgan, H W

1983-02-01

199

A Novel Insight into the Oxidoreductase Activity of Helicobacter pylori HP0231 Protein  

PubMed Central

Background The formation of a disulfide bond between two cysteine residues stabilizes protein structure. Although we now have a good understanding of the Escherichia coli disulfide formation system, the machineries at work in other bacteria, including pathogens, are poorly characterized. Thus, the objective of this work was to improve our understanding of the disulfide formation machinery of Helicobacter pylori, a leading cause of ulcers and a risk factor for stomach cancer worldwide. Methods and Results The protein HP0231 from H. pylori, a structural counterpart of E. coli DsbG, is the focus of this research. Its function was clarified by using a combination of biochemical, microbiological and genetic approaches. In particular, we determined the biochemical properties of HP0231 as well as its redox state in H. pylori cells. Conclusion Altogether our results show that HP0231 is an oxidoreductase that catalyzes disulfide bond formation in the periplasm. We propose to call it HpDsbA.

Roszczenko, Paula; Radomska, Katarzyna A.; Wywial, Ewa; Collet, Jean-Francois; Jagusztyn-Krynicka, Elzbieta K.

2012-01-01

200

Purification and properties of a new glutathione-dependent thiol:disulphide oxidoreductase from rat liver.  

PubMed Central

A new GSSG-dependent thiol:disulphide oxidoreductase was extensively purified from rat liver cytosol. The enzymic protein shows molecular weight 40 000 as determined by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, and 43 000 as determined by thin-layer gel filtration on Bio-Gel P-100. The pI is 8.1. This enzyme converts rat liver xanthine dehydrogenase into an oxidase, in the presence of oxidized glutathione. Other disulphide compounds are either inactive or far less active than oxidized glutathione in the enzymic oxidation of rat liver xanthine dehydrogenase. The enzyme also catalyses the reduction of the disulphide bond of ricin and acts as a thioltransferase and as a GSH:insulin transhydrogenase. The enzymic activity was measured in various organs of newborn and adult rats.

Battelli, M G; Lorenzoni, E

1982-01-01

201

Sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase in membranes of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus (VF5).  

PubMed

The sulfide-dependent reduction of exogenous ubiquinone by membranes of the hyperthermophilic chemotrophic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus (VF5), the sulfide-dependent consumption of oxygen and the reduction of cytochromes by sulfide in membranes were studied. Sulfide reduced decyl-ubiquinone with a maximal rate of up to 3.5 micromol (mg protein)(-1) min(-1) at 20 degrees C. Rates of 220 nmol (mg protein)(-1) min(-1)] for the sulfide-dependent consumption of oxygen and 480 nmol (mg protein)(-1) min(-1) for the oxidation of sulfide at 20 C were estimated. The reactions were sensitive towards 2-n-nonyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide, but insensitive towards cyanide. Both reduction of decyl-ubiquinone and consumption of oxygen by sulfide rapidly increased with increasing temperature. For the sulfide-dependent respiratory activity, a sulfide-to-oxygen ratio of 2.3+/-0.2 was measured. This indicates that sulfide was oxidized to the level of zero-valent sulfur. Reduction of cytochromes by sulfide was monitored with an LED-array spectrophotometer. Reduction of cytochrome b was stimulated by 2-n-nonyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide in the presence of excess sulfide under oxic conditions. This "oxidant-induced reduction" of cytochrome b suggests that electron transport from sulfide to oxygen in A. aeolicus employs the cytochrome bc complex via the quinone pool. Comparison of the amino acid sequence with the sequence of the sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase from Rhodobacter capsulatus and of the flavocytochrome c from Allochromatium vinosum revealed that the sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase from A. aeolicus belongs to the glutathione reductase family of flavoproteins. PMID:10816041

Nübel, T; Klughammer, C; Huber, R; Hauska, G; Schütz, M

2000-04-01

202

Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Caused by P450 Oxidoreductase Deficiency  

PubMed Central

Context: Mutations in the electron donor enzyme P450 oxidoreductase (POR) result in congenital adrenal hyperplasia with apparent combined 17?-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase and 21-hydroxylase deficiencies, also termed P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD). Major clinical features present in PORD are disordered sex development in affected individuals of both sexes, glucocorticoid deficiency, and multiple skeletal malformations. Objective: The objective of the study was to establish a noninvasive approach to prenatal diagnosis of PORD including assessment of malformation severity to facilitate optimized prenatal diagnosis and timely treatment. Design: We analyzed 20 pregnancies with children homozygous or compound heterozygous for disease-causing POR mutations and 1 pregnancy with a child carrying a heterozygous POR mutation by recording clinical and biochemical presentations and fetal ultrasound findings. In 4 of the pregnancies (3 homozygous and 1 heterozygous for disease-causing POR mutations), prenatal analysis of steroid metabolite excretion in maternal urine was carried out by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry during gestational weeks 11–23. Results: Pregnancy complications in our cohort included maternal virilization (6 of 20) with onset in the second trimester. Seven pregnant women presented with low unconjugated estriol at prenatal screening (triple or quadruple antenatal screening test). Overt dysmorphic features were noted in 19 of the 20 babies at birth but observed in only 5 by prenatal ultrasound. These 5 had the most severe malformation phenotypes and poor outcome, whereas the other babies showed normal development. Steroid profiling of maternal urine revealed significantly increased steroids of fetal origin, namely the pregnenolone metabolite epiallopregnanediol and the androgen metabolite androsterone, with concomitant low values for estriol. Diagnostic steroid ratios conclusively indicated PORD as early as gestational week 12. In the heterozygous pregnancy, steroid ratios were only slightly elevated and estriol excretion was normal. Conclusion: Prenatal diagnosis in PORD is readily established via urinary steroid metabolite analysis of maternal urine. Visible malformations at prenatal ultrasound predict a severe malformation phenotype.

Reisch, Nicole; Idkowiak, Jan; Hughes, Beverly A.; Ivison, Hannah E.; Abdul-Rahman, Omar A.; Hendon, Laura G.; Olney, Ann Haskins; Nielsen, Shelly; Harrison, Rachel; Blair, Edward M.; Dhir, Vivek; Krone, Nils; Shackleton, Cedric H. L.

2013-01-01

203

(The interaction of ferredoxin:NADP sup + oxidoreductase and ferredoxin:thioredoxin reductase with substrates)  

SciTech Connect

We seek to map the ferredoxin-binding sites on three soluble enzymes located in spinach chloroplasts which utilize ferredoxin as an electron donor:Ferredoxin:NADP{sup +}oxidoreductase (FNR); ferredoxin:thioredoxin reductase (FTR) and glutamate synthase. As the availability of amino acid sequences for the enzymes are important in such studies, that the amino acid sequence of glutamate synthase needs be determined, the amino acid sequences of FNR, FTR and ferredoxin are already known. Related to an aim elucidate the binding sites for ferredoxin to determine whether there is a common binding site on all of these ferredoxin-dependent chloroplast enzymes and, if so, to map it. Additionally thioredoxin binding by FTR needs be determine to resolve whether the same site on FTR is involved in binding both ferredoxin and thioredoxin. Considerable progress is reported on the prosthetic groups of glutamate synthase, in establishing the role of arginine and lysine residues in ferredoxin binding by, ferredoxin:nitrite oxidoreductase nitrite reductase, labelling carboxyl groups on ferredoxin with taurine and labelling lysine residues biotinylation, and low potential heme proteins have been isolated and characterized from a non-photosynthetic plant tissue. Although the monoclonal antibodies raised against FNR turned out not to be useful for mapping the FNR/ferredoxin or FNR/NADPinteraction domains, good progress has been made on mapping the FNR/ferredoxin interaction domains by an alternative technique. The techniques developed for differential chemical modification of these two proteins - taurine modification of aspartate and glutamate residues and biotin modification of lysine residues - should be useful for mapping the interaction domains of many proteins that associate through electrostatic interactions.

Not Available

1992-01-01

204

Comparison of catalytic activity and inhibitors of quinone reactions of succinate dehydrogenase (Succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase) and fumarate reductase (Menaquinol-fumarate oxidoreductase) from Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Escherichia coli succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (SQR) and menaquinol-fumarate reductase (QFR) are excellent model systems to understand the function of eukaryotic Complex II. They have structural and catalytic properties similar to their eukaryotic counterpart. An exception is that potent inhibitors of mammalian Complex II, such as thenoyltrifluoroacetone and carboxanilides, only weakly inhibit their bacterial counterparts. This lack of good inhibitors of quinone reactions and the higher level of side reactions in the prokaryotic enzymes has hampered the elucidation of the mechanism of quinone oxidation/reduction in E. coli Complex II. In this communication DT-diaphorase and an appropriate quinone are used to measure quinol-fumarate reductase activity and E. coli bo-oxidase and quinones are used to determine succinate-quinone reductase activity. Simple Michaelis kinetics are observed for both enzymes with ubiquinones and menaquinones in the succinate oxidase (forward) and fumarate reductase (reverse) reactions. The comparison of E. coli SQR and QFR demonstrates that 2-n-heptyl 4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide (HQNO) is a potent inhibitor of QFR in both assays; however, SQR is not sensitive to HQNO. A series of 2-alkyl-4,6-dinitrophenols and pentachlorophenol were found to be potent competitive inhibitors of both SQR and QFR. In addition, the isolated E. coli SQR complex demonstrates a mixed-type inhibition with carboxanilides, whereas the QFR complex is resistant to this inhibitor. The kinetic properties of SQR and QFR suggest that either ubiquinone or menaquinone operates at a single exchangeable site working in forward or reverse reactions. The pH activity profiles for E. coli QFR and SQR are similar showing maximal activity between pH 7.4 and 7.8, suggesting the importance of similar catalytic groups in quinol deprotonation and oxidation. PMID:10486141

Maklashina, E; Cecchini, G

1999-09-15

205

Identification and utilization of a 1,3-propanediol oxidoreductase isoenzyme for production of 1,3-propanediol from glycerol in Klebsiella pneumoniae  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous study, we showed that 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) was still produced from glycerol by the Klebsiella pneumoniae mutant strain defective in 1,3-PD oxidoreductase (DhaT), although the production level was lower compared to the parent strain.\\u000a As a potential candidate for another putative 1,3-PD oxidoreductase, we identified and characterized a homolog of Escherichia coli yqhD (88% homology in amino acid

Jeong-Woo Seo; Mi-Young Seo; Baek-Rock Oh; Sun-Yeon Heo; Jin-Oh Baek; Dina Rairakhwada; Lian Hua Luo; Won-Kyung Hong; Chul Ho Kim

2010-01-01

206

The mitochondrial small heat-shock protein protects NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase of the electron transport chain during heat stress in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional inactivation of the mitochondrial small heat-shock protein (lmw Hsp) in submitochondrial vesicles using protein-specific antibodies indicated that this protein protects NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I), and consequently electron transport from complex I to cytochrome c:O2 oxidoreductase (complex IV). Lmw Hsp function completely accounted for heat acclimation of complex I electron transport in pre-heat-stressed plants. Addition of purified lmw Hsp to

Craig A. Downs; Scott A. Heckathorn

1998-01-01

207

Simultaneous enzymatic synthesis of gluconic acid and sorbitol: production, purification, and application of glucose-fructose oxidoreductase and gluconolactonase.  

PubMed

With regard to the enzymatic synthesis of sorbitol and gluconic acid, a screening was carried out to identify promising producers of glucose-fructose oxidoreductase (GFOR) and gluconolactonase (GL). Zymomonas mobilis DSM 473 and Rhodotorula rubra DSM 70403 have been selected for the synthesis of GFOR and GL, respectively. Maximal enzyme production by these organisms has been achieved at D-glucose concentrations of 200 and 150 g/L, respectively. Both GFOR and GL were purified and characterized with respect to some of their catalytic properties. GL showed strict specificity for 1,5-(delta)-lactones and was activated by Mg2+ and Mn2+ ions. The potential use of soluble GFOR is limited by its inactivation during substrate conversion, and the effects of reaction temperature and pH on the "catalytic" stability of GFOR were evaluated. Exogenous addition of auxiliary GL had no effect on oxidoreductase stability and did not improve productivities. PMID:18576080

Nidetzky, B; Fürlinger, M; Gollhofer, D; Haug, I; Haltrich, D; Kulbe, K D

1997-01-01

208

Metabolic activities of metronidazole-sensitive and -resistant strains of Helicobacter pylori: repression of pyruvate oxidoreductase and expression of isocitrate lyase activity correlate with resistance.  

PubMed

In this study, we compared metronidazole (Mtz)-sensitive and -resistant strains of Helicobacter pylori for metabolic differences that might correlate with drug resistance. Included in this study was an isogenic Mtz(r) strain, HP1107, that was constructed by transforming genomic DNA from Mtz(r) strain HP439 into Mtz(s) strain HP500. Enzyme activities were also measured for Mtz(r) strains grown in the presence or absence of 18 micrograms of metronidazole per ml (ca. one-half of the MIC). These studies confirmed the presence of the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas, Entner-Doudoroff, and pentose pathways. H. pylori strains expressed enzymatic activities indicative of a complete and active Krebs cycle. All strains expressed pyruvate oxidoreductase (POR) and alpha-ketoglutarate oxidoreductase (KOR) as measured with the redox-active dye benzyl viologen (30 to 96 nmol/min/mg of protein for POR and 30 nmol/min/mg of protein for KOR). When grown in the presence of Mtz at > or = 3.5 micrograms/ml, Mtz(r) strains expressed no detectable POR or KOR activity. The apparent repression of POR and KOR activities by Mtz affected bacterial growth as manifest by extended lag periods and growth yield reductions of > 30%. A dose-dependent relationship was demonstrated between the metronidazole concentration in the growth medium and the specific activity of POR measured in bacterial cell extracts. The observed repression was not due to inactivation of POR by Mtz. In addition to repression of POR and KOR activities, growth in the presence of Mtz also led to decreases in the activities of various Krebs cycle enzymes, including aconitase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase. All of the Mtz(r) strains examined expressed isocitrate lyase and malate synthase activities indicative of the glyoxylate bypass. No isocitrate lyase activity was detected in Mtz(s) strain HP500. Isocitrate lyase activity was expressed by HP500 following transformation to Mtz resistance (Mtz(r) strain HP1107) with DNA from an Mtz(r) strain. The results of this study suggest that Mtz resistance may be a recessive trait, possibly involving inactivation of a regulatory gene, that results in constitutive expression of isocitrate lyase. Repression of POR and KOR activities in response to low levels of Mtz may be a general response of H. pylori strains to Mtz, but only resistant strains manage to survive via activation of compensatory metabolic pathways. PMID:8759844

Hoffman, P S; Goodwin, A; Johnsen, J; Magee, K; Veldhuyzen van Zanten, S J

1996-08-01

209

Role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Oxidoreductases Bdh1p and Ara1p in the Metabolism of Acetoin and 2,3-Butanediol ?  

PubMed Central

NAD-dependent butanediol dehydrogenase (Bdh1p) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae reversibly transforms acetoin to 2,3-butanediol in a stereospecific manner. Deletion of BDH1 resulted in an accumulation of acetoin and a diminution of 2,3-butanediol in two S. cerevisiae strains under two different growth conditions. The concentrations of (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol are mostly dependent on Bdh1p activity, while those of (meso)-2,3-butanediol are also influenced by the activity of NADP(H)-dependent oxidoreductases. One of them has been purified and shown to be d-arabinose dehydrogenase (Ara1p), which converts (R/S)-acetoin to meso-2,3-butanediol and (2S,3S)-2,3-butanediol. Deletion of BDH2, a gene adjacent to BDH1, whose encoded protein is 51% identical to Bdh1p, does not significantly alter the levels of acetoin or 2,3-butanediol in comparison to the wild-type strain. Furthermore, we have expressed Bdh2p with a histidine tag and have shown it to be inactive toward 2,3-butanediol. A whole-genome expression analysis with microarrays demonstrates that BDH1 and BDH2 are reciprocally regulated.

Gonzalez, Eva; Fernandez, M. Rosario; Marco, Didac; Calam, Eduard; Sumoy, Lauro; Pares, Xavier; Dequin, Sylvie; Biosca, Josep A.

2010-01-01

210

Functionalized aurones as inducers of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 that activate AhR/XRE and Nrf2/ARE signaling pathways: synthesis, evaluation and SAR.  

PubMed

The chemopreventive potential of functionalized aurones and related compounds as inducers of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1, EC 1.6.99.2) are described. Several 4,6-dimethoxy and 5-hydroxyaurones induced NQO1 activity of Hepa1c1c7 cells by 2-fold at submicromolar concentrations, making these the most potent inducers to be identified from this class. Mechanistically, induction of NQO1 was mediated by the activation of AhR/XRE and Nrf2/ARE pathways, indicating that aurones may be mixed activators of NQO1 induction or agents capable of exploiting the proposed cross-talk between the AhR and Nrf2 gene batteries. QSAR analysis by partial least squares projection to latent structures (PLS) identified size parameters, in particular those associated with non-polar surface areas, as an important determinant of induction activity. These were largely determined by the substitution on rings A and B. A stereoelectronic role for the exocyclic double bond as reflected in the E(LUMO) term was also identified. The electrophilicity of the double bond or its effect on the conformation of the target compound are possible key features for induction activity. PMID:20392544

Lee, Chong-Yew; Chew, Eng-Hui; Go, Mei-Lin

2010-03-25

211

NAD(P)H: Quinone Oxidoreductase 1 Deficiency Conjoint with Marginal Vitamin C Deficiency Causes Cigarette Smoke Induced Myelodysplastic Syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe etiology of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is largely unknown. Exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) is reported to be associated with MDS risk. There is inconsistent evidence that deficiency of NAD(P)H-quinone: oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) increases the risk of MDS. Earlier we had shown that CS induces toxicity only in marginal vitamin C-deficient guinea pigs but not in vitamin C-sufficient ones. We

Archita Das; Neekkan Dey; Arunava Ghosh; Tanusree Das; Indu B. Chatterjee; Hava Karsenty Avraham

2011-01-01

212

A Single-Subunit NADH-Quinone Oxidoreductase Renders Resistance to Mammalian Nerve Cells against Complex I Inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies suggest that dysfunction of mitochondrial proton-translocating NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is associated with neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. Development of methods to correct complex I defects seems important. We have previously shown that the single-subunit NADH dehydrogenase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Ndi1P) can work as a replacement for complex I in mammalian cells. Using a

Byoung Boo Seo; Eiko Nakamaru-Ogiso; Terence R. Flotte; Takao Yagi; Akemi Matsuno-Yagi

2002-01-01

213

Functional coupling of PSST and ND1 subunits in NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase established by photoaffinity labeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is the first, largest and most complicated enzyme of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Photoaffinity labeling with the highly potent and specific inhibitor trifluoromethyldiazirinyl-[3H]pyridaben ([3H]TDP) labels only the PSST and ND1 subunits of complex I in electron transport particles. PSST is labeled at a high-affinity site responsible for inhibition of enzymatic activity while ND1 is labeled

Franz Schuler; John E Casida

2001-01-01

214

NADH-Quinone Oxidoreductase: PSST Subunit Couples Electron Transfer from Iron-Sulfur Cluster N2 to Quinone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proton-translocating NADH-quinone oxidoreductase (EC 1.6.99.3) is the largest and least understood enzyme complex of the respiratory chain. The mammalian mitochondrial enzyme (also called complex I) contains more than 40 subunits, whereas its structurally simpler bacterial counterpart (NDH-1) in Paracoccus denitrificans and Thermus thermophilus HB-8 consists of 14 subunits. A major unsolved question is the location and mechanism of the

Franz Schuler; Takahiro Yano; Salvatore di Bernardo; Takao Yagi; Victoria Yankovskaya; Thomas P. Singer; John E. Casida

1999-01-01

215

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of formate oxidase, an enzyme of the glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase family.  

PubMed

Formate oxidase (FOD), which catalyzes the oxidation of formate to yield carbon dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, belongs to the glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase (GMCO) family. FOD from Aspergillus oryzae RIB40, which has a modified FAD as a cofactor, was crystallized at 293 K by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystal was orthorhombic and belonged to space group C222(1). Diffraction data were collected from a single crystal to 2.4 A resolution. PMID:20823527

Maeda, Yoshifumi; Doubayashi, Daiju; Ootake, Takumi; Oki, Masaya; Mikami, Bunzo; Uchida, Hiroyuki

2010-08-26

216

Properties of 2Oxoglutarate:Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase from Thauera aromatica and Its Role in Enzymatic Reduction of the Aromatic Ring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benzoyl coenzyme A (benzoyl-CoA) reductase is a key enzyme in the anaerobic metabolism of aromatic compounds catalyzing the ATP-driven reductive dearomatization of benzoyl-CoA. The enzyme from Thauera aromatica uses a reduced 2(4Fe-4S) ferredoxin as electron donor. In this work, we identified 2-oxoglutarate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase (KGOR) as the ferredoxin reducing enzyme. KGOR activity was increased 10- to 50-fold in T. aromatica

Edith Dorner; Matthias Boll

2002-01-01

217

A steady-state and pre-steady-state kinetics study of the tungstoenzyme formaldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase from Pyrococcus furiosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formaldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase from Pyrococcus furiosus is a homotetrameric protein with one tungstodipterin and one [4Fe–4S] cubane per 69-kDa subunit. The enzyme kinetics have been studied under steady-state conditions at 80 °C and pre-steady state conditions at 50 °C, in the latter case via monitoring of the relatively weak (? ? 2 mM?1 cm?1) optical spectrum of the tungsten cofactor.

E. Bol; N. J. Broers; W. R. Hagen

2007-01-01

218

A steady-state and pre-steady-state kinetics study of the tungstoenzyme formaldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase from Pyrococcus furiosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formaldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase from Pyrococcus furiosus is a homotetrameric protein with onetungstodipterin and one [4Fe–4S] cubane per 69-kDa subunit. The enzyme kinetics have been studied understeady-state conditions at 80 C and pre-steady state conditions at 50 C, in the latter case via monitoring of the relatively weak (e ~ 2 mM–1 cm–1) optical spectrum of the tungsten cofactor. The steady-state

E. Bol; N. J. Broers; W. R. Hagen

2007-01-01

219

Deficiency of Electron Transfer Flavoprotein or Electron Transfer Flavoprotein:Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase in Glutaric Acidemia Type II Fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutaric acidemia type II (GA II) is a human genetic disorder. It has been suggested that the primary defect in this disorder is a deficiency of a protein involved in electron transport between the acyl-CoA dehydrogenases and the bc1 complex of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Antisera were raised to purified porcine electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) and electron transfer flavoprotein:ubiquinone oxidoreductase

Frank E. Frerman; Stephen I. Goodman

1985-01-01

220

The Crystal Structure of NAD(P)H Quinone Oxidoreductase 1 in Complex with Its Potent Inhibitor Dicoumarol †  

Microsoft Academic Search

NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is a ubiquitous flavoenzyme that catalyzes two- electron reduction of quinones to hydroquinones utilizing NAD(P)H as an electron donor. NQO1 binds and stabilizes several short-lived proteins including the tumor suppressors p53 and p73 and the enzyme ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). Dicoumarol is a widely used potent competitive inhibitor of NQO1 enzymatic activity, which competes with NAD(P)H

Gad Asher; Orly Dym; Peter Tsvetkov; Julia Adler; Yosef Shaul

2006-01-01

221

Antiparasitic Drug Nitazoxanide Inhibits the Pyruvate Oxidoreductases of Helicobacter pylori, Selected Anaerobic Bacteria and Parasites, and Campylobacter jejuni  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitazoxanide (NTZ) exhibits broad-spectrum activity against anaerobic bacteria and parasites and the ulcer-causing pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Here we show that NTZ is a noncompetitive inhibitor (Ki ,2t o 10 M) of the pyruvate:ferredoxin\\/flavodoxin oxidoreductases (PFORs) of Trichomonas vaginalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens, H. pylori, and Campylobacter jejuni and is weakly active against the pyruvate dehydrogenase of

Paul S. Hoffman; Gary Sisson; Matthew A. Croxen; Kevin Welch; W. Dean Harman; Nunilo Cremades; Michael G. Morash

2007-01-01

222

Failure to detect delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase activity in the preimplantation rabbit embryo  

SciTech Connect

Preimplantation rabbit embryos were incubated with pregnenolone and dehydroisoandrosterone under conditions which gave formazan precipitation by the histochemical technique. The metabolic fate of the labeled steroids were assessed simultaneously. There was no concomitant transformation of pregnenolone to progesterone and dehydroisoandrosterone was not transformed to androstenedione. It is concluded that the formazan precipitation is coupled with an activity other than delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase.

Bleau, G.

1981-02-01

223

Substrate Specificity of the Oxidoreductase ERp57 Is Determined Primarily by Its Interaction with Calnexin and Calreticulin*  

PubMed Central

The formation of disulfides within proteins entering the secretory pathway is catalyzed by the protein disulfide isomerase family of endoplasmic reticulum localized oxidoreductases. One such enzyme, ERp57, is thought to catalyze the isomerization of non-native disulfide bonds formed in glycoproteins with unstructured disulfide-rich domains. Here we investigated the mechanism underlying ERp57 specificity toward glycoprotein substrates and the interdependence of ERp57 and the calnexin cycle for their correct folding. Our results clearly show that ERp57 must be physically associated with the calnexin cycle to catalyze isomerization reactions with most of its substrates. In addition, some glycoproteins only require ERp57 for correct disulfide formation if they enter the calnexin cycle. Hence, the specificity of ER oxidoreductases is not only determined by the physical association of enzyme and substrate but also by accessory factors, such as calnexin and calreticulin in the case of ERp57. These conclusions suggest that the calnexin cycle has evolved with a specialized oxidoreductase to facilitate native disulfide formation in complex glycoproteins.

Jessop, Catherine E.; Tavender, Timothy J.; Watkins, Rachel H.; Chambers, Joseph E.; Bulleid, Neil J.

2009-01-01

224

NAD(P)H:Quinone Oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) in the Sensitivity and Resistance to Antitumor Quinones  

PubMed Central

The quinone pharmacophore is present in many drug classes but is particularly common among antitumor drugs. Many quinones serve essentially as pro-drugs and exert their activities after reduction. Reduction of quinones may generate semiquinones or hydroquinones with subsequent generation of reactive oxygen radicals and oxidative stress, quinones can be designed so they lose a leaving group when reduced to the hydroquinone generating a reactive electrophile or the hydroquinone form of the molecule may have greater pharmacological activity than the parent quinone against a particular target. Enzyme systems that reduce quinones therefore become critically important in the pharmacological activity of this class of drugs. There are a number of enzyme systems that can catalyze reduction of quinones including cytochrome P450 reductase, cytochrome b5 reductase, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2), carbonyl reductases, and thioredoxin reductase. In this context, one of the most extensively studied reductases has been NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). In this review we will focus on the role of NQO1 in the bioactivation of clinically important quinones mitomycin C, ?-lapachone and 17AAG as well as the influence of the NQO1*2 polymorphism on the sensitivity and resistance to these agents.

Siegel, David; Yan, Chao; Ross, David

2012-01-01

225

Cation transport by the respiratory NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (complex I): facts and hypotheses.  

PubMed

The respiratory complex I (electrogenic NADH:quinone oxidoreductase) has been considered to act exclusively as a H+ pump. This was questioned when the search for the NADH-driven respiratory Na+ pump in Klebsiella pneumoniae initiated by Peter Dimroth led to the discovery of a Na+-translocating complex in this enterobacterium. The 3D structures of complex I from different organisms support the idea that the mechanism of cation transport by complex I involves conformational changes of the membrane-bound NuoL, NuoM and NuoN subunits. In vitro methods to follow Na+ transport were compared with in vivo approaches to test whether complex I, or its individual NuoL, NuoM or NuoN subunits, extrude Na+ from the cytoplasm to the periplasm of bacterial host cells. The truncated NuoL subunit of the Escherichia coli complex I which comprises amino acids 1-369 exhibits Na+ transport activity in vitro. This observation, together with an analysis of putative cation channels in NuoL, suggests that there exists in NuoL at least one continuous pathway for cations lined by amino acid residues from transmembrane segments 3, 4, 5, 7 and 8. Finally, we discuss recent studies on Na+ transport by mitochondrial complex I with respect to its putative role in the cycling of Na+ ions across the inner mitochondrial membrane. PMID:24059520

Steffen, Wojtek; Steuber, Julia

2013-10-01

226

A new structure-based classification of sulfide:quinone oxidoreductases.  

PubMed

Sulfide:quinone oxidoreductases (SQR) are ubiquitous membrane-bound flavoproteins involved in sulfide detoxification, in sulfide-dependent energy conservation processes and potenatially in the homeostasis of the neurotransmitter sulfide. The first 2 structures of SQRs from the bacterium Aquifex aeolicus (Marcia et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2009; 106:9625-9630) and the archaeon Acidianus ambivalens (Brito et al., Biochemistry 2009; 48:5613-5622) were determined recently by X-ray crystallography revealing unexpected differences in the active sites and in flavin adenine dinucleotide binding. Besides the reciprocal differences, they show a different conformation of the active site compared with another sulfide oxidizing enzyme, the flavocytochrome c:sulfide dehydrogenase (FCSD) from Allochromatium vinosum (protein data bank id: 1FCD). In addition to the new structural data, the number of available SQR-like protein sequences is continuously increasing (Pham et al., Microbiology 2008; 154:3112-3121) and the SQR activity of new members of this protein family was recently proven too (Chan et al., J Bacteriol 2009; 191:1026-1034). In the light of the new data, here we revisit the previously proposed contradictory SQR classification and we define new structure-based sequence fingerprints that support a subdivision of the SQR family into six groups. Our report summarizes the state-of-art knowledge about SQRs and highlights the questions that still remain unanswered. Despite two decades of work already done on these enzymes, new and most exciting discoveries can be expected in the future. PMID:20077566

Marcia, Marco; Ermler, Ulrich; Peng, Guohong; Michel, Hartmut

2010-04-01

227

Sulfide : quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) from the lugworm Arenicola marina shows cyanide- and thioredoxin-dependent activity.  

PubMed

The lugworm Arenicola marina inhabits marine sediments in which sulfide concentrations can reach up to 2 mM. Although sulfide is a potent toxin for humans and most animals, because it inhibits mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase at micromolar concentrations, A. marina can use electrons from sulfide for mitochondrial ATP production. In bacteria, electron transfer from sulfide to quinone is catalyzed by the membrane-bound flavoprotein sulfide : quinone oxidoreductase (SQR). A cDNA from A. marina was isolated and expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which lacks endogenous SQR. The heterologous enzyme was active in mitochondrial membranes. After affinity purification, Arenicola SQR isolated from yeast mitochondria reduced decyl-ubiquinone (K(m) = 6.4 microm) after the addition of sulfide (K(m) = 23 microm) only in the presence of cyanide (K(m) = 2.6 mM). The end product of the reaction was thiocyanate. When cyanide was substituted by Escherichia coli thioredoxin and sulfite, SQR exhibited one-tenth of the cyanide-dependent activity. Six amino acids known to be essential for bacterial SQR were exchanged by site-directed mutagenesis. None of the mutant enzymes was active after expression in yeast, implicating these amino acids in the catalytic mechanism of the eukaryotic enzyme. PMID:18248458

Theissen, Ursula; Martin, William

2008-02-01

228

Response of sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase to sulfide exposure in the echiuran worm Urechis unicinctus.  

