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1

Characterization and genotoxicity evaluation of particulate matter collected from industrial atmosphere in Tamil Nadu State, India.  

PubMed

Ambient particulate matter (PM) collected in the vicinity of five industries (Cement, Chemical, Thermal power plant, Sponge-iron and Steel) in Tamil Nadu state, India was characterized for size distribution, metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content. Genotoxicity of PM and organic matter (OM) extracted from PM was measured in human lung cancer cell-line, A549 and in human liver carcinoma cell-line, HepG2, respectively, using the comet assay. PM values varied from 57.0?g/m(3) of air at Cement industry upstream to 561.0?g/m(3) of air at Sponge iron industry downstream samples. Their metal content varied from 5.758?g/m(3) of air at Chemical industry to 46.144?g/m(3) of air at Sponge iron industry and PAH concentration varied from 0.5ng/m(3) air in upstream Thermal power plant to 3302.4ng/m(3) air in downstream Sponge iron industry samples. While all PM samples induced DNA strand breaks at higher dose levels, downstream samples of Steel and Sponge iron industries which contained relatively higher concentrations of PAHs and metals and exhibited higher levels of pro-oxidant activity as measured by DTT activity induced significantly higher levels of DNA damage in HepG2 and A549 cells. Pretreatment of A549 cells with vitamin C or quercetin significantly reduced PM induced DNA strand breaks. PMID:24797908

Senthilkumar, S; Manju, A; Muthuselvam, P; Shalini, D; Indhumathi, V; Kalaiselvi, K; Palanivel, M; Chandrasekar, P P; Rajaguru, P

2014-06-15

2

Examination of Recovery from Salinization of Agricultural Area in Tamil Nadu State, INDIA due to the December 2004 Tsunami  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined salinization and desalinization in an agricultural area of Nagapatttinam district, Tamil Nadu state, India due to the December 2004 tsunami. To examine the damage and recovery of agricultural environment from the tsunami, we observed and collected soil, groundwater and vegetation data. Soil electrical conductivity steeply increased after the tsunami and soil pH slightly increased, but returned to pre-tsunami levels in the following year. Groundwater salinity might return to pre-tsunami levels by 2006. MODIS EVI values measured before and after the tsunami showed that vegetation damaged by the tsunami recovered to its pre-tsunami state by the next rice cropping season, called samba, which continues from August to February. These rapid rates of recovery were due to leaching salt from the highly permeable soils in the area by the monsoon rainfall. From these results, we conclude that agricultural environment of the district has mostly recovered one year after the tsunami.

Kume, Takashi; Umetsu, Chieko; Palanisami, K.

3

Ocular rhinosporidiosis in Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

A high incidence of ocular rhinosporidiosis in Kanyakumari district of Tamil Nadu, India is reported. Among the four taluks (sub-division for administration), highest occurrence was found in Agastheeswaram taluk (51.2%) followed by Kalkulam (24.4%), Thovalai (22%) and Vilavancode (2.4%). The disease occurred among both sexes equally and preponderance of a particular sex was not observed. The young adolescents were found to be more susceptible. The disease was found in all socio-economic strata and among all communities and persons belonging to different religious groups. Most of the patients gave a history of bathing in muddy stagnant pools of water. PMID:2233980

Moses, J S; Balachandran, C; Sandhanam, S; Ratnasamy, N; Thanappan, S; Rajaswar, J; Moses, D

1990-07-01

4

Diversity of microorganisms in solar salterns of Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the diversity of prokaryotes inhabiting crystallizer ponds of three solar salterns, located along Bengal Bay\\u000a in Tamil Nadu, India was examined. Unlike other salterns studied the Tamil Nadu salterns are fed by hypersaline spring water\\u000a mixed with seawater and led to the ponds from bore wells. In addition, prokaryotic community development is restricted as\\u000a salterns operate only

Muthu Manikandan; Vijayaraghavan Kannan; Lejla Paši?

2009-01-01

5

Bureaucratic Activism and Radical School Change in Tamil Nadu, India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2007, Activity Based Learning (ABL), a child-centered, activity-based method of pedagogical practice, transformed classrooms in all of the over 37,000 primary-level government schools in Tamil Nadu, India. The large scale, rapid pace, and radical nature of educational change sets the ABL initiative apart from most school reform efforts.…

Niesz, Tricia; Krishnamurthy, Ramchandar

2013-01-01

6

Assessment of groundwater quality and hydrogeochemistry of Manimuktha River basin, Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater quality assessment study was carried out around Manimuktha river basin, Tamil Nadu, India. Twenty six bore well\\u000a samples were analyzed for geochemical variations and quality of groundwater. Four major hydrochemical facies (Ca–HCO3, Na–Cl, Mixed CaNaHCO3, and mixed CaMgCl) were identified using a Piper trilinear diagram. Comparison of geochemical results with World Health Organization,\\u000a United States Environmental Protection Agency, and

S. Krishna Kumar; V. Rammohan; J. Dajkumar Sahayam; M. Jeevanandam

2009-01-01

7

Molecular characterization of wild-type measles viruses in Tamil Nadu, India, during 2005-2006: relationship of genotype D8 strains from Tamil Nadu to global strains.  

PubMed

Molecular characterization of measles viruses is a valuable tool for measuring the effectiveness of measles control and elimination programmes. WHO recommends that virological surveillance be conducted during all phases of measles control to document circulation of indigenous strains and trace future importation. This report describes the genetic characterization of wild type measles viruses from Tamil Nadu, India isolated between January 2005 and January 2006. In the study, 304 suspected measles cases (292 from 56 outbreaks and 12 sporadic cases) were investigated. Blood samples were collected from suspected measles outbreaks and 11 suspected sporadic cases and tested for the presence of measles and rubella specific IgM. Based on serological results, 53 outbreaks were confirmed as measles, 2 as a combination of measles and rubella, and 1 negative for both. Eight sporadic cases were confirmed as measles and one as rubella. Throat swab and urine samples were collected for virus isolation and 28 isolates were obtained. Sequencing and analysis showed that 3 isolates belonged to genotype D4 and 25 to genotype D8. Comparison of the genotype D8 sequences from Tamil Nadu with previously reported genotype D8 sequences from India and abroad showed six distinct clusters with Tamil Nadu strains forming two clusters. This study has established baseline molecular data and is the first report that describes genetic diversity of circulating measles strains in Tamil Nadu, a state in India. D8 has multiple lineages and this has been linked with importation of measles into the USA and UK. PMID:22170558

Duraisamy, Raja; Rota, Paul A; Palani, Gunasekaran; Elango, Varalakshmi; Sambasivam, Mohana; Lowe, Luis; Lopareva, Elena; Ramamurty, Nalini

2012-02-01

8

The scope and limitations of insecticide spraying in rural vector control programmes in the states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu in India.  

PubMed

The resurgence of malaria in India began in 1966 and the states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu were no exception to this phenomenon. In both states the peak occurrence came in 1976. Malaria was largely confined to highly vulnerable and receptive areas. The problem of increased incidence was particularly associated with the development of several irrigation and hydro-electric schemes. Improperly maintained irrigation systems and reservoirs provided ideal breeding grounds. The present paper examines the scope and limitations of a major anti-malaria activity, namely residual insecticide spraying as adopted and practised in rural vector control programmes in irrigation development project areas. Past experiences (as during the National Malaria Eradication programme, 1958-1965) and current practices are reviewed on the basis of selected examples. Eradication programme, 1958-1965) and current practices are reviewed on the basis of selected examples. In view of the current re-emergence of the disease, the states are faced with new obstacles to residual insecticide spraying such as (a) the development of resistance of malaria vectors to DDT and other alternative compounds like BHC (benzene hexachloride), changing vector behaviour with avoidance of contact with indoor insecticide deposits on walls, (c) environmental contamination (risks of chemicals), (d) extensive use of insecticides and pesticides for crop protection under an expanding green revolution agricultural technology, particularly in irrigated areas and (e) the existence of outdoor resting populations of the major vector Anopheles culicifacies and their role in extra-domiciliary transmission, making residual insecticide spray less effective. Spraying operations are also hindered by the persistence of certain social and cultural factors. The custom of mud plastering, white-washing and rethatching rural houses, for example, results in the loss of insecticide-treated surfaces. Other outdoor rural activities persist as obstacles in attempts to break the transmission cycle; washing, bathing and sleeping outdoors; illegal fishing and woodcutting at night; poorly constructed make-shift structures;housing project labourers near water sources; cattle grazing in nearby forests and human population movements related to seasonal migrants. The chain and extent of the transmission is dependent upon the malaria parasite carriers in the community (both indigenous and imported types) and the degree of contact of the community with those sites where people carry on the above activities, and on the effectiveness of surveillance operations. PMID:6206995

Barai, D; Hyma, B; Ramesh, A

1982-01-01

9

Rhinosporidiosis in bovines of Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

A survey on rhinosporidiosis in animals was conducted in Kanyakumari (K.K.) district of Tamil Nadu, India. Among 103 animals (40 bullocks, 45 cows, 15 heifers, 2 bulls and a buffalo), 19 (9 bullocks, 8 cows, 1 heifer and a she-buffalo) were found to be infected with Rhinosporidium seeberi. The study revealed the endemic nature of the disease in bovines of K.K. district. Agastheeswaram taluk contributed 52.6 per cent of positive cases followed by Kalkulam (26.2 per cent). The disease was also found in exotic cattle (1 Holstein Friesien (HF) cow, 1 Swiss Brown cow and 1 HF heifer). The rest 16 were indigenous non-descript cattle. There was no sex variance as the cases were evenly distributed between both sexes. One of the infected animals was a she-buffalo. A case of recurrence of growth was observed in a bullock. Another bullock had concurrent infection of both rhinosporidiosis and nasal schistosomiasis. All the animals were adults and aged except the heifer. All were nose-roped. Cows were stall fed but bathed in ponds. PMID:3683510

Moses, J S; Balachandran, C

1987-10-01

10

Changed Governance or Computerized Governance? Computerized Property Transfer Processes in Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The government of the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu is plagued by a bloated workforce, low levels of transparency and accountability, high levels of corruption, and poor quality of public services. Does e-government really meet such governance challenges? Tamil Nadu's first major e-government project, STAR, uses ICTs in the administrative processes relating to sale, mortgage, lease of real estate

Radha Vasudevan

2007-01-01

11

Changed governance or computerized governance? Computerized property transfer processes in Tamil Nadu (India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the first large-scale e-government project in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Called STAR (Simplified Transparent Administration of Registration), this project uses ICTs in the administrative processes involved in transfer of ownership of real estate. A World Bank study (Tamil Nadu Governance Challenges published in October 2004 ) identified a bloated government workforce, poor levels

Radha Vasudevan

2006-01-01

12

Aquifer characteristics and its modeling around an industrial complex, Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu, India: A case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic pollution of shallow groundwater resources due to industrial activities is becoming a cause of concern in the east coastal belt of the state of Tamil Nadu, India. Integrated hydrogeological, geophysical and tracer studies were carried out in the coastal region encompassing an industrial complex. The objective has been to gain knowledge of aquifer characteristics, ascertaining groundwater movement and its flow direction, which would in turn reveal the possibility of contamination of groundwater regime and its better management. The results of multi-parameters and model study indicate that the velocity of groundwater flow ranges from 0.013 m/d to 0.22m/d in and around the industrial complex in upstream western part of the catchment and 0.026 m/d to 0.054m/d in the downstream eastern part, near the coast. These parameters are vital for the development of groundwater management scheme.

Mondal, N. C.; Singh, V. S.; Rangarajan, R.

2009-06-01

13

Assessment of groundwater quality and hydrogeochemistry of Manimuktha River basin, Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

Groundwater quality assessment study was carried out around Manimuktha river basin, Tamil Nadu, India. Twenty six bore well samples were analyzed for geochemical variations and quality of groundwater. Four major hydrochemical facies (Ca-HCO(3), Na-Cl, Mixed CaNaHCO(3), and mixed CaMgCl) were identified using a Piper trilinear diagram. Comparison of geochemical results with World Health Organization, United States Environmental Protection Agency, and Indian Standard Institution drinking water standards shows that all groundwater samples except few are suitable for drinking and irrigation purposes. The major groundwater pollutions are nitrate and phosphate ions due to sewage effluents and fertilizer applications. The study reveals that the groundwater quality changed due to anthropogenic and natural influence such as agricultural, natural weathering process. PMID:19089596

Kumar, S Krishna; Rammohan, V; Sahayam, J Dajkumar; Jeevanandam, M

2009-12-01

14

Agri-technologies and travelling facts: case study of extension education in Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is motivated by two broad questions: how is technology transferred from academia to non-academic domains, and how well do facts within these technologies travel? These questions are explored in the context of a particular extension education program in Tamil Nadu, south India. The paper explores the extent to which fertigation technologies (drip irrigation) and other farm and postharvest

Peter Howlett; Aashish Velkar

2008-01-01

15

Coastal Placer Deposits of Central Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Placer mineral exploration has been undertaken along the beach of Central Tamil Nadu coast from Pondicherry to Vedaranyam. On the basis of the drainage network, geomorphology, and the coastal environment, the study area has been grouped into three sectors, North, Central, and South. Heavy mineral by Wt% shows a slightly higher abundance in the Northern sector, an enrichment of opaques

N. Angusamy; J. Dajkumar Sahayam; M. Suresh Gandhi; G. Victor Rajamanickam

2005-01-01

16

Reproductive pattern, perinatal mortality, and sex preference in rural Tamil Nadu, South India: community based, cross sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractObjectives: To study reproductive pattern and perinatal mortality in rural Tamil Nadu, South India.Design: Community based, cross sectional questionnaire study of 30 randomly selected areas served by health subcentres.Setting: Rural parts of Salem District, Tamil Nadu, South India.Subjects: 1321 women and their offspring delivered in the 6 months before the interview.Main outcome measures: Number of pregnancies, pregnancy outcome, spacing of

Birgitte Bruun Nielsen; Jerker Liljestrand; Morten Hedegaard; Shakuntala Haraksingh Thilsted; Abraham Joseph

1997-01-01

17

A glimpse of lignicolous marine fungi occurring in coastal water bodies of Tamil Nadu (India).  

PubMed

In the present investigation, a total of 51 marine fungi were obtained from wood samples collected from four locations of Tamil Nadu (Tuthukudi, Chennai, Kanyakumari and Pichavaram), India. Out of these 51, 28 were ascomycetes, one was basidiomycete and 22 were mitosporic fungi. Maximum fungal diversity was encountered from Tuthukudi, followed by Chennai, Kanyakumari, and the minimum from Pichavaram. Periconia prolifica was the only species common to all the four locations. PMID:18511000

Nambiar, Gayatri R; Raveendran, Kalathil; Changxing, Zhao; Jaleel, Cheruth Abdul

2008-06-01

18

Geomapping of trematode-induced granulomatous anterior uveitis - a newly identified cause of blindness among children in the Pudukkottai district of the Tamil Nadu State, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is evidence that a specific type of allergic conjunctive-uveal granuloma reported from South India could be due to infection by a trematode parasite. In these patients, the histopathological examination of the eye reveals a zonal granulomatous inflammation with purulent material including structures displaying evidence of trematode infec- tion. To investigate this further, medical records describing such cases in the

Duraisamy Jayakumar; Sivakumar Kavitha; Sivakumar Rathinam; Gnanam Vasanthi

2009-01-01

19

Metamorphism of the Oddanchatram anorthosite, Tamil Nadu, South India  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Oddanchatram anorthosite is located in the Madurai District of Tamil Nadu, near the town of Palni. It is emplaced into a granulite facies terrain commonly presumed to have undergone its last regional metamorphism in the late Archean about 2600 m.y. The surrounding country rock consists of basic granulites, charnockites and metasedimentary rocks including quartzites, pelites and calc-silicates. The anorthosite is clearly intrusive into the country rock and contains many large inclusions of previously deformed basic granulite and quartzite within 100 meters of its contact. Both this intrusion and the nearby Kaduvar anorthosite show evidence of having been affected by later metamorphism and deformation.

Wiebe, R. A.; Janardhan, A. S.

1988-01-01

20

Natural gamma radioactivity in the villages of Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

In situ radiometric survey carried out in 81 revenue villages of Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, India, using a portable radiation dosemeter/detector, revealed the existence of radiation hotspots along the coastal belt. A close observation of the coastal villages specifically revealed high background radioactivity in 14 coastal villages. A very high intrinsic anomalous radioactivity of 41.03 ?Sv h(-1) was observed, in a famous tourist spot in the coastal belt of Kanyakumari District. This is the highest level of radiation registered in South India, which is extremely higher than the permissible world average and is suggestive of causing severe clinical problems on continuous and prolonged exposure. PMID:23516264

Padua, Jeni Chandar; Basil Rose, M R

2013-01-01

21

Hydrochemical characteristic of coastal aquifer from Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

This article deals with a systematic hydrochemical study carried out in coastal aquifers, Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu, to assess groundwater quality. A total of 29 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed. Results showed that total dissolved solids (TDS), sodium (Na+), magnesium (Mg2+), chloride (Cl-), and sulfate (SO?²?) significantly damaged groundwater systems. The degree of salinization due to seawater mixing in a well or a given area could be indicated by an increase in nearly all major cations and anions. Toxic elements (i.e., Pb and As) were higher than the maximum permissible limits of drinking water. Cross plot of HCO??/Cl- (molar ratios) versus TDS indicated that about 62% of the analyzed samples were saline. Factor analysis showed that groundwaters, affected by seawater intrusion/industrial activity, were separated from the clusters. An attempt was made to identify the hydrochemical processes that accompany current intrusion of seawater using ionic changes. It was estimated that the mixing rate of seawater intrusion was about 5.81% during April 2007. An index, called 'Seawater Mixing Index' (SMI), was also adopted and its value was SMI>1.18 with EC>3,000 ?S/cm about 62% of the sampled waters, were saline. Further, a few trace elements (i.e., Sr, B, and Li) were used as indicators for responding to the change in fresh to saline groundwater environments in coastal aquifers. PMID:20544276

Mondal, Nepal C; Singh, Vijay P; Singh, Somvir; Singh, Vijay S

2011-04-01

22

Lead ingots from a shipwreck off Poompuhar, Tamil Nadu, East Coast of India: evidence for overseas trade and their significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various types of lead ingots have been reported from a number of shipwrecks from different parts of the world. In 1991 exploration of a wreck off Poompuhar, Tamil Nadu, East Coast of India, at a depth of 19m yielded a gun, rudder gudgeon, gunpowder boxes and a variety of lead ingots. The most significant ingots are those marked W: Blackett

Sila Tripati; G. Parthiban; K. H. Vora; Sundaresh; S. N. Bandodker

2003-01-01

23

Social Inclusion: Teachers as Facilitators in Peer Acceptance of Students with Disabilities in Regular Classrooms in Tamil Nadu, India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the impact of classroom teachers' attitudes towards inclusive education, teachers' self-efficacy and classroom practices on the social status of students with disabilities in inclusive classrooms in Tamil Nadu, India. Questionnaires, interviews and classroom observations were employed to gather data. The data analysis included…

David, Ruffina; Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa

2012-01-01

24

Costs Analysis of a Population Level Rabies Control Programme in Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

The study aimed to determine costs to the state government of implementing different interventions for controlling rabies among the entire human and animal populations of Tamil Nadu. This built upon an earlier assessment of Tamil Nadu's efforts to control rabies. Anti-rabies vaccines were made available at all health facilities. Costs were estimated for five different combinations of animal and human interventions using an activity-based costing approach from the provider perspective. Disease and population data were sourced from the state surveillance data, human census and livestock census. Program costs were extrapolated from official documents. All capital costs were depreciated to estimate annualized costs. All costs were inflated to 2012 Rupees. Sensitivity analysis was conducted across all major cost centres to assess their relative impact on program costs. It was found that the annual costs of providing Anti-rabies vaccine alone and in combination with Immunoglobulins was $0.7 million (Rs 36 million) and $2.2 million (Rs 119 million), respectively. For animal sector interventions, the annualised costs of rolling out surgical sterilisation-immunization, injectable immunization and oral immunizations were estimated to be $ 44 million (Rs 2,350 million), $23 million (Rs 1,230 million) and $ 11 million (Rs 590 million), respectively. Dog bite incidence, health systems coverage and cost of rabies biologicals were found to be important drivers of costs for human interventions. For the animal sector interventions, the size of dog catching team, dog population and vaccine costs were found to be driving the costs. Rabies control in Tamil Nadu seems a costly proposition the way it is currently structured. Policy makers in Tamil Nadu and other similar settings should consider the long-term financial sustainability before embarking upon a state or nation-wide rabies control programme.

Abbas, Syed Shahid; Kakkar, Manish; Rogawski, Elizabeth Tacket

2014-01-01

25

Assessment of indoor radiation dose received by the residents of natural high background radiation areas of coastal villages of Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation exposure and effective dose received through two routes of exposure, viz. external and internal, via inhalation, by residents of 10 villages belonging to Natural High Background Radiation Areas (NHBRA) of coastal regions of Kanyakumari District and Tamil Nadu in India were studied. While the indoor gamma radiation levels were monitored using Thermo Luminescent Dosimeters (TLDs), the indoor radon and thoron gas concentrations were measured using twin chamber dosimeters employing Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs, LR-115-II). The average total annual effective dose was estimated and found to be varying from 2.59 to 8.76 mSv.

Deva Jayanthi, D.; Maniyan, C. G.; Perumal, S.

2011-07-01

26

Ethnobotanical investigations among tribes in Madurai District of Tamil Nadu (India)  

PubMed Central

Background An ethnobotanical survey was carried out to collect information on the use of medicinal plants in Southern Western Ghats of India (Madurai district, Tamil Nadu). Information presented in this paper was gathered from the paliyar tribes using an integrated approach of botanical collections, group discussions and interviews with questionnaires in the years 1998 – 1999. The informants interviewed were 12 among whom 4 were tribal practitioners. Results A total of 60 ethnomedicinal plant species distributed in 32 families are documented in this study. The medicinal plants used by paliyars are listed with Latin name, family, local name, parts used, mode of preparation and medicinal uses. Generally, fresh part of the plant was used for the preparation of medicine. Conclusion We observed that the documented ethnomedicinal plants were mostly used to cure skin diseases, poison bites, stomachache and nervous disorders. The results of this study showed that these tribal people still depend on medicinal plants in Madurai district forest areas.

Ignacimuthu, S; Ayyanar, M; Sivaraman K, Sankara

2006-01-01

27

Medico-botanical study of Yercaud hills in the eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

The study reports medicinal plant survey was conceded in Yercaud hills ranges of Eastern Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. The study primarily based on field surveys conducted throughout the hills, where dwellers provided information on plant species used as medicine, plant parts used to prepare the remedies and ailments to which the remedies were prescribed. The study resulted about 48- plant species belonging to 45- genera and 29- families of medicinal plants related to folk medicine used by the local people. Among them the most common plants viz., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Cissus quadrangularis L., Gymnema sylvestre R. Br., Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br., Justisia adhatoda L., Ocimum sanctum L., Phyllanthes amarus Schum. & Thonn., Piper nigrum L., Solanum nigrum L., Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers, Tridax procumbens L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe which are used in their daily life to cure various ailments. PMID:22557438

Parthipan, M; Aravindhan, V; Rajendran, A

2011-04-01

28

Medico - botanical study of Yercaud hills in the eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

The study reports medicinal plant survey was conceded in Yercaud hills ranges of Eastern Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. The study primarily based on field surveys conducted throughout the hills, where dwellers provided information on plant species used as medicine, plant parts used to prepare the remedies and ailments to which the remedies were prescribed. The study resulted about 48- plant species belonging to 45- genera and 29- families of medicinal plants related to folk medicine used by the local people. Among them the most common plants viz., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Cissus quadrangularis L., Gymnema sylvestre R. Br., Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br., Justisia adhatoda L., Ocimum sanctum L., Phyllanthes amarus Schum. & Thonn., Piper nigrum L., Solanum nigrum L., Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers, Tridax procumbens L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe which are used in their daily life to cure various ailments.

Parthipan, M; Aravindhan, V; Rajendran, A

2011-01-01

29

Physicochemical parameters and their sources in groundwater in the Thirupathur region, Tamil Nadu, South India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study reports physicochemical characteristics and their sources in groundwater in Thirupathur region in Tamil Nadu, India. For this purpose, groundwater samples were collected and analysed using standard methods. A wide seasonal variation was showed for the majority of the samples; higher concentration was observed in the pre-monsoon season. Concentration of fluoride was quite alarming in many locations. Groundwater is found to be dominated by Na+, Ca+, HCO3 and Cl-. Gibbs plot showed the dominance of rock-water interaction. Geology of the area in comparison with the results obtained in the chemical cross plots showed the dominance of silicate weathering, with a minor contribution from the cation exchange. Other processes such as evaporation dissolution of carbonate and gypsum were proved to be ineffective. However, dissolution of fluoride minerals present in the geological formation is the major source of fluoride in groundwater.

Sajil Kumar, P. J.; James, E. J.

2013-03-01

30

The initial detection of human immunodeficiency virus 1 and its subsequent spread in prostitutes in Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

To determine the prevalence of HIV-1 antibody and risk factors associated with a positive test in a heterosexually promiscuous female population, we initially screened 412 prostitutes in remand homes in three cites and three towns in Tamil Nadu state (southern India) and then tested all new entrants to one home in Vellore from 1986 to 1990. The proportion of women infected (10 of 102) from the port city of Madras was greater than from all other cities or towns combined (four of 310, p = 0.0002). The only significant risk factor for development of HIV-1 antibody was exposure to foreigners (odds ratio: 7.71; 95% confidence interval 4.2-11.2; p = 0.0004), after correcting for the influence of city. In Vellore the prevalence of HIV-1 antibody increased from 1.8% in 1986 to 28.6% in 1990, with a doubling time of 0.95 years. We hypothesize that HIV-1 infection has been introduced into India relatively recently into the heterosexually promiscuous population, where there has been some spread. Preventive measures should be urgently directed toward this population to prevent spread in the general population. PMID:8340893

Simoes, E A; Babu, P G; Jeyakumari, H M; John, T J

1993-09-01

31

Evolution of late Holocene coastal dunes in the Cauvery delta region of Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Widespread occurrences of coastal dunes are observed in the Cauvery delta region of Tamil Nadu in Vedaranniyam in the south east coast of India. These dunes were studied to establish the chronology of their formation and to understand their evolution using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating in combination with sedimentological studies (quartz grain surface morphology using scanning electron microscope, grain size and heavy mineral analysis). The study shows that on the south-east coast of India widespread periodic dune formation/reactivation has taken place during the late Holocene to very recent times due to a variety of reasons such as climatic variation and land use changes. The sand mobility index shows that the dunes in the area have been largely active during the past century in the southern part in Nagapattinam region and many of the crests were active in the northern Cauvery delta in Cuddalore region. The angularity and fresh appearance of sand in the inland dunes suggest a short distance of sand transport and a source proximal sand deposition was proposed for the dune formation. The study demonstrates the sensitivity of sand dunes on the south east coast of India to varying climatic conditions and changes in regional land use.

Alappat, L.; Frechen, M.; Ramesh, R.; Tsukamoto, S.; Srinivasalu, S.

2011-08-01

32

Services that Matter: An Overview of Childcare Services in Tamil Nadu. Monograph No. 7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph describes the strengths and weaknesses of child care services in the Tamil Nadu region of India and suggests directions for the future of child care. Section 1, "Introduction," discusses the role of the government in providing support for child development, highlighting achievements of the State of Tamil Nadu. Section 2,…

Shantha, E. V.

33

Nocardiopsis sp. SD5: A potent feather degrading rare actinobacterium isolated from feather waste in Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

Feather waste, generated in large quantities as a byproduct of commercial poultry processing, is nearly pure keratin protein, and keratin in its native state is not degradable by common proteolytic enzymes. The aim of the study was to find a potent feather degrading actinobacteria from feather waste soil. Out of 91 actinobacterial isolates recorded from feather waste soil in Tiruchirappalli and Nammakkal District, Tamil Nadu, India, isolate SD5 was selected for characterization because it exhibited significant keratinolytic activity. On the basis of the phenotypic, biochemical characterization and 16S rRNA gene-sequencing studies, the isolate was identified as Nocardiopsis sp. SD5. Protease and keratinase activity of Nocardiopsis sp. SD5 were analyzed. The enzyme was more stable over the neutral pH and the temperature of 40 °C. The optimum temperature and pH for both proteolytic and keratinolytic activity was determined at 50 °C and pH 9, respectively. Enzyme inhibitors, detergents and chelator declined the enzyme activity with increasing concentration. Non denaturing poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis and zymogram elucidated the presence of 30 kda and 60 kda protease enzymes. These findings indicated that thermo alkaliphilic feather degrading strain Nocardiopsis sp. SD5 could be used to control the feather waste pollution and to convert keratin rich feather waste into useful feedstock for poultry industry. (© 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim). PMID:22914902

Saha, Subhasish; Dhanasekaran, D; Shanmugapriya, S; Latha, S

2012-08-23

34

Nocardiopsis sp. SD5: a potent feather degrading rare actinobacterium isolated from feather waste in Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

Feather waste, generated in large quantities as a byproduct of commercial poultry processing, is nearly pure keratin protein, and keratin in its native state is not degradable by common proteolytic enzymes. The aim of the study was to find a potent feather degrading actinobacteria from feather waste soil. Out of 91 actinobacterial isolates recorded from feather waste soil in Tiruchirappalli and Nammakkal District, Tamil Nadu, India, isolate SD5 was selected for characterization because it exhibited significant keratinolytic activity. On the basis of the phenotypic, biochemical characterization and 16S rRNA gene-sequencing studies, the isolate was identified as Nocardiopsis sp. SD5. Protease and keratinase activity of Nocardiopsis sp. SD5 were analyzed. The enzyme was more stable over the neutral pH and the temperature of 40?°C. The optimum temperature and pH for both proteolytic and keratinolytic activity was determined at 50?°C and pH 9, respectively. Enzyme inhibitors, detergents and chelator declined the enzyme activity with increasing concentration. Nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and zymogram elucidated the presence of 30 and 60 kDa protease enzymes. These findings indicated that thermo alkaliphilic feather degrading strain Nocardiopsis sp. SD5 could be used to control the feather waste pollution and to convert keratin rich feather waste into useful feedstock for poultry industry. PMID:23864545

Saha, Subhasish; Dhanasekaran, D; Shanmugapriya, S; Latha, S

2013-07-01

35

Assessment of the scale, coverage and outcomes of the Avahan HIV prevention program for female sex workers in Tamil Nadu, India: is there evidence of an effect?  

PubMed Central

Background Avahan, the India AIDS Initiative, a large-scale HIV prevention program, using peer-mediated approaches and STI services, was implemented for high-risk groups for HIV in six states in India. This paper describes the assessment of the program among female sex workers (FSWs) in the southern state of Tamil Nadu. Methods An analytical framework based on the Avahan impact evaluation design was used. Routine program monitoring data, two rounds of cross-sectional biological and behavioural surveys among FSWs in 2006 (Round 1) and 2009 (Round 2) and quality assessments of clinical services for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) were used to assess trends in coverage, condom use and prevalence of STIs, HIV and their association with program exposure. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine trends in intermediate outcomes and their associations with intervention exposure. Results The Avahan program in Tamil Nadu was scaled up and achieved monthly reported coverage of 79% within four years of implementation. The cross-sectional survey data showed an increasing proportion of FSWs being reached by Avahan, 54% in Round 1 and 86% in Round 2 [AOR=4.7;p=0.001]. Quality assessments of STI clinical services showed consistent improvement in quality scores (3.0 in 2005 to 4.5 in 2008). Condom distribution by the program rose to cover all estimated commercial sex acts. Reported consistent condom use increased between Round 1 and Round 2 with occasional (72% to 93%; AOR=5.5; p=0.001) and regular clients (68% to 89%; AOR=4.3; p=0.001) while reactive syphilis serology declined significantly (9.7% to 2.2% AOR=0.2; p=0.001). HIV prevalence remained stable at 6.1% between rounds. There was a strong association between Avahan exposure and consistent condom use with commercial clients; however no association was seen with declines in STIs. Conclusions The Avahan program in Tamil Nadu achieved high coverage of FSWs, resulting in outcomes of improved condom use, declining syphilis and stabilizing HIV prevalence. These expected outcomes following the program logic model and declining HIV prevalence among general population groups suggest potential impact of high risk group interventions on HIV epidemic in Tamil Nadu.

2011-01-01

36

Diagnosis of HIV-1 infection in infants using dried blood spots in Tamil Nadu, South India  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Diagnosis of HIV infection in infants is difficult due to the presence of maternal antibodies; only nucleic acid assays are very helpful in early detection. Filter papers are especially useful for blood collection in resource-poor settings with limited access to diagnostic facilities. Materials & Methods: DBS samples were collected from the infants born to HIV seropositive mothers who had received single dose nevirapine at onset of labor. The samples were directly spotted onto the Whatman 903 cards from heel, big toe or finger prick depending on the age of the infants. A total of 766 infant samples were collected on dried blood spots (DBS) and transported to the Department of Experimental Medicine (DEM), Chennai, for testing from different government hospitals of rural and urban parts of Tamil Nadu, South India. According to National AIDS Control Organization's (NACO) protocol DNA was extracted from all these DBS and PCR was performed using the Roche kit version 1.5. Results: Fifteen infants were found to be HIV positive and 751 were HIV negative; all these 15 positive infants and 49 negative infants who were in the age group between 10 and 18 months were repeated with another DBS and compared with whole blood. The DBS results were concordant with the whole blood method and the sensitivity and specificity were 100%.

Anitha, D.; Jacob, S. Mini; Ganesan, A.; Sushi, K. Mary

2011-01-01

37

HLA antigens in South India: II. Selected caste groups of Tamil Nadu.  

PubMed

HLA-A, B antigen and haplotype frequencies were studied in four different caste groups of Tamil Nadu living in Madurai. A total number of 101 Nadars, 36 Kallars, 54 Iyers and 57 Telugu-speaking Naidus were studied. HLA A3 and B15 were significantly higher in Nadars; A10 & B8 in Kallars and Aw19, B12 & B35 in Iyers. HLA A-B haplotypes A10-B7, A28-B17 & A24-B- were characteristic of Nadars; A10-B8 & A1-B-, Kallars; Aw19-B12 & A1-B15, Iyers and A2-B-, Naidus. Negative linkage disequilibria for Aw19-B7, A28-B15 & A9-B51 were significant in Nadars; A1-B5, A1-B12 & Aw19-B- in Iyers and A2-B17 in Naidus. Heterogeneity chi-square based on antigen frequency and genetic distance also suggest the heterogeneous nature of the population of South India. Will these caste groups with such diverse haplotypic combinations differ from one another in their immune response and susceptibility to a given epidemic or infection? PMID:3424332

Rajasekar, R; Kakkanaiah, V N; Pitchappan, R M

1987-09-01

38

Spatial and temporal distribution of macrobenthos in different mangrove ecosystems of Tamil Nadu Coast, India.  

PubMed

This paper deals with the spatial distribution and diversity of macrobenthos and their relationships between physico-chemical parameters of the water and sediment in different mangrove habitats of Tamil Nadu, India during different seasons (2008). Among the different ecosystems of mangrove benthic faunal assemblages, macrofauna species number, density, richness, and Shannon-Wiener index were the highest and the Simpson dominance index was medial at riverine mangrove community. However, the Pielou Evenness index of riverine mangrove community was slightly lower than other communities. The similarities among the macrobenthic communities at different sampling sites were determined using Bray-Curtis similarity coefficient and ordinations of non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS). Thirty-one species were recorded in developing (16 polychaetes, six bivalves, seven gastropods, and two crustaceans), 35 species were recorded in riverine (20 polychaetes, six bivalves, five gastropods, and four crustaceans) and 31 species were recorded in island mangrove ecosystem (19 polychaetes, four bivalves, five gastropods, and three crustaceans). Among the three ecosystems, a total of 46 benthic macrofauna consisting of 27 species of polychaetes, eight species of gastropods, seven species of bivalves, and four species of crustaceans were recorded. However, there were obvious differences among the community structures in the three mangrove habitats. This result implied that the different mangrove ecosystem had different effects on the macrofauna communities and shed light on the macrofauna adaptation capability to specific habitats. PMID:21833734

Samidurai, K; Saravanakumar, A; Kathiresan, K

2012-07-01

39

Insect resistance in tomato accessions and their hybrid derivatives in Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

Host plant resistance offers a viable alternative to the use of chemical insecticides for managing insects Infesting tomato. Hence, a study was carried out in Tamil Nadu, India during 1996 to 2004. An exhaustive germplasm comprising 321 tomato accessions including cultivars, wild lines, land races, tribal/native tomatoes was gathered from various sources and screened for resistance against the major pest namely fruit worm, Helicoverpa armigera Hubner (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera). In the field screening, larval population and fruit damage was evaluated while in the glasshouse, foliage and fruit damage was assessed and ten promising accessions were selected. Based on further laboratory studies on the various mechanisms and bases of resistance, four accessions namely, Varushanadu Local, Seijima Jeisei, Ac 238 and Roma were selected and subjected to intercrossing by conventional hybridization, which yielded three viable hybrids. The resistance potentials of these hybrids against the fruit worm, H. armigera, leaf caterpillar, Spodoptera litura Fab. Noctuldae: Lepidoptera), leaf miner, Liriomyza trifolii Blanchard (Agromyzidae: Diptera) and whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Aleyrodidae: Hemiptera) were probed both in the field and glasshouse along with their respective parents. The hybrids exerted lesser feeding and ovipositional preference and higher antibiotic effects on insect stages. The density of three types of non-glandular and two types of glandular trichomes and phenol content in the foliage, lycopene and ascorbic acid content in the fruits were the major factors of resistance. Based on these studies, Hybrid 3 (Ac 238 x Roma) and its derivatives were adjudged as potential accessions possessing insect tolerance. PMID:16628895

Selvanarayanan, V; Muthukumaran, N

2005-01-01

40

Antimicrobial activity of some ethnomedicinal plants used by Paliyar tribe from Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Background Antimicrobial activity of 18 ethnomedicinal plant extracts were evaluated against nine bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Ervinia sp, Proteus vulgaris) and one fungal strain (Candida albicans). The collected ethnomedicinal plants were used in folk medicine in the treatment of skin diseases, venereal diseases, respiratory problems and nervous disorders. Methods Plants were collected from Palni hills of Southern Western Ghats and the ethnobotanical data were gathered from traditional healers who inhabit the study area. The hexane and methanol extracts were obtained by cold percolation method and the antimicrobial activity was found using paper disc diffusion method. All microorganisms were obtained from Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India. Results The results indicated that out of 18 plants, 10 plants exhibited antimicrobial activity against one or more of the tested microorganisms at three different concentrations of 1.25, 2.5 and 5 mg/disc. Among the plants tested, Acalypha fruticosa, Peltophorum pterocarpum, Toddalia asiatica,Cassia auriculata, Punica granatum and Syzygium lineare were most active. The highest antifungal activity was exhibited by methanol extract of Peltophorum pterocarpum and Punica granatum against Candida albicans. Conclusion This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of the some ethnomedicinal plants used in folkloric medicine. Compared to hexane extract, methanol extract showed significant activity against tested organisms. This study also showed that Toddalia asiatica, Syzygium lineare, Acalypha fruticosa and Peltophorum pterocarpum could be potential sources of new antimicrobial agents.

Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Ayyanar, Muniappan; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

2006-01-01

41

Stakeholders perspectives on perceived needs and priorities for leprosy control and care, Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

Although leprosy has been declared as eliminated in India, treated patients with persisting disabilities still require care. With the shift from vertical to integrated services, questions remain about case detection and maintaining the quality of patient care. We conducted a qualitative study to clarify the perceived status of elimination, patient care and other aspects of leprosy control from the perspective of various stakeholders. We interviewed leprosy programme managers, Non-governmental organization directors, healthcare providers, patients and community leaders from Kanchipuram district, Tamil Nadu. Consensus endorsed the current approach to integration of leprosy in primary healthcare, but healthcare personnel acknowledged problems from shortage of medicines and failure to fill key positions. Patients were concerned about limited clinic hours, long waits and delayed treatment. Disabled patients indicated how they were troubled by stigmatization of their condition. Programme managers mentioned limited support for needed research and some emphasized the potential threat of emerging drug resistance. Although consensus supports an integrated approach for leprosy services in primary care, the relative priority of different aspects of leprosy control vary among stakeholders. Perspectivist approaches to methodologically sound operational research could guide planning for effective case detection and patient care during the post-elimination era. PMID:23484332

Jaeggi, T; Manickam, P; Weiss, M G; Gupte, M D

2012-01-01

42

A Different Type of Medicine: Women's Experiences With Ophthalmic Diseases in Rural and Urban Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

I conducted a study to understand how urban and rural women conceptualized eye diseases in Tamil Nadu state. I chose to examine eye diseases because ailments such as cataracts, glaucoma, refractive error, and diabetic retinopathy rank among the most serious diseases of Indian women. I collected observational, survey, and interview data to compare women from rural and urban areas. In

Keerthika Melissa Subramanian

2008-01-01

43

'Too many girls, too much dowry': son preference and daughter aversion in rural Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

The southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu has experienced a dramatic decline in fertility, accompanied by a trend of increased son preference. This paper reports on findings from qualitative interviews with women in rural villages about their fertility decision-making. Specifically addressed are the reasons behind increasing son preference and the consequences of this change. Findings suggest that daughter aversion, fuelled primarily by the perceived economic burden of daughters due to the proliferation of dowry, is playing a larger role in fertility decision-making than son preference. The desire for a son is often trumped by the worry over having many daughters. Women use various means of controlling the sex of their children, which in this study appear to be primarily female infanticide. It is important to distinguish between son preference and daughter aversion and to examine repercussions of low fertility within this setting.

DIAMOND-SMITH, NADIA; LUKE, NANCY; MCGARVEY, STEPHEN

2013-01-01

44

Measles transmission following the tsunami in a population with a high one-dose vaccination coverage, Tamil Nadu, India 2004-2005  

PubMed Central

Background On 26 December 2004, a tsunami struck the coast of the state of Tamil Nadu, India, where one-dose measles coverage exceeded 95%. On 29 December, supplemental measles immunization activities targeted children 6 to 60 months of age in affected villages. On 30 December, Cuddalore, a tsunami-affected district in Tamil Nadu reported a cluster of measles cases. We investigated this cluster to estimate the magnitude of the problem and to propose recommendations for control. Methods We received notification of WHO-defined measles cases through stimulated passive surveillance. We collected information regarding date of onset, age, sex, vaccination status and residence. We collected samples for IgM antibodies and genotype studies. We modeled the accumulation of susceptible individuals over the time on the basis of vaccination coverage, vaccine efficacy and birth rate. Results We identified 101 measles cases and detected IgM antibodies against measles virus in eight of 11 sera. Cases were reported from tsunami-affected (n = 71) and unaffected villages (n = 30) with attack rates of 1.3 and 1.7 per 1000, respectively. 42% of cases in tsunami-affected villages had an onset date within 14 days of the tsunami. The median ages of case-patients in tsunami-affected and un-affected areas were 54 months and 60 months respectively (p = 0.471). 36% of cases from tsunami-affected areas were above 60 months of age. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the sequences of virus belonged to genotype D8 that circulated in Tamil Nadu. Conclusion Measles virus circulated in Cuddalore district following the tsunami, although there was no association between the two events. Transmission despite high one-dose vaccination coverage pointed to the limitations of this vaccination strategy. A second opportunity for measles immunization may help reducing measles mortality and morbidity in such areas. Children from 6 month to 14 years of age must be targeted for supplemental immunization during complex emergencies.

Mohan, Arumugam; Murhekar, Manoj V; Wairgkar, Niteen S; Hutin, Yvan J; Gupte, Mohan D

2006-01-01

45

Reproductive pattern, perinatal mortality, and sex preference in rural Tamil Nadu, south India: community based, cross sectional study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To study reproductive pattern and perinatal mortality in rural Tamil Nadu, South India. DESIGN: Community based, cross sectional questionnaire study of 30 randomly selected areas served by health subcentres. SETTING: Rural parts of Salem District, Tamil Nadu, South India. SUBJECTS: 1321 women and their offspring delivered in the 6 months before the interview. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of pregnancies, pregnancy outcome, spacing of pregnancies, sex of offspring, perinatal and neonatal mortality rates. RESULTS: 41% of the women (535) were primiparous; 7 women (0.5%) were grand multiparous (> 6 births). The women had a mean age of 22 years and a mean of 2.3 pregnancies and 1.8 live children. The sex ratio at birth of the index children was 107 boys per 100 girls. The stillbirth rate was 13.5/1000 births, the neonatal mortality rate was 35.3/1000, and the perinatal mortality rate was 42.0/1000. Girls had an excess neonatal mortality (rate ratio 3.42%; 95% confidence interval 1.68 to 6.98; this was most pronounced among girls born to multiparous women with no living sons (rate ratio 15.48 (2.04 to 177.73) v 1.87 (0.63 to 5.58) in multiparous women with at least one son alive). CONCLUSIONS: In this rural part of Tamil Nadu, women had a controlled reproductive pattern. The excess neonatal mortality among girls constitutes about one third of the perinatal mortality rate. It seems to be linked to a preference for sons and should therefore be addressed through a holistic societal approach rather than through specific healthcare measures.

Nielsen, B. B.; Liljestrand, J.; Hedegaard, M.; Thilsted, S. H.; Joseph, A.

1997-01-01

46

Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis Among Primary School Children in Rural Areas of Chidambaram Taluk, Cuddalore District, Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Background: Fluorosis is one of the common but major emerging areas of research in the tropics. It is considered endemic in 17 states of India. However, the Cuddalore district of Tamil Nadu is categorised as a fluorosis non-endemic area. But clinical cases of dental fluorosis were reported in the field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, Rajah Muthiah Medical College, Annamalai University, Chidambaram. Since dental fluorosis has been described as a biomarker of exposure to fluoride, we assessed the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis among primary school children in the service area. Materials and Methods: Children studying in six primary schools of six villages in the field practice area of Rural Health Centre of Faculty of Medicine, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, were surveyed. Every child was clinically examined at the school by calibrated examiners with Dean's fluorosis index recommended by WHO (1997). Chi-square test, Chi-square trend test and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Five hundred and twenty-five 5- to 12-year-old school children (255 boys and 270 girls) were surveyed. The overall dental fluorosis prevalence was found to be 31.4% in our study sample. Dental fluorosis increased with age P < 0.001, whereas gender difference was not statistically significant. Aesthetically objectionable dental fluorosis was found in 2.1% of the sample. Villages Senjicherry, Keezhaperambai and Kanagarapattu revealed a community fluorosis index (CFI) score of 0.43, 0.54 and 0.54 with 5.6%, 4.8% and 1.4% of objectionable dental fluorosis, respectively. Correlation between water fluoride content and CFI values in four villages was noted to be positively significant. Conclusion: Three out of six villages studied were in ‘borderline’ public health significance (CFI score 0.4-0.6). A well-designed epidemiological investigation can be undertaken to evaluate the risk factors associated with the condition in the study region.

Saravanan, S; Kalyani, C; Vijayarani, MP; Jayakodi, P; Felix, AJW; Nagarajan, S; Arunmozhi, P; Krishnan, V

2008-01-01

47

Mate selection and its impact on female marriage age, pregnancy wastages, and first child survival in Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

Marriage in Indian society is a religious duty. Consanguineous marriage is common, where individuals prefer to marry within their clan (a unilateral kin group based on either matrilineal or patrilineal descent). Keeping in mind that this form of marriage has certain disadvantages for social and biological as well as demographic aspects of individuals and families, the present study examines the influence of mate selection (i.e., close relatives, distant relatives, not related) on female age at marriage, pregnancy wastages, and survival status of the first child. The study was designed based on the information collected on a sample size of 3,948 married women aged 13-49 in Tamil Nadu, India, by the National Family Health Survey (NFHS), 1992. Results suggest that 48 per cent of women in Tamil Nadu marry their relatives. This practice of marrying relatives is high in rural areas, among Hindus, Scheduled Castes/tribes, and illiterate women as compared to urban areas, among non-Hindus, non-SC/ST, and educated women, respectively. The bivariate analysis reveals that women marrying their close relatives had low age at marriage and experienced a higher per cent of pregnancy wastage and child loss (first child) as compared to those women marrying their distant relatives or nonrelatives. The result is found to be consistent even after controlling for selected background variables through multivariate techniques (applied separately for age at marriage, pregnancy wastages, and the survival status of first child). Hence, this study suggests that steps should be taken to inform people about the problems of marrying close relatives through appropriate IEC programs in Tamil Nadu. PMID:10085741

Sureender, S; Prabakaran, B; Khan, A G

1998-01-01

48

A Study on Telugu - Speaking Immigrants of Tamil Nadu, South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alu insertion\\/deletion polymorphisms (Alu ACE, Alu PV92 and Alu APO) were studied in three Telugu - speaking immigrants of Tamil Nadu, to understand their affinities with Andhra Pradesh population. Gene frequencies and average heterozygosity were calculated. All the three loci are polymorphic in nature and showed high levels of heterozygosity. Phylogenetic analysis of the present data with the available data

M. Vijaya; S. Kanthimathi; C. R. Srikumari; P. Govinda Reddy; P. P. Majumder; A. Ramesh

2007-01-01

49

Unpacking the psychiatric advance directive in low-resource settings: an exploratory qualitative study in Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Background Psychiatric advance directives, a tool to document preferences for care in advance of decisional incapacity, have been shown to benefit persons with mental illness in a number of countries through improving medication adherence, reducing symptoms from escalating in a crisis, accelerating recovery, and enhancing service user autonomy. While concepts such as autonomy are important in a number of high-income country settings, it remains unclear whether tools like psychiatric advance directives are suitable in a different context. The recent introduction of the psychiatric advance directive into draft legislation in India prompts the question as to how feasible psychiatric advance directives are in the Indian context. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility and utility of PADs in India, with a focus on the need for individual control over decision making and barriers to implementation, by exploring views of its central stakeholders, service users and carers. Methods Qualitative semi-structured interviews (n =?51) with clients (n =?39) and carers (n =?12) seeking mental health treatment at outpatient clinics in urban and rural settings provided by a non-profit organisation in Tamil Nadu, India. Results Clients engaged in a number of forms of decision-making (passive, active, and collaborative) depending on the situation and decision at hand, and had high levels of self-efficacy. Most clients and carers were unfamiliar with PADs, and while some clients felt it is important to have a say in treatment wishes, carers expressed concerns about service user capacity to make decisions. After completing PADs, clients reported an increase in self-efficacy and an increased desire to make decisions. Conclusions The introduction of psychiatric advance directives in India appears to be associated with positive outcomes for some service users, however, there is a need to better understand how this tool can be adapted to better suit the care context in India and hold meaning and value for service users to complete.

2013-01-01

50

"Yes" to abortion but "no" to sexual rights: the paradoxical reality of married women in rural Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

This study in rural Tamil Nadu, India, explored the reasons why many married women in India undergo induced abortions rather than use reversible contraception to space or limit births in terms of women's sexual and reproductive rights within marriage, and in the context of gender relations between couples more generally. It is based on in-depth interviews with two generations of ever-married women, some of whom had had abortions and others who had not, from 98 rural hamlets. The respondents were 66 women and 44 of their husbands. Non-consensual sex, sexual violence and women's inability to refuse their husband's sexual demands appeared to underlie the need for abortion in both younger and older women. Many men seemed to believe that sex within marriage was their right, and that women had no say in the matter. The findings raise questions about the presumed association between legal abortion and the enjoyment of reproductive and sexual rights. A large number of women who had abortions in this study were denied their sexual rights but were permitted, even forced, to terminate their pregnancies for reasons unrelated to their right to choose abortion. The study brings home the need for activism to promote women's sexual rights and a campaign against sexual violence in marriage. PMID:15242214

Ravindran, T K Sundari; Balasubramanian, P

2004-05-01

51

Developing climate change scenarios for Tamil Nadu, India using MAGICC/SCENGEN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the projection of climate change scenarios under increased greenhouse gas emissions, using the results of atmospheric-ocean general circulation models in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 dataset. A score is given to every model based on global and regional performance. Four out of 20 general circulation models (GCMs) were selected based on skill in predicting observed annual temperature and precipitation conditions. The ensemble of these four models shows superiority over the individual model scores. These models were subjected to increases in future anthropogenic radiative forcings for constructing climate change scenarios. Future climate scenarios for Tamil Nadu were developed with MAGICC/SCENGEN software. Model results show both temperature and precipitation increases under increased greenhouse gas scenarios. Northeast and northwest parts of Tamil Nadu show a greater increase in temperature and precipitation. Seasonally, the maximum rise in temperature occurred during the MAM season, followed by DJF, JJA, and SON. Decreasing trends of precipitation were observed during DJF and MAM.

Jeganathan, Anushiya; Andimuthu, Ramachandran

2013-11-01

52

Increasing condom use and declining STI prevalence in high-risk MSM and TGs: evaluation of a large-scale prevention program in Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Background This paper presents an evaluation of Avahan, a large scale HIV prevention program that was implemented using peer-mediated strategies, condom distribution and sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinical services among high-risk men who have sex with men (HR-MSM) and male to female transgender persons (TGs) in six high-prevalence state of Tamil Nadu, in southern India. Methods Two rounds of large scale cross-sectional bio-behavioural surveys among HR-MSM and TGs and routine program monitoring data were used to assess changes in program coverage, condom use and prevalence of STIs (including HIV) and their association to program exposure. Results The Avahan program for HR-MSM and TGs in Tamil Nadu was significantly scaled up and contacts by peer educators reached 77 percent of the estimated denominator by the end of the program’s fourth year. Exposure to the program increased between the two rounds of surveys for both HR-MSM (from 66 percent to 90 percent; AOR?=?4.6; p?Nadu achieved a high coverage, resulting in improved condom use by HR-MSM with their regular and commercial male partners. Declining STI prevalence and stable HIV prevalence reflect the positive effects of the prevention strategy. Outcomes from the program logic model indiacte the effectiveness of the program for HR-MSM and TGs in Tamil Nadu.

2013-01-01

53

Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) of some tree species growing near rail roads of Madurai, Tamil Nadu (India).  

PubMed

Biological monitoring and assessment studies due to urban--rail road pollutants were carried out using Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) of plants. Four plant (leaf) parameters--namely ascorbic acid, total chlorophyll, relative water content and leaf extract pH were combined together in a formulation signifying the APTI of plants. APTI was calculated for five different species such as Azadirachta indica, Delonix regia, Ficus religiosa, Pongamia pinnata and Polyalthia longifolia growing in two different areas, i.e. control area and along the railway track of Madurai, Tamil Nadu (India). The control site was selected in the college campus. None of the four plant parameters indicated a consistent response to pollutants. In the present study, Delonix regia and Pongamia pinnata lost the tolerance towards air pollutants and became more sensitive, but Azadirachta indica, Ficus religiosa, and Polyalthia longifolia indicated high APTI values over control area and hence considered as tolerant species. The APTI of plants showed a marked gradation as the pollutant load decreased from rail road to control area. The APTI can be used as a good indicator of impact of the air pollution on plants. PMID:22312796

Thambavani, D Sarala; Kamala, C

2010-10-01

54

Groundwater quality and its suitability for domestic and agricultural use in Tondiar river basin, Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

Assessment of suitability of groundwater for domestic and agricultural purposes was carried out in Tondiar river basin, Tamil Nadu, India. The study area covers an area of 315 km(2) and lies in a semiarid region. Groundwater is the major source for domestic and agricultural activity in this area. Groundwater samples were collected from 45 wells during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon period in the year 2006. The water samples were analysed for physical and chemical characteristics. Suitability of groundwater for irrigation was evaluated based on salinity hazard, sodium percent, sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate, US salinity diagram, Wilcox's diagram, Kelly's ratio and permeability index. Ca-HCO(3), mixed Ca-Mg-Cl and Na-Cl were the dominant groundwater types. High hardness and electrical conductivity in this area makes the groundwater unsuitable for drinking and agricultural purposes. Concentration of trace elements (Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni) did not exceed the permissible limit for drinking and agricultural purposes. Majority of the groundwater samples were unsuitable for domestic and agricultural purposes except for 31% and 36%, which were suitable for drinking and irrigation purposes, respectively. PMID:21850434

Ramesh, K; Elango, L

2012-06-01

55

Seasonal impact on beach morphology and the status of heavy mineral deposition - central Tamil Nadu coast, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the present research was to investigate the seasonal impact on nearshore beach dynamics and the status of heavy mineral distribution along central Tamil Nadu coast, India. Beach profile measurements were made in 10 profiling sites between Thirukadaiyur and Velankanni on monthly and seasonal basis from January 2011 to July 2012. Using beach profile data, variation in beach width, slope and volumetric changes have been calculated. Beach slope and nearshore wave parameters were used to quantify the longshore sediment transport rate. Beaches between Thirukadaiyur and Karaikkal attained predominant transport rate in northern direction whereas, the rest of the beaches are in southern direction. The seasonal action of wind and wave currents create nearshore bar during northeast (NE) monsoon and frequent berms at tidal zone during southwest (SW) monsoon. Surface sediment samples were collected in each location for quantifying the heavy mineral weight percentage during the period of pre- and post-Thane cyclone. Sediments were also studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to evaluate the changes and occurrence of heavy minerals in beach sands. The XRD results show that sediments in the study area have enriched heavy mineral distribution even after strong cyclonic event. It confirms the redistribution of heavy mineral deposits present in the coast. The results suggested that monsoonal action has influenced the seasonal changes in beach morphology and it does not affect the heavy mineral distribution.

Joevivek, V.; Chandrasekar, N.

2014-02-01

56

Seven years of the field epidemiology training programme (FETP) at Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India: an internal evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background During 2001–2007, the National Institute of Epidemiology (NIE), Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India admitted 80 trainees in its two-year Field Epidemiology Training Programme (FETP). We evaluated the first seven years of the programme to identify strengths and weaknesses. Methods We identified core components of the programme and broke them down into input, process, output and outcome. We developed critical indicators to reflect the logic model. We reviewed documents including fieldwork reports, abstracts listed in proceedings and papers published in Medline-indexed journals. We conducted an anonymous online survey of the graduates to collect information on self-perceived competencies, learning activities, field assignments, supervision, curriculum, relevance to career goals, strengths and weaknesses. Results Of the 80 students recruited during 2001–2007, 69 (86%) acquired seven core competencies (epidemiology, surveillance, outbreaks, research, human subjects protection, communication and management) and graduated through completion of at least six field assignments. The faculty-to-student ratio ranged between 0.4 and 0.12 (expected: 0.25). The curriculum was continuously adapted with all resources available on-line. Fieldwork led to the production of 158 scientific communications presented at international meetings and to 29 manuscripts accepted in indexed, peer-reviewed journals. The online survey showed that while most graduates acquired competencies, unmet needs persisted in laboratory sciences, data analysis tools and faculty-to-student ratio. Conclusions NIE adapted the international FETP model to India. However, further efforts are required to scale up the programme and to develop career tracks for field epidemiologists in the country.

2012-01-01

57

Medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Kancheepuram District of Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken to collect information from traditional healers on the use of medicinal plants in Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu during October 2003 to April 2004. The indigenous knowledge of local traditional healers and the native plants used for medicinal purposes were collected through questionnaire and personal interviews during field trips. The investigation revealed that, the traditional healers used 85 species of plants distributed in 76 genera belonging to 41 families to treat various diseases. The documented medicinal plants were mostly used to cure skin diseases, poison bites, stomachache and nervous disorders. In this study the most dominant family was Euphorbiaceae and leaves were most frequently used for the treatment of diseases. This study showed that many people in the studied parts of Kancheepuram district still continue to depend on medicinal plants at least for the treatment of primary healthcare. The traditional healers are dwindling in number and there is a grave danger of traditional knowledge disappearing soon since the younger generation is not interested to carry on this tradition.

Muthu, Chellaiah; Ayyanar, Muniappan; Raja, Nagappan; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

2006-01-01

58

Report on the occurrence of synanthropic derived form of Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae) from Royapuram fishing harbour, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Abstract The occurrence of dipteran fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) is reported for the first time from Royapuram fishing harbour (Chennai), Tamil Nadu, South East India. The fully grown third instar larvae of Chrysomya megacephala were collected from decaying fishes near Royapuram fishing harbour. This site is found to be the regular breeding site for Chrysomya megacephala. Larvae were reared under laboratory condition and freshly emerged adult flies from pupae were collected and identified by morphological features and molecular tools. Molecular identification through generation of DNA barcoding using mitochondrial COI gene of Chrysomya megacephala is appended.

Ramaraj, Paulchamy; Selvakumar, Chellappa; Ganesh, Arumugam

2014-01-01

59

Conservation and education programmes on plants at Coimbatore Zoological Park Botanical Garden, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Coimbatore Zoological Park Society (CZP) was established in 1986 and is located at Anaikatty (1106' N, 76045'E), 30 km west of Coimbatore, South India occupying an area of 100 hectares at an altitude of 650 meters above mean sea level. The objectives of the CZP, stem from their members scientific and ethical concerns & interests. Originally, the Society had

B. Rathinasabapathy

60

Genetic variation of 15 autosomal microsatellite loci in a Tamil population from Tamil Nadu, Southern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic profiles for 15 autosomal microsatellite loci were analyzed in a Tamil population from Southern India to study the genetic diversities and relatedness of this population with other national and global populations. Statistical analyses of the data revealed all loci were within Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) expectations with the exception of the locus D5S818 (p=0.011). A significantly greater inter-individual variation

Kuppareddi Balamurugan; S. Kanthimathi; M. Vijaya; G. Suhasini; George Duncan; Martin Tracey; Bruce Budowle

2010-01-01

61

Myocilin mutations among POAG patients from two populations of Tamil Nadu, South India, a comparative analysis  

PubMed Central

Purpose Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common type of glaucoma. Among the POAG genes identified so far, myocilin (MYOC) is the most frequently mutated gene in POAG patients worldwide. The MYOC Gln48His mutation is unique among Indian POAG patients. This mutation has not been observed in some populations within India and in other populations worldwide. The objectives of this work were to characterize and compare the mutation spectrum among POAG patients from two places of South India and identify the occurrence and prevalence of Gln48His mutation in our study populations. Methods One hundred-one (101) POAG patients from Chennai, South India were recruited for the study. Earlier, 100 patients from the southernmost part of India, Kanyakumari district, were screened. MYOC was screened by polymerase chain reaction based single stand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) methodology. DNA sequencing of deviant samples was performed. Secondary structures of the proteins with amino acid sequence variations were predicted. Results The mutation frequency of MYOC among POAG patients in Chennai was 2%. Three types of mutations were observed. The MYOC Gln48His mutation was observed among 2 POAG patients from Chennai. However, absence of this mutation among patients from Kanyakumari suggests possible involvement of demographic factors in disease causation via this mutation. Two heterozygous sequence variants, Thr353Ile and Asn480Lys, in the same exon (exon III) of MYOC were observed in one POAG patient who had a severe disease phenotype. This is the first such report of a compound heterozygote individual with two mutations in the same exon of MYOC. Conclusions The presence of mutations at a rate similar to other studies suggests the causative role of MYOC among POAG patients from Chennai. Screening of more patients and families from all parts of India is required to identify the actual frequency of the Gln48His mutation and thus highlight its importance. The compound heterozygote with a severe disease phenotype reiterates the importance of MYOC in certain POAG patients.

Rose, Rajiv; Balakrishnan, Anandan; Arumugam, Paramasivam; Shanmugam, Sambandham; Gopalswamy, Jayaraman

2011-01-01

62

The transformation of amphibolite facies gneiss to charnockite in southern Karnataka and northern Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amphibolite facies metamorphic grade gives way southward to the granulite grade in southern Karnataka, as acid gneisses develop charnockite patches and streaks and basic enclaves develop pyroxenes. Petrologic investigations in the transitional zone south of Mysore have established the following points: 1) The transition is prograde. Amphibole-bearing gneisses intimately associated with charnockite at Kabbal and several similar localities are not retrogressive after charnockite, as proved by patchy obliteration of their foliation by transgressive, very coarse-grained charnockite, high fluorine content of biotite and amphibole in gneisses, and high large-ion lithophile element contents in gneisses and charnockites. These features are in contrast to very low fluorine in retrogressive amphiboles and biotites, very low large-ion lithophile element contents, and zonal bleaching of charnockite, in clearly retrogressive areas, as at Bhavani Sagar, Tamil Nadu. 2) Metamorphic temperatures in the transitional areas were 700° 800° C, pressures were 5 7 kbar, and H2O pressures were 0.1 0.3 times total pressures, based on thermodynamic calculations using mineral analyses. Dense CO2-rich fluid inclusions in the Kabbal rocks confirm the low H2O pressures at the first appearance of orthopyroxene. Farther to the south, in the Nilgiri Hills and adjacent granulite massif areas, peak metamorphic temperatures were 800° 900° C, pressures were 7 9 kbar, and water pressures were very low, so that primary biotites and amphiboles (those with high F contents) are rare. 3) The incipient granulite-grade metamorphism of the transitional areas was introduced by a wave of anatexis and K-metasomatism. This process was arrested by drying out under heavy CO2 influx. Charnockites so formed are hybrids of anatectic granite and metabasite, of metabasite and immediately adjacent gneiss, or are virtually isochemical with pre-existing gneiss despite gross recrystallization to granulite mineralogy. These features show that partial melting and metasomatism are attendant, rather than causative, in charnockite development. Copious CO2 from a deep-crustal or mantle source pushed ahead of it a wave of more aqueous solutions which promoted anatexis. Granulite metamorphism of both neosome and paleosome followed. The process is very similar to that deduced for the Madras granulites by Weaver (1980). The massif charnockites, for the most part extremely depleted in lithophile minor elements, show many evidences of having gone through the same process. A major problem remaining to be solved is the origin of the large amount of CO2 needed to charnockitize significant portions of the crust. The most important possibilities include CO2 from carbonate minerals in a mantle “hot spot” or diapir, from emanations from a crystallizing basaltic underplate, or from shelf sediments trapped at the continent-continent interface in continental overthrusting. Ancient granulite massifs may be such suture zones of continental convergence.

Janardhan, A. S.; Newton, R. C.; Hansen, E. C.

1982-06-01

63

Distribution of heavy metals in surface water of Ranipet industrial area in Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

Ranipet industrial area is about 120 km from Chennai on Chennai-Bangalore highway and is a chronic polluted area identified by Central Pollution Control Board of India. It is one of the biggest exporting centers of tanned leather in India. The total number of industries located in and around Ranipet town are 240 tanneries along with ceramic, refractory, boiler auxiliaries plant, and chromium chemicals. Studies were carried out to find out the contamination of surface water bodies due to industrial effluents. The results reveal that the surface water in the area is highly contaminated showing very high concentrations of some of the heavy/toxic metals like Cadmium ranging from 0.2 to 401.4 microg/l (average of 51.1 microg/l), Chromium 2.4-1,308.6 (average of 247.2 microg/l), Copper 2.1-535.5 microg/l (average of 95.5 microg/l), Nickel 1.6-147.0 microg/l (average of 36.7 microg/l), Lead 6.4-2,034.4 microg/l (average of 467.8 microg/l) and Zinc 20.8-12,718.0 microg/l (average of 3,760.4 microg/l). The concentration levels of these metals are much above the permissible limits in surface water and are health hazards especially for the people working in the tannery industries. It was observed that the people in the area are seriously affected and suffering from occupational diseases such as asthma, chromium ulcers and skin diseases. Distribution of metals, their contents at different locations, and their effects on human health are discussed in this paper. PMID:17457685

Srinivasa Gowd, S; Govil, Pradip K

2008-01-01

64

Hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality assessment of Ranipet industrial area, Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the highly polluted areas in India located at Ranipet occupies around 200 tanneries and other small scale chemical industries. Partially treated industrial effluents combined with sewage and other wastes discharged on the surface cause severe groundwater pollution in the industrial belt. This poses a problem of supply of safe drinking water in the rural parts of the country. A study was carried out to assess the groundwater pollution and identify major variables affecting the groundwater quality in Ranipet industrial area. Twenty five wells were monitored during pre- and post-monsoon in 2008 and analyzed for the major physico-chemical variables. The water quality variables such as total dissolved solids (TDS), Iron (Fe2 + ), Hexavalent Chromium (Cr6 + ), at most of the sampling locations exceeded the ISI and WHO guideline levels for drinking water. Multivariate statistical techniques such as factor analysis were applied to identify the major factors (variables) corresponding to the different source of variation in groundwater quality. The water quality of groundwater is influenced by both anthropogenic and chemical weathering. The most serious pollution threat to groundwater is from TDS, Cr6 + and Fe2 + , which are associated with sewage and pollution of tannery waste. The study reveals that the groundwater quality changed due to anthropogenic and natural influences such as agricultural, natural weathering process.

Rao, G. Tamma; Rao, V. V. S. Gurunadha; Ranganathan, K.

2013-06-01

65

Chromites from meta-anorthosites, Sittampundi layered igneous complex, Tamil Nadu, southern India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chrome-spinels of anorthosite-hosted chromitite bodies from Sittampundi layered igneous complex, southern India, metamorphosed under eclogite-facies condition have been studied. Besides anorthosites as the dominant rock type discontinuous layers of peridotite, pyroxenite and lenses of gabbroic granulite/eclogite occur at the bottom of the complex. Chromite grains are deformed exhibiting features of intracrystalline deformation and exsolved needle shaped rutile inclusions. Chrome-spinels are of refractory grade with Cr 2O 3 and Al 2O 3 contents varying between 34-40 wt.% and 23-28 wt.% respectively. In the bivariate Cr# (=Cr/[Cr + Al]) vs. Mg# (=Mg/[Mg + Fe 2+]) diagram, Sittampundi chromitites show close affinity with the Archean Fiskenaesset type deposit. The calculated Al 2O 3 values for the parental melt of Sittampundi chromitites are consistent with the Al 2O 3 content of mid-ocean ridge basalts whereas the values for FeO/MgO ratio are higher. It is suggested that an initial basic magma, similar to that of mafic granulite composition evolved in the magma chamber through fractionation of peridotite and pyroxenite to Fe,Al-rich basaltic melt, parental to the chromitite bands.

Ghosh, Biswajit; Konar, Ritam

2011-11-01

66

Assessment of groundwater contamination from a hazardous dump site in Ranipet, Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tanneries located in an industrial development area of Ranipet (India) manufactured chromate chemicals during 1976-1996. A large quantity of associated hazardous solid wastes has been stacked about 5-m high above ground level, spread over 3.5 ha inside one of the factory premises. The study area receives an average annual rainfall of 1,100 mm. The granitic formation in the northern part of Palar River catchment has high infiltration rates and has resulted in fast migration of the contamination to the water table. Chromium levels in the groundwater were found up to 275 mg/l. The available hydrogeological, geophysical and groundwater quality data bases have been used to construct a groundwater flow and mass transport model for assessing the groundwater contamination and it has been calibrated for the next 30 years. The migration has been found to be very slow, with a groundwater velocity of 10 m/year. This is the first field-scale study of its kind in this industrial area. The findings are of relevance to addressing the groundwater pollution due to indiscriminate disposal practices of hazardous waste in areas located on the phreatic aquifer. Further, it has been reported that the untreated effluent discharge adjacent to the chromium dump site is most influential in the migration of contaminants.

Rao, G. Tamma; Rao, V. V. S. Gurunadha; Ranganathan, K.; Surinaidu, L.; Mahesh, J.; Ramesh, G.

2011-12-01

67

Silent spread of dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever to Coimbatore and Erode districts in Tamil Nadu, India, 1998: need for effective surveillance to monitor and control the disease.  

PubMed

Dengue fever (DF) or dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) has not previously been reported in Coimbatore and Erode districts in Tamil Nadu in India. In 1998, 20 hospitalized cases of fever tested positive for dengue virus IgM and/or IgG antibodies. All of them had dengue-compatible illness, and at least four had DHF. Two of them died. Sixteen cases were below 10 years of age. The cases were scattered in 15 distantly located villages and 5 urban localities that had a high Aedes aegypti population. Although the incidence of dengue-like illness has not increased recently, almost 89% (95/107) of samples from healthy persons in the community tested positive for dengue IgG antibodies. The study showed that dengue has been endemic in the area, but was not suspected earlier. A strong laboratory-based surveillance system is essential to monitor and control DF/DHF. PMID:11057977

Singh, J; Balakrishnan, N; Bhardwaj, M; Amuthadevi, P; George, E G; Subramani, K; Soundararajan, K; Appavoo, N C; Jain, D C; Ichhpujani, R L; Bhatia, R; Sokhey, J

2000-08-01

68

Silent spread of dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever to Coimbatore and Erode districts in Tamil Nadu, India, 1998: need for effective surveillance to monitor and control the disease.  

PubMed Central

Dengue fever (DF) or dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) has not previously been reported in Coimbatore and Erode districts in Tamil Nadu in India. In 1998, 20 hospitalized cases of fever tested positive for dengue virus IgM and/or IgG antibodies. All of them had dengue-compatible illness, and at least four had DHF. Two of them died. Sixteen cases were below 10 years of age. The cases were scattered in 15 distantly located villages and 5 urban localities that had a high Aedes aegypti population. Although the incidence of dengue-like illness has not increased recently, almost 89% (95/107) of samples from healthy persons in the community tested positive for dengue IgG antibodies. The study showed that dengue has been endemic in the area, but was not suspected earlier. A strong laboratory-based surveillance system is essential to monitor and control DF/DHF.

Singh, J.; Balakrishnan, N.; Bhardwaj, M.; Amuthadevi, P.; George, E. G.; Subramani, K.; Soundararajan, K.; Appavoo, N. C.; Jain, D. C.; Ichhpujani, R. L.; Bhatia, R.; Sokhey, J.

2000-01-01

69

Assessment of Current Status of Fluorosis in North-Western Districts of Tamil Nadu Using Community Index for Dental Fluorosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

India is one of the countries where hydrofluorosis is a major public health problem, affecting 18 of the 33 constituent States of the Country. Tamil Nadu is one of the Southern states having 10 of the 29 districts affected with fluorosis. Fluorosis is caused by ingestion of excess fluoride mainly through drinking water contamination. A cross sectional study was undertaken

R. Hari Kumar; A. L. Khandare; G. N. V. Brahmam; K. Venkiah; Gal Reddy; B. Sivakumar

70

Direct comparison of recent cyclone and tsunami deposits from the Tamil Nadu coastline, south-eastern India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Storm and tsunami deposits have been identified and described from many siliciclastic coastlines globally. However, as storm and tsunami deposits are both the result of inundation by ocean waves, they can have similar sedimentological and geomorphological signatures. To demarcate storm and tsunami deposits in the geological record, a number of criteria have been proposed to distinguish the two types of deposits. However, these criteria have been assembled from storm and tsunami deposits from coastlines of markedly different onshore and offshore geomorphologies, sedimentary characteristics and sediment sources. Thus, a primary goal for coastal hazard scientists is to define a suite of characteristics that can be used to discern storm from tsunami deposits. This can only be accomplished by identifying recent, known tsunami and storm deposits from the same coastline to directly compare the sedimentary characteristics deposited by these types of events. Here we compare the sedimentology, microfauna and sedimentary structures of two recent events, the 26th December 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami and the 31st December 2011 Cyclone Thane, from three sites along the Tamil Nadu coastline, south-east India and categorise the similarities and differences between the two deposits. Three sites were investigated, two (SB-1 and SB-2) at Silver Beach, Cuddalore and a third (Pit DPM-3a) at the now blocked Pennai River Mouth north of Cuddalore. At all sites the sedimentary deposits of Cyclone Thane overlie aeolian sands which in turn overly the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami deposits. In SB-1 the tsunami deposits have been partially reworked by mangroves that fringed the blocked river. The tsunami deposit found in pit SB-2 overlays a marine intertidal - beach sequence. Pit DPM-3a contains the upper part of the2004 tsunami. In each pit, heavy mineral-rich layers characterise the tsunami and the cyclone deposit, whereas the intervening aeolian sands have only a minor heavy mineral content. Also, the cyclone deposit overlies a buried vegetation surface in each pit which lies above the relatively clean aeolian sand. Both of the upper surfaces of the tsunami and cyclone deposits had been partially reworked by wind, rainfall washout and human interaction. A vertical profile from each pit was sampled at approximately 1 cm intervals for analysis of loss on ignition, sediment grainsize and the microfauna (ostracods and foraminifera). Loss on ignition showed very little variation within and between pits. The organic and carbonate contents for all three sites were consistently below 2%. Sediment grainsize did not vary markedly between the tsunami, aeolian and cyclone deposits with or between pits suggesting a similar sediment source. Preliminary microfaunal content (ostracod and foraminifera) of the tsunami and cyclone deposits are similar in terms of abundance and species composition in each pit, the pits from Silver Beach contain only slightly more shell hash from broken bivalves and gastropods. In the studied profiles the storm and tsunami deposits are not statistically different in composition, grain size or faunal content.

Gouramanis, C.; Karthikeyan, A.; Seshachalam, S.; Switzer, A.; Pham, D. T.

2013-12-01

71

Study on the Prevalence of Leptospirosis among Fever Cases Reported from Private Clinics in the Urban areas of Villupuram District, Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Objectives To know the prevalence of leptospirosis cases reported in private clinics among fever cases in Villupuram District, Tamil Nadu, India to know its real magnitude of the problem and to diagnose Leptospirosis among fever cases from differential diagnosis. Methods 1502 Blood serum samples collected from three urban towns namely Kallakurichi (Latitude: 11° 73? N; Longitude: 78° 97? E), Villupuram (Latitude: 11° 75? N; Longitude: 79° 92? E) and Thindivanam (Latitude: 12° 25? N; Longitude: 79° 65? E) in fifteen clinics based on case definition of leptospirosis delineated by the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP), Government of India. Samples were tested in the laboratory of the Zonal Entomological Team (ZET), Cuddalore with Macroscopic Slide Agglutination Test (MSAT) and Ig-M ELISA. Result There were 65 positive cases detected from 1502 blood serum samples in both MSAT and Ig-M ELISA. It could be known that there was 4% cases contributed from private clinics among fever cases. From this study, further it was known that all age groups of people affected irrespective of sexes based on their living condition associated with the environment prevailed of the disease. Conclusion From this study, it was quantified that 4% of cases reported in private clinics among fever cases and its findings ascertained both the importance of differential diagnosis as well as reports that should be included to the Government for knowing its real magnitude for planning.

Basker, Parasuraman; Kannan, Pichai; Kolandaswamy, Karumana Gounder

2014-01-01

72

Studies on radionuclides 228Ra, 238U, 228Th and 40K in selected seaweeds of coastal Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

Studies on natural and anthropogenic radioactivity assume greater importance in the context of human health and development. Hence two species of seaweeds viz: Gracilaria edulis and Ulva lactuca, from three high background radiation areas (Arockiapuram, Kadiapattinam and Kurumpanai) on the southwest coast of Tamil Nadu, and Mandapam as low background radiation area of the southeast coast of Tamil Nadu were studied for variations in activity concentration of 228Ra, 40K, 238U and 228Th. Among these radionuclides, 40K recorded significant inter-species variation while 238 U and 228Th showed significant association. The overall mean concentration of radionuclides was found high in G. edulis (5.31,57.49,36.05,356.55 Bq kg(-1) for 228Ra, 40K, 238U, 228Th respectively), while the mean concentrations for U. lactuca were 4.88, 42.35, 34.40,347.70 Bqkg(-1) for 228Ra, 40K, 238U, 228Th respectively. The mean concentration of radionuclides was uniformly found low during northeast monsoon season in both the seaweed species. PMID:23734458

Saroja, P Mary; Immanuel, G; Raj, G Allen Gnana; Selvan, K Esai

2012-09-01

73

Utilization of maternal health care services in Southern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the patterns and determinants of maternal health care utilization across different social settings in south India: in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Data from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) carried out during 1992–93 across most states in India are used. Results show that utilization of maternal health care services is highest

K. Navaneetham; A. Dharmalingam

2002-01-01

74

Distribution patterns of natural radioactivity and delineation of anomalous radioactive zones using in situ radiation observations in Southern Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

In situ radiation measurements in the beach sectors and adjacent hinterlands and along rivers in the interiors of southern peninsular India were carried out using a portable radiation survey meter. A very high intrinsic anomalous radioactivity >26microGy/h has been observed in the hinterlands within a fresh quarry and weathered boulders in the syenite rock body around Puttetti in the western Kanyakumari district of southern Tamil Nadu. Over the weathered hillocks in the hinterlands adjacent to the coast around Inayam, Kurumpanai and Midalam, the in situ radiation measurements have also exhibited high radioactivity ranging from 4 to 22microGy/h which is significantly higher than the radiation exposure rates (RER) observed along the beach sectors at various locations from Chavara to Tuticorin (1-14microGy/h). The observed radiation levels are presumably the highest concentration in southern India and it is the first time that such a high intrinsic radiogenic source in the hinterlands is reported in southwest coast of India. It is also observed based on the laboratory analysis of samples and in situ radiation data that the rivers/channels in this region contain insignificant level of radioactivity concentration and hence they do not contribute much to the placer deposits on the beaches. The placer deposits associated with significant RER (both in situ observations as well as laboratory estimates from samples) in the beach sectors from Kadiapattanam to Inayam are inferred to be derived through the country rocks/weathered hillocks in the immediate hinterlands. PMID:16904260

Singh, H N; Shanker, D; Neelakandan, V N; Singh, V P

2007-03-01

75

Physico-chemical parameters of the SW and post NE monsoon (2009) seawater along the continental slope, Tamil Nadu, east coast of India, Bay of Bengal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations in sea water temperature, salinity, light intensity and availability of nutrients strongly influence the phytoplankton distribution that forms an important part of the coastal food chain. In this paper, we present the results of the physico-chemical parameters and nutrient concentrations in seawaters sampled during the 2009 South West (SW) and post North East (NE) monsoon periods along the continental shelf from Chennai to Nagapattinam, east coast, Tamil Nadu. This study was conducted to assess the status of the coastal biogeochemical environment and for this purpose, seawater samples were collected from the sea surface and also at varying depths (surface to 150 m depth) at six different locations. The nutrient analyses and the CTD data reveal a distinct variation with water depth along the continental slope and also the physico-chemical properties of seawater are not homogenous. The observed values of nutrients for the post NE monsoon period are low compared to the SW monsoon period. Contour plots indicate seasonal and spatial variations in physico-chemical parameters along the continental shelf of the east coast of India. The data suggests that during the 2009 SW monsoon period, a significant increase of freshwater input into the Bay of Bengal could have elevated nutrient concentration compared to that observed during the post 2009 NE monsoon.

Nisha, V.; Achyuthan, H.

2014-01-01

76

Impact of leachate on groundwater pollution due to non-engineered municipal solid waste landfill sites of erode city, Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Leachate and groundwater samples were collected from Vendipalayam, Semur and Vairapalayam landfill sites in Erode city, Tamil Nadu, India, to study the possible impact of leachate percolation on groundwater quality. Concentrations of various physicochemical parameters including heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Fe and Zn) were determined in leachate samples and are reported. The concentrations of Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, NH4+ were found to be in considerable levels in the groundwater samples particularly near to the landfill sites, likely indicating that groundwater quality is being significantly affected by leachate percolation. Further they were proved to be the tracers for groundwater contamination near Semur and Vendipalayam dumpyards. The presence of contaminants in groundwater particularly near the landfill sites warns its quality and thus renders the associated aquifer unreliable for domestic water supply and other uses. Although some remedial measures are suggested to reduce further groundwater contamination via leachate percolation, the present study demands for the proper management of waste in Erode city.

2012-01-01

77

76 FR 17622 - U.S. Education Mission to India  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Then the group will travel to Chennai, a booming organized education center in India. Chennai, the capital of the state of Tamil Nadu, is India's 3rd largest metropolis and is gaining recognition as a dynamic trade and education destination for...

2011-03-30

78

Quality Matters! Understanding the Relationship between Quality of Early Childhood Education and Learning Competencies of Children: An Exploratory Study in Tamil Nadu. Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that few studies have examined the relationship between quality of early childhood education (ECE) programs in India and the impact of such programs on young children's learning competencies, this study explored the relationship between various components of programs in the southeastern Indian state of Tamil Nadu and other family and…

M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation, Madras (India).

79

Time-zoning for the safe-guarding of capture fisheries: A closed season in Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A closed fishing season is arguably the most important fisheries regulation measure implemented by the government of India in the new millennium. Applied mainly to the inshore trawl fishing fleet, the planners’ intention was a safe-guarding of capture fisheries. This article, which is based on fieldwork in seven harbour locations, considers the socio-economic consequences of the closed fishing season for

M. Bavinck; L. de Klerk; D. van Dijk; J. V. Rothuizen; A. N. Blok; J. R. Bokhorst; E. K. van Haastrecht; T. J. C van de Loo; J. G. J. Quaedvlieg; J. Scholtens

2008-01-01

80

Hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality appraisal of part of south Chennai coastal aquifers, Tamil Nadu, India using WQI and fuzzy logic method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study was carried out to evaluate the groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking purposes in the urban coastal aquifers of part of south Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Twenty-three groundwater samples were collected during March 2012. The minimum and maximum values of pH (6.3-8 on scale), electrical conductivity (620-12,150 ?S/cm), total dissolved solids (399.28-7,824.6 mg/l), carbonate (0-30 mg/l), bicarbonate (0.9-58.9 mg/l), chloride (70.9-4,067.89 mg/l), sulphate (17.4-105 mg/l), nitrate (0.4-6.0 mg/l), calcium (30-200 mg/l), magnesium (1.2-164 mg/l), sodium (69-1,490 mg/l) and potassium (8-340 mg/l) were recorded in the coastal aquifers of Chennai city. The groundwater samples show that the majority of the sampling points clustered on the NaCl and mixed CaMgCl facies of the piper trilinear diagram. In the Gibbs diagram, the majority of the sampling points fall under rock water and evaporation dominance field. Fuzzy membership classification suggests that the majority of the samples fall under good water type followed by excellent water and poor water categories. Groundwater quality index showing the majority of the samples falls under excellent to poor category of water. A positive correlation was observed with Cl-, SO4 2-, Ca2+, Na+, K+, EC and TDS. The extracted results of the correlation matrix and geochemical analysis suggest that the dominant ions of groundwater (Na+, Ca2+, K+, Cl- and SO4 2-) were derived from seawater intrusion and gypsum dissolution process. Nitrate concentration is most significantly derived from anthropogenic sources.

Krishna Kumar, S.; Bharani, R.; Magesh, N. S.; Godson, Prince S.; Chandrasekar, N.

2014-01-01

81

Evaluation of Catrosat 1PAN Stereo and Resourcesat Liss 4 MSS Merged Data for Morphometric Analysis, Delineation of Drainage Basins and Codification in Tamil Nadu, India and Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Topographic maps and Aerial Photographs are used for morphometric analysis of drainage basins and mapping contours with drainage. The stereo pairs of 2.5 m resolution Cartosat 1, Indian satellite 2 and merged data with 5.5 m resolution P6 Resourcesat 1 LISS 4 Indian satellite of 2001 is used to map, rills, gullies, and streams of first order to evaluate part of drainage basin of Cooum and Poondi Reservoir in Thiruvallur taluk of Tamil Nadu state. The Geo Eye latest 2011data is also used with Catrosat 1Stereo data to study present morphology of tiny micro watersheds to study the use of High resolution data for delineation and codification of watersheds. This study area is in an inter fluvial drainage basin of Cooum and Kusasthalai rivers. Kusasthalai river drains in Poondi reservoir which is about 50 km from Chennai. The excess water from Kosasthalai is also diverted through Kesawaram weir to Cooum river which passes through Thiruvallur and Chennai city before it's confluence with Bay of Benegal in the east. As Cooum basin is at higher elevation, water for irrigation is again diverted through chain of tanks to Kusasthalai river basin to drain in Poondi reservoir. Delineation of water sheds in this fluvial basin is difficult by manual survey as man made irrigation channels, natural drainage streams etc., have to be clearly identified. The streams of various orders are identified based on Strahler stream order hierarchy of tributaries, slops and contours using large scale satellite data. The micro water sheds are delinated identifying the ridges from Catrosat data for this interfluves basin which has mild slop. To illustrate this research, parts of two micro watersheds which were delineated using 1:50000 data for Tamil Nadu watershed Atlas up to 7th order streams are taken up for a detailed study using high resolution data. 19 Micro watersheds with streams up to 10th order are mapped. The capability of high resolution satellite data for digital as well as visual interpretation in conjunction with village cadastral maps has been studied. This research will be useful to consider creation of digital micro watershed atlas for management and protecting area affected by floods as well as for water and land resource management of the River basins in Queensland, New South Wales, South Australia and Victoria states of Australia. The research explains the need of using stream orders, delineation and codification micro watersheds based the principles of Dr.A.N.Khosla. This methodology was used in creation of web site of Districts soil water sheds atlas of Tamil Nadu state. With this principal of codification and delineation of watersheds based on stream order using stereo data of Cartosat 1 PAN 2.5 m data merged with Resourcesat LISS 4 data of 5.5m resolution and updating latest changes as on 2011 with non stereo Geo eye data of 0.5m resolution it is possible to create Australian micro water sheds GIS with deatils of streams with various stream orders, drainage pattern, slope, micro water sheds boundary in 1:5000 scale to manage the flood prone drainage basin in Australia. The High resolution data of satellites data apart from creation Micro watersheds GIS can be used for creation of Urban and Argicultural land parcel owenership details in Micro watershed GIS.

Mohamed, G. S.; Srinivasan, S.; Pandian, R.; Gummidipoondi, R. J.; Venkatchalam, R. V.; Swaminathan. S, S.

2012-07-01

82

Monsoon Harvests: Assessing the Impact of Rainwater Harvesting Ponds on Subsistence-Level Agriculture in the Gundar Basin, Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lack of consistent water availability for irrigated agriculture is recognized as one of the primary constraints to meeting the UN Millennium Development Goals to alleviate hunger, and in semi-arid landscapes such as those of southern India, which are characterized by high intra-annual variability in rainfall, provision of capabilities for seasonal storage is recognized to be one of the key strategies towards alleviating water scarcity problems and ensuring food security. Although the issue of increased storage can be addressed by centralized infrastructure projects such as large-scale irrigation systems and dams, an alternative is the "soft path" approach, in which existing large-scale projects are complemented by small-scale, decentralized solutions. Such a decentralized approach has been utilized in southern India for thousands of years in the form of village rainwater harvesting tanks or ponds, providing a local and inherently sustainable approach to providing sufficient water for rice cultivation. Over the last century, however, large-scale canal projects and groundwater pumping have replaced rainwater harvesting as the primary source of irrigation water. But with groundwater withdrawals now exceeding recharge in many areas and water tables continuing to drop, many NGOs and government agencies are advocating for a revival of the older rainwater harvesting systems. Questions remain, however, regarding the limits to which rainwater harvesting can provide a solution to decades of water overexploitation. In the present work, we have utilized secondary data sources to analyze the linkages between the tank irrigation systems and the village communities that depend on them within the Gundar Basin of southern Tamil Nadu. Combining socioeconomic data with information regarding climate, land use, groundwater depletion, and tank density, we have developed indicators of sustainability for these systems. Using these indicators, we have attempted to unravel the close coupling that exists between tanks, the village communities, and the natural landscape within which they are embedded. Preliminary results suggest that groundwater over-extraction is in many cases negatively impacting the ability of the rainwater harvesting ponds to provide a reliable water supply. In addition, while the social and economic benefits provided by these ponds reduce community vulnerability to variations in the region's yearly monsoons, there can be negative environmental impacts. Large-scale rainwater harvesting, similar to groundwater extraction, can change the overall water balance of a watershed, leading to a tradeoff of water availability between socioeconomic and ecosystem demands. Although traditional rainwater harvesting practices may appear to be more sustainable than the current high levels of groundwater pumping, the two practices carried out in tandem can increase water consumption even further, pushing the system closer to a threshold beyond which a profound crisis may loom.

Steiff, M.; Van Meter, K. J.; Basu, N. B.

2013-12-01

83

Prospects for small and marginal farmers in Trichy district (Tamil Nadu, India) to use water pumping windmills for irrigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The economic, technical, and agricultural aspects of equiping poor farmers in India with windpowered pumps were analyzed. It is concluded that the prospects for a market for windmills among nontarget group farmers (especially big farmers with diesel pumps) are better than the prospects among the target group farmers. Continuation of the project might lead to an improvement of the situation for the richer farmers, which would in turn lead to a decline in the situation of the original target group of the project, the small and marginal farmers.

Goedhart, P.

1984-05-01

84

Antibacterial activity of selected medicinal plants against multiple antibiotic resistant uropathogens: a study from Kolli Hills, Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

The increasing incidence of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens necessitates medicinal plants as an alternate therapy in restricting the resistant infectious organisms. In this primitive study, the antibiotic resistance of organisms isolated from urinary tract infected patients was evaluated using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) method and Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) index values, and the MAR values was also calculated for plant extracts. The 10 common medicinal plants collected from Kolli hills, Namakkal, south India were extracted using the chloroform, methanol, acetone, ethanol and saponification procedure. The efficacy of the extracts on the uropathogens was tested by agar disc diffusion method in order to analyse the inhibitory activity of plant extract on the organisms. Azadiracta indica A. Juss., Tinospora cordifolia (Wild.) and Euphorbia hirta Linn. exhibited high inhibitory activity against most of the 11 tested organisms followed by Cassia javanica Linn. and Phyllanthus niruri Linn. The maximum zone size of 46.3 mm was exhibited by methanol extract of P. niruri Linn. against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Asparagus racemosus Willd. and Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl had the least activity against resistant pathogens. Saponified lipids of most of the plants exhibited maximum antibacterial activity. Among the tested organisms, P. aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis were the most susceptible and Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter cloaceae, Citrobacter koseri, and Citrobacter freundii were the least inhibited by most of the extracts of medicinal plants. It is concluded that revised antibiotic policies and more importantly the development of herbal medicine as an alternative may be incorporated in urological practice. PMID:21986363

Narayanan, A S; Raja, S S S; Ponmurugan, K; Kandekar, S C; Natarajaseenivasan, K; Maripandi, A; Mandeel, Q A

2011-09-01

85

Macrobenthic communities of the Vellar Estuary in the Bay of Bengal in Tamil-Nadu in South India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The macrobenthic fauna and communities of the Vellar Estuary located at the southeast cost of India (11°30' N, 79°45' E) and the adjacent marine and river habitats are described on the basis of original data (70 samples over 10 transects). The fauna consists of 115 macrobenthic species and 79 species in estuarine habitats. We described 14 types of macrobenthic communities with different compositions of the dominant species. The leading ecological factors of the distribution of the communities are the salinity, depth, and bottom type. The Vellar estuary consists of two longitudinal zones of macrobenthos. The polyhalinic area is populated by the marine species, but it is related not to a salinity decrease but to the protection from waves and silt on the bottom in this area. The polyhalinic communities are most abundant in terms of the biomass and species richness. The mesohalinic area is inhabited by brackish water species and communities with low abundance. The sublittoral estuarine area is dominated by filter-feeders—the bivalves Crassostrea madrasensis, Meretrix casta, Modiolus metcalfei, and Scapharca inaequivalves—and the littoral zone is dominated by the gastropods Cerithidea cingulata, some crabs, and polychaetes. The ecosystem function of the Vellar estuary can be defined as a filter for the fine organic particles transported by the river.

Chertoprud, M. V.; Chertoprud, E. S.; Saravanakumar, A.; Thangaradjou, T.; Mazei, Yu. A.