PubMed

Sulfide is a natural, widely distributed, poisonous substance, and sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) is responsible for the initial oxidation of sulfide in mitochondria. In this study, we examined the response of SQR to sulfide exposure (25, 50, and 150 ?M) at mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity levels in the body wall and hindgut of the echiuran worm Urechis unicinctus, a benthic organism living in marine sediments. The results revealed SQR mRNA expression during sulfide exposure in the body wall and hindgut increased in a time- and concentration-dependent manner that increased significantly at 12 h and continuously increased with time. At the protein level, SQR expression in the two tissues showed a time-dependent relationship that increased significantly at 12 h in 50 ?M sulfide and 6 h in 150 ?M, and then continued to increase with time while no significant increase appeared after 25 ?M sulfide exposure. SQR enzyme activity in both tissues increased significantly in a time-dependent manner after 50 ?M sulfide exposure. We concluded that SQR expression could be induced by sulfide exposure and that the two tissues studied have dissimilar sulfide metabolic patterns. A U. unicinctus sulfide-induced detoxification mechanism was also discussed. PMID:21997848

Ma, Yu-Bin; Zhang, Zhi-Feng; Shao, Ming-Yu; Kang, Kyoung-Ho; Shi, Xiao-Li; Dong, Ying-Ping; Li, Jin-Long

2011-10-14

229

On the Importance of Anion-? Interactions in the Mechanism of Sulfide:Quinone Oxidoreductase.  

PubMed

Sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) is a flavin-dependent enzyme that plays a physiological role in two important processes. First, it is responsible for sulfide detoxification by oxidizing sulfide ions (S(2-) and HS(-) ) to elementary sulfur and the electrons are first transferred to flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), which in turn passes them to the quinone pool in the membrane. Second, in sulfidotrophic bacteria, SQRs play a key role in the sulfide-dependent respiration and anaerobic photosynthesis, deriving energy for their growth from reduced sulfur. Two mechanisms of action for SQR have been proposed: first, nucleophilic attack of a Cys residue on the C4 of FAD, and second, an alternate anionic radical mechanism by direct electron transfer from Cys to the isoalloxazine ring of FAD. Both mechanisms involve a common anionic intermediate that it is stabilized by a relevant anion-? interaction and its previous formation (from HS(-) and Cys-S-S-Cys) is also facilitated by reducing the transition-state barrier, owing to an interaction that involves the ? system of FAD. By analyzing the X-ray structures of SQRs available in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and using DFT calculations, we demonstrate the relevance of the anion-? interaction in the enzymatic mechanism. PMID:23907989

Bauzá, Antonio; Quiñonero, David; Deyà, Pere M; Frontera, Antonio

2013-07-31

230

Simultaneous treatment with citrate prevents nephropathy induced by FYX-051, a xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, in rats.  

PubMed

The possible mechanism of the underlying nephropathy found in the rat toxicity study of FYX-051, a xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, was investigated. Rats received oral treatment of either 1 or 3 mg/kg of FYX-051, with and without citrate for four weeks to elucidate whether nephropathy could be caused by materials deposited in the kidney. Furthermore, analysis of the renal deposits in rats was also performed. Consequently, interstitial nephritis comprising interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration, dilatation, basophilia and epithelial necrosis of renal tubules and collecting ducts, deposits in renal tubules and collecting ducts, and so forth was seen in six of the eight rats and in all eight rats in the 1 and 3 mg/kg FYX-051 alone groups, respectively, with the intensity in the 3 mg/kg group being moderate to severe. In the simultaneous treatment with citrate group, however, no alterations were observed in the kidney, except for minimal interstitial nephritis in one instance in the 3 mg/kg FYX-051 + citrate group along with an increased urinary pH, leading to an increase in xanthine solubility. Analysis of intrarenal deposits showed that the entity would be composed of xanthine crystals. The present study, therefore, showed that nephropathy in rats occurring after the administration of FYX-051 was a secondary change caused by xanthine crystals being deposited in the kidney, and no other causes could be implicated in this kidney lesion. PMID:15933230

Shimo, Takeo; Ashizawa, Naoki; Matsumoto, Koji; Nakazawa, Takashi; Nagata, Osamu

2005-06-02

231

FYX-051, a xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, induces nephropathy in rats, but not in monkeys.  

PubMed

The present studies were performed to investigate the possible mechanism of marked species differences on nephropathy found in the long-term toxicity study of FYX-051, a xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor. In the twenty-six-week dose toxicity study in the rat, in which FYX-051 was administered by oral gavage at 0.04, 0.2, and 1 mg/kg, xanthine-mediated nephropathy was seen only at 1 mg/kg, despite the presence of xanthine crystals in urine at 0.2 mg/kg and more; however, in the fifty-two-week dose toxicity study in the monkey, in which FYX-051 was administered by oral gavage at 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg, no toxicities were seen, even at 300 mg/kg. These outcomes showed there would be 1500-fold or more differences in the mode of intrarenal xanthine deposition between rats and monkeys. Thus we performed the mechanistic study, and the following outcomes were obtained. First, the amount of urinary purine metabolites was thirty-fold higher in rats than in monkeys. Second, urinary xanthine solubility was sixfold higher in monkeys than in rats. Third, exposure levels of FYX-051 were five-fold higher in rats than in monkeys. Therefore, the present study indicated that the combined effects of purine metabolism, urinary xanthine solubility, and toxicokinetics would contribute to species differences in nephropathy, that is, absence of xanthine-mediated nephropathy in monkeys even at the highest dose of FYX-051. PMID:19336671

Shimo, Takeo; Ashizawa, Naoki; Moto, Mitsuyoshi; Matsumoto, Koji; Iwanaga, Takashi; Nagata, Osamu

2009-03-31

232

Structural and biochemical characterization of the oxidoreductase NmDsbA3 from Neisseria meningitidis.  

PubMed

DsbA is an enzyme found in the periplasm of Gram-negative bacteria that catalyzes the formation of disulfide bonds in a diverse array of protein substrates, many of which are involved in bacterial pathogenesis. Although most bacteria possess only a single essential DsbA, Neisseria meningitidis is unusual in that it possesses three DsbAs, although the reason for this additional redundancy is unclear. Two of these N. meningitidis enzymes (NmDsbA1 and NmDsbA2) play an important role in meningococcal attachment to human epithelial cells, whereas NmDsbA3 is considered to have a narrow substrate repertoire. To begin to address the role of DsbAs in the pathogenesis of N. meningitidis, we have determined the structure of NmDsbA3 to 2.3-A resolution. Although the sequence identity between NmDsbA3 and other DsbAs is low, the NmDsbA3 structure adopted a DsbA-like fold. Consistent with this finding, we demonstrated that NmDsbA3 acts as a thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase in vitro and is reoxidized by Escherichia coli DsbB (EcDsbB). However, pronounced differences in the structures between DsbA3 and EcDsbA, which are clustered around the active site of the enzyme, suggested a structural basis for the unusual substrate specificity that is observed for NmDsbA3. PMID:18715864

Vivian, Julian P; Scoullar, Jessica; Robertson, Amy L; Bottomley, Stephen P; Horne, James; Chin, Yanni; Wielens, Jerome; Thompson, Philip E; Velkov, Tony; Piek, Susannah; Byres, Emma; Beddoe, Travis; Wilce, Matthew C J; Kahler, Charlene M; Rossjohn, Jamie; Scanlon, Martin J

2008-08-20

233

Structure and function of the oxidoreductase DsbA1 from Neisseria meningitidis.  

PubMed

Neisseria meningitidis encodes three DsbA oxidoreductases (NmDsbA1-NmDsbA3) that are vital for the oxidative folding of many membrane and secreted proteins, and these three enzymes are considered to exhibit different substrate specificities. This has led to the suggestion that each N. meningitidis DsbA (NmDsbA) may play a specialized role in different stages of pathogenesis; however, the molecular and structural bases of the different roles of NmDsbAs are unclear. With the aim of determining the molecular basis for substrate specificity and how this correlates to pathogenesis, we undertook a biochemical and structural characterization of the three NmDsbAs. We report the 2.0-A-resolution crystal structure of the oxidized form of NmDsbA1, which adopted a canonical DsbA fold similar to that observed in the structures of NmDsbA3 and Escherichia coli DsbA (EcDsbA). Structural comparisons revealed variations around the active site and candidate peptide-binding region. Additionally, we demonstrate that all three NmDsbAs are strong oxidases with similar redox potentials; however, they differ from EcDsbA in their ability to be reoxidized by E. coli DsbB. Collectively, our studies suggest that the small structural differences between the NmDsbA enzymes and EcDsbA are functionally significant and are the likely determinants of substrate specificity. PMID:19815019

Vivian, Julian P; Scoullar, Jessica; Rimmer, Kieran; Bushell, Simon R; Beddoe, Travis; Wilce, Matthew C J; Byres, Emma; Boyle, Tristan P; Doak, Bradley; Simpson, Jamie S; Graham, Bim; Heras, Begoña; Kahler, Charlene M; Rossjohn, Jamie; Scanlon, Martin J

2009-10-06

234

Kinetic characterisation of the light-driven protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) from Thermosynechococcus elongatus.  

PubMed

The light-driven enzyme NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) catalyses the reduction of the C17-C18 double bond of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to chlorophyllide (Chlide), which is a key regulatory step in the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway. POR from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus is an attractive system for following the reaction and in the present work we have carried out a detailed steady state kinetic characterisation of this enzyme. The thermophilic POR was shown to have maximal activity at approximately 50 degrees C, which is similar to the growth temperature of the organism. The V(max) was calculated to be 0.53 microM min(-1) and the K(m) values for NADPH and Pchlide were 0.013 microM and 1.8 microM, respectively. The binding properties for both substrates as well as the NADP(+) product have been analysed by using fluorescence emission measurements, which have allowed the dissociation constants for binding to be calculated. These results represent the first steady state kinetic characterisation of a thermophilic version of POR. PMID:16307122

McFarlane, Michael J; Hunter, C Neil; Heyes, Derren J

2005-09-09

235

Evolving thermostability in mutant libraries of ligninolytic oxidoreductases expressed in yeast  

PubMed Central

Background In the picture of a laboratory evolution experiment, to improve the thermostability whilst maintaining the activity requires of suitable procedures to generate diversity in combination with robust high-throughput protocols. The current work describes how to achieve this goal by engineering ligninolytic oxidoreductases (a high-redox potential laccase -HRPL- and a versatile peroxidase, -VP-) functionally expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results Taking advantage of the eukaryotic machinery, complex mutant libraries were constructed by different in vivo recombination approaches and explored for improved stabilities and activities. A reliable high-throughput assay based on the analysis of T50 was employed for discovering thermostable oxidases from mutant libraries in yeast. Both VP and HRPL libraries contained variants with shifts in the T50 values. Stabilizing mutations were found at the surface of the protein establishing new interactions with the surrounding residues. Conclusions The existing tradeoff between activity and stability determined from many point mutations discovered by directed evolution and other protein engineering means can be circumvented combining different tools of in vitro evolution.

2010-01-01

236

NADH-Monodehydroascorbate Oxidoreductase Is One of the Redox Enzymes in Spinach Leaf Plasma Membranes1  

PubMed Central

Amino acid analysis of internal sequences of purified NADH-hexacyanoferrate(III) oxidoreductase (NFORase), obtained from highly purified plasma membranes (PM) of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves, showed 90 to 100% homology to internal amino acid sequences of monodehydroascorbate (MDA) reductases (EC 1.6.5.4) from three different plant species. Specificity, kinetics, inhibitor sensitivity, and cross-reactivity with anti-MDA reductase antibodies were all consistent with this identification. The right-side-out PM vesicles were subjected to consecutive salt washing and detergent (polyoxyethylene 20 dodecylether and 3-[(3-cholamido-propyl)-dimethylammonio]-1-propane sulfonate [CHAPS]) treatments, and the fractions were analyzed for NFORase and MDA reductase activities. Similar results were obtained when the 300 mm sucrose in the homogenization buffer and in all steps of the salt-washing and detergent treatments had been replaced by 150 mm KCl to mimic the conditions in the cytoplasm. We conclude that (a) MDA reductase is strongly associated with the inner (cytoplasmic) surface of the PM under in vivo conditions and requires washing with 1.0 m KCl or CHAPS treatment for removal, (b) the PM-bound MDA reductase activity is responsible for the majority of PM NFORase activity, and (c) there is another redox enzyme(s) in the spinach leaf PM that cannot be released from the PM by salt-washing and/or CHAPS treatment. The PM-associated MDA reductase may have a role in reduction of ascorbate in both the cytosol and the apoplast.

Berczi, Alajos; M?ller, Ian M.

1998-01-01

237

Structural and Biochemical Characterization of the Oxidoreductase NmDsbA3 from Neisseria meningitidis  

SciTech Connect

DsbA is an enzyme found in the periplasm of Gram-negative bacteria that catalyzes the formation of disulfide bonds in a diverse array of protein substrates, many of which are involved in bacterial pathogenesis. Although most bacteria possess only a single essential DsbA, Neisseria meningitidis is unusual in that it possesses three DsbAs, although the reason for this additional redundancy is unclear. Two of these N. meningitidis enzymes (NmDsbA1 and NmDsbA2) play an important role in meningococcal attachment to human epithelial cells, whereas NmDsbA3 is considered to have a narrow substrate repertoire. To begin to address the role of DsbAs in the pathogenesis of N. meningitidis, we have determined the structure of NmDsbA3 to 2.3-{angstrom} resolution. Although the sequence identity between NmDsbA3 and other DsbAs is low, the NmDsbA3 structure adopted a DsbA-like fold. Consistent with this finding, we demonstrated that NmDsbA3 acts as a thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase in vitro and is reoxidized by Escherichia coli DsbB (EcDsbB). However, pronounced differences in the structures between DsbA3 and EcDsbA, which are clustered around the active site of the enzyme, suggested a structural basis for the unusual substrate specificity that is observed for NmDsbA3.

Vivian, Julian P.; Scoullar, Jessica; Robertson, Amy L.; Bottomley, Stephen P.; Horne, James; Chin, Yanni; Wielens, Jerome; Thompson, Philip E.; Velkov, Tony; Piek, Susannah; Byres, Emma; Beddoe, Travis; Wilce, Matthew C.J.; Kahler, Charlene M.; Rossjohn, Jamie; Scanlon, Martin J. (UWA); (Monash)

2009-09-02

238

Mutagenesis alters the catalytic mechanism of the light-driven enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase.  

PubMed

The light-activated enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) catalyzes an essential step in the synthesis of the most abundant pigment on Earth, chlorophyll. This unique reaction involves the sequential addition of a hydride and proton across the C17=C18 double bond of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) by dynamically coupled quantum tunneling and is an important model system for studying the mechanism of hydrogen transfer reactions. In the present work, we have combined site-directed mutagenesis studies with a variety of sensitive spectroscopic and kinetic measurements to provide new insights into the mechanistic role of three universally conserved Cys residues in POR. We show that mutation of Cys-226 dramatically alters the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme. In contrast to wild-type POR, the characteristic charge-transfer intermediate, formed upon hydride transfer from NADPH to the C17 position of Pchlide, is absent in C226S variant enzymes. This suggests a concerted hydrogen transfer mechanism where proton transfer only is rate-limiting. Moreover, Pchlide reduction does not require the network of solvent-coupled conformational changes that play a key role in the proton transfer step of wild-type POR. We conclude that this globally important enzyme is finely tuned to facilitate efficient photochemistry, and the removal of a key interaction with Pchlide in the C226S variants significantly affects the local active site structure in POR, resulting in a shorter donor-acceptor distance for proton transfer. PMID:19850924

Menon, Binuraj R K; Davison, Paul A; Hunter, C Neil; Scrutton, Nigel S; Heyes, Derren J

2009-10-22

239

Excited state dynamics and catalytic mechanism of the light-driven enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase.  

PubMed

The reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to chlorophyllide, catalysed by the enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR), is the penultimate step in the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway and is a key light-driven reaction that triggers a profound transformation in plant development. As POR is light-activated it can provide new information on the way in which light energy can be harnessed to power enzyme reactions. Consequently, POR presents a unique opportunity to study catalysis at low temperatures and on ultrafast timescales, which are not usually accessible for the majority of enzymes. Recent advances in our understanding of the catalytic mechanism of POR illustrate why it is an important model for studying enzyme catalysis and reaction dynamics. The reaction involves the addition of one hydride and one proton, and catalysis is initiated by the absorption of light by the Pchlide substrate. As the reaction involves the Pchlide excited state, a variety of ultrafast spectroscopic measurements have shown that significant parts of the reaction occur on the picosecond timescale. A number of excited state Pchlide species, including an intramolecular charge transfer complex and a hydrogen bonded intermediate, are proposed to be required for the subsequent hydride and proton transfers, which occur on the microsecond timescale. Herein, we review spectroscopic investigations, with a particular focus on time-resolved transient absorption and fluorescence experiments that have been used to study the excited state dynamics and catalytic mechanism of POR. PMID:22419074

Scrutton, Nigel S; Groot, Marie Louise; Heyes, Derren J

2012-03-14

240

Spectroscopic characterization of the first ultrafast catalytic intermediate in protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase.  

PubMed

The enzyme NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) catalyses the reduction of protochlorophyllide into chlorophyllide, a precursor of chlorophyll a in photosynthetic organisms. The enzyme binds the substrate and the cofactor in the dark and catalysis is initiated by the absorption of light by the substrate. We have carried out spectroscopic measurements with ultrafast time resolution under single pulse conditions, which reveal a biphasic formation of the first catalytic intermediate, I675* with average rates of (3.7 ± 0.7 ps)(-1) and (177 ± 78 ps)(-1), as obtained from a systematic analysis of 15 datasets. Measurements in the mid-IR absorption spectral region show that I675* is associated with a decrease of the PChlide C[double bond, length as m-dash]O keto oscillator strength. The spectroscopic changes in the visible and mid-IR regions are specific for the enzyme reaction as they do not occur in the photoexcited substrate alone. In deuterated samples, the rates of I675* formation are reduced by a factor of 1.5-2 compared to protonated samples, suggesting the involvement of a proton movement in this reaction step. The quantum yield of this step is determined to be 0.64 ± 0.11, and the quantum yield of the final reaction product formed on a later time scale, chlorophyllide, is 0.26 ± 0.06. Several possible interpretations of these data are discussed. PMID:22121506

Sytina, Olga A; van Stokkum, Ivo H M; Heyes, Derren J; Hunter, C Neil; Groot, Marie Louise

2011-11-28

241

Structure of ADP-aluminium fluoride-stabilized protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase complex  

PubMed Central

Photosynthesis uses chlorophylls for the conversion of light into chemical energy, the driving force of life on Earth. During chlorophyll biosynthesis in photosynthetic bacteria, cyanobacteria, green algae and gymnosperms, dark-operative protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (DPOR), a nitrogenase-like metalloenzyme, catalyzes the chemically challenging two-electron reduction of the fully conjugated ring system of protochlorophyllide a. The reduction of the C-17=C-18 double bond results in the characteristic ring architecture of all chlorophylls, thereby altering the absorption properties of the molecule and providing the basis for light-capturing and energy-transduction processes of photosynthesis. We report the X-ray crystallographic structure of the substrate-bound, ADP-aluminium fluoride–stabilized (ADP·AlF3-stabilized) transition state complex between the DPOR components L2 and (NB)2 from the marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus marinus. Our analysis permits a thorough investigation of the dynamic interplay between L2 and (NB)2. Upon complex formation, substantial ATP-dependent conformational rearrangements of L2 trigger the protein–protein interactions with (NB)2 as well as the electron transduction via redox-active [4Fe–4S] clusters. We also present the identification of artificial “small-molecule substrates” of DPOR in correlation with those of nitrogenase. The catalytic differences and similarities between DPOR and nitrogenase have broad implications for the energy transduction mechanism of related multiprotein complexes that are involved in the reduction of chemically stable double and/or triple bonds.

Moser, Jurgen; Lange, Christiane; Krausze, Joern; Rebelein, Johannes; Schubert, Wolf-Dieter; Ribbe, Markus W.; Heinz, Dirk W.; Jahn, Dieter

2013-01-01

242

Chemical nature and reaction mechanisms of the molybdenum cofactor of xanthine oxidoreductase.  

PubMed

Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR), a complex flavoprotein, catalyzes the metabolic reactions leading from hypoxanthine to xanthine and from xanthine to urate, and both reactions take place at the molybdenum cofactor. The enzyme is a target of drugs for therapy of gout or hyperuricemia. We review the chemical nature and reaction mechanisms of the molybdenum cofactor of XOR, focusing on molybdenum-dependent reactions of actual or potential medical importance, including nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. It is now generally accepted that XOR transfers the water-exchangeable -OH ligand of the molybdenum atom to the substrate. The hydroxyl group at OH-Mo(IV) can be replaced by urate, oxipurinol and FYX-051 derivatives and the structures of these complexes have been determined by xray crystallography under anaerobic conditions. Although formation of NO from nitrite or formation of xanthine from urate by XOR ischemically feasible, it is not yet clear whether these reactions have any physiological significance since the reactions are catalyzed at a slow rate even under anaerobic conditions. PMID:23116398

Okamoto, Ken; Kusano, Teruo; Nishino, Takeshi

2013-01-01

243

Genes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Illustration of the placement of genes in a chromosome. A gene can be defined as a region of DNA that controls a hereditary characteristic. It usually corresponds to a sequence used in the production of a specific protein or RNA. A gene carries biological information in a form that must be copied and transmitted from each cell to all its progeny. This includes the entire functional unit: coding DNA sequences, non-coding regulatory DNA sequences, and introns. Genes can be as short as 1000 base pairs or as long as several hundred thousand base pairs. It can even be carried by more than one chromosome. The estimate for the number of genes in humans has decreased as our knowledge has increased. As of 2001, humans are thought to have between 30,000 and 40,000 genes.

Excellence, Access

2005-03-12

244

The physiological importance of photosynthetic ferredoxin NADP+ oxidoreductase (FNR) isoforms in wheat.  

PubMed

Ferredoxin NADP(+) oxidoreductase (FNR) enzymes catalyse electron transfer between ferredoxin and NADPH. In plants, a photosynthetic FNR (pFNR) transfers electrons from reduced ferredoxin to NADPH for the final step of linear electron flow, providing reductant for carbon fixation. pFNR is also thought to play important roles in two different mechanisms of cyclic electron flow around photosystem I; and photosynthetic reductant is itself partitioned between competing linear, cyclic, and alternative electron flow pathways. Four pFNR protein isoforms in wheat that display distinct reaction kinetics with leaf-type ferredoxin have previously been identified. It has been suggested that these isoforms may be crucial to the regulation of reductant partition between carbon fixation and other metabolic pathways. Here the 12 cm primary wheat leaf has been used to show that the alternative N-terminal pFNRI and pFNRII protein isoforms have statistically significant differences in response to the physiological parameters of chloroplast maturity, nitrogen regime, and oxidative stress. More specifically, the results obtained suggest that the alternative N-terminal forms of pFNRI have distinct roles in the partitioning of photosynthetic reductant. The role of alternative N-terminal processing of pFNRI is also discussed in terms of its importance for thylakoid targeting. The results suggest that the four pFNR protein isoforms are each present in the chloroplast in phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated states. pFNR isoforms vary in putative phosphorylation responses to physiological parameters, but the physiological significance requires further investigation. PMID:20410318

Moolna, Adam; Bowsher, Caroline G

2010-04-21

245

Purification, characterization, and properties of an aryl aldehyde oxidoreductase from Nocardia sp. strain NRRL 5646.  

PubMed Central

An aryl aldehyde oxidoreductase from Nocardia sp. strain NRRL 5646 was purified 196-fold by a combination of Mono-Q, Reactive Green 19 agarose affinity, and hydroxyapatite chromatographies. The purified enzyme runs as a single band of 140 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The molecular mass was estimated to be 163 +/- 3.8 kDa by gel filtration, indicating that this enzyme is a monomeric protein. The binding of the enzyme to Reactive Green 19 agarose was Mg2+ dependent. The binding capacity was estimated to be about 0.2 mg of Reactive Green agarose per ml in the presence of 10 mM MgCl2. This enzyme can catalyze the reduction of a wide range of aryl carboxylic acids, including substituted benzoic acids, phenyl-substituted aliphatic acids, heterocyclic carboxylic acids, and polyaromatic ring carboxylic acids, to produce the corresponding aldehydes. The Km values for benzoate, ATP, and NADPH were determined to be 645 +/- 75, 29.3 +/- 3.1, and 57.3 +/- 12.5 microM, respectively. The Vmax was determined to be 0.902 +/- 0.04 micromol/min/mg of protein. Km values for (S)-(+)-alpha-methyl-4-(2-methylpropyl)-benzeneacetic acid (ibuprofen) and its (R)-(-) isomer were determined to be 155 +/- 18 and 34.5 +/- 2.5 microM, respectively. The Vmax for the (S)-(+) and (R)-(-) isomers were 1.33 and 0.15 micromol/min/mg of protein, respectively. Anthranilic acid is a competitive inhibitor with benzoic acid as a substrate, with a Ki of 261 +/- 30 microM. The N-terminal and internal amino acid sequences of a 76-kDa peptide from limited alpha-chymotrypsin digestion were determined.

Li, T; Rosazza, J P

1997-01-01

246

Role of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 in clofibrate-mediated hepatoprotection from acetaminophen.  

PubMed

Mice pretreated with the peroxisome proliferator clofibrate (CFB) are resistant to acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity. Whereas the mechanism of protection is not entirely known, CFB decreases protein adducts formed by the reactive metabolite of APAP, N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI). NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is an enzyme with antioxidant properties that is responsible for the reduction of cellular quinones. We hypothesized that CFB increases NQO1 activity, which in turn enhances the conversion of NAPQI back to the parent APAP. This could explain the decreases in APAP covalent binding and glutathione depletion produced by CFB without affecting APAP bioactivation to NAPQI. Administration of CFB (500mg/kg, i.p.) to male CD-1 mice for 5 or 10 days increased NQO1 protein and activity levels. To evaluate the capacity of NQO1 to reduce NAPQI back to APAP, we utilized a microsomal activating system. Cytochrome P450 enzymes present in microsomes bioactivate APAP to NAPQI, which binds the electrophile trapping agent, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). We analyzed the formation of APAP-NAC metabolite in the presence of human recombinant NQO1. Results indicate that NQO1 is capable of reducing NAPQI. The capacity of NQO1 to amelioriate APAP toxicity was then evaluated in primary hepatocytes. Primary hepatocytes isolated from mice dosed with CFB are resistant to APAP toxicity. These hepatocytes were also exposed to ES936, a high affinity, and irreversible inhibitor of NQO1 in the presence of APAP. Concentrations of ES936 that resulted in over 94% inhibition of NQO1 activity did not increase the susceptibility of hepatocytes from CFB treated mice to APAP. Whereas NQO1 is mechanistically capable of reducing NAPQI, CFB-mediated hepatoprotection does not appear to be dependent upon enhanced expression of NQO1. PMID:17188792

Moffit, Jeffrey S; Aleksunes, Lauren M; Kardas, Michael J; Slitt, Angela L; Klaassen, Curtis D; Manautou, José E

2006-11-19

247

Synergistic enhancement of antitumor effect of ?-Lapachone by photodynamic induction of quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1).  

PubMed

?-Lapachone is a phytochemotherapeutic originally isolated from Lapacho tree whose extract has been used medicinally for centuries. It is well known that NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) activity is the principal determinant of ?-Lapachone cytotoxicity. As NQO1 is overexpressed in most common carcinomas, recent investigations suggest its potential application against cancer. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinically approved and rapidly developing cancer treatment. PDT involves the administration of photosensitizer (PS) followed by local illumination with visible light of specific wavelength. In the presence of oxygen molecules, the light illumination of PS can lead to a series of photochemical reactions and consequently the generation of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS). It has been reported that ?-Lapachone synergistically interacts with ionizing radiation, hyperthermia and cisplatin and that the sensitivity of cells to ?-Lapachone is closely related to the activity of NQO1. So, the present study aimed to investigate the feasibility of PDT to increase the anticancer effect of ?-Lapachone by up-regulating NQO1 expression on breast cancer MCF-7c3 cells. NQO1 expression was evaluated by Western blot analysis at different times after PDT using ME-ALA as PS. The cytotoxicity of the photodynamic treatment and ?-Lapachone alone or in combination was determined by MTT assay and the combination index (CI)-isobologram method and the dose reduction index (DRI) analysis were used to assess the effect of drug combinations. Our studies for the first time demonstrated that the expression of NQO1 is induced 24h after photodynamic treatment. The sensitivity of cancer cells to ?-Lapachone treatment increased 24h after PDT and a synergistic inhibitory effect on MCF-7c3 cells was showed. Taken together, these results lead us to conclude that the synergistic interaction between ?-Lapachone and PDT in killing cells was consistent with the up-regulation of NQO1. The combination of ?-Lapachone and PDT is a potentially promising modality for the treatment of cancer. PMID:23746950

Lamberti, María Julia; Vittar, Natalia Belén Rumie; da Silva, Fernando de Carvalho; Ferreira, Vitor Francisco; Rivarola, Viviana Alicia

2013-06-07

248

Identification of a Lactate-Quinone Oxidoreductase in Staphylococcus aureus that is Essential for Virulence  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen commonly infecting nearly every host tissue. The ability of S. aureus to resist innate immunity is critical to its success as a pathogen, including its propensity to grow in the presence of host nitric oxide (NO·). Upon exogenous NO· exposure, S. aureus immediately excretes copious amounts of L-lactate to maintain redox balance. However, after prolonged NO·-exposure, S. aureus reassimilates L-lactate specifically and in this work, we identify the enzyme responsible for this L-lactate-consumption as a L-lactate-quinone oxidoreductase (Lqo, SACOL2623). Originally annotated as Mqo2 and thought to oxidize malate, we show that this enzyme exhibits no affinity for malate but reacts specifically with L-lactate (KM?=??330??M). In addition to its requirement for reassimilation of L-lactate during NO·-stress, Lqo is also critical to respiratory growth on L-lactate as a sole carbon source. Moreover, ?lqo mutants exhibit attenuation in a murine model of sepsis, particularly in their ability to cause myocarditis. Interestingly, this cardiac-specific attenuation is completely abrogated in mice unable to synthesize inflammatory NO· (iNOS?/?). We demonstrate that S. aureus NO·-resistance is highly dependent on the availability of a glycolytic carbon sources. However, S. aureus can utilize the combination of peptides and L-lactate as carbon sources during NO·-stress in an Lqo-dependent fashion. Murine cardiac tissue has markedly high levels of L-lactate in comparison to renal or hepatic tissue consistent with the NO·-dependent requirement for Lqo in S. aureus myocarditis. Thus, Lqo provides S. aureus with yet another means of replicating in the presence of host NO·.