2013-03-01

86

Physicochemical quality evaluation of groundwater and development of drinking water quality index for Araniar River Basin, Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

Groundwater is the most important natural resource which cannot be optimally used and sustained unless its quality is properly assessed. In the present study, the spatial and temporal variations in physicochemical quality parameters of groundwater of Araniar River Basin, India were analyzed to determine its suitability for drinking purpose through development of drinking water quality index (DWQI) maps of the post- and pre-monsoon periods. The suitability for drinking purpose was evaluated by comparing the physicochemical parameters of groundwater in the study area with drinking water standards prescribed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). Interpretation of physicochemical data revealed that groundwater in the basin was slightly alkaline. The cations such as sodium (Na(+)) and potassium (K(+)) and anions such as bicarbonate (HCO3 (-)) and chloride (Cl(-)) exceeded the permissible limits of drinking water standards (WHO and BIS) in certain pockets in the northeastern part of the basin during the pre-monsoon period. The higher total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration was observed in the northeastern part of the basin, and the parameters such as calcium (Ca(2+)), magnesium (Mg(2+)), sulfate (SO4 (2-)), nitrate (NO3 (-)), and fluoride (F(-)) were within the limits in both the seasons. The hydrogeochemical evaluation of groundwater of the basin demonstrated with the Piper trilinear diagram indicated that the groundwater samples of the area were of Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-), Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO3 (-) and Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-) types during the post-monsoon period and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-), Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-) and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO3 (-) types during the pre-monsoon period. The DWQI maps for the basin revealed that 90.24 and 73.46% of the basin area possess good quality drinking water during the post- and pre-monsoon seasons, respectively. PMID:24052238

Jasmin, I; Mallikarjuna, P

2014-02-01

87

Dem Assessment Derived from Close Range Photogrammetry: a Case Study from Kadavur Area, Karur District, Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Close-Range Photogrammetry is an accurate, cost effective technique of collecting measurements of real world objects and conditions, directly from photographs. Photogrammetry utilizes digital images to obtain accurate measurements and geometric data of the object or area of interest, in order to provide spatial information for Engineering design, spatial surveys or 3D modeling. The benefits of close-range Photogrammetry over other field procedures are purported to be: Increased accuracy; complete as-built information; reduced costs; reduced on-site time; and effective for small and large projects. The same basic principle of traditional Aerial Photogrammetry can be applied to stereoscopic pictures taken from lower altitudes or from the ground. Terrestrial, ground-based, and close-range are all descriptive terms that refer to photos taken with an object-to-camera distance less than 300m (1000 feet). (Matthews, N.A, 2008). Close range Photogrammetry is a technique for obtaining the geometric information (e.g. position, distance, size and shape) of any object in 3D space that was imaged on the two dimensional (2D) photos, (Wolf, P.R, et.al, 2000) DEM Generation requires many processing and computation, such as camera calibration, stereo matching, editing, and interpolation. All the mentioned steps contribute to the quality of DEM. Image on close range Photogrammetry can be captured using three kind of camera: metric camera, semi-metric camera, and non-metric camera (Hanke, K., et.al, 2002). In this paper DEM quality assessed at Kadavur area, Karur district, Tamil Naudu, India using Close Range Photogrammetry technique, Commercial Digital Camera and Leica Photogrammetry Suite.

Anbarasan, S.; Sakthivel, R.

2012-07-01

88

Zircon mineral trace element chemistry as a function of metamorphic grade along a traverse of lower Archean crust, Tamil Nadu, south India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trends in whole-rock and mineral chemistry are seen along a 95 km traverse of lower Archean granitic orthogneissic crust, in the Eastern Dharwar Craton, Tamil Nadu, south India (Hansen and Harlov 2007 J Petrol 48, 1641). Going from north (amphibolite facies) to south (granulite-facies) along the traverse, chemical trends include whole-rock depletion of Rb, Cs, Th, and U; enrichment in Ti and F with depletion in Fe and Mn in biotite and amphibole; increases in Al with decreases in Mn in orthopyroxene; and enrichment of fluorapatite in F coupled with depletion in Cl. In the northern most portion of the traverse the principal REE-bearing minerals are allanite and titanite. South of a clinopyroxene isograd, separating the granulite- and amphibolite-facies zones, monazite grains independent of fluorapatite are the major REE- and Th-bearing phase. Further south independent monazite is rare but Th-free monazite inclusions are common in fluorapatite. During prograde metamorphism, independent monazite was replaced by REE-rich fluorapatite in which the monazite inclusions later formed. The loss of independent monazite was accompanied by a loss of whole-rock Th and possibly a small depletion in LREE. Zircon grains along the traverse preserve domains of magmatic zoning with ages between ca. 2.70Ga and 2.55Ga, recording the emplacement of granitic protoliths. Magmatic zircon was modified during metamorphism in two distinct ways: (i) zircon along cracks, growth zones and margins is replaced by U-enriched zircon, commonly with abundant silicate inclusions; and (ii) grain margins are dissolved and overgrown by faceted rims of U and Th depleted zircon. Type (i) replacement textures are variably found in samples along the whole traverse, whereas type (ii) overgrowths appear near the clinopyroxene isograd and increase in proportion to the original protolith zircon southwards, such that most samples in the southern half of the traverse contain only minor remnants of protolith zircon relative to overgrowth zircon. Thorium and U contents of magmatic zircon do not have simple relationships to whole-rock Th-U-Zr contents, or to either type of metamorphic zircon. Instead, high U - low Th compositions of type (i) zircon may reflect equilibration with Th-bearing phases at amphibolite to lower granulite-facies conditions, whereas type (ii) low U - low Th overgrowths reflect whole-rock depletion in Th and U (but not Zr). Ages for type (ii) overgrowths cluster around 2.5Ga, similar to those obtained for identical zircon from the southern margin of the Eastern Dharwar Craton (Clark et al. 2009, Gondwana Res. 16, 27), whereas ages from type (i) zircon scatter towards protolith ages, consistent with partial resetting through recrystallisation of magmatic zircon. Whole-rock U-Th-Zr compositions are decoupled from magmatic zircon, and coupled with type (ii) overgrowths, demonstrating that chemical changes along the traverse were produced during metamorphism, rather than reflecting differences in the protoliths. Most mineralogical features along the traverse can be accounted for by progressive dehydration and oxidation reactions. Trace element depletion is best explained by the action of externally derived low-H2O activity brine migrating from a source at greater depth, possibly preceded or accompanied by partial melting.

Harlov, Daniel; Dunkley, Daniel; Hansen, Edward; Hokada, Tomokazu

2010-05-01

89

Understanding public drug procurement in India: a comparative qualitative study of five Indian states  

PubMed Central

Objective To perform an initial qualitative comparison of the different procurement models in India to frame questions for future research in this area; to capture the finer differences between the state models through 53 process and price parameters to determine their functional efficiencies. Design Qualitative analysis is performed for the study. Five states: Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Odisha, Punjab and Maharashtra were chosen to ensure heterogeneity in a number of factors such as procurement type (centralised, decentralised or mixed); autonomy of the procurement organisation; state of public health infrastructure; geography and availability of data through Right to Information Act (RTI). Data on procurement processes were collected through key informant analysis by way of semistructured interviews with leadership teams of procuring organisations. These process data were validated through interviews with field staff (stakeholders of district hospitals, taluk hospitals, community health centres and primary health centres) in each state. A total of 30 actors were interviewed in all five states. The data collected are analysed against 52 process and price parameters to determine the functional efficiency of the model. Results The analysis indicated that autonomous procurement organisations were more efficient in relation to payments to suppliers, had relatively lower drug procurement prices and managed their inventory more scientifically. Conclusions The authors highlight critical success factors that significantly influence the outcome of any procurement model. In a way, this study raises more questions and seeks the need for further research in this arena to aid policy makers.

Singh, Prabal Vikram; Tatambhotla, Anand; Kalvakuntla, Rohini; Chokshi, Maulik

2013-01-01

90

POVERTY IN INDIA AND INDIAN STATES: AN UPDATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT A complete and updated series on poverty measures for India is presented spanning the period 1951–1994. The series are presented at the all-India level as well as for 15 major states, and for rural and urban sectors separately. Key features of the evolution of poverty in India are described. CONTENTS

Gaurav Datt

91

Consistent condom use with regular, paying, and casual male partners and associated factors among men who have sex with men in Tamil Nadu, India: findings from an assessment of a large-scale HIV prevention program  

PubMed Central

Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) are a marginalized population at high risk for HIV infection. Promoting consistent condom use (CCU) during anal sex is a key risk reduction strategy for HIV prevention among MSM. To inform effective HIV prevention interventions, we examined the factors associated with CCU among MSM with their regular, paying, and casual partners, as well as with all three types of partners combined. Methods Data for this analysis were from a large-scale bio-behavioural survey conducted during 2009–2010 in Tamil Nadu, India. MSM aged 18 years or older were recruited for the survey using time-location cluster sampling at cruising sites in four districts of Tamil Nadu. Binary logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association of CCU with selected socio-demographic characteristics and other contextual factors. Results Among 1618 MSM interviewed, CCU during anal sex with regular, paying, and a casual male partner was 45.3%, 50.8% and 57.9%, respectively. CCU with all three types of partners combined was 52.6%. Characteristics associated with increased odds for CCU with MSM having all three types of partners combined were frequent receptive anal sex acts with regular partners (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-4.65), fewer number of casual partners (AOR 3.41, 95% CI 1.50-7.73) and membership in a community-based organization (CBO) for MSM (AOR 3.54, 95% CI 1.62-7.74). CCU with regular partners was associated with membership in a CBO (AOR 1.96, 95% CI 1.23-3.11), whereas CCU with paying, and casual male partners was associated with perceived higher risk of acquiring HIV (AOR 1.92, 95% CI 1.22-3.01) and exposure to any HIV prevention intervention (AOR 3.62, 95% CI 1.31-10.0), respectively. Being aged 26 years or older, being in debt, and alcohol use were factors associated with inconsistent condom use across partner types. Conclusion HIV interventions among MSM need to promote CCU with all types (regular, paying, and causal) of male partners, and need to reach MSM across all age groups. In addition to enhancing interventions that focus on individual level risk reduction, it is important to undertake structural interventions that promote social acceptance of same-sex sexuality and address contextual barriers to condom use such as alcohol use.

2013-01-01

92

Pharmacy and self-report adherence measures to predict virological outcomes for patients on free antiretroviral therapy in Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Over 480,000 individuals receive free antiretroviral therapy (ART) in India yet data associating ART adherence with HIV viral load for populations exclusively receiving free ART are not available. Additionally estimates of adherence using pharmacy data on ART pick-up are not available for any population in India. After 12-months ART we found self-reported estimates of adherence were not associated with HIV viral load. Individuals with < 100% adherence using pharmacy data predicted HIV viral load, and estimates combining pharmacy data and self-report were also predictive. Pharmacy adherence measures proved a feasible method to estimate adherence in India and appear more predictive of virological outcomes than self-report. Predictive adherence measures identified in this study warrant further investigation in populations receiving free ART in India to allow for identification of individuals at risk of virological failure and in need of adherence support.

McMahon, James H.; Manoharan, Anand; Wanke, Christine A.; Mammen, Shoba; Jose, Hepsibah; Malini, Thabeetha; Kadavanu, Tony; Jordan, Michael R.; Elliott, Julian H.; Lewin, Sharon R.; Mathai, Dilip

2013-01-01

93

An environmental perspective of the post-tsunami scenario along the coast of Tamil Nadu, India: role of sand dunes and forests.  

PubMed

An endeavor to feel the pulse of a coast devastated by a powerful oceanographic event is made. Results of field investigations along Tamil Nadu seaside revealed that the tsunami of December 2004 demolished dwellings within strips ranging from 6 to 132 m (average width, 41 m) from the dune, and flooded up to 862 m (average, 247 m) from the shore. The event damaged sand dunes, ripped dune vegetation, created new water bodies and shattered high value assets. Comparatively, casuarina forests performed remarkably. Uprooting of trees was exclusively restricted to a frontal strip ranging from 5 to 25 m (average width, 14 m) nearest to the shore where the maximum wave run-up was 6.5m above sea level. Sand dunes in general, and casuarina forests in particular, possess an innate capacity to dissipate powerful waves. This inference is supported by (a) negligible over wash along belts characterized by high dune complexes, (b) intact villages shielded by dense forests as well as sand dunes, and (c) maximum destruction of open beach front influenced by intense human activity. In this context, the coastal regulation zone (CRZ) Notification of 1991 offers sufficient scientific validity to be endorsed. However, post-tsunami ecosystem management initiatives lack a scientific basis. Therefore, a coastal hazards policy, that considers adaptation, dune restoration and forested buffer zones, is a sustainable long-term option for Indian coasts. PMID:17517466

Mascarenhas, Antonio; Jayakumar, Seelam

2008-10-01

94

Influence of behavioral biases on the assessment of multi-hazard risks and the implementation of multi-hazard risks mitigation measures: case study of multi-hazard cyclone shelters in Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In December 2004, a multiple hazards event devastated the Tamil Nadu province of India. The Sumatra -Andaman earthquake with a magnitude of Mw=9.1-9.3 caused the Indian Ocean tsunami with wave heights up to 30 m, and flooding that reached up to two kilometers inland in some locations. More than 7,790 persons were killed in the province of Tamil Nadu, with 206 in its capital Chennai. The time lag between the earthquake and the tsunami's arrival in India was over an hour, therefore, if a suitable early warning system existed, a proper means of communicating the warning and shelters existing for people would exist, than while this would not have prevented the destruction of infrastructure, several thousands of human lives would have been saved. India has over forty years of experience in the construction of cyclone shelters. With additional efforts and investment, these shelters could be adapted to other types of hazards such as tsunamis and flooding, as well as the construction of new multi-hazard cyclone shelters (MPCS). It would therefore be possible to mitigate one hazard such as cyclones by the construction of a network of shelters while at the same time adapting these shelters to also deal with, for example, tsunamis, with some additional investment. In this historical case, the failure to consider multiple hazards caused significant human losses. The current paper investigates the patterns of the national decision-making process with regards to multiple hazards mitigation measures and how the presence of behavioral and cognitive biases influenced the perceptions of the probabilities of multiple hazards and the choices made for their mitigation by the national decision-makers. Our methodology was based on the analysis of existing reports from national and international organizations as well as available scientific literature on behavioral economics and natural hazards. The results identified several biases in the national decision-making process when the construction of cyclone shelters was being undertaken. The availability heuristics caused a perception of low probability of tsunami following an earthquake, as the last large similar event happened over a hundred years ago. Another led to a situation when decisions were taken on the basis of experience and not statistical evidence, namely, experience showed that the so-called "Ring of Fire" generates underground earthquakes and tsunamis in the Pacific Ocean. This knowledge made decision-makers to neglect the numerical estimations about probability of underground earthquake in the Indian Ocean even though seismologists were warning about probability of a large underground earthquake in the Indian Ocean. The bounded rationality bias led to misperception of signals from the early warning center in the Pacific Ocean. The resulting limited concern resulted in risk mitigation measures that considered cyclone risks, but much less about tsunami. Under loss aversion considerations, the decision-makers perceived the losses connected with the necessary additional investment as being greater than benefits from mitigating a less probable hazard.

Komendantova, Nadejda; Patt, Anthony

2013-04-01

95

Marital Status, Family Ties, and Self-rated Health Among Elders In South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the impact of familial social support ties (indicated by marital status, kin availability, sources of\\u000a economic support, and frequency and quality of emotional interaction) on subjective health perception among a sample of elderly\\u000a men and women aged 60 and older in South India. We used 1993 survey data from three states of South India: Kerala, Tamil Nadu,

S. Sudha; Chirayath Suchindran; Elizabeth J. Mutran; S. Irudaya Rajan; P. Sankara Sarma

2006-01-01

96

Empowerment of Fisher Women of Siluvaipatti Fishing Village of Tuticorin, Southeast Coast of India through Adult Education and ICT Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on adult education and information and communication technologies (ICT) training to fisherwomen of Siluvaipatti fishing village in Tuticorin district of Tamil Nadu State, southeastern India. The total families in this village are 209 with population 899 (Male: 442; Female: 457). The education level is generally good in…

Patterson, Jamila; Linden, Eva; Bierbrier, Christin; Lofgren, Inger; Wilhelmsson, Dan; Edward, J. K. Patterson

2008-01-01

97

Study on quality of effluent discharge by the Tiruppur textile dyeing units and its impact on river Noyyal, Tamil Nadu (India).  

PubMed

In Tiruppur, 729 textile dyeing units are under operation and these units generate 96.1 MLD of wastewater. The untreated effluent was discharged into the Noyyal River till 1997. After the issuance of directions by Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board (TNPCB) in 1997, these units have installed 8 common effluent treatment plants (CETP) consisting of physical, chemical and biological treatment units. Some of the units have installed individual ETP (IETP). The treated effluent was finally discharged into the river. The dyeing units use sodium chloride in the dyeing process for efficient fixing of dye in the fabric efficiently. This contributes high total dissolved solids (TDS) and chlorides in the effluent. CETPs and IETPs failed to meet discharge standards of TDS and chlorides and thereby significantly affected the river water quality. TDS level in the river water was in the range of 900 - 6600 mg/L, and chloride was in the range of 230 - 2700 mg/L. Orathupalayam dam is located across Noyyal river at 32 km down stream of Tiruppur. The pollutants carried by the river were accumulated in the dam. TDS in the dam water was in the range of 4250 - 7900 mg/L and chloride was in the range of 1600 - 2700 mg/L. The dam sediments contain heavy metals of chromium, copper, zinc and lead. In 2006, the High Court has directed the dyeing units to install zero liquid discharge (ZLD) plant and to stop discharging of effluent into the river. Accordingly, the industries have installed and commissioned the ZLD plant consisting of RO plant and reject management system in 2010. The effluent after secondary treatment from the CETP is further treated in RO plant. The RO permeate is reused by the member units. The RO reject is concentrated in multiple effect evaporator (MEE)/ mechanical vacuum re-compressor (MVR). The concentrate is crystallized and centrifuged to recover salt. The salt recovered is reused. The liquid separated from the centrifuge is sent to solar evaporation pan. The salt collected in the solar pan is bagged and stored in secure land fill facility. Thus, the discharge into the river is now stopped. However, the damage caused to the groundwater and soil contamination in the river basin is yet to be restored. PMID:22312804

Rajkumar, A Samuel; Nagan, S

2010-10-01

98

India.  

PubMed

In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the exception of the 1977-79 period of Janta Party rule. Domestically, India has made much progress since independnece. A relatively sophisticated industrial base and a large pool of skilled labor have been created, but agriculture remains the crucial sector and supports 70% of the people. It contributes about 40% of gross national product (GNP). Only modest gains in per capita GNP have been achieved. Agricultural production has been increasing at an average annual rate of around 3%. Cotton and jute textile production continues to be the most important industry, but public sector firms in steel, heavy industry, and chemicals have become important since 1960. Supreme command of India's armed forces rests with the president but actual responsibility for national defense lies with the Cabinet Committee for Political Affairs. The US and India have aimed at cordial relations. The US is India's largest trading partner and has been an important source of foreign economic assistance. PMID:12178110

1985-05-01

99

Genetic variation of coat protein gene among the isolates of Rice tungro spherical virus from tungro-endemic states of the India.  

PubMed

Rice tungro disease, one of the major constraints to rice production in South and Southeast Asia, is caused by a combination of two viruses: Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV) and Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV). The present study was undertaken to determine the genetic variation of RTSV population present in tungro endemic states of Indian subcontinent. Phylogenetic analysis based on coat protein sequences showed distinct divergence of Indian RTSV isolates into two groups; one consisted isolates from Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh), Cuttack (Orissa), and Puducherry and another from West Bengal, Coimbatore (Tamil Nadu), and Kanyakumari (Tamil Nadu). The results obtained from phylogenetic study were further supported with the SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism), INDELs (insertion and deletion) and evolutionary distance analysis. In addition, sequence difference count matrix revealed 2-68 nucleotides differences among all the Indian RTSV isolates taken in this study. However, at the protein level these differences were not significant as revealed by Ka/Ks ratio calculation. Sequence identity at nucleotide and amino acid level was 92-100% and 97-100%, respectively, among Indian isolates of RTSV. Understanding of the population structure of RTSV from tungro endemic regions of India would potentially provide insights into the molecular diversification of this virus. PMID:22234819

Mangrauthia, Satendra K; Malathi, P; Agarwal, Surekha; Ramkumar, G; Krishnaveni, D; Neeraja, C N; Madhav, M Sheshu; Ladhalakshmi, D; Balachandran, S M; Viraktamath, B C

2012-06-01

100

Molecular detection and analysis of spotted fever group Rickettsia in patients with fever and rash at a tertiary care centre in Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Background Detection of specific targets by PCR is used to confirm a diagnosis of spotted fever, but serological tests are still widely used. In this prospective study, nested PCR was performed on skin biopsy specimens to confirm the diagnosis of spotted fever. Methods In 58 clinically suspected cases of spotted fever, nested PCR, to detect gltA, 17 kDa lipoprotein antigen gene (17 kDa), ompA and ompB, from skin biopsy of the rash was performed. Sequencing was carried on amplicons representing the four targets to confirm specificity of amplification. This was followed by phylogenetic analysis using MEGA version 4.0 software. Results The gltA, 17 kDa, ompA, and ompB genes were detected from skin biopsy specimens in 38, 23, 27, and 22 individuals. Sequence analysis revealed that the gltA, 17 kDa, ompA, and ompB sequences belonged to spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsia. Of the six partial ompA gene sequences, only one was dissimilar to the previously reported ‘Candidatus Rickettsia kellyi’. Conclusion Further evidence indicates that SFG rickettsiae resembling ‘Candidatus Rickettsia kellyi’ cause fever and rash in southern India. More detailed phylogenetic analysis following isolation of rickettsia in culture is required for providing irrefutable proof for the occurrence of novel spotted fever rickettsiae in this region.

Prakash, John Antony Jude; Sohan Lal, T; Rosemol, Varghese; Verghese, Valsan Philip; Pulimood, Susanne A; Reller, Megan; Dumler, John Stephen

2012-01-01

101

Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) studies of Campanian-Maastrichtian sediments of Ariyalur Group, Cauvery Basin, Tamil Nadu, India: An appraisal to Paleocurrent directions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oriented samples of sediments from Ariyalur Group, Cauvery Basin, south India, were studied for low field anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) measurements to unravel the magnetic fabrics and paleocurrent directions. The results of AMS parameters of the sediments indicate primary depositional fabrics for Sillakkudi, Ottakovil and Kallamedu sandstone formations and secondary fabric for Kallankurichchi limestone formation. The obtained low degree of anisotropy ( P j ), oblate shape AMS ellipsoid and distribution of maximum ( K 1) and minimum ( K 3) susceptibility axes on equal area projection confirm the primary sedimentary fabric for Sillakkudi, Ottakovil and Kallamedu Formations. In the case of ferruginous, lower arenaceous, Gryphaea limestone and upper arenaceous limestone beds of Kallankurichchi Formation have recorded more than one fabric. The observed AMS parameters like shape factor ( T) (prolate to oblate), q value and random distribution of minimum ( K 3) and maximum ( K 1) susceptibility axes are supported for secondary fabrics in Kallankurichchi Formation as a result of post-depositional processes. Based on petrographic studies, it can be established that K 1 AMS axis of biotite mineral could represent the flow direction. The established paleocurrent direction for Sillakkudi is NW-SE direction while Ottakovil and Kallamedu Formations recorded NE-SW direction. Overall the paleoflow directions observed for Ariyalur Group is NE-SW to NW-SE.

Papanna, G.; Venkateshwarlu, M.; Periasamy, V.; Nagendra, R.

2014-03-01

102

Maxillofacial trauma in Tamil Nadu children and adolescents: A retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim of this retrospective study is to describe the incidence, aetiology, complexity and surgical indications of maxillofacial injuries in children and adolescents population of Tamil Nadu state of india during period of 4 years. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was conducted among 500 children and adolescents patients of age group 6 years to 16 years suffered or suffering with maxillofacial and skull fractures presenting to ten Level I trauma centers over a 4 year period.The data collected for this study included age, gender, etiology, associated maxillofacial trauma, anatomic site of fracture and treatment. Results and Conclusion: In our study the most common cause of trauma was traffic 35%, followed by falls 24% and sports 22%. Mandible was commenest bone prone to fracture, followed by maxilla and nasal bone. Mandible fractures accounted for 72% of all maxillofacial fractures.

Arvind, Ramraj Jayabalan; Narendar, Ramesh; Kumar, Palanisamy Dinesh; Venkataraman, Sivasubramaniam; Gokulanathan, Subramanium

2013-01-01

103

A Genetic Structure of the Early Immigrants (Mukkalathor) of Tamil Nadu as Inferred From Autosomal Loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genomic affinity based on eight human - specific polymorphic insertion\\/ deletion loci was studied in an early immigrant population, Thevar group, of Tamil Nadu, South India. They are traditionally agriculturists, culturally homogenous and endogamous. The seven Alu elements (Alu APO, Alu CD4, Alu PV92, Alu FXIIIB, Alu ACE, Alu PLAT, Alu D1) and one nuclear insertion of mitochondrial DNA segment

S. Kanthimathi; M. Vijaya; C. R. Srikumari; P. Govinda Reddy; P. P. Majumder; A. Ramesh

2007-01-01

104

Analysis of impacts of wind integration in the Tamil Nadu grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the share of wind in power systems increases, it is important to assess the impact on the grid. This paper combines analysis of load and generation characteristics, generation adequacy and base and peak load variations to assess the future role of wind generation. A simulation of Tamil Nadu in India, with a high penetration of wind power (27% by

Mel George; Rangan Banerjee

2009-01-01

105

State Consolidation through Liberalization of Telecommunications Services in India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces changing state-capital relations in telecommunications in India since its beginning as a law-and-order maintenance tool of the British Empire. Focuses on how the state included the interests of particular external and internal forces (foreign capital, domestic capital, the World Bank, workers and managers in the state monopoly, and users)…

Mody, Bella

1995-01-01

106

[India within World History.] Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997 (India).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents slide narration to accompany eight separate units on India to be used in World History classes or other areas across the curriculum. Units include: (1) "Religion: India's Diverse Temples and Sacred Places"; (2) "Styles of Dress: Shimla to Kerala"; (3) "Traditional Dance in India"; (4) "South India: Kerala & Tamil Nadu"; (5)…

Bragdon, Ann E.

107

Land Cover Mapping in Parts of South Gujarat and Tamil Nadu States of India Using Bhaskara-I TV Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Various projects were formulated for the utilisation of the Bhaskara TV data by the user agencies in collaboration with the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). A number of application are as like land use, snow cover, geology, geomorphology etc., w...

A. R. Dasgupta I. C. Matieda S. D. Naik K. L. Majumdar J. S. Parihar

1982-01-01

108

First report of Alternaria alternata causing leaf spot on Aloe barbadensis in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aloe (Aloe barbadensis), an important medicinal plant grown in the state of Tamil Nadu, India has suffered heavy losses due to a leaf disease in\\u000a 2006. The symptoms observed were small, circular to oval dark brown necrotic sunken spots located mostly on the leaf tip,\\u000a with average diameter of 1.0 mm and reaching 3.0 mm. The pathogen was isolated and

A. KamalakannanA; C. Gopalakrishnan; R. Renuka; K. Kalpana; D. Ladha Lakshmi; V. Valluvaparidasan

2008-01-01

109

Population exposure to airborne thorium at the high natural radiation areas in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

High natural radiation areas in the coastal and peninsular India were studied for airborne thorium and resultant population exposure due to inhalation. Four locations covering three states viz., Ayiramthengu and Neendakara in Kerala, Kudiraimozhi in Tamil Nadu and Bhimilipatnam in Andhra Pradesh were investigated. External gamma radiation fields 1m above the monazite ore bodies ranged from 200 to 3000nGyh-1. Soil

A. C. Paul; P. M. B. Pillai; P. P. Haridasan; Sujatha Radhakrishnan; S. Krishnamony

1998-01-01

110

Broken People: Caste Violence Against India's "Untouchables"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Even though "the imposition of social disabilities on persons by reason of their birth in certain castes" was legally abolished under India's constitution in 1950, "untouchability" is still practiced today in much of rural India. The "untouchable" caste -- or Dalits, which literally means "broken people" -- comprises over one-sixth of India's population, or 160 million people. This 310-page report, recently issued by Human Rights Watch (HRW), documents the discrimination and violence suffered by Dalits under the societal rule of higher-caste groups in the Indian states of Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Gujarat. The report also examines the government's role in preserving the status quo by thwarting peaceful social activism and failing to abolish exploitative labor practices through appropriate legislation.

111

Tamil Nadu Rainfall Behaviour: Chaotic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper considers the possibility of making a qualitative test on Tamil Nadu rainfall data for chaos from a simple nonlinearity test . we have employed the surrogate data method which gives information on the significance of amount of non linearity involved in a time series data. We have calculated the Lyapunov exponent for the surrogate data and the original data . The distinct results obtained from both the surrogate data and the original data implies that the time series under consideration is chaotic.

Joice, G. Helen Ruth

2012-06-01

112

Impacts of Groundwater Contamination with Fluoride and ArsenicAffliction Severity, Medical Cost and Wage Loss in Some Villages of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In India, high fluoride concentration in groundwater (greater than 1 mg/l) is widespread in the arid to semi-arid western states of Rajasthan and Gujarat and in the southern states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. A field research study conducted at six areas severely affected by fluorosis shows that affordability of safer drinking water is related to higher income

Rajnarayan Indu; Sunderrajan Krishnan; Tushaar Shah

2007-01-01

113

Molecular Characterization of Geographically Different Banana bunchy top virus Isolates in India.  

PubMed

Banana bunchy top disease (BBTD) caused by Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is one of the most devastating diseases of banana and poses a serious threat for cultivars like Hill Banana (Syn: Virupakshi) and Grand Naine in India. In this study, we have cloned and sequenced the complete genome comprised of six DNA components of BBTV infecting Hill Banana grown in lower Pulney hills, Tamil Nadu State, India. The complete genome sequence of this hill banana isolate showed high degree of similarity with the corresponding sequences of BBTV isolates originating from Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh State, India, and from Fiji, Egypt, Pakistan, and Australia. In addition, sixteen coat protein (CP) and thirteen replicase genes (Rep) sequences of BBTV isolates collected from different banana growing states of India were cloned and sequenced. The replicase sequences of 13 isolates showed high degree of similarity with that of South Pacific group of BBTV isolates. However, the CP gene of BBTV isolates from Shervroy and Kodaikanal hills of Tamil Nadu showed higher amino acid sequence variability compared to other isolates. Another hill banana isolate from Meghalaya state had 23 nucleotide substitutions in the CP gene but the amino acid sequence was conserved. This is the first report of the characterization of a complete genome of BBTV occurring in the high altitudes of India. Our study revealed that the Indian BBTV isolates with distinct geographical origins belongs to the South Pacific group, except Shervroy and Kodaikanal hill isolates which neither belong to the South Pacific nor the Asian group. PMID:23637489

Selvarajan, R; Mary Sheeba, M; Balasubramanian, V; Rajmohan, R; Dhevi, N Lakshmi; Sasireka, T

2010-10-01

114

Tamil Nadu Budget Speech: 2012-13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speech of Thiru O. Panneerselvam, Hon’ble Minister for Finance, Government of Tamil Nadu, presenting the Budget for the year 2012-2013 to the Legislative Assembly on 26th March, 2012. [Government of Tamil Nadu]. URL:[http:\\/\\/www.tn.gov.in\\/budget\\/budgetspeech_e_2012_2013.pdf].

2012-01-01

115

Evidence for CO2-rich fluids in rocks from the type charnockite area near Pallavaram, Tamil Nadu  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fluid inclusion and mineral chemistry data was presented for samples from the type charnockite area near Pallavaram (Tamil Nadu, India). The results indicate the presence of a dense CO2 fluid phase, but the data cannot distinguish between influx of this fluid from elsewhere or localized migration of CO2-rich fluids associated with dehydration melting.

Hansen, E.; Hunt, W.; Jacob, S. C.; Morden, K.; Reddi, R.; Tacy, P.

1988-01-01

116

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the Northeastern states of India  

PubMed Central

Nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) is a rare disease in most parts of the world, except for Southeast Asia, some parts of North Africa and the Arctic. It is mostly seen in people of Chinese origin. In India, NPC is also rare, except for the Hill States of Northeast India, particularly Nagaland, Manipur, and Mizoram. The striking feature of NPC in Northeast India is that the incidence ranges over the complete spectrum from the lowest (as 0.5/100 000 to 2.0/100 000 among Caucasoid) to the highest (as ?20/100 000 among Cantonese/Zhongshan dialect Chinese). The age-adjusted rate of NPC in Kohima district of Nagaland State is 19.4/100 000, which is among the highest recorded rates. By contrast, in Assam, one of the so-called Hill States but not itself a hilly state, NPC is much less common. The Northeastern region is distinguished by a preponderance of the Tibeto-Burman languages and by variable mongoloid features among peoples of the region. The nature of the migratory populations who are presumed to be bearers of the mongoloid risk is unknown, but these NPC occurrence features provide an outstanding opportunity for NPC risk investigation, such as that of the hypothesis of Wee et al. for westward displacement of Chinese aborigines following the last glacial maximum.

Kataki, Amal Chandra; Simons, Malcolm J.; Das, Ashok Kumar; Sharma, Kalpana; Mehra, Narinder Kumar

2011-01-01

117

India  

article title:  Aerosols over India     View Larger Image ... particulates, over the low-lying plains of northeastern India appear in dramatic contrast with the relatively pristine air of the ... October 15, 2001 - High concentrations of aerosols over India. project:  MISR category:  gallery ...

2013-04-16

118

First report of Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Pat.) Griffon & Maubl causing root rot and collar rot disease of physic nut ( Jatropha curcas L.) in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physic nut (Jatropha curcas), an important bio-fuel crop grown in the state of Tamil Nadu, India suffered heavy losses due to a root disease in 2007.\\u000a The symptoms observed were yellowing, drooping and shedding of leaves, blackening and decaying of the collar region of the\\u000a stem and rotting of the roots. Lasiodiplodia theobromae was isolated consistently from the diseased tissues

P. Latha; V. Prakasam; A. Kamalakannan; C. Gopalakrishnan; T. Raguchander; M. Paramathma; R. Samiyappan

2009-01-01

119

Organ donation and transplantation-the Chennai experience in India.  

PubMed

Tamil Nadu has been at the forefront of medical care in the country. It was the first state in the country that started a living kidney transplant program. It is also the first state to successfully start the cadaver programme after the passing of the "Transplantation of Human Organ Act" of 1994 and in the last 5 years has formed a network between hospitals for organ sharing. From the year 2000 to 2006 an organ sharing network was started in Tamil Nadu and the facilitator of this programme has been a non-government organization called MOHAN (acronym for Multi Organ Harvesting Aid Network) Foundation. The organs shared during the period number over 460 organs in two regions (both Tamil Nadu and Hyderabad). In Tamil Nadu the shared organs have included 166 Kidneys, 24 livers, 6 hearts, and 180 eyes. In 2003 sharing network was initiated by MOHAN in Hyderabad and to some extent the Tamil Nadu model was duplicated. with some success and 96 cadaver organs have been transplanted in the last 3 years. There are many advantages of organ sharing including the cost economics. At present there is a large pool of brain dead patients who could become potential organ donors in the major cities in India. Their organs are not being utilized for various support logistics. A multi-pronged strategy is required for the long term success of this program. These years in Tamil Nadu have been the years of learning, un-learning and relearning and the program today has matured slowly into what can perhaps be evolved as an Indian model. In all these years there have been various difficulties in its implementation and some of the key elements for the success of the program is the need to educate our own medical fraternity and seek their cooperation. The program requires trained counselors to be able to work in the intensive cares. The government's support is pivotal if this program to provide benefit to the common man. MOHAN Foundation has accumulated considerable experience to be able to evolve a model to take this program to the national level and more so as it recently has been granted 100% tax exemption on all donations to form a countrywide network for organ sharing. PMID:17445579

Shroff, S; Rao, S; Kurian, G; Suresh, S

2007-04-01

120

India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Not only is India one of the oldest continuous civilizations in the world, it has also become one of the greatest industrial nations. This package explores India's heritage, its people, and the traumatic changes of the 20th century. Contents include: Introduction, Climate, The Land, Cities, Agriculture, Rural Life, History, Religions, Dress, Food,…

Semaan, Leslie; Lightman, Kathleen

121

India  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The fundamental ethical principles that govern the practice of genetic medicine are patient autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence,\\u000a and justice. In India and other developing countries the application of these principles is influenced by poverty and numerous\\u000a social factors. Table 1 compares the demographic indicators in India with those in Thailand, Japan, US, and UK (UNICEF, 1998). It emphasizes the huge population

I. C. Verma; Kusum Verma

122

Movement Actors in the Education Bureaucracy: The Figured World of Activity Based Learning in Tamil Nadu  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tamil Nadu has gained international recognition for reforming its government school classrooms into active, child-centered learning environments. Our exploration of the history of the Activity Based Learning movement suggests that this reform was achieved by social movement actors serving in and through the state's administration.…

Niesz, Tricia; Krishnamurthy, Ramchandar

2014-01-01

123

India's archive of past massive erosional events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami event devastated a number of major coastal regions in South Asia, including the Tamil Nadu coast of India. In many areas on the east coast of India, distinct deposits of tsunami sands drape the landscape and overlie the muddy deposits of the coastal plain. Using erosional, as well as depositional features of the 2004 tsunami as proxy for past events, we present new subsurface evidence of past erosional events along the south-east coast of India.

Nair, R. R.

2009-12-01

124

Private Provision of Elementary Education in India: Findings of a Survey in Eight States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Private sector growth in education is the new neo-liberal mantra. Based on data generated by a representative sample survey in eight states, six of which account for two-thirds of the children out of school in India, this paper examines the private sector in elementary education in India, and compares its characteristics with government schools.…

Mehrotra, Santosh; Panchamukhi, Parthasarthi R.

2006-01-01

125

Subsurface Images Shed Light on Past Tsunamis in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caused massive devastation and left a lasting impact along many of the major coastal regions in South Asia, including the coast of Tamil Nadu, a state in the southeastern tip of India. Following the event, sand deposits draped the low-lying areas and buried the muddy sediments of the coastal plain [Babu et al., 2007; Srinivasalu et al., 2007]. In addition, erosional features related to the tsunami, such as channels and scarps, have been observed along many parts of the coast (Figure 1a). This tsunami, along with a recorded history of intense monsoons, has highlighted the need for focused research on the role of extreme events in shaping the geological character of India's coastal plains.

Nair, Rajesh R.; Buynevich, Ilya; Goble, Ronald J.; Srinivasan, P.; Murthy, S. G. N.; Kandpal, S. C.; Lakshmi, C. S. Vijaya; Trivedi, D.

2010-12-01

126

Impact of targeted interventions on heterosexual transmission of HIV in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Targeted interventions (TIs) have been a major strategy for HIV prevention in India. We evaluated the impact of TIs on HIV\\u000a prevalence in high HIV prevalence southern states (Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A quasi-experimental approach was used to retrospectively compare changes in HIV prevalence according to the intensity of\\u000a targeted intervention implementation. Condom gap (number of condoms

Rajesh Kumar; Sanjay M Mehendale; Samiran Panda; S Venkatesh; PVM Lakshmi; Manmeet Kaur; Shankar Prinja; Tarundeep Singh; Navkiran K Virdi; Pankaj Bahuguna; Arun K Sharma; Samiksha Singh; Sheela V Godbole; Arun Risbud; Boymkesh Manna; V Thirumugal; Tarun Roy; Ruchi Sogarwal; Nilesh D Pawar

2011-01-01

127

Parenting Attitudes of Asian Indian Mothers Living in the United States and in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the parenting attitudes of Asian Indian mothers living in the United States with those living in India. Fifty seven mothers participated in the study (Living in the United States=23, Living in India=34). The parenting attitudes of the mothers were measured using the Adolescent-Adult Parenting Inventory (AAPI, Bavolek, 1984). The AAPI has four subscales: (a) Reversing Parent-Child Family

Saigeetha Jambunathan; Kenneth Counselman

2002-01-01

128

The Efficiency of States and Cities: Is There a Case for Public Land Leasing and Sales to Finance India.s Cities?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study an attempt has been made to assess the potential of land as a municipal financing tool in four Indian cities, to enable better public service delivery and attainment of the MDGs. The institutional arrangements for land use are fragmented in India.s cities between the urban development authorities, which are state agencies, and the cities. To determine whether

Kala Seetharam Sridhar

2011-01-01

129

Effects of State-level Public Spending on Health on the mortality Probability in India  

PubMed Central

This study uses the second National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2) of India to estimate the effect of state-level public health spending on mortality across all age groups, controlling for individual, household, and state-level covariates. We use a state’s gross fiscal deficit as an instrument for its health spending. Our study shows a 10 % increase in public spending on health in India decreases the average probability of death by about 2%, with effects mainly on the young, the elderly, and women. Other major factors affecting mortality are rural residence, household poverty, and access to toilet facilities.

Farahani, M; Subramanian, SV; Canning, D

2011-01-01

130

Enabling Efficient, Responsive, and Resilient Buildings: Collaboration Between the United States and India  

SciTech Connect

The United States and India have among the largest economies in the world, and they continue to work together to address current and future challenges in reliable electricity supply. The acceleration to efficient, grid-responsive, resilient buildings represents a key energy security objective for federal and state agencies in both countries. The weaknesses in the Indian grid system were manifest in 2012, in the country’s worst blackout, which jeopardized the lives of half of India’s 1.2 billion people. While both countries are investing significantly in power sector reform, India, by virtue of its colossal growth rate in commercial energy intensity and commercial floor space, is better placed than the United States to integrate and test state-of-art Smart Grid technologies in its future grid-responsive commercial buildings. This paper presents a roadmap of technical collaboration between the research organizations, and public-private stakeholders in both countries to accelerate the building-to-grid integration through pilot studies in India.

Basu, Chandrayee; Ghatikar, Girish

2013-09-25

131

Why has economic growth been more pro-poor in some states of India than others?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use 20 household surveys for India's 15 major states spanning 1960–1994 to study how the sectoral composition of economic growth and initial conditions interact to influence how much growth reduced consumption poverty. The elasticities of measured poverty to farm yields and development spending did not differ significantly across states. But the elasticities of poverty to (urban and rural) non-farm

Martin Ravallion; Gaurav Datt

2002-01-01

132

Modeling Vulnerability and Resilience to Climate Change: A Case Study of India and Indian States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vulnerability of India and Indian states to climate change was assessed using the Vulnerability-Resilience Indicator Prototype (VRIP). The model was adapted from the global\\/country version to account for Indian dietary practices and data availability with regard to freshwater resources. Results (scaled to world values) show nine Indian states to be moderately resilient to climate change, principally because of low

Antoinette L. Brenkert; Elizabeth L. Malone

2005-01-01

133

Multiple personality in India: comparison with hysterical possession state.  

PubMed

This article reports probably the first case of multiple personality from India and compares and contrasts it with the hysterical possession syndrome. Attention is drawn to the apparent rarity of multiple personality in contrast to the great prevalence of the possession syndrome in India (and other underdeveloped societies), while the reverse applies to Western Europe and North America. It is postulated that the disparity of frequency between the two manifestations of personal-identity disturbance derives from certain basic cultural differences. It is argued that polytheism and belief in reincarnation and spirits may be related to the possession syndrome, whereas high social approval of deliberate role-playing may foster the multiple personality syndrome. PMID:7258407

Varma, V K; Bouri, M; Wig, N N

1981-01-01

134

11Year Warm Cloud Modification Experiment in Maharashtra State, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A warm cloud modification experiment was carried out in an area of 4800 Sq.Km in the Pune region,India, during the 11-summer monsoon (June-September) seasons (1973-74, 1976, 1979-86). A double-area cross-over design with area randomization was adopted and an instrumented aircraft was used for seeding and cloud physical measurements. Finely pulverised salt (sodium chloride) particles were released into the monsoon clouds

A. S. R. Murty

1998-01-01

135

Poverty and the state of nutrition in India.  

PubMed

India is often thought of as a development paradox with relatively high economic growth rates in the past few years, but with lower progress in areas of life expectancy, education and standard of living. While serious inequalities in growth, development and opportunity explain the illusion of the paradox at the country level, still, a significant proportion of the world's poor live in India, as do a significant proportion of the world's malnourished children. Poverty and undernutrition coexist, and poor dietary quality is associated with poor childhood growth, as well as significant micronutrient deficiencies. Food security is particularly vulnerable to changes in the economic scenario and to inequities in wealth distribution. Migration from rural to urban settings with a large informal employment sector also ensures that migrants continue to live in food insecure situations. While food production has for the most part kept pace with the increasing population, it has been with regard to cereal rather than of pulses and millet production. Oil seeds, sugar cane and horticultural crops, along with non-food crops are also being promoted, which do not address nutrition security, and, coupled with the increase in the consumption of pre-prepared food, may indeed predispose towards the double burden of malnutrition. Access to food is also particularly susceptible to poverty and inequality. Many strategies and policies have been proposed to counter undernutrition in India, but their implementation has not been uniform, and it is still too early to assess their lasting impact at scale. PMID:23945402

Varadharajan, Kiruba S; Thomas, Tinku; Kurpad, Anura V

2013-01-01

136

State of offsite construction in India-Drivers and barriers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid growth of the construction industry in India has influenced key players in the industry to adopt alternative technologies addressing time, cost and quality. The rising demand in housing, infrastructure and other facilities have further highlighted the need for the construction industry to look at adopting alternate building technologies. Offsite construction has evolved as a panacea to dealing with the under-supply and poor quality in the current age construction industry. Several offsite techniques have been adopted by the construction sector. Although, different forms of offsite techniques have been around for a while but their uptake has been low in the Indian context. This paper presents the perceptions about offsite construction in India and highlights some of the barriers and drivers facing the Indian construction industry. The data was gathered through a survey of 17 high level managers from some of the largest stakeholder organizations of the construction sector in India. The influence of time and cost has been highlighted as a major factor fuelling the adoption of offsite construction. However, the influence of current planning systems and the need for a paradigm shift are some of the prominent barriers towards the adoption of offsite techniques.

Arif, M.; Bendi, D.; Sawhney, A.; Iyer, K. C.

2012-05-01

137

11Year Warm Cloud Modification Experiment in Maharashtra State, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A warm cloud modification experiment was carried out in an area of 4800 Sq.Km\\u000ain the Pune region,India, during the 11-summer monsoon (June-September) seasons\\u000a(1973-74, 1976, 1979-86). A double-area cross-over design with area\\u000arandomization was adopted and an instrumented aircraft was used for seeding and\\u000acloud physical measurements. Finely pulverised salt (sodium chloride) particles\\u000awere released into the monsoon clouds

1998-01-01

138

Women's Autonomy in India and Pakistan: The Influence of Religion and Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article compares the lives of women and explores dimensions of their autonomy in different regions of South Asia-Punjab in Pakistan, and Uttar Pradesh in north India and Tamil Nadu in south India. It explores the contextual factors underlying observed differences and assesses the extent to which these differences could be attributed to religion, nationality, or north-south cultural distinctions. Findings

Shireen J. Jejeebhoy; Zeba A. Sathar

2001-01-01

139

A Global Investigation of Child Labor: Case Studies from India, Uganda, and the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide was developed to help students gain a broader perspective about child labor and become more familiar with the issues, controversies, and debates that surround it. Three case studies are highlighted: (1) a street child in India; (2) child soldiers in Uganda; and (3) a migrant farm worker child in the United States. Each case…

Lai, Selena

140

An epidemiological study of sheep pox infection in Karnataka state, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Analysis of retrospective quantitative sheep pox epidemiological data from the Government Animal Husbandry Department, Karnataka, India, covering 24 years revealed significant information on sheep pox. The state has a dense sheep population including some valuable breeds. Data revealed the endemicity of the disease: there were a considerable number of outbreaks and attacks, high mortality and case fatality rates and

V. Bhanuprakash; G. Krishnappa; R. N. Srinivasa Gowda; B. K. Indrani

2005-01-01

141

Individual and Relational Conceptions of Self in India and the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comparison involving individuals in urban areas of India and the United States reveals both individual and relational concepts of self in each sample. However, cultural differences arose in specific ways in which individual and relational concepts are constructed. (Contains 7 tables and 2 figures.)