Fuller, James R.; Vitko, Nicholas P.; Perkowski, Ellen F.; Scott, Eric; Khatri, Dal; Spontak, Jeffrey S.; Thurlow, Lance R.; Richardson, Anthony R.

2011-01-01

249

Evidence for two sites of superoxide production by mitochondrial NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I).  

PubMed

Complex I (NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase) can form superoxide during forward electron flow (NADH-oxidizing) or, at sufficiently high protonmotive force, during reverse electron transport from the ubiquinone (Q) pool (NAD(+)-reducing). We designed an assay system to allow titration of the redox state of the superoxide-generating site during reverse electron transport in rat skeletal muscle mitochondria: a protonmotive force generated by ATP hydrolysis, succinate:malonate to alter electron supply and modulate the redox state of the Q pool, and inhibition of complex III to prevent QH(2) oxidation via the Q cycle. Stepwise oxidation of the QH(2)/Q pool by increasing malonate concentration slowed the rates of both reverse electron transport and rotenone-sensitive superoxide production by complex I. However, the superoxide production rate was not uniquely related to the resultant potential of the NADH/NAD(+) redox couple. Thus, there is a superoxide producer during reverse electron transport at complex I that responds to Q pool redox state and is not in equilibrium with the NAD reduction state. In contrast, superoxide production during forward electron transport in the presence of rotenone was uniquely related to NAD redox state. These results support a two-site model of complex I superoxide production; one site in equilibrium with the NAD pool, presumably the flavin of the FMN moiety (site I(F)) and the other dependent not only on NAD redox state, but also on protonmotive force and the reduction state of the Q pool, presumably a semiquinone in the Q-binding site (site I(Q)). PMID:21659507

Treberg, Jason R; Quinlan, Casey L; Brand, Martin D

2011-06-08

250

Impaired hepatic drug and steroid metabolism in congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to P450 oxidoreductase deficiency  

PubMed Central

Objective Patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to P450 oxidoreductase (POR) deficiency (ORD) present with disordered sex development and glucocorticoid deficiency. This is due to disruption of electron transfer from mutant POR to microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes that play a key role in glucocorticoid and sex steroid synthesis. POR also transfers electrons to all major drug-metabolizing CYP enzymes, including CYP3A4 that inactivates glucocorticoid and oestrogens. However, whether ORD results in impairment of in vivo drug metabolism has never been studied. Design We studied an adult patient with ORD due to homozygous POR A287P, the most frequent POR mutation in Caucasians, and her clinically unaffected, heterozygous mother. The patient had received standard dose oestrogen replacement from 17 until 37 years of age when it was stopped after she developed breast cancer. Methods Both subjects underwent in vivo cocktail phenotyping comprising the oral administration of caffeine, tolbutamide, omeprazole, dextromethorphan hydrobromide and midazolam to assess the five major drug-metabolizing CYP enzymes. We also performed genotyping for variant CYP alleles known to affect drug metabolism. Results Though CYP enzyme genotyping predicted normal or high enzymatic activities in both subjects, in vivo assessment showed subnormal activities of CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 in the patient and of CYP1A2 and CYP2C9 in her mother. Conclusions Our results provide in vivo evidence for an important role of POR in regulating drug metabolism and detoxification. In patients with ORD, in vivo assessment of drug-metabolizing activities with subsequent tailoring of drug therapy and steroid replacement should be considered.

Tomalik-Scharte, Dorota; Maiter, Dominique; Kirchheiner, Julia; Ivison, Hannah E; Fuhr, Uwe; Arlt, Wiebke

2010-01-01

251

Purification and characterization of the MQH2:NO oxidoreductase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrobaculum aerophilum.  

PubMed

The membrane-bound NO reductase from the hyperthermophilic denitrifying archaeon Pyrobaculum aerophilum was purified to homogeneity. The enzyme displays MQH2:NO oxidoreductase (qNOR) activity, consists of a single subunit, and contains heme and nonheme iron in a 2:1 ratio. The combined results of EPR, resonance Raman, and UV-visible spectroscopy show that one of the hemes is bis-His-coordinated low spin (gz = 3.015; gy = 2.226; gx = 1.45), whereas the other heme adopts a high spin configuration. The enzyme also contains one nonheme iron center, which in the oxidized enzyme is antiferromagnetically coupled to the high spin heme. This binuclear high spin heme/nonheme iron center is EPR-silent and the site of NO reduction. The reduced high spin heme is bound to a neutral histidine and can bind CO to form of a low spin complex. The oxidized high spin heme binds NO, yielding a ferric nitrosyl complex, the intermediate causing the commonly found substrate inhibition in NO reductases (Ki(NO) = 7 microm). The qNOR as present in the membrane is, in contrast to the purified enzyme, quite thermostable, incubation at 100 degrees C for 86 min leading to 50% inhibition. The pure enzyme lacks heme b and instead contains stoichiometric amounts of hemes Op1 and Op2, ethenylgeranylgeranyl and hydroxyethylgeranylgeranyl derivatives of heme b, respectively. The archaeal qNOR is the first example of a NO reductase, which contains modified hemes reminiscent of cytochrome bo3 and aa3 oxidases. This report is the first describing the purification and structural and spectroscopic properties of a thermostable NO reductase. PMID:12799376

de Vries, Simon; Strampraad, Marc J F; Lu, Shen; Moënne-Loccoz, Pierre; Schröder, Imke

2003-06-10

252

Enzyme activation and catalysis: characterisation of the vibrational modes of substrate and product in protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase.  

PubMed

The light-dependent reduction of protochlorophyllide, a key step in the synthesis of chlorophyll, is catalyzed by the enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) and requires two photons (O. A. Sytina et al., Nature, 2008, 456, 1001-1008). The first photon activates the enzyme-substrate complex, a subsequent second photon initiates the photochemistry by triggering the formation of a catalytic intermediate. These two events are characterized by different spectral changes in the infra-red spectral region. Here, we investigate the vibrational frequencies of the POR-bound and unbound substrate, and product, and thus provide a detailed assignment of the spectral changes in the 1800-1250 cm(-1) region associated with the catalytic conversion of PChlide:NADPH:TyrOH into Chlide:NADP(+):TyrO(-). Fluorescence line narrowed spectra of the POR-bound Pchlide reveal a C=O keto group downshifted by more than 20 cm(-1) to a relatively low vibrational frequency of 1653 cm(-1), as compared to the unbound Pchlide, indicating that binding of the chromophore to the protein occurs via strong hydrogen bond(s). The frequencies of the C=C vibrational modes are consistent with a six-coordinated state of the POR-bound Pchlide, suggesting that there are two coordination interactions between the central Mg atom of the chromophore and protein residues, and/or a water molecule. The frequencies of the C=C vibrational modes of Chlide are consistent with a five-coordinated state, indicating a single interaction between the central Mg atom of the chromophore and a water molecule. Rapid-scan FTIR measurements on the Pchlide:POR:NADPH complex at 4 cm(-1) spectral resolution reveal a new band in the 1670 cm(-1) region. The FTIR spectra of the enzyme activation phase indicate involvement of a nucleotide-binding structural motif, and an increased exposure of the protein to solvent after activation. PMID:21103538

Sytina, Olga A; Alexandre, Maxime T; Heyes, Derren J; Hunter, C Neil; Robert, Bruno; van Grondelle, Rienk; Groot, Marie Louise

2010-11-22

253

Mechanistic reappraisal of early stage photochemistry in the light-driven enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase.  

PubMed

The light-driven enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) catalyzes the reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to chlorophyllide (Chlide). This reaction is a key step in the biosynthesis of chlorophyll. Ultrafast photochemical processes within the Pchlide molecule are required for catalysis and previous studies have suggested that a short-lived excited-state species, known as I675*, is the first catalytic intermediate in the reaction and is essential for capturing excitation energy to drive subsequent hydride and proton transfers. The chemical nature of the I675* excited state species and its role in catalysis are not known. Here, we report time-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy measurements to study the involvement of the I675* intermediate in POR photochemistry. We show that I675* is not unique to the POR-catalyzed photoreduction of Pchlide as it is also formed in the absence of the POR enzyme. The I675* species is only produced in samples that contain both Pchlide substrate and Chlide product and its formation is dependent on the pump excitation wavelength. The rate of formation and the quantum yield is maximized in 50?50 mixtures of the two pigments (Pchlide and Chlide) and is caused by direct energy transfer between Pchlide and neighboring Chlide molecules, which is inhibited in the polar solvent methanol. Consequently, we have re-evaluated the mechanism for early stage photochemistry in the light-driven reduction of Pchlide and propose that I675* represents an excited state species formed in Pchlide-Chlide dimers, possibly an excimer. Contrary to previous reports, we conclude that this excited state species has no direct mechanistic relevance to the POR-catalyzed reduction of Pchlide. PMID:23049830

Heyes, Derren J; Hardman, Samantha J O; Mansell, David; Gardiner, John M; Scrutton, Nigel S

2012-09-26

254

Dietary nitrate ameliorates pulmonary hypertension: cytoprotective role for endothelial nitric oxide synthase and xanthine oxidoreductase  

PubMed Central

Background Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a multi-factorial disease characterized by increased pulmonary vascular resistance and right ventricular failure; morbidity and mortality remain unacceptably high. Loss of nitric oxide (NO) bioactivity is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of PH and agents that augment pulmonary NO signaling are clinically effective in the disease. Inorganic nitrate (NO3?) and nitrite (NO2?) elicit a reduction in systemic blood pressure in healthy individuals; this effect is underpinned by endogenous and sequential reduction to NO. Herein, we determined whether dietary nitrate and nitrite might be preferentially reduced to NO by the hypoxia associated with PH, and thereby offer a convenient, inexpensive method of supplementing NO functionality to reduce disease severity. Methods & Results Dietary nitrate reduced the right ventricular pressure and hypertrophy, and pulmonary vascular re-modeling, in wild-type mice exposed to 3 weeks hypoxia; this beneficial activity was mirrored largely by dietary nitrite. The cytoprotective effects of dietary nitrate were associated with increased plasma & lung concentrations of nitrite and cGMP. The beneficial effects of dietary nitrate and nitrite were reduced in mice lacking endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) or treated with the xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) inhibitor allopurinol. Conclusions These data demonstrate that dietary nitrate, and to a lesser extent dietary nitrite, elicit pulmonary dilatation, prevent pulmonary vascular remodeling, and reduce the RVH characteristic of PH. This favorable pharmacodynamic profile is dependent on eNOS and XOR -catalyzed reduction of nitrite to NO. Exploitation of this mechanism (i.e. dietary nitrate/nitrite supplementation) represents a viable, orally-active therapy for PH.

Baliga, Reshma S; Milsom, Alexandra B; Ghosh, Suborno M; Trinder, Sarah L; MacAllister, Raymond J; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Hobbs, Adrian J

2012-01-01

255

Gene duplication, exon gain and neofunctionalization of OEP16 -related genes in land plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary OEP16, a channel protein of the outer membrane of chloroplasts, has been implicated in amino acid transport and in the substrate-dependent import of protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase A. Two major clades of OEP16- related sequences were identified in land plants (OEP16-L and OEP16-S), which arose by a gene duplication event predating the divergence of seed plants and bryophytes. Remarkably, in angiosperms,

Sinéad C. Drea; Nga T. Lao; Kenneth H. Wolfe; Tony A. Kavanagh

2006-01-01

256

Potential role of NADH oxidoreductase-derived reactive O2 species in calf pulmonary arterial PO2-elicited responses.  

PubMed

Our laboratory has previously reported evidence that tone responses of isolated endothelium-removed calf pulmonary arteries elicited by changes in PO2 appear to be mediated via changes in H2O2 and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, and that the PO2 sensor mechanism is hypothesized to involve changes in superoxide anion (O2-.) production by a microsomal NADH-oxidoreductase, which is the major source of O2-. detected by lucigenin-elicited chemiluminescence (CL) in this tissue. In this study we examined if the flavoprotein-directed inhibitor of O2-. producing NAD(P)H oxidoreductases, diphenyliodonium (DPI), could be employed as an inhibitor of O2-. production by NADH oxidoreductase, which functions as a selective probe for PO2-elicited tone responses in calf pulmonary arterial smooth muscle. It was found that 1 microM DPI inhibited NADH-dependent production of CL in the arterial smooth muscle homogenate by 49% (n = 10). DPI reduced basal CL from endothelium-removed pulmonary arteries by 41% (n = 15). In endothelium-removed pulmonary arteries precontracted with U-46619, the hypoxic contraction of 2.3 +/- 0.5 g was reduced to 0.1 +/- 0.4 g (n = 7) by DPI, and the reoxygenation relaxation of 32.7 +/- 7.5% was decreased to 4.4 +/- 1.4% (n = 7). DPI did not have any significant effect on U-46619- or K(+)-elicited tone generation. DPI also did not alter the relaxation to H2O2 (1 microM-0.1 mM, n = 6), nitric oxide (0.42 nM-420 nM, n = 12), or isoproterenol (1 nM-1 microM, n = 6).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7491983

Mohazzab, K M; Fayngersh, R P; Kaminski, P M; Wolin, M S

1995-11-01

257

A steady-state and pre-steady-state kinetics study of the tungstoenzyme formaldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase from Pyrococcus furiosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formaldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase from Pyrococcus furiosus is a homotetrameric protein with one tungstodipterin and one [4Fe–4S] cubane per 69-kDa subunit. The enzyme kinetics have\\u000a been studied under steady-state conditions at 80 °C and pre-steady state conditions at 50 °C, in the latter case via monitoring\\u000a of the relatively weak (? ? 2 mM?1 cm?1) optical spectrum of the tungsten cofactor. The steady-state data are consistent with

Emile Bol; Nicolette J. Broers; Wilfred R. Hagen

2008-01-01

258

Inflammatory cytokines suppress NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 and induce oxidative stress in cholangiocarcinoma cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of inflammation on NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1), the xenobiotic\\u000a metabolizing and antioxidant enzyme protecting cells against electrophiles and reactive oxygen species in biliary cancer (cholangiocarcinoma)\\u000a cells.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Human cholangiocarcinoma cell line, KKU-OCA17 and HeLa Chang liver cells were treated with inflammatory cytokine combinations\\u000a (interferon-?, interleukin-1? and tumor necrosis factor-?) for 48 h

Auemduan Prawan; Benjaporn Buranrat; Upa Kukongviriyapan; Banchob Sripa; Veerapol Kukongviriyapan

2009-01-01

259

Molecular Cloning and DNA Sequence of the Arabidopsis thaliana Alcohol Dehydrogenase Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arabidopsis thaliana provides an excellent experimental plant system for molecular genetics because of its remarkably small genome size, near absence of dispersed middle repetitive DNA, and short life cycle. We have cloned and determined the nucleotide sequence of a single-copy gene from A. thaliana likely to be the gene encoding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.1). The gene was

Caren Chang; Elliot M. Meyerowitz

1986-01-01

260

Induction of NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase by vegetables widely consumed in Catalonia, Spain.  

PubMed

Monofunctional inducers (MIs) enhance phase 2 enzymes such as nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-phosphate [NAD(P)H] quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) without modifying oxidation enzymes. The induction of these protective enzymes appears to be mediated by genetic regulatory elements in their promoter regions known as the antioxidant response element (ARE). The aim of this study was to identify, through an in vitro study, which of the 30 fruits and vegetables commonly consumed in Catalonia, Spain, contain MIs of NQO1. We assayed the capacity of extracts of these fruits and vegetables to induce NQO1 [by more than 1.5-fold: ratio of induction (cells treated/control) >1.5, 8-mg/ml dose] in two murine hepatoma cell lines: Hepa 1c1c7 and BPrC1, a modified cell line that possesses a nonfunctional aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator system and is thus nonresponsive to bifunctional inducers. We also used a third cell line, papiloma (PE) murine keratinocytes, a stably transfected cell line with an ARE-luc+ plasmid (AREPE cell line) for verifying induction through the ARE with a simple luminescence screening assay. Broccoli (Hepa 1c1c7, ratio=5.5; BPrC1, ratio=2.3), calcot (Allium cepa L.) (Hepa 1c1c7, ratio=4.7; BPrC1, ratio=.5), green onion (Hepa 1c1c7, ratio=4.6; BPrC1, ratio=2), green cabbage (Hepa 1c1c7, ratio=3.6; BPrC1, ratio=2.7), purple cabbage (Hepa 1c1c7, ratio=3.4; BPrC1, ratio=2), and black cabbage (Hepa 1c1c7, ratio=3; BPrC1, ratio=3) were active NQO1 inducers in both murine hepatoma cell lines. Extracts from broccoli (ratio=3.5), calcot (ratio=4.8), cauliflower (ratio=4.2), cabbage (ratio=2.2), green onion (ratio=3.2), green cabbage (ratio=3.6), black cabbage (ratio=4.5), and purple cabbage (ratio=3.7) were confirmed to contain MIs in the AREPE cell line. These results are very similar to those described for vegetables consumed in the United States, with the exception of calcot, which is common in Catalonia but is not grown or consumed widely in the United States. PMID:16091004

Laso, Nuria; Mas, Sergi; Lafuente, M Jose; Llobet, Joan M; Molina, Rafael; Ballesta, Antonio; Kensler, Thomas W; Lafuente, Amalia

2005-01-01

261

High-yield expression of a catalytically active membrane-bound protein: human P450 oxidoreductase.  

PubMed

P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is a two-flavin protein that reduces microsomal P450 enzymes and some other proteins. Preparation of active bacterially expressed human POR for biochemical studies has been difficult because membrane-bound proteins tend to interact with column matrices. To reduce column-protein interactions and permit more vigorous washing, human POR lacking 27 N-terminal residues (N-27 POR) was modified to carry a C-terminal Gly3His6-tag (N-27 POR-G3H6). When expressed in Escherichia coli, N-27 POR-G3H6 could be purified to apparent homogeneity by a modified, single-step nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography, yielding 31 mg POR per liter of culture, whereas standard purification of native N-27 POR required multiple steps, yielding 5 mg POR per liter. Both POR proteins had absorption maxima at 375 and 453 nm and both reduced cytochrome c with indistinguishable specific activities. Using progesterone as substrate for bacterially expressed purified human P450c17, the Michaelis constant for 17?-hydroxylase activity supported by N-27 POR or N-27 POR-G3H6 were 1.73 or 1.49 ?m, and the maximal velocity was 0.029 or 0.026 pmol steroids per picomole P450 per minute, respectively. Using 17-hydroxypregnenolone as the P450c17 substrate, the Michaelis constant for 17,20 lyase activity using N-27 POR or N-27 POR-G3H6 was 1.92 or 1.89 ?m and the maximal velocity was 0.041 or 0.042 pmol steroid per picomole P450 per minute, respectively. Thus, N-27 POR-G3H6 is equally active as native N-27 POR. This expression and purification system permits the rapid preparation of large amounts of highly pure, biologically active POR and may be generally applicable for the preparation of membrane-bound proteins. PMID:21586563

Sandee, Duanpen; Miller, Walter L

2011-05-17

262

Structure refinement of the aldehyde oxidoreductase from Desulfovibrio gigas (MOP) at 1.28 A.  

PubMed

The sulfate-reducing bacterium aldehyde oxidoreductase from Desulfovibrio gigas (MOP) is a member of the xanthine oxidase family of enzymes. It has 907 residues on a single polypeptide chain, a molybdopterin cytosine dinucleotide (MCD) cofactor and two [2Fe-2S] iron-sulfur clusters. Synchrotron data to almost atomic resolution were collected for improved cryo-cooled crystals of this enzyme in the oxidized form. The cell constants of a=b=141.78 A and c=160.87 A are about 2% shorter than those of room temperature data, yielding 233,755 unique reflections in space group P6(1)22, at 1.28 A resolution. Throughout the entire refinement the full gradient least-squares method was used, leading to a final R factor of 14.5 and Rfree factor of 19.3 (4sigma cut-off) with "riding" H-atoms at their calculated positions. The model contains 8146 non-hydrogen atoms described by anisotropic displacement parameters with an observations/parameters ratio of 4.4. It includes alternate conformations for 17 amino acid residues. At 1.28 A resolution, three Cl- and two Mg2+ ions from the crystallization solution were clearly identified. With the exception of one Cl- which is buried and 8 A distant from the Mo atom, the other ions are close to the molecular surface and may contribute to crystal packing. The overall structure has not changed in comparison to the lower resolution model apart from local corrections that included some loop adjustments and alternate side-chain conformations. Based on the estimated errors of bond distances obtained by blocked least-squares matrix inversion, a more detailed analysis of the three redox centres was possible. For the MCD cofactor, the resulting geometric parameters confirmed its reduction state as a tetrahydropterin. At the Mo centre, estimated corrections calculated for the Fourier ripples artefact are very small when compared to the experimental associated errors, supporting the suggestion that the fifth ligand is a water molecule rather than a hydroxide. Concerning the two iron-sulfur centres, asymmetry in the Fe-S distances as well as differences in the pattern of NH.S hydrogen-bonding interactions was observed, which influences the electron distribution upon reduction and causes non-equivalence of the individual Fe atoms in each cluster. PMID:11713686

Rebelo, J M; Dias, J M; Huber, R; Moura, J J; Romão, M J

2001-10-01

263

High-Yield Expression of a Catalytically Active Membrane-Bound Protein: Human P450 Oxidoreductase  

PubMed Central

P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is a two-flavin protein that reduces microsomal P450 enzymes and some other proteins. Preparation of active bacterially expressed human POR for biochemical studies has been difficult because membrane-bound proteins tend to interact with column matrices. To reduce column-protein interactions and permit more vigorous washing, human POR lacking 27 N-terminal residues (N-27 POR) was modified to carry a C-terminal Gly3His6-tag (N-27 POR-G3H6). When expressed in Escherichia coli, N-27 POR-G3H6 could be purified to apparent homogeneity by a modified, single-step nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography, yielding 31 mg POR per liter of culture, whereas standard purification of native N-27 POR required multiple steps, yielding 5 mg POR per liter. Both POR proteins had absorption maxima at 375 and 453 nm and both reduced cytochrome c with indistinguishable specific activities. Using progesterone as substrate for bacterially expressed purified human P450c17, the Michaelis constant for 17?-hydroxylase activity supported by N-27 POR or N-27 POR-G3H6 were 1.73 or 1.49 ?m, and the maximal velocity was 0.029 or 0.026 pmol steroids per picomole P450 per minute, respectively. Using 17-hydroxypregnenolone as the P450c17 substrate, the Michaelis constant for 17,20 lyase activity using N-27 POR or N-27 POR-G3H6 was 1.92 or 1.89 ?m and the maximal velocity was 0.041 or 0.042 pmol steroid per picomole P450 per minute, respectively. Thus, N-27 POR-G3H6 is equally active as native N-27 POR. This expression and purification system permits the rapid preparation of large amounts of highly pure, biologically active POR and may be generally applicable for the preparation of membrane-bound proteins.

Sandee, Duanpen

2011-01-01

264

NADPH-dependent microsomal metabolism of 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid to diepoxides and epoxyalcohols.  

PubMed

The arachidonic acid epoxygenase metabolite 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid is further metabolized by rat liver microsomal fractions to regioisomeric diepoxides and epoxyalcohols. Diepoxides result from epoxidation at the 5,6-, 8,9-, or 11,12-olefins. Hydroxylation leading to epoxyalcohols with a cis, trans-conjugated dienol occurs at carbons 5, 8, 9, or 12. Structural assignments were established by chromatographic and mass spectral comparisons with synthetic standards. The reaction requires NADPH and is inhibited by typical cytochrome P-450 inhibitors. Analysis of the time course of product formation during arachidonic acid oxidation by rat liver microsomal fractions indicated that all four regioisomeric epoxyeicosatrienoic acids can be further metabolized by the enzyme system. PMID:3341770

Capdevila, J H; Mosset, P; Yadagiri, P; Lumin, S; Falck, J R

1988-02-15

265

Cancer-associated Isocitrate Dehydrogenase Mutations Inactivate NADPH-dependent Reductive Carboxylation*  

PubMed Central

Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) is a reversible enzyme that catalyzes the NADP+-dependent oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate (ICT) to ?-ketoglutarate (?KG) and the NADPH/CO2-dependent reductive carboxylation of ?KG to ICT. Reductive carboxylation by IDH1 was potently inhibited by NADP+ and, to a lesser extent, by ICT. IDH1 and IDH2 with cancer-associated mutations at the active site arginines were unable to carry out the reductive carboxylation of ?KG. These mutants were also defective in ICT decarboxylation and converted ?KG to 2-hydroxyglutarate using NADPH. These mutant proteins were thus defective in both of the normal reactions of IDH. Biochemical analysis of heterodimers between wild-type and mutant IDH1 subunits showed that the mutant subunit did not inactivate reductive carboxylation by the wild-type subunit. Cells expressing the mutant IDH are thus deficient in their capacity for reductive carboxylation and may be compromised in their ability to produce acetyl-CoA under hypoxia or when mitochondrial function is otherwise impaired.

Leonardi, Roberta; Subramanian, Chitra; Jackowski, Suzanne; Rock, Charles O.

2012-01-01

266

Identification of carboxylation enzymes and characterization of a novel four-subunit pyruvate:flavodoxin oxidoreductase from Helicobacter pylori.  

PubMed Central

The enzyme activities responsible for carboxylation reactions in cell extracts of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori have been studied by H14CO3- fixation and spectrophotometric assays. Acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (EC 6.4.1.2) and malic enzyme (EC 1.1.1.40) activities were detected, whereas pyruvate carboxylase (EC 6.4.1.1), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (EC 4.1.3.1) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (EC 4.1.1.49) activities were absent. However, a pyruvate-dependent, ATP-independent, and avidin-insensitive H14CO3- fixation activity, which was shown to be due to the isotope exchange reaction of pyruvate:flavodoxin oxidoreductase (EC 1.2.7.1), was present. The purified enzyme is composed of four subunits of 47, 36, 24, and 14 kDa. N-terminal sequence analysis showed that this enzyme is related to a recently recognized group of four-subunit pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductases previously known only from hyperthermophiles. This enzyme from H. pylori was found to mediate the reduction of a number of artificial electron acceptors in addition to a flavodoxin isolated from H. pylori extracts, which is likely to be the in vivo electron acceptor. Indirect evidence that the enzyme is capable of in vitro reduction of the anti-H. pylori drug metronidazole was also obtained.

Hughes, N J; Chalk, P A; Clayton, C L; Kelly, D J

1995-01-01

267

Oxidative Activity of Yeast Ero1p on Protein Disulfide Isomerase and Related Oxidoreductases of the Endoplasmic Reticulum*  

PubMed Central

The sulfhydryl oxidase Ero1 oxidizes protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), which in turn catalyzes disulfide formation in proteins folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The extent to which other members of the PDI family are oxidized by Ero1 and thus contribute to net disulfide formation in the ER has been an open question. The yeast ER contains four PDI family proteins with at least one potential redox-active cysteine pair. We monitored the direct oxidation of each redox-active site in these proteins by yeast Ero1p in vitro. In this study, we found that the Pdi1p amino-terminal domain was oxidized most rapidly compared with the other oxidoreductase active sites tested, including the Pdi1p carboxyl-terminal domain. This observation is consistent with experiments conducted in yeast cells. In particular, the amino-terminal domain of Pdi1p preferentially formed mixed disulfides with Ero1p in vivo, and we observed synthetic lethality between a temperature-sensitive Ero1p variant and mutant Pdi1p lacking the amino-terminal active-site disulfide. Thus, the amino-terminal domain of yeast Pdi1p is on a preferred pathway for oxidizing the ER thiol pool. Overall, our results provide a rank order for the tendency of yeast ER oxidoreductases to acquire disulfides from Ero1p.

Vitu, Elvira; Kim, Sunghwan; Sevier, Carolyn S.; Lutzky, Omer; Heldman, Nimrod; Bentzur, Moran; Unger, Tamar; Yona, Meital; Kaiser, Chris A.; Fass, Deborah

2010-01-01

268

KefF, the Regulatory Subunit of the Potassium Efflux System KefC, Shows Quinone Oxidoreductase Activity ? †  

PubMed Central

Escherichia coli and many other Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria protect themselves from the toxic effects of electrophilic compounds by using a potassium efflux system (Kef). Potassium efflux is coupled to the influx of protons, which lowers the internal pH and results in immediate protection. The activity of the Kef system is subject to complex regulation by glutathione and its S conjugates. Full activation of KefC requires a soluble ancillary protein, KefF. This protein has structural similarities to oxidoreductases, including human quinone reductases 1 and 2. Here, we show that KefF has enzymatic activity as an oxidoreductase, in addition to its role as the KefC activator. It accepts NADH and NADPH as electron donors and quinones and ferricyanide (in addition to other compounds) as acceptors. However, typical electrophilic activators of the Kef system, e.g., N-ethyl maleimide, are not substrates. If the enzymatic activity is disrupted by site-directed mutagenesis while retaining structural integrity, KefF is still able to activate the Kef system, showing that the role as an activator is independent of the enzyme activity. Potassium efflux assays show that electrophilic quinones are able to activate the Kef system by forming S conjugates with glutathione. Therefore, it appears that the enzymatic activity of KefF diminishes the redox toxicity of quinones, in parallel with the protection afforded by activation of the Kef system.

Lyngberg, Lisbeth; Healy, Jessica; Bartlett, Wendy; Miller, Samantha; Conway, Stuart J.; Booth, Ian R.; Rasmussen, Tim

2011-01-01

269

Chemical constituents from the rice fermented with the edible mushroom Pleurotus eryngii and their quinone oxidoreductase 1 inducing effect.  

PubMed

The fruiting bodies or mycelia of mushrooms have been used as food and food-flavoring material for centuries due to their nutritional and medicinal values and the diversity of their bioactive components. The present research was the first to study the chemical components in rice fermented with the edible mushroom Pleurotus eryngii and the quinone oxidoreductase 1 inducing effect of these compounds. Through chemical investigation, one new compound, ((6S,7S)-6,7-dihydroxy-6-methyl-2-(3-methylbutanoyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzofuran-3-yl)methyl acetate (1) and eight known compounds (2-9) were isolated from the P. eryngii-fermented rice. All of these compounds were isolated from rice fermented with the edible mushroom P. eryngii for the first time. Their structures were elucidated by MS and NMR data analyses. Alternariol-5-O-methyl ether (2) showed strong quinone oxidoreductase 1 inducing effect with an IR value of 2.58 at the concentration of 20?g/ml. The content of adenosine (8) in the fermented rice (175.64?g/g) is much higher than that of non-fermented rice (14.38?g/g). PMID:23933238

Liu, Shun; Dong, Yanan; Li, Yongxia; Bao, Li; Liu, Hongwei; Li, Heran

2013-08-08

270

Screening of Microorganisms Producing Cold-Active Oxidoreductases to Be Applied in Enantioselective Alcohol Oxidation. An Antarctic Survey  

PubMed Central

Several microorganisms were isolated from soil/sediment samples of Antarctic Peninsula. The enrichment technique using (RS)-1-(phenyl)ethanol as a carbon source allowed us to isolate 232 psychrophile/psychrotroph microorganisms. We also evaluated the enzyme activity (oxidoreductases) for enantioselective oxidation reactions, by using derivatives of (RS)-1-(phenyl)ethanol as substrates. Among the studied microorganisms, 15 psychrophile/psychrotroph strains contain oxidoreductases that catalyze the (S)-enantiomer oxidation from racemic alcohols to their corresponding ketones. Among the identified microorganisms, Flavobacterium sp. and Arthrobacter sp. showed excellent enzymatic activity. These new bacteria strains were selected for optimization study, in which the (RS)-1-(4-methyl-phenyl)ethanol oxidation was evaluated in several reaction conditions. From these studies, it was observed that Flavobacterium sp. has an excellent enzymatic activity at 10 °C and Arthrobacter sp. at 15 and 25 °C. We have also determined the growth curves of these bacteria, and both strains showed optimum growth at 25 °C, indicating that these bacteria are psychrotroph.

Araujo, Lidiane S.; Kagohara, Edna; Garcia, Thais P.; Pellizari, Vivian H.; Andrade, Leandro H.

2011-01-01

271

Energy Conservation by the H2:Heterodisulfide Oxidoreductase from Methanosarcina mazei G?1: Identification of Two Proton-Translocating Segments  

PubMed Central

The membrane-bound H2:heterodisulfide oxidoreductase system of the methanogenic archaeon Methanosarcina mazei Gö1 catalyzed the H2-dependent reduction of 2-hydroxyphenazine and the dihydro-2-hydroxyphenazine-dependent reduction of the heterodisulfide of HS-CoM and HS-CoB (CoM-S-S-CoB). Washed inverted vesicles of this organism were found to couple both processes with the transfer of protons across the cytoplasmic membrane. The maximal H+/2e? ratio was 0.9 for each reaction. The electrochemical proton gradient (??H+) thereby generated was shown to drive ATP synthesis from ADP plus Pi, exhibiting stoichiometries of 0.25 ATP synthesized per two electrons transported for both partial reactions. ATP synthesis and the generation of ??H+ were abolished by the uncoupler 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzylidenemalononitrile (SF 6847). The ATP synthase inhibitor N,N?-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide did not affect H+ translocation but led to an almost complete inhibition of ATP synthesis and decreased the electron transport rates. The latter effect was relieved by the addition of SF 6847. Thus, the energy-conserving systems showed a stringent coupling which resembles the phenomenon of respiratory control. The results indicate that two different proton-translocating segments are present in the H2:heterodisulfide oxidoreductase system; the first involves the 2-hydroxyphenazine-dependent hydrogenase, and the second involves the heterodisulfide reductase.

Ide, Tina; Baumer, Sebastian; Deppenmeier, Uwe

1999-01-01

272

Expression of the Firefly Luciferase Gene in Vaccinia Virus: A Highly Sensitive Gene Marker to Follow Virus Dissemination in Tissues of Infected Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have introduced the firefly luciferase gene of Photinus pyralis into the vaccinia virus genome. This gene is expressed in a coordinate fashion during virus infection. Luminescence produced by the action of luciferase [Photinus-luciferin:oxygen 4-oxidoreductase(decarboxylating, ATP-hydrolyzing), EC 1.13.12.7] was easily detectable in infected cells in culture as well as in cells of tissues of infected mice. The limits of detection

Jose F. Rodriguez; Dolores Rodriguez; Juan-Ramon Rodriguez; Eleanor B. McGowan; Mariano Esteban

1988-01-01

273

Direct and mediated electron transfer between intact succinate:quinone oxidoreductase from Bacillus subtilis and a surface modified gold electrode reveals redox state-dependent conformational changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Succinate:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) from Bacillus subtilis consists of two hydrophilic protein subunits comprising succinate dehydrogenase, and a di-heme membrane anchor protein harboring two putative quinone binding sites, Qp and Qd. In this work we have used spectroelectrochemistry to study the electronic communication between purified SQR and a surface modified gold capillary electrode. In the presence of two soluble quinone mediators

Andreas Christenson; Tobias Gustavsson; Lo Gorton; Cecilia Hägerhäll

2008-01-01

274

Requirement of signal peptidase ComC and thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase DsbA for optimal cell surface display of pseudopilin ComGC in Staphylococcus aureus.  

PubMed

Staphylococcus aureus is an important Gram-positive bacterial pathogen producing many secreted and cell surface-localized virulence factors. Here we report that the staphylococcal thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase DsbA is essential for stable biogenesis of the ComGC pseudopilin. The signal peptidase ComC is indispensable for ComGC maturation and optimal cell surface exposure. PMID:22820325

van der Kooi-Pol, Magdalena M; Reilman, Ewoud; Sibbald, Mark J J B; Veenstra-Kyuchukova, Yanka K; Kouwen, Thijs R H M; Buist, Girbe; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

2012-07-20

275

Requirement of Signal Peptidase ComC and Thiol-Disulfide Oxidoreductase DsbA for Optimal Cell Surface Display of Pseudopilin ComGC in Staphylococcus aureus  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus aureus is an important Gram-positive bacterial pathogen producing many secreted and cell surface-localized virulence factors. Here we report that the staphylococcal thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase DsbA is essential for stable biogenesis of the ComGC pseudopilin. The signal peptidase ComC is indispensable for ComGC maturation and optimal cell surface exposure.

van der Kooi-Pol, Magdalena M.; Reilman, Ewoud; Sibbald, Mark J. J. B.; Veenstra-Kyuchukova, Yanka K.; Kouwen, Thijs R. H. M.; Buist, Girbe

2012-01-01

276

Toxoplasma gondii expresses two distinct lactate dehydrogenase homologous genes during its life cycle in intermediate hosts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two Toxoplasma gondii genes were characterized that are differentially expressed during the parasite's life cycle. The genes named LDH1 and LDH2, respectively, encode polypeptides similar to the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; l-lactate:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.27) from a variety of organisms. They show 64.0% nucleotide identity in the coding region and both have an intron at the same relative position. The

Shumin Yang; Stephen F Parmley

1997-01-01

277

Specific disintegration of complex II succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase links pH changes to oxidative stress for apoptosis induction.  

PubMed

The formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the change of the intracellular pH (pH(i)) are common phenomena during apoptosis. How they are interconnected, however, is poorly understood. Here we show that numerous anticancer drugs and cytokines such as Fas ligand and tumour necrosis factor ? provoke intracellular acidification and cause the formation of mitochondrial ROS. In parallel, we found that the succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (SQR) activity of the mitochondrial respiratory complex II is specifically impaired without affecting the second enzymatic activity of this complex as a succinate dehydrogenase (SDH). Only in this configuration is complex II an apoptosis mediator and generates superoxides for cell death. This is achieved by the pH(i) decline that leads to the specific dissociation of the SDHA/SDHB subunits, which encompass the SDH activity, from the membrane-bound components of complex II that are required for the SQR activity. PMID:20706275

Lemarie, A; Huc, L; Pazarentzos, E; Mahul-Mellier, A-L; Grimm, S

2010-08-13

278

Catalytic properties of Na+-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductases from Vibrio harveyi, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Azotobacter vinelandii.  

PubMed

The catalytic properties of sodium-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductases (Na+-NQRs) from the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi, the enterobacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae, and the soil microorganism Azotobacter vinelandii have been comparatively analyzed. It is shown that these enzymes drastically differ in their affinity to sodium ions. The enzymes also possess different sensitivity to inhibitors. Na+-NQR from A. vinelandii is not sensitive to low 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide (HQNO) concentrations, while Na+-NQR from K. pneumoniae is fully resistant to either Ag+ or N-ethylmaleimide. All the Na+-NQR-type enzymes are sensitive to diphenyliodonium, which is shown to modify the noncovalently bound FAD of the enzyme. PMID:18300384

Fadeeva, Maria S; Núñez, Cinthia; Bertsova, Yulia V; Espín, Guadalupe; Bogachev, Alexander V

2008-02-01

279

Oxidoreductase activity of oligosaccharyltransferase subunits Ost3p and Ost6p defines site-specific glycosylation efficiency  

PubMed Central

Asparagine-linked glycosylation is a common posttranslational modification of diverse secretory and membrane proteins in eukaryotes, where it is catalyzed by the multiprotein complex oligosaccharyltransferase. The functions of the protein subunits of oligoasccharyltransferase, apart from the catalytic Stt3p, are ill defined. Here we describe functional and structural investigations of the Ost3/6p components of the yeast enzyme. Genetic, biochemical and structural analyses of the lumenal domain of Ost6p revealed oxidoreductase activity mediated by a thioredoxin-like fold with a distinctive active-site loop that changed conformation with redox state. We found that mutation of the active-site cysteine residues of Ost6p and its paralogue Ost3p affected the glycosylation efficiency of a subset of glycosylation sites. Our results show that eukaryotic oligosaccharyltransferase is a multifunctional enzyme that acts at the crossroads of protein modification and protein folding.

Schulz, Benjamin L.; Stirnimann, Christian U.; Grimshaw, John P. A.; Brozzo, Maurice S.; Fritsch, Fabienne; Mohorko, Elisabeth; Capitani, Guido; Glockshuber, Rudi; Grutter, Markus G.; Aebi, Markus

2009-01-01

280

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray studies of ferredoxin-NADP+ oxidoreductase encoded by Bacillus subtilis yumC  

PubMed Central

Ferredoxin-NADP+ oxidoreductase encoded by Bacillus subtilis yumC has been purified and successfully crystallized in complex with NADP+ in two forms. Diffraction data from crystals of these two forms were collected at resolutions of 1.8 and 1.9?Å. The former belonged to space group P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 63.90, b = 135.72, c = 39.19?Å, and the latter to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 207.47, b = 64.85, c = 61.12?Å, ? = 105.82°. The initial structure was determined by the molecular-replacement method using a thioredoxin reductase-like protein as a search model.

Komori, Hirofumi; Seo, Daisuke; Sakurai, Takeshi; Higuchi, Yoshiki

2010-01-01

281

Discovery of a ferredoxin:NAD+-oxidoreductase (Rnf) in Acetobacterium woodii: a novel potential coupling site in acetogens.  

PubMed

Acetogens use the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway for reduction of carbon dioxide to acetate. This pathway not only allows reoxidation of reducing equivalents during heterotrophic growth but also supports chemolithoautotrophic growth on H(2) + CO(2). The latter argues for this pathway being a source for net energy conservation, but the mechanism involved remains unknown. In addition to CO(2), acetogens can use alternative electron acceptors, such as nitrate or caffeate. Caffeate respiration in the model acetogen Acetobacterium woodii is coupled to energy conservation via a chemiosmotic mechanism, with Na(+) as coupling ion. The pathway and its bioenergetics were solved in some detail very recently. This review focuses on the regulation of caffeate respiration, describes the enyzmes involved, summarizes the evidence for a potential Na(+)-translocating ferredoxin:NAD(+)-oxidoreductase (Rnf complex) as a new coupling site, and hypothesizes on the role of this Rnf complex in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. PMID:18378592

Müller, Volker; Imkamp, Frank; Biegel, Eva; Schmidt, Silke; Dilling, Sabrina

2008-03-01

282

P5-type sulfhydryl oxidoreductase promotes the sorting of proteins to protein body I in rice endosperm cells  

PubMed Central

In rice (Oryza sativa) endosperm cells, oxidative protein folding is necessary for the sorting of storage proteins to protein bodies, PB-I and PB-II. Here we examined the role of sulfhydryl oxidoreductase PDIL2;3 (a human P5 ortholog) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), using GFP-AB, a PB-I marker in which the N-terminal region (AB) of ?-globulin is fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP). RNAi knockdown of PDIL2;3 inhibited the accumulation of GFP-AB in PB-I and promoted its exit from the ER. We discuss the role of PDIL2;3 in retaining proteins within the ER and specifying their localization to PB-I through disulfide bond formation.

Onda, Yayoi; Kawagoe, Yasushi

2013-01-01

283

[Cytotoxicity of troglitazone, structural analogue of alpha-tocopherol is mediated by inhibition of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase].  

PubMed

It is established, that alpha-tocopherol and pioglitazone in concentration up to 100 microM did not change the rat thymocytes viability while troglitazone and alpha-tocopherol with a short side chain up to 6 atoms of carbon (alpha-tocopherol C6) have the expressed cytotoxic effect. This is the first report demonstrating that troglitazone and alpha-tocopherol C6, unlike a-tocopherol and pioglitazone substantially inhibited the activity of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (DT-diaphorase) and this effect is increased with specific DT-diaphorase inhibitor, dicoumarol. Based on these observations, we generalize that cytotoxic action of troglitazone and alpha-tocopherol C6 is connected with the presence in their structure of chroman ring with a lateral chain modified in relation to alpha-tocopherol and is mediated by inhibition of DT-diaphorase, a detoxifying enzyme of xenobiotics. PMID:20387640

Petrova, G V; Donchenko, G V

284

The structure of Aquifex aeolicus sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase, a basis to understand sulfide detoxification and respiration.  

PubMed

Sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) is a flavoprotein with homologues in all domains of life except plants. It plays a physiological role both in sulfide detoxification and in energy transduction. We isolated the protein from native membranes of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus, and we determined its X-ray structure in the "as-purified," substrate-bound, and inhibitor-bound forms at resolutions of 2.3, 2.0, and 2.9 A, respectively. The structure is composed of 2 Rossmann domains and 1 attachment domain, with an overall monomeric architecture typical of disulfide oxidoreductase flavoproteins. A. aeolicus SQR is a surprisingly trimeric, periplasmic integral monotopic membrane protein that inserts about 12 A into the lipidic bilayer through an amphipathic helix-turn-helix tripodal motif. The quinone is located in a channel that extends from the si side of the FAD to the membrane. The quinone ring is sandwiched between the conserved amino acids Phe-385 and Ile-346, and it is possibly protonated upon reduction via Glu-318 and/or neighboring water molecules. Sulfide polymerization occurs on the re side of FAD, where the invariant Cys-156 and Cys-347 appear to be covalently bound to polysulfur fragments. The structure suggests that FAD is covalently linked to the polypeptide in an unusual way, via a disulfide bridge between the 8-methyl group and Cys-124. The applicability of this disulfide bridge for transferring electrons from sulfide to FAD, 2 mechanisms for sulfide polymerization and channeling of the substrate, S(2-), and of the product, S(n), in and out of the active site are discussed. PMID:19487671

Marcia, Marco; Ermler, Ulrich; Peng, Guohong; Michel, Hartmut

2009-06-01

285

The structure of Aquifex aeolicus sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase, a basis to understand sulfide detoxification and respiration  

PubMed Central

Sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) is a flavoprotein with homologues in all domains of life except plants. It plays a physiological role both in sulfide detoxification and in energy transduction. We isolated the protein from native membranes of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus, and we determined its X-ray structure in the “as-purified,” substrate-bound, and inhibitor-bound forms at resolutions of 2.3, 2.0, and 2.9 ?, respectively. The structure is composed of 2 Rossmann domains and 1 attachment domain, with an overall monomeric architecture typical of disulfide oxidoreductase flavoproteins. A. aeolicus SQR is a surprisingly trimeric, periplasmic integral monotopic membrane protein that inserts about 12 ? into the lipidic bilayer through an amphipathic helix–turn–helix tripodal motif. The quinone is located in a channel that extends from the si side of the FAD to the membrane. The quinone ring is sandwiched between the conserved amino acids Phe-385 and Ile-346, and it is possibly protonated upon reduction via Glu-318 and/or neighboring water molecules. Sulfide polymerization occurs on the re side of FAD, where the invariant Cys-156 and Cys-347 appear to be covalently bound to polysulfur fragments. The structure suggests that FAD is covalently linked to the polypeptide in an unusual way, via a disulfide bridge between the 8-methyl group and Cys-124. The applicability of this disulfide bridge for transferring electrons from sulfide to FAD, 2 mechanisms for sulfide polymerization and channeling of the substrate, S2?, and of the product, Sn, in and out of the active site are discussed.

Marcia, Marco; Ermler, Ulrich; Peng, Guohong; Michel, Hartmut

2009-01-01

286

Mechanism of porcine liver xanthine oxidoreductase mediated N-oxide reduction of cyadox as revealed by docking and mutagenesis studies.  

PubMed

Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is a cytoplasmic molybdenum-containing oxidoreductase, catalyzing both endogenous purines and exogenous compounds. It is suggested that XOR in porcine hepatocytes catalyzes the N-oxide reduction of quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxides (QdNOs). To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying this metabolism, the cDNA of porcine XOR was cloned and heterologously expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells. The bovine XOR, showing sequence identity of 91% to porcine XOR, was employed as template for homology modeling. By docking cyadox, a representative compound of QdNOs, into porcine XOR model, eight amino acid residues, Gly47, Asn352, Ser360, Arg427, Asp430, Asp431, Ser1227 and Lys1230, were located at distances of less than 4Å to cyadox. Site-directed mutagenesis was performed to analyze their catalytic functions. Compared with wild type porcine XOR, G47A, S360P, D431A, S1227A, and K1230A displayed altered kinetic parameters in cyadox reduction, similarly to that in xanthine oxidation, indicating these mutations influenced electron-donating process of xanthine before subsequent electron transfer to cyadox to fulfill the N-oxide reduction. Differently, R427E and D430H, both located in the 424-434 loop, exhibited a much lower Km and a decreased Vmax respectively in cyadox reduction. Arg427 may be related to the substrate binding of porcine XOR to cyadox, and Asp430 is suggested to be involved in the transfer of electron to cyadox. This study initially reveals the possible catalytic mechanism of porcine XOR in cyadox metabolism, providing with novel insights into the structure-function relationship of XOR in the reduction of exogenous di-N-oxides. PMID:24040113

Chen, Chigang; Cheng, Guyue; Hao, Haihong; Dai, Menghong; Wang, Xu; Huang, Lingli; Liu, Zhenli; Yuan, Zonghui

2013-09-09

287

Mechanism of Porcine Liver Xanthine Oxidoreductase Mediated N-Oxide Reduction of Cyadox as Revealed by Docking and Mutagenesis Studies  

PubMed Central

Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is a cytoplasmic molybdenum-containing oxidoreductase, catalyzing both endogenous purines and exogenous compounds. It is suggested that XOR in porcine hepatocytes catalyzes the N-oxide reduction of quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxides (QdNOs). To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying this metabolism, the cDNA of porcine XOR was cloned and heterologously expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells. The bovine XOR, showing sequence identity of 91% to porcine XOR, was employed as template for homology modeling. By docking cyadox, a representative compound of QdNOs, into porcine XOR model, eight amino acid residues, Gly47, Asn352, Ser360, Arg427, Asp430, Asp431, Ser1227 and Lys1230, were located at distances of less than 4Å to cyadox. Site-directed mutagenesis was performed to analyze their catalytic functions. Compared with wild type porcine XOR, G47A, S360P, D431A, S1227A, and K1230A displayed altered kinetic parameters in cyadox reduction, similarly to that in xanthine oxidation, indicating these mutations influenced electron-donating process of xanthine before subsequent electron transfer to cyadox to fulfill the N-oxide reduction. Differently, R427E and D430H, both located in the 424–434 loop, exhibited a much lower Km and a decreased Vmax respectively in cyadox reduction. Arg427 may be related to the substrate binding of porcine XOR to cyadox, and Asp430 is suggested to be involved in the transfer of electron to cyadox. This study initially reveals the possible catalytic mechanism of porcine XOR in cyadox metabolism, providing with novel insights into the structure-function relationship of XOR in the reduction of exogenous di-N-oxides.

Hao, Haihong; Dai, Menghong; Wang, Xu; Huang, Lingli; Liu, Zhenli; Yuan, Zonghui

2013-01-01

288

[The interaction of ferredoxin:NADP{sup +} oxidoreductase and ferredoxin:thioredoxin reductase with substrates]. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

We seek to map the ferredoxin-binding sites on three soluble enzymes located in spinach chloroplasts which utilize ferredoxin as an electron donor:Ferredoxin:NADP{sup +}oxidoreductase (FNR); ferredoxin:thioredoxin reductase (FTR) and glutamate synthase. As the availability of amino acid sequences for the enzymes are important in such studies, that the amino acid sequence of glutamate synthase needs be determined, the amino acid sequences of FNR, FTR and ferredoxin are already known. Related to an aim elucidate the binding sites for ferredoxin to determine whether there is a common binding site on all of these ferredoxin-dependent chloroplast enzymes and, if so, to map it. Additionally thioredoxin binding by FTR needs be determine to resolve whether the same site on FTR is involved in binding both ferredoxin and thioredoxin. Considerable progress is reported on the prosthetic groups of glutamate synthase, in establishing the role of arginine and lysine residues in ferredoxin binding by, ferredoxin:nitrite oxidoreductase nitrite reductase, labelling carboxyl groups on ferredoxin with taurine and labelling lysine residues biotinylation, and low potential heme proteins have been isolated and characterized from a non-photosynthetic plant tissue. Although the monoclonal antibodies raised against FNR turned out not to be useful for mapping the FNR/ferredoxin or FNR/NADPinteraction domains, good progress has been made on mapping the FNR/ferredoxin interaction domains by an alternative technique. The techniques developed for differential chemical modification of these two proteins - taurine modification of aspartate and glutamate residues and biotin modification of lysine residues - should be useful for mapping the interaction domains of many proteins that associate through electrostatic interactions.

Not Available

1992-09-01

289

Human NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase type I (hNQO1) activation of quinone propionic acid trigger groups†  

PubMed Central

NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase type I (NQO1) is a target enzyme for triggered delivery of drugs at inflamed tissue and tumor sites, particularly those that challenge traditional therapies. Prodrugs, macromolecules, and molecular assemblies possessing trigger groups that can be cleaved by environmental stimuli are vehicles with the potential to yield active drug only at prescribed sites. Furthermore, quinone propionic acids (QPAs) covalently attached to prodrugs or liposome surfaces can be removed by application of a reductive trigger stimulus, such as that from NQO1; their rates of reductive activation should be tunable via QPA structure. We explored in detail the recombinant human NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase type I (rhNQO1)-catalyzed NADH reduction of a family of substituted QPAs and obtained high precision kinetic parameters. It is found that small changes in QPA structure—in particular, single atom and function group substitutions on the quinone ring at R1—lead to significant impacts on the Michaelis constant (Km), maximum velocity (Vmax), catalytic constant (kcat), and catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km). Molecular docking simulations demonstrate that alterations in QPA structure result in large changes in QPA alignment and placement with respect to the flavin isoalloxazine ring in the active site of rhNQO1; a qualitative relationship exists between the kinetic parameters and the depth of QPA penetration into the rhNQO1 active site. From a quantitative perspective, a very good correlation is observed between log(kcat/Km) and the molecular-docking-derived distance between flavin hydride donor site and quinone hydride acceptor site in the QPAs, an observation that is in agreement with developing theories. The comprehensive kinetic and molecular modeling knowledge obtained for the interaction of recombinant human NQO1 with the quinone propionic acid analogues provides insight into the design and implementation of the QPA trigger groups for drug delivery applications.

Mendoza, Maria F.; Hollabaugh, Nicole M.; Hettiarachchi, Suraj U.; McCarley, Robin L.

2012-01-01

290

Mutagenesis of Hydroxylamine Oxidoreductase inNitrosomonas europaeaby Transformation and Recombination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutagenesis ofNitrosomonas europaeawas achieved by electroporation and recombination. To demonstrate this, an aminoglycoside 3*-phosphotransferase (kan) gene was specifically inserted into each of the three gene copiesofhaoindividually.SouthernhybridizationsandPCRanalysisshowedtheincorporationofthekangene at the chosen genetic loci. The isolation of mutant strains was achieved in 7 to 14 days when the strains were grown on solid medium. The induced mutations were stable even in the absence

NORMAN G. HOMMES; LUIS A. SAYAVEDRA-SOTO; ANDDANIEL J. ARP

1996-01-01

291

Different respiratory-defective phenotypes of Neurospora crassa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae after inactivation of the gene encoding the mitochondrial acyl carrier protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nuclear genes (acp-1, ACP 1) encoding the mitochondrial acyl carrier protein were disrupted in Neurospora crassa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In N. crassa acp-1 is a peripheral subunit of the respiratory NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I). S. cerevisiae lacks complex I and its ACP1 appears to be located in the mitochondrial matrix. The loss of acp-1 in N. crassa causes

Regina Schneider; Michael Massow; Thomas Lisowsky; Hanns Weiss

1995-01-01

292

Molecular cloning of three pyranose dehydrogenase-encoding genes from Agaricus meleagris and analysis of their expression by real-time RT-PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar oxidoreductases such as cellobiose dehydrogenase or pyranose oxidase are widespread enzymes among fungi, whose biological\\u000a function is largely speculative. We investigated a similar gene family in the mushroom Agaricus meleagris and its expression under various conditions. Three genes (named pdh1, pdh2 and pdh3) putatively encoding pyranose dehydrogenases were isolated. All three genes displayed a conserved structure and organization,\\u000a and

Roman Kittl; Christoph Sygmund; Petr Halada; Jind?ich Volc; Christina Divne; Dietmar Haltrich; Clemens K. Peterbauer

2008-01-01

293

Characterization of SrgA, a Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Virulence Plasmid-Encoded Paralogue of the Disulfide Oxidoreductase DsbA, Essential for Biogenesis of Plasmid-Encoded Fimbriae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disulfide oxidoreductases are viewed as foldases that help to maintain proteins on productive folding pathways by enhancing the rate of protein folding through the catalytic incorporation of disulfide bonds. SrgA, encoded on the virulence plasmid pStSR100 of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and located down- stream of the plasmid-borne fimbrial operon, is a disulfide oxidoreductase. Sequence analysis indicates that SrgA is

C. W. Bouwman; M. Kohli; A. Killoran; G. A. Touchie; R. J. Kadner; N. L. Martin

2003-01-01

294

Flavodoxin:Quinone Reductase (FqrB): a Redox Partner of Pyruvate:Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase That Reversibly Couples Pyruvate Oxidation to NADPH Production in Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter jejuni  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyruvate-dependent reduction of NADP has been demonstrated in cell extracts of the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. However, NADP is not a substrate of purified pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR), suggesting that other redox active enzymes mediate this reaction. Here we show that fqrB (HP1164), which is essential and highly conserved among the epsilonproteobacteria, exhibits NADPH oxidoreductase activity. FqrB was purified by

M. St. Maurice; N. Cremades; M. A. Croxen; G. Sisson; J. Sancho; P. S. Hoffman

2007-01-01

295

Expression of genes for sulfur oxidation in the intracellular chemoautotrophic symbiont of the deep-sea bivalve Calyptogena okutanii  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand sulfur oxidation in thioautotrophic deep-sea clam symbionts, we analyzed the recently reported genomes of two\\u000a chemoautotrophic symbionts of Calyptogena okutanii (Candidatus Vesicomyosocius okutanii strain HA: Vok) and C. magnifica (Candidatus Ruthia magnifica strain Cm: Rma), and examined the sulfur oxidation gene expressions in the Vok by RT-PCR. Both symbionts have genes for sulfide-quinone\\u000a oxidoreductase (sqr), dissimilatory sulfite reductase

Maiko Harada; Takao Yoshida; Hirokazu Kuwahara; Shigeru Shimamura; Yoshihiro Takaki; Chiaki Kato; Tetsuya Miwa; Hiroshi Miyake; Tadashi Maruyama

2009-01-01

296

In vitro-mutagenesis of NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase B: two distinctive protochlorophyllide binding sites participate in enzyme catalysis and assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) B is a key enzyme for the light-induced greening of etiolated angiosperm plants. It is nucleus-encoded, imported into the plastids posttranslationally, and assembled into larger light-harvesting POR:protochlorophyllide complexes termed LHPP (Reinbothe et al., Nature 397:80–84, 1999). An in vitro-mutagenesis approach was taken to study the role of the evolutionarily conserved Cys residues in pigment binding. Four Cys

Christiane Reinbothe; Frank Buhr; Sandra Bartsch; Claire Desvignes; Françoise Quigley; Hélène Pesey; Steffen Reinbothe

2006-01-01

297

Oxidoreductase activity of peat soils as an indicator of the degree of biochemical transformation of drained and forested bogs in West Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multivariate analysis unambiguously demonstrated the differentiation of oxidoreductase activity (catalase, peroxidase, and\\u000a dehydrogenase) in peat soils after a 20–25-year period of bog drainage and afforestation. The enzyme activity depended on\\u000a the drainage depth. A statistical model has been developed to predict the degree of humification of peat organic matter from\\u000a peroxidase activity and moisture of drained soils. Soil peroxidase activity

T. T. Efremova; T. M. Ovchinnikova

2007-01-01

298

Stable Expression of Human Cytochrome P450 3A4 in Conjunction with Human NADPH-Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase in V79 Chinese Hamster Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

V79 Chinese hamster cells were constructed for stable expression of human cytochrome P450 3A4 with and without coexpression of human NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase. Expression of the cDNAs was shown by Northern and Western analyses. Activity was tested by 6?-hydroxylation of testosterone for cytochrome P450 3A4 and by cytochrome c reduction for NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. Five V79 cell lines were obtained

Anneliese Schneider; Wolfgang A. Schmalix; Vasanthi Siruguri; Els M. de Groene; G. Jean Horbach; Britta Kleingeist; Dieter Lang; Ronald Böcker; Claire Belloc; Philippe Beaune; Helmut Greim; Johannes Doehmer

1996-01-01

299

Anticancer Action of Cube Insecticide: Correlation for Rotenoid Constituents between Inhibition of NADH:Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase and Induced Ornithine Decarboxylase Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rotenone and rotenoid-containing botanicals, important insecticides and fish poisons, are reported to have anticancer activity in rats and mice. The toxic action of rotenone is attributed to inhibition of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase activity and the purported cancer chemopreventive effect of deguelin analogs has been associated with inhibition of phorbol ester-induced ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity. This study defines a possible relationship between

Nianbai Fang; John E. Casida

1998-01-01

300

Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase B-Catalyzed Protochlorophyllide Photoreduction in vitro: Insight into the Mechanism of Chlorophyll Formation in Light-Adapted Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of the protochlorophyllide (PChlide) photoreduction reaction operating in light-adapted plants and catalyzed by NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase B (PORb) has been analyzed by low-temperature fluorescence spectroscopy by using purified barley PORb overexpressed heterologously in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with the maltose-binding protein. We show that the PORb-catalyzed PChlide reduction reaction consists of two steps, one photochemical and the

Nikolai Lebedev; Michael P. Timko

1999-01-01

301

[Oxidoreductase activity of peat soils as an indicator of the degree of biochemical transformation of drained and forested bogs in west Siberia].  