Mascolo, Michael F.; Misra, Girishwar; Rapisardi, Christopher

2004-01-01

142

Suicide Notes from India and the United States: A Thematic Comparison  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suicide is a global concern, hence, cross-cultural research ought to be important; yet, there is a paucity of cross-cultural study in suicidology. This study sought to investigate suicide notes drawn from India and the United States, as these countries have similar suicide rates but markedly different cultures. A thematic or theoretical-conceptual…

Leenaars, Antoon A.; Girdhar, Shalina; Dogra, T. D.; Wenckstern, Susanne; Leenaars, Lindsey

2010-01-01

143

Human Resource Practices in Hotels: A Study from the Tourist State of Uttrakhand, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human Resource Management, an integral part of an organization, often ensures the success of the shared relationship between employees and an organization by identifying and satisfying the needs of the employees beginning with recruitment and continuing throughout their career. This article aims to analyze the Human Resource practices in hotels in the mountainous state of Uttarakhand, India located in the

S. C. Bagri; Suresh Babu; Mohit Kukreti

2010-01-01

144

Community composition, structure and management of subtropical vegetation of forests in Meghalaya State, northeast India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was conducted in three major forest types in Meghalaya State, northeast India, to characterise soil properties, community composition, tree population structure and management. Random sampling was conducted in each representative forest patch for community and soil analysis. Soils of pine forest were more acidic and relatively low in nutrients compared to evergreen and semi-evergreen forests. Tree species richness

O. P. Tripathi; R. S. Tripathi

2010-01-01

145

Cost-effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions in Andhra Pradesh state of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Information on cost-effectiveness of the range of HIV prevention interventions is a useful contributor to decisions on the best use of resources to prevent HIV. We conducted this assessment for the state of Andhra Pradesh that has the highest HIV burden in India. METHODS: Based on data from a representative sample of 128 public-funded HIV prevention programs of 14

Lalit Dandona; SG Prem Kumar; G Anil Kumar; Rakhi Dandona

2010-01-01

146

Ethanoveterinary Studies Amoung Farmers in Dindigul District Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 Abstract: The codified medical systems include Ayurveda, Siddha, Sowa-rigpa and Unani systems of medicine, with their sophisticated theoretical foundations. The vast knowledge in the codified traditions has been documented in tens of thousands of medical manuscripts. It is not commonly known that these systems cover all basic aspects and branches of medicine, from general medicine to specialised fields like

V. Balakrishnan; J. Philip Robinson; A. Manickasamy; K. C. Ravindran

147

Emissions from India's transport sector: Statewise synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A decentralized emission inventories are prepared for road transport sector of India in order to design and implement suitable technologies and policies for appropriate mitigation measures. Globalization and liberalization policies of the government in 90's have increased the number of road vehicles nearly 92.6% from 1980-1981 to 2003-2004. These vehicles mainly consume non-renewable fossil fuels, and are a major contributor of green house gases, particularly CO 2 emission. This paper focuses on the statewise road transport emissions (CO 2, CH 4, CO, NO x, N 2O, SO 2, PM and HC), using region specific mass emission factors for each type of vehicles. The country level emissions (CO 2, CH 4, CO, NO x, N 2O, SO 2 and NMVOC) are calculated for railways, shipping and airway, based on fuel types. In India, transport sector emits an estimated 258.10 Tg of CO 2, of which 94.5% was contributed by road transport (2003-2004). Among all the states and Union Territories, Maharashtra's contribution is the largest, 28.85 Tg (11.8%) of CO 2, followed by Tamil Nadu 26.41 Tg (10.8%), Gujarat 23.31 Tg (9.6%), Uttar Pradesh 17.42 Tg (7.1%), Rajasthan 15.17 Tg (6.22%) and, Karnataka 15.09 Tg (6.19%). These six states account for 51.8% of the CO 2 emissions from road transport.

Ramachandra, T. V.; Shwetmala

148

Radiation safety concerns and diagnostic reference levels for computed tomography scanners in Tamil Nadu  

PubMed Central

Radiation safety in computed tomography (CT) scanners is of concern due its widespread use in the field of radiological imaging. This study intends to evaluate radiation doses imparted to patients undergoing thorax, abdomen and pelvic CT examinations and formulate regional diagnostic reference levels (DRL) in Tamil Nadu, South India. In-site CT dose measurement was performed in 127 CT scanners in Tamil Nadu for a period of 2 years as a part of the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB)-funded project. Out of the 127 CT scanners,13 were conventional; 53 single-slice helical scanners (SSHS); 44 multislice CT (MSCT) scanners; and 17 refurbished scanners. CT dose index (CTDI) was measured using a 32-cm polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-body phantom in each CT scanner. Dose length product (DLP) for different anatomical regions was generated using CTDI values. The regional DRLs for thorax, abdomen and pelvis examinations were 557, 521 and 294 mGy cm, respectively. The mean effective dose was estimated using the DLP values and was found to be 8.04, 6.69 and 4.79 mSv for thorax, abdomen and pelvic CT examinations, respectively. The establishment of DRLs in this study is the first step towards optimization of CT doses in the Indian context.

Livingstone, Roshan S.; Dinakaran, Paul M.

2011-01-01

149

Whole-Genome Sequence of a Classical Swine Fever Virus Isolated from the Uttarakhand State of India  

PubMed Central

We report the first complete genome sequence of a classical swine fever (CSF) virus of subgenotype 2.2. The virus (CSFV/IND/UK/LAL-290) was isolated from the Uttarakhand state of India from a backyard pig suspected of having CSF. This genome sequence will give useful insight for future molecular epidemiological studies and the development of an effective vaccine in India.

Kumar, Ravi; Chandra, Tribhuwan; Thapliyal, Ashish; Muthuchelvan, Dhanavelu; Sudhakar, Shashi Bhushan; Sharma, Kuldeep; Saxena, Arpit; Raut, Sachin D.; Singh, Vinod Kumar; Ahmad, Zubair; Kumar, Ajay; Chaudhary, Dheeraj; Singh, Raj Kumar; Pandey, Awadh Bihari

2014-01-01

150

Antibacterial activity of selected ethnomedicinal plants from South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo screen the antimicrobial potential of three ethnomedicinal plants Chassalia curviflora Thw. (C. curviflora), Cyclea peltata Hook. F. & Thomson (C. peltata) and Euphorbia hirta L (E. hirta) used in folk medicines in Aarukani hills Kani tribe, Tamil Nadu, India against human bacterial pathogens.

Rajendran Darling Anpin Raja; Solomon Jeeva; Juststella Wilfred Prakash; Johnson Marimuthu Antonisamy; Varaprasadham Irudayaraj

2011-01-01

151

Genetic counselling in tribals in India  

PubMed Central

Genetic counselling in tribals unlike general population residing in cities and near villages is a difficult task due of their lower literacy and poor socio-economic status. However, sustained effort is essential with a close interaction in the local language, certain misbeliefs need to be removed gradually taking into account their socio-cultural background. The present communication deals with our experience in counselling for haemoglobinopathies during Neonatal Screening Programme undertaken for sickle cell disease in Kalahandi district of Orissa and Community Screening Programmes in primitive tribes of India in four States viz. Orissa, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra. Counselling during neonatal screening programme was very well accepted demonstrating the benefit to the small babies as regards the morbidity. Premarital marriage counselling was also accepted by them. The success rate as followed up for 5 years is almost 50 per cent, the limitation being long follow up. Genetic counselling in these areas has to be continuous to achieve success and therefore the need for setting up of permanent centres in the tribal areas in India.

Mohanty, Dipika; Das, Kishalaya

2011-01-01

152

Under-Five Mortality in High Focus States in India: A District Level Geospatial Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background This paper examines if, when controlling for biophysical and geographical variables (including rainfall, productivity of agricultural lands, topography/temperature, and market access through road networks), socioeconomic and health care indicators help to explain variations in the under-five mortality rate across districts from nine high focus states in India. The literature on this subject is inconclusive because the survey data, upon which most studies of child mortality rely, rarely include variables that measure these factors. This paper introduces these variables into an analysis of 284 districts from nine high focus states in India. Methodology/Principal Findings Information on the mortality indicator was accessed from the recently conducted Annual Health Survey of 2011 and other socioeconomic and geographic variables from Census 2011, District Level Household and Facility Survey (2007–08), Department of Economics and Statistics Divisions of the concerned states. Displaying high spatial dependence (spatial autocorrelation) in the mortality indicator (outcome variable) and its possible predictors used in the analysis, the paper uses the Spatial-Error Model in an effort to negate or reduce the spatial dependence in model parameters. The results evince that the coverage gap index (a mixed indicator of district wise coverage of reproductive and child health services), female literacy, urbanization, economic status, the number of newborn care provided in Primary Health Centers in the district transpired as significant correlates of under-five mortality in the nine high focus states in India. The study identifies three clusters with high under-five mortality rate including 30 districts, and advocates urgent attention. Conclusion Even after controlling the possible biophysical and geographical variables, the study reveals that the health program initiatives have a major role to play in reducing under-five mortality rate in the high focus states in India.

Kumar, Chandan; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Rai, Rajesh Kumar

2012-01-01

153

Diabetes Prevalence and its Risk Factors in Rural Area of Tamil Nadu  

PubMed Central

Objective: To estimate the usefulness of the Indian diabetes risk score for detecting undiagnosed diabetes in the rural area of Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in the field practice area of rural health centers (Chunampett and Annechikuppam, Tamil Nadu), covering a population of 35000 from February to March 2008 by using a predesigned and pretested protocol to find out the prevalence and the risk of diabetes mellitus in general population by using Indian diabetes risk score. Results: 1936 respondents comprising 1167 (60.27%) females and 769 (39.73%) males were studied. Majority 1203 (62.50%) were Hindus. 1220 (63.%) had studied up to higher secondary. 1200 (62%) belonged to lower and lower-middle socio-economic class. A large number of the subjects 948 (50%) were below 35 years of age. Most of the respondents 1411 (73%) indulged in mild to moderate physical activity. 1715 (87.91%) had no family history of diabetes mellitus. 750 (39.64%) individuals were in the overweight category (>25 BMI). Out of these overweight persons, 64% had high diabetic risk score. It is observed that chances of high diabetic score increase with the increase in BMI. Prevalence of diabetes in studied population was 5.99%; out of these, 56% known cases of diabetes mellitus had high (>60) IDRS. Co-relation between BMI and IDRS shows that, if BMI increases from less than 18.50 to more than 30, chances of high risk for developing diabetes mellitus also significantly increase. Conclusions: This study estimates the usefulness of simplified Indian diabetes risk score for identifying undiagnosed high risk diabetic subjects in India. This simplified diabetes risk score has categorized the risk factors based on their severity. Use of the IDRS can make mass screening for undiagnosed diabetes in India more cost effective.

Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Singh, Zile; Purty, Anil J; Kar, M; Vedapriya, DR; Mahajan, P; Cherian, J

2010-01-01

154

Trends in health and health inequalities among major states of India: assessing progress through convergence models.  

PubMed

Convergence in health and health inequalities reflects not only a sense of equity, but also provides a critical assessment tool for monitoring the health progress of differently placed individuals. This study examines convergence hypothesis for health and health inequalities across major Indian states, using both standard and cutting-edge convergence metrics. The findings lend support to the convergence in average health status among the states and the socioeconomic group of India, examined through select health indicators. However, results also suggest a setback in convergence in decline of health inequalities in recent times, particularly in life expectancy at birth, child immunization and underweight. Evidence signals that from the late 1990s, convergence in decline of health inequalities are replaced by emerging divergence. This paper contributes to health policy and planning by identifying areas where, India needs to work to achieve efficiency with equity in health status across geographical divisions and social groups. PMID:23442747

Goli, Srinivas; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam

2014-04-01

155

Application of wheat yield model to United States and India. [Great Plains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The wheat yield model was applied to the major wheat-growing areas of the US and India. In the US Great Plains, estimates from the winter and spring wheat models agreed closely with USDA-SRS values in years with the lowest yields, but underestimated in years with the highest yields. Application to the Eastern Plains and Northwest indicated the importance of cultural factors, as well as meteorological ones in the model. It also demonstrated that the model could be used, in conjunction with USDA-SRRS estimates, to estimate yield losses due to factors not included in the model, particularly diseases and freezes. A fixed crop calendar for India was built from a limited amount of available plot data from that country. Application of the yield model gave measurable evidence that yield variation from state to state was due to different mixes of levels of meteorological and cultural factors.

Feyerherm, A. M. (principal investigator)

1977-01-01

156

Groundwater Pollution Around an Industrial Area in the Coastal Stretch of Maharashtra State, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this paper is to examine pollution threat, especially to the groundwater resources, around Tarapur industrial\\u000a area (also called the Tarapur MIDC area) located on the Arabian Sea Coast in Thane District of Maharashtra State, India and\\u000a suggest remedial measures that may also be relevant to other industrial areas on the Indian Sea Coast. One hundred and

Pradeep K. Naik; Biranchi N. Dehury; Arun N. Tiwari

2007-01-01

157

Uncertainty in resilience to climate change in India and Indian states  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study builds on an earlier analysis of resilience of India and Indian states to climate change. The previous study (Brenkert\\u000a and Malone, Clim Change 72:57–102, 2005) assessed current resilience; this research uses the Vulnerability–Resilience Indicators Model (VRIM) to project resilience\\u000a to 2095 and to perform an uncertainty analysis on the deterministic results. Projections utilized two SRES-based scenarios,\\u000a one with

Elizabeth L. Malone; Antoinette L. Brenkert

2008-01-01

158

Under-Five Mortality in High Focus States in India: A District Level Geospatial Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThis paper examines if, when controlling for biophysical and geographical variables (including rainfall, productivity of agricultural lands, topography\\/temperature, and market access through road networks), socioeconomic and health care indicators help to explain variations in the under-five mortality rate across districts from nine high focus states in India. The literature on this subject is inconclusive because the survey data, upon which

Chandan Kumar; Prashant Kumar Singh; Rajesh Kumar Rai

2012-01-01

159

Risk Assessment for Natural Uranium in Subsurface Water of Punjab State, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traces of uranium were measured by laser fluorimeter in 235 subsurface water samples collected from four districts of Punjab state in India. The concentration of U in water samples ranged between <2–644 ?g\\/L with a mean value of 73.1 ?g\\/L. The radiological risk was observed to be in the range of 5.55 × 10–1.78 × 10 with a mean value

Ajay Kumar; N. Usha; P. D. Sawant; R. M. Tripathi; Sanu S. Raj; Manish Mishra; Sabyasachi Rout; P. Supreeta; Jaspal Singh; Sanjeev Kumar; H. S. Kushwaha

2011-01-01

160

Study of Blood-transfusion Services in Maharashtra and Gujarat States, India  

PubMed Central

Blood-transfusion services are vital to maternal health because haemorrhage and anaemia are major causes of maternal death in South Asia. Unfortunately, due to continued governmental negligence, blood-transfusion services in India are a highly-fragmented mix of competing independent and hospital-based blood-banks, serving the needs of urban populations. This paper aims to understand the existing systems of blood-transfusion services in India focusing on Maharashtra and Gujarat states. A mix of methodologies, including literature review (including government documents), analysis of management information system data, and interviews with key officials was used. Results of analysis showed that there are many managerial challenges in blood-transfusion services, which calls for strengthening the planning and monitoring of these services. Maharashtra provides a good model for improvement. Unless this is done, access to blood in rural areas may remain poor.

Ramani, K.V.; Govil, Dipti

2009-01-01

161

Experiences of HIV Positive Mothers From Rural South India during Intra-Natal Period  

PubMed Central

Context: Tamil Nadu comes under group I high prevalence state, with less than 1% prevalence of HIV infection in antenatal women but above 5% prevalence in high risk group. One of the ways to control HIV/AIDS in India is through Prevention of Parent to Child Transmission (PPTCT), the success of which lies in identifying pregnant women with HIV infection. But due to the stigma against HIV/AIDS among health care providers, HIV positive patients face discrimination in the health sector. Aims: To explore the difficulties faced by rural HIV positive mothers during the intra-natal period. Methods: A descriptive qualitative study was conducted among HIV positive mothers, in Gingee block of Villupuram district, Tamil Nadu, India. All the mothers who tested positive between June 2006 and May 2010 were interviewed in-depth using an interview guide. Results: There were 21 HIV positive mothers during this period, 19 of whom gave consent. Majority of the mothers were <30 years of age from families belonging to lower socio-economic class. The discriminations faced from the health staff was avoidance of physical examination, rude behaviour like throwing of records on the face, discriminatory comments, unnecessary referrals and even refusal to provide intra-partum services. The negative attitude of the staff made a few mothers to deliver in some other institution without disclosing their HIV status. Conclusion: Stigma among health care providers towards HIV positive pregnant women acts as a barrier for improving access to PPTCT services in India and it poses high risk to the mothers, babies and also the health care providers. There is a pressing need to improve access to quality PPTCT services especially during the intranatal period.

Subramaniyan, Anbarasi; Sarkar, Sonali; Roy, Gautam; Lakshminarayanan, Subitha

2013-01-01

162

Worlds apart 1: Tamil Nadu and Madhya Pradesh. Reaping rewards of social development.  

PubMed

Tamil Nadu had a 1991 annual growth rate of 1.1% compared to a rate of over 2% in the northern states of Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh. The lower fertility and mortality in Tamil Nadu was achieved through a sustained, multifaceted social and economic effort and through promotion, reach, and quality of family planning in a short time period. Political leadership and media efforts since the 1960s have strengthened support for the small family norm, later marriage, and improved status of women. Infrastructure development includes roads and water supplies in every village, rural electrification, and a government center in every village. Tamil Nadu devotes over 33% of its total budget to health and education. Special emphasis was placed on a program initiated in 1982 to provide a nutritious midday meal in school to every child living in poverty. In 1994, this program cost Rs. 3350. The result has been increasing school enrollment, greater retention of female children, reductions in malnutrition, and opportunities for local part-time employment and increased social status in the community. In some locations, the meal program includes day care centers and meals for the aged. Another social program provides cash loans of Rs. 5000 to couples at first marriage who are over the age of 18 years with a completed high school degree. Rs. 300 are provided for nutritional support for the first two pregnancies. Rs. 10,000 are also given to girls whose family income is under Rs. 12,000 a year. Financial assistance is available for widows who remarry and for intercaste marriages. A new program provides a gold ring, educational expenses, and Rs. 20 for families with an only girl child or two girl children and which accept a permanent method of family planning. A negligible 20,000 couples joined the program, although about 15% of the total population was eligible. 50-55% of women receive state subsidies and loans. Collectives exist in 12,000 women's groups. Tamil Nadu's chief administrator prepared a 10-point program for the advancement of women. Some feminist groups have challenged the official presentation of government successes because of their concern that demographic successes would be achieved at the expense of care and respect for human aspects of population. PMID:12345833

Chhabra, R

1994-01-01

163

India Today: The Jain Commission Report  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

_India Today_ has placed online the "Interim Report of The Jain Commission of Inquiry Headed by Justice M C Jain Former Chief Justice Delhi High Court on 'The Assassination of Shri Rajiv Gandhi Former Prime Minister of India on 21st May, 1991 at Sriperumbudur'." Sections of the Jain Commission Report have been withheld for security reasons and annexures have not been included because these constitute copies of press clippings, various affidavits, and letters. Volume titles include: "Commission and its proceedings," "Threats to Shri Rajiv Gandhi and his security," and "Growth of Sri Lankan Tamil Militancy in Tamil Nadu." The site can be search via a keyword search engine.

1997-01-01

164

Genetic polymorphism of six DNA loci in six population groups of India.  

PubMed

The genetic profile based on autosomal markers, four microsatellite DNA markers (D8S315, FES, D8S592, and D2S1328) and two minisatellite DNA markers (TPMT and PDGFA), were analyzed in six endogamous populations to examine the effect of geographic and linguistic affiliation on the genetic affinities among the groups. The six populations are from three different states of India and are linguistically different. Marathas from western India speak Marathi, an Indo-European language. Arayas, Muslims, Ezhavas, and Nairs from Kerala state of South India speak Malayalam, and Iyers from Tamil Nadu state speak Tamil. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples of random, normal, healthy individuals. Locus-specific PCR amplification was carried out, followed by electrophoresis of the amplicons and genotyping. All the loci were highly polymorphic and followed Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, except for loci D8S315 and PDGFA in Iyers and Marathas, respectively. All six loci had high heterozygosity (average heterozygosity ranged from 0.73 to 0.76) and high polymorphism information content (0.57-0.90). The extent of gene differentiation among the six populations (G(ST) = 0.030) was greater than that for four Kerala populations (G(ST) = 0.011), suggesting proximity between the four Kerala populations. This result conforms with the cultural and linguistic background of the populations. The extent of diversity found among the populations probably resulted from the strict endogamous practices that they follow. PMID:18075006

Ahmad, Shazia; Seshadri, M

2007-08-01

165

India: Bihar  

article title:  MISR Data Reveal Immense Pollution Pool over Bihar, India     ... satellite data have discovered an immense wintertime pool of pollution over the northern Indian state of Bihar. The discovery was made by ...

2013-04-16

166

Industrialization and the Processes of Stratification in Rural Societies: A Comparison of Rural India and Rural United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Status attainment processes of the experienced civilian labor force of rural India and rural United States were analyzed by using the Blau-Duncan model, for the first time employing that model to compare rural sectors of an agrarian society with those in an industrial society. United States data were obtained from the 1962 Occupational Changes in…

Sharda, Bam Dev; Elder, Joseph W.

167

Captured by Cotton: Exploited Dalit Girls Produce Garments in India for European and US Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report, the widespread use of the Sumangali Scheme in Tamil Nadu is illustrated by four case studies of such vertically integrated enterprises of which the European and US buyers were identified: Bannari Amman Group, Eastman Exports, KPR Mill, and SSM India. This report aims to provide civil society organisations, policy makers, companies and consumers with clear examples of

HAQ Centre for Child Rights HAQCRC

2011-01-01

168

Prevention of Diabetes in Rural India with a Telemedicine Intervention  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes care is not presently available, accessible, or affordable to people living in rural areas in developing countries, such as India. The Chunampet Rural Diabetes Prevention Project (CRDPP) was conceived with the aim of implementing comprehensive diabetes screening, prevention, and treatment using a combination of telemedicine and personalized care in rural India. Methods This project was undertaken in a cluster of 42 villages in and around the Chunampet village in the state of Tamil Nadu in southern India. A telemedicine van was used to screen for diabetes and its complications using retinal photography, Doppler imaging, biothesiometry, and electrocardiography using standardized techniques. A rural diabetes center was set up to provide basic diabetes care. Results Of the total 27,014 adult population living in 42 villages, 23,380 (86.5%) were screened for diabetes, of which 1138 (4.9%) had diabetes and 3410 (14.6%) had prediabetes. A total of 1001 diabetes subjects were screened for complications (response rate of 88.0%). Diabetic retinopathy was detected in 18.2%, neuropathy in 30.9%, microalbuminuria in 24.3%, peripheral vascular disease in 7.3%, and coronary artery disease in 10.8%. The mean hemoglobin A1c levels among the diabetes subjects in the whole community decreased from 9.3 ± 2.6% to 8.5 ± 2.4% within 1 year. Less than 5% of patients needed referral for further management to the tertiary diabetes hospital in Chennai. Conclusions The Chunampet Rural Diabetes Prevention Project is a successful model for screening and for delivery of diabetes health care and prevention to underserved rural areas in developing countries such as India.

Mohan, Viswanathan; Deepa, Mohan; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Prathiba, Venkat; Datta, Manjula; Sethuraman, Ravikumar; Rakesh, Hari; Sucharita, Yarlagadda; Webster, Premila; Allender, Steven; Kapur, Anil; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan

2012-01-01

169

India's population--what is being done?  

PubMed

Thus far, India's efforts to curtail population growth have consistently failed to meet official targets. The crude birthrate (per 1000 population per year) is highest in the belt of 6 Hindi-speaking states, which include Rajasthan (40), Madhya Pradesh (38.5), Uttar Pradesh (38.4), Bihar (37.2), and Haryana (35.9). The rates are slightly lower in the other large North Indian States. The rate is 33.6 for India as a whole according to 1983 data. 3 of the South Indian states have the lowest crude birthrates: Kamataka (28.7), Tamil Nadu (27.8), and Kerata (24.9). Each of India's successive Five Year Plans gave increasingly more emphasis to population control, but the key tactical features have stayed the same. Population control comes under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, with family planning services provided through the free health delivery system. The main strategy continues to be to persuade people on an individual basis to accept the small family norm by a wide range of advertising and educational efforts. As of 1986, the family planning establishment had grown to gigantic proportions, employing half a million people in the family planning and health services. The Five Year Plan initiated in July 1985 continues the same approach but with added features. "Green cards" are given to those who accept sterilization after 2 children, allowing them a wide range of benefits such as low interest housing loans, preference in getting housing plots and enterprise loans, and salary increases for government employees. Health workers and other government employees have quotas of persons to motivate for contraceptive acceptance. They receive a small monetary incentive, which they often give to the acceptors so they can maintain their quotas and keep their jobs. The 1986 Revised Strategy for Family Planning is essentially more of the same with family planning more integrated with the health delivery system. Foreign and international donor agencies frequently have placed contradictory pressures on the Indian government, according to their own ideological tendencies. The family planning program is essential despite its faults, which are: bypassing of the natural community; and excessive medicalization and linkage with the health delivery system. In India there is an increasing realization that the achievements of the rural development and family planning programs are marginal relative to the amount of resources committed to them. This is because of the bureaucratic, from-the-top-down bias in which the physical community is neglected. PMID:12315281

Maloney, C

1986-01-01

170

Globalisation of birth markets: a case study of assisted reproductive technologies in India  

PubMed Central

The escalation of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs) in India into a veritable fertility industry is the result of a multitude of reasons. This paper places the bio-genetic industry within the larger political economy framework of globalisation and privatisation, thus employing a framework that is often omitted from discussions on ARTs, but has direct and significant bearings on the ART industry in India. As markets for human organs, tissues and reproductive body parts experience unprecedented growth, the limits of what can or should be bought and sold continue to be pushed. As such, bodies have emerged as sale-worthy economic capital. Commercial flows of reproductive material create and deploy the division of the body into parts over which ownership is claimed, in the process following 'modern routes of capital' and raising issues of structural inequality. This paper presents a brief picture of India's fertility industry with specific focus on its ground-level operation, nature and growth. It aims to explore the industry dimensions of ARTs, by highlighting the macro picture of health care markets and medical tourism in India, the proliferation of the ART industry, market features such as the social imperative to mother, costs, promotion and marketing, unverified claims, inflated success rates, deals and offers, actors and collaborations in the field, and finally, the absence of standards. This paper presents findings from the research 'Constructing Conceptions: The Mapping of Assisted Reproductive Technologies in India', by Sama, a Delhi-based resource group working on gender, health and rights. This research was conducted from 2008 to 2010 in the three states of Uttar Pradesh, Orissa and Tamil Nadu in India, and is one of the first of its kind, highlighting unethical medical practices and making a case for the regulation of the ART industry. As such, it forms a significant part of Sama's ongoing work on women and technologies, particularly policy-level advocacy.

2011-01-01

171

Challenging Ties between State and Tobacco Industry: Advocacy Lessons from India  

PubMed Central

Background: Globally, tobacco use is a major public health concern given its huge morbidity and mortality burden that is inequitably high in low- and middle-income countries. The World Health Organization has suggested banning the advertisement, promotion and sponsorship of tobacco. However, governments in some countries, including India, are either directly engaged in tobacco industry operations or have a mandate to promote tobacco industry development. This paper analyses a short-term advocacy campaign that challenged the state-tobacco industry ties to draw lessons for effective public health advocacy. Method: This paper uses a case study method to analyze advocacy efforts in India to thwart the state-tobacco industry partnership: the Indian government’s sponsorship and support to a global tobacco industry event. The paper explores multiple strategies employed in the five-month advocacy campaign (May to October 2010) to challenge this state-industry tie. In doing so, we describe the challenges faced and the lessons learnt for effective advocacy. Results: Government withdrew participation and financial sponsorship from the tobacco industry event. Use of multiple strategies including engaging all concerned government agencies from the beginning, strategic use of media, presence and mobilization of civil society, and use of legal tools to gain information and judicial action, were complementary in bringing desired outcomes. Conclusion: Use of multiple and complementary advocacy strategies could lead to positive outcomes in a short-time campaign. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control could form an important advocacy tool, especially in countries that have ratified it, to advocate for improvements in national tobacco control regulations.

Bhojani, Upendra; Venkataraman, Vidya; Manganawar, Bheemaray

2013-01-01

172

Management practices followed for draught cattle in the southern part of India.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to determine the management practices followed by the farmers for draught cattle in Tamil Nadu state, India. Methods of procurement of animals, use of female animals, breeds preferred, housing, health, disposal of animals, feeding, shoeing, purchase of animal-drawn implements and their maintenance were all assessed with 210 farmers from seven districts across different agro-climatic zones in Tamil Nadu. The results revealed that 86 % of the respondents purchased the draught cattle from the livestock markets, most were bullocks but 20 small farmers and 5 medium farmers used female animals for ploughing. Among the indigenous breeds, Kangeyam (33 %) and Hallikar (30 %) breeds were the most popular for work. Most farmers (69 %) provided a mixed type of housing (provision of housing only during the night time and the rainy season) for their draught cattle. The major health problem reported by 63 % of respondents was pyrexia. Almost all farmers sold their animals at the age of 8-10 years. The feeding practices for draught cattle were poor especially with the small farmers. The cattle were fed with mainly paddy straw and rice bran. Oilcakes and cotton seeds were given to the animals which work throughout the year mainly for ploughing and carting. The draught cattle were first shod at around 2.5 years of age. The majority of the farmers (71 %) used the traditional animal-drawn implements made by local artisans, and the farmers were not aware of the new implements to reduce the drudgery of work cattle, designed by the Agricultural Machinery Research Centre and Agricultural Engineering Departments located in India. PMID:19685277

Akila, Natarajan; Chander, Mahesh

2010-02-01

173

Inter-state disparities in health care and financial burden on the poor in India.  

PubMed

Over five decades of independence, India has made rapid strides in various sectors. However, its performance in social sectors and particularly the healthcare sector has not been too rosy. Being the State's responsibility the healthcare has traditionally been influenced by individual State's budgetary allocation. Consequently inter-state disparity in availability and utilization of health services and health manpower are distinctly marked. This has implications for achievement of Health for All for the nation as a whole. Keeping in view the significance of studying inter-state variations in healthcare, this study focuses on the performance of healthcare sector in 15 major States in India. This is attempted through a comparative analysis of various parameters depicting availability of health services, their utilization and health outcomes. Our analysis depicts the prevalence of considerable inequity favoring high income group of States. In terms of healthcare resources, for instance, it indicates that the high income States hold a superior position in terms of: per capita government expenditure on medical and public health, total number of hospitals and dispensaries, per capita availability of beds in hospitals and dispensaries and health manpower in rural and urban areas. These parameters of availability have an impact on utilization levels and health outcomes in these States. A comparative profile of high and low income States as well as middle and low income States, both in rural and urban areas, reaffirms a greater financial burden in availing treatment at OPD and inpatient in low income States. In line with the higher financial burden and low per capita health expenditure, the health outcome indicators also depict a disconcerting situation in regard to low income States. These States are marked by lower life expectancy and higher incidence of diseases as well as high mortality rates. In this regard, demand as well as supply side constraints are observed which restrain the optimum utilization of existing health services. Among the low income States the main constraints on the demand side include illiteracy, malnutrition, and lack of infrastructure in accessing the facilities. Certain state specific supply side factors add significantly to under-utilization in low income States. In some of the States, however, corrective actions have been initiated to overcome the problem of the quality and low utilization of health facilities. In due course of time, it is likely that proper implementation of these measures may result in improved utilization level of existing health services, which may be useful to improve health status indicators. Nonetheless, overcoming the current levels of regional disparities in healthcare across three income groups of States may also require additional resources. The latter could be mobilized through assistance of donor agencies and appropriate mix of social and private insurance. Ultimately mitigating the problem of regional disparities in healthcare and protecting the poor and vulnerable from financial burden may require establishing and maintaining proper linkages between socio-economic development and healthcare planning. PMID:15201118

Purohit, Brijesh C

2004-01-01

174

Perceptions of State Government stakeholders & researchers regarding public health research priorities in India: an exploratory survey.  

PubMed

Public health research has several stakeholders that should be involved in identifying public health research agenda. A survey was conducted prior to a national consultation organized by the Department of Health Research with the objective to identify the key public health research priorities as perceived by the State health officials and public health researchers. A cross-sectional survey was done for the State health officials involved in public health programmes and public health researchers in various States of India. A self-administered semi-structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Overall, 35 State officials from 15 States and 17 public health researchers participated in the study. Five leading public health research priorities identified in the open ended query were maternal and child health (24%), non-communicable diseases (22%), vector borne diseases (6%), tuberculosis (6%) and HIV/AIDS/STI (5%). Maternal and child health research was the leading priority; however, researchers also gave emphasis on the need for research in the emerging public health challenges such as non-communicable diseases. Structured initiatives are needed to promote interactions between policymakers and researchers at all stages of research starting from defining problems to the use of research to achieve the health goals as envisaged in the 12th Plan over next five years. PMID:24718397

Kaur, Prabhdeep; Chitra, Grace A; Mehendale, Sanjay M; Katoch, Vishwa M

2014-02-01

175

Sizing of integrated renewable energy system based on load profiles and reliability index for the state of Uttarakhand in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years the decentralized rural electrification is becoming cost effective and convenient for areas where grid extension is very difficult. The present paper deals with the electrification of dense forest areas of Uttarakhand state in India by Integrated Renewable Energy Optimization Model (IREOM). The IREOM consists of locally available renewable energy resources such as Micro-Hydropower (MHP), biomass, biogas, wind

A. B. Kanase-Patil; R. P. Saini; M. P. Sharma

2011-01-01

176

Globalization at the nano frontier: The future of nanotechnology policy in the United States, China, and India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of nanotechnology offers the possibility of transforming the international science and technology (S&T) policy landscape and making a significant impact on the direction of research and development for a wide range of nations and companies. Nanotechnology endeavors in the United States, China, and India remain some of the most interesting because of the opportunities and challenges this field

Evan S. Michelson

2008-01-01

177

Ethnomedical and biomedical health care and healing practices among the Rathwa adivasi of Kadipani village, Gujarat State, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rathwa of Kadipani village are adivasi (original inhabitants, tribe) residing in a rural part of Gujarat State, India. Primarily farmers, the Rathwa live in an area where development-related projects, such as mineral mining and damming on the Narmada River, are increasingly impacting their livelihood, health status, and quality of life. The local economy is impacted by uncertainty regarding access

Margaret A Karnyski

2009-01-01

178

Characterization of minerals in air dust particles in the state of Tamilnadu, India through ftir spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abstract of this paper explains the presence of minerals in air which causes great concern regarding public health issues. The spectroscopic investigation of air dust particles of several samples in various locations in the state of Tamilnadu, India is reported. Qualitative analyses were carried out to determine the major and minor constituent minerals present in the samples based on the FTIR absorption peaks. This study also identified the minerals like quartz, asbestos, kaolinite, calcite, hematite, montmorillonite, nacrite and several other trace minerals in the air dust particles. The presents of quartz is mainly found in all the samples invariably. Hence the percentage of quartz and its crystalline nature were determined with the help of extinction co-efficient and crystallinity index respectively.

Senthil Kumar, R.; Rajkumar, P.

2013-08-01

179

The Decentralisation Of Education In Kerala State, India: Rhetoric And Reality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The decentralisation of educational administration has been widely advocated as a strategy to promote local participation in education. However, the fact that this advocacy has a long history raises the question why decentralisation has not been achieved in more educational systems. The answers to this question are many and complex. Among them are difficulties with the implementation of reforms. The present study examines some of these difficulties in Kerala State, India. It determines that although Kerala has a strong reputation for political participation, the rhetoric of decentralisation in the educational sector has not matched the reality there. The lessons to be learned in this context have wide implications for the theory and practice of decentralisation in education.

Mukundan, Mullikottu-Veettil; Bray, Mark

2004-07-01

180

Prevalence and economic implications of Taenia solium taeniasis and cysticercosis in Uttar Pradesh State of India.  

PubMed

From 1980 to 1985, 3550 pigs, 530 cattle, 370 buffalo, 1850 sheep and 2100 goat of different breeds, age and sex from different parts of Uttar Pradesh State (India) were screened for the presence of cysticerci. Economic losses due to condemnation of affected meat were calculated. The overall incidence in pigs was 9.3%. Indigenous breeds brought from rural areas had the highest infection rate (8.9%). Cysticerci were commonly observed in the muscles of fore and hind limbs, tongue, neck and brain but a few cyst were also seen in other organs including heart, kidney and spleen. No statistical difference in the rate of infection with regards to age and sex was recorded. Sheep, goat, cattle and buffalo were found negative for this infection. Also 600 human faecal samples screened for the presence of adult T. solium revealed 2% infection. PMID:2488998

Pathak, K M; Gaur, S N

1989-01-01

181

Aboriginal uses and management of ethnobotanical species in deciduous forests of Chhattisgarh state in India  

PubMed Central

A study on the native uses of ethnobotanical species was carried out in the south Surguja district of Chhattisgarh state in India with the major objective of identifying different food and medicinal plant species and also to understand their ongoing management and conservation. Through questionnaire and personal interviews, a total of 73 ethnobotanical species used by tribal and non-tribal communities were documented, of these 36 species were used in curing different types of diseases and 22 were used as edible food plants. This rich traditional knowledge of local people has an immense potential for pharmacological studies. The outside forces, at present, were mainly blamed to change the traditional system of harvesting and management of ethnobotanical species. The destructive harvesting practices have damaged the existing populations of many ethnobotanical species viz., Asparagus racemosus, Dioscorea bulbifera, Boswellia serrata, Buchnania lanzan, Sterculia urens and Anogeissus latifolia. The sustainable harvesting and management issues of ethnobotanical species are discussed in view of their conservation and management.

Kala, Chandra Prakash

2009-01-01

182

State health insurance and out-of-pocket health expenditures in Andhra Pradesh, India.  

PubMed

In 2007 the state of Andhra Pradesh in southern India began rolling out Aarogyasri health insurance to reduce catastrophic health expenditures in households 'below the poverty line'. We exploit variation in program roll-out over time and districts to evaluate the impacts of the scheme using difference-in-differences. Our results suggest that within the first nine months of implementation Phase I of Aarogyasri significantly reduced out-of-pocket inpatient expenditures and, to a lesser extent, outpatient expenditures. These results are robust to checks using quantile regression and matching methods. No clear effects on catastrophic health expenditures or medical impoverishment are seen. Aarogyasri is not benefiting scheduled caste and scheduled tribe households as much as the rest of the population. PMID:22767078

Fan, Victoria Y; Karan, Anup; Mahal, Ajay

2012-09-01

183

Cost-effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions in Andhra Pradesh state of India  

PubMed Central

Background Information on cost-effectiveness of the range of HIV prevention interventions is a useful contributor to decisions on the best use of resources to prevent HIV. We conducted this assessment for the state of Andhra Pradesh that has the highest HIV burden in India. Methods Based on data from a representative sample of 128 public-funded HIV prevention programs of 14 types in Andhra Pradesh, we have recently reported the number of HIV infections averted by each type of HIV prevention intervention and their cost. Using estimates of the age of onset of HIV infection, we used standard methods to calculate the cost per Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) saved as a measure of cost-effectiveness of each type of HIV prevention intervention. Results The point estimates of the cost per DALY saved were less than US $50 for blood banks, men who have sex with men programmes, voluntary counselling and testing centres, prevention of parent to child transmission clinics, sexually transmitted infection clinics, and women sex worker programmes; between US $50 and 100 for truckers and migrant labourer programmes; more than US $100 and up to US $410 for composite, street children, condom promotion, prisoners and workplace programmes and mass media campaign for the general public. The uncertainty range around these estimates was very wide for several interventions, with the ratio of the high to the low estimates infinite for five interventions. Conclusions The point estimates for the cost per DALY saved from the averted HIV infections for all interventions was much lower than the per capita gross domestic product in this Indian state. While these indicative cost-effectiveness estimates can inform HIV control planning currently, the wide uncertainty range around estimates for several interventions suggest the need for more firm data for estimating cost-effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions in India.

2010-01-01

184

Disparities in child mortality trends in two new states of India  

PubMed Central

Background India has the world’s highest total number of under-five deaths of any nation. While progress towards Millennium Development Goal 4 has been documented at the state level, little information is available for greater disaggregation of child health markers within states. In 2000, new states were created within the country as a partial response to political pressures. State-level information on child health trends in the new states of Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand is scarce. To fill this gap, this article examines under-five and neonatal mortality across various equity markers within these two new states, pre-and post-split. Methods Both direct and indirect estimation using pooled data from five available sources were undertaken. Inter-population disparities were evaluated by mortality data stratification of rural–urban location, ethnicity, wealth and districts. Results Both states experienced an overall reduction in under-five and neonatal mortality, however, this has stagnated post-2001 and various disparities persist. In cases where disparities have declined, such as between urban–rural populations and low- and high-income groups, this has been driven by modest declines within the disadvantaged groups (i.e. low-income rural households) and stagnation or worsening of outcomes within the advantaged groups. Indeed, rising trends in mortality are most prevalent in urban middle-income households. Conclusions The results suggest that rural health improvements may have come at the expense of urban areas, where poor performance may be attributed to factors such as lack of access to quality private health facilities. In addition, the disparities may in part be associated with geographical access, traditional practices and district-level health resource allocation.

2013-01-01

185

Spatial distribution and characteristics of injecting drug users (IDU) in five Northeastern states of India  

PubMed Central

Background Injecting drugs is the major driving force of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in Northeastern India. We have assessed the spatial distribution of locations where injecting drug users (IDU) congregate, as well as the risk behaviour and key characteristics of IDUs to develop new strategies strengthening intervention measures for HIV prevention in this region. Methods Locations of IDUs congregation for buying and injecting drugs were identified through Key Informants (KI). Verification of the location and its characteristics were confirmed through field visits. We also conducted semi-structured and structured interviews with IDUs to learn more about their injecting behaviour and other characteristics. Results Altogether, 2462 IDU locations were identified in 5 states. The number of IDU locations was found to be greater in the states bordering Myanmar. Private houses, parks, abandoned buildings, pharmacies, graveyards, and isolated places were the most frequently chosen place for injecting drugs. Many injecting locations were visited by IDUs of varying ages, of which about 10-20% of locations were for females. In some locations, female IDUs were also involved in sex work. Sharing of needle and syringes was reported in all the states by large proportion of IDUs, mainly with close friends. However, even sharing with strangers was not uncommon. Needle and syringes were mainly procured from pharmacies, drug peddlers and friends. Lack of access to free sterile needles and syringes, and inconsistent supplies from intervention programs, were often given as the cause of sharing or re-use of needles and syringes by IDUs. Most of the IDUs described a negative attitude of the community towards them. Conclusion We highlight the injection of drugs as a problem in 5 Northeastern India states where this is the major driving force of an HIV epidemic. Also highlighted are the large numbers of females that are unrecognized as IDUs and the association between drug use and sex work. Understanding of risk behaviours and other key charecteristics of IDUs in the region will help in strengthening harm reduction efforts that can prevent HIV transmission.

2011-01-01

186

Lessons from smallpox eradication campaign in Bihar State and in India.  

PubMed

Following several key breakthroughs during the mid-1960s under the global smallpox eradication programme namely, development of a thermo-stable vaccine, efficient and acceptable technique of it's delivery by bifurcated needle and evolution of a strategy (in lieu of mass vaccination) of active case search and containment, an intensified campaign of smallpox eradication from India was successfully implemented during 1973-1975. A formidable battle was fought, particularly in Bihar state leading to the occurrence of last indigenous case on 17 May 1975. The rapid achievement of eradication of the scourge from India in a record time was hailed as unprecedented in public health history. The single key factor in the achievement was the sustained efforts of a band of national and international epidemiologists, supported by young medical interns heading mobile containment teams, working under trying field conditions. Through the campaign several important lessons were learnt and innovations made. Important among these were: (i) need for refinement of tools, techniques, and strategies for attaining the objective; (ii) implementation of a time and target oriented campaign; (iii) support of adequate and dedicated short term personnel to supplement supervision and field activities; (iv) providing of flexible funding and a convenient disbursement procedure; (v) building private-public partnership; (vi) devising of simple innovations, based on feedback from field, to support activities; (vii) development of political commitment; (viii) improved communication from field to higher levels to enable action on recent information; (ix) regular periodic staff meetings at each administrative level to facilitate early recognition and correction of deficiencies; (x) mobilization of support from international community, whenever required. PMID:21232651

Dutta, Mahendra; Basu, R N

2011-03-01

187

Lessons from smallpox eradication campaign in Bihar state and in India.  

PubMed

Following several key breakthroughs during the mid-1960s under the global smallpox eradication programme namely, development of a thermo-stable vaccine, efficient and acceptable technique of it's delivery by bifurcated needle and evolution of a strategy (in lieu of mass vaccination) of active case search and containment, an intensified campaign of smallpox eradication from India was successfully implemented during 1973-1975. A formidable battle was fought, particularly in Bihar state leading to the occurrence of last indigenous case on 17 May 1975. The rapid achievement of eradication of the scourge from India in a record time was hailed as unprecedented in public health history. The single key factor in the achievement was the sustained efforts of a band of national and international epidemiologists, supported by young medical interns heading mobile containment teams, working under trying field conditions. Through the campaign several important lessons were learnt and innovations made. Important among these were: (i) need for refinement of tools, techniques, and strategies for attaining the objective; (ii) implementation of a time and target oriented campaign; (iii) support of adequate and dedicated short term personnel to supplement supervision and field activities; (iv) providing of flexible funding and a convenient disbursement procedure; (v) building private-public partnership; (vi) devising of simple innovations, based on feedback from field, to support activities; (vii) development of political commitment; (viii) improved communication from field to higher levels to enable action on recent information; (ix) regular periodic staff meetings at each administrative level to facilitate early recognition and correction of deficiencies; (x) mobilization of support from international community, whenever required. PMID:22486977

Dutta, Mahendra; Basu, R N

2011-12-30

188

Tetanus toxoid vaccine: elimination of neonatal tetanus in selected states of India.  

PubMed

Tetanus is caused by a neurotoxin produced by Clostridium tetani (C. tetani), a spore-forming bacterium. Infection begins when tetanus spores are introduced into damaged tissue. Tetanus is characterized by muscle rigidity and painful muscle spasms caused by tetanus toxin's blockade of inhibitory neurons that normally oppose and modulate the action of excitatory motor neurons. Maternal and neonatal tetanus (MNT) are caused by unhygienic methods of delivery, abortion, or umbilical-cord care. Maternal and neonatal tetanus are both forms of generalized tetanus and have similar clinical courses. About 90% of neonates with tetanus develop symptoms in the first 3-14 d of life, mostly on days 6-8, distinguishing neonatal tetanus from other causes of neonatal mortality which typically occur during the first two days of life. Overall case fatality rates for patients admitted to the hospital with neonatal tetanus in developing countries are 8-50%, while the fatality rate can be as high as 100% without hospital care. Tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccination of pregnant women to prevent neonatal tetanus was included in WHO's Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) a few years after its inception in 1974. In 2000, WHO, UNICEF, and UNFPA formed a partnership to relaunch efforts toward this goal, adding the elimination of maternal tetanus as a program objective, and setting a new target date of 2005. By February 2007, 40 countries had implemented tetanus vaccination campaigns in high-risk areas, targeting more than 94 million women, and protecting more than 70 million subjects with at least two doses of TT. In 2011, 653 NT cases were reported in India compared with 9313 in 1990. As of February 2012, 25 countries and 15 States and Union Territories of India, all of Ethiopia except Somaliland, and almost 29 of 34 provinces in Indonesia have been validated to have eliminated MNT. PMID:22894950

Verma, Ramesh; Khanna, Pardeep

2012-10-01

189

Genetic structure and affinities among tribal populations of southern India: a study of 24 autosomal DNA markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We describe the genetic structure and affinities of five Dravidian-speaking tribal populations inhabiting the Nilgiri hills of Tamil Nadu, in south India, using 24 autosomal DNA markers. Our goals were: (i) to examine what evolutionary forces have most significantly impacted south Indian tribal genetic variation, and (ii) to test whether the phenotypic similarities of some south Indian tribal groups

H. Vishwanathan; E. Deepa; R. Cordaux; M. Stoneking; M. V. Usha Rani; P. P. Majumder

2004-01-01

190

Monitoring urbanization dynamics in India using DMSP/OLS night time lights and SPOT-VGT data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

India is a rapidly urbanizing country and has experienced profound changes in the spatial structure of urban areas. This study endeavours to illuminate the process of urbanization in India using Defence Meteorological Satellites Program - Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) night time lights (NTLs) and SPOT vegetation (VGT) dataset for the period 1998-2008. Satellite imagery of NTLs provides an efficient way to map urban areas at global and national scales. DMSP/OLS dataset however lacks continuity and comparability; hence the dataset was first intercalibrated using second order polynomial regression equation. The intercalibrated dataset along with SPOT-VGT dataset for the year 1998 and 2008 were subjected to a support vector machine (SVM) method to extract urban areas. SVM is semi-automated technique that overcomes the problems associated with the thresholding methods for NTLs data and hence enables for regional and national scale assessment of urbanization. The extracted urban areas were validated with Google Earth images and global urban extent maps. Spatial metrics were calculated and analyzed state-wise to understand the dynamism of urban areas in India. Significant changes in urban proportion were observed in Tamil Nadu, Punjab and Kerala while other states also showed a high degree of changes in area wise urban proportion.