PubMed

Multivariate analysis unambiguously demonstrated the differentiation of oxidoreductase activity (catalase, peroxidase, and dehydrogenase) in peat soils after a 20-25-year period of bog drainage and afforestation. The enzyme activity depended on the drainage depth. A statistical model has been developed to predict the degree of humification of peat organic matter from peroxidase activity and moisture of drained soils. Soil peroxidase activity can be an important indicator of the degree of biochemical transformation of drained and forested bogs. PMID:17853699

Efremova, T T; Ovchinnikova, T M

302

Light-independent and light-dependent protochlorophyllide-reducing activities and two distinct NADPH-protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase polypeptides in mountain pine ( Pinus mugo )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lower plants and gymnosperms synthesize chlorophyll and develop photosynthetically competent chloroplasts even when grown in the dark. In cell-free extracts of pine (Pinus mugo, Turra, ssp. mugo) seedlings, light-independent and light-dependent protochlorophyllide-reducing activities are present. Two distinct NADPH-protochlorophyllide-oxidoreductase (POR) polypeptides can be detected immunologically with an antiserum raised against the POR of barley. The subcellular localization and amounts of the

Christoph Forreiter; Klaus Apel

1993-01-01

303

Selective regulation of 3?-hydroxysteroid oxido-reductase expression in dorsal root ganglion neurons: A possible mechanism to cope with peripheral nerve injury-induced chronic pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzyme 3?-hydroxysteroid oxido-reductase (3?-HSOR) catalyzes the synthesis and bioavailability of 3?,5?-neurosteroids as allopregnanolone (3?,5?-THP) which activates GABAA receptors and blocks T-type calcium channels involved in pain mechanisms. Here, we used a multidisciplinary approach to demonstrate that 3?-HSOR is a cellular target the modulation of which in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) may contribute to suppress pain resulting from peripheral nerve

Christine Patte-Mensah; Laurence Meyer; Véronique Schaeffer; Ayikoe G. Mensah-Nyagan

2010-01-01

304

Biphasic Kinetic Behavior of E. coli WrbA, an FMN-Dependent NAD(P)H:Quinone Oxidoreductase  

PubMed Central

The E. coli protein WrbA is an FMN-dependent NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase that has been implicated in oxidative defense. Three subunits of the tetrameric enzyme contribute to each of four identical, cavernous active sites that appear to accommodate NAD(P)H or various quinones, but not simultaneously, suggesting an obligate tetramer with a ping-pong mechanism in which NAD departs before oxidized quinone binds. The present work was undertaken to evaluate these suggestions and to characterize the kinetic behavior of WrbA. Steady-state kinetics results reveal that WrbA conforms to a ping-pong mechanism with respect to the constancy of the apparent Vmax to Km ratio with substrate concentration. However, the competitive/non-competitive patterns of product inhibition, though consistent with the general class of bi-substrate reactions, do not exclude a minor contribution from additional forms of the enzyme. NMR results support the presence of additional enzyme forms. Docking and energy calculations find that electron-transfer-competent binding sites for NADH and benzoquinone present severe steric overlap, consistent with the ping-pong mechanism. Unexpectedly, plots of initial velocity as a function of either NADH or benzoquinone concentration present one or two Michaelis-Menten phases depending on the temperature at which the enzyme is held prior to assay. The effect of temperature is reversible, suggesting an intramolecular conformational process. WrbA shares these and other details of its kinetic behavior with mammalian DT-diaphorase, an FAD-dependent NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase. An extensive literature review reveals several other enzymes with two-plateau kinetic plots, but in no case has a molecular explanation been elucidated. Preliminary sedimentation velocity analysis of WrbA indicates a large shift in size of the multimer with temperature, suggesting that subunit assembly coupled to substrate binding may underlie the two-plateau behavior. An additional aim of this report is to bring under wider attention the apparently widespread phenomenon of two-plateau Michaelis-Menten plots.

Kishko, Iryna; Harish, Balasubramanian; Zayats, Vasilina; Reha, David; Tenner, Brian; Beri, Dhananjay; Gustavsson, Tobias; Ettrich, Rudiger; Carey, Jannette

2012-01-01

305

Biphasic kinetic behavior of E. coli WrbA, an FMN-dependent NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase.  

PubMed

The E. coli protein WrbA is an FMN-dependent NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase that has been implicated in oxidative defense. Three subunits of the tetrameric enzyme contribute to each of four identical, cavernous active sites that appear to accommodate NAD(P)H or various quinones, but not simultaneously, suggesting an obligate tetramer with a ping-pong mechanism in which NAD departs before oxidized quinone binds. The present work was undertaken to evaluate these suggestions and to characterize the kinetic behavior of WrbA. Steady-state kinetics results reveal that WrbA conforms to a ping-pong mechanism with respect to the constancy of the apparent Vmax to Km ratio with substrate concentration. However, the competitive/non-competitive patterns of product inhibition, though consistent with the general class of bi-substrate reactions, do not exclude a minor contribution from additional forms of the enzyme. NMR results support the presence of additional enzyme forms. Docking and energy calculations find that electron-transfer-competent binding sites for NADH and benzoquinone present severe steric overlap, consistent with the ping-pong mechanism. Unexpectedly, plots of initial velocity as a function of either NADH or benzoquinone concentration present one or two Michaelis-Menten phases depending on the temperature at which the enzyme is held prior to assay. The effect of temperature is reversible, suggesting an intramolecular conformational process. WrbA shares these and other details of its kinetic behavior with mammalian DT-diaphorase, an FAD-dependent NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase. An extensive literature review reveals several other enzymes with two-plateau kinetic plots, but in no case has a molecular explanation been elucidated. Preliminary sedimentation velocity analysis of WrbA indicates a large shift in size of the multimer with temperature, suggesting that subunit assembly coupled to substrate binding may underlie the two-plateau behavior. An additional aim of this report is to bring under wider attention the apparently widespread phenomenon of two-plateau Michaelis-Menten plots. PMID:22952804

Kishko, Iryna; Harish, Balasubramanian; Zayats, Vasilina; Reha, David; Tenner, Brian; Beri, Dhananjay; Gustavsson, Tobias; Ettrich, Rüdiger; Carey, Jannette

2012-08-29

306

Sulfide Oxidation from Cyanobacteria to Humans: Sulfide–Quinone Oxidoreductase (SQR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the discovery that anoxygenic, sulfidotrophic photosynthesis can be induced in cyanobacteria, sulfide- quinone reductase\\u000a (SQR) was identified and characterized in Oscillatoria limnetica. This was closely followed by the study of SQR in the purple bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus. Subsequently the genes of the purple bacterium and of two cyanobacteria, as well as of the hyperthermophilic hydrogen bacterium\\u000a Aquifex aeolicus were

Yosepha Shahak; Günter Hauska

307

Impact of NAD(P)H:Quinone Oxidoreductase1 on Pigmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We obtained metastasized melanoma tissue from a primary acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) patient and established a melanoma cell line named primary culture of melanoma cell derived from lymph node (PML)-1. PML-1 cells had a light brown color and decreased the expression of melanogenesis markers, including tyrosinase (TYR), microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, and tyrosinase-related protein-1. To identify genes differentially regulated in PML-1

Tae-Young Choi; Kyung-Cheol Sohn; Jin-Hwa Kim; Seong-Min Kim; Cheol-Hee Kim; Jae-Sung Hwang; Jeung-Hoon Lee; Chang Deok Kim; Tae-Jin Yoon

2010-01-01

308

Isolation and characterization of the citrinin biosynthetic gene cluster from Monascus aurantiacus.  

PubMed

Monascus aurantiacus produces high amounts of citrinin which is a mycotoxin with nephrotoxic activity. Six putative citrinin biosynthesis genes have been discovered in M. purpureus and at least 10 genes are responsible for its biosynthesis. However, the sequence of citrinin pathway gene cluster in M. aurantiacus has not been reported. Here, the putative sequence of citrinin biosynthetic gene cluster was obtained by a PCR-based strategy for screening a genome fosmid library of M. aurantiacus. A sequence of 43 kb revealed 16 ORFs including the six putative biosynthetic genes reported previous. The putative gene cluster consists of a polytekide synthetase encoding one PKS module, an oxidoreductase gene, three dehydrogenase genes, an acyl-coenzyme A synthetase gene, a membrane transport protein gene, a transcriptional activator gene as well as genes encoding proteins of undefined function. PMID:21956130

Li, Yan-Ping; Xu, Yang; Huang, Zhi-Bing

2011-09-29

309

Structure of Escherichia coli succinate:quinone oxidoreductase with an occupied and empty quinone-binding site.  

PubMed

Three new structures of Escherichia coli succinate-quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) have been solved. One with the specific quinone-binding site (Q-site) inhibitor carboxin present has been solved at 2.4 A resolution and reveals how carboxin inhibits the Q-site. The other new structures are with the Q-site inhibitor pentachlorophenol and with an empty Q-site. These structures reveal important details unresolved in earlier structures. Comparison of the new SQR structures shows how subtle rearrangements of the quinone-binding site accommodate the different inhibitors. The position of conserved water molecules near the quinone binding pocket leads to a reassessment of possible water-mediated proton uptake networks that complete reduction of ubiquinone. The dicarboxylate-binding site in the soluble domain of SQR is highly similar to that seen in high resolution structures of avian SQR (PDB 2H88) and soluble flavocytochrome c (PDB 1QJD) showing mechanistically significant structural features conserved across prokaryotic and eukaryotic SQRs. PMID:19710024

Ruprecht, Jonathan; Yankovskaya, Victoria; Maklashina, Elena; Iwata, So; Cecchini, Gary

2009-08-25

310

Properties of a superoxide anion-generating microsomal NADH oxidoreductase, a potential pulmonary artery PO2 sensor.  

PubMed

In this study, we describe properties of a microsomal NADH oxidoreductase that is a potential PO2-dependent source of vasoactive reactive O2 species in the calf pulmonary artery. Microsomes show an NADH-dependent production of superoxide anion (O2-.), as detected by lucigenin-elicited chemiluminescence, a superoxide dismutase inhibited reduction of nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) and 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol, and O2 consumption. The microsomal production of O2-. was modulated by physiologically relevant levels of NADH and PO2, and O2-. production was reduced by inhibitors of NADH-dependent microsomal electron transport. Microsomes catalyzed an NADH-mediated reduction of several electron acceptor dyes, cytochrome c (rotenone insensitive) and methemoglobin. On reduction with dithionite, a cytochrome with an absorbance at approximately 558 nm was observed. Arterial O2-. levels (chemiluminescence) were also reduced by NBT and microsomal electron transport inhibitors. In pulmonary arteries, NBT selectively inhibited PO2 and lactate elicited changes in force generation, presumably by trapping O2-. and preventing H2O2 formation. Thus these studies are consistent with an involvement of O2-.-derived H2O2 generation via a microsomal NADH-cytochrome b558 electron transport system in calf pulmonary artery smooth muscle PO2 and lactate-elicited tone responses. PMID:7810686

Mohazzab, K M; Wolin, M S

1994-12-01

311

Identification of the N-termini of NADPH : protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase A and B from barley etioplasts (Hordeum vulgare L.).  

PubMed

The N-termini of the NADPH : protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) proteins A and B from barley and POR from pea were determined by acetylation of the proteins and selective isolation of the N-terminal peptides for mass spectrometry de novo sequence analysis. We show that the cleavage sites between the transit peptides and the three mature POR proteins are homologous. The N-terminus in PORA is V48, that in PORB is A61, and that in POR from pea is E64. For the PORB protein, two additional N-termini were identified as A62 and A63, with decreased signal intensity of the corresponding N-terminal peptides. The results show that the transit peptide of PORA is considerably shorter than previously reported and predicted by ChloroP. A pentapeptide motif that has been characterized as responsible for binding of protochlorophyllide to the transit peptide of PORA [Reinbothe C, Pollmann S, Phetsarath-Faure P, Quigley F, Weisbeek P & Reinbothe S (2008) Plant Physiol148, 694-703] is shown here to be part of the mature PORA protein. PMID:19154351

Plöscher, Matthias; Granvogl, Bernhard; Reisinger, Veronika; Eichacker, Lutz A

2009-01-16

312

Insecticidal quinazoline derivatives with (trifluoromethyl)diazirinyl and azido substituents as NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase inhibitors and candidate photoaffinity probes.  

PubMed

Two candidate photoaffinity probes are designed from 4-substituted quinazolines known to be potent insecticides/acaricides and NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase inhibitors acting at or near the rotenone site. 4-(11-Azidoundecyl-2-amino)quinazoline, based on the undecylamino analog SAN 548A as a prototype, was synthesized in 18% overall yield from ethyl 10-undecenoate by oxidation of the terminal double bond, reductive amination, coupling to 4-chloroquinazoline, and functional group manipulation of the terminal ethyl ester to an alcohol, a mesylate and finally nucleophilic displacement with azide ions. 4-(4-(3-(Trifluoromethyl)-3H-diazirin-3-yl)phenethoxy)quinaz oline [the (trifluoromethyl)diazirinyl analog of fenazaquin insecticide/acaricide] was prepared from 4-bromophenethyl alcohol in 31% overall yield by first introducing the trifluoromethylketone moiety followed by its conversion to the (trifluoromethyl)-diazirine and finally coupling to 4-chloroquinazoline as above. Both candidate photoaffinity probes have the inhibitory potency of rotenone (IC50 of 3-4 nM in each case). The azidoundecylamino compound has inadequate photoreactivity whereas that of the (trifluoromethyl)diazirinyl analog is ideal at 350 nm. Radiosynthesis of the latter photoaffinity ligand included introduction of the diazirinyl moiety as the carbene precursor, oxidation of (trifluoromethyl)diazirinylphenethyl alcohol to the corresponding acid with Jones' reagent, and reduction of the phenacetyl chloride intermediate with sodium borotritide to incorporate tritium. PMID:8839048

Latli, B; Wood, E; Casida, J E

1996-03-01

313

Specific modification of a Na+ binding site in NADH:quinone oxidoreductase from Klebsiella pneumoniae with dicyclohexylcarbodiimide.  

PubMed

The respiratory NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (complex I) (NDH-1) is a multisubunit enzyme that translocates protons (or in some cases Na+) across energy-conserving membranes from bacteria or mitochondria. We studied the reaction of the Na+-translocating complex I from the enterobacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae with N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), with the aim of identifying a subunit critical for Na+ binding. At low Na+ concentrations (0.6 mM), DCCD inhibited both quinone reduction and Na+ transport by NDH-1 concurrent with the covalent modification of a 30-kDa polypeptide. In the presence of 50 mM Na+, NDH-1 was protected from inhibition by DCCD, and the modification of the 30-kDa polypeptide with [14C]DCCD was prevented, indicating that Na+ and DCCD competed for the binding to a critical carboxyl group in NDH-1. The 30-kDa polypeptide was assigned to NuoH, the homologue of the ND1 subunit from mitochondrial complex I. It is proposed that Na+ binds to the NuoH subunit during NADH-driven Na+ transport by NDH-1. PMID:16621819

Vgenopoulou, Irini; Gemperli, Anja C; Steuber, Julia

2006-05-01

314

Functional coupling of PSST and ND1 subunits in NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase established by photoaffinity labeling.  

PubMed

NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is the first, largest and most complicated enzyme of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Photoaffinity labeling with the highly potent and specific inhibitor trifluoromethyldiazirinyl-[(3)H]pyridaben ([(3)H]TDP) labels only the PSST and ND1 subunits of complex I in electron transport particles. PSST is labeled at a high-affinity site responsible for inhibition of enzymatic activity while ND1 is labeled at a low-affinity site not related to enzyme inhibition. In this study we found, as expected, that 13 complex I inhibitors decreased labeling at the PSST site without effect on ND1 labeling. However, there were striking exceptions where an apparent interaction was found between the PSST and ND1 subunits: preincubation with NADH increases PSST labeling and decreases ND1 labeling; the very weak complex I inhibitor 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+)) and the semiquinone analogue stigmatellin show the opposite effect with increased labeling at ND1 coupled to decreased labeling at PSST in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. MPP(+), stigmatellin and ubisemiquinone have similarly positioned centers of highly negative and positive electrostatic potential surfaces. Perhaps the common action of MPP(+) and stigmatellin on the functional coupling of the PSST and ND1 subunits is initiated by binding at a semiquinone binding site in complex I. PMID:11418099

Schuler, F; Casida, J E

2001-07-01

315

Rational proteomics I. Fingerprint identification and cofactor specificity in the short-chain oxidoreductase (SCOR) enzyme family.  

PubMed

The short-chain oxidoreductase (SCOR) family of enzymes includes over 2000 members identified in sequenced genomes. Of these enzymes, approximately 200 have been characterized functionally, and the three-dimensional crystal structures of approximately 40 have been reported. Since some SCOR enzymes are involved in hypertension, diabetes, breast cancer, and polycystic kidney disease, it is important to characterize the other members of the family for which the biological functions are currently unknown. Although the SCOR family appears to have only a single fully conserved residue, it was possible, using bioinformatics methods, to determine characteristic fingerprints composed of 30-40 residues that are conserved at the 70% or greater level in SCOR subgroups. These fingerprints permit reliable prediction of several important structure-function features including NAD/NADP cofactor preference. For example, the correlation of aspartate or arginine residues with NAD or NADP binding, respectively, predicts the cofactor preference of more than 70% of the SCOR proteins with unknown function. The analysis of conserved residues surrounding the cofactor has revealed the presence of previously undetected CH em leader O hydrogen bonds in the majority of the SCOR crystal structures, predicts the presence of similar hydrogen bonds in 90% of the SCOR proteins of unknown function, and suggests that these hydrogen bonds may play a critical role in the catalytic functions of these enzymes. PMID:14635134

Duax, William L; Pletnev, Vladimir; Addlagatta, Anthony; Bruenn, Jeremy; Weeks, Charles M

2003-12-01

316

Rational Proteomics II. Electrostatic Nature of Cofactor Preference in the Short-Chain Oxidoreductase (SCOR) Enzyme Family  

PubMed Central

The dominant role of long range electrostatic interatomic interactions in NAD/NADP cofactor recognition has been shown for enzymes of the short-chain oxidoreductase (SCOR) family. An estimation of cofactor preference based only on the contribution of the electrostatic energy term to the total energy of enzyme-cofactor interaction has been tested for ?40 known 3D crystal complexes and ?330 SCOR enzymes with cofactor preference predicted by the presence of Asp or Arg recognition residues at specific 3D positions in the ?2?3 loop.1 The results obtained were found to be consistent with ?90% reliable cofactor assignments for those subsets. The procedure was then applied to ?170 SCOR enzymes with completely uncertain NAD/NADP dependence due to the lack of Asp and Arg marker residues. The proposed 3D electrostatic approach for cofactor assignment (“3D_ ?Eel”) has been implemented in an automatic screening procedure) and together with the use of marker residues proposed earlier1 increases the level of reliable predictions for the putative SCORs from ?70% to ?90%. It is expected to be applicable for any NAD/NADP dependent enzyme subset having at least 25-30% sequence identity with at least one enzyme of known 3D crystal structure.

Pletnev, Vladimir Z.; Weeks, Charles M.; Duax, William L.

2006-01-01

317

Rational proteomics II: electrostatic nature of cofactor preference in the short-chain oxidoreductase (SCOR) enzyme family.  

PubMed

The dominant role of long-range electrostatic interatomic interactions in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD/NADP) cofactor recognition has been shown for enzymes of the short-chain oxidoreductase (SCOR) family. An estimation of cofactor preference based only on the contribution of the electrostatic energy term to the total energy of enzyme-cofactor interaction has been tested for approximately 40 known three-dimensional (3D) crystal complexes and approximately 330 SCOR enzymes, with cofactor preference predicted by the presence of Asp or Arg recognition residues at specific 3D positions in the beta2alpha3 loop (Duax et al., Proteins 2003;53:931-943). The results obtained were found to be consistent with approximately 90% reliable cofactor assignments for those subsets. The procedure was then applied to approximately 170 SCOR enzymes with completely uncertain NAD/NADP dependence, due to the lack of Asp and Arg marker residues. The proposed 3D electrostatic approach for cofactor assignment ("3D_DeltaE(el)") has been implemented in an automatic screening procedure, and together with the use of marker residues proposed earlier (Duax et al., Proteins 2003;53:931-943), increases the level of reliable predictions for the putative SCORs from approximately 70% to approximately 90%. It is expected to be applicable for any NAD/NADP-dependent enzyme subset having at least 25-30% sequence identity, with at least one enzyme of known 3D crystal structure. PMID:15340916

Pletnev, Vladimir Z; Weeks, Charles M; Duax, William L

2004-11-01

318

Spectroscopic and kinetic characterization of the light-dependent enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) using monovinyl and divinyl substrates  

PubMed Central

The enzyme POR [Pchlide (protochlorophyllide) oxidoreductase] catalyses the reduction of Pchlide to chlorophyllide, which is a key step in the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway. This light-dependent reaction has previously been studied in great detail but recent reports suggest that a mixture of MV (monovinyl) and DV (divinyl) Pchlides may have influenced some of these properties of the reaction. Low-temperature absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy have revealed several spectral differences between MV and DV Pchlides, which were purified from a Rhodobacter capsulatus strain that was shown to contain a mixture of the two pigments. A thorough steady-state kinetic characterization using both Pchlide forms demonstrates that neither pigment appears to affect the kinetic properties of the enzyme. The reaction has also been monitored following illumination at low temperatures and was shown to consist of an initial photochemical step followed by four ‘dark’ steps for both pigments. However, minor differences were observed in the spectral properties of some of the intermediates, although the temperature dependency of each step was nearly identical for the two pigments. This work provides the first detailed kinetic and spectroscopic study of this unique enzyme using biologically important MV and DV substrate analogues. It also has significant implications for the DV reductase enzyme, which is responsible for converting DV pigments into their MV counterparts, and its position in the sequence of reactions that comprise the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway.

Heyes, Derren J.; Kruk, Jerzy; Hunter, C. Neil

2005-01-01

319

Inactivation of corticosteroids in intestinal mucosa by 11 beta-hydroxysteroid: NADP oxidoreductase (EC 1. 1. 1. 146)  

SciTech Connect

Activity of the enzyme 11 beta-hydroxysteroid:NADP oxidoreductase (EC 1.1.1.146) in human intestinal mucosa was determined by incubating scraped mucosa with /sup 3/H-cortisone and /sup 14/C-cortisol; these steroids were then extracted, separated chromatographically, and the radioactivity assayed to determine simultaneously both reductase and dehydrogenase activities. This was the only significant metabolic alteration which the substrate underwent. Only two cases had slight (5 and 13%) reductase activity. In 35 patients, 16 male and 19 female, including seven cases of Crohn's disease, three ulcerative colitis, five diverticulitis, two undergoing surgery for repair of injuries and 18 for carcinoma of colon or rectum, cortisol was converted to cortisone in 15 min with a wide range of values distributed uniformly up to 85% dehydrogenation, with a mean of 42%. When tissue homogenates were fortified with coenzymes, excess NADPH lowered dehydrogenase activity 81%; excess NADP increased dehydrogenase activity 2-fold in three cases. It is possible that a value is characteristic of an individual but perhaps more likely enzyme activity varies with metabolic events involving changes in the coenzyme levels in mucosa, and a random sampling might be expected to yield such a distribution of values. In any event, where activity is high most of the cortisol is inactivated within minutes. It is suggested that synthetic corticoids which escape such metabolic alteration might, except during pregnancy, prove superior in the treatment of conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease.

Burton, A.F.; Anderson, F.H.

1983-10-01

320

Upregulation of NAD(P)H:Quinone Oxidoreductase By Radiation Potentiates the Effect of Bioreductive ?-Lapachone on Cancer Cells1  

PubMed Central

We found that ?-lapachone (?-lap), a novel bioreductive drug, caused rapid apoptosis and clonogenic cell death in A549 human lung epithelial cancer cells in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. The clonogenic cell death caused by ?-lap could be significantly inhibited by dicoumarol, an inhibitor of NAD(P)H:quinone oxido-reductase (NQO1), and also by siRNA for NQO1, demonstrating that NQO1-induced bioreduction of ?-lap is an essential step in ?-lap-induced cell death. Irradiation of A549 cells with 4 Gy caused a long-lasting upregulation of NQO1, thereby increasing NQO1-mediated ?-lap-induced cell deaths. Although the direct cause of ?-lap-induced apoptosis is not yet clear, ?-lap treatment reduced the expression of p53 and NF-?B, whereas it increased cytochrome C release, caspase-3 activity, and ?H2AX foci formation. Importantly, ?-lap treatment immediately after irradiation enhanced radiation-induced cell death, indicating that ?-lap sensitizes cancer cells to radiation, in addition to directly killing some of the cells. The growth of A549 tumors induced in immunocompromised mice could be markedly suppressed by local radiation therapy when followed by ?-lap treatment. This is the first study to demonstrate that combined radiotherapy and ?-lap treatment can have a significant effect on human tumor xenografts.

Choi, Eun K; Terai, Kaoru; Ji, In-Mi; Kook, Yeon H; Park, Kyung H; Oh, Eun T; Griffin, Robert J; Lim, Byung U; Kim, Jin-Seok; Lee, Doo S; Boothman, David A; Loren, Melissa; Song, Chang W; Park, Heon Joo

2007-01-01

321

The structure of the biliverdin radical intermediate in phycocyanobilin:ferredoxin oxidoreductase identified by high-field EPR and DFT  

PubMed Central

The cyanobacterial enzyme phycocyanobilin:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PcyA) catalyzes the two-step four-electron reduction of biliverdin IX? to phycocyanobilin, the precursor of biliprotein chromophores found in phycobilisomes. It is known that catalysis proceeds via paramagnetic radical intermediates, but the structure of these intermediates and the transfer pathways for the four protons involved are not known. In this study, high-field electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of frozen solutions and single crystals of the one-electron reduced protein-substrate complex of two PcyA mutants D105N from the cyanobacteria Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 and Nostoc sp. PCC7120 are examined. Detailed analysis of Synechocystis D105N mutant spectra at 130 GHz and 406 GHz reveals a biliverdin radical with a very narrow g tensor with principal values 2.00359(5), 2.00341(5) and 2.00218(5). Using density-functional theory (DFT) computations to explore the possible protonation states of the biliverdin radical, it is shown that this g tensor is consistent with a biliverdin radical where the carbonyl oxygen atoms on both the A and the D pyrrole rings are protonated. This experimentally confirms the reaction mechanism recently proposed (Tu et al, Biochemistry 2007, 46, 1484).

Stoll, Stefan; Gunn, Alexander; Brynda, Marcin; Sughrue, Wesley; Kohler, Amanda C.; Ozarowski, Andrew; Fisher, Andrew J.; Lagarias, J. Clark; Britt, R. David

2009-01-01

322

Lumen Thiol Oxidoreductase1, a disulfide bond-forming catalyst, is required for the assembly of photosystem II in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Here, we identify Arabidopsis thaliana Lumen Thiol Oxidoreductase1 (LTO1) as a disulfide bond-forming enzyme in the thylakoid lumen. Using topological reporters in bacteria, we deduced a lumenal location for the redox active domains of the protein. LTO1 can partially substitute for the proteins catalyzing disulfide bond formation in the bacterial periplasm, which is topologically equivalent to the plastid lumen. An insertional mutation within the LTO1 promoter is associated with a severe photoautotrophic growth defect. Measurements of the photosynthetic activity indicate that the lto1 mutant displays a limitation in the electron flow from photosystem II (PSII). In accordance with these measurements, we noted a severe depletion of the structural subunits of PSII but no change in the accumulation of the cytochrome b(6)f complex or photosystem I. In a yeast two-hybrid assay, the thioredoxin-like domain of LTO1 interacts with PsbO, a lumenal PSII subunit known to be disulfide bonded, and a recombinant form of the molecule can introduce a disulfide bond in PsbO in vitro. The documentation of a sulfhydryl-oxidizing activity in the thylakoid lumen further underscores the importance of catalyzed thiol-disulfide chemistry for the biogenesis of the thylakoid compartment. PMID:22209765

Karamoko, Mohamed; Cline, Sara; Redding, Kevin; Ruiz, Natividad; Hamel, Patrice P

2011-12-30

323

The secretome of Trametes versicolor grown on tomato juice medium and purification of the secreted oxidoreductases including a versatile peroxidase.  

PubMed

The present work was carried out with the aim to analyze the secretome of Trametes versicolor BAFC 2234 grown on tomato juice medium supplemented with copper and manganese. T. versicolor BAFC 2234 was selected among diverse wood dwelling agaricomycetes from Argentina by its ability to cause a strong white rot on hardwood and in addition to show high tolerance toward phenolic compounds. A considerable number of the identified proteins were related to the degradation/modification of lignocelluloses. Hydrolases, peroxidases and phenoloxidases were the most abundant enzymes produced under the above-mentioned culture conditions. The lignin-modifying oxidoreductases laccase, manganese peroxidase (MnP) and versatile peroxidase (VP) were successfully purified - the latter for the first time from T. versicolor. The native VP protein has a molecular mass of 45kDa and an isoelectric point of pH 3.7. The study clearly shows that complex plant-based media being rich in phenolics, such as tomato juice, can stimulate the secretion of a broad set of extracellular lignocellulolytic enzymes. Using such natural products as fungal culture media may give the opportunity to investigate plant biomass decomposition as well as the biodegradation of organic pollutants in an environment close to nature. PMID:23948257

Carabajal, Maira; Kellner, Harald; Levin, Laura; Jehmlich, Nico; Hofrichter, Martin; Ullrich, René

2013-08-12

324

Effects of the deletion of the Escherichia coli frataxin homologue CyaY on the respiratory NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase  

PubMed Central

Background Frataxin is discussed as involved in the biogenesis of iron-sulfur clusters. Recently it was discovered that a frataxin homologue is a structural component of the respiratory NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) in Thermus thermophilus. It was not clear whether frataxin is in general a component of complex I from bacteria. The Escherichia coli homologue of frataxin is coined CyaY. Results We report that complex I is completely assembled to a stable and active enzyme complex equipped with all known iron-sulfur clusters in a cyaY mutant of E. coli. However, the amount of complex I is reduced by one third compared to the parental strain. Western blot analysis and live cell imaging of CyaY engineered with a GFP demonstrated that CyaY is located in the cytoplasm and not attached to the membrane as to be expected if it were a component of complex I. Conclusion CyaY plays a non-essential role in the assembly of complex I in E. coli. It is not a structural component but may transiently interact with the complex.

Pohl, Thomas; Walter, Julia; Stolpe, Stefan; Soufo, Joel H Defeu; Grauman, Peter L; Friedrich, Thorsten

2007-01-01

325

Insights into MHC class I peptide loading from the structure of the Tapasin-ERp57 thiol oxidoreductase heterodimer  

SciTech Connect

Tapasin is a glycoprotein critical for loading major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules with high-affinity peptides. It functions within the multimeric peptide-loading complex (PLC) as a disulfide-linked, stable heterodimer with the thiol oxidoreductase ERp57, and this covalent interaction is required to support optimal PLC activity. Here, we present the 2.6 {angstrom} resolution structure of the tapasin-ERp57 core of the PLC. The structure revealed that tapasin interacts with both ERp57 catalytic domains, accounting for the stability of the heterodimer, and provided an example of a protein disulfide isomerase family member interacting with substrate. Mutational analysis identified a conserved surface on tapasin that interacted with MHC class I molecules and was critical for peptide loading and editing functions of the tapasin-ERp57 heterodimer. By combining the tapasin-ERp57 structure with those of other defined PLC components, we present a molecular model that illuminates the processes involved in MHC class I peptide loading.