Pandey, Bhartendu; Joshi, P. K.; Seto, Karen C.

2013-08-01

191

DHL invests USD10 Million in logistics infrastructure for fast growing supply and sourcing hub in India ? First global logistics company to set up a facility within the inaugural Free Trade Warehousing Zone in India ? DHL's facility will facilitate ease of trade in India for businesses across several industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chennai, May 27, 2010: DHL, the world's leading logistics company, today announced an investment of USD10 million by its freight forwarding division to strengthen its capabilities and infrastructure to provide world-class logistics and warehousing services in India. DHL Global Forwarding is setting up a logistics and warehousing facility in the upcoming Free Trade Warehousing Zone (FTWZ) in Tamil Nadu. With

Deutsche Post DHL; Lemuir Logistics

192

The zone of social abandonment in cultural geography: on the street in the United States, inside the family in India.  

PubMed

This essay examines the spaces across societies in which persons with severe mental illness lose meaningful social roles and are reduced to "bare life." Comparing ethnographic and interview data from the United States and India, we suggest that these processes of exclusion take place differently: on the street in the United States, and in the family household in India. We argue that cultural, historical, and economic factors determine which spaces become zones of social abandonment across societies. We compare strategies for managing and treating persons with psychosis across the United States and India, and demonstrate that the relative efficiency of state surveillance of populations and availability of public social and psychiatric services, the relative importance of family honor, the extent to which a culture of psychopharmaceutical use has penetrated social life, and other historical features, contribute to circumstances in which disordered Indian persons are more likely to be forcefully "hidden" in domestic space, whereas mentally ill persons in the United States are more likely to be expelled to the street. However, in all locations, social marginalization takes place by stripping away the subject's efficacy in social communication. That is, the socially "dead" lose communicative efficacy, a predicament, following Agamben, we describe as "bare voice." PMID:22547245

Marrow, Jocelyn; Luhrmann, Tanya Marie

2012-09-01

193

Factors controlling January-April rainfall over southern India and Sri Lanka  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the annual rainfall over India occurs during the Southwest (June-September) and Northeast (October-December) monsoon periods. In March 2008, however, Southern peninsular India and Sri Lanka received the largest rainfall anomaly on record since 1979, with amplitude comparable to summer-monsoon interannual anomalies. This anomalous rainfall appeared to be modulated at intraseasonal timescale by the Madden Julian Oscillation, and was synchronous with a decaying La Niña event in the Pacific Ocean. Was this a coincidence or indicative of a teleconnection pattern? In this paper, we explore factors controlling rainfall over southern India and Sri Lanka between January and April, i.e. outside of the southwest and northeast monsoons. This period accounts for 20% of annual precipitation over Sri Lanka and 10% over the southern Indian states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Interannual variability is strong (about 40% of the January-April climatology). Intraseasonal rainfall anomalies over southern India and Sri Lanka are significantly associated with equatorial eastward propagation, characteristic of the Madden Julian Oscillation. At the interannual timescale, we find a clear connection with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO); with El Niños being associated with decreased rainfall (correlation of -0.46 significant at the 98% level). There is also a significant link with local SST anomalies over the Indian Ocean, and in particular with the inter-hemispheric sea surface temperature (SST) gradient over the Indian Ocean (with colder SST south of the equator being conducive to more rainfall, correlation of 0.55 significant at the 99% level). La Niñas/cold SSTs south of the equator tend to have a larger impact than El Niños. We discuss two possible mechanisms that could explain these statistical relationships: (1) subsidence over southern India remotely forced by Pacific SST anomalies; (2) impact of ENSO-forced regional Indian Ocean SST anomalies on convection. However, the length of the observational record does not allow distinguishing between these two mechanisms in a statistically significant manner.

Vialard, J.; Terray, P.; Duvel, J.-P.; Nanjundiah, R. S.; Shenoi, S. S. C.; Shankar, D.

2011-08-01

194

Childhood blindness in India: Causes in 1318 blind school students in nine states  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is estimated that at least 200 000 children in India have severe visual impairment or blindness and approximately 15 000 are in schools for the blind. Although this represents a small percentage of the estimated 5 million blind in India, it is significant in terms of ‘blind-years’ . Strategies to combat childhood blindness require accurate data on the causes

J S Rahi; S Sripathi; C E Gilbert; A Foster

1995-01-01

195

Culture, job satisfaction and organizational commitment in India and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast the roles of culture and job satisfaction as antecedents to organizational commitment in both a Western context (the US) and in India. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Responses come from a questionnaire distributed to engineers in India. Construct equivalence of measures is established, while hierarchical regression analysis is used to assess

Catherine T. Kwantes

2009-01-01

196

Distribution of Recent Benthic Foraminifera and its Environmental Conditions of Karaikal, Central Coast of Tamil Nadu  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foraminifera have been successful inhabitants of every aquatic environment from deep oceans to brackish water lagoons, estuaries and even rarely in freshwater streams, lakes etc. offshore region of Karaikal the present study has been taken up to enhance the existing knowledge on foraminifera of central coast of Tamil Nadu, India. Totally 21 sediment and water samples were collected from the offshore region. The depth of sample collection in offshore area ranges from 1.5 m to 12 m. Standard procedures adopted for the evaluation of different environmental parameters are incorporated. A total of 33 foraminiferal taxa belonging to 17 genera, 12 subfamilies, 14 superfamilies, and 4 suborders have been identified. In Karaikal , the mean size of the sediments on the foreshore ranges from 1.51 to 2.95 ? indicating the predominance of fine sediments (80-85%) with an admixture of medium-grained sands. Calcium carbonate content is generally found to be directly proportional to the population size in both the estuary and shelf area. It clearly indicates that due to the erosional activities whatever sediments deposited near the Arasalar river in that region are transported to the marine region and were drifted towards northern direction by longshore current, hence the deposition of carbonate in the sediments shows negative correlation. Due to strong high energy environment the current action is more in this region the juvinile forms of A. beccarri, A.tepida, A. dendata, E. crispum, P. calar, and P. nipponica only withstand and the other species are absent. The Correlation between Living vs Dead, Dead Vs Calcium carbonate, Salinity Vs living, Organic matter Vs Living, Organic matter Vs Carbonate content shows positive correlation for all the samples like LT, HT, Beach, River, and Offshore. Even though, all the ecological parameters having good correlation with foraminifera, but the distribution are very less in the study area. M.RAJA Dept.of.Geology University of Madras Chennai,Tamilnadu, INDIA.

Murugan, R.; Gandhi, S.

2013-05-01

197

Prevalence of Dyslipidemia in Urban and Rural India: The ICMR-INDIAB Study  

PubMed Central

Aim To study the pattern and prevalence of dyslipidemia in a large representative sample of four selected regions in India. Methods Phase I of the Indian Council of Medical Research–India Diabetes (ICMR-INDIAB) study was conducted in a representative population of three states of India [Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and Jharkhand] and one Union Territory [Chandigarh], and covered a population of 213 million people using stratified multistage sampling design to recruit individuals ?20 years of age. All the study subjects (n?=?16,607) underwent anthropometric measurements and oral glucose tolerance tests were done using capillary blood (except in self-reported diabetes). In addition, in every 5th subject (n?=?2042), a fasting venous sample was collected and assayed for lipids. Dyslipidemia was diagnosed using National Cholesterol Education Programme (NCEP) guidelines. Results Of the subjects studied, 13.9% had hypercholesterolemia, 29.5% had hypertriglyceridemia, 72.3% had low HDL-C, 11.8% had high LDL-C levels and 79% had abnormalities in one of the lipid parameters. Regional disparity exists with the highest rates of hypercholesterolemia observed in Tamilnadu (18.3%), highest rates of hypertriglyceridemia in Chandigarh (38.6%), highest rates of low HDL-C in Jharkhand (76.8%) and highest rates of high LDL-C in Tamilnadu (15.8%). Except for low HDL-C and in the state of Maharashtra, in all other states, urban residents had the highest prevalence of lipid abnormalities compared to rural residents. Low HDL-C was the most common lipid abnormality (72.3%) in all the four regions studied; in 44.9% of subjects, it was present as an isolated abnormality. Common significant risk factors for dyslipidemia included obesity, diabetes, and dysglycemia. Conclusion The prevalence of dyslipidemia is very high in India, which calls for urgent lifestyle intervention strategies to prevent and manage this important cardiovascular risk factor.

Joshi, Shashank R.; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Deepa, Mohan; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Bhansali, Anil; Dhandania, Vinay K.; Joshi, Prashant P.; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Nirmal, Elangovan; Subashini, Radhakrishnan; Madhu, Sri Venkata; Rao, Paturi Vishnupriya; Das, Ashok Kumar; Kaur, Tanvir; Shukla, Deepak Kumar; Mohan, Viswanathan

2014-01-01

198

Role of Community Group Exposure in Reducing Sexually Transmitted Infection-Related Risk among Female Sex Workers in India  

PubMed Central

Background Empowering female sex workers (FSWs) to address structural barriers and forming community groups (CGs) through community mobilization are seen as essential components of HIV prevention programs in India. Taking the membership of a CG as an exposure intervention, we hypothesized whether participation in a CG lead to reduced sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and increased treatment-seeking behavior among FSWs in three selected states of India — Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. Methods and Findings The propensity score matching (PSM) approach examined the effect of CG membership, as against no membership, on STI-related risk, described as selected outcome measures — presence of any STI, self-reported STI symptoms, and treatment-seeking behavior among FSWs. A cross sectional bio-behavioral survey was administered in 2009–2010 and covered 7,806 FSWs through two-stage probability-based conventional and time location cluster sampling in 23 administrative districts of Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. Only 2,939 FSWs were reported to be members of a CG and among them 4.5% had any STIs. A majority of FSWs were aged above 24 years (86.4%), had ever been married (73%), operated from a public place for solicitation (81.5%), and had ever received HIV test results (75.6%). The average effect of CG exposure was reduction in STI prevalence by 4%, while self-reported STI symptom treatment-seeking behavior increased by 13.7%. Conclusion FSWs who were exposed to a CG were at a substantially lower risk of STIs than those who were unexposed. The FSWs exposed to a CG had a higher chance of seeking STI treatment from public and private health facilities. Collectivization related challenges must be overcome to provide access to tailored STI prevention and care services.

Yadav, Diwakar; Ramanathan, Shreena; Goswami, Prabuddhagopal; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmi; Saggurti, Niranjan; Sen, Shrabanti; George, Bitra; Paranjape, Ramesh

2013-01-01

199

Screening for the sickle cell gene in Chhattisgarh state, India: an approach to a major public health problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to determine the feasibility of large-scale population screening for the sickle cell gene in high\\u000a risk areas with limited resources. A programme designed to detect the sickle cell trait and sickle cell disease has screened\\u000a 359,823 subjects among 2,087 (99.7%) of the villages in Raipur District, Chhattisgarh State, India between October 2007 and\\u000a June

Pradeep K. Patra; Virander S. Chauhan; Prafulla K. Khodiar; Abdul R. Dalla; Graham R. Serjeant

2011-01-01

200

Spending to save? State health expenditure and infant mortality in India.  

PubMed

There are severe inequalities in health in the world, poor health being concentrated amongst poor people in poor countries. Poor countries spend a much smaller share of national income on health expenditure than do richer countries. What potential lies in political or growth processes that raise this share? This depends upon how effective government health spending in developing countries is. Existing research presents little evidence of an impact on childhood mortality. Using specifications similar to those in the existing literature, this paper finds a similar result for India, which is that state health spending saves no lives. However, upon allowing lagged effects, controlling in a flexible way for trended unobservables and restricting the sample to rural households, a significant effect of health expenditure on infant mortality emerges, the long run elasticity being about -0.24. There are striking differences in the impact by social group. Slicing the data by gender, birth order, religion, maternal and paternal education and maternal age at birth, I find the weakest effects in the most vulnerable groups (with the exception of a large effect for scheduled tribes). PMID:17668889

Bhalotra, Sonia

2007-09-01

201

Use of polymerase chain reaction: Restriction fragment length polymorphism to detect acaricidal resistance to synthetic pyrethroids in Boophilus microplus ticks of South India  

PubMed Central

Background: Boophilus microplus is an important ectoparasite of livestock. Apart from transmitting diseases, heavy tick burden can decrease production and damage hides. The synthetic pyrethroids which are advantageous over other acaricides for treatment of this infestation are now losing their efficacy due to development of resistant strains of ticks. Materials and Methods: Boophilus microplus ticks with a previous history of acaricidal treatment especially synthetic pyrethroids (SP) such as cypermethrin, deltamethrin and flumethrin were randomly collected from different pockets of four Southern States of India namely Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, and Puducherry from cattle. Deoxyribonucleic acid extracted from pooled adult B. microplus tick from each State was subjected to polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism to detect point mutation in carboxyl esterase gene. Results: A product size of 372 bp was obtained for cattle tick samples collected from all over Southern States of India. Conclusions: B. microplus ticks found in Southern part of India are not resistant to commonly used SP.

Cattavarayane, Mathivathani; Basith, Abdul; Latha, Bhaskaran Ravi

2013-01-01

202

Inbreeding among some Brahman populations of Tamil Nadu.  

PubMed

A statewide survey of four endogamous Brahman populations of Tamil Nadu reveals a low level of inbreeding in three of them. In the fourth population, the Thengalai, the level is higher, but not as high as in other social castes. The Tamil Brahmans rank next to the Telugu and the Kanarese Brahmans in this respect. Uncle-niece marriages also occur as in Telugu-speaking populations, and these exceed in the two Ayyangar populations in comparison to the Ayyar. A decline of first-cousin marriages and an increase of uncle-niece marriages are detected in the first two living generations in each population. PMID:950239

Srinivasan, S; Mukherjee, D P

1976-01-01

203

Current knowledge on the distribution of arsenic in groundwater in five states of India.  

PubMed

Testing of groundwater used for drinking for arsenic has been undertaken more widely by state governments in several states of India in recent years with the support of UNICEF. Available data for five states are collated in this paper and this provides the most up-to-date picture of areas known to be affected by arsenic in groundwater in the Indian portion of the Ganges-Brahmaputra river basin. In West Bengal, water from 132,262 government installed handpumps in 8 districts has been tested and overall 25.5% of samples were found to contain arsenic at concentrations greater than 50 microgL(-1) and 57.9% at concentrations greater than 10 microgL(-1). On the banks of the Brahmaputra in Assam, to date, samples from 5,729 government handpump sources in 22 districts have been tested for arsenic. Overall, samples from 6.3% of sources were found to contain arsenic at concentrations greater than 50 microgL(-1) and 26.1% at concentrations greater than 10 microgL(-1). In Bihar, on the River Ganges upstream of West Bengal, 66,623 sources from 11 districts have been tested and water samples from 10.8% of sources were found to contain arsenic at concentrations greater than 50 microgL(-1) and 28.9% at concentrations greater than 10 microgL(-1). Upstream of Bihar in Uttar Pradesh, home of the Taj Mahal, to date water samples from 20,126 government-installed handpump sources have been tested. As a result 2.4% of the samples tested were found to contain arsenic at concentrations greater than 50 microgL(-1) and 21.5% at concentrations greater than 10 microgL(-1). Finally in one district of Jharkhand, lying on the Ganges alluvial plain between Bihar and West Bengal, 9,007 sources have been tested and water samples from 3.7% of sources were found to contain arsenic at concentrations greater than 50 microgL(-1) and 7.5% at concentrations greater than 10 microgL(-1). State governments have adopted different sampling strategies and these are described in this paper. Testing is ongoing in several states and the complete picture is yet to emerge in some areas. PMID:17952772

Nickson, R; Sengupta, C; Mitra, P; Dave, S N; Banerjee, A K; Bhattacharya, A; Basu, S; Kakoti, N; Moorthy, N S; Wasuja, M; Kumar, M; Mishra, D S; Ghosh, A; Vaish, D P; Srivastava, A K; Tripathi, R M; Singh, S N; Prasad, R; Bhattacharya, S; Deverill, P

2007-10-01

204

Diversity among Clients of Female Sex Workers in India: Comparing Risk Profiles and Intervention Impact by Site of Solicitation. Implications for the Vulnerability of Less Visible Female Sex Workers  

PubMed Central

Background It seems generally accepted that targeted interventions in India have been successful in raising condom use between female sex workers (FSWs) and their clients. Data from clients of FSWs have been under-utilised to analyse the risk environments and vulnerability of both partners. Methods The 2009 Integrated Biological and Behavioural Assessment survey sampled clients of FSWs at hotspots in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu (n=5040). The risk profile of clients in terms of sexual networking and condom use are compared across usual pick-up place. We used propensity score matching (PSM) to estimate the average treatment effect on treated (ATT) of intervention messages on clients’ consistent condom use with FSW. Results Clients of the more hidden sex workers who solicit from home or via phone or agents had more extensive sexual networks, reporting casual female partners as well as anal intercourse with male partners and FSW. Clients of brothel-based sex workers, who were the least educated, reported the fewest number/categories of partners, least anal sex, and lowest condom use (41%). Consistent condom use varied widely by state: 65% in Andhra Pradesh, 36% in Maharashtra and 29% in Tamil Nadu. Exposure to intervention messages on sexually transmitted infections was lowest among men frequenting brothels (58%), and highest among men soliciting less visible sex workers (70%). Exposure had significant impact on consistent condom use, including among clients of home-based sex workers (ATT 21%; p=0.001) and among men soliciting other more hidden FSW (ATT 17%; p=0.001). In Tamil Nadu no impact could be demonstrated. Conclusion Commercial sex happens between two partners and both need to be, and can be, reached by intervention messages. Commercial sex is still largely unprotected and as the sex industry gets more diffuse a greater focus on reaching clients of sex workers seems important given their extensive sexual networks.

Suryawanshi, Dipak; Bhatnagar, Tarun; Deshpande, Sucheta; Zhou, Weiwei; Singh, Pankaj; Collumbien, Martine

2013-01-01

205

Emergence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Amreli District of Gujarat State, India, June to July 2013.  

PubMed

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) etiology was detected in a family cluster (nine cases, including two deaths) in the village of Karyana, Amreli District, and also a fatal case in the village of Undra, Patan District, in Gujarat State, India. Anti-CCHFV IgG antibodies were detected in domestic animals from Karyana and adjoining villages. Hyalomma ticks from households were found to be positive for CCHF viral RNA. This confirms the emergence of CCHFV in new areas and the wide spread of this disease in Gujarat State. PMID:24211848

Yadav, Pragya D; Gurav, Yogesh K; Mistry, Madhulika; Shete, Anita M; Sarkale, Prasad; Deoshatwar, Avinash R; Unadkat, Vishwa B; Kokate, Prasad; Patil, Deepak Y; Raval, Dinkar K; Mourya, Devendra T

2014-01-01

206

Heterogeneity of the HIV epidemic in the general population of Karnataka state, south India  

PubMed Central

Background In the context of AVAHAN, the India AIDS Initiative of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, general population surveys (GPS) were carried out between 2006 and 2008 in Belgaum (northern), Bellary (mid-state) and Mysore (southern) districts of Karnataka state, south India. Data from these three surveys were analysed to understand heterogeneity in HIV risk. Methods Outcome variables were the prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Independent variables included age, district, place of residence, along with socio-demographic, medical and behavioural characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression was undertaken to identify characteristics associated with HIV and differences between districts, incorporating survey statistics to consider weights and cluster effects. Results The participation rate was 79.0% for the interview and 72.5% for providing a blood or urine sample that was tested for HIV. Belgaum had the highest overall HIV (1.43%) and Herpes simplex type-2 (HSV-2) (16.93%) prevalence, and the lowest prevalence of curable STIs. In Belgaum, the HIV epidemic is predominantly rural, and among women. In Bellary, the epidemic is predominantly in urban areas and among men, and HIV prevalence was 1.18%. Mysore had the lowest prevalence of HIV (0.80%) and HSV-2 (10.89%) and the highest prevalence of curable STIs. Higher HIV prevalence among men was associated with increasing age (p<0.001), and with history of STIs (AOR=2.44,95%CI:1.15-5.17). Male circumcision was associated with lower HIV prevalence (AOR=0.33,95%CI:0.13-0.81). Higher HIV prevalence among women was associated with age (AOR25-29years=11.22,95%CI:1.42-88.74, AOR30-34years=13.13,95%CI:1.67-103.19 and AOR35-39years=11.33,95%CI:1.32-96.83), having more than one lifetime sexual partner (AOR=4.61,95%CI:1.26-16.91) and having ever used a condom (AOR=3.32,95%CI:1.38-7.99). Having a dissolved marriage (being widowed/divorced/separated) was the strongest predictor (AOR=10.98,95%CI: 5.35-22.57) of HIV among women. Being a muslim woman was associated with lower HIV prevalence (AOR=0.27,95%CI:0.08-0.87). Conclusion The HIV epidemic in Karnataka shows considerable heterogeneity, and there appears to be an increasing gradient in HIV prevalence from south to north. The sex work structure in the northern districts may explain the higher prevalence of HIV in northern Karnataka. The higher prevalence of HIV and HSV-2 and lower prevalence of curable STIs in Belgaum suggests a later epidemic phase. Similarly, higher prevalence of curable STIs and lower HIV and HSV-2 prevalence in Mysore suggests an early phase epidemic.

2011-01-01

207

Sensitivity analysis of seismic hazard for the northwestern portion of the state of Gujarat, India  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We test the sensitivity of seismic hazard to three fault source models for the northwestern portion of Gujarat, India. The models incorporate different characteristic earthquake magnitudes on three faults with individual recurrence intervals of either 800 or 1600 years. These recurrence intervals imply that large earthquakes occur on one of these faults every 266-533 years, similar to the rate of historic large earthquakes in this region during the past two centuries and for earthquakes in intraplate environments like the New Madrid region in the central United States. If one assumes a recurrence interval of 800 years for large earthquakes on each of three local faults, the peak ground accelerations (PGA; horizontal) and 1-Hz spectral acceleration ground motions (5% damping) are greater than 1 g over a broad region for a 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years' hazard level. These probabilistic PGAs at this hazard level are similar to median deterministic ground motions. The PGAs for 10% in 50 years' hazard level are considerably lower, generally ranging between 0.2 g and 0.7 g across northwestern Gujarat. Ground motions calculated from our models that consider fault interevent times of 800 years are considerably higher than other published models even though they imply similar recurrence intervals. These higher ground motions are mainly caused by the application of intraplate attenuation relations, which account for less severe attenuation of seismic waves when compared to the crustal interplate relations used in these previous studies. For sites in Bhuj and Ahmedabad, magnitude (M) 7 3/4 earthquakes contribute most to the PGA and the 0.2- and 1-s spectral acceleration ground motion maps at the two considered hazard levels. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Petersen, M. D.; Rastogi, B. K.; Schweig, E. S.; Harmsen, S. C.; Gomberg, J. S.

2004-01-01

208

State of municipal solid waste management in Delhi, the capital of India  

SciTech Connect

Delhi is the most densely populated and urbanized city of India. The annual growth rate in population during the last decade (1991-2001) was 3.85%, almost double the national average. Delhi is also a commercial hub, providing employment opportunities and accelerating the pace of urbanization, resulting in a corresponding increase in municipal solid waste (MSW) generation. Presently the inhabitants of Delhi generate about 7000 tonnes/day of MSW, which is projected to rise to 17,000-25,000 tonnes/day by the year 2021. MSW management has remained one of the most neglected areas of the municipal system in Delhi. About 70-80% of generated MSW is collected and the rest remains unattended on streets or in small open dumps. Only 9% of the collected MSW is treated through composting, the only treatment option, and rest is disposed in uncontrolled open landfills at the outskirts of the city. The existing composting plants are unable to operate to their intended treatment capacity due to several operational problems. Therefore, along with residue from the composting process, the majority of MSW is disposed in landfills. In absence of leachate and landfill gas collection systems, these landfills are a major source of groundwater contamination and air pollution (including generation of greenhouse gases). This study describes and evaluates the present state of municipal solid waste management in Delhi. The paper also summarizes the proposed policies and initiatives of the Government of Delhi and the Municipal Corporation of Delhi to improve the existing MSW management system.

Talyan, Vikash [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016 (India)], E-mail: talyan.vikas@gmail.com; Dahiya, R.P. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016 (India); Sreekrishnan, T.R. [Department of Biochemical and Biotechnology Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016 (India)

2008-07-01

209

Genetic diversity and population structure of rice landraces from Eastern and North Eastern States of India  

PubMed Central

Background Adaptations to different habitats across the globe and consequent genetic variation within rice have resulted in more than 120,000 diverse accessions including landraces, which are vital genetic resources for agronomic and quality traits. In India the rice landraces of the states West Bengal, Assam, Mizoram, Manipur and Nagaland are worthy candidates for genetic assessment. Keeping the above in view, the present study was conducted with the aim to (i) calculate the genetic distances among the accessions of 83 landraces collected from these states along with 8 check accessions (total 91 accessions) using 23 previously mapped SSR markers and (ii) examine the population structure among the accessions using model-based clustering approach. Results Among the 91 accessions, 182 alleles were identified which included 51 rare and 27 null alleles. The average PIC value was 0.7467/marker. The non-aromatic landraces from West Bengal was most diverse with 154 alleles and an average PIC value of 0.8005/marker, followed by the aromatic landraces from West Bengal with 118 alleles and an average PIC value of 0.6524/marker, while the landraces from North East ranked third with 113 alleles and an average PIC value of 0.5745/marker. In the dendrogram distinct clusters consisting of predominantly aromatic landraces and predominantly North East Indian landraces were observed. The non-aromatic landraces from West Bengal were interspersed within these two clusters. The accessions were moderately structured, showing four sub-populations (A-D) with an Fst value of 0.398, 0.364, 0.206 and 0.281, respectively. The assigned clustering of accessions was well in agreement in both distance-based and model-based approaches. Conclusions Each of the accessions could be identified unequivocally by the SSR profiles. Genetically the non aromatic landraces from West Bengal were most diverse followed by the aromatic landraces from the same state. The North Eastern accessions ranked third. Further, grouping of accessions based on their agronomic traits may serve as a resource for future studies, leading to the improvement of rice. Moreover in-situ preservation of the landraces is also a means of protection of biodiversity and cultural heritage.

2013-01-01

210

Using Third-Party Inspectors in Building Energy Codes Enforcement in India  

SciTech Connect

India is experiencing fast income growth and urbanization, and this leads to unprecedented increases in demand for building energy services and resulting energy consumption. In response to rapid growth in building energy use, the Government of India issued the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) in 2007, which is consistent with and based on the 2001 Energy Conservation Act. ECBC implementation has been voluntary since its enactment and a few states have started to make progress towards mandatory implementation. Rajasthan is the first state in India to adopt ECBC as a mandatory code. The State adopted ECBC with minor additions on March 28, 2011 through a stakeholder process; it became mandatory in Rajasthan on September 28, 2011. Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, and Andhra Pradesh have started to draft an implementation roadmap and build capacity for its implementation. The Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) plans to encourage more states to adopt ECBC in the near future, including Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, West Bengal, and Delhi. Since its inception, India has applied the code on a voluntary basis, but the Government of India is developing a strategy to mandate compliance. Implementing ECBC requires coordination between the Ministry of Power and the Ministry of Urban Development at the national level as well as interdepartmental coordination at the state level. One challenge is that the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs), the enforcement entities of building by-laws, lack capacity to implement ECBC effectively. For example, ULBs in some states might find the building permitting procedures to be too complex; in other cases, lack of awareness and technical knowledge on ECBC slows down the amendment of local building by-laws as well as ECBC implementation. The intent of this white paper is to share with Indian decision-makers code enforcement approaches: through code officials, third-party inspectors, or a hybrid approach. Given the limited capacity and human resources available in the state and local governments, involving third-party inspectors could rapidly expand the capacity for plan reviews and broad implementation. However, the procedures of involving third-parties need to be carefully designed in order to guarantee a fair process. For example, there should be multiple checks and certification requirements for third-party inspectors, and the government should have the final approval when third-party inspectors are used in a project. This paper discusses different approaches of involving third-parties in ECBC enforcement; the Indian states may choose the approaches that work best in their given circumstances.

Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Kumar, Pradeep; Van Wie, Laura; Bhatt, Vatsal

2013-01-31

211

India: Degree Verification Fees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the USEFI (United States Education Foundation in India) Web site, (www.fulbright-india.org/eas/eas-general.htm), there are currently 74,603 Indian students in the United States. This immense cultural and educational exchange brings with it both rewards and difficulties for the students and the institutions who enroll them. One of the…

Gauthier, Grady

2004-01-01

212

Antenatal and maternal health care utilization: evidence from northeastern states of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the role played by the various socio-economic and community level factors in determining the antenatal and maternal health care utilization pattern using the data from the National Family Health Survey carried out in India in 1998\\/99. Our analysis document that autonomy enjoyed by women and exposure to media has a significant impact on maternal heath care utilization

Anindita Chakrabarti; Kausik Chaudhuri

2007-01-01

213

Future Time Perspectives of Adolescents in India and The United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of event-listing research suggests that longer time perspective is associated with more favorable characteristics including higher socio-economic level. The major samples consisted of approximately 100 boys and 80 girls each in ninth grades in small towns in India and America. They did not show significant differences on median time attributed to seven expected life events, though Indian boys

Perin Mehta; Norman D. Sundberg; Pritam K. Rohila; Leona E. Tyler

1972-01-01

214

Developing a sustainable phytomanagement strategy for excessive selenium in Western United States and India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytomanagement technology is recognized as an inexpensive and environmental friendly strategy for managing natural-occurring selenium (Se) in soils and in poor quality waters. Multi-year field and greenhouse studies were conducted with different plant species in California, USA and Punjab, India under high Se growing conditions. Some of the plant species included; canola (Brassica napus), mustard (B. juncea), broccoli (B. oleracea),

G. S. Bañuelos; K. S. Dhillon

2011-01-01

215

India: Implications of Communication Infrastructure on the Production of Media in State Training Institutes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Description of training institutes developed by the government of India to improve the irrigation system focuses on the communication system infrastructure for the production and use of audiovisual materials for training. Highlights include local production of media; equipment and communication networks; cost effectiveness; and recommendations for…

Maughan, George R.

1989-01-01

216

Role of state and market in housing delivery for low-income groups in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the importance of housing, it hasgenerally received very low priority in India'spublic policy and investment program, which haschanged frequently since independence in 1947. Although the government has embarked on avariety of innovative housing programs andpolicies, especially for the lower-incomesegments of the population in urban areas, thecoverage of these programs and schemes ismarginal as compared to the overall housingrequirements of

Alpana Sivam; Sadasivam Karuppannan

2002-01-01

217

Communication Behavior of Village Level Workers in Surat and Mehsana Districts, Gujarat State, India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated communication patterns, procedures, and background characteristics associated with effectiveness in village level workers (VLWs) in two districts of Gujarat, India. Questionnaire interviews were held with 222 VLWs who had induced farmers to adopt one or more farm practices. An appraisal form was used to measure the…

Patel, Ishwarlal Chaturdas

218

The Politics of Telecommunications Regulation: State–Industry Alliance Favouring Foreign Investment in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the political economy of three significant policy decisions of the Congress–United Progressive Alliance government between November 2005 and February 2006. These decisions improved the regulatory incentives for the smaller and efficient firms in the Indian GSM industry, which were heavily dependent on foreign investment for their expansion. India's telecommunications sector became more attractive to foreign investors as

Rahul Mukherji

2008-01-01

219

State Initiatives for the Empowerment of Women of Rural Communities: Experiences from Eastern India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussions with women in rural areas of India analyzed government-initiated development programs regarding availability of information, suitability to women's needs, and perception of problems. Most programs were top down with little input form women; self-help approaches problematized the "self" and did not consider the realities of women's…

Lahiri-Dutt, Kuntala; Samanta, Gopa

2002-01-01

220

Women Entrepreneurs from Southern India: An Exploratory Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study profiles women entrepreneurs who own and manage small- to medium- sized enterprises in two southern Indian states—Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Based on their reasons for starting a business, the women are classified into three cate gories : 'chance', 'forced' and 'created or pulled' entrepreneurs. The paper argues that while there are similarities between these three groups in terms

Mallika Das

1999-01-01

221

Groundwater pollution around an industrial area in the coastal stretch of Maharashtra State, India.  

PubMed

The main objective of this paper is to examine pollution threat, especially to the groundwater resources, around Tarapur industrial area (also called the Tarapur MIDC area) located on the Arabian Sea Coast in Thane District of Maharashtra State, India and suggest remedial measures that may also be relevant to other industrial areas on the Indian Sea Coast. One hundred and thirty one samples were collected from various sources, such as dugwells, borewells, dug-cum-borewells, effluent sumps, drainage channels (effluent channels), creeks and ocean, for chemical analyses. These analyses show that the area in general is characterized by hard water and high salinity hazard, possibly due to its proximity and hydraulic connection with the sea. Although the potability of groundwater is questionable in certain pockets, it is good enough for irrigation purposes at present. Low pH value and high heavy metal contents in the adjoining Muramba creek water is a matter of great concern and may be attributed to the indiscriminate disposal of industrial effluents to the drainage channels connecting the creek. Muramba Creek is well connected with the Arabian Sea, and there are evidences of seawater intrusion around this creek. Because of the fact that Muramba Creek is highly polluted, and is hydraulically connected with the dugwells and borewells surrounding the creek, it cannot be ruled out that the groundwater around this creek is susceptible to contamination. Unless measures are not taken immediately to stop the indiscriminate disposal of the solid wastes and liquid effluents in open ground and drainage channels, and measures are not taken to maintain the appropriate pH values at the effluent treatment facilities before their disposal, the problem would indeed be formidable one day, and it will be too late then for the authorities to take care of the resulting maladies. Few suggestions have been given for controlling and managing the industrial pollution around the Tarapur MIDC area. These suggestions are relevant to other industrial areas situated on the 7,000 km long Indian Sea Coast. PMID:17171245

Naik, Pradeep K; Dehury, Biranchi N; Tiwari, Arun N

2007-09-01

222

State Policies and Women's Autonomy in China, the Republic of Korea, and India, 1950-2000: Lessons from Contrasting Experiences. Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper compares the influence of state policies on gender roles and women's empowerment in China, India, and South Korea. In 1950, these newly formed states were largely poor and agrarian, with common cultural factors that placed similar severe constraints on women's autonomy. The three countries followed very different paths of development,…

Das Gupta, Monica; Lee, Sunhwa; Uberoi, Patricia; Wang, Danning; Wang, Lihong; Zhang, Xiaodan

223

The state of health services in China and India: a larger context.  

PubMed

In this paper the problems of health services in China and India are related to some structural features of the two economies. Some similarities and differences exist across these two countries in terms of political economy, with differential results. Both countries have experienced remarkable economic growth during the past quarter-century, but this has not always translated into improvements in health for the poor. Although China used to have an egalitarian basic public health service, the system has become quite inegalitarian during the past quarter-century, with the disintegration of the communes and adoption of fee-based services under a system of decentralized public finance. India's health system has remained inegalitarian throughout. PMID:18607025

Bardhan, Pranab

2008-01-01

224

Malaria problem and its control in north eastern states of India.  

PubMed

There has been a substantial increase in the overall malaria incidence and incidence of Plasmodium falciparum in the north-eastern region of India. The main contributory factors for this are: (i) difficult terrain, (ii) 'Jhum' cultivation, (iii) presence of optimum climatic conditions for prolonged transmission, (iv) presence of highly efficient malaria vectors, (v) developmental projects attracting aggregation of labour, (vi) influx of population along the international borders and (vii) chloroquine resistant P. falciparum strains. To combat this situation new approaches like providing 100 per cent Central assistance, intensifying training of personnel and DDT spray, opening Drug Distribution Centres and Fever Treatment Depots and making drugs available in the villages have been put into action. In this communication the overall malaria situation in the north-east India is discussed. PMID:8866993

Yadava, R L; Sharma, R S

1995-12-01

225

Knowledge amongst adult population regarding vectors of malaria in 21 states of India.  

PubMed

Malaria is the world's most important tropical disease which kills more people than any other disease except tuberculosis. It is a public health problem in more than 90 countries, inhabited by a total of some 2400 million people, 40% of the world's population. More than 90% of all malaria cases are in sub Saharan Africa, with two thirds of the remainder concentrated in six countries viz. India, Brazil, Sri Lanka, Afghanistan, Vietnam and Columbia in decreasing order of prevalence. Even now the problem of malaria in India is grossly underestimated. A rough estimate of morbidity due to malaria made on the basis of consumption of antimalarials comes to 35.5 million episodes in addition to malaria cases treated by the National Anti Malaria Programme (NAMP). In addition to large scale morbidity and mortality, it affects agricultural and industrial produce causing great socioeconomic losses. PMID:12561507

Bhasin, S K; Chaturvedi, S; Sharma, A K; Agarwal, D P

2001-12-01

226

Infection control in delivery care units, Gujarat state, India: A needs assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Increasingly, women in India attend health facilities for childbirth, partly due to incentives paid under government programs.\\u000a Increased use of health facilities can alleviate the risks of infections contracted in unhygienic home deliveries, but poor\\u000a infection control practices in labour and delivery units also cause puerperal sepsis and other infections of childbirth. A\\u000a needs assessment was conducted to provide information

Rajesh Mehta; Dileep V Mavalankar; KV Ramani; Sheetal Sharma; Julia Hussein

2011-01-01

227

Social Sector Expenditure and Child Mortality in India: A State-Level Analysis from 1997 to 2009  

PubMed Central

Background India is unlikely to meet the Millennium Development Goal for child mortality. As public policy impacts child mortality, we assessed the association of social sector expenditure with child mortality in India. Methods and Findings Mixed-effects regression models were used to assess the relationship of state-level overall social sector expenditure and its major components (health, health-related, education, and other) with mortality by sex among infants and children aged 1–4 years from 1997 to 2009, adjusting for potential confounders. Counterfactual models were constructed to estimate deaths averted due to overall social sector increases since 1997. Increases in per capita overall social sector expenditure were slightly higher in less developed than in more developed states from 1997 to 2009 (2.4-fold versus 2-fold), but the level of expenditure remained 36% lower in the former in 2009. Increase in public expenditure on health was not significantly associated with mortality reduction in infants or at ages 1–4 years, but a 10% increase in health-related public expenditure was associated with a 3.6% mortality reduction (95% confidence interval 0.2–6.9%) in 1–4 years old boys. A 10% increase in overall social sector expenditure was associated with a mortality reduction in both boys (6.8%, 3.5–10.0%) and girls (4.1%, 0.8–7.5%) aged 1–4 years. We estimated 119,807 (95% uncertainty interval 53,409 – 214,662) averted deaths in boys aged 1–4 years and 94,037 (14,725 – 206,684) in girls in India in 2009 that could be attributed to increases in overall social sector expenditure since 1997. Conclusions Further reduction in child mortality in India would be facilitated if policymakers give high priority to the social sector as a whole for resource allocation in the country’s 5-year plan for 2012–2017, as public expenditure on health alone has not had major impact on reducing child mortality.

Makela, Susanna M.; Dandona, Rakhi; Dilip, T. R.; Dandona, Lalit

2013-01-01

228

75 FR 7337 - Certifications Pursuant to Section 104 of the United States-India Nuclear Cooperation Approval...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Between India and the International Atomic Energy Agency Memorandum for the Secretary...of India and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of...Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency on August 1, 2008...

2010-02-19

229

The Myths of India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stating that superficial stereotypes hinder the understanding of people and places, Day presents several well-known over-generalizations about India. Attempts to update readers about recent changes within the country while dispelling some popular myths. Discusses India's large population, poverty, economic growth, women's roles, and culture, along…

Day, Frederick A.

1988-01-01

230

ADULT EDUCATION IN INDIA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

AGAINST A BACKGROUND OF MASS ILLITERACY, POOR PAY AND STATUS OF TEACHERS, AND AN ALIEN EDUCATION PATTERN, THE STATE GOVERNMENTS OF INDIA HAVE PROVIDED SOCIAL EDUCATION FOR CITIZENSHIP AS WELL AS LITERACY. INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP METHODS HAVE BEEN USED, VIDYAPEETHS (RESIDENTIAL COLLEGES) AND EDUCATIONAL CENTERS HAVE BEEN SET UP, AND ALL INDIA RADIO…

STYLER, W.E.

231

Isolation of viable but nonculturable Vibrio cholerae O1 from environmental water samples in Kolkata, India, in a culturable state  

PubMed Central

Previously, we reported that viable but nonculturable (VBNC) Vibrio cholerae was converted into a culturable state by coculture with several eukaryotic cell lines including HT-29 cells. In this study, we found that a factor converting VBNC V. cholerae into a culturable state (FCVC) existed in cell extracts of eukaryotic cells. FCVC was nondialyzable, proteinase K-sensitive, and stable to heating at <60°C for 5 min. We prepared thiosulfate citrate bile salts sucrose (TCBS) plates with FCVC (F-TCBS plates). After confirming that VBNC V. cholerae O1 and O139 formed typical yellow colonies on F-TCBS plates, we tried to isolate cholera toxin gene-positive VBNC V. cholerae from environmental water samples collected in urban slum areas of Kolkata, India and succeeded in isolating V. cholerae O1 El Tor variant strains harboring a gene for the cholera toxin. The possible importance of VBNC V. cholerae O1 as a source of cholera outbreaks is discussed.

Senoh, Mitsutoshi; Ghosh-Banerjee, Jayeeta; Mizuno, Tamaki; Shinoda, Sumio; Miyoshi, Shin-ichi; Hamabata, Takashi; Nair, G Balakrish; Takeda, Yoshifumi

2014-01-01

232

Relative Roles of Weather Variables and Change in Human Population in Malaria: Comparison over Different States of India  

PubMed Central

Background Pro-active and effective control as well as quantitative assessment of impact of climate change on malaria requires identification of the major drivers of the epidemic. Malaria depends on vector abundance which, in turn, depends on a combination of weather variables. However, there remain several gaps in our understanding and assessment of malaria in a changing climate. Most of the studies have considered weekly or even monthly mean values of weather variables, while the malaria vector is sensitive to daily variations. Secondly, rarely all the relevant meteorological variables have been considered together. An important question is the relative roles of weather variables (vector abundance) and change in host (human) population, in the change in disease load. Method We consider the 28 states of India, characterized by diverse climatic zones and changing population as well as complex variability in malaria, as a natural test bed. An annual vector load for each of the 28 states is defined based on the number of vector genesis days computed using daily values of temperature, rainfall and humidity from NCEP daily Reanalysis; a prediction of potential malaria load is defined by taking into consideration changes in the human population and compared with the reported number of malaria cases. Results For most states, the number of malaria cases is very well correlated with the vector load calculated with the combined conditions of daily values of temperature, rainfall and humidity; no single weather variable has any significant association with the observed disease prevalence. Conclusion The association between vector-load and daily values of weather variables is robust and holds for different climatic regions (states of India). Thus use of all the three weather variables provides a reliable means of pro-active and efficient vector sanitation and control as well as assessment of impact of climate change on malaria.

Goswami, Prashant; Murty, Upadhayula Suryanarayana; Mutheneni, Srinivasa Rao; Krishnan, Swathi Trithala

2014-01-01

233

Impact of occupational health hazards on serum markers of bone formation in spray painters of Chennai region in Tamil Nadu  

PubMed Central

Context: The association between spray paint exposure and bone remodeling received little attention despite the high usage of spray paints in automobile industries, steel furniture workshops etc. Aim: The present study was aimed at investigating the level of serum markers of bone formation in spray painters. The spray painting subjects were selected from automobile body repair workshops in Chennai region of TamilNadu which constitutes 30% of India's automobile industry. Setting and Design: All the study subjects, exposed to spray paint were working in a workshop without standard spraying room and did not wore any aerosol removing respirator. The controls were selected from random population irrespective of occupation. Data relevant to the socioeconomic features and personal history was collected using a questionnaire. The current study included 50 spray painters and 25 control subjects of same age group. Materials and Methods: We examined the level of serum calcium, serum phosphorus, serum differentiation markers of bone such as alkaline phosphatase (bone specific) and serum osteocalcin in which these levels were found to be high in serum of spray painters. Conclusion: The current study concludes dysregulation in bone remodeling of spray painters exposed to chronic solvents and paint pigments.

Muthaiah, Vijaya Prakash Krishnan; Nathan, Abel Arul; Balakrishnan, Anandan; Rose, Rajiv; Gopalsamy, Jayaraman

2012-01-01

234

Freshwater greenhouse gas emissions and their implications on landscape level carbon balances in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from global freshwaters are important sources of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. It has been estimated that about 0.65 Pg of C (CO2 equiv.) yr-1 in the form of CH4 and 1.4 Pg C yr -1 in the form of CO2 is being emitted from global freshwaters. Therefore, including freshwater emissions in the greenhouse gas budgets in the national or global levels could significantly reduce the estimated land carbon sink, but present estimates suffer from lack of data, in particular from tropical freshwaters. Hence, we attempted to test the validity of the land carbon sink estimate in India, a tropical country with a large number of natural and man-made water bodies. We measured the CH4 and CO2 fluxes and surface water concentrations from a wide variety of inland freshwaters like lakes, ponds, rivers, reservoirs, open wells, canals and springs in three South Indian states, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh. We observed that almost all of these freshwater systems emitted varied amounts of CH4 and a majority of them emitted CO2, similar to other tropical locations in South America. We extrapolated the measured fluxes for the whole of Indian inland waters by using the total area of different categories of inland waters in the national wetland atlas of India. By comparing our estimates of aquatic fluxes with the national greenhouse gas budget, we show that the land carbon sink of India is substantially overestimated. Thus, freshwater emissions are important components of greenhouse gas budgets on a landscape level and it is necessary to incorporate them in national and global greenhouse gas budgets to accurately quantify the land carbon sink.

Panneer Selvam, B.; Natchimuthu, S.; Arunachalam, L.; Bastviken, D.

2012-04-01

235

Regional Disparities in Household Consumption in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the distributions of persons by per capita household consumer expenditure on all items estimated from the 13th Round (Sept. 1957-May 1958) of the Indian National Sample Survey (NSS) separately for the rural and urban sectors of the different states of India [19]. For rural India, urban India and all-India, the disparities in consumption are analysed into between

N. Bhattacharya; B. Mahalanobis

1967-01-01

236

Developing a sustainable phytomanagement strategy for excessive selenium in western United States and India.  

PubMed

Phytomanagement technology is recognized as an inexpensive and environmental friendly strategy for managing natural-occurring selenium (Se) in soils and in poor quality waters. Multi-year field and greenhouse studies were conducted with different plant species in California, USA and Punjab, India under high Se growing conditions. Some of the plant species included; canola (Brassica napus), mustard (B. juncea), broccoli (B. oleracea), spearmint (Mentha viridis), sugarcane (Saccharum officcinarum), guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and poplar (Populus deltoides). California soils had a sodium-sulfate-dominated salinity between 6-10 dS m(-1), while Indian soils had a calcium carbonate salinity less than 1 dS m(-1). Results demonstrated that high sulfate conditions reduced plant Se accumulation more than 100 x in Californian grown plants compared to Se accumulation in Indian grown plants. Tissue concentrations generally did not exceed 10 and 200 mg kg DM(-1) in leaves of plants grown in California and India, respectively. At these plant concentrations, Se phytomanagement is more effective in Indian soils than in California soils. Successful management of Se by plants requires selecting crops or crop rotations that are tolerant of the soil condition and identifying and creating new viable Se-enriched products. PMID:22046761

Bañuelos, G S; Dhillon, K S

2011-01-01

237

Empowerment and continuous improvement in the United States, Mexico, Poland, and India: Predicting fit on the basis of the dimensions of power distance and individualism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although variations in national cultures predominate as explanations for the belief that universal approaches to management do not exist, there have been few reports of systematic studies. Data from employees of a single firm with operations in the United States, Mexico, Poland, and India were used to test the fit of empowerment and continuous improvement practices with national culture. Using

Christopher Robert; Tahira M. Probst; Joseph J. Martocchio; Fritz Drasgow; John J. Lawler

2000-01-01

238

Epidemiological survey of rhinosporidiosis in Kanyakumari district of Tamil Nadu.  

PubMed

One hundred and twelve nasal polyps received along with full history from three different hospitals of Kanyakumari district of Tamil Nadu during the period 1983-1987 were found positive for rhinosporidiosis on histopathological examination. Among the four taluks (countries) the majority of the cases (41.1 per cent) came from Agastheeswaram, followed by Kalkulam (28.6 per cent), Thovalai (17.0 per cent) and Vilavancode (13.3 per cent). The 11-20 years age group found to be highly susceptible (60 per cent). There was no sex prepondence in contracting the disease as the cases were evenly distributed between both sexes. These findings exhibited the endemic nature of the disease in Kanyakumari district. Unreported cases to an extent of 9 to 40 per cent were encountered during the ENT disease diagnostic camps conducted in nine high incidence villages. Further 8 more cases were detected in addition to cases attended in the hospitals and ENT camps when a complete enumeration of cases was undertaken in Pallam village. Thus the actual number of cases found in the district need a stratified random sampling. PMID:3380136

Moses, J S; Shanmugham, A; Kingsly, N; Vijayan, J C; Balachandran, C; Venkateswaren; Albert, A

1988-03-01

239

Factors associated with history of drug use among female sex workers (FSW) in a high HIV prevalence state of India  

PubMed Central

Background The intersection between illicit drug use and female commercial sex work has been identified as an important factor responsible for rising HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSW) in several northeastern states of India. But, little is know about the factors associated with the use of drugs among FSWs in this region. The objective of the paper was to describe the factors associated with history of drug use among FSWs in Dimapur, an important commercial hub of Nagaland, which is a high HIV prevalence state of India. Methods FSWs were recruited using respondent driven sampling (RDS), and were interviewed to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics and HIV risk behaviours. Biological samples were tested for HIV, syphilis gonorrhea and Chlamydia. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with drug use. Results Among the 426 FSWs in the study, about 25% (n?=?107) reported having ever used illicit drugs. Among 107 illicit drug users, 83 (77.6%) were non-injecting and 24 (22.4%) were injecting drug users. Drug-using FSWs were significantly more likely to test positive for one or more STIs (59% vs. 33.5%), active syphilis (27.1% vs. 11.4%) and Chlamydia infection (30% vs. 19.9%) compared to their non-drug using peers. Drug-using FSWs were also significantly more likely to be currently married, widowed or separated compared with non-drug-using FSWs. In multiple logistic regression analysis, being an alcohol user, being married, having a larger volume of clients, and having sexual partners who have ever used or shared injecting drugs were found to be independently associated with illicit drug use. Conclusions Drug-using FSWs were more vulnerable to STIs including HIV compared to their non-drug using peers. Several important factors associated with being an FSW who uses drugs were identified in this study and this knowledge can be used to plan more effectively targeted harm reduction strategies and programs.

2012-01-01

240

Climate variables as predictors for seasonal forecast of dengue occurrence in Chennai, Tamil Nadu  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background Dengue is a recently emerging vector borne diseases in Chennai. As per the WHO report in 2011 dengue is one of eight climate sensitive disease of this century. Objective Therefore an attempt has been made to explore the influence of climate parameters on dengue occurrence and use for forecasting. Methodology Time series analysis has been applied to predict the number of dengue cases in Chennai, a metropolitan city which is the capital of Tamil Nadu, India. Cross correlation of the climate variables with dengue cases revealed that the most influential parameters were monthly relative humidity, minimum temperature at 4 months lag and rainfall at one month lag (Table 1). However due to intercorrelation of relative humidity and rainfall was high and therefore for predictive purpose the rainfall at one month lag was used for the model development. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models have been applied to forecast the occurrence of dengue. Results and Discussion The best fit model was ARIMA (1,0,1). It was seen that the monthly minimum temperature at four months lag (?= 3.612, p = 0.02) and rainfall at one month lag (?= 0.032, p = 0.017) were associated with dengue occurrence and they had a very significant effect. Mean Relative Humidity had a directly significant positive correlation at 99% confidence level, but the lagged effect was not prominent. The model predicted dengue cases showed significantly high correlation of 0.814(Figure 1) with the observed cases. The RMSE of the model was 18.564 and MAE was 12.114. The model is limited by the scarcity of the dataset. Inclusion of socioeconomic conditions and population offset are further needed to be incorporated for effective results. Conclusion Thus it could be claimed that the change in climatic parameters is definitely influential in increasing the number of dengue occurrence in Chennai. The climate variables therefore can be used for seasonal forecasting of dengue with rise in minimum temperature and rainfall at a city level. Table 1. Cross correlation of climate variables with dengue cases in Chennai ** p<0.01,*p<0.05

Subash Kumar, D. D.; Andimuthu, R.

2013-12-01

241

Transmission dynamics of hepatitis C virus among intra venous drug users in the border state of Manipur, India.  

PubMed

Intra venous drug users (IVDUs) are at high risk for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection owing to their high rate of drug abuses. The north-eastern part of India has a high prevalence of IVDUs with Manipur being the worst hit state. The aim of the study was to document the molecular epidemiology, the patterns of HCV transmission, genomic variation and recombination events within HCV genome among IVDUs of Manipur, India. 91 anti-HCV sero-reactive blood samples were collected from IVDUs in Manipur. The samples were processed for RNA extraction, nested RT-PCR, sequencing and quantitative viral RNA estimation. Phylogeographic analysis of the sequenced core and NS5B regions of HCV genome was performed to determine the probable transmission route and recombinant HCV strains. 83 out of 91 anti-HCV seropositive samples were RNA positive (91.20%) based on 5'UTR of HCV genome by nested RT-PCR. Of the RNA positive samples, 73 paired partial core and NS5B gene were sequenced. Three major genotype and eight subtypes were detected while no recombinant strains were found. Individuals with genotype 1 had the mean viral load (5.94±0.705log10IU/ml) followed by genotype 3 (4.91±0.49log10IU/ml) and 6 (3.96±0.32log10IU/ml). The viral load was statistically significant among the male individuals at 4.822±1.36log10IU/ml compared to 4.767±0.49log10IU/ml for females (t=3.249, p<0.005). The phylogeographic results indicated 3b, 6h originated from Vietnam, 1a had Indian origin, 3a, 6k originated from southern China while 1b originated from Myanmar, respectively. The incidence of eight different subtypes in Manipur reflects the transmission of these strains from the "Golden Triangle" drug trafficking regions. Sequence analysis confirmed the transmission routes of HCV, which is linked to China and Vietnam for the newly emergent genotype 6 in north-eastern India. PMID:24650917

Saha, Kallol; Firdaus, Rushna; Biswas, Aritra; Mukherjee, Anirban; Sarkar, Kamalesh; Chakrabarti, Sekhar; Sadhukhan, Provash Chandra

2014-06-01

242

The transformation of amphibolite facies gneiss to charnockite in southern Karnataka and northern Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amphibolite facies metamorphic grade gives way southward to the granulite grade in southern Karnataka, as acid gneisses develop charnockite patches and streaks and basic enclaves develop pyroxenes. Petrologic investigations in the transitional zone south of Mysore have established the following points:1)The transition is prograde. Amphibole-bearing gneisses intimately associated with charnockite at Kabbal and several similar localities are not retrogressive after

A. S. Janardhan; R. C. Newton; E. C. Hansen

1982-01-01

243

Alternative energy sources from plants of Western Ghats (Tamil Nadu, India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-two taxa of Western Ghats plants were screened as potential alternative crops for renewable energy, oil, hydrocarbon and phytochemicals. The highest hydrocarbon yields were observed in Carissa carandas (1.7%), and Jatropha gossypifolia (1.7%). The highest polyphenol fraction was observed in Dodonaea viscosa (17.1%), Carissa carandas (7.7%), Swietenia mahagoni (6.6%), and Jatropha glandulifera (6.2%). The highest oil content was observed in

G. D. P. S Augustus; M Jayabalan; G. J Seiler

2003-01-01

244

Distribution of luminous bacteria in semi-intensive penaeid shrimp hatcheries of Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution and species composition of luminous bacteria in commercial penaeid shrimp hatcheries were studied. Luminous bacteria were found in the larval rearing tanks in considerable numbers ranging from log 0.70 to log 5.41\\/ml. A gradual but significant (P<0.05) increase in the mean total viable counts (TVC) from eggs (log 4.92±0.16\\/g) to post-larvae (log 7.00±0.55\\/g) was observed; while the mean

T. Jawahar Abraham; R. Palaniappan

2004-01-01

245

Impact of migration on new case detection rates in leprosy in Gudiyatham Taluk, Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

Migration of persons affected by leprosy was hinted at as early as 1929 (Bhaskara Rao 1930). All new cases of leprosy in Isfahan Province (Iran) were found to be migrants (Asilian et al 2005). Chudasama (2007) suspected increase in leprosy cases in Surat district to migration. These suggest migration contributes to new cases. This study was done to find out 1. Extent of migration among new cases, 2. Characteristics of migrants, 3. Occupational pattern 4.Reasons for migration. 5. Place of origin of migrants 6. Assimilation of migrants into the society. Trained staff collected information regarding migration using special questionnaire from all 222 new untreated cases from the field area of Community Health department during 2004 to 2008. Migrants were 10.4%. Distribution of place of residence, age, gender, marital status, education, mode of detection, Ridley-Jopling and MB/PB classifications of migrants were not significantly different from that of nonmigrants. Grade 2 deformities were more among migrants. All migrants found occupation. Mostly men migrated for job and women for joining their husbands. The role of migration in increasing the number of new cases cannot be minimized. Enhanced efforts should be made to provide adequate medical, health and rehabilitation services for them also. PMID:23720895

Samuel, P; Bushanam, J D R S; Ebenezer, M; Richard, J

2012-01-01

246

Hydrogeochemical analysis and evaluation of groundwater quality in the Gadilam river basin, Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water samples were collected from different formations of Gadilam river basin and analyzed to assess the major ion chemistry and suitability of water for domestic and drinking purposes. Chemical parameters of groundwater such as pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), Sodium (Na + ), Potassium (K + ), Calcium (Ca + ), Magnesium (Mg + ), Bicarbonate (HCO3^{ -}), Sulphate (SO4^{ -}), Phosphate (PO4^{ -}) and Silica (H4SiO4) were determined. The geochemical study of the aquatic systems of the Gadilam river basin show that the groundwater is near-acidic to alkaline and mostly oxidizing in nature. Higher concentration of Sodium and Chloride indicates leaching of secondary salts and anthropogenic impact by industry and salt water intrusion. Spatial distribution of EC indicates anthropogenic impact in the downstream side of the basin. The concentration levels of trace metals such as Iron (Fe), Lead (Pb), Nickel (Ni), Bromide (Br), Iodide (I) and Aluminium (Al) have been compared with the world standard. Interpretation of data shows that some trace metals such as Al, Ni and Pb exceed the acceptable limit of world standard. Geophysical study was carried out to identify the weathered zone in the hard rock and contaminated zone by anthropogenic impact in the downstream of river Gadilam. A few of the groundwater samples in the study area were found to be unsuitable for domestic and drinking purposes.

Prasanna, M. V.; Chidambaram, S.; Hameed, A. Shahul; Srinivasamoorthy, K.

2011-02-01

247

Natural radioactivity in soil samples of Yelagiri Hills, Tamil Nadu, India and the associated radiation hazards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The natural radioactivity of soils at Yelagiri hills has been studied in this paper. The radioactivities of 25 samples have been measured with a NaI(Tl) detector. The radioactivity concentrations of 238U, 232Th and 40K ranged from ?2.17 to 53.23, 13.54 to 89.89 and from 625.09 to 2207.3 Bq kg-1, respectively. The measured activity concentrations for these radionuclides were compared with world average activity of soil. The average activity concentration of 232Th in the present study is 1.19 times higher than world median value while the activity of 238U and 40K is found to be lower. In order to evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity Raeq, the absorbed dose rate DR, the annual effective dose rate and the external hazard index (Hex) have been calculated and compared with the internationally approved values. The study provides background radioactivity concentrations in Yelagiri hills.

Ravisankar, R.; Chandrasekaran, A.; Vijayagopal, P.; Venkatraman, B.; Senthilkumar, G.; Eswaran, P.; Rajalakshmi, A.

2012-12-01

248

Origin and evolution of Gneiss-Charnockite rocks of Dharmapuri District, Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low- to high-grade transition area in Dharmapuri district was investigated petrologically and geochemically. The investigation confirmed the presence of a continuous section through a former lower crust, with felsic charnockites predominating the lower part and felsic gneisses the upper part. The structure of original gneisses is preserved in charnockites and the latter show petrographic evidence for prograde metamorphism. The prograde metamorphism is of isochemical nature as revealed by the similarity of compositions of tonalitic gneisses and tonalitic charnockites. However, the depletion of LIL elements particularly Rb, caused variation in K/Rb ratios from low values (345) in the gneisses in upper part to higher values (1775) in the charnockites in the lower crust. This variation in K/Rb ratio in a north to south traverse is related to the progressive break-down of hydrous minerals under decreasing H2O and increasing CO2 fluid conditions. Metasomatism and partial melting has also taken place to a limited extent along shear planes and weak zones. During cooling the H2O circulation affected substantial auto-regression in the transition zone resulting in the formation of second generation biotite.

Rao, D. Rameshwar; Narayana, B. L.

1988-01-01

249

From "Time Pass" to Transformative Force: School-Based Human Rights Education in Tamil Nadu, India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents data collected at the level of practice to highlight one non-governmental organization's approach to human rights education and how household-, school-, and community-level factors mediated student impact. Findings suggest that a variety of factors at the three levels contribute to the program's successful implementation in…

Bajaj, Monisha

2012-01-01

250

Hydrochemical characteristics and groundwater quality assessment in Tirupur Region, Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater samples from 62 locations have been collected from Tirupur region viz. Avinashi, Tirupur and Palladam taluks of Coimbatore District. The extensive agricultural industrial activities and urbanization resulted in the contamination of the aquifer. To study the contamination of groundwater, water samples were collected in an area of 180 km2 and analysed for major cations and anions. Most of the locations are contaminated by higher concentration of EC, TDS, K and NO3. Major hydro chemical facies were identified using Piper trilinear diagram. Based on US salinity diagram, most of the samples fall in the field of C3S1, indicating high salinity and low sodium water, which can be used for almost all types of soil with little danger of exchangeable sodium. Majority of the samples are not suitable for domestic purposes and far from drinking water standards. However, PI values indicates that groundwater is suitable for irrigation.

Arumugam, K.; Elangovan, K.

2009-10-01

251

Genetic affinity between diverse ethnoreligious communities of Tamil Nadu, India: a microsatellite study.  

PubMed

Historically, a number of local Hindu caste groups have converted to Islam and formed religious endogamous groups. Therefore the local caste groups and religious communities in a region are expected to show genetic relatedness. In this study we investigate the genetic relationship between Tamil-speaking (Dravidian language) Muslims (Sunni), six endogamous Hindu castes, and a tribal ethnic group (Irulars) using 13 CODIS (Combined DNA Index System) autosomal microsatellite markers. Muslims show the highest average heterozygosity (0.405) compared to the other groups. The neighbor-joining tree and the multidimensional-scaling plot show clustering of Tamil-speaking Muslims with three caste groups (Gounder, Paraiyar, and Vanniyar), whereas the Irular tribe is separated out of the cluster. PMID:19728538

Eaaswarkhanth, M; Vasulu, T S; Haque, Ikramul

2008-12-01

252

Report: Hospital waste management--awareness and practices: a study of three states in India.  

PubMed

The study was conducted in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh in India. Hospitals/nursing homes and private medical practitioners in urban as well as rural areas and those from the private as well as the government sector were covered. Information on (a) awareness of bio-medical waste management rules, (b) training undertaken and (c) practices with respect to segregation, use of colour coding, sharps management, access to common waste management facilities and disposal was collected. Awareness of Bio-medical Waste Management Rules was better among hospital staff in comparison with private medical practitioners and awareness was marginally higher among those in urban areas in comparison with those in rural areas. Training gained momentum only after the dead-line for compliance was over. Segregation and use of colour codes revealed gaps, which need correction. About 70% of the healthcare facilities used a needle cutter/destroyer for sharps management. Access to Common Waste Management facilities was low at about 35%. Dumping biomedical waste on the roads outside the hospital is still prevalent and access to Common Waste facilities is still limited. Surveillance, monitoring and penal machinery was found to be deficient and these require strengthening to improve compliance with the Bio-medical Waste Management Rules and to safeguard the health of employees, patients and communities. PMID:18649579

Rao, P Hanumantha

2008-06-01

253

Study of surface ozone behaviour at urban and forested sites in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface ozone concentrations were measured continuously at Pune for a period of one year during 1991-1992 and for a period of 10 days in January 1992 at Upper Kargudi and in April 1992 at Bandipur, core zones of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve forests located in Tamil Nadu and Karnataka States, respectively, in south India. There is a marked diurnal variation in the concentration of surface ozone which clearly follows the diurnal variation of surface temperature. The monthly maximum concentration was observed during the summer season (March-May) and minimum during the monsoon season (June-September). The annual average concentration of ozone was 27 ppb and hourly values varied between 2 and 69 ppb at Pune. However, in the forest environment the 10-day average concentration was 15 ppb and hourly values varied between 5 and 31 ppb. The values of surface ozone at Pune and forest environment are below the U.S. EPA standard (113 ppb, maximum 1 h permissible concentration).

Khemani, L. T.; Momin, G. A.; Rao, P. S. P.; Vijayakumar, R.; Safai, P. D.

254

Universal Health Coverage for India by 2022: A Utopia or Reality?  

PubMed Central

It is the obligation of the state to provide free and universal access to quality health-care services to its citizens. India continues to be among the countries of the world that have a high burden of diseases. The various health program and policies in the past have not been able to achieve the desired goals and objectives. 65th World Health Assembly in Geneva identified universal health coverage (UHC) as the key imperative for all countries to consolidate the public health advances. Accordingly, Planning Commission of India constituted a high level expert group (HLEG) on UHC in October 2010. HLEG submitted its report in Nov 2011 to Planning Commission on UHC for India by 2022. The recommendations for the provision of UHC pertain to the critical areas such as health financing, health infrastructure, health services norms, skilled human resources, access to medicines and vaccines, management and institutional reforms, and community participation. India faces enormous challenges to achieve UHC by 2022 such as high disease prevalence, issues of gender equality, unregulated and fragmented health-care delivery system, non-availability of adequate skilled human resource, vast social determinants of health, inadequate finances, lack of inter-sectoral co-ordination and various political pull and push of different forces, and interests. These challenges can be met by a paradigm shift in health policies and programs in favor of vulnerable population groups, restructuring of public health cadres, reorientation of undergraduate medical education, more emphasis on public health research, and extensive education campaigns. There are still areas of concern in fulfilling the objectives of achieving UHC by 2022 regarding financing model for health-care delivery, entitlement package, cost of health-care interventions and declining state budgets. However, the Government's commitment to provide adequate finances, recent bold social policy initiatives and enactments such as food security bill, enhanced participation by civil society in all health matters, major initiative by some states such as Tamil Nadu to improve health, water, and sanitation services are good enough reasons for hope that UHC can be achieved by 2022. However, in the absence of sustained financial support, strong political will and leadership, dedicated involvement of all stakeholders and community participation, attainment of UHC by 2022 will remain a Utopia.

Singh, Zile

2013-01-01

255

Universal health coverage for India by 2022: a utopia or reality?  

PubMed

It is the obligation of the state to provide free and universal access to quality health-care services to its citizens. India continues to be among the countries of the world that have a high burden of diseases. The various health program and policies in the past have not been able to achieve the desired goals and objectives. 65(th) World Health Assembly in Geneva identified universal health coverage (UHC) as the key imperative for all countries to consolidate the public health advances. Accordingly, Planning Commission of India constituted a high level expert group (HLEG) on UHC in October 2010. HLEG submitted its report in Nov 2011 to Planning Commission on UHC for India by 2022. The recommendations for the provision of UHC pertain to the critical areas such as health financing, health infrastructure, health services norms, skilled human resources, access to medicines and vaccines, management and institutional reforms, and community participation. India faces enormous challenges to achieve UHC by 2022 such as high disease prevalence, issues of gender equality, unregulated and fragmented health-care delivery system, non-availability of adequate skilled human resource, vast social determinants of health, inadequate finances, lack of inter-sectoral co-ordination and various political pull and push of different forces, and interests. These challenges can be met by a paradigm shift in health policies and programs in favor of vulnerable population groups, restructuring of public health cadres, reorientation of undergraduate medical education, more emphasis on public health research, and extensive education campaigns. There are still areas of concern in fulfilling the objectives of achieving UHC by 2022 regarding financing model for health-care delivery, entitlement package, cost of health-care interventions and declining state budgets. However, the Government's commitment to provide adequate finances, recent bold social policy initiatives and enactments such as food security bill, enhanced participation by civil society in all health matters, major initiative by some states such as Tamil Nadu to improve health, water, and sanitation services are good enough reasons for hope that UHC can be achieved by 2022. However, in the absence of sustained financial support, strong political will and leadership, dedicated involvement of all stakeholders and community participation, attainment of UHC by 2022 will remain a Utopia. PMID:23878417

Singh, Zile

2013-04-01

256

Spatio-temporal analysis of rainfall trends over a maritime state (Kerala) of India during the last 100 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kerala, a maritime state of India is bestowed with abundant rainfall which is about three times the national average. This study is conducted to have a better understanding of rainfall variability and trend at regional level for this state during the last 100 years. It is found that the rainfall variation in northern and southern regions of Kerala is large and the deviation is on different timescales. There is a shifting of rainfall mean and variability during the seasons. The trend analysis on rainfall data over the last 100 years reveals that there is a significant (99%) decreasing trend in most of the regions of Kerala especially in the month of January, July and November. The annual and seasonal trends of rainfall in most regions of Kerala are also found to be decreasing significantly. This decreasing trend may be related to global anomalies as a result of anthropogenic green house gas (GHG) emissions due to increased fossil fuel use, land-use change due to urbanisation and deforestation, proliferation in transportation associated atmospheric pollutants. We have also conducted a study of the seasonality index (SI) and found that only one district in the northern region (Kasaragod) has seasonality index of more than 1 and that the distribution of monthly rainfall in this district is mostly attributed to 1 or 2 months. In rest of the districts, the rainfall is markedly seasonal. The trend in SI reveals that the rainfall distribution in these districts has become asymmetric with changes in rainfall distribution.

Nair, Archana; Ajith Joseph, K.; Nair, K. S.

2014-05-01

257

Isolation of viable but nonculturable Vibrio cholerae O1 from environmental water samples in Kolkata, India, in a culturable state.  

PubMed

Previously, we reported that viable but nonculturable (VBNC) Vibrio cholerae was converted into a culturable state by coculture with several eukaryotic cell lines including HT-29 cells. In this study, we found that a factor converting VBNC V. cholerae into a culturable state (FCVC) existed in cell extracts of eukaryotic cells. FCVC was nondialyzable, proteinase K-sensitive, and stable to heating at <60°C for 5 min. We prepared thiosulfate citrate bile salts sucrose (TCBS) plates with FCVC (F-TCBS plates). After confirming that VBNC V. cholerae O1 and O139 formed typical yellow colonies on F-TCBS plates, we tried to isolate cholera toxin gene-positive VBNC V. cholerae from environmental water samples collected in urban slum areas of Kolkata, India and succeeded in isolating V. cholerae O1 El Tor variant strains harboring a gene for the cholera toxin. The possible importance of VBNC V. cholerae O1 as a source of cholera outbreaks is discussed. PMID:24574069

Senoh, Mitsutoshi; Ghosh-Banerjee, Jayeeta; Mizuno, Tamaki; Shinoda, Sumio; Miyoshi, Shin-Ichi; Hamabata, Takashi; Nair, G Balakrish; Takeda, Yoshifumi

2014-04-01

258

Indoor concentration of radon, thoron and their progeny around granite regions in the state of Karnataka, India.  

PubMed

An extensive studies on the indoor activity concentrations of thoron, radon and their progeny in the granite region in the state of Karnataka, India, has been carried out since, 2007 in the scope of a lung cancer epidemiological study using solid-state nuclear track detector-based double-chamber dosemeters (LR-115, type II plastic track detector). Seventy-four dwellings of different types were selected for the measurement. The dosemeters containing SSNTD detectors were fixed 2 m above the floor. After an exposure time of 3 months (90 d), films were etched to reveal tracks. From the track density, the concentrations of radon and thoron were evaluated. The value of the indoor concentration of thoron and radon in the study area varies from 16 to 170 Bq m(-3) and 18 to 300 Bq m(-3) with medians of 66 and 82.3 Bq m(-3), respectively, and that of their progeny varies from 1.8 to 24 mWL with a median of 3.6 mWL and 1.6 to 19.6 mWL, respectively. The concentrations of indoor thoron, radon and their progeny and their equivalent effective doses are discussed. PMID:24106330

Sannappa, J; Ningappa, C

2014-03-01

259

Potential and prospects of solar energy in Uttara Kannada, District of Karnataka State, India  

SciTech Connect

Estimation of solar radiation for Uttara Kannada district is done on the basis of solar and other climatological data available at stations located at Karwar, Honnavar, Shirali, Mangalore, and Goa. The most commonly used empirical formula is the one that relates sunshine duration and global radiation, also referred to as Angstrom`s equation. The authors have used this relationship to estimate global radiation based on 20 years of data at Mangalore and 25 years of data at Goa provided by the India Meteorological Department. It is seen that computed and measured values (actual values) of global radiation (GR) agree within the range of 2--5% for most months. Data at Goa and Mangalore have been analyzed in order to improve accuracy and to establish the role of other climatological parameters, such as mean daily temperature, relative humidity, specific humidity, minimum and maximum temperature, and rainfall. The computed and estimated values are within the range {+-}5%. With this empirical relationship, GR is estimated (kWh/m{sup 2}) for Karwar (with 37 years of climatological data), Honnavar (with 50 years of climatological data), and Bhatkal (Shirali, with 15 years of climatological data). Karwar has a GR range of 5.5--6.5 for January--May and is in the range of 4--5 during the monsoon months, July--September, while at Honnovar the GR range during January--May is 5.47--6.5 and its minimum during the monsoon months. This study suggests that solar conversion technologies have considerable potential for application, provided that questions of storage and the monsoon season requirement can be adequately addressed through other options. The abundance of solar resources can be illustrated by comparing the land requirements of solar projects (thermal or photovoltaic) with those of hydro or energy plantation projects.

Ramachandra, T.V.; Subramanian, D.K. [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India). Centre for Ecological Sciences

1997-11-01

260

Pattern of seizure cases in tertiary care hospitals in Karnataka state of India  

PubMed Central

Background: The prevalence and incidence of epilepsy is higher in developing countries than in developed countries. Understanding pattern and risk factors of seizure cases will help in suggesting appropriate preventive measures. Objectives: This study was carried out to assess the pattern of seizure, its management and compliance with treatment. Materials and Methods: Data from medical records of seizure cases in three tertiary care hospitals of Mangalore city in south India admitted from January 2006 to December 2011 were collected and analyzed. Results: Nearly half (44.4%) of the 196 cases belonged to productive age group (15-45 years) and 2/3rd (60.7%) were males. Majority (>80% cases) were unskilled workers and of low socio-economic status groups. Family history of seizures was present in 8.4% cases. Mean age of onset of seizure was found to be 19.9 years. Proportion of generalized tonic clonic seizure cases was 78.1%. Secondary seizures were seen in 66 (33.7%) cases with the most common cause being trauma to the head (24.2%). Refractory seizures were present in 2.7% cases. Monotherapy was the most commonly followed treatment regimen and phenytoin was the most popular anti-epileptic drug (AED) used. Non-compliance with AEDs was seen in 18.1% cases and was more among patients on polytherapy (P = 0.032). Conclusion: Seizure manifestations and treatment compliance vary widely in the studied population. In depth analysis of each seizure type will give more information about the factors associated with it.

Joseph, Nitin; Kumar, Ganesh S.; Nelliyanil, Maria

2013-01-01

261

Efficiency of Health Care System at the SubState Level in Madhya Pradesh, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts a sub-state–level analysis of health system for a low-income Indian state, namely, Madhya Pradesh. The objective of our study is to establish efficiency parameters that may help health policy makers to improve district-level and thus state-level health system performance. It provides an idealized yardstick to evaluate the performance of the health sector by using stochastic frontier technique.

Brijesh C. Purohit

2009-01-01

262

Power Sector Reforms in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power sector reforms in India were initiated in the face of mounting commercial losses due to poor fiscal health of State Utilities, endemic capacity and energy shortages and increasing subsidy burden on the states. Investment in the sector was falling far short of demand in power supply. The Government of India, in 1991 embarked upon an ambitious program for reforming

Harbans L. Bajaj; D. Sharma

2006-01-01

263

Private Schooling Industry in North East India: A Trend Analysis of Nagaland State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study is an attempt to examine the intricacies of the growth of Private School industry in the North-Eastern Indian State of Nagaland. The study was carried out in Kohima, the capital city of Nagaland State. Data were obtained from field studies as well as from published reports of the Government. The main objective of the study was to…

Mishra, Biswambhara; Suresh, P. Srinivasa; Rio, K.

2006-01-01

264

Efficiency of health care system at the sub-state level in Madhya Pradesh, India.  

PubMed

This paper attempts a sub-state-level analysis of health system for a low-income Indian state, namely, Madhya Pradesh. The objective of our study is to establish efficiency parameters that may help health policy makers to improve district-level and thus state-level health system performance. It provides an idealized yardstick to evaluate the performance of the health sector by using stochastic frontier technique. The study was carried out in two stages of estimation, and our results suggest that life expectancy in the Indian state could be enhanced considerably by correcting the factors that are adversely influencing sub-state-level health system efficiency. Our results indicate that main factors within the health system for discrepancy in interdistrict performance are inequitable distribution of supplies, availability of skilled attention at birth, and inadequate staffing relative to patient load of rural population at primary health centers. Overcoming these factors through additional resources in the deficient districts, mobilized partly from grants in aid and partly from patient welfare societies, may help the state to improve life expectancy speedily and more equitably. Besides the direct inputs from the health sector, a more conducive environment for gender development, reducing inequality in opportunities for women in health, education and other rights may provide the necessary impetus towards reducing maternal morbidity and mortality and add to overall life expectancy in the state. PMID:20391252

Purohit, Brijesh C

2010-01-01

265

State and socio-demographic group variation in out-of-pocket expenditure, borrowings and Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) programme use for birth deliveries in India  

PubMed Central

Background High out-of-pocket-expenditure (OOPE) deters families from seeking skilled/institutional care. ‘Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), a conditional cash transfer programme launched in 2005 to mitigate OOPE and to promote institutional deliveries among the poor, is part of Government of India’s efforts to achieve Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5. The objective of this study is to estimate variations in OOPE for normal/caesarean-section deliveries, JSY-programme use and delivery associated borrowings - by states and union territories, and socio-demographic profiling of families, in India. Methods Secondary analysis of data from the District Level Household Survey (DLHS-3), 2007–08. Mean and median OOPE, percentage use of JSY and percentage of families needing to borrow money to pay for delivery associated expenditure was estimated for institutional and home deliveries. Results Half (52%) of all deliveries in India occurred at home in 2007/08. OOPE for women having institutional deliveries remained high, with considerable variation between states and union territories. Mean OOPE (SD) of a normal delivery in public and private institution respectively in India were Rs. 1,624 and Rs. 4,458 and for a caesarean-section it was Rs. 5,935 and Rs. 14,276 respectively. There was considerable state-level variation in use of the JSY programme for normal deliveries (15% nationally; ranging from 0% in Goa to 43% in Madhya Pradesh) and the percentage of families having to borrow money to pay for a caesarean-section in a private institution (47% nationally; ranging from 7% in Goa to 69% in Bihar). Increased literacy and wealth were associated with a higher likelihood of an institutional delivery, higher OOPE but no major variations in use of the JSY. Conclusions Our study highlights the ongoing high OOPE and impoverishing impact of institutional care for deliveries in India. Supporting families in financial planning for maternity care, additional investment in the JSY programme and strengthening state level planning are required to increase the proportion of institutional deliveries.

2012-01-01

266

Molecular detection and identification of thirteen isolates of Sugarcane yellow leaf virus associated with sugarcane yellow leaf disease in nine sugarcane growing states of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty sugarcane leaf samples exhibiting midrib yellowing symptoms from nine sugarcane growing states of India were collected.\\u000a The total RNA was isolated from infected samples and RT-PCR assays were performed using Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) specific primers. The infection of SCYLV was detected in 27 out of 30 samples, which showed the expected size (~610 bp)\\u000a amplicon during RT-PCR. The

Deepti Singh; Govind Pratap Rao; S. K. Snehi; S. K. Raj; R. Karuppaiah; R. Viswanathan

267

Left at sea: HIV vulnerability among migrant fishermen in Goa, India.  

PubMed

The Indian coastline is about 7517 km long, and on this coast line lie India's four high HIV prevalent states: Maharashtra , Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu. In the Indian context, when it comes to the mobile population, it is mostly truckers and labour migrants who have been given more attention from the National AIDS Control Organization. There are hardly any studies available in India on HIV and AIDS among fishing communities and seafarers. The vulnerability of fishing communities to HIV and AIDS is rooted in the nature of their occupation, which is characterised by high mobility, long absences from home, and cash incomes which in many cases are spent on casual sex and alcohol. Drawing from a mixed methods approach, which included in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, and a locally informed survey, this paper describes the living situation of fishermen in Goa, their risk perception towards HIV, risk behaviour, and condom usage. The push factors for migration to Goa were the lack of work opportunities and meagre wages, making it difficult for men to feed and clothe their households. The major pull factor for fishermen to migrate to Goa was the nature of fishing and the facilities that reduce the risk of financial loss for them. In the survey, risk perception towards HIV was queried in three different ways, and in one of the ways 15 percent agreed that there is a possibility that they might have contracted HIV. As concerns risk behaviour, 13.4 percent of the fishermen said that they had had sexual relations with a non-spousal partner. Only 14 percent of the fishermen had ever used a condom. The politics of aid and targeted interventions in Goa is barring access to information and care for the fishermen in Goa. PMID:21910115

Bailey, Ajay

2011-01-01

268

Altitudinal and Seasonal Variation in Drosophila Species on Mount Japfu of Nagaland, a Sub-Himalayan Hilly State of India  

PubMed Central

Drosophila (L.) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) has richly contributed to the understanding of patterns of inheritance, variation, speciation, and evolution. Drosophila, with its cosmopolitan nature and complexities in species compositions, is an excellent model for studying the eco-distributional patterns of various species. This study analyzed the altitudinal and seasonal variation in Drosophila species of Mount Japfu in Nagaland, a sub-Himalayan hilly state of northeast India, over the course of one year. A total of 4,680 Drosophila flies belonging to 19 species of 4 subgenera were collected at altitudes of 1500, 1800, 2100, 2400, and 2700 m a.s.l. The subgenus Sophophora Sturtevant was predominant, with 10 species, followed by subgenus Drosophila, with 4 species. Subgenus Dorsilopha and subgenus Scaptodrosophila were represented by 1 species each. The remaining 3 species were not identified. Cluster analysis and constancy methods were used to analyze the species occurrence qualitatively. Altitudinal changes in the population densities and relative abundances of the different species at different seasons were also studied. The diversity of the Drosophila community was assessed by applying Simpson's diversity index. At 1800 m a.s.l., the Simpson's index was low (0.09301), suggesting high Drosophila diversity at this altitude. The density of Drosophila changed significantly during different seasons (F = 26.72; df = 2; p < 0.0001). The results suggest the distributional pattern of a species or related group of species was uneven in space and time.

Achumi, Bovito; Hegde, Shridhar N.; Lal, Pardeshi; Yenisetti, Sarat Chandra

2013-01-01

269

Brachydorus swarupi sp. n. (Nematoda: Dolichodorinae) from Soil about Roots of Arecanut Palm in Kerala State, India.  

PubMed

Brachydorus swarupi sp. n. is described from soil about roots of arecanut palm in Kerala State, India. It is the second species to be described in Brachydorus De Guiran and Germani 1968 and differs from B. tenuis, the type species, by its greater length (1.52-2.34 mm for B. swarupi vs. 1.03-1.32 mm for B. tenuis); longer and more delicate stylet (26-35 mum for B. swarupi vs. 20-23 mum for B. tenuis); head shape with concave protrusion at oral aperture (simple rounded in B. tenuis); shorter isthmus and larger posterior bulb in B. swarupi; shorter tail (in B. tenuis c = 9.7 [8.6-11.5] in female, c = 42.3 [33-48] in male); larger spicules and gubernaculum (22-39 mum and 9 -1 2 mum, respectively, for B. tenuis); and phasmids near posterior connection of caudalalae and tail (almost central on caudalalae of B. tenuis). The relationship of Brachydorus to Dolichodorus is discussed. PMID:19300782

Koshy, P K; Raski, D J; Sosamma, V K

1981-07-01

270

Brachydorus swarupi sp. n. (Nematoda: Dolichodorinae) from Soil about Roots of Arecanut Palm in Kerala State, India  

PubMed Central

Brachydorus swarupi sp. n. is described from soil about roots of arecanut palm in Kerala State, India. It is the second species to be described in Brachydorus De Guiran and Germani 1968 and differs from B. tenuis, the type species, by its greater length (1.52-2.34 mm for B. swarupi vs. 1.03-1.32 mm for B. tenuis); longer and more delicate stylet (26-35 ?m for B. swarupi vs. 20-23 ?m for B. tenuis); head shape with concave protrusion at oral aperture (simple rounded in B. tenuis); shorter isthmus and larger posterior bulb in B. swarupi; shorter tail (in B. tenuis c = 9.7 [8.6-11.5] in female, c = 42.3 [33-48] in male); larger spicules and gubernaculum (22-39 ?m and 9 -1 2 ?m, respectively, for B. tenuis); and phasmids near posterior connection of caudalalae and tail (almost central on caudalalae of B. tenuis). The relationship of Brachydorus to Dolichodorus is discussed.

Koshy, P. K.; Raski, D. J.; Sosamma, V. K.

1981-01-01

271

Persistent foci of falciparum malaria among tribes over two decades in Koraput district of Odisha State, India  

PubMed Central

Background Koraput, a predominantly tribe-inhabited and one of the highly endemic districts of Odisha State that contributes a substantial number of malaria cases to the India’s total. Control of malaria in such districts would contribute to change the national scenario on malaria situation. Hence, a study was carried out to measure the magnitude of malaria prevalence in the district to strengthen the malaria control activities. Methods Prevalence of malaria was assessed through a sample blood survey (SBS) in seven randomly selected community health centres (CHCs). Individuals of all age groups in the villages selected (one in each subcentre) were screened for malaria infection. Both thick and thin smears were prepared from blood samples collected by finger prick, stained and examined for malaria parasites searching 100 fields in each smear. The results of a blood survey (n?=?10,733) carried out, as a part of another study, during 1986–87 covering a population of 17,722 spread in 37 villages of Koraput district were compared with the current survey results. Software SPSS version 16.0 was used for data analysis. Result During the current study, blood survey was done in 135 villages screening 12,045 individuals (16.1% of the total population) and among them, 1,983 (16.5%) were found positive for malaria parasites. Plasmodium falciparum was the major malaria parasite species accounted for 89.1% (1,767) of the total positives; Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium malariae accounted for 9.3% (184) and 0.2% (5), respectively. Gametocytes were found in 7.7% (n?=?152) of the positive cases. The majority of parasite carriers (78.9%) were afebrile. The 1986–87 blood survey showed that of 10,733 people screened, 833 (7.8%) were positive for malaria parasites, 714 (85.7%) with P. falciparum, 86 (10.3%) with P. vivax, 12 (1.4%) with P. malariae and 21 (2.5%) with mixed infections. Conclusion The results of the current study indicated a rising trend in transmission of malaria in Koraput district compared to the situation during 1986–87 and indicated the necessity for a focused and reinforced approach for the control of the disease by improving people’s access to diagnosis and treatment and ensuring implementation of the intervention measures with adequate coverage and compliance.

2013-01-01

272

Non-Disclosure of Violence among Female Sex Workers: Evidence from a Large Scale Cross-Sectional Survey in India  

PubMed Central

Objective One of the indicators critical to the success of violence reduction programmes among female sex workers (FSWs) is the pattern of disclosure of violence. This study examines the rate of non-disclosure of violence among FSWs in India by perpetrators of violence and programme exposure. Methods Data were drawn from a cross-sectional study conducted among FSWs in 2009 across four states of India: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. The analytical sample included 1341 FSWs who experienced physical violence in past six months. Multilevel logistic regression stratified by state was conducted to examine predictors of non-disclosure. Results About 54% of FSWs did not disclose their experience of violence to anyone with considerable variations in the pattern of disclosure across states. Another 36% of FSWs shared the experience with NGO worker/peer. Compared to violence perpetrated by paying partners/stranger, that by non-paying partner were twice more likely to report non-disclosure (53% vs. 68%, Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]: 1.8, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.3–2.4). Similarly, FSWs who were not registered with an NGO/sex worker collective were 40% more likely to report non-disclosure of violence against those registered (58% vs. 53%, AOR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1–1.9). Conclusions Non-disclosure of physical violence is quite high among FSWs which can be a barrier to the success of violence reduction efforts. Immediate efforts are required to understand the reasons behind non-disclosure based on which interventions can be developed. Community collectivisation and designing gender-based interventions with the involvement of non-paying partners should be the way forward.

Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Battala, Madhusudana; Porwal, Akash; Saggurti, Niranjan

2014-01-01

273

Decadal frequency and trends of extreme excess\\/deficit rainfall during the monsoon season over different meteorological sub-divisions of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The monsoon season (June–September) is the major source of rainwater in all the meteorological sub-divisions of India, except the Tamil Nadu & Pondicherry sub-division. In this study, the observed trends in monsoon rainfall, monthly as well as seasonal, were investigated and compared, and the variability and frequency of extreme excess and deficit rainfall during 1871–2008 were also analysed. The magnitude

N. Subash; H. S. Ram Mohan; A. K. Sikka

2011-01-01

274

Rain, rain, go away? The investment climate, state?business relations and firm performance in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is commonly argued that a better investment climate reform -- i.e., lower distortions in the institutional, policy and regulatory environment in which firms operate -- lead to discernible improvements in firm performance. In this paper, we argue that effective State?Business Relations (SBRs) condition better investment climate outcomes and that the deeper institutional determinants of firm performance are the former.

Vinish Kathuria; S. N. Rajesh Raj; Kunal Sen

2011-01-01

275

Rain, Rain, Go Away? The Investment Climate, State Business Relations and Firm Performance in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is commonly argued that a better investment climate reform – that is, lower distortions in the institutional, policy and regulatory environment in which firms operate - lead to discernible improvements in firm performance. In this paper, we argue that effective state business relations condition better investment climate outcomes and that the deeper institutional determinants of firm performance are the

Kathuria Vinish; Rajesh Raj Seethamma Natarajan; Kunal Sen

2010-01-01

276

Power vs. Representation: Feminist Dilemmas, Ambivalent State and the Debate on Reservation for Women in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The women's quota (81st Constitutional Amendment) Bill providing for one-third reservation of women in the Lok Sabha and State Assemblies was hanging fire for some time, and has now been put in cold storage. The current debate on the Bill (prior to the dissolution of the Lok Sabha) has raised a host of questions - relating to liberal democracy, egalitarianism

Kumud Sharma

277

Empowerment and continuous improvement in the United States, Mexico, Poland, and India: predicting fit on the basis of the dimensions of power distance and individualism.  

PubMed

Although variations in national cultures predominate as explanation for the belief that universal approaches to management do not exist, there have been few reports of systematic studies. Data from employees of a single firm with operations in the United States, Mexico, Poland, and India were used to test the fit of empowerment and continuous improvement practices with national culture. Using the theoretical constructs of individualism-collectivism and power distance, the authors predicted that the practices would be more congruent in some cultures than in others and that value congruence would result in job satisfaction. Using structural equations modeling, the authors found that empowerment was negatively associated with satisfaction in India but positively associated in the other 3 samples. Continuous improvement was positively associated with satisfaction in all samples. Substantive, theoretical, and methodological implications are discussed. PMID:11055141

Robert, C; Probst, T M; Martocchio, J J; Drasgow, F; Lawler, J J

2000-10-01

278

Status of iodine deficiency disorder in district Udham Singh Nagar, Uttarakhand state India  

PubMed Central

Background: Iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) is a public health problem in Uttarakhand state. Objective: The present study was conducted in district Udham Singh Nagar, Uttarakhand state with an objective to assess the status of iodine deficiency amongst school age children (6-12 years). Materials and Methods: Thirty clusters were selected by utilizing the population proportionate to size (PPS) cluster sampling methodology. A total of 1807 children in the age group of 6-12 years were included. The clinical examination of the thyroid of each child was conducted. Urine and Salt samples were collected from children. Results: The Total Goiter Rate (TGR) was found to be 13.2%. The proportion of children with Urinary Iodine Excretion (UIE) level <20, 20-49, 50-99, 100-199 and ?200 ?g/l was found to be nil, 6.0, 21.2, 34.2 and 38.5 percent, respectively. The median UIE level was 150 ?g/l. Only 46.7% of the salt samples had stipulated level of iodine of 15 ppm and more. Conclusion: The study population had mild degree of public health problem of iodine deficiency.

Kapil, Umesh; Pandey, R. M.; Jain, Vandana; Kabra, Madhulika; Sareen, Neha; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh

2014-01-01

279

Attitudes of students and teachers on cheating behaviors: descriptive cross-sectional study at six dental colleges in India.  

PubMed

Cheating behavior has been a serious problem in dental institutions across the globe. Attitudes of dental students have an impact on the quality of health care provided to their patients. This descriptive cross-sectional study had the following objectives: to assess and compare the attitudes of dental students and teachers about cheating behaviors, to assess students' opinions of various justifications for their cheating, and to assess teachers' attitudes towards various punishment options for cheating behaviors. The study sample consisted of 1,261 undergraduate students and 131 teachers from six randomly chosen dental colleges in Tamil Nadu State, India. A closed-ended questionnaire was used for respondents to rate the seriousness of cheating behaviors. The students were asked to justify their cheating behavior, and the teachers were asked to assign punishments for the cheating behaviors. The attitudes of students and teachers on the cheating behaviors were analyzed and compared using a Pearson chisquare test, with a confidence interval of 95 percent and significance level of p?0.05. The attitudes of the teachers and students were statistically different in two cheating behaviors: copying during exams and helping other students copy in exams. The two main justifying reasons students gave for cheating behavior were to pass the exam (59.3 percent) and to obtain a better grade (31.3 percent). Warning and counseling to help the students reassess their moral values were preferred to penalizing punishments by the teachers. PMID:24098043

Asokan, Sharath; John, J Baby; Janani, D; Jessy, P; Kavya, S; Sharma, Khushbu

2013-10-01

280

Leveraging human capital to reduce maternal mortality in India: enhanced public health system or public-private partnership?  

PubMed

Developing countries are currently struggling to achieve the Millennium Development Goal Five of reducing maternal mortality by three quarters between 1990 and 2015. Many health systems are facing acute shortages of health workers needed to provide improved prenatal care, skilled birth attendance and emergency obstetric services - interventions crucial to reducing maternal death. The World Health Organization estimates a current deficit of almost 2.4 million doctors, nurses and midwives. Complicating matters further, health workforces are typically concentrated in large cities, while maternal mortality is generally higher in rural areas. Additionally, health care systems are faced with shortages of specialists such as anaesthesiologists, surgeons and obstetricians; a maldistribution of health care infrastructure; and imbalances between the public and private health care sectors. Increasingly, policy-makers have been turning to human resource strategies to cope with staff shortages. These include enhancement of existing work roles; substitution of one type of worker for another; delegation of functions up or down the traditional role ladder; innovation in designing new jobs;transfer or relocation of particular roles or services from one health care sector to another. Innovations have been funded through state investment, public-private partnerships and collaborations with nongovernmental organizations and quasi-governmental organizations such as the World Bank. This paper focuses on how two large health systems in India--Gujarat and Tamil Nadu--have successfully applied human resources strategies in uniquely different contexts to the challenges of achieving Millennium Development Goal Five. PMID:19250542

Krupp, Karl; Madhivanan, Purnima

2009-01-01

281

Leveraging human capital to reduce maternal mortality in India: enhanced public health system or public-private partnership?  