Dong, G.; Wearsch, P.A.; Peaper, D.R.; Cresswell, P.; Reinisch, K.M.; (Yale-MED)

2009-03-02

326

Protective role of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.  

PubMed

Although cisplatin is widely used as an anti-cancer agent, its use is significantly limited because of its tendency to induce nephrotoxicity through poorly understood mechanisms. NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is well known to regulate ROS generation. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether NQO1 modulates cisplatin-induced renal failure associated with NADPH oxidase (NOX)-derived ROS production in an animal model. NQO1-/- mice were treated with cisplatin (18 mg/kg) and renal function, oxidative stress, and tubular apoptosis were assessed. NQO1-/- mice showed increased blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels, tubular damage, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. In accordance with these results, the cellular NADPH/NADP ratio and NOX activity were markedly increased in the kidneys of NQO1-/- mice compared to NQO1+/+ mice. In addition, activation of NQO1 by ?L treatment significantly improved renal dysfunction and reduced tubular cell damage, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. This study demonstrates that NQO1 protects cells against renal failure induced by cisplatin, and that this effect is mediated by decreased NOX activity via cellular NADPH/NADP modulation. These results provide convincing evidence that NQO1 might be beneficial for ameliorating renal failure induced by cisplatin. PMID:23831944

Gang, Gil-Tae; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Noh, Jung-Ran; Kim, Kyoung-Shim; Jung, Ju-Young; Shong, Minho; Hwang, Jung Hwan; Lee, Chul-Ho

2013-07-04

327

Crystal Structure of the Nitrogenase-like Dark Operative Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase Catalytic Complex (ChlN/ChlB)2*?  

PubMed Central

During (bacterio)chlorophyll biosynthesis of many photosynthetically active organisms, dark operative protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (DPOR) catalyzes the two-electron reduction of ring D of protochlorophyllide to form chlorophyllide. DPOR is composed of the subunits ChlL, ChlN, and ChlB. Homodimeric ChlL2 bearing an intersubunit [4Fe-4S] cluster is an ATP-dependent reductase transferring single electrons to the heterotetrameric (ChlN/ChlB)2 complex. The latter contains two intersubunit [4Fe-4S] clusters and two protochlorophyllide binding sites, respectively. Here we present the crystal structure of the catalytic (ChlN/ChlB)2 complex of DPOR from the cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus at a resolution of 2.4 ?. Subunits ChlN and ChlB exhibit a related architecture of three subdomains each built around a central, parallel ?-sheet surrounded by ?-helices. The (ChlN/ChlB)2 crystal structure reveals a [4Fe-4S] cluster coordinated by an aspartate oxygen alongside three cysteine ligands. Two equivalent substrate binding sites enriched in aromatic residues for protochlorophyllide substrate binding are located at the interface of each ChlN/ChlB half-tetramer. The complete octameric (ChlN/ChlB)2(ChlL2)2 complex of DPOR was modeled based on the crystal structure and earlier functional studies. The electron transfer pathway via the various redox centers of DPOR to the substrate is proposed.

Brocker, Markus J.; Schomburg, Sebastian; Heinz, Dirk W.; Jahn, Dieter; Schubert, Wolf-Dieter; Moser, Jurgen

2010-01-01

328

The Crystal Structure and Mechanism of an Unusual Oxidoreductase, GilR, Involved in Gilvocarcin V Biosynthesis*  

PubMed Central

GilR is a recently identified oxidoreductase that catalyzes the terminal step of gilvocarcin V biosynthesis and is a unique enzyme that establishes the lactone core of the polyketide-derived gilvocarcin chromophore. Gilvocarcin-type compounds form a small distinct family of anticancer agents that are involved in both photo-activated DNA-alkylation and histone H3 cross-linking. High resolution crystal structures of apoGilR and GilR in complex with its substrate pregilvocarcin V reveals that GilR belongs to the small group of a relatively new type of the vanillyl-alcohol oxidase flavoprotein family characterized by bicovalently tethered cofactors. GilR was found as a dimer, with the bicovalently attached FAD cofactor mediated through His-65 and Cys-125. Subsequent mutagenesis and functional assays indicate that Tyr-445 may be involved in reaction catalysis and in mediating the covalent attachment of FAD, whereas Tyr-448 serves as an essential residue initiating the catalysis by swinging away from the active site to accommodate binding of the 6R-configured substrate and consequently abstracting the proton of the hydroxyl residue of the substrate hemiacetal 6-OH group. These studies lay the groundwork for future enzyme engineering to broaden the substrate specificity of this bottleneck enzyme of the gilvocarcin biosynthetic pathway for the development of novel anti-cancer therapeutics.

Noinaj, Nicholas; Bosserman, Mary A.; Schickli, M. Alexandra; Piszczek, Grzegorz; Kharel, Madan K.; Pahari, Pallab; Buchanan, Susan K.; Rohr, Jurgen

2011-01-01

329

Isolation and characterization of a Chinese hamster ovary cell line deficient in fatty alcohol:NAD sup + oxidoreductase activity  

SciTech Connect

The authors have isolated a mutant Chinese hamster ovary cell line that is defective in long-chain fatty alcohol oxidation. The ability of the mutant cells to convert labeled hexadecanol to the corresponding fatty acid in vivo was reduced to 5% of the parent strain. Whole-cell homogenates from the mutant strain, FAA.1, were deficient in long-chain fatty alcohol:NAD{sup +} oxidoreductase activity, which catalyzes the oxidation of hexadecanol to hexadecanoic acid, although the intermediate fatty aldehyde was formed normally. A direct measurement of fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase showed that the FAA.1, strain was defective in this component of FAO activity. FAA.1 is a two-stage mutant that was selected from a previously described parent strain, ZR-82, which is defective in ether lipid biosynthesis and peroxisome assembly. Because of combined defects in ether lipid biosynthesis and fatty alcohol oxidation, the ability of the FAA.1 cells to incorporate hexadecanol into complex lipids was greatly impaired, resulting in a 60-fold increase in cellular fatty alcohol levels. As the FAO deficiency in FAA.1 cells appears to be identical to the defect associated with the human genetic disorder Sjoegren-Larsson syndrome, the FAA.1 cell line may be useful in studying this disease.

James, P.F.; Lee, J. (Boston Univ. School of Medicine, MA (USA)); Rizzo, W.B.; Zoeller, R.A. (Medical College of Virginia, Richmond (USA))

1990-08-01

330

Cryogenic and laser photoexcitation studies identify multiple roles for active site residues in the light-driven enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase.  

PubMed

The light-activated enzyme NADPH-protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) catalyzes the trans addition of hydrogen across the C-17-C-18 double bond of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide), a key step in chlorophyll biosynthesis. Similar to other members of the short chain alcohol dehydrogenase/reductase family of enzymes, POR contains a conserved Tyr and Lys residue in the enzyme active site, which are implicated in a proposed reaction mechanism involving proton transfer from the Tyr hydoxyl group to Pchlide. We have analyzed a number of POR variant enzymes altered in these conserved residues using a combination of steady-state turnover, laser photoexcitation studies, and low temperature fluorescence spectroscopy. None of the mutations completely abolished catalytic activity. We demonstrate their importance to catalysis by defining multiple roles in the overall reaction pathway. Mutation of either residue impairs formation of the ground state ternary enzyme-substrate complex, pointing to a key role in substrate binding. By analyzing the most active variant (Y193F), we show that Tyr-193 participates in proton transfer to Pchlide and stabilizes the Pchlide excited state, enabling hydride transfer from NADPH to Pchilde. Thus, in addition to confirming the probable identity of the proton donor in Pchlide reduction, our work defines additional roles for these residues in facilitating hydride transfer through stabilization of the ground and excited states of the ternary enzyme complex. PMID:19439417

Menon, Binuraj R K; Waltho, Jonathan P; Scrutton, Nigel S; Heyes, Derren J

2009-05-13

331

Synthesis and biological evaluation of coumarin-based inhibitors of NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1).  

PubMed

The synthesis is reported here of two novel series of inhibitors of human NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1), an enzyme overexpressed in several types of tumor cell. The first series comprises substituted symmetric dicoumarol analogues; the second series contains hybrid compounds where one 4-hydroxycoumarin system is replaced by a different aromatic moiety. Several compounds show equivalent or improved NQO1 inhibition over dicoumarol, both in the presence and in the absence of added protein. Further, correlation is demonstrated between the ability of these agents to inhibit NQO1 and computed binding affinity. We have solved the crystal structure of NQO1 complexed to a hybrid compound and find good agreement with the in silico model. For both MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic tumor cells and HCT116 colon cancer cells, dicoumarol shows the greatest toxicity of all compounds. Thus, we provide a computational, synthetic, and biological platform to generate competitive NQO1 inhibitors with superior pharmacological properties to dicoumarol. This will allow a more definitive study of NQO1 activity in cells, in particular, its drug activating/detoxifying properties and ability to modulate oncoprotein stability. PMID:19877692

Nolan, Karen A; Doncaster, Jeremy R; Dunstan, Mark S; Scott, Katherine A; Frenkel, A David; Siegel, David; Ross, David; Barnes, John; Levy, Colin; Leys, David; Whitehead, Roger C; Stratford, Ian J; Bryce, Richard A

2009-11-26

332

The Crystal Structure and Mechanism of an Unusual Oxidoreductase, GilR, Involved in Gilvocarcin V Biosynthesis  

SciTech Connect

GilR is a recently identified oxidoreductase that catalyzes the terminal step of gilvocarcin V biosynthesis and is a unique enzyme that establishes the lactone core of the polyketide-derived gilvocarcin chromophore. Gilvocarcin-type compounds form a small distinct family of anticancer agents that are involved in both photo-activated DNA-alkylation and histone H3 cross-linking. High resolution crystal structures of apoGilR and GilR in complex with its substrate pregilvocarcin V reveals that GilR belongs to the small group of a relatively new type of the vanillyl-alcohol oxidase flavoprotein family characterized by bicovalently tethered cofactors. GilR was found as a dimer, with the bicovalently attached FAD cofactor mediated through His-65 and Cys-125. Subsequent mutagenesis and functional assays indicate that Tyr-445 may be involved in reaction catalysis and in mediating the covalent attachment of FAD, whereas Tyr-448 serves as an essential residue initiating the catalysis by swinging away from the active site to accommodate binding of the 6R-configured substrate and consequently abstracting the proton of the hydroxyl residue of the substrate hemiacetal 6-OH group. These studies lay the groundwork for future enzyme engineering to broaden the substrate specificity of this bottleneck enzyme of the gilvocarcin biosynthetic pathway for the development of novel anti-cancer therapeutics.

Noinaj, Nicholas; Bosserman, Mary A.; Schickli, M. Alexandra; Piszczek, Grzegorz; Kharel, Madan K.; Pahari, Pallab; Buchanan, Susan K.; Rohr, Jürgen (NIH); (Kentucky)

2012-11-26

333

Pro-Oxidant Activity of Flavonoids Induces EpRE-Mediated Gene Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flavonoids are important bioactive dietary compounds. They induce electrophile-responsive element (EpRE)-mediated expression of enzymes, such as NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), which are major defense enzymes against electrophilic toxicants and oxidative stress. The induction of EpRE-mediated gene transcription involves the release of the transcription factor Nrf2 from a complex with Keap1, either by a direct interaction of the

Yee Y. Lee-Hilz; Anne-Marie J. F. Boerboom; Adrie H. Westphal; Berkel van W. J. H; Jac M. M. J. G. Aarts; Ivonne M. C. M. Rietjens

2006-01-01

334

Identification and characterization of a hypoxically induced maize lactate dehydrogenase gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

In cereal root tissue, hypoxia induces the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); (S)-lactate:NADH oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.27). In barley, both biochemical and genetic data indicate that five isozymes are induced under hypoxia. These isozymes are tetramers and arise from the random association of the products of two Ldh genes. The induction of LDH activity in root tissue has been shown to be

Allen G. Good; David H. Paetkau

1992-01-01

335

Haplotypes of the Steroid 21Hydroxylase Gene Region Encoding Mild Steroid 21Hydroxylase Deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haplotypes of the complement 4 (C4) and steroid 21-hydroxylase [21-OHase; steroid hydrogen-donor: oxygen oxidoreductase (21-hydroxylating), EC 1.14.99.10] repeated gene complex were studied in nine families with at least one member affected with a mild form of 21-OHase deficiency. DNA probes from different parts of the repeated C4\\/21-OHase unit were used to follow the segregation of hybridization patterns in the families.

Barbro Haglund-Stengler; E. Martin Ritzen; Jan Gustafsson; Holger Luthman

1991-01-01

336

Murine and Human b Locus Pigmentation Genes Encode a Glycoprotein (gp75) with Catalase Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melanogenesis is regulated in large part by tyrosinase (monophenol monooxygenase; monophenol, L-dopa:oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.14.18.1), and defective tyrosinase leads to albinism. The mechanisms for other pigmentation determinants (e.g., those operative in tyrosinase-positive albinism and in murine coat-color mutants) are not yet known. One murine pigmentation gene, the brown (b) locus, when mutated leads to a brown (b\\/b) or hypopigmented (Blt\\/Blt)

Ruth Halaban; Gisela Moellmann

1990-01-01

337

Identification of the NF-E2-related Factor2-dependent Genes Conferring Protection against Oxidative Stress in Primary Cortical Astrocytes Using Oligonucleotide Microarray Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant responsive element (ARE) mediates transcriptional regulation of phase II detoxification en- zymes and antioxidant proteins such as NAD(P)H:qui- none oxidoreductase (NQO1), glutathione S-trans- ferases, and glutamate-cysteine ligase. In this study, we demonstrate that NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) plays a major role in transcriptional activation of ARE-driven genes and identify Nrf2-dependent genes by oligonu- cleotide microarray analysis using primary cortical

Jong-Min Lee; Marcus J. Calkins; Kaimin Chan; Yuet Wai Kan; Jeffrey A. Johnson

2003-01-01

338

Antiparasitic Drug Nitazoxanide Inhibits the Pyruvate Oxidoreductases of Helicobacter pylori, Selected Anaerobic Bacteria and Parasites, and Campylobacter jejuni?  

PubMed Central

Nitazoxanide (NTZ) exhibits broad-spectrum activity against anaerobic bacteria and parasites and the ulcer-causing pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Here we show that NTZ is a noncompetitive inhibitor (Ki, 2 to 10 ?M) of the pyruvate:ferredoxin/flavodoxin oxidoreductases (PFORs) of Trichomonas vaginalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens, H. pylori, and Campylobacter jejuni and is weakly active against the pyruvate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli. To further mechanistic studies, the PFOR operon of H. pylori was cloned and overexpressed in E. coli, and the multisubunit complex was purified by ion-exchange chromatography. Pyruvate-dependent PFOR activity with NTZ, as measured by a decrease in absorbance at 418 nm (spectral shift from 418 to 351 nm), unlike the reduction of viologen dyes, did not result in the accumulation of products (acetyl coenzyme A and CO2) and pyruvate was not consumed in the reaction. NTZ did not displace the thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) cofactor of PFOR, and the 351-nm absorbing form of NTZ was inactive. Optical scans and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance analyses determined that the spectral shift (A418 to A351) of NTZ was due to protonation of the anion (NTZ?) of the 2-amino group of the thiazole ring which could be generated with the pure compound under acidic solutions (pKa = 6.18). We propose that NTZ? intercepts PFOR at an early step in the formation of the lactyl-TPP transition intermediate, resulting in the reversal of pyruvate binding prior to decarboxylation and in coordination with proton transfer to NTZ. Thus, NTZ might be the first example of an antimicrobial that targets the “activated cofactor” of an enzymatic reaction rather than its substrate or catalytic sites, a novel mechanism that may escape mutation-based drug resistance.

Hoffman, Paul S.; Sisson, Gary; Croxen, Matthew A.; Welch, Kevin; Harman, W. Dean; Cremades, Nunilo; Morash, Michael G.

2007-01-01

339

Antiparasitic drug nitazoxanide inhibits the pyruvate oxidoreductases of Helicobacter pylori, selected anaerobic bacteria and parasites, and Campylobacter jejuni.  

PubMed

Nitazoxanide (NTZ) exhibits broad-spectrum activity against anaerobic bacteria and parasites and the ulcer-causing pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Here we show that NTZ is a noncompetitive inhibitor (K(i), 2 to 10 microM) of the pyruvate:ferredoxin/flavodoxin oxidoreductases (PFORs) of Trichomonas vaginalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens, H. pylori, and Campylobacter jejuni and is weakly active against the pyruvate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli. To further mechanistic studies, the PFOR operon of H. pylori was cloned and overexpressed in E. coli, and the multisubunit complex was purified by ion-exchange chromatography. Pyruvate-dependent PFOR activity with NTZ, as measured by a decrease in absorbance at 418 nm (spectral shift from 418 to 351 nm), unlike the reduction of viologen dyes, did not result in the accumulation of products (acetyl coenzyme A and CO(2)) and pyruvate was not consumed in the reaction. NTZ did not displace the thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) cofactor of PFOR, and the 351-nm absorbing form of NTZ was inactive. Optical scans and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance analyses determined that the spectral shift (A(418) to A(351)) of NTZ was due to protonation of the anion (NTZ(-)) of the 2-amino group of the thiazole ring which could be generated with the pure compound under acidic solutions (pK(a) = 6.18). We propose that NTZ(-) intercepts PFOR at an early step in the formation of the lactyl-TPP transition intermediate, resulting in the reversal of pyruvate binding prior to decarboxylation and in coordination with proton transfer to NTZ. Thus, NTZ might be the first example of an antimicrobial that targets the "activated cofactor" of an enzymatic reaction rather than its substrate or catalytic sites, a novel mechanism that may escape mutation-based drug resistance. PMID:17158936

Hoffman, Paul S; Sisson, Gary; Croxen, Matthew A; Welch, Kevin; Harman, W Dean; Cremades, Nunilo; Morash, Michael G

2006-12-11

340

Crystal structure analysis of Bacillus subtilis ferredoxin-NADP(+) oxidoreductase and the structural basis for its substrate selectivity.  

PubMed

Bacillus subtilis yumC encodes a novel type of ferredoxin-NADP+ oxidoreductase (FNR) with a primary sequence and oligomeric conformation distinct from those of previously known FNRs. In this study, the crystal structure of B. subtilis FNR (BsFNR) complexed with NADP+ has been determined. BsFNR features two distinct binding domains for FAD and NADPH in accordance with its structural similarity to Escherichia coli NADPH-thioredoxin reductase (TdR) and TdR-like protein from Thermus thermophilus HB8 (PDB code: 2ZBW). The deduced mode of NADP+ binding to the BsFNR molecule is nonproductive in that the nicotinamide and isoalloxazine rings are over 15 Å apart. A unique C-terminal extension, not found in E. coli TdR but in TdR-like protein from T. thermophilus HB8, covers the re-face of the isoalloxazine moiety of FAD. In particular, Tyr50 in the FAD-binding region and His324 in the C-terminal extension stack on the si- and re-faces of the isoalloxazine ring of FAD, respectively. Aromatic residues corresponding to Tyr50 and His324 are also found in the plastid-type FNR superfamily of enzymes, and the residue corresponding to His324 has been reported to be responsible for nucleotide specificity. In contrast to the plastid-type FNRs, replacement of His324 with Phe or Ser had little effect on the specificity or reactivity of BsFNR with NAD(P)H, whereas replacement of Arg190, which interacts with the 2'-phosphate of NADP+, drastically decreased its affinity toward NADPH. This implies that BsFNR adopts the same nucleotide binding mode as the TdR enzyme family and that aromatic residue on the re-face of FAD is hardly relevant to the nucleotide selectivity. PMID:20878669

Komori, Hirofumi; Seo, Daisuke; Sakurai, Takeshi; Higuchi, Yoshiki

2010-11-03

341

NAD(P)H:Quinone Oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) Localizes to the Mitotic Spindle in Human Cells  

PubMed Central

NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is an FAD containing quinone reductase that catalyzes the 2-electron reduction of a broad range of quinones. The 2-electron reduction of quinones to hydroquinones by NQO1 is believed to be a detoxification process since this reaction bypasses the formation of the highly reactive semiquinone. NQO1 is expressed at high levels in normal epithelium, endothelium and adipocytes as well as in many human solid tumors. In addition to its function as a quinone reductase NQO1 has been shown to reduce superoxide and regulate the 20 S proteasomal degradation of proteins including p53. Biochemical studies have indicated that NQO1 is primarily located in the cytosol, however, lower levels of NQO1 have also been found in the nucleus. In these studies we demonstrate using immunocytochemistry and confocal imaging that NQO1 was found associated with mitotic spindles in cells undergoing division. The association of NQO1 with the mitotic spindles was observed in many different human cell lines including nontransformed cells (astrocytes, HUVEC) immortalized cell lines (HBMEC, 16HBE) and cancer (pancreatic adenocarcinoma, BXPC3). Confocal analysis of double-labeling experiments demonstrated co-localization of NQO1with alpha-tubulin in mitotic spindles. In studies with BxPc-3 human pancreatic cancer cells the association of NQO1 with mitotic spindles appeared to be unchanged in the presence of NQO1 inhibitors ES936 or dicoumarol suggesting that NQO1 can associate with the mitotic spindle and still retain catalytic activity. Analysis of archival human squamous lung carcinoma tissue immunostained for NQO1 demonstrated positive staining for NQO1 in the spindles of mitotic cells. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate for the first time the association of the quinone reductase NQO1 with the mitotic spindle in human cells.

Siegel, David; Kepa, Jadwiga K.; Ross, David

2012-01-01

342

Catalytic activity of NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) in intact mitochondria. evidence for the slow active/inactive transition.  

PubMed

The mammalian purified dispersed NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I) and the enzyme in inside-out submitochondrial particles are known to be the slowly equilibrating mixture of the active and de-activated forms (Vinogradov, A. D. (1998) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1364, 169-185). We report here the phenomenon of slow active/de-active transition in intact mitochondria where the enzyme is located within its natural environment being exposed to numerous mitochondrial matrix proteins. A simple procedure for permeabilization of intact mitochondria by channel-forming antibiotic alamethicin was worked out for the "in situ" assay of Complex I activity. Alamethicin-treated mitochondria catalyzed the rotenone-sensitive NADH-quinone reductase reaction with exogenousely added NADH and quinone-acceptor at the rates expected if the enzyme active sites would be freely accessible for the substrates. The matrix proteins were retained in alamethicin-treated mitochondria as judged by their high rotenone-sensitive malate-cytochrome c reductase activity in the presence of added NAD(+). The sensitivity of Complex I to N-ethylmaleimide and to the presence of Mg(2+) was used as the diagnostic tools to detect the presence of the de-activated enzyme. The NADH-quinone reductase activity of alamethicin-treated mitochondria was sensitive to neither N-ethylmaleimide nor Mg(2+). After exposure to elevated temperature (37 degrees C, the conditions known to induce de-activation of Complex I) the enzyme activity became sensitive to the sulfhydryl reagent and/or Mg(2+). The sensitivity to both inhibitors disappeared after brief exposure of the thermally de-activated mitochondria with malate/glutamate, NAD(+), and cytochrome c (the conditions known for the turnover-induced reactivation of the enzyme). We conclude that the slow active/de-active Complex I transition is a characteristic feature of the enzyme in intact mitochondria and discuss its possible physiological significance. PMID:11124957

Grivennikova, V G; Kapustin, A N; Vinogradov, A D

2000-12-21

343

Exploring the binding site of delta(lac)-acetogenin in bovine heart mitochondrial NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase.  

PubMed

Biochemical characterization of the inhibition mechanism of Deltalac-acetogenins synthesized in our laboratory indicated that they are a new type of inhibitor of bovine heart mitochondrial NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) [Murai, M., et al. (2006) Biochemistry 45, 9778-9787]. To identify the binding site of Deltalac-acetogenins with a photoaffinity labeling technique, we synthesized a photoreactive Deltalac-acetogenin ([(125)I]diazinylated Deltalac-acetogenin, [(125)I]DAA) which has a small photoreactive diazirine group attached to a pharmacophore, the bis-THF ring moiety. Characterization of the inhibitory effects of DAA on bovine complex I revealed unique features specific to, though not completely the same as those of, the original Deltalac-acetogenin. Using [(125)I]DAA, we carried out photoaffinity labeling with bovine heart submitochondrial particles. Analysis of the photo-cross-linked protein by Western blotting and immunoprecipitation revealed that [(125)I]DAA binds to the membrane subunit ND1 with high specificity. The photo-cross-linking to the ND1 subunit was suppressed by an exogenous short-chain ubiquinone (Q(2)) in a concentration-dependent manner. Careful examination of the fragmentation patterns of the cross-linked ND1 generated by limited proteolysis using lysylendopeptidase, endoprotease Asp-N, or trypsin and their changes in the presence of the original Deltalac-acetogenin strongly suggested that the cross-linked residues are located at two different sites in the third matrix-side loop connecting the fifth and sixth transmembrane helices. PMID:20459120

Kakutani, Nobuyuki; Murai, Masatoshi; Sakiyama, Naoto; Miyoshi, Hideto

2010-06-15

344

NAD(P)H:(Quinone-Acceptor) Oxidoreductase of Tobacco Leaves Is a Flavin Mononucleotide-Containing Flavoenzyme.  

PubMed Central

The soluble NAD(P)H:(quinone-acceptor) oxidoreductase [NAD(P)H-QR, EC 1.6.99.2] of Nicotiana tabacum L. leaves and roots has been purified. NAD(P)H-QR contains noncovalently bound flavin mononucleotide. Pairs of subunits of 21.4 kD are linked together by disulfide bridges, but the active enzyme is a homotetramer of 94 to 100 kD showing an isoelectric point of 5.1. NAD(P)H-QR is a B-stereospecific dehydrogenase. NADH and NADPH are electron donors of similar efficiency with Kcat:Km ratios (with duroquinone) of 6.2 x 107 and 8.0 x 107 m-1 s-1, respectively. Hydrophilic quinones are good electron acceptors, although ferricyanide and dichlorophenolindophenol are also reduced. The quinones are converted to hydroquinones by an obligatory two-electron transfer. No spectral evidence for a flavin semiquinone was detected following anaerobic photoreduction. Cibacron blue and 7-iodo-acridone-4-carboxylic acid are inhibitory. Tobacco NAD(P)H-QR resembles animal DT-diaphorase in some respects (identical reaction mechanism with a two-electron transfer to quinones, unusually high catalytic capability, and donor and acceptor substrate specificity), but it differs from DT-diaphorase in molecular structure, flavin cofactor, stereospecificity, and sensitivity to inhibitors. As in the case with DT-diaphorase in animals, the main NAD(P)H-QR function in plant cells may be the reduction of quinones to quinols, which prevents the production of semiquinones and oxygen radicals. The enzyme appears to belong to a widespread group of plant and fungal flavoproteins found in different cell compartments that are able to reduce quinones.

Sparla, F.; Tedeschi, G.; Trost, P.

1996-01-01

345

The Critical Role of Arabidopsis Electron-Transfer Flavoprotein:Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase during Dark-Induced StarvationW?  

PubMed Central

In mammals, electron-transfer flavoprotein:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETFQO) and electron-transfer flavoprotein (ETF) are functionally associated, and ETF accepts electrons from at least nine mitochondrial matrix flavoprotein dehydrogenases and transfers them to ubiquinone in the inner mitochondrial membrane. In addition, the mammalian ETF/ETFQO system plays a key role in ?-oxidation of fatty acids and catabolism of amino acids and choline. By contrast, nothing is known of the function of ETF and ETFQO in plants. Sequence analysis of the unique Arabidopsis thaliana homologue of ETFQO revealed high similarity to the mammalian ETFQO protein. Moreover, green fluorescent protein cellular localization experiments suggested a mitochondrial location for this protein. RNA gel blot analysis revealed that Arabidopsis ETFQO transcripts accumulated in long-term dark-treated leaves. Analysis of three independent insertional mutants of Arabidopsis ETFQO revealed a dramatic reduction in their ability to withstand extended darkness, resulting in senescence and death within 10 d after transfer, whereas wild-type plants remained viable for at least 15 d. Metabolite profiling of dark-treated leaves of the wild type and mutants revealed a dramatic decline in sugar levels. In contrast with the wild type, the mutants demonstrated a significant accumulation of several amino acids, an intermediate of Leu catabolism, and, strikingly, high-level accumulation of phytanoyl-CoA. These data demonstrate the involvement of a mitochondrial protein, ETFQO, in the catabolism of Leu and potentially of other amino acids in higher plants and also imply a novel role for this protein in the chlorophyll degradation pathway activated during dark-induced senescence and sugar starvation.

Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Larson, Tony R.; Schauer, Nicolas; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Graham, Ian A.; Leaver, Christopher J.

2005-01-01

346

Effect of Different Carbon Sources on Relative Growth Rate, Internal Carbohydrates, and Mannitol 1-Oxidoreductase Activity in Celery Suspension Cultures.  

PubMed Central

Little information exists concerning the biochemical route of mannitol catabolism in higher plant cells. In this study, the role of a recently discovered mannitol 1-oxidoreductase (MDH) in mannitol catabolism was investigated. Suspension cultures of celery (Apium graveolens L. var dulce [Mill.] Pers.) were successfully grown on nutrient media with either mannitol, mannose, or sucrose as the sole carbon source. Cell cultures grown on any of the three carbon sources did not differ in relative growth rate, as measured by packed cell volume, but differed drastically in internal carbohydrate concentration. Mannitol-grown cells contained high concentrations of mannitol and extremely low concentrations of sucrose, fructose, glucose, and mannose. Sucrose-grown cells had high concentrations of sucrose early in the growth cycle and contained a substantial hexose pool. Mannose-grown cells had a high mannose concentration early in the cycle, which decreased during the growth cycle, whereas their internal sucrose concentrations remained relatively constant during the entire growth cycle. Celery suspension cultures on all three carbon substrates contained an NAD-dependent MDH. Throughout the growth cycle, MDH activity was 2- to 4-fold higher in mannitol-grown cells compared with sucrose- or mannose-grown cells, which did not contain detectable levels of mannitol, indicating that MDH functions pre-dominantly in an oxidative capacity in situ. The MDH activity observed in celery cells was 3-fold higher than the minimum amount required to account for the observed rate of mannitol utilization from the media. Cultures transferred from mannitol to mannose underwent a decrease in MDH activity over a period of days, and transfer from mannose to mannitol resulted in an increase in MDH activity. These data provide strong evidence that MDH plays an important role in mannitol utilization in celery suspension cultures.

Stoop, JMH.; Pharr, D. M.