PubMed Central

Developing countries are currently struggling to achieve the Millennium Development Goal Five of reducing maternal mortality by three quarters between 1990 and 2015. Many health systems are facing acute shortages of health workers needed to provide improved prenatal care, skilled birth attendance and emergency obstetric services – interventions crucial to reducing maternal death. The World Health Organization estimates a current deficit of almost 2.4 million doctors, nurses and midwives. Complicating matters further, health workforces are typically concentrated in large cities, while maternal mortality is generally higher in rural areas. Additionally, health care systems are faced with shortages of specialists such as anaesthesiologists, surgeons and obstetricians; a maldistribution of health care infrastructure; and imbalances between the public and private health care sectors. Increasingly, policy-makers have been turning to human resource strategies to cope with staff shortages. These include enhancement of existing work roles; substitution of one type of worker for another; delegation of functions up or down the traditional role ladder; innovation in designing new jobs;transfer or relocation of particular roles or services from one health care sector to another. Innovations have been funded through state investment, public-private partnerships and collaborations with nongovernmental organizations and quasi-governmental organizations such as the World Bank. This paper focuses on how two large health systems in India – Gujarat and Tamil Nadu – have successfully applied human resources strategies in uniquely different contexts to the challenges of achieving Millennium Development Goal Five.

Krupp, Karl; Madhivanan, Purnima

2009-01-01

282

Evaluation of trace-metal enrichments from the 26 December 2004 tsunami sediments along the Southeast coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tsunami sediments deposited after the December 2004 tsunami were sampled immediately in the coastal environment of Tamil Nadu State on the southeast coast of India. Fifty-four sediment samples were collected and 14 representative samples were selected to identify the level of metal contamination in tsunami sediments. The results indicate that the sediments are mainly of fine to medium-grained sand and contain significantly high contents of dissolved salts in sediments (Na+, K+, Ca+2, Mg+2, Cl-) in water-soluble fraction due to seawater deposition and evaporation. Correlation of acid leachable trace metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, Zn) indicate that Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides might play an important role in controlling their association between them. Enrichment of trace metals is observed in all the locations with reference to the background samples. High values of trace metals in the southern part of the study area are due to the large-scale industries along the coast, and they are probably anthropogenic in nature and of marine origin, which could cause serious environmental problems.

Srinivasalu, S.; Thangadurai, N.; Jonathan, M. P.; Armstrong-Altrin, J. S.; Ayyamperumal, T.; Ram-Mohan, V.

2008-02-01

283

Surface deformation monitored on the south eastern part of Uttarakhand State of India by the Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) is a useful tool in gathering the first basic information about the surface deformation, despite of different natural terrains, forested or mountainous region. This technique has been applied successfully by various worker in different field in extracting surface information in variety of terranes. The advantage of this techniques is that it has the ability of taking into account of only those return radar signal which are the brightest or the strongest in the surrounding background signal. Moreover, PS algorithms operate on a time series of interferograms all formed with respect to a single master SAR image that the noise terms of displacement for each PS pixel are much reduced. Keeping all these points in mind, we applied this technique in the Himalayan mountain, covering the south eastern part of the Uttarakhand state of India. So far lots of different work has been carried out in the Himalayan region, but less work has been done in regards to its surface deformation. The Himalayan mountain are well know for its segmented nature, different region undergoing different tectonic activity. In the similar manner, our PSI result in our study area also reveal two different set of deformation, with its eastern part revealing subsidence and the western part undergoing uplift, these two set of deformation is separated by a right later strike slip fault called, the Garampani-Kathgodam fault (G-KF). Apart from this obvious deformation, the western part also reveal differential deformation. Based on our result we have also tried to create a deformation model, to understand and to get better knowledge of the tectonic deformation setting.

Yhokha, A.; Chang, C.; Yen, J.; Goswami, P. K.; Ching, K.

2013-12-01

284

Bacterial species associated with traditional starter cultures used for fermented bamboo shoot production in Manipur state of India.  

PubMed

Soidon is a non-salted acidic fermented food prepared from the succulent bamboo shoot tip of Schizostachyum capitatum Munro by using a traditional liquid starter called "soidon mahi" in Manipur state of India. In this study, 163 bacterial isolates associated with this starter samples were identified and their population distribution was investigated by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA), 16S rDNA sequencing and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. This acidic starter (pH 4.5+/-0.15) was dominated by a characteristic association of Bacillus and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) together. The population distribution of dominant species were Bacillus subtilis 29.3%, Bacillus cereus 35.7%, Bacillus pumilus 2.6%, Lactobacillus brevis 9.6%, Lactobacillus plantarum 5.1%, Carnobacterium sp. 11.9%, Enterococcus faecium 1.2% and Pseudomonas fluorescens 4.6%. Alarming population load (10(6)-10(7)cfu/ml) of B. cereus in 87% of starter samples studied should raise concern regarding biosafety of soidon consumption. PCR amplification of 16S-23S rDNA intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) region and ITS-RFLP profiles revealed a high diversity with eight subgroups in B. subtilis, five subgroups in B. cereus and three subgroups in L. brevis isolates. The most abundant B. subtilis subgroup IB.1 distributed in most of the samples showed very less clonal variability during RAPD analysis. The molecular methods used in this study identified the dominant strains of Bacillus and LAB distributed in most of the starter samples. These dominant strains of B. subtilis, L. brevis and L. plantarum would allow for developing a defined starter culture for the production of quality soidon. PMID:20696489

Jeyaram, K; Romi, W; Singh, Th Anand; Devi, A Ranjita; Devi, S Soni

2010-09-30

285

Hydrochemical Analysis and Evaluation of Groundwater Quality in Tumkur Taluk, Karnataka State, India  

PubMed Central

Tumkur Taluk is located in the southeastern corner of Karnataka state between 13° 06?30? to 13° 31? 00? North latitude and 76° 59? 00? to 77° 19? 00? East Longitude. The Taluk spreads over an area of 1043 sq.km falling within the semiarid region and frequently facing water scarcity as well as quality problems. The major sources of employment are agriculture, horticulture and animal husbandry, engaging almost 80% of the workforce. Water samples are collected from 269 stations during pre-monsoon and 279 locations during post-monsoon of the year 2006, and were subjected to analysis for chemical characteristics. The type of water that predominates in the study area is Ca-Mg-HCO3 type during both preand post-monsoon seasons of the year 2006, based on hydro-chemical facies. Besides, suitability of water for irrigation is evaluated based on sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate, sodium percent, salinity hazard and USSL diagram.

Sadashivaiah, C.; Ramakrishnaiah, C. R.; Ranganna, G.

2008-01-01

286

MURDER IN TAMIL NADU(A Study of Murder Trials of 1968)1  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The murder trials of 1968 in Tamil Nadu totalling 526 are studied and assessed on the pattern of the U. K. Home Office study. The results showed that there were six psychotic murderers, 16 murderers who attempted suicide, 483 ‘normal’ male murderers, 20 female murderers and 6 youthful murderers. Age, sex, method of killing and motives of the murderers are discussed. The implications of the study with reference to the penal institutions and prevention of crime are dealt with.

Somasundaram, O.

1980-01-01

287

Response of malaria vectors to conventional insecticides in the southern districts of Odisha State, India  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Updating information on response (susceptible / resistant status) of vectors to the insecticides in use is essential to formulate and introduce appropriate resistance management strategy. Therefore, a study was undertaken in the 10 southern districts of Odisha State, which are endemic for Plasmodium falciparum malaria, to determine the insecticide susceptibility/ resistance status of Anopheles fluviatilis and An. culicifacies, the vectors of malaria. Methods: Mosquitoes were collected during September 2010 - February 2012 from 60 randomly selected villages in the 10 districts and blood-fed females were exposed to the diagnostic dosage of DDT (4.0%), malathion (5.0%) and deltamethrin (0.05%) for one hour. Mortality was recorded at 24 h after the exposure. The test mortality was corrected to the control mortality. Results: An. fluviatilis was susceptible to the three insecticides tested while, An. culicifacies was resistant to DDT and malathion in all the 10 districts except in two, where its response against malathion was under ‘verification required’ category. Against deltamethrin, An. culicifacies was susceptible in two districts; while in the other eight districts its response was under ‘verification required’ category. Interpretation & conclusions: Since An. fluviatilis the vector species primarily associated with transmission of malaria, was still susceptible to DDT, indoor residual spraying with DDT could be continued in the 10 districts. Also, in view of the large scale implementation of long lasting insecticidal nets and the signs of development of resistance in An. culicifacies to deltamethrin, response of the vectors to synthetic pyrethroids needs to be periodically monitored.

Sahu, S.S.; Gunasekaran, K.; Raju, H.K.; Vanamail, P.; Pradhan, M.M.; Jambulingam, P.

2014-01-01

288

Factors associated with high-risk behaviour among migrants in the state of maharashtra, India.  

PubMed

Studies among migrants show that they are more susceptible to HIV infection than the general population and thereby spread the epidemic from high prevalence to low prevalence areas. It is therefore critical to enhance the body of knowledge on factors associated with condom use among migrants. This study, conducted in 2009 in the State of Maharashtra, covers 4595 single in-migrants aged 15-49 years and aims at understanding the factors associated with non-use of condoms consistently. Information was collected using a Structured Interview Schedule covering demographic, socioeconomic profile, sexual history, knowledge, behaviour and stigma and discrimination indicators. Logistic regression analysis was used to understand the association between unprotected sex and various socio-demographic and environmental factors. The models were run using the Enter method. The goodness-of-fit of the model was assessed using Hosmer and Lemeshow chi-squared statistics. A significant association is observed between sex with sex workers and older migrants (>24 years), the literate, those who are mobile, unmarried, employed in the textile, quarry and construction industries, who often consume alcohol and who watch pornographic films. The factors associated with unprotected sex are age between 30 and 34 years and no literacy. Migrants who are mobile and consume alcohol show a significant association with unprotected sex. The findings suggest a need for a comprehensive HIV prevention programme including strategies to address the stressful work conditions. The prevention programmes should focus not only on skills for safer sex practices, but also on alcohol use reduction. PMID:23458913

Rao, Neeta; Jeyaseelan, L; Joy, Anna; Kumar, V Sampath; Thenmozhi, M; Acharya, Smriti

2013-09-01

289

Health system capacity: maternal health policy implementation in the state of Gujarat, India  

PubMed Central

Introduction The Government of Gujarat has for the past couple of decades continuously initiated several interventions to improve access to care for pregnant and delivering women within the state. Data from the last District Family Heath survey in Gujarat in 2007–2008 show that 56.4% of women had institutional deliveries and 71.5% had at least one antenatal check-up, indicating that challenges remain in increasing use of and access to maternal health care services. Objective To explore the perceptions of high-level stakeholders on the process of implementing maternal health interventions in Gujarat. Method Using the policy triangle framework developed by Walt and Gilson, the process of implementation was approached using in-depth interviews and qualitative content analysis. Result Based on the analysis, three themes were developed: lack of continuity; the complexity of coordination; and lack of confidence and underutilization of the monitoring system. The findings suggest that decisions made and actions advocated and taken are more dependent on individual actors than on sustainable structures. The findings also indicate that the context in which interventions are implemented is challenged in terms of weak coordination and monitoring systems that are not used to evaluate and develop interventions on maternal health. Conclusions The implementation of interventions on maternal health is dependent on the capacity of the health system to implement evidence-based policies. The capacity of the health system in Gujarat to facilitate implementation of maternal health interventions needs to be improved, both in terms of the role of actors and in terms of structures and processes.

Sanneving, Linda; Kulane, Asli; Iyer, Aditi; Ahgren, Bengt

2013-01-01

290

Disparities in child mortality trends: what is the evidence from disadvantaged states in India? the case of Orissa and Madhya Pradesh  

PubMed Central

Introduction The Millennium Development Goals prompted renewed international efforts to reduce under-five mortality and measure national progress. However, scant evidence exists about the distribution of child mortality at low sub-national levels, which in diverse and decentralized countries like India are required to inform policy-making. This study estimates changes in child mortality across a range of markers of inequalities in Orissa and Madhya Pradesh, two of India’s largest, poorest, and most disadvantaged states. Methods Estimates of under-five and neonatal mortality rates were computed using seven datasets from three available sources – sample registration system, summary birth histories in surveys, and complete birth histories. Inequalities were gauged by comparison of mortality rates within four sub-state populations defined by the following characteristics: rural–urban location, ethnicity, wealth, and district. Results Trend estimates suggest that progress has been made in mortality rates at the state levels. However, reduction rates have been modest, particularly for neonatal mortality. Different mortality rates are observed across all the equity markers, although there is a pattern of convergence between rural and urban areas, largely due to inadequate progress in urban settings. Inter-district disparities and differences between socioeconomic groups are also evident. Conclusions Although child mortality rates continue to decline at the national level, our evidence shows that considerable disparities persist. While progress in reducing under-five and neonatal mortality rates in urban areas appears to be levelling off, polices targeting rural populations and scheduled caste and tribe groups appear to have achieved some success in reducing mortality differentials. The results of this study thus add weight to recent government initiatives targeting these groups. Equitable progress, particularly for neonatal mortality, requires continuing efforts to strengthen health systems and overcome barriers to identify and reach vulnerable groups.

2013-01-01

291

Comparative study of economics of different models of family size biogas plants for state of Punjab, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogas, the end product of anaerobic digestion of cattle dung, can successfully supplement the cooking fuels in the countryside areas of India, where the raw material needed for its production is plentifully available. Because of the lack of awareness regarding selection of a suitable model and size of biogas plant, the full potential of the biogas producing material is not

K. Jatinder Singh; Sarbjit Singh Sooch

2004-01-01

292

The proposed changes for DSM-5 for SLD and ADHD: international perspectives--Australia, Germany, Greece, India, Israel, Italy, Spain, Taiwan, United Kingdom, and United States.  

PubMed

This article presents an international perspective of the proposed changes to the DSM-5 for learning disabilities (LD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) across ten countries: Australia, Germany, Greece, India, Israel, Italy, Spain, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. We provide perspectives of the present situation for youth with LD and youth with ADHD and describe the legislation, prevalence rates, and educational systems that serve students with disabilities in the respective countries. We also present a discussion of the expected impact of the proposed changes for the diagnosis of LD and ADHD in each country. PMID:23197670

Al-Yagon, Michal; Cavendish, Wendy; Cornoldi, Cesare; Fawcett, Angela J; Grünke, Matthias; Hung, Li-Yu; Jiménez, Juan E; Karande, Sunil; van Kraayenoord, Christina E; Lucangeli, Daniela; Margalit, Malka; Montague, Marjorie; Sholapurwala, Rukhshana; Sideridis, Georgios; Tressoldi, Patrizio E; Vio, Claudio

2013-01-01

293

Tolerance of house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) to dichlorvos (76% EC) an insecticide used for fly control in the tsunami-hit coastal villages of southern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Directorate of Public Health (DPH), Tamil Nadu, in southern India employed spraying of dichlorvos (76% EC) for quick elimination of fly concentrations in the tsunami-hit coastal villages at the concentration of 304g (a.i.)\\/10,000m2. However, nuisance of house flies remained high particularly in temporary shelters and centralized relief kitchens. Susceptibility of house fly, Musca domestica to dichlorvos was determined in

R. Srinivasan; P. Jambulingam; K. Gunasekaran; P. S. Boopathidoss

2008-01-01

294

77 FR 59970 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela; Institution of Five-Year Reviews...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Review)] Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela; Institution of Five-Year...Orders on Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela AGENCY: United States...orders on silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela would be likely to...

2012-10-01

295

78 FR 13380 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Review)] Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela; Scheduling of Full...Orders on Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela AGENCY: United States...orders on silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela would be likely to...

2013-02-27

296

Factors affecting the use of maternal health services in Madhya Pradesh state of India: a multilevel analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Improving maternal health is one of the eight Millennium Development Goals. It is widely accepted that the use of maternal health services helps in reducing maternal morbidity and mortality. The utilization of maternal health services is a complex phenomenon and it is influenced by several factors. Therefore, the factors at different levels affecting the use of these services need to be clearly understood. The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of individual, community and district level characteristics on the utilisation of maternal health services with special reference to antenatal care (ANC), skilled attendance at delivery and postnatal care (PNC). Methods This study was designed as a cross sectional study. Data from 15,782 ever married women aged 15-49 years residing in Madhya Pradesh state of India who participated in the District Level Household and Facility Survey (DLHS-3) 2007-08 were used for this study. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed accounting for individual, community and district level factors associated with the use of maternal health care services. Type of residence at community level and ratio of primary health center to population and percent of tribal population in the district were included as district level variables in this study. Results The results of this study showed that 61.7% of the respondents used ANC at least once during their most recent pregnancy whereas only 37.4% women received PNC within two weeks of delivery. In the last delivery, 49.8% mothers were assisted by skilled personnel. There was considerable amount of variation in the use of maternal health services at community and district levels. About 40% and 14% of the total variance in the use of ANC, 29% and 8% of the total variance in the use of skilled attendance at delivery and 28% and 8.5% of the total variance in the use of PNC was attributable to differences across communities and districts, respectively. When controlled for individual, community and district level factors, the variances in the use of skilled attendance at delivery attributed to the differences across communities and districts were reduced to 15% and 4.3% respectively. There were only marginal reductions observed in the variance at community and district level for ANC and PNC use. The household socio-economic status and mother's education were the most important factors associated with the use of ANC and skilled attendance at delivery. The community level variable was only significant for ANC and skilled attendance at delivery but not for PNC. None of the district level variables used in this study were found to be influential factors for the use of maternal health services. Conclusions We found sufficient amount of variations at community and district of residence on each of the three indicators of the use of maternal health services. For increasing the utilisation of these services in the state, in addition to individual-level, there is a strong need to identify and focus on community and district-level interventions.

2011-01-01

297

India: Kachchh  

... article title:  Liquefaction Effects from the Bhuj Earthquake     View Larger Image ... of western India. On January 26, 2001, a magnitude 7.7 earthquake devastated this area, killing 20,000 people and destroying ...

2013-04-16

298

Are Female Sex Workers Able to Negotiate Condom Use with Male Clients? The Case of Mobile FSWs in Four High HIV Prevalence States of India  

PubMed Central

Introduction Condom promotion among female sex workers (FSWs) is a key intervention in India’s National AIDS Control Program. However, there is limited understanding of how FSWs negotiate condom use with male clients, particularly in the context of their mobility for sex work. The objective of this study is to examine the factors associated with the mobile FSWs’ ability to refuse unsafe sex and successfully negotiate condom use with unwilling male clients. Methods Data for 5498 mobile FSWs from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 22 districts of four states in southern India were analyzed. Questions assessed FSWs’ ability to refuse clients unprotected sex, convince unwilling clients for condom use and negotiate condom use in a new location. Logistic regression models were constructed to examine the association between socio-demographics, economic vulnerability, sex work practice, and program exposure and condom negotiation ability. Results A majority of FSWs (60%) reported the ability to refuse clients for unprotected sex, but less than one-fifth reported the ability to successfully convince an unwilling client to use a condom or to negotiate condom use in a new site. Younger and older mobile FSWs compared to those who were in the middle age group, those with longer sex work experience, with an income source other than sex work, with program exposure and who purchased condoms for use, reported the ability to refuse unprotected sex, to successfully negotiate condom use with unwilling clients and to do so at new sites. Conclusion FSWs need to be empowered to not only refuse unprotected sex but also to be able to motivate and convince unwilling clients for condom use, including those in new locations. In addition to focusing on condom promotion, interventions must address the factors that impact FSWs’ ability to negotiate condom use.

Bharat, Shalini; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Roy, Suchismita; Saggurti, Niranjan

2013-01-01

299

Operational aspects of remote sensing and gis for water resources conservation and management: few examples from Haryana state, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote Sensing as the term signifies is the technique of gathering information about an object or surface phenomenon without being in physical contact with it and essentially by using electromagnetic radiation. The principle of remote sensing is based on the solar radiation reflected or emitted from the surface of the earth. As different objects behave differently for the incoming solar radiation and have different thermal properties, the amount of solar radiation reflected, absorbed or emitted is also different. GIS is defined as an information system that is used to input, store, retrieve, manipulate, analyze and output geographically referenced data or geospatial data in order to support decision making for planning and management of natural resources. It has four essential components - hardware, software, geospatial data and the users. GIS is needed because of some inherent demerits in the manual methods. The conventional methods of surveying and mapping are time consuming, labour intensive and tedious. The techniques of Remote Sensing (RS) and GIS are effective in timely and efficient generation of database of various resources. The synoptic view and multi resolution satellite data is helpful in generating information at various scales. The mapping and monitoring of dynamic phenomenon such as floods, water logging, deforestation can be done very effectively with the aid of RS and GIS. The effective planning for water resources conservation and management at district level can be made if the data is generated on 1:50,000 scale. Hydrogeomorphological maps on 1:50,000 scale showing different ground water prospect zones have been prepared for different districts in Haryana State, India. This information has been supplemented with the available inputs from existing sources about the depth to water level and ground water quality. The other maps prepared under National (Natural) Resources Information System (NRIS) such as land use/ land cover, geomorphology, drainage/ canal network and soils etc have also been consulted for preparing water resources action plan. The maps thus prepared depict different units for further ground water prospecting. It is to mention here that some of the Palaeo-channels have been picked up first time. Various sites has been suggested for site specific water resources conservation measures such check dams/ gully plugging, earthen dams etc for recharging the ground water. The information thus developed has been submitted to PWD (Public Health) Department, Govt. of Haryana as well as other district agencies involved in the planning and management of natural resources, for further implementation of the activities suggested in different areas. During visit to different areas, it was found that the water resources action plans suggested are being implemented in the field to its maximum possibility both in the direction of fresh ground water areas exploration as well as water resources conservation. The ground water in the areas suggested is being recharged and the people are taking good crops.

Chaudhary, B. S.

300

The biological sciences in India  

PubMed Central

India is gearing up to become an international player in the life sciences, powered by its recent economic growth and a desire to add biotechnology to its portfolio. In this article, we present the history, current state, and projected future growth of biological research in India. To fulfill its aspirations, India's greatest challenge will be in educating, recruiting, and supporting its next generation of scientists. Such challenges are faced by the US/Europe, but are particularly acute in developing countries that are racing to achieve scientific excellence, perhaps faster than their present educational and faculty support systems will allow.

Dell, Karen

2009-01-01

301

Neurosurgery in India: an overview.  

PubMed

This overview of neurosurgery in India during the last six decades gives a holistic perspective of the phenomenal advances made. Neurosurgical education, the change in clinical spectrum of diseases and their presentation, evolution of various subspecialties and societies, the state of research, the issues peculiar to India, including the urban-rural health divide, the increasing role of information and communication technology in neurosurgery, and the gradual but definite global recognition of Indian neurosurgery will be addressed. PMID:23454398

Ganapathy, Krishnan

2013-01-01

302

Public Report on Health: Development of a Nutritive Value Calculator for Indian Foods and Analysis of Food Logs and Nutrient Intake in six States.  

PubMed

The Public Report on Health (PRoH) was initiated in 2005 to understand public health issues for people from diverse backgrounds living in different region specific contexts. States were selected purposively to capture a diversity of situations from better-performing states and not-so-well performing states. Based on these considerations, six states - the better-performing states of Tamil Nadu (TN), Maharashtra (MH) and Himachal Pradesh (HP) and the not-so-well performing states of Madhya Pradesh (MP), Uttar Pradesh (UP) and Orissa (OR) - were selected. This is a report of a study using food diaries to assess food intakes in sample households from six states of India. Method: Food diaries were maintained and all the raw food items that went into making the food in the household was measured using a measuring cup that converted volumes into dry weights for each item. The proportion consumed by individual adults was recorded. A nutrient calculator that computed the total nutrient in the food items consumed, using the 'Nutritive Value of Indian Foods by Gopalan et al., was developed to analyze the data and this is now been made available as freeware (http://bit.ly/ncalculator). The total nutrients consumed by the adults, men and women was calculated. Results: Identifying details having been removed, the raw data is available, open access on the internet http://bit.ly/foodlogxls.The energy consumption in our study was 2379 kcal per capita per day. According to the Summary Report World Agriculture the per capita food consumption in 1997-99 was 2803 which is higher than that in the best state in India. The consumption for developing countries a decade ago was 2681 and in Sub-Saharan Africa it was 2195. Our data is compatible in 2005 with the South Asia consumption of 2403 Kcal per capita per day in 1997-99. For comparison, in industrialized countries it was 3380. In Tamil Nadu it was a mere 1817 kcal. Discussion: The nutrient consumption in this study suggests that food security in the villages studied is far from achieved. It is hoped that the new Food Security Ordinance will make a dent in the situation. The calculator for computing nutrients of foods consumed which we developed based on the ICMR defined nutrient values for Indian foods has been made available as freeware on the internet. This is with the hope that more such studies can be carried out at the household level. PMID:24995224

Sathyamala, C; Kurian, Nj; DE, Anuradha; Saxena, Kb; Priya, Ritu; Baru, Rama; Srivastava, Ravi; Mittal, Onkar; Noronha, Claire; Samson, Meera; Khalsa, Sneh; Puliyel, Ashish; Puliyel, Jacob

2014-05-01

303

Public Report on Health: Development of a Nutritive Value Calculator for Indian Foods and Analysis of Food Logs and Nutrient Intake in six States  

PubMed Central

The Public Report on Health (PRoH) was initiated in 2005 to understand public health issues for people from diverse backgrounds living in different region specific contexts. States were selected purposively to capture a diversity of situations from better-performing states and not-so-well performing states. Based on these considerations, six states – the better-performing states of Tamil Nadu (TN), Maharashtra (MH) and Himachal Pradesh (HP) and the not-so-well performing states of Madhya Pradesh (MP), Uttar Pradesh (UP) and Orissa (OR) – were selected. This is a report of a study using food diaries to assess food intakes in sample households from six states of India. Method: Food diaries were maintained and all the raw food items that went into making the food in the household was measured using a measuring cup that converted volumes into dry weights for each item. The proportion consumed by individual adults was recorded. A nutrient calculator that computed the total nutrient in the food items consumed, using the ‘Nutritive Value of Indian Foods by Gopalan et al., was developed to analyze the data and this is now been made available as freeware (http://bit.ly/ncalculator). The total nutrients consumed by the adults, men and women was calculated. Results: Identifying details having been removed, the raw data is available, open access on the internet http://bit.ly/foodlogxls.The energy consumption in our study was 2379 kcal per capita per day. According to the Summary Report World Agriculture the per capita food consumption in 1997-99 was 2803 which is higher than that in the best state in India. The consumption for developing countries a decade ago was 2681 and in Sub-Saharan Africa it was 2195. Our data is compatible in 2005 with the South Asia consumption of 2403 Kcal per capita per day in 1997-99. For comparison, in industrialized countries it was 3380. In Tamil Nadu it was a mere 1817 kcal. Discussion: The nutrient consumption in this study suggests that food security in the villages studied is far from achieved. It is hoped that the new Food Security Ordinance will make a dent in the situation. The calculator for computing nutrients of foods consumed which we developed based on the ICMR defined nutrient values for Indian foods has been made available as freeware on the internet. This is with the hope that more such studies can be carried out at the household level.

Sathyamala, C; Kurian, NJ; DE, Anuradha; Saxena, KB; Priya, Ritu; Baru, Rama; Srivastava, Ravi; Mittal, Onkar; Noronha, Claire; Samson, Meera; Khalsa, Sneh; Puliyel, Ashish

2014-01-01

304

Structural patterns in high grade terrain in parts of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed geological mapping in parts of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka has brought out vast areas occupied by highly deformed charnockite and high grade gneisses. These areas, similar to high grade shield terrains in other parts of the world have the impress of extensive tectonic reworking multideformation and polymetamorphism and are closely associated with layered ultramafics, shelf type sediments and different igneous events. In North Arcot and Charmapuri districts of Tamil Nadu and Kollegal taluk in Mysore district in Karnataka, charnockite is intensely cofolded with a supracrustal succession of layered ultramafics, pyroxene granulite, pink granolites, magnetite quartzite and khondalites. These areas have undergone five phases of deformation, five generations of basic dyke activities, four phases of migmatisation and two periods of metallogeny. Geochronological data ranges from 2900 m.y. to 750 m.y. In working out the tectanostratigraphy of the above areas the basic dykes of different generations have served as major time markers. In addition, the persistent strike continuity of linear bands of pyroxene granulite, pink granolite and magnetite quartzite has been of great utility in using them as structural markers for bringing out the complex structural history in these areas.

Sugavanam, E. B.; Vidyadharan, K. T.

1988-01-01

305

India Illustrated  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This remarkable collection from the University of Houston's Digital Library brings together over 210 black and white photographs from a rare book entitled, India Illustrated. This work was originally published around 1905 and it came from the publishers of the English language newspaper, Times of India. Visitors can get started with the Browse the Collection section which offers thumbnails of such photos as "A Bathing Fair on the Gangesâ and "A Corner of Fort St. George.â The collection contains some rather curious images of British colonialism, including shots of the Madras Cricket Club, the Adyar Club, and a range of polo matches.

306

Fellowships in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an effort to encourage stronger research ties between India and the United States, the Indo-U.S. Subcommission on Education and Culture is offering 12 long-term and 9 short-term research fellowships in India in 1985 and 1986. The only requirement is that the applicants be U.S. citizens at the postdoctoral or equivalent postdoctoral level. The awards have no restrictions as to field of study, and because the program seeks to open new channels of communication between academic and professional groups in the two countries, those who have had little or no experience in India are especially encouraged to apply.The long-term fellowships are for 6 to 10 months, with a monthly allowance of $1500. Long-term fellows will also receive travel money and allowances for dependents. The short-term awards, for periods of 2 to 3 months, also offer a monthly payment of $1500. Funding for these fellowships is provided by the U.S. Information Agency, the National Science Foundation, the Smithsonian Institution, and the Government of India.

307

India's Northeast: The Frontier in Ferment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Prakash Singh's monograph on the threat that insurgencies in northeast India present to the national government provides an excellent insight into a significant security challenge to the Indian state. The troubles in the eight northeastern states highligh...

P. Singh

2008-01-01

308

India's population in transition.  

PubMed

This demographic profile of India addresses fertility, family planning, and economic issues. India is described as a country shifting from economic policies of self-reliance to active involvement in international trade. Wealth has increased, particularly at higher educational levels, yet 25% still live below the official poverty line and almost 66% of Indian women are illiterate. The government program in family planning, which was instituted during the early 1950s, did not change the rate of natural increase, which remained stable at 2.2% over the past 30 years. 1993 marked the first time the growth rate decline to under 2%. The growth rate in 1995 was 1.9%. The total population is expected double in 36 years. Only Nigeria, Pakistan, and Bangladesh had a higher growth rate and higher fertility in 1995. India is geographically diverse (with the northern Himalayan mountain zone, the central alluvial plains, the western desert region, and the southern peninsula with forest, mountains, and plains). There are regional differences in the fertility rates, which range from replacement level in Kerala and Goa to 5.5 children in Uttar Pradesh. Fertility is expected to decline throughout India due to the slower pace of childbearing among women over the age of 35 years, the increase in contraceptive use, and increases in marriage age. Increased educational levels in India and its state variations are related to lower fertility. Literacy campaigns are considered to be effective means of increasing the educational levels of women. Urbanization is not expected to markedly affect fertility levels. Urban population, which is concentrated in a few large cities, remains a small proportion of total population. Greater shifts are evident in the transition from agriculture to other wage labor. Fertility is expected to decline as women's share of labor force activity increases. The major determinant of fertility decline in India is use of family planning, which has improved in access and use during the 1980s. If India is to keep a stable population under 1.6 billion in the future, Indians may have to accept only one child per family. PMID:12290691

Visaria, L; Visaria, P

1995-10-01

309

Race and bicultural socialization in the Netherlands, Norway, and the United States of America in the adoptions of children from India.  

PubMed

A cross-national sample of 622 internationally adopted children from India with White parents in The Netherlands (n = 409), Norway (n = 146), and the United States (n = 67) was used to contrast country-specific bicultural socialization (BCS) practices among families of transracial intercountry adoption. The 3 countries vary in their degrees of minority (US > Netherlands > Norway) and Indian populations (US > Norway > Netherlands). The current study examined parental survey trends among BCS practices, children's negative encounters about adoption, racial and positive discrimination, and parental worry about these issues. Country-specific differences were revealed: The United States and Norway (greatest Indian populations) reported the greatest similarity in BCS practices, classmates being a source of negative reactions/racial discrimination, and parental worry. The American sample encountered greater negative reactions to adoption from others; Dutch children experienced the least negative reactions from others overall, yet as in the United States (samples with the greatest minority heterogeneity) they still noted significant experiences of racial discrimination. Country-specific sociopolitical perceptions about adoption, ethnicity/race, and immigration are considered as factors that may have been used to inform parenting practices that facilitate children's biculturalism into family life (i.e., adoptive family stigma, percentages of Indian/minority populations, immigration policy trends). Concluding, cross-national research such as the current study may help intercountry adoption policymakers and practitioners to better understand and inform BCS practices in adoptive families. PMID:24773007

Riley-Behringer, Maureen; Groza, Victor; Tieman, Wendy; Juffer, Femmie

2014-04-01

310

On the genus Hydrometra Latreille (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Hydrometridae) from India with description of two new species .  

PubMed

Two new species of the genus Hydrometra Latreille, 1796, are described from the Oriental Region. Hydrometra cherukolensis sp. nov. is described from Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, India, belongs to the Hydrometra julieni species group, and is closely related to H. julieni Hungerford & Evans, 1934 and H. julienoidea Polhemus & Polhemus, 1995. Hydrometra nicobarensis sp. nov. is described from the Great Nicobar Biosphere Reserve (GNBR), Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India, belongs to the Hydrometra lineata species group and this new species is closely related to H. borneensis Zettel & Yang, 2004. Hydrometra okinawana Drake, 1951, collected from GNBR, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, and is the first record for India. Hydrometra butleri Hungerford & Evans, 1934, is redescribed and notes on H. greeni Kirkaldy, 1898 are given. All together five species of Hydrometra, H. butleri, H. cherukolensis sp. nov., H. greeni, H. nicobarensis sp. nov. and H. okinawana are reported in the present study from India. A key to the species of Hydrometra of India and the distribution maps are also provided. PMID:24871746

Jehamalar, E Eyarin; Chandra, Kailash

2014-01-01

311

China and India: economic performance, competition and cooperation: an update  

Microsoft Academic Search

China and India chose similar economic development strategies in 1950 of near autarky, industrialization, and the dominance of the state in the economy. China came out of insulation and began reforming its economy in 1978. India’s hesitant and piecemeal reforms, initiated in the 1980s, became systemic and broader in 1991. Since 1980, China has grown at an average rate of

T. N. Srinivasan

2004-01-01

312

Reimbursement for critical care services in India  

PubMed Central

There are significant variations in critical care practices, costs, and reimbursements in various countries. Of note, there is a paucity of reliable information on remuneration and reimbursement models for intensivists in India. This review article aims to analyze the existing reimbursement models in United States and United Kingdom and propose a frame-work model that may be applicable in India.

Jayaram, Raja; Ramakrishnan, Nagarajan

2013-01-01

313

Bacteriological analysis of water samples from tsunami hit coastal areas of Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu.  

PubMed

Water borne diseases such as cholera, enteric fever and dysentery were expected after the tsunami, which hit the coastal areas of Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu. In the present study 151 drinking water sources were collected from the tsunami affected villages and relief shelters and tested for coliforms and pathogens. Nine well water samples were also collected for specific bacteriological analysis. Presence of coliforms was detected in 56 (37%) water samples. One isolate each of Salmonella Paratyphi B and NAG Vibrio were isolated from two well water samples. There was no report of acute diarrhoeal diseases or typhoid illness during the post tsunami period monitored by a field microbiology laboratory for a month. PMID:16687861

Rajendran, P; Murugan, S; Raju, S; Sundararaj, T; Kanthesh, B M; Reddy, E V

2006-04-01

314

Muse India  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started and run by a group of writers, Muse India is an online bimonthly journal which seeks to showcase Indian writings in both English and in English translation. Begun in early 2005, the journal has produced a number of thematic issues over the past several years, including those that have focused on Punjabi literature, modern Tamil poetry, and Indian aesthetics. Each issue contains a blend of literary commentaries, fiction pieces, book reviews, and poems. Visitors can read these pieces, and also search through the archive via a search engine. For those that are so inspired, they can also contact the editor about the possibility of having their own work included in a forthcoming issue of Muse India.

315

Delhi, India  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Delhi is the second largest metropolis in India, with a population of 16 million. Located in northern India along the banks of the Yamuna River, Delhi has the status of a federally-administered union territory. Within it is the district of New Delhi, India's capital. Delhi is one of the oldest continually inhabited cites in the world, with traces of human occupation dating to the second millennium BC. The image was acquired September 22, 2003, covers an area of 30.6 x 34.8 km, and is located near 28.6 degrees north latitude, 77.2 degrees east longitude.

The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2008-01-01

316

Prevalence of fluorosis and identification of fluoride endemic areas in Manur block of Tirunelveli District, Tamil Nadu, South India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the consumption of more fluoride through drinking water. It is necessary to identify the fluoride endemic areas to adopt remedial measures for the people under the risk of fluorosis. The objectives of this study were to identify the exact location of fluoride endemic areas in Manur block of Tirunelveli District and to estimate fluoride exposure level through drinking water for different age groups. Identification of fluoride endemic areas was performed through Isopleth and Google earth mapping techniques. Fluoride level in drinking water samples was estimated by fluoride ion selective electrode method. A systematic clinical survey conducted in 19 villages of Manur block revealed the rate of prevalence of fluorosis. From this study, it has been found that Alavanthankulam, Melapilliyarkulam, Keezhapilliyarkulam, Nadupilliyarkulam, Keezhathenkalam and Papankulam are the fluoride endemic villages, where the fluoride level in drinking water is above 1 mg/l. Consumption of maximum fluoride exposure levels of 0.30 mg/kg/day for infants, 0.27 mg/kg/day for children and 0.15 mg/kg/day for adults were found among the respective age group people residing in high fluoride endemic area. As compared with adequate intake level of fluoride of 0.01 mg/kg/day for infants and 0.05 mg/kg/day for other age groups, the health risk due to excess fluoride intake to the people of Alavanthankulam and nearby areas has become evident. Hence the people of these areas are advised to consume drinking water with optimal fluoride to avoid further fluorosis risks.

Gopalakrishnan, Subarayan Bothi; Viswanathan, Gopalan; Siva Ilango, S.

2012-12-01

317

A six year (2006-2011) retrospective study of hemoprotozoan parasites affecting dogs in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

With the changing global scenario there is effect not only on the human survival but also on the prevalence of existing pathogens and appearance of new infectious agents among animal population. This paper emphasises the need for prevalence studies. A retrospective study for 6 years on prevalence of hemoprotozoans in dogs in Chennai showed Babesia gibsoni the predominant parasite of dogs. Details are discussed in this paper. PMID:24808651

Vairamuthu, S; Ranju, R S; Latha, Bhaskaran Ravi; Dhivya, B; Balachandran, C

2014-06-01

318

A correlation study of the ground water quality in the Manali Petroleum Industrial Region in Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increased prominence of the petroleum industry in Manali at North Chennai has given rise to a concomitant upsurge of ecological disturbances together with groundwater pollution. Ten representative groundwater samples were collected from various parts of the industrial region in the monsoon, winter and summer seasons during 2006-2007 and those water samples were analysed by standard analytic methods. As many

S. Arul Antony; M. Balakrishnan; S. Gunasekaran

319

Risk factors of post-traumatic stress disorder in tsunami survivors of Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Context: In this study, we assessed the relation of possible risk factors with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the survivors of December 2004 tsunami in Kanyakumari district. Materials and Methods: We identified cases (n=158) and controls (n=141) by screening a random sample of 485 tsunami survivors from June 2005 to October 2005 using a validated tool, “Impact of events scale-revised (IES-R),” for symptoms suggestive of PTSD. Subjects whose score was equal to or above the 70th percentile (total score 48) were cases and those who had score below or equal to 30th percentile (total score 33) were controls. Analysis was done using statistical package for the social sciences to find the risk factors of PTSD among various pre-disaster, within-disaster and post-disaster factors. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that PTSD was related to female gender [odds ratio (OR) 6.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.26-12.39], age 40 years and above (OR 2.38, 95% CI 1.23-4.63), injury to self (OR 2.97, 95% CI 1.55-5.67), injury to family members (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.05-4.15), residence in urban area (area of maximum destruction) (OR 3.37, 95% CI 1.35-8.41) and death of close relatives (OR 3.83, 95% CI 1.91-7.68). Absence of fear of recurrence of tsunami (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.17-0.60), satisfaction of services received (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.36-0.92) and counseling services received more than three times (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.26-0.78) had protective effect against PTSD. Conclusions: There is an association of pre-disaster, within-disaster and post-disaster factors with PTSD, which demands specific interventions at all phases of disaster, with a special focus on vulnerable groups.

Pyari, T. T.; Kutty, Raman V.; Sarma, P. S.

2012-01-01

320

Knowledge, Stigma, and Behavioral Outcomes among Antiretroviral Therapy Patients Exposed to Nalamdana's Radio and Theater Program in Tamil Nadu, India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Arts-based programs have improved HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and behavior in general and at-risk populations. With HIV transformed into a chronic condition, this study compares patients at consecutive stages of receiving antiretroviral treatment, coinciding with exposure to a radio-and-theater-based educational program (unexposed [N = 120],…

Nambiar, Devaki; Ramakrishnan, Vimala; Kumar, Paresh; Varma, Rajeev; Balaji, Nithya; Rajendran, Jeeva; Jhona, Loretta; Chandrasekar, Chokkalingam; Gere, David

2011-01-01

321

Significance of saturation index of certain clay minerals in shallow coastal groundwater, in and around Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The saturation index of clay minerals like Gibbsite, Kaolinite, Illite, Montmorillonite and Chlorite in groundwater were studied in detail by collecting 29 groundwater samples from the shallow coastal aquifers in and around Kalpakkam. The samples collected were analysed for major cations, anions and trace elements by using standard procedures. The study reveals that pH has a significant role in the saturation index (SI) of minerals. It also shows that the relationship of electrical conductivity to the SI of these minerals is not significant than that of the ionic strength, log pCO2 values, and alumina silica ratio have significant relation to the SI of these clay minerals. The SI of these clay minerals was spatially distributed to identify the areas of higher SI. Silica has good correlation to SI of Kaolinite, Gibbsite and Montmorillonite and Al has good correlation to SI of all the minerals except to that of Chlorite.

Chidambaram, S.; Karmegam, U.; Sasidhar, P.; Prasanna, M. V.; Manivannan, R.; Arunachalam, S.; Manikandan, S.; Anandhan, P.

2011-10-01

322

Distribution of Foraminifera in the Core Samples of Kollidam and Marakanam Mangrove Locations, Tamil Nadu, Southeast Coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to study the distribution of Foraminifera in the subsurface sediments of mangrove environment, two core samples have been collected i) near boating house, Pitchavaram, from Kollidam estuary (C2) and ii) backwaters of Marakanam (C2)with the help of PVC corer. The length of the core varies from a total of 25 samples from both cores were obtained and they were subjected to standard micropaleontological and sedimentological analyses for the evaluation of different sediment characteristics. The core sample No.C1 (Pitchavaram) yielded only foraminifera whereas the other one core no.C2 (Marakanam) has yielded discussed only the down core distribution of foraminifera. The widely utilized classification proposed by Loeblich and Tappan (1987) has been followed in the present study for Foraminiferal taxonomy and accordingly 23 foraminiferal species belonging to 18 genera, 10 families, 8 superfamilies and 4 suborders have been reported and illustrated. The foraminiferal species recorded are characteristic of shallow innershelf to marginal marine and tropical in nature. Sedimentological parameters such as CaCO3, Organic matter and sand-silt-clay ratio was estimated and their down core distribution is discussed. An attempt has been made to evaluate the favourable substrate for the Foraminifera population abundance in the present area of study. From the overall distribution of foraminifera in different samples of Kollidam estuary (Pitchavaram area), and Marakanam estuary it is observed that siltysand and sandysilt are more accommodative substrate for the population of foraminifera, respectively. The distribution of foraminifera in the core samples indicate that the sediments were deposited under normal oxygenated environment conditions.;

Nowshath, M.

2013-05-01

323

Mate selection and its impact on female marriage age, pregnancy wastages, and first child survival in Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marriage in Indian society is a religious duty. Consanguineous marriage is common, where individuals prefer to marry within their clan (a unilateral kin group based on either matrilineal or patrilineal descent). Keeping in mind that this form of marriage has certain disadvantages for social and biological as well as demographic aspects of individuals and families, the present study examines the

S. Sureender; B. Prabakaran; A. G. Khan

1998-01-01

324

Dr. P. C. Sen Memorial Award Paper. Status of salt iodisation and iodine deficiency in selected districts of different states of India.  

PubMed

Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) is a major public health problem. Surveys conducted by the National Goitre Survey team of the Directorate General of Health Services during the past three decades have revealed a high prevalence of endemic goitre in different states. Out of a total of 267 districts surveyed till date, 226 have been reported to be endemic to iodine deficiency. A successful measure for the prevention of IDD is salt iodisation. The Salt department, Government of India has taken an intensive programme of production of iodised salt in the country. The production has increased from 1.5 lakh metric tonnes in 1984 to 40 lakh metric tonnes in 1996. To assess the impact of increased production of iodised salt on the availability of iodised salt at the beneficiary and trader level and also on the status of iodine deficiency, surveys were undertaken in selected districts of 10 states and 2 union territories of the country. These studies have been presented and discussed here. PMID:10389517

Kapil, U; Nayar, D

1998-01-01

325

Dhaksha, the Unmanned Aircraft System in its New Avatar-Automated Aerial Inspection of INDIA'S Tallest Tower  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DHAKSHA, the unmanned aircraft system (UAS), developed after several years of research by Division of Avionics, Department of Aerospace Engineering, MIT Campus of Anna University has recently proved its capabilities during May 2012 Technology demonstration called UAVforge organised by Defence Research Project Agency, Department of Defence, USA. Team Dhaksha with its most stable design outperformed all the other contestants competing against some of the best engineers from prestigi ous institutions across the globe like Middlesex University from UK, NTU and NUS from Singapore, Tudelft Technical University, Netherlands and other UAV industry participants in the world's toughest UAV challenge. This has opened up an opportunity for Indian UAVs making a presence in the international scenario as well. In furtherance to the above effort at Fort Stewart military base at Georgia,USA, with suitable payloads, the Dhaksha team deployed the UAV in a religious temple festival during November 2012 at Thiruvannamalai District for Tamil Nadu Police to avail the instant aerial imagery services over the crowd of 10 lakhs pilgrims and also about the investigation of the structural strength of the India's tallest structure, the 300 m RCC tower during January 2013. The developed system consists of a custom-built Rotary Wing model with on-board navigation, guidance and control systems (NGC) and ground control station (GCS), for mission planning, remote access, manual overrides and imagery related computations. The mission is to fulfill the competition requirements by using an UAS capable of providing complete solution for the stated problem. In this work the effort to produce multirotor unmanned aerial systems (UAS) for civilian applications at the MIT, Avionics Laboratory is presented

Kumar, K. S.; Rasheed, A. Mohamed; Krishna Kumar, R.; Giridharan, M.; Ganesh

2013-08-01

326

Prevalence of hypertension and correlates among adults of 45-60 years in a rural area of Tamil Nadu.  