1993-01-01

347

The antidote effect of quinone oxidoreductase 2 inhibitor against paraquat-induced toxicity in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The mechanisms of paraquat (PQ)-induced toxicity are poorly understood and PQ poisoning is often fatal due to a lack of effective antidotes. In this study we report the effects of N-[2-(2-methoxy-6H-dipyrido{2,3-a:3,2-e}pyrrolizin-11-yl)ethyl]-2-furamide (NMDPEF), a melatonin-related inhibitor of quinone oxidoreductase2 (QR2) on the toxicity of PQ in vitro & in vivo. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Prevention of PQ-induced toxicity was tested in different cells, including primary pneumocytes and astroglial U373 cells. Cell death and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were analysed by flow cytometry and fluorescent probes. QR2 silencing was achieved by lentiviral shRNAs. PQ (30 mg·kg(-1)) and NMDPEF were administered i.p. to Wistar rats and animals were monitored for 28 days. PQ toxicity in the substantia nigra (SN) was tested by a localized microinfusion and electrocorticography. QR2 activity was measured by fluorimetry of N-benzyldihydronicotinamide oxidation. KEY RESULTS NMDPEF potently antagonized non-apoptotic PQ-induced cell death, ROS generation and inhibited cellular QR2 activity. In contrast, the cytoprotective effect of melatonin and apocynin was limited and transient compared with NMDPEF. Silencing of QR2 attenuated PQ-induced cell death and reduced the efficacy of NMDPEF. Significantly, NMDPEF (4.5 mg·kg(-1)) potently antagonized PQ-induced systemic toxicity and animal mortality. Microinfusion of NMDPEF into SN prevented severe behavioural and electrocortical effects of PQ which correlated with inhibition of malondialdehyde accumulation in cells and tissues. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS NMDPEF protected against PQ-induced toxicity in vitro and in vivo, suggesting a key role for QR2 in the regulation of oxidative stress. PMID:22289031

Janda, Elzbieta; Parafati, Maddalena; Aprigliano, Serafina; Carresi, Cristina; Visalli, Valeria; Sacco, Iolanda; Ventrice, Domenica; Mega, Tiziana; Vadalá, Nuria; Rinaldi, Stefano; Musolino, Vincenzo; Palma, Ernesto; Gratteri, Santo; Rotiroti, Domenicantonio; Mollace, Vincenzo

2013-01-01

348

Kinetic mechanism and quaternary structure of Aminobacter aminovorans NADH:flavin oxidoreductase: an unusual flavin reductase with bound flavin.  

PubMed

The homodimeric NADH:flavin oxidoreductase from Aminobacter aminovorans is an NADH-specific flavin reductase herein designated FRD(Aa). FRD(Aa) was characterized with respect to purification yields, thermal stability, isoelectric point, molar absorption coefficient, and effects of phosphate buffer strength and pH on activity. Evidence from this work favors the classification of FRD(Aa) as a flavin cofactor-utilizing class I flavin reductase. The isolated native FRD(Aa) contained about 0.5 bound riboflavin-5'-phosphate (FMN) per enzyme monomer, but one bound flavin cofactor per monomer was obtainable in the presence of excess FMN or riboflavin. In addition, FRD(Aa) holoenzyme also utilized FMN, riboflavin, or FAD as a substrate. Steady-state kinetic results of substrate titrations, dead-end inhibition by AMP and lumichrome, and product inhibition by NAD(+) indicated an ordered sequential mechanism with NADH as the first binding substrate and reduced FMN as the first leaving product. This is contrary to the ping-pong mechanism shown by other class I flavin reductases. The FMN bound to the native FRD(Aa) can be fully reduced by NADH and subsequently reoxidized by oxygen. No NADH binding was detected using 90 microM FRD(Aa) apoenzyme and 300 microM NADH. All results favor the interpretation that the bound FMN was a cofactor rather than a substrate. It is highly unusual that a flavin reductase using a sequential mechanism would require a flavin cofactor to facilitate redox exchange between NADH and a flavin substrate. FRD(Aa) exhibited a monomer-dimer equilibrium with a K(d) of 2.7 microM. Similarities and differences between FRD(Aa) and certain flavin reductases are discussed. PMID:14769034

Russell, Thomas R; Demeler, Borries; Tu, Shiao-Chun

2004-02-17

349

Electron spin relaxation enhancement measurements of interspin distances in human, porcine, and Rhodobacter electron transfer flavoprotein ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF QO)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron transfer flavoprotein ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF QO) is a membrane-bound electron transfer protein that links primary flavoprotein dehydrogenases with the main respiratory chain. Human, porcine, and Rhodobacter sphaeroides ETF QO each contain a single [4Fe 4S]2+,1+ cluster and one equivalent of FAD, which are diamagnetic in the isolated enzyme and become paramagnetic on reduction with the enzymatic electron donor or with dithionite. The anionic flavin semiquinone can be reduced further to diamagnetic hydroquinone. The redox potentials for the three redox couples are so similar that it is not possible to poise the proteins in a state where both the [4Fe 4S]+ cluster and the flavoquinone are fully in the paramagnetic form. Inversion recovery was used to measure the electron spin-lattice relaxation rates for the [4Fe 4S]+ between 8 and 18 K and for semiquinone between 25 and 65 K. At higher temperatures the spin-lattice relaxation rates for the [4Fe 4S]+ were calculated from the temperature-dependent contributions to the continuous wave linewidths. Although mixtures of the redox states are present, it was possible to analyze the enhancement of the electron spin relaxation of the FAD semiquinone signal due to dipolar interaction with the more rapidly relaxing [4Fe 4S]+ and obtain point-dipole interspin distances of 18.6 ± 1 Å for the three proteins. The point-dipole distances are within experimental uncertainty of the value calculated based on the crystal structure of porcine ETF QO when spin delocalization is taken into account. The results demonstrate that electron spin relaxation enhancement can be used to measure distances in redox poised proteins even when several redox states are present.

Fielding, Alistair J.; Usselman, Robert J.; Watmough, Nicholas; Simkovic, Martin; Frerman, Frank E.; Eaton, Gareth R.; Eaton, Sandra S.

2008-02-01

350

Electrostatic interactions between FeS clusters in NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I) from Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

The redox properties of the cofactors of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) from Escherichia coli were studied by following the changes in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and optical spectra upon electrochemical redox titration of the purified protein. At neutral pH, the FMN cofactor had a midpoint redox potential ( E m) approximately -350 mV ( n = 2). Binuclear FeS clusters were well-characterized: N1a was titrated with a single ( n = 1) transition, and E m = -235 mV. In contrast, the titration of N1b can only be fitted with the sum of at least two one-electron Nernstian curves with E m values of -245 and -320 mV. The tetranuclear clusters can also be separated into two groups, either having a single, n = 1, or more complex redox titration curves. The titration curves of the EPR bands attributed to the tetranuclear clusters N2 ( g = 2.045 and g = 1.895) and N6b ( g = 2.089 and g = 1.877) can be presented by the sum of at least two components, each with E m (app) approximately -200/-300 mV and -235/-315 mV, respectively. The titration of the signals at g = 1.956-1.947 (N3 or N7, E m = -315 mV), g = 2.022, and g = 1.932 (Nx, -365 mV) and the low temperature signal at g = 1.929 (N4 or N5, -330 mV) followed Nernstian n = 1 curves. The observed redox titration curves are discussed in terms of intrinsic electrostatic interactions between FeS centers in complex I. A model showing shifts of E m due to the electrostatic interaction between the centers is presented. PMID:18269245

Euro, Liliya; Bloch, Dmitry A; Wikström, Mårten; Verkhovsky, Michael I; Verkhovskaya, Marina

2008-02-13

351

Quinol-cytochrome c Oxidoreductase and Cytochrome c4 Mediate Electron Transfer during Selenate Respiration in Thauera selenatis*  

PubMed Central

Selenate reductase (SER) from Thauera selenatis is a periplasmic enzyme that has been classified as a type II molybdoenzyme. The enzyme comprises three subunits SerABC, where SerC is an unusual b-heme cytochrome. In the present work the spectropotentiometric characterization of the SerC component and the identification of redox partners to SER are reported. The mid-point redox potential of the b-heme was determined by optical titration (Em + 234 ± 10 mV). A profile of periplasmic c-type cytochromes expressed in T. selenatis under selenate respiring conditions was undertaken. Two c-type cytochromes were purified (?24 and ?6 kDa), and the 24-kDa protein (cytc-Ts4) was shown to donate electrons to SerABC in vitro. Protein sequence of cytc-Ts4 was obtained by N-terminal sequencing and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, and based upon sequence similarities, was assigned as a member of cytochrome c4 family. Redox potentiometry, combined with UV-visible spectroscopy, showed that cytc-Ts4 is a diheme cytochrome with a redox potential of +282 ± 10 mV, and both hemes are predicted to have His-Met ligation. To identify the membrane-bound electron donors to cytc-Ts4, growth of T. selenatis in the presence of respiratory inhibitors was monitored. The specific quinol-cytochrome c oxidoreductase (QCR) inhibitors myxothiazol and antimycin A partially inhibited selenate respiration, demonstrating that some electron flux is via the QCR. Electron transfer via a QCR and a diheme cytochrome c4 is a novel route for a member of the DMSO reductase family of molybdoenzymes.

Lowe, Elisabeth C.; Bydder, Sarah; Hartshorne, Robert S.; Tape, Hannah L. U.; Dridge, Elizabeth J.; Debieux, Charles M.; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Singleton, Ian; Lewis, Richard J.; Santini, Joanne M.; Richardson, David J.; Butler, Clive S.

2010-01-01

352

Genetic evidence for NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1-catalyzed quinone reduction on passage through the mouse pulmonary circulation.  

PubMed

The quinones duroquinone (DQ) and coenzyme Q(1) (CoQ(1)) and quinone reductase inhibitors have been used to identify reductases involved in quinone reduction on passage through the pulmonary circulation. In perfused rat lung, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) was identified as the predominant DQ reductase and NQO1 and mitochondrial complex I as the CoQ(1) reductases. Since inhibitors have nonspecific effects, the goal was to use Nqo1-null (NQO1(-)/(-)) mice to evaluate DQ as an NQO1 probe in the lung. Lung homogenate cytosol NQO1 activities were 97 ± 11, 54 ± 6, and 5 ± 1 (SE) nmol dichlorophenolindophenol reduced·min(-1)·mg protein(-1) for NQO1(+/+), NQO1(+/-), and NQO1(-/-) lungs, respectively. Intact lung quinone reduction was evaluated by infusion of DQ (50 ?M) or CoQ(1) (60 ?M) into the pulmonary arterial inflow of the isolated perfused lung and measurement of pulmonary venous effluent hydroquinone (DQH(2) or CoQ(1)H(2)). DQH(2) efflux rates for NQO1(+/+), NQO1(+/-), and NQO1(-/-) lungs were 0.65 ± 0.08, 0.45 ± 0.04, and 0.13 ± 0.05 (SE) ?mol·min(-1)·g dry lung(-1), respectively. DQ reduction in NQO1(+/+) lungs was inhibited by 90 ± 4% with dicumarol; there was no inhibition in NQO1(-/-) lungs. There was no significant difference in CoQ(1)H(2) efflux rates for NQO1(+/+) and NQO1(-/-) lungs. Differences in DQ reduction were not due to differences in lung dry weights, wet-to-dry weight ratios, perfusion pressures, perfused surface areas, or total DQ recoveries. The data provide genetic evidence implicating DQ as a specific NQO1 probe in the perfused rodent lung. PMID:21296895

Lindemer, Brian J; Bongard, Robert D; Hoffmann, Raymond; Baumgardt, Shelley; Gonzalez, Frank J; Merker, Marilyn P

2011-02-04

353

NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) localizes to the mitotic spindle in human cells.  

PubMed

NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is an FAD containing quinone reductase that catalyzes the 2-electron reduction of a broad range of quinones. The 2-electron reduction of quinones to hydroquinones by NQO1 is believed to be a detoxification process since this reaction bypasses the formation of the highly reactive semiquinone. NQO1 is expressed at high levels in normal epithelium, endothelium and adipocytes as well as in many human solid tumors. In addition to its function as a quinone reductase NQO1 has been shown to reduce superoxide and regulate the 20 S proteasomal degradation of proteins including p53. Biochemical studies have indicated that NQO1 is primarily located in the cytosol, however, lower levels of NQO1 have also been found in the nucleus. In these studies we demonstrate using immunocytochemistry and confocal imaging that NQO1 was found associated with mitotic spindles in cells undergoing division. The association of NQO1 with the mitotic spindles was observed in many different human cell lines including nontransformed cells (astrocytes, HUVEC) immortalized cell lines (HBMEC, 16HBE) and cancer (pancreatic adenocarcinoma, BXPC3). Confocal analysis of double-labeling experiments demonstrated co-localization of NQO1with alpha-tubulin in mitotic spindles. In studies with BxPc-3 human pancreatic cancer cells the association of NQO1 with mitotic spindles appeared to be unchanged in the presence of NQO1 inhibitors ES936 or dicoumarol suggesting that NQO1 can associate with the mitotic spindle and still retain catalytic activity. Analysis of archival human squamous lung carcinoma tissue immunostained for NQO1 demonstrated positive staining for NQO1 in the spindles of mitotic cells. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate for the first time the association of the quinone reductase NQO1 with the mitotic spindle in human cells. PMID:22984577

Siegel, David; Kepa, Jadwiga K; Ross, David

2012-09-11

354

Redox potential and equilibria in the reductive half-reaction of Vibrio harveyi NADPH-FMN oxidoreductase.  

PubMed

Vibrio harveyi NADPH:FMN oxidoreductase P (FRP(Vh)) is a homodimeric enzyme having a bound FMN per enzyme monomer. The bound FMN functions as a cofactor of FRP(Vh) in transferring reducing equivalents from NADPH to a flavin substrate in the absence of V. harveyi luciferase but as a substrate for FRP(Vh) in the luciferase-coupled bioluminescent reaction. As part of an integral plan to elucidate the regulation of functional coupling between FRP(Vh) and luciferase, this study was carried out to characterize the equilibrium bindings, reductive potential, and the reversibility of the reduction of the bound FMN in the reductive half-reaction of FRP(Vh). Results indicate that, in addition to NADPH binding, NADP(+) also bound to FRP(Vh) in either the oxidized (K(d) 180 microM) or reduced (K(d) 230 microM) form. By titrations with NADP(+) and NADPH and by an isotope exchange experiment, the reduction of the bound FMN by NADPH was found to be readily reversible (K(eq) = 0.8). Hence, the reduction of FRP(Vh)-bound FMN is not the committed step in coupling the NADPH oxidation to bioluminescence. To our knowledge, such an aspect of flavin reductase catalysis has only been clearly established for FRP(Vh). Although the reductive potentials and some other properties of a R203A variant of FRP(Vh) and an NADH/NADPH-utilizing flavin reductase from Vibrio fischeri are quite similar to that of the wild-type FRP(Vh), the reversal of the reduction of bound FMN was not detected for either of these two enzymes. PMID:15628867

Lei, Benfang; Wang, He; Yu, Yimin; Tu, Shiao-Chun

2005-01-11

355

Amixicile, a novel inhibitor of pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase, shows efficacy against Clostridium difficile in a mouse infection model.  

PubMed

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a serious diarrheal disease that often develops following prior antibiotic usage. One of the major problems with current therapies (oral vancomycin and metronidazole) is the high rate of recurrence. Nitazoxanide (NTZ), an inhibitor of pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) in anaerobic bacteria, parasites, Helicobacter pylori, and Campylobacter jejuni, also shows clinical efficacy against CDI. From a library of ?250 analogues of NTZ, we identified leads with increased potency for PFOR. MIC screens indicated in vitro activity in the 0.05- to 2-?g/ml range against C. difficile. To improve solubility, we replaced the 2-acetoxy group with propylamine, producing amixicile, a soluble (10 mg/ml), nontoxic (cell-based assay) lead that produced no adverse effects in mice by oral or intraperitoneal (i.p.) routes at 200 mg/kg of body weight/day. In initial efficacy testing in mice treated (20 mg/kg/day, 5 days each) 1 day after receiving a lethal inoculum of C. difficile, amixicile showed slightly less protection than did vancomycin by day 5. However, in an optimized CDI model, amixicile showed equivalence to vancomycin and fidaxomicin at day 5 and there was significantly greater survival produced by amixicile than by the other drugs on day 12. All three drugs were comparable by measures of weight loss/gain and severity of disease. Recurrence of CDI was common for mice treated with vancomycin or fidaxomicin but not for mice receiving amixicile or NTZ. These results suggest that gut repopulation with beneficial (non-PFOR) bacteria, considered essential for protection against CDI, rebounds much sooner with amixicile therapy than with vancomycin or fidaxomicin. If the mouse model is indeed predictive of human CDI disease, then amixicile, a novel PFOR inhibitor, appears to be a very promising new candidate for treatment of CDI. PMID:22585229

Warren, Cirle A; van Opstal, Edward; Ballard, T Eric; Kennedy, Andrew; Wang, Xia; Riggins, Mary; Olekhnovich, Igor; Warthan, Michelle; Kolling, Glynis L; Guerrant, Richard L; Macdonald, Timothy L; Hoffman, Paul S

2012-05-14

356

Amixicile, a Novel Inhibitor of Pyruvate:Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase, Shows Efficacy against Clostridium difficile in a Mouse Infection Model  

PubMed Central

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a serious diarrheal disease that often develops following prior antibiotic usage. One of the major problems with current therapies (oral vancomycin and metronidazole) is the high rate of recurrence. Nitazoxanide (NTZ), an inhibitor of pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) in anaerobic bacteria, parasites, Helicobacter pylori, and Campylobacter jejuni, also shows clinical efficacy against CDI. From a library of ?250 analogues of NTZ, we identified leads with increased potency for PFOR. MIC screens indicated in vitro activity in the 0.05- to 2-?g/ml range against C. difficile. To improve solubility, we replaced the 2-acetoxy group with propylamine, producing amixicile, a soluble (10 mg/ml), nontoxic (cell-based assay) lead that produced no adverse effects in mice by oral or intraperitoneal (i.p.) routes at 200 mg/kg of body weight/day. In initial efficacy testing in mice treated (20 mg/kg/day, 5 days each) 1 day after receiving a lethal inoculum of C. difficile, amixicile showed slightly less protection than did vancomycin by day 5. However, in an optimized CDI model, amixicile showed equivalence to vancomycin and fidaxomicin at day 5 and there was significantly greater survival produced by amixicile than by the other drugs on day 12. All three drugs were comparable by measures of weight loss/gain and severity of disease. Recurrence of CDI was common for mice treated with vancomycin or fidaxomicin but not for mice receiving amixicile or NTZ. These results suggest that gut repopulation with beneficial (non-PFOR) bacteria, considered essential for protection against CDI, rebounds much sooner with amixicile therapy than with vancomycin or fidaxomicin. If the mouse model is indeed predictive of human CDI disease, then amixicile, a novel PFOR inhibitor, appears to be a very promising new candidate for treatment of CDI.

Warren, Cirle A.; van Opstal, Edward; Ballard, T. Eric; Kennedy, Andrew; Wang, Xia; Riggins, Mary; Olekhnovich, Igor; Warthan, Michelle; Kolling, Glynis L.; Guerrant, Richard L.; Macdonald, Timothy L.

2012-01-01

357

Ferredoxin:NADP+ oxidoreductase bound to cytochrome b?f complex is active in plastoquinone reduction: implications for cyclic electron transport.  

PubMed

In this study, we have compared three isolation methods of cytochrome b?f complex, obtained from spinach (Spinacia oleracea), differing in the preservation of the cytochrome b?f-associated ferredoxin:NADP+ oxidoreductase (FNR). Although the complexes isolated by all the methods showed the presence of the FNR peptide(s), when incorporated into liposome membranes, the NADPH-PQ (plastoquinone) oxidoreductase activity was not detected for the cytochrome b?f complex isolated with the original method including a NaBr wash. Some activity was found for the complex isolated with the omission of the wash, but the highest activity was detected for the complex isolated with the use of digitonin. The reaction rate of PQ reduction of the investigated complexes in liposomes was not significantly influenced by the addition of free FNR or ferredoxin. The reaction was inhibited by about 60% in the presence of 2 µM 2-n-nonyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide, an inhibitor of the cytochrome b? f complex at the Q(i) site, while it was not affected by triphenyltin or isobutyl cyanide that interacts with the recently identified heme c(i) . The obtained data indicate that FNR associated with the cytochrome b? f complex can participate in the cyclic electron transport as PSI-PQ or NADPH-PQ oxidoreductase. Moreover, we have shown that PQ can be non-enzymatically reduced by ascorbate in liposomes and this reaction might be involved in non-photochemical reduction pathways of the PQ-pool in chloroplasts. PMID:21114674

Szyma?ska, Renata; D?u?ewska, Jolanta; Slesak, Ireneusz; Kruk, Jerzy

2010-12-28

358

Functionalized aurones as inducers of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 that activate AhR\\/XRE and Nrf2\\/ARE signaling pathways: Synthesis, evaluation and SAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemopreventive potential of functionalized aurones and related compounds as inducers of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1, EC 1.6.99.2) are described. Several 4,6-dimethoxy and 5-hydroxyaurones induced NQO1 activity of Hepa1c1c7 cells by 2-fold at submicromolar concentrations, making these the most potent inducers to be identified from this class. Mechanistically, induction of NQO1 was mediated by the activation of AhR\\/XRE and Nrf2\\/ARE

Chong-Yew Lee; Eng-Hui Chew; Mei-Lin Go

2010-01-01

359

Isomorphic deactivation of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa oxidoreductase: The crystal structure of Ag(I) metallated azurin at 1.7Å.  

PubMed

Multiple biophysical methods demonstrate that silver effectively metallates Pseudomonas aeruginosa apo-azurin in solution. X-ray crystallography of the silver-modified protein reveals that silver binds to azurin at the traditional copper mediated active site with nearly identical geometry. Cyclic voltammetry indicates that the silver adduct is redox inert. Our results suggest that a potential mechanism for the microbial toxicity of silver is the deactivation of copper oxidoreductases by the effective binding and structural mimicry by silver without the corresponding function. PMID:23911566

Panzner, Matthew J; Bilinovich, Stephanie M; Parker, Jillian A; Bladholm, Erika L; Ziegler, Christopher J; Berry, Steven M; Leeper, Thomas C

2013-07-16

360

Oxidoreductase activities of polyclonal IgGs from the sera of Wistar rats are better activated by combinations of different metal ions.  

PubMed

It was shown that IgGs purified from the sera of healthy Wistar rats contain several different bound Me2+ ions and oxidize 3,3'-diaminobenzidine through a H2O2-dependent peroxidase and H2O2-independent oxidoreductase activity. IgGs have lost these activities after removing the internal metal ions by dialysis against EDTA. External Cu2+ or Fe2+ activated significantly both activities of non-dialysed IgGs containing different internal metals (Fe > or = Pb > or = Zn > or = Cu > or = Al > or = Ca > or = Ni > or = Mn > Co > or = Mg) showing pronounced biphasic dependencies corresponding to approximately 0.1-2 and approximately 2-5 mM of Me2+, while the curves for Mn2+ were nearly linear. Cu2+ alone significantly stimulated both the peroxidase and oxidoreductase activities of dialysed IgGs only at high concentration (> or = 2 mM), while Mn2+ weakly activated peroxidase activity at concentration >3 mM but was active in the oxidoreductase oxidation at a low concentration (<1 mM). Fe2+-dependent peroxidase activity of dialysed IgGs was observed at 0.1-5 mM, but Fe2+ was completely inactive in the oxidoreductase reaction. Mg2+, Ca2+, Zn2+, Al2+ and especially Co2+ and Ni2+ were not able to activate dialysed IgGs, but slightly activated non-dialysed IgGs. The use of the combinations of Cu2+ + Mn2+, Cu2+ + Zn2+, Fe2+ + Mn2+, Fe2+ + Zn2+ led to a conversion of the biphasic curves to hyperbolic ones and in parallel to a significant increase in the activity as compared with Cu2+, Fe2+ or Mn2+ ions taken separately; the rates of the oxidation reactions, catalysed by non-dialysed and dialysed IgGs, became comparable. Mg2+, Co2+ and Ni2+ markedly activated the Cu2+-dependent oxidation reactions catalysed by dialysed IgGs, while Ca2+ inhibited these reactions. A possible role of the second metal in the oxidation reactions is discussed. PMID:18837443

Tolmacheva, Anna S; Zaksas, Nataliya P; Buneva, Valentina N; Vasilenko, Nataliya L; Nevinsky, Georgy A

361

Human NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 ( NQO1 ) and sulfotransferase 1A1 ( SULT1A1 ) polymorphisms and urothelial cancer risk in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To investigate whether the NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and sulfotransferase 1A1 (SULT1A1) polymorphisms are associated with urothelial cancer (UC) risk in Taiwan.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In this study, 600 study subjects (including 300 UC patients and 300 cancer-free controls) were recruited from September 1998\\u000a to December 2005. We analyzed the NQO1 and SULT1A1 polymorphisms by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP)

Yuan-Hung Wang; Ying-Huei Lee; Po-Tsang Tseng; Cheng-Huang Shen; Hung-Yi Chiou

2008-01-01

362

Transcription factor Nrf2 is essential for induction of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, glutathione S-transferases, and glutamate cysteine ligase by broccoli seeds and isothiocyanates.  

PubMed

Cruciferous vegetables contain glucosinolates that, after conversion to isothiocyanates (ITC), are capable of inducing cytoprotective genes. We examined whether broccoli seeds can elicit a chemoprotective response in mouse organs and rodent cell lines and investigated whether this response requires nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2). The seeds studied contained glucosinolate at 40 mmol/kg, of which 59% comprised glucoiberin, 19% sinigrin, 8% glucoraphanin, and 7% progoitrin. Dietary administration of broccoli seeds to nrf2(+/+) and nrf2(-/-) mice produced a approximately 1.5-fold increase in NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities in stomach, small intestine, and liver of wild-type mice but not in mutant mice; increased transferase activity was associated with elevated levels of GSTA1/2, GSTA3, and GSTM1/2 subunits. These seeds also increased significantly the level of glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic (GCLC) subunit in the stomach and the small intestine of nrf2(+/+) mice but not nrf2(-/-) mice. An aqueous broccoli seed extract was prepared for treatment of cultured cells that contained ITC at approximately 600 mumol/L, composed of 61% 3-methylsulfinylpropyl ITC, 30% sulforaphane, 4% allyl ITC, and 4% 3-butenyl ITC. This extract induced GSTA1/2, GSTA3, NQO1, and GCLC between 3-fold and 10-fold in mouse Hepa-1c1c7 and rat liver RL-34 cells. The broccoli seed extract affected increases in GSTA3, GSTM1, and NQO1 proteins in nrf2(+/+) mouse embryonic fibroblasts but not in nrf2(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts. These experiments show that broccoli seeds are effective at inducing antioxidant and detoxication proteins, both in vivo and ex vivo, in an Nrf2-dependent manner. PMID:15570060

McWalter, Gail K; Higgins, Larry G; McLellan, Lesley I; Henderson, Colin J; Song, Lijiang; Thornalley, Paul J; Itoh, Ken; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Hayes, John D

2004-12-01

363

A nuclear-encoded mitochondrial gene AtCIB22 is essential for plant development in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex I (the NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) of the mitochondrial respiratory chain is a complicated, multi-subunit, membrane-bound assembly and contains more than 40 different proteins in higher plants. In this paper, we characterize the Arabidopsis homologue (designated as AtCIB22) of the B22 subunit of eukaryotic mitochondrial Complex I. AtCIB22 is a single-copy gene and is highly conserved throughout eukaryotes. AtCIB22 protein is

Lihua Han; Genji Qin; Dingming Kang; Zhangliang Chen; Hongya Gu; Li-Jia Qu

2010-01-01

364

From One Gene to Two Proteins: The Biogenesis of Cytochromes b and c_1 in Bradyrhizobium japonicum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genes coding for polyproteins that are cleaved posttranslationally into two or more functional proteins are rarely found in prokaryotes. One example concerns the biogenesis of the Bradyrhizobium japonicum cytochromes b and c_1, two of the three constituent subunits of ubiquinol-cytochrome-c reductase (ubiquinol:ferricytochrome-c oxidoreductase, EC 1.10.2.2); the respective apoproteins for these subunits are encoded by the 5' and 3' halves of

Linda Thony-Meyer; Peter James; Hauke Hennecke

1991-01-01

365

The Transfer of Reduced Flavin Mononucleotide from LuxG Oxidoreductase to Luciferase Occurs via Free Diffusion.  

PubMed

Bacterial luciferase (LuxAB) is a two-component flavin mononucleotide (FMN)-dependent monooxygenase that catalyzes the oxidation of reduced FMN (FMNH(-)) and a long-chain aliphatic aldehyde by molecular oxygen to generate oxidized FMN, the corresponding aliphatic carboxylic acid, and concomitant emission of light. The LuxAB reaction requires a flavin reductase to generate FMNH(-) to serve as a luciferin in its reaction. However, FMNH(-) is unstable and can react with oxygen to generate H2O2, so that it is important to transfer it efficiently to LuxAB. Recently, LuxG has been identified as a NADH:FMN oxidoreductase that supplies FMNH(-) to luciferase in vivo. In this report, the mode of transfer of FMNH(-) between LuxG from Photobacterium leiognathi TH1 and LuxABs from both P. leiognathi TH1 and Vibrio campbellii (PlLuxAB and VcLuxAB, respectively) was investigated using single-mixing and double-mixing stopped-flow spectrophotometry. The oxygenase component of p-hydroxyphenylacetate hydroxylase (C2) from Acinetobacter baumannii, which has no structural similarity to LuxAB, was used to measure the kinetics of release of FMNH(-) from LuxG. With all FMNH(-) acceptors used (C2, PlLuxAB, and VcLuxAB), the kinetics of FMN reduction on LuxG were the same, showing that LuxG releases FMNH(-) with a rate constant of 4.5-6 s(-1). Our data showed that the kinetics of binding of FMNH(-)to PlLuxAB and VcLuxAB and the subsequent reactions with oxygen were the same with either free FMNH(-) or FMNH(-) generated in situ by LuxG. These results strongly suggest that no complexes between LuxG and the various species are necessary to transfer FMNH(-) to the acceptors. The kinetics of the overall reactions and the individual rate constants correlate well with a free diffusion model for the transfer of FMNH(-) from LuxG to either LuxAB. PMID:24004065

Tinikul, Ruchanok; Pitsawong, Warintra; Sucharitakul, Jeerus; Nijvipakul, Sarayut; Ballou, David P; Chaiyen, Pimchai

2013-09-19

366

Site-directed mutagenesis studies of the metal-binding center of the iron-dependent propanediol oxidoreductase from Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

The amino acid residues involved in the metal-binding site in the iron-containing dehydrogenase family were characterized by the site-directed mutagenesis of selected candidate residues of propanediol oxidoreductase from Escherichia coli. Based on the findings that mutations H263R, H267A and H277A resulted in iron-deficient propanediol oxidoreductases without catalytic activity, we identified three conserved His residues as iron ligands, which also bind zinc. The Cys362, a residue highly conserved among these dehydrogenases, was considered another possible ligand by comparison with the sequences of the medium-chain dehydrogenases. Mutation of Cys362 to Ile, resulted in an active enzyme that was still able to bind iron, with minor changes in the Km values and decreased thermal stability. Furthermore, in an attempt to produce an enzyme specific only for the zinc ion, three mutations were designed to mimic the catalytic zinc-binding site of the medium-chain dehydrogenases: (1) V262C produced an enzyme with altered kinetic parameters which nevertheless retained a significant ability to bind both metals, (2) the double mutant V262C-M265D was inactive and too unstable to allow purification, and (3) the insertion of a cysteine at position 263 resulted in a catalytically inactive enzyme without iron-binding capacity, while retaining the ability to bind zinc. This mutation could represent a conceivable model of one of the steps in the evolution from iron to zinc-dependent dehydrogenases. PMID:9851711

Obradors, N; Cabiscol, E; Aguilar, J; Ros, J

1998-11-15

367

A guardian of grasses: Specific origin and conservation of a unique disease-resistance gene in the grass lineage  

PubMed Central

The maize Hm1 gene provides protection against a lethal leaf blight and ear mold disease caused by Cochliobolus carbonum race 1 (CCR1). Although it was the first disease-resistance (DR) gene to be cloned, it remains a novelty because, instead of participating in the plant recognition and response system as most DR genes do, Hm1 disarms the pathogen directly. It does so by encoding an NADPH-dependent reductase, whose function is to inactivate Helminthosporium carbonum (HC) toxin, an epoxide-containing cyclic tetrapeptide, which the pathogen produces as a key virulence factor to colonize maize. Although CCR1 is strictly a pathogen of maize, orthologs of Hm1 and the HC-toxin reductase activity are present in the grass family, suggesting an ancient and evolutionarily conserved role of this DR trait in plants. Here, we provide proof for such a role by demonstrating its involvement in nonhost resistance of barley to CCR1. Barley leaves in which expression of the Hm1 homologue was silenced became susceptible to infection by CCR1, but only if the pathogen was able to produce HC toxin. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Hm1 evolved exclusively and early in the grass lineage. Given the devastating ability of CCR1 to kill maize, these findings imply that the evolution and/or geographical distribution of grasses may have been constrained if Hm1 did not emerge.

Sindhu, Anoop; Chintamanani, Satya; Brandt, Amanda S.; Zanis, Michael; Scofield, Steven R.; Johal, Gurmukh S.

2008-01-01

368

Glycogen Metabolic Genes Are Involved in Trehalose-6-Phosphate Synthase-Mediated Regulation of Pathogenicity by the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.  

PubMed

The filamentous fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is the causal agent of rice blast disease. Here we show that glycogen metabolic genes play an important role in plant infection by M. oryzae. Targeted deletion of AGL1 and GPH1, which encode amyloglucosidase and glycogen phosphorylase, respectively, prevented mobilisation of glycogen stores during appressorium development and caused a significant reduction in the ability of M. oryzae to cause rice blast disease. By contrast, targeted mutation of GSN1, which encodes glycogen synthase, significantly reduced the synthesis of intracellular glycogen, but had no effect on fungal pathogenicity. We found that loss of AGL1 and GPH1 led to a reduction in expression of TPS1 and TPS3, which encode components of the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase complex, that acts as a genetic switch in M. oryzae. Tps1 responds to glucose-6-phosphate levels and the balance of NADP/NADPH to regulate virulence-associated gene expression, in association with Nmr transcriptional inhibitors. We show that deletion of the NMR3 transcriptional inhibitor gene partially restores virulence to a ?agl1?gph1 mutant, suggesting that glycogen metabolic genes are necessary for operation of the NADPH-dependent genetic switch in M. oryzae. PMID:24098112

Badaruddin, Muhammad; Holcombe, Lucy J; Wilson, Richard A; Wang, Zheng-Yi; Kershaw, Michael J; Talbot, Nicholas J

2013-10-03

369

Glycogen Metabolic Genes Are Involved in Trehalose-6-Phosphate Synthase-Mediated Regulation of Pathogenicity by the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae  

PubMed Central

The filamentous fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is the causal agent of rice blast disease. Here we show that glycogen metabolic genes play an important role in plant infection by M. oryzae. Targeted deletion of AGL1 and GPH1, which encode amyloglucosidase and glycogen phosphorylase, respectively, prevented mobilisation of glycogen stores during appressorium development and caused a significant reduction in the ability of M. oryzae to cause rice blast disease. By contrast, targeted mutation of GSN1, which encodes glycogen synthase, significantly reduced the synthesis of intracellular glycogen, but had no effect on fungal pathogenicity. We found that loss of AGL1 and GPH1 led to a reduction in expression of TPS1 and TPS3, which encode components of the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase complex, that acts as a genetic switch in M. oryzae. Tps1 responds to glucose-6-phosphate levels and the balance of NADP/NADPH to regulate virulence-associated gene expression, in association with Nmr transcriptional inhibitors. We show that deletion of the NMR3 transcriptional inhibitor gene partially restores virulence to a ?agl1?gph1 mutant, suggesting that glycogen metabolic genes are necessary for operation of the NADPH-dependent genetic switch in M. oryzae.

Wilson, Richard A.; Wang, Zheng-Yi; Kershaw, Michael J.; Talbot, Nicholas J.

2013-01-01

370

Crystallographic analysis and structure-guided engineering of NADPH-dependent Ralstonia sp. Alcohol dehydrogenase toward NADH cosubstrate specificity.  

PubMed

The NADP(+) -dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from Ralstonia sp. (RasADH) belongs to the protein superfamily of short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs). As an enzyme that accepts different types of substrates-including bulky-bulky as well as small-bulky secondary alcohols or ketones-with high stereoselectivity, it offers potential as a biocatalyst for industrial biotechnology. To understand substrate and cosubstrate specificities of RasADH we determined the crystal structure of the apo-enzyme as well as its NADP(+) -bound state with resolutions down to 2.8?Å. RasADH displays a homotetrameric quaternary structure that can be described as a dimer of homodimers while in each subunit a seven-stranded parallel ?-sheet, flanked by three ?-helices on each side, forms a Rossmann fold-type dinucleotide binding domain. Docking of the well-known substrate (S)-1-phenylethanol clearly revealed the structural determinants of stereospecificity. To favor practical RasADH application in the context of established cofactor recycling systems, for example, those involving an NADH-dependent amino acid dehydrogenase, we attempted to rationally change its cosubstrate specificity from NADP(+) to NAD(+) utilizing the structural information that NADP(+) specificity is largely governed by the residues Asn15, Gly37, Arg38, and Arg39. Furthermore, an extensive sequence alignment with homologous dehydrogenases that have different cosubstrate specificities revealed a modified general SDR motif ASNG (instead of NNAG) at positions 86-89 of RasADH. Consequently, we constructed mutant enzymes with one (G37D), four (N15G/G37D/R38V/R39S), and six (N15G/G37D/R38V/R39S/A86N/S88A) amino acid exchanges. RasADH (N15G/G37D/R38V/R39S) was better able to accept NAD(+) while showing much reduced catalytic efficiency with NADP(+) , leading to a change in NADH/NADPH specificity by a factor of ?3.6 million. Biotechnol. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2013;110: 2803-2814. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23686719

Lerchner, Alexandra; Jarasch, Alexander; Meining, Winfried; Schiefner, André; Skerra, Arne

2013-07-01

371

Chromogenic Identification of Genetic Regulatory Signals in Bacillus subtilis Based on Expression of a Cloned Pseudomonas Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method to isolate fragments of DNA that promote gene expression in Bacillus subtilis is described. The system is based on production of catechol 2,3-dioxygenase [CatO2ase; catechol:oxygen 2,3-oxidoreductase (decyclizing), EC 1.13.11.2] encoded by the Pseudomonas putida TOL plasmid gene xylE. The gene was transferred to a B. subtilis\\/Escherichia coli plasmid vector to construct pTG402. Although xylE is functionally expressed in

Mark M. Zukowski; Dairena F. Gaffney; Denis Speck; Muriel Kauffmann; Annie Findeli; Anne Wisecup; Jean-Pierre Lecocq

1983-01-01

372

Methotrexate-Resistant Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells have Amplified a 135-Kilobase-Pair Region That Includes the Dihydrofolate Reductase Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the eventual purpose of isolating and studying a single animal cell replicon, we have developed a methotrexate-resistant Chinese hamster ovary cell line that has amplified an early-replicating DNA sequence approximately 500 times; this sequence includes the gene coding for dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR; tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase; 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate:NADP+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.5.1.3). DHFR composes 30% of the cytoplasmic protein in this cell line,

Jeffrey D. Milbrandt; Nicholas H. Heintz; W. Carlton White; Steven M. Rothman; Joyce L. Hamlin

1981-01-01

373

Nrf2 and c-Jun regulation of antioxidant response element (ARE)-mediated expression and induction of ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase heavy subunit gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Glutamylcysteine synthetase (?-GCS) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the de novo synthesis of glutathione, a known scavenger of electrophiles and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ?-GCS gene is expressed ubiquitously and induced coordinately with NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase1 (NQO1) and glutathione S-transferase Ya (GST Ya) in response to xenobiotics and antioxidants. The antioxidant response element (ARE) is required for expression and induction

Janet Jeyapaul; Anil K Jaiswal

2000-01-01

374

Assembly and Annotation of Human Chromosome 2q33 Sequence Containing the CD28, CTLA4, and ICOS Gene Cluster: Analysis by Computational, Comparative, and Microarray Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human chromosome 2q33 is an immunologically important region based on the linkage of numerous autoimmune diseases to the CTLA4 locus. Here, we sequenced and assembled 2q33 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones, resulting in 381,403 bp of contiguous sequence containing genes encoding a NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, the costimulatory receptors CD28, CTLA4, and ICOS, and a HERV-H type endogenous retrovirus located 366 bp

Vincent Ling; Paul W. Wu; Heather F. Finnerty; Michael J. Agostino; James R. Graham; Sanjun Chen; Jason M. Jussiff; Gregory J. Fisk; Christopher P. Miller; Mary Collins

2001-01-01

375

Tropine Forming Tropinone Reductase Gene from Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha): Biochemical Characteristics of the Recombinant Enzyme and Novel Physiological Overtones of Tissue-Wide Gene Expression Patterns.  

PubMed

Withania somnifera is one of the most reputed medicinal plants of Indian systems of medicine synthesizing diverse types of secondary metabolites such as withanolides, alkaloids, withanamides etc. Present study comprises cloning and E. coli over-expression of a tropinone reductase gene (WsTR-I) from W. somnifera, and elucidation of biochemical characteristics and physiological role of tropinone reductase enzyme in tropane alkaloid biosynthesis in aerial tissues of the plant. The recombinant enzyme was demonstrated to catalyze NADPH-dependent tropinone to tropine conversion step in tropane metabolism, through TLC, GC and GC-MS-MS analyses of the reaction product. The functionally active homodimeric ?60 kDa enzyme catalyzed the reaction in reversible manner at optimum pH 6.7. Catalytic kinetics of the enzyme favoured its forward reaction (tropine formation). Comparative 3-D models of landscape of the enzyme active site contours and tropinone binding site were also developed. Tissue-wide and ontogenic stage-wise assessment of WsTR-I transcript levels revealed constitutive expression of the gene with relatively lower abundance in berries and young leaves. The tissue profiles of WsTR-I expression matched those of tropine levels. The data suggest that, in W. somnifera, aerial tissues as well possess tropane alkaloid biosynthetic competence. In vivo feeding of U-[(14)C]-sucrose to orphan shoot (twigs) and [(14)C]-chasing revealed substantial radiolabel incorporation in tropinone and tropine, confirming the de novo synthesizing ability of the aerial tissues. This inherent independent ability heralds a conceptual novelty in the backdrop of classical view that these tissues acquire the alkaloids through transportation from roots rather than synthesis. The TR-I gene expression was found to be up-regulated on exposure to signal molecules (methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid) and on mechanical injury. The enzyme's catalytic and structural properties as well as gene expression profiles are discussed with respect to their physiological overtones. PMID:24086372

Kushwaha, Amit Kumar; Sangwan, Neelam Singh; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Negi, Arvind Singh; Misra, Laxminarain; Sangwan, Rajender Singh

2013-09-25

376

Tropine Forming Tropinone Reductase Gene from Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha): Biochemical Characteristics of the Recombinant Enzyme and Novel Physiological Overtones of Tissue-Wide Gene Expression Patterns  

PubMed Central

Withania somnifera is one of the most reputed medicinal plants of Indian systems of medicine synthesizing diverse types of secondary metabolites such as withanolides, alkaloids, withanamides etc. Present study comprises cloning and E. coli over-expression of a tropinone reductase gene (WsTR-I) from W. somnifera, and elucidation of biochemical characteristics and physiological role of tropinone reductase enzyme in tropane alkaloid biosynthesis in aerial tissues of the plant. The recombinant enzyme was demonstrated to catalyze NADPH-dependent tropinone to tropine conversion step in tropane metabolism, through TLC, GC and GC-MS-MS analyses of the reaction product. The functionally active homodimeric ?60 kDa enzyme catalyzed the reaction in reversible manner at optimum pH 6.7. Catalytic kinetics of the enzyme favoured its forward reaction (tropine formation). Comparative 3-D models of landscape of the enzyme active site contours and tropinone binding site were also developed. Tissue-wide and ontogenic stage-wise assessment of WsTR-I transcript levels revealed constitutive expression of the gene with relatively lower abundance in berries and young leaves. The tissue profiles of WsTR-I expression matched those of tropine levels. The data suggest that, in W. somnifera, aerial tissues as well possess tropane alkaloid biosynthetic competence. In vivo feeding of U-[14C]-sucrose to orphan shoot (twigs) and [14C]-chasing revealed substantial radiolabel incorporation in tropinone and tropine, confirming the de novo synthesizing ability of the aerial tissues. This inherent independent ability heralds a conceptual novelty in the backdrop of classical view that these tissues acquire the alkaloids through transportation from roots rather than synthesis. The TR-I gene expression was found to be up-regulated on exposure to signal molecules (methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid) and on mechanical injury. The enzyme's catalytic and structural properties as well as gene expression profiles are discussed with respect to their physiological overtones.

Kushwaha, Amit Kumar; Sangwan, Neelam Singh; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Negi, Arvind Singh; Misra, Laxminarain; Sangwan, Rajender Singh

2013-01-01

377

Conserved negative charges in the transmembrane segments of subunit K of the NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase determine its dependence on YidC for membrane insertion.  

PubMed

All members of the Oxa1/Alb3/YidC family have been implicated in the biogenesis of respiratory and energy transducing proteins. In Escherichia coli, YidC functions together with and independently of the Sec system. Although the range of proteins shown to be dependent on YidC continues to increase, the exact role of YidC in insertion remains enigmatic. Here we show that YidC is essential for the insertion of subunit K of the NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase and that the dependence is due to the presence of two conserved glutamate residues in the transmembrane segments of subunit K. The results suggest a model in which YidC serves as a membrane chaperone for the insertion of the less hydrophobic, negatively charged transmembrane segments of NuoK. PMID:19959836

Price, Claire E; Driessen, Arnold J M

2009-12-03

378

Screening of detergents for solubilization, purification and crystallization of membrane proteins: a case study on succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase from Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (SQR) was solubilized and purified from Escherichia coli inner membranes using several different detergents. The number of phospholipid molecules bound to the SQR molecule varied greatly depending on the detergent combination that was used for the solubilization and purification. Crystallization conditions were screened for SQR that had been solubilized and purified using 2.5%(w/v) sucrose monolaurate and 0.5%(w/v) Lubrol PX, respectively, and two different crystal forms were obtained in the presence of detergent mixtures composed of n-alkyl-oligoethylene glycol monoether and n-alkyl-maltoside. Crystallization took place before detergent phase separation occurred and the type of detergent mixture affected the crystal form. PMID:18765923

Shimizu, Hironari; Nihei, Coh-ichi; Inaoka, Daniel Ken; Mogi, Tatushi; Kita, Kiyoshi; Harada, Shigeharu

2008-08-29

379

Site-directed mutagenesis of conserved cysteine residues in NqrD and NqrE subunits of Na+-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase.  

PubMed

Each of two hydrophobic subunits of Na+-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (NQR), NqrD and NqrE, contain a pair of strictly conserved cysteine residues within their transmembrane alpha-helices. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that substitutions of these residues in NQR of Vibrio harveyi blocked the Na+-dependent and 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide-sensitive quinone reductase activity of the enzyme. However, these mutations did not affect the interaction of NQR with NADH and menadione. It was demonstrated that these conserved cysteine residues are necessary for the correct folding and/or the stability of the NQR complex. Mass and EPR spectroscopy showed that NQR from V. harveyi bears only a 2Fe-2S cluster as a metal-containing prosthetic group. PMID:18298367

Fadeeva, M S; Bertsova, Y V; Verkhovsky, M I; Bogachev, A V

2008-02-01

380

Chloroplast lipid droplet type II NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase is essential for prenylquinone metabolism and vitamin K1 accumulation  

PubMed Central

Lipid droplets are ubiquitous cellular structures in eukaryotes and are required for lipid metabolism. Little is currently known about plant lipid droplets other than oil bodies. Here, we define dual roles for chloroplast lipid droplets (plastoglobules) in energy and prenylquinone metabolism. The prenylquinones—plastoquinone, plastochromanol-8, phylloquinone (vitamin K1), and tocopherol (vitamin E)—are partly stored in plastoglobules. This work shows that NAD(P)H dehydrogenase C1 (NDC1) (At5g08740), a type II NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase, associates with plastoglobules. NDC1 reduces a plastoquinone analog in vitro and affects the overall redox state of the total plastoquinone pool in vivo by reducing the plastoquinone reservoir of plastoglobules. Finally, NDC1 is required for normal plastochromanol-8 accumulation and is essential for vitamin K1 production.

Eugeni Piller, Lucia; Besagni, Celine; Ksas, Brigitte; Rumeau, Dominique; Brehelin, Claire; Glauser, Gaetan; Kessler, Felix; Havaux, Michel

2011-01-01

381

A light-dependent complementation system for analysis of NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase: Identification and mutagenesis of two conserved residues that are essential for enzyme activity  

SciTech Connect

Protochlorophyllide reductase (NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase; EC 1.6.99.1) catalyzes the light-dependent reduction of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide, a key regulatory step in the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. We have developed an expression system in which the protochlorophyllide reductase from pea (Pisum sativum L.) is used to complement protochlorophyllide reduction mutants in the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus, allowing analysis of wild-type and mutant forms of the enzyme. By protein sequence comparisons, we have identified the plant protochlorophyllide reductases as belonging to the family of short-chain alcohol dehydrogenases. Based on our protein sequence alignments, we have identified and mutated two conserved residues (Tyr-275 and Lys-279) within the proposed active site of the enzyme and shown that they are critical for activity. A model of the enzyme reaction mechanism for light-dependent protochlorophyllide reduction is proposed. 33 refs., 5 figs.

Wilks, H.M.; Timko, M.P. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

1995-01-31

382

Knockdown of human Oxa1l impairs the biogenesis of F1Fo-ATP synthase and NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase.  

PubMed

The Oxa1 protein is a founding member of the evolutionarily conserved Oxa1/Alb3/YidC protein family, which is involved in the biogenesis of membrane proteins in mitochondria, chloroplasts and bacteria. The predicted human homologue, Oxa1l, was originally identified by partial functional complementation of the respiratory growth defect of the yeast oxa1 mutant. Here we demonstrate that both the endogenous human Oxa1l, with an apparent molecular mass of 42 kDa, and the Oxa1l-FLAG chimeric protein localize exclusively to mitochondria in HEK293 cells. Furthermore, human Oxa1l was found to be an integral membrane protein, and, using two-dimensional blue native/denaturing PAGE, the majority of the protein was identified as part of a 600-700 kDa complex. The stable short hairpin (sh)RNA-mediated knockdown of Oxa1l in HEK293 cells resulted in markedly decreased steady-state levels and ATP hydrolytic activity of the F(1)F(o)-ATP synthase and moderately reduced levels and activity of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I). However, no significant accumulation of corresponding sub-complexes could be detected on blue native immunoblots. Intriguingly, the achieved depletion of Oxa1l protein did not adversely affect the assembly or activity of cytochrome c oxidase or the cytochrome bc(1) complex. Taken together, our results indicate that human Oxa1l represents a mitochondrial integral membrane protein required for the correct biogenesis of F(1)F(o)-ATP synthase and NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase. PMID:17936786

Stiburek, Lukas; Fornuskova, Daniela; Wenchich, Laszlo; Pejznochova, Martina; Hansikova, Hana; Zeman, Jiri

2007-09-20

383

N-Acylhomoserine lactone quorum-sensing molecules are modified and degraded by Rhodococcus erythropolis W2 by both amidolytic and novel oxidoreductase activities.  

PubMed

The Rhodococcus erythropolis strain W2 has been shown previously to degrade the N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) quorum-sensing signal molecule N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone, produced by other bacteria. Data presented here indicate that this Gram-positive bacterium is also capable of using various AHLs as the sole carbon and energy source. The enzymic activities responsible for AHL inactivation were investigated in R. erythropolis cell extracts and in whole cells. R. erythropolis cells rapidly degraded AHLs with 3-oxo substituents but exhibited relatively poor activity against the corresponding unsubstituted AHLs. Investigation of the mechanism(s) by which R. erythropolis cells degraded AHLs revealed that 3-oxo compounds with N-acyl side chains ranging from C8 to C14 were initially converted to their corresponding 3-hydroxy derivatives. This oxidoreductase activity was not specific to 3-oxo-AHLs but also allowed the reduction of compounds such as N-(3-oxo-6-phenylhexanoyl)homoserine lactone (which contains an aromatic acyl chain substituent) and 3-oxododecanamide (which lacks the homoserine lactone ring). It also reduced both the D- and L-isomers of n-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone. A second AHL-degrading activity was observed when R. erythropolis cell extracts were incubated with N-(3-oxodecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3O,C10-HSL). This activity was both temperature- and pH-dependent and was characterized as an amidolytic activity by HPLC analysis of the reaction mixture treated with dansyl chloride. This revealed the accumulation of dansylated homoserine lactone, indicating that the 3O,C10-HSL amide had been cleaved to yield homoserine lactone. R. erythropolis is therefore capable of modifying and degrading AHL signal molecules through both oxidoreductase and amidolytic activities. PMID:16207914

Uroz, Stéphane; Chhabra, Siri Ram; Cámara, Miguel; Williams, Paul; Oger, Phil; Dessaux, Yves

2005-10-01

384

Coupling of the pathway of sulphur oxidation to dioxygen reduction: characterization of a novel membrane-bound thiosulphate:quinone oxidoreductase.  

PubMed

Thiosulphate is one of the products of the initial step of the elemental sulphur oxidation pathway in the thermoacidophilic archaeon Acidianus ambivalens. A novel thiosulphate:quinone oxidoreductase (TQO) activity was found in the membrane extracts of aerobically grown cells of this organism. The enzyme was purified 21-fold from the solubilized membrane fraction. The TQO oxidized thiosulphate with tetrathionate as product and ferricyanide or decyl ubiquinone (DQ) as electron acceptors. The maximum specific activity with ferricyanide was 73.4 U (mg protein)(-1) at 92 degrees C and pH 6, with DQ it was 397 mU (mg protein)(-1) at 80 degrees C. The Km values were 2.6 mM for thiosulphate (k(cat) = 167 s(-1)), 3.4 mM for ferricyanide and 5.87 micro M for DQ. The enzymic activity was inhibited by sulphite (Ki = 5 micro M), metabisulphite, dithionite and TritonX-100, but not by sulphate or tetrathionate. A mixture of caldariella quinone, sulfolobus quinone and menaquinone was non-covalently bound to the protein. No other cofactors were detected. Oxygen consumption was measured in membrane fractions upon thiosulphate addition, thus linking thiosulphate oxidation to dioxygen reduction, in what constitutes a novel activity among Archaea. The holoenzyme was composed of two subunits of apparent molecular masses of 28 and 16 kDa. The larger subunit appeared to be glycosylated and was identical to DoxA, and the smaller was identical to DoxD. Both subunits had been described previously as a part of the terminal quinol:oxygen oxidoreductase complex (cytochrome aa3). PMID:15306018

Müller, Fabian H; Bandeiras, Tiago M; Urich, Tim; Teixeira, Miguel; Gomes, Cláudio M; Kletzin, Arnulf

2004-08-01

385

Thermostable NADP+-Dependent Medium-Chain Alcohol Dehydrogenase from Acinetobacter sp. Strain M-1: Purification and Characterization and Gene Expression in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

NADPH-dependent alkylaldehyde reducing enzyme, which was greatly induced by n-hexadecane, from Acinetobacter sp. strain M-1 was purified and characterized. The purified enzyme had molecular masses of 40 kDa as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and 160 kDa as determined by gel filtration chromatography. The enzyme, which was shown to be highly thermostable, was most active toward n-heptanal and could use n-alkylaldehydes ranging from C2 to C14 and several substituted benzaldehydes, including the industrially important compounds cinnamyl aldehyde and anisaldehyde, as substrates. The alrA gene coding for this enzyme was cloned, and its nucleotide sequence was determined. The deduced amino acid sequence encoded by the alrA gene exhibited homology to the amino acid sequences of zinc-containing alcohol dehydrogenases from various sources. The gene could be highly expressed in Escherichia coli, and the product was purified to homogeneity by simpler procedures from the recombinant than from the original host. Our results show that this enzyme can be used for industrial bioconversion of useful alcohols and aldehydes.

Tani, Akio; Sakai, Yasuyoshi; Ishige, Takeru; Kato, Nobuo

2000-01-01

386

Analysis of gene expression in poplar trees (Populus deltoides x nigra, DN34) exposed to the toxic explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX).  

PubMed

Poplar plants (Populus deltoides x nigra, DN34) growing under hydroponic conditions were exposed to 50 mg L(-1) of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) for 24 h. The expression of genes potentially involved in the metabolism of toxic explosives was analyzed by reverse-transcriptase (RT) real-time PCR. Genes under study were selected by reference to corresponding genes that were previously shown to be upregulated in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana by exposure to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) (Ekman et al., 2003. Plant Physiol., 133, 1397-1406). The target genes investigated include several genes encoding for enzymes known to be involved in the detoxification of xenobiotic pollutants, such as glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), cytochrome P-450s (CYPs), NADPH-dependent reductases, and peroxidases. Starting from A. thaliana TNT-inducible genes, corresponding Populus sequences were retrieved from the JGI Poplar Genome Project database and were used to design gene-specific primers. 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was used as an internal standard and recorded gene expression levels were normalized by reference to nonexposed plants. In three separate experiments, five genes were found to be significantly amplified in leaf tissues by exposure to RDX, including GST (9.7 fold), CYP (1.6 fold), reductases (1.6-1.7 fold), and peroxidase (1.7 fold). In root tissues, only a single GST gene was found to be significantly amplified by exposure to RDX (2.0 fold). These results show, for the first time, that the exposure of poplar plants to RDX results in the induction of several genes that are potentially involved in explosive detoxification. PMID:18246712

Tanaka, Sachiyo; Brentner, Laura B; Merchie, Kate M; Schnoor, Jerald L; Yoon, Jong Moon; Van Aken, Benoit

387

Catabolism of 1,5-Anhydro-d-Fructose in Sinorhizobium morelense S-30.7.5: Discovery, Characterization, and Overexpression of a New 1,5-Anhydro-d-Fructose Reductase and Its Application in Sugar Analysis and Rare Sugar Synthesis  

PubMed Central

The bacterium Sinorhizobium morelense S-30.7.5 was isolated by a microbial screening using the sugar 1,5-anhydro-d-fructose (AF) as the sole carbon source. This strain metabolized AF by a novel pathway involving its reduction to 1,5-anhydro-d-mannitol (AM) and the further conversion of AM to d-mannose by C-1 oxygenation. Growth studies showed that the AF metabolizing capability is not confined to S. morelense S-30.7.5 but is a more common feature among the Rhizobiaceae. The AF reducing enzyme was purified and characterized as a new NADPH-dependent monomeric reductase (AFR, EC 1.1.1.-) of 35.1 kDa. It catalyzed the stereoselective reduction of AF to AM and also the conversion of a number of 2-keto aldoses (osones) to the corresponding manno-configurated aldoses. In contrast, common aldoses and ketoses, as well as nonsugar aldehydes and ketones, were not reduced. A database search using the N-terminal AFR sequence retrieved a putative 35-kDa oxidoreductase encoded by the open reading frame Smc04400 localized on the chromosome of Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021. Based on sequence information for this locus, the afr gene was cloned from S. morelense S-30.7.5 and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. In addition to the oxidoreductase of S. meliloti 1021, AFR showed high sequence similarities to putative oxidoreductases of Mesorhizobium loti, Brucella suis, and B. melitensis but not to any oxidoreductase with known functions. AFR could be assigned to the GFO/IDH/MocA family on the basis of highly conserved common structural features. His6-tagged AFR was used to demonstrate the utility of this enzyme for AF analysis and synthesis of AM, as well as related derivatives.

Kuhn, Annette; Yu, Shukun; Giffhorn, Friedrich

2006-01-01

388

Carbohydrate metabolism genes and pathways in insects: insights from the honey bee genome  

PubMed Central

Carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes may have particularly interesting roles in the honey bee, Apis mellifera, because this social insect has an extremely carbohydrate-rich diet, and nutrition plays important roles in caste determination and socially mediated behavioural plasticity. We annotated a total of 174 genes encoding carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes and 28 genes encoding lipid-metabolizing enzymes, based on orthology to their counterparts in the fly, Drosophila melanogaster, and the mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. We found that the number of genes for carbohydrate metabolism appears to be more evolutionarily labile than for lipid metabolism. In particular, we identified striking changes in gene number or genomic organization for genes encoding glycolytic enzymes, cellulase, glucose oxidase and glucose dehydrogenases, glucose-methanol-choline (GMC) oxidoreductases, fucosyltransferases, and lysozymes.

Kunieda, T; Fujiyuki, T; Kucharski, R; Foret, S; Ament, S A; Toth, A L; Ohashi, K; Takeuchi, H; Kamikouchi, A; Kage, E; Morioka, M; Beye, M; Kubo, T; Robinson, G E; Maleszka, R

2006-01-01

389

PAH Particles Perturb Prenatal Processes and Phenotypes: Protection from Deficits in Object Discrimination Afforded by Dampening of Brain Oxidoreductase Following In Utero Exposure to Inhaled Benzo(a)pyrene  

PubMed Central

The wild-type (WT) Cprlox/lox (cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase, Cpr) mouse is an ideal model to assess the contribution of P450 enzymes to the metabolic activation and disposition of environmental xenobiotics. In the present study, we examined the effect of in utero exposure to benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] aerosol on Sp4 and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)–dependent systems as well as a resulting behavioral phenotype (object discrimination) in Cpr offspring. Results from in utero exposure of WT Cprlox/lox mice were compared with in utero exposed brain-Cpr-null offspring mice. Null mice were used as they do not express brain cytochrome P4501B1–associated NADPH oxidoreductase (CYP1B1-associated NADPH