PubMed

Hypertension is one of the major causes of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Community based studies in the rural areas of Tamil Nadu on the prevalence of hypertension and its associated risk factors are scarce. A cross-sectional study was undertaken among a sample of 406 individuals (45-60 years) selected by the standard 30 cluster systematic random sampling technique to find out prevalence of hypertension and its associated risk factors in a rural area of Tamil Nadu. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were employed using SPSS package. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 33% and higher among sedentary type (41%). In bivariate analysis many of the independent variables correlated with hypertension, but in multivariate analysis, only body-mass index, family history and age remained significant. PMID:19806828

Subburam, R; Sankarapandian, M; Gopinath, D R; Selvarajan, S K; Selvaranjan, S K; Kabilan, L

2009-01-01

327

State Support for Private Schooling in India: What Do the Evaluations of the British Assisted Places Schemes Suggest?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Section 12 of the Indian Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009 (the RTE Act) states that 25% of the entry-level places in all private schools should be free and reserved for students from economically and socially disadvantaged families. The Indian State governments will pay schools a per-child fee based on costs in the…

Walford, Geoffrey

2013-01-01

328

Paragonimus & paragonimiasis in India  

PubMed Central

Ever since the discovery of the first indigenous case in 1981, paragonimiasis has gained recognition as a significant food borne parasitic zoonosis in India. The data available on the occurrence of paragonimiasis, until today, may be just the tip of an iceberg as the study areas covered were restricted to Northeast Indian States. Nevertheless, the results of research on paragonimiasis in India have revealed valuable information in epidemiology, life cycle, pathobiology and speciation of Indian Paragonimus. Potamiscus manipurensis, Alcomon superciliosum and Maydelliathelphusa lugubris were identified as the crab hosts of Paragonimus. Paragonimus miyazakii manipurinus n. sub sp., P. hueit’ungensis, P. skrjabini, P. heterotremus, P. compactus, and P. westermani have been described from India. P. heterotremus was found as the causative agent of human paragonimiasis. Ingestion of undercooked crabs and raw crab extract was the major mode of infection. Pulmonary paragonimiasis was the commonest clinical manifestation while pleural effusion and subcutaneous nodules were the common extra-pulmonary forms. Clinico-radiological features of pulmonary paragonimiasis simulated pulmonary tuberculosis. Intradermal test, ELISA and Dot-immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) were used for diagnosis and epidemiological survey of paragonimiasis. Phylogenitically, Indian Paragonimus species, although nested within the respective clade were distantly related to others within the clade.

Singh, T. Shantikumar; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Rangsiruji, Achariya

2012-01-01

329

Paragonimus & paragonimiasis in India.  

PubMed

Ever since the discovery of the first indigenous case in 1981, paragonimiasis has gained recognition as a significant food borne parasitic zoonosis in India. The data available on the occurrence of paragonimiasis, until today, may be just the tip of an iceberg as the study areas covered were restricted to Northeast Indian States. Nevertheless, the results of research on paragonimiasis in India have revealed valuable information in epidemiology, life cycle, pathobiology and speciation of Indian Paragonimus. Potamiscus manipurensis, Alcomon superciliosum and Maydelliathelphusa lugubris were identified as the crab hosts of Paragonimus. Paragonimus miyazakii manipurinus n. sub sp., P. hueit'ungensis, P. skrjabini, P. heterotremus, P. compactus, and P. westermani have been described from India. P. heterotremus was found as the causative agent of human paragonimiasis. Ingestion of undercooked crabs and raw crab extract was the major mode of infection. Pulmonary paragonimiasis was the commonest clinical manifestation while pleural effusion and subcutaneous nodules were the common extra-pulmonary forms. Clinico-radiological features of pulmonary paragonimiasis simulated pulmonary tuberculosis. Intradermal test, ELISA and Dot-immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) were used for diagnosis and epidemiological survey of paragonimiasis. Phylogenitically, Indian Paragonimus species, although nested within the respective clade were distantly related to others within the clade. PMID:22960885

Singh, T Shantikumar; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Rangsiruji, Achariya

2012-08-01

330

Tobacco control in India.  

PubMed Central

Legislation to control tobacco use in developing countries has lagged behind the dramatic rise in tobacco consumption. India, the third largest grower of tobacco in the world, amassed 1.7 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 1990 due to disease and injury attributable to tobacco use in a population where 65% of the men and 38% of the women consume tobacco. India's anti-tobacco legislation, first passed at the national level in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and proved to be insufficient. In the last decade state legislation has increasingly been used but has lacked uniformity and the multipronged strategies necessary to control demand. A new piece of national legislation, proposed in 2001, represents an advance. It includes the following key demand reduction measures: outlawing smoking in public places; forbidding sale of tobacco to minors; requiring more prominent health warning labels; and banning advertising at sports and cultural events. Despite these measures, the new legislation will not be enough to control the demand for tobacco products in India. The Indian Government must also introduce policies to raise taxes, control smuggling, close advertising loopholes, and create adequate provisions for the enforcement of tobacco control laws.

Shimkhada, Riti; Peabody, John W.

2003-01-01

331

DOING BUSINESS IN INDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1991, India's closed economy opened up and attracted investments from several multinational companies (MNCs) around the world. As a result, people began to seek information about doing business in India, giving rise to a plethora of literature aimed at assisting them. Generally there are two prominent views of India. One is that India is a poor, under-developed country, lacking

RODNEY SEBASTIAN; ASHVIN PARAMESWARAN; FAIZAL YAHYA

2006-01-01

332

India's Worsening Uranium Shortage  

SciTech Connect

As a result of NSG restrictions, India cannot import the natural uranium required to fuel its Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs); consequently, it is forced to rely on the expediency of domestic uranium production. However, domestic production from mines and byproduct sources has not kept pace with demand from commercial reactors. This shortage has been officially confirmed by the Indian Planning Commission’s Mid-Term Appraisal of the country’s current Five Year Plan. The report stresses that as a result of the uranium shortage, Indian PHWR load factors have been continually decreasing. The Uranium Corporation of India Ltd (UCIL) operates a number of underground mines in the Singhbhum Shear Zone of Jharkhand, and it is all processed at a single mill in Jaduguda. UCIL is attempting to aggrandize operations by establishing new mines and mills in other states, but the requisite permit-gathering and development time will defer production until at least 2009. A significant portion of India’s uranium comes from byproduct sources, but a number of these are derived from accumulated stores that are nearing exhaustion. A current maximum estimate of indigenous uranium production is 430t/yr (230t from mines and 200t from byproduct sources); whereas, the current uranium requirement for Indian PHWRs is 455t/yr (depending on plant capacity factor). This deficit is exacerbated by the additional requirements of the Indian weapons program. Present power generation capacity of Indian nuclear plants is 4350 MWe. The power generation target set by the Indian Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) is 20,000 MWe by the year 2020. It is expected that around half of this total will be provided by PHWRs using indigenously supplied uranium with the bulk of the remainder provided by breeder reactors or pressurized water reactors using imported low-enriched uranium.

Curtis, Michael M.

2007-01-15

333

Prevalence and incrimination of Anopheles fluviatilis species S (Diptera: Culicidae) in a malaria endemic forest area of Chhattisgarh state, central India  

PubMed Central

Background Chhattisgarh state in central India is highly endemic for malaria and contributes about 13% of annually reported malaria cases in the country with predominance of P. falciparum. Entomological investigations were carried out in a tribal forested area of district Bastar located in the southern part of Chhattisgarh state to record the prevalence of sibling species of Anopheles fluviatilis and An. culicifacies complexes. The vector species complexes were investigated at sibling species level for their biology in terms of resting and feeding behavior and malaria transmission potential. Methods Indoor resting vector mosquitoes collected during 2010–2011 were identified to sibling species by cytotaxonomy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The blood meal source analysis and incrimination studies were done at sibling species level by counter current immunoelectrophoresis and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) respectively. Results Analysis of sibling species composition revealed predominance of An. fluviatilis species S in the study area, which was found to be highly anthropophagic and rested in human dwellings whereas the sympatric species T was primarily zoophagic. Incrimination studies showed high sporozoite rate in species S, thereby confirming its vectorial efficiency. An. culicifacies was encountered in low numbers and comprised species B and C in almost equal proportion. Both these species were found to be exclusively zoophagic. Conclusion The observations made strongly suggest that species S of Fluviatilis Complex is the principal vector of malaria in certain forest areas of district Bastar, Chhattisgarh state and should be the target species for vector control operation. Vector control strategies based on biological characteristics of Fluviatilis S will lead to substantial decline in malaria incidence in such areas.

2012-01-01

334

PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON BARK OF COMMIPHORA BERRYI (ARN) ENGLLOR  

PubMed Central

Commiphora berryi (Arn) Englor (Burseraceae) is a well known plant in Tamil nadu, India. It is used in several parts of the state for various medicinal properties. The present work summarizes preliminary phyto chemical study of bark of this plant.

Gowrishankar, N.L.; Chandrasekaran, K.; Manavalan, R.; Venkappayya, D.

2004-01-01

335

Soil gas radon-thoron monitoring in Dharamsala area of north-west Himalayas, India using solid state nuclear track detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study described here is based on the measurements of soil gas radon-thoron concentrations performed at Dharamsala region of north-west (NW) Himalayas, India. The study area is tectonically and environmentally significant and shows the features of ductile shear zone due to the presence of distinct thrust planes. Solid state nuclear track detectors (LR-115 films) have been used for the soil gas radon-thoron monitoring. Twenty five radon-thoron discriminators with LR-115 films were installed in the borehole of about 50 cm in the study areas. The recorded radon concentration varies from 1593 to 13570 Bq/m3 with an average value of 5292 Bq/m3. The recorded thoron concentration varies from 223 to 2920 Bq/m3 with an average value of 901 Bq/m3. The anomalous value of radon-thoron has been observed near to the faults like main boundary thrust (MBT and MBT2) as well as neotectonic lineaments in the region.

Kumar, Gulshan; Kumar, Arvind; Walia, Vivek; Kumar, Jitender; Gupta, Vikash; Yang, Tsanyao Frank; Singh, Surinder; Bajwa, Bikramjit Singh

2013-10-01

336

India: Global Ambitions Limited by Regional Reach.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

India has the political traditions, economic capabilities, resource availability and developmental potential to become a powerful partner in helping the United States achieve its national strategy goals in South Asia and in the Pacific Rim area. However, ...

A. K. FraserDarling

1998-01-01

337

Avian influenza surveillance reveals presence of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in poultry during 2009-2011 in the West Bengal State, India  

PubMed Central

Introduction More than 70 outbreaks of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 have been reported in poultry in the western and north-eastern parts of India. Therefore, in view of the recent HPAI H5N1 outbreaks in poultry, active AI surveillance encompassing wild, resident, migratory birds and poultry was undertaken during 2009–2011 in the State of West Bengal. Methods A total of 5722 samples were collected from West Bengal; 3522 samples (2906 fecal droppings?+?616 other environmental samples) were from migratory birds and 2200 samples [1604 tracheal, cloacal swabs, environmental samples, tissue samples?+?596 blood (serum)] were from domestic ducks and poultry. All tracheal, cloacal and environmental samples were processed for virus isolation. Virus isolates were detected using hemagglutination assay and identified using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of partial region of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes was done. Intravenous pathogenicity index assays were performed in chickens to assess pathogenicity of AI virus isolates. Serum samples were tested for detection of antibodies against AI viruses using HI assay. Results A total of 57 AI H9N2, 15 AI H4N6 and 15 Newcastle Disease (NDV) viruses were isolated from chickens, from both backyard and wet poultry markets; AI H4N6 viruses were isolated from backyard chickens and domestic ducks. Characterization of AI H9N2 and H4N6 viruses revealed that they were of low pathogenicity. Domestic ducks were positive for antibodies against H5 and H7 viruses while chickens were positive for presence of antibodies against AI H9N2 and NDV. Conclusions In the current scenario of HPAI H5N1 outbreaks in West Bengal, this report shows presence of low pathogenic AI H9N2 and H4N6 viruses in chickens and domestic ducks during the period 2009–2011. This is the first report of isolation of H4N6 from India. Antibodies against AI H5 and H7 in ducks highlight the probable role of domestic ducks in the transmission of AI viruses. Human infections of H9N2 have been reported from China and Hong Kong. This necessitates implementation of prevention and control measures to limit the spread of AI viruses.

2012-01-01

338

Land use planning in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

India was the first country to provide for the protection and improvement of environment in its constitution. Land use planning (LUP) or siting of industries has been taken up at the State and Central (Federal) levels over the last few decades. LUP is critical for all types of industries and new residential colonies, but is especially so for the chemical

J. P. Gupta

2006-01-01

339

India''s Public Finances: Excessive Budget Deficits, a Government-Abused Financial System and Fiscal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capital formation is a key driver of the growth of potential output. With continuing widespread capital controls and persistently small inward FDI the volume of capital formation in India is constrained by domestic saving. The national saving rate in India (the sum of the saving rates of households, enterprises and the state) is depressed by the continuing large public sector

Willem H. Buiter; Urjit R. Patel

340

Elementary Education in Rural India: A Grassroots View. Strategies for Human Development in India, Volume 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are wide variations in educational attainment and literacy rates across the regions and social classes of India. A national project examined participation in and the quality of elementary education in nine states of India, focusing on rural areas and the situation of disadvantaged persons, especially girls and the scheduled castes and…

Vaidyanathan, A., Ed.; Nair, P. R. Gopinathan, Ed.

341

Utilization of a State Run Public Private Emergency Transportation Service Exclusively for Childbirth: The Janani (Maternal) Express Program in Madhya Pradesh, India  

PubMed Central

Background In 2009 the state government of Madhya Pradesh, India launched an emergency obstetric transportation service, Janani Express Yojana (JEY), to support the cash transfer program that promotes institutional delivery. JEY, a large scale public private partnership, lowers geographical access barriers to facility based care. The state contracts and pays private agencies to provide emergency transportation at no cost to the user. The objective was to study (a) the utilization of JEY among women delivering in health facilities, (b) factors associated with usage, (c) the timeliness of the service. Methods A cross sectional facility based study was conducted in facilities that carried out > ten deliveries a month. Researchers who spent five days in each facility administered a questionnaire to all women who gave birth there to elicit socio-demographic characteristics and transport related details. Results 35% of women utilised JEY to reach a facility, however utilization varied between study districts. Uptake was highest among women from rural areas (44%), scheduled tribes (55%), and poorly educated women (40%). Living in rural areas and belonging to scheduled tribes were significant predictors for JEY usage. Almost 1/3 of JEY users (n?=?104) experienced a transport related delay. Discussion The JEY service model complements the cash transfer program by providing transport to a facility to give birth. A study of the distribution of utilization in population subgroups suggests the intervention was successful in reaching the most vulnerable population, promoting equity in access. While 1/3 of women utilized the service and it saved them money; 30% experienced significant transport related delays in reaching a facility, which is comparable to women using public transportation. Further research is needed to understand why utilization is low, to explore if there is a need for service expansion at the community level and to improve the overall time efficiency of JEY.

Sidney, Kristi; Ryan, Kayleigh; Diwan, Vishal; De Costa, Ayesha

2014-01-01

342

Female sex work interventions and changes in HIV and syphilis infection risks from 2003 to 2008 in India: a repeated cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objectives We examined if increased spending and coverage of female sex worker (FSW) interventions were associated with declines in HIV or syphilis risk among young pregnant women (as a proxy for new infections in the general population) in the high-burden southern states of India. Design Repeated cross-sectional analysis. Setting We used logistic regression to relate district-level spending, number of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) treated, FSWs reached or condoms distributed to the declines in the annual risk of HIV and syphilis from 2003 to 2008 among prenatal clinic attendees in the four high-HIV burden states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. Participants 386?961 pregnant women aged 15–24?years (as a proxy for incident infections in the adult population). Interventions We examined National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO) data on 868 FSW intervention projects implemented between 1995 and 2008. Primary and secondary outcome measures HIV or syphilis infection. Results HIV and syphilis prevalence declined substantially among young pregnant women. Each additional STI treated (per 1000 people) reduced the annual risk of HIV infection by ?1.7% (95% CI ?3.3 to ?0.1) and reduced the annual risk of syphilis infection by ?10.9% (95%CI ?15.9 to ?5.8). Spending, FSWs reached or condoms distributed did not reduce HIV risk, but each was significantly associated with reduced annual risk of syphilis infection. There were no major differences between the NACO-funded and Avahan-funded districts in the annual risk of either STI. Conclusions Targeted FSW interventions are associated with reductions in syphilis risk and STI treatment is associated with reduced HIV risk. Both more and less costly FSW interventions have comparable effectiveness.

Arora, Paul; Nagelkerke, Nico J D; Moineddin, Rahim; Bhattacharya, Madhulekha; Jha, Prabhat

2013-01-01

343

Land use planning in India.  

PubMed

India was the first country to provide for the protection and improvement of environment in its constitution. Land use planning (LUP) or siting of industries has been taken up at the State and Central (Federal) levels over the last few decades. LUP is critical for all types of industries and new residential colonies, but is especially so for the chemical industries. With the experience gained, more coherence in LUP policies is emerging. A few prominent cases of siting of industry, some mixed with public outcry, that have affected the policies are noted in the text. Various factors which affect LUP in India are: population density, infrastructure (roads, power, communication, etc.), level of industrialization in different parts, need for creation of jobs, eco-sensitive regions, tribal regions, historical monuments, etc. This paper discusses the current scene in India and the near future aspects. PMID:16111811

Gupta, J P

2006-03-31

344

Non-paying partnerships and its association with HIV risk behavior, program exposure and service utilization among female sex workers in India  

PubMed Central

Background In India, HIV prevention programs have focused on female sex workers’ (FSWs’) sexual practices vis-à-vis commercial partners leading to important gains in HIV prevention. However, it has become apparent that further progress is contingent on a better understanding of FSWs’ sexual risks in the context of their relationships with non-paying partners. In this paper, we explored the association between FSWs’ non-paying partner status, including cohabitation and HIV risk behaviors, program exposure and utilization of program services. Methods We used data from the cross-sectional Integrated Behavioral and Biological Assessment (IBBA) survey (2009–2010) conducted among 8,107 FSWs in three high priority states of India- Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine the association between non-paying partner and cohabitation status of FSWs with HIV risk behaviors, program exposure and utilization of program services. Results FSWs reporting a non-paying partner were more likely to be exposed to and utilize HIV prevention resources than those who did not have a non-paying partner. Analyses revealed that FSWs reporting a non-cohabiting non-paying partner were more likely to be exposed to HIV prevention programs (adjusted OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.3 – 2.1), attend meetings (adjusted OR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2 – 1.8), and visit a sexually transmitted infections clinic at least twice in the last six months (adjusted OR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.3 – 1.9) as compared to those reporting no non-paying partner. That said, FSWs with a non-paying partner rarely used condoms consistently and were more vulnerable to HIV infection because of being street-based (p?India should focus on addressing relationship factors like risk communication and condom negotiation, including specific vulnerabilities like indebtedness and street based solicitation among women in sex work.

2014-01-01

345

Awareness, social acceptance and community views on leprosy and its relevance for leprosy control, Tamil Nadu.  

PubMed

As the leprosy burden has declined considerably, we need to understand the current social status of the disease and patients. A qualitative study was conducted in a rural community near Chennai in Tamil Nadu, between March and October 2011. In-depth interviews with 72 leprosy patients from 25 villages and 3 focus group discussions (FGDs) with 26 women from 3 villages were conducted using a guide. The qualitative data were grouped into different domains and analysed. Most of them did not have basic knowledge on leprosy; instead there were misconceptions on cause and spread of leprosy. Nearly one third of the patients had not disclosed about the disease to their spouse, family members, relatives or friends for fear of social rejection, discrimination and ill treatment. In all, more than half of them had self-stigma and, most of them who had deformity faced actual stigma by way of disowning, isolation and social rejection. Many patients, particularly PB cases had the behavior of "denial". FGD women reported of self and actual stigma, particularly towards deformity and disfigurement, for fear of getting infected. Stigma among patients with deformity, and denial of the disease among PB cases, were highlighted. Importance of awareness programmes to remove misconceptions related to cause and spread of the disease was stressed. Need for person-centered social treatment was suggested for increased case detection. PMID:23484338

Thilakavathi, S; Manickam, P; Mehendale, S M

2012-01-01

346

India’s R&D for Energy Efficient Buildings: Insights for U.S. Cooperation with India  

SciTech Connect

This report outlines India’s current activities and future plans in building energy efficiency R&D and deployment, and maps them with R&D activities under the Department of Energy’s Building Technologies Program. The assessment, conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in FY10, reviews major R&D programs in India including programs under the 11th Five-Year Plan, programs under the NEF, R&D and other programs under state agencies and ongoing projects in major research institutions .

Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd

2010-06-01

347

Spatial and temporal trends of mean and extreme rainfall and temperature for the 33 urban centers of the arid and semi-arid state of Rajasthan, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trend analysis of the mean (monsoon season, non-monsoon season and annual) and extreme annual daily rainfall and temperature at the spatial and temporal scales was carried out for all the 33 urban centers of the arid and semi-arid state of Rajasthan, India. Statistical trend analysis techniques, namely the Mann–Kendall test and Sen's slope estimator, were used to examine trends (1971–2005) at the 10% level of significance. Both positive and negative trends were observed in mean and extreme events of rainfall and temperature in the urban centers of Rajasthan State. The magnitude of the significant trend of monsoon rainfall varied from (?) 6.00 mm/hydrologic year at Nagaur to (?) 8.56 mm/hydrologic year at Tonk. However, the magnitude of the significant negative trends of non-monsoon rainfall varied from (?) 0.66 mm/hydrologic year at Dungarpur to (?) 1.27 mm/hydrologic year at Chittorgarh. The magnitude of positive trends of non-monsoon rainfall varied from 0.93 mm/hydrologic year at Churu to 1.70 mm/hydrologic year at Hanumangarh. The magnitude of the significant negative trends of annual rainfall varied from (?) 6.47 mm/year at Nagaur to (?) 10.0 mm/year at Tonk. The minimum, average and maximum temperature showed significant increasing warming trends on an annual and seasonal scale in most of the urban centers in Rajasthan State. The magnitude of statistically significant annual extreme daily rainfall varied from 2.00 mm at Jhalawar to (?) 1.64 mm at Tonk, while the magnitude of statistically significant extreme annual daily minimum and maximum temperature varied from 0.03 °C at Ganganagar to 0.05 °C at Jhalawar, respectively. The spatial variations of the trends in mean (monsoon season, non-monsoon season and annual) and extreme annual daily rainfall and temperature were also determined using the inverse-distance-weighted (IDW) interpolation technique. IDW results are helpful to identify trends and variability in mean and extreme rainfall and temperature in space and time for the study locations where the data is not available and the quality of data is not good. These spatial maps of temperature and rainfall can help local stakeholders and water managers to understand the risks and vulnerabilities related to climate change in terms of mean and extreme events in the region.

Pingale, Santosh M.; Khare, Deepak; Jat, Mahesh K.; Adamowski, Jan

2014-03-01

348

The Poaceae-associated genus Bamboosiella (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripidae) from India with one new species.  

PubMed

Bamboosiella venkataramani sp. n. is described from India based on specimens collected on grass clumps from the Karnataka State of India. A key is provided for identification of seven Indian species of the genus Bamboosiella. PMID:24870460

Kumar, Vikas; Tyagi, Kaomud

2014-01-01

349

Dynamic Site Characterization and Correlation of Shear Wave Velocity with Standard Penetration Test `N' Values for the City of Agartala, Tripura State, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic site characterization is the basic requirement for seismic microzonation and site response studies of an area. Site characterization helps to gauge the average dynamic properties of soil deposits and thus helps to evaluate the surface level response. This paper presents a seismic site characterization of Agartala city, the capital of Tripura state, in the northeast of India. Seismically, Agartala city is situated in the Bengal Basin zone which is classified as a highly active seismic zone, assigned by Indian seismic code BIS-1893, Indian Standard Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures, Part-1 General Provisions and Buildings. According to the Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi (2002), it is the highest seismic level (zone-V) in the country. The city is very close to the Sylhet fault (Bangladesh) where two major earthquakes (M w > 7) have occurred in the past and affected severely this city and the whole of northeast India. In order to perform site response evaluation, a series of geophysical tests at 27 locations were conducted using the multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) technique, which is an advanced method for obtaining shear wave velocity (V s) profiles from in situ measurements. Similarly, standard penetration test (SPT-N) bore log data sets have been obtained from the Urban Development Department, Govt. of Tripura. In the collected data sets, out of 50 bore logs, 27 were selected which are close to the MASW test locations and used for further study. Both the data sets (V s profiles with depth and SPT-N bore log profiles) have been used to calculate the average shear wave velocity (V s30) and average SPT-N values for the upper 30 m depth of the subsurface soil profiles. These were used for site classification of the study area recommended by the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP) manual. The average V s30 and SPT-N classified the study area as seismic site class D and E categories, indicating that the city is susceptible to site effects and liquefaction. Further, the different data set combinations between V s and SPT-N (corrected and uncorrected) values have been used to develop site-specific correlation equations by statistical regression, as `V s' is a function of SPT-N value (corrected and uncorrected), considered with or without depth. However, after considering the data set pairs, a probabilistic approach has also been presented to develop a correlation using a quantile-quantile (Q-Q) plot. A comparison has also been made with the well known published correlations (for all soils) available in the literature. The present correlations closely agree with the other equations, but, comparatively, the correlation of shear wave velocity with the variation of depth and uncorrected SPT-N values provides a more suitable predicting model. Also the Q-Q plot agrees with all the other equations. In the absence of in situ measurements, the present correlations could be used to measure V s profiles of the study area for site response studies.

Sil, Arjun; Sitharam, T. G.

2013-12-01

350

Evidence for the presence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and monodon baculovirus (MBV) in wild Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) broodstock, in the southeast coast of India.  

PubMed

A survey on the presence of the viruses of two economically significant diseases, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and monodon baculovirus (MBV) in wild-collected Penaeus monodon broodstock, was conducted during different seasons of the year in two major coastal areas of southeast India. The broodstock were collected along the coast of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh during summer, premonsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons for three consecutive years. A total of 7905 samples were collected and subjected to MBV screening, and 6709 samples that were screened as MBV negative were diagnosed for WSSV. MBV was detected using rapid malachite green staining and WSSV by nested polymerase chain reaction. Prevalence data of the viruses were analysed using the EpiCalc 2000 program at 95% confidence interval. Samples collected from the Andhra Pradesh coast displayed a slightly higher prevalence of WSSV and MBV infection than those collected from Tamil Nadu, although this difference was not statistically significant (P > 005). In addition, it was found that the prevalence of both WSSV and MBV infections fluctuated according to season. Data on prevalence of these viruses in broodstock would be useful to develop strategies for shrimp health management along the southeast coast of India. PMID:22924635

Remany, M C; Daly, C; Nagaraj, S; Panda, A K; Jaideep, K; Samraj, Y C T

2012-11-01

351

VILLAGE SIZE IN INDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

India is predominantly a rural and agrarian society, and 72 percent of India's population lives in villages according to the 2001 census. Village size varies considerably in the country, with some villages having fewer than 50 residents and some having more than 10,000 residents. The study first examines the growth of villages in India using census data. It then establishes

Abhishek Singh; Sandip Chakraborty; Tarun K. Roy

2008-01-01

352

Malaria in India: Challenges and opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

India contributes about 70% of malaria in the South East Asian Region of WHO. Although annually India reports about two million\\u000a cases and 1000 deaths attributable to malaria, there is an increasing trend in the proportion of Plasmodium falciparum as the agent. There exists heterogeneity and variability in the risk of malaria transmission between and within the states\\u000a of the

A. P. Dash; Neena Valecha; A. R. Anvikar; A. Kumar

2008-01-01

353

State and national household concentrations of PM2.5 from solid cookfuel use: Results from measurements and modeling in India for estimation of the global burden of disease  

PubMed Central

Background Previous global burden of disease (GBD) estimates for household air pollution (HAP) from solid cookfuel use were based on categorical indicators of exposure. Recent progress in GBD methodologies that use integrated–exposure–response (IER) curves for combustion particles required the development of models to quantitatively estimate average HAP levels experienced by large populations. Such models can also serve to inform public health intervention efforts. Thus, we developed a model to estimate national household concentrations of PM2.5 from solid cookfuel use in India, together with estimates for 29 states. Methods We monitored 24-hr household concentrations of PM2.5, in 617 rural households from 4 states in India on a cross-sectional basis between November 2004 and March 2005. We then, developed log-linear regression models that predict household concentrations as a function of multiple, independent household level variables available in national household surveys and generated national / state estimates using The Indian National Family and Health Survey (NFHS 2005). Results The measured mean 24-hr concentration of PM2.5 in solid cookfuel using households ranged from 163 ?g/m3 (95% CI: 143,183; median 106; IQR: 191) in the living area to 609 ?g/m3 (95% CI: 547,671; median: 472; IQR: 734) in the kitchen area. Fuel type, kitchen type, ventilation, geographical location and cooking duration were found to be significant predictors of PM2.5 concentrations in the household model. k-fold cross validation showed a fair degree of correlation (r?=?0.56) between modeled and measured values. Extrapolation of the household results by state to all solid cookfuel-using households in India, covered by NFHS 2005, resulted in a modeled estimate of 450 ?g/m3 (95% CI: 318,640) and 113 ?g/m3 (95% CI: 102,127) , for national average 24-hr PM2.5 concentrations in the kitchen and living areas respectively. Conclusions The model affords substantial improvement over commonly used exposure indicators such as “percent solid cookfuel use” in HAP disease burden assessments, by providing some of the first estimates of national average HAP levels experienced in India. Model estimates also add considerable strength of evidence for framing and implementation of intervention efforts at the state and national levels.

2013-01-01

354

Assessment of the status of municipal solid waste management in metro cities, state capitals, class I cities, and class II towns in India: An insight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid waste management is one of the most challenging issues in urban cities, which are facing a serious pollution problem due to the generation of huge quantities of solid waste. This paper presents an assessment of the existing situation of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in major cities in India. The quantity and composition of MSW vary from place to

Sunil Kumar; J. K. Bhattacharyya; A. N. Vaidya; Tapan Chakrabarti; Sukumar Devotta; A. B. Akolkar

2009-01-01

355

Sustainable Small Scale Irrigation Experiment in the Dry Zones: A Case Study on Happa ( Small Tank) Model in the State of West Bengal, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indian economy is still an agrarian economy more than 50% of people in India are still dependent on agriculture for their livelihood. Rainfed areas without any source of irrigation in the country still accounts for 60% of the cultivated area and these areas are home to majority of rural poor and marginal farmers. Food security of small and marginal farmers

Sebak Kumar Jana

2011-01-01

356

Enhancing innovation between scientific and indigenous knowledge: pioneer NGOs in India  

PubMed Central

Background Until recently, little attention has been paid to local innovation capacity as well as management practices and institutions developed by communities and other local actors based on their traditional knowledge. This paper doesn't focus on the results of scientific research into innovation systems, but rather on how local communities, in a network of supportive partnerships, draw knowledge for others, combine it with their own knowledge and then innovate in their local practices. Innovation, as discussed in this article, is the capacity of local stakeholders to play an active role in innovative knowledge creation in order to enhance local health practices and further environmental conservation. In this article, the innovative processes through which this capacity is created and reinforced will be defined as a process of "ethnomedicine capacity". Methods The field study undertaken by the first author took place in India, in the State of Tamil Nadu, over a period of four months in 2007. The data was collected through individual interviews and focus groups and was complemented by participant observations. Results The research highlights the innovation capacity related to ethnomedical knowledge. As seen, the integration of local and scientific knowledge is crucial to ensure the practices anchor themselves in daily practices. The networks created are clearly instrumental to enhancing the innovation capacity that allows the creation, dissemination and utilization of 'traditional' knowledge. However, these networks have evolved in very different forms and have become entities that can fit into global networks. The ways in which the social capital is enhanced at the village and network levels are thus important to understand how traditional knowledge can be used as an instrument for development and innovation. Conclusion The case study analyzed highlights examples of innovation systems in a developmental context. They demonstrate that networks comprised of several actors from different levels can synergistically forge linkages between local knowledge and formal sciences and generate positive and negative impacts. The positive impact is the revitalization of perceived traditions while the negative impacts pertain to the transformation of these traditions into health commodities controlled by new elites, due to unequal power relations.

Torri, Maria-Costanza; Laplante, Julie

2009-01-01

357

International Nurse Recruitment in India  

PubMed Central

Objective This paper describes the practice of international recruitment of Indian nurses in the model of a “business process outsourcing” of comprehensive training-cum-recruitment-cum-placement for popular destinations like the United Kingdom and United States through an agency system that has acquired growing intensity in India. Findings Despite the extremely low nurse to population ratio in India, hospital managers in India are not concerned about the growing exodus of nurses to other countries. In fact, they are actively joining forces with profitable commercial ventures that operate as both training and recruiting agencies. Most of this activity is concentrated in Delhi, Bangalore, and Kochi. Conclusions Gaps in data on nursing education, employment, and migration, as well as nonstandardization of definitions of “registered nurse,” impair the analysis of international migration of nurses from India, making it difficult to assess the impact of migration on vacancy rates. One thing is clear, however, the chain of commercial interests that facilitate nurse migration is increasingly well organized and profitable, making the future growth of this business a certainty.

Khadria, Binod

2007-01-01

358

Changes in risk behaviours and prevalence of sexually transmitted infections following HIV preventive interventions among female sex workers in five districts in Karnataka state, south India  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the impact of a large-scale HIV prevention programme for female sex workers (FSW) in Karnataka state, south India, on the prevalence of HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STI), condom use and programme coverage. Methods Baseline and follow-up integrated biological and behavioural surveys were conducted on random samples of FSW in five districts in Karnataka between 2004 and 2009. Results 4712 FSW participated in the study (baseline 2312; follow-up 2400), with follow-up surveys conducted 28–37?months after baseline. By follow-up, over 85% of FSW reported contact by a peer educator and having visited a project STI clinic. Compared with baseline, there were reductions in the prevalence of HIV (19.6% vs 16.4%, adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.81, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.99, p=0.04); high-titre syphilis (5.9% vs 3.4%, AOR 0.53, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.77, p=0.001); and chlamydia and/or gonorrhoea (8.9% vs 7.0%, AOR 0.72, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.94, p=0.02). Reported condom use at last sex increased significantly for repeat clients (66.1% vs 84.1%, AOR 1.98, 95% CI 1.58 to 2.48, p<0.001) and marginally for occasional clients (82.9% vs 88.0%, AOR 1.22, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.66, p=0.2), but remained stable for regular partners (32%). Compared with street and home-based FSW, brothel-based FSW were at highest risk of HIV and STI, despite high levels of reported condom use. Conclusions This large-scale HIV prevention programme for FSW achieved reductions in HIV and STI prevalence, high rates of condom use with clients and high rates of programme coverage. Improved strategies to increase condom use with regular partners and reduce the vulnerability of brothel-based FSW to HIV are required.

Beattie, Tara S H; Shajy, Isac; Washington, Reynold; Jagannathan, Latta; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Blanchard, James F; Moses, Stephen

2010-01-01

359

Predictors of HIV prevalence among street-based female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh state of India: a district-level analysis  

PubMed Central

Background A decline in HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs) has been reported from the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh between the two rounds of integrated biological and behavioural assessment (IBBA) surveys in 2005–06 and 2009, the first of these around the time of start of the Avahan HIV prevention intervention. In order to facilitate further planning of FSW interventions, we report the factors associated with HIV prevalence among street-based FSWs. Methods Behavioural data from the two rounds of IBBA surveys, district-level FSW HIV prevention program data, and urbanisation data from the Census of India were utilized. A multilevel logistic model was used to investigate factors associated with inter-district variations in HIV positivity among street-based FSWs in the districts by fitting a two-level model. Results The estimated HIV prevalence among street-based FSWs changed from 16% (95% confidence interval [CI] 14.2 – 17.7%) to 12.9% (95% CI 11.5 – 14.2%) from 2005–06 to 2009. HIV positivity was significantly higher in districts with a high proportion of FSWs registered with targeted interventions (odds ratio [OR] 2.02; 95% CI 1.18-3.45), and in districts with medium (OR 2.54; 95% CI 1.58-4.08) or high (OR 1.55; 95% CI 1.05-2.29) proportion of urban population. Districts which had met the condom requirement targets for FSWs had significantly lower HIV positivity (OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.26-0.97). In round 2 survey, the districts with medium level urbanisation had significantly higher proportion of FSWs registered with HIV intervention programmes and also reported higher consistent condom use with regular partner (p?

2014-01-01

360

Country Report on Building Energy Codes in India  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America. This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in India, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes in India, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial buildings in India.

Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Somasundaram, Sriram

2009-04-07

361

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 18: A comparison of the technical communication practices of aerospace engineers and scientists in India and the United States  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, two studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of India and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies have the same seven objectives: first, to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communications to their profession; second, to determine the use and production of technical communications by aerospace engineers and scientists; third, to seek their views about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications; fourth, to determine aerospace engineers' and scientists' use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line data bases; fifth, to determine the use and importance of computer and information technology to them; sixth, to determine their use of electronic networks; and seventh, to determine their use of foreign and domestically produced technical reports. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to aerospace engineers and scientists at the Indian Institute of Science and the NASA Langley Research Center. The completion rates for the India and U.S. surveys were 48 and 53 percent, respectively. Responses of the India and U.S. participants to selected questions are presented in this report.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

1993-01-01

362

Organ Donation and Transplantation in India: An Inquiry in Kerala  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until recently, financial incentive was the prime motivation in transplantation of kidneys from nonrelated living donors in India. Prior to the Human Organ Transplantation Act of 1994, it was legal in all states of India to purchase and merchandise organs, eliminating the opportunity for black markets currently created by the enormous demand for organs. Eight years later, the question remains

Karen Kennedy

2002-01-01

363

Photocopy of sketch in India Ink on a quilt from ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of sketch in India Ink on a quilt from 1842 (quilt at the Chester County Historical Society, West Chester, Pennsylvania) Photocopy taken by Ned Goode, April 14, 1960 sketch of house in india ink on quilt from 1842 - Primitive Hall, State Route 841 (West Marlborough Township), Clonmell, Chester County, PA

364

Case Studies on Biological Treatment of Tannery Effluents in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a comparative assessment of the cost and quality of treatment of tannery wastewater in India by two common effluent treatment plants (CETPs) constructed for two tannery clusters, at Jajmau (Kanpur) and at Unnao in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. The Jajmau plant is upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) process-based, while the Unnao plant is activated sludge

Vinod Tare; Sandeep Gupta; Purnendu Bose

2003-01-01

365

India's Doctor Shortage Reflects Problems in Medical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports that India's medical profession is in a crisis. For every 10,000 people in India there are only six doctors, compared with nearly 55 in the United States and nearly 21 in Canada. The problem is likely to get worse before it gets better. Professors are leaving medical schools for better-paying jobs in private hospitals and in…

Neelakantan, Shailaja

2008-01-01

366

Oral English Skills in Classrooms in India: Teachers Reflect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eleven teachers of English in a large, private, English-medium school in India reflected on their beliefs, practices, and activities related to teaching English in India. In the survey, respondents freely acknowledged the premier position of English in academics and the world at large and unequivocally stated that their students should learn to…

Ramanathan, Hema; Bruning, Merribeth

367

Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future.

Mian, Zia

2014-05-01

368

Impact of supplementing newborn infants with vitamin A on early infant mortality: community based randomised trial in southern India  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the impact of supplementing newborn infants with vitamin A on mortality at age 6 months. Design Community based, randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial. Setting Two rural districts of Tamil Nadu, southern India. Participants 11 619 newborn infants allocated 24 000 IU oral vitamin A or placebo on days 1 and 2 after delivery. Main outcome measure Primary outcome measure was mortality at age 6 months. Results Infants in the vitamin A group had a 22% reduction in total mortality (95% confidence interval 4% to 37%) compared with those in the placebo group. Vitamin A had an impact on mortality between two weeks and three months after treatment, with no additional impact after three months. Conclusion Supplementing newborn infants with vitamin A can significantly reduce early infant mortality.

Rahmathullah, Lakshmi; Tielsch, James M; Thulasiraj, R D; Katz, Joanne; Coles, Christian; Devi, Sheela; John, Rajeesh; Prakash, Karthik; Sadanand, A V; Edwin, N; Kamaraj, C

2003-01-01

369

The Impact of Isoniazid Resistance on the Treatment Outcomes of Smear Positive Re-Treatment Tuberculosis Patients in the State of Andhra Pradesh, India  

PubMed Central

Background Multi drug resistant and rifampicin resistant TB patients in India are treated with the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended standardized treatment regimens but no guidelines are available for the management of isoniazid (INH) resistant TB patients. There have been concerns that the standard eight-month retreatment regimen being used in India (2H3R3Z3E3S3/1H3R3Z3E3/5H3R3E3; H-Isoniazid; R-Rifampicin; Z-Pyrazinamide; E-Ethambutol; S-Streptomycin) may be inadequate to treat INH resistant TB cases and leads to poor treatment outcomes. We aimed to assess if INH resistance is associated with unfavorable treatment outcomes (death, default, failure and transferred out) among a cohort of smear positive retreatment TB patients registered in three districts of Andhra Pradesh, India. Methods We conducted a retrospective record review of all smear positive retreatment TB patients without rifampicin resistance registered during April–December 2011. Results Of 1,947 TB patients, 1,127 (58%) were tested with LPA—50 (4%) were rifampicin resistant, 933 (84%) were sensitive to INH and rifampicin and 144 (12%) were INH resistant. Of 144 INH resistant cases, 64 (44%) had poor treatment outcomes (25 (17%) default, 22 (15%) death, 12 (8%) failure and 5 (3%) transfer out) as compared to 287 (31%) among INH sensitive cases [aRR 1.46; 95%CI (1.19–1.78)]. Conclusion Our study confirms that INH resistance is independently associated with unfavorable treatment outcomes among smear positive retreatment TB patients, indicating that the current treatment regimen may be inadequate. These findings call for an urgent need for randomized controlled trials to discover the most effective treatment regimen for managing INH resistant TB.

Deepa, Dorai; Achanta, Shanta; Jaju, Jyoti; Rao, Koteswara; Samyukta, Rani; Claassens, Mareli; Kumar, Ajay M. V.; PH, Vishnu

2013-01-01

370

76 FR 20954 - Certain Lined Paper Products From India: Amended Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-533-843] Certain Lined Paper Products From India: Amended Final...duty investigation on certain lined paper products (``CLPP'') from India. See Association of American School Paper Suppliers v. United States,...

2011-04-14

371

Children's Books in India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report, given at a special meeting held in Tehran, discusses the creation and publication of children's books in India, most of which came into being only after India achieved independence. Now both private publishers and government agencies supplement one another in publishing various types of books--fiction, science, biography, adventure,…

Rao, Mohini

372

Energy for rural India  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 72 million households in rural India do not have access to electricity and rely primarily on traditional biofuels. This research investigates how rural electrification could be achieved in India using different energy sources and what the effects for climate change mitigation could be. We use the Regional Energy Model (REM) to develop scenarios for rural electrification for the period

Frauke Urban; René M. J. Benders; Henri C. Moll

2009-01-01

373

Nuclear Tests in India  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Week's In the News discusses the recent nuclear tests in India and the world's reaction to those tests. The ten resources discussed offer analysis, commentary, and background information from a variety of perspectives. On May 11, 1998, India confirmed what the world already knew by conducting three underground nuclear tests in the Pokhran Mountain Range in the Rajasthan Province. On May 13 two more sub-kiloton devices were exploded and the government announced that the planned series of tests was complete. Although India has indicated it may now be ready to sign on to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), reaction from the world community has been extremely negative. In the vanguard of this chorus of dissaproval has been the US, which announced over $20 billion in economic sanctions against India on May 13. The strongest critic of the tests, however, has been India's neighbor and rival Pakistan, which has fought three wars with India since 1947. Domestic pressure on Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif to respond has been enormous and many commentators believe a Pakistani nuclear test is imminent. In India, however, the BJP-dominated government has been widely lauded. Many Indians have expressed pride and dismiss foreign criticism as a hypocritical holdover of colonial mentalities. While US sanctions are unlikely to have any large-scale effect on India, the end results of these tests on Indo-Pakistani relations and their ongoing missile race is yet to be seen.

De Nie, Michael W.

1998-01-01

374

As India's Plates Collide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This winning entry in the museum's Young Naturalist Awards 1999 by Rikesh, a 12 year old student from New York, reports on the causes of earthquakes, using India as a focal point. He discusses the earthquakes that have hit India from 1737 to 1991 and their effects, including tsunamis, and the work engineers are doing to reduce the damage from earthquakes.

375

Epidemic dropsy in India  

PubMed Central

Epidemic dropsy is a clinical state resulting from use of edible oils adulterated with Argemone mexicana oil. Sanguinarine and dehydrosanguinarine are two major toxic alkaloids of Argemone oil, which cause widespread capillary dilatation, proliferation and increased capillary permeability. Leakage of the protein-rich plasma component into the extracellular compartment leads to the formation of oedema. The haemodynamic consequences of this vascular dilatation and permeability lead to a state of relative hypovolemia with a constant stimulus for fluid and salt conservation by the kidneys. Illness begins with gastroenteric symptoms followed by cutaneous erythema and pigmentation. Respiratory symptoms such as cough, shortness of breath and orthopnoea progressing to frank right-sided congestive cardiac failure are seen. Mild to moderate anaemia, hypoproteinaemia, mild to moderate renal azotemia, retinal haemorrhages, and glaucoma are common manifestations. There is no specific therapy. Removal of the adulterated oil and symptomatic treatment of congestive cardiac failure and respiratory symptoms, along with administration of antioxidants and multivitamins, remain the mainstay of treatment. Selective cultivation of yellow mustard, strict enforcement of the Indian Food Adulteration Act, and exemplary punishment to unscrupulous traders are the main preventive measures.???Keywords: epidemic dropsy; Argemone mexicana; sanguinarine; India

Sharma, B; Malhotra, S.; Bhatia, V.; Rathee, M.

1999-01-01

376

Cardiac rehabilitation in India.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death and disability in India. Moreover, mortality following an acute myocardial infarction is high, which may be due to gaps in secondary prevention in general and a lack of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) services in particular. This review discusses the availability of CR in India, its putative role in reducing adverse outcomes over the long-term and suggests a road map for future research to enhance CR in this country. Currently, there is limited evidence, conducted in India, demonstrating CR efficacy. Moreover, there is currently limited availability of outpatient CR programs in India. Even so, there is consensus that CR is effective and essential in the CVD population. Therefore, efforts are needed to continue CR research in India and facilitate clinical implementation. PMID:24607020

Madan, Kushal; Babu, Abraham Samuel; Contractor, Ashish; Sawhney, Jitendra Pal Singh; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Gupta, Rajeev

2014-01-01

377

Experience of violence and adverse reproductive health outcomes, HIV risks among mobile female sex workers in India  

PubMed Central

Background Female sex workers (FSWs) are a population sub-group most affected by the HIV epidemic in India and elsewhere. Despite research and programmatic attention to FSWs, little is known regarding sex workers' reproductive health and HIV risk in relation to their experiences of violence. This paper therefore aims to understand the linkages between violence and the reproductive health and HIV risks among a group of mobile FSWs in India. Methods Data are drawn from a cross-sectional behavioural survey conducted in 22 districts from four high HIV prevalence states (Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu) in India between September 2007 and July 2008. The survey sample included 5,498 FSWs who had moved to at least two different places for sex work in the past two years, and are classified as mobile FSWs in the current study. Analyses calculated the prevalence of past year experiences of violence; and adjusted logistic regression models examined the association between violence and reproductive health and HIV risks after controlling for background characteristics and program exposure. Results Approximately one-third of the total mobile FSWs (30.5%, n = 1,676) reported experiencing violence at least once in the past year; 11% reported experiencing physical violence, and 19.5% reported experiencing sexual violence. Results indicate that FSWs who had experienced any violence (physical or sexual) were significantly more likely to be vulnerable to both reproductive health and HIV risks. For example, FSWs who experienced violence were more likely than those who did not experience violence to have experienced a higher number of pregnancies (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-1.6), ever experienced pregnancy loss (adjusted OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.2-1.6), ever experienced forced termination of pregnancy (adjusted OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 2.0-2.7), experienced multiple forced termination of pregnancies (adjusted OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.7-2.8), and practice inconsistent condom use currently (adjusted OR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.4-2.0). Among FSWs who experienced violence, those who experienced sexual violence were more likely than those who had experienced physical violence to report inconsistent condom use (adjusted OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.4-2.3), and experience STI symptoms (adjusted OR = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1-1.7). Conclusion The pervasiveness of violence and its association with reproductive health and HIV risk highlights that the abuse in general is an important determinant for reproductive health risks; and sexual violence is significantly associated with HIV risks among those who experienced violence. Existing community mobilization programs that have primarily focused on empowering FSWs should broaden their efforts to promote reproductive health in addition to the prevention of HIV among all FSWs, with particular emphasis on FSWs who experienced violence.

2011-01-01

378

Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication---India, January 2010--September 2011.  

PubMed

The Global Polio Eradication Initiative was launched in 1988. In 1995, when eradication activities were initiated in India, an estimated 50,000 polio cases were occurring each year. By 2006, transmission of indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) had been interrupted in all countries except India, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria. During 2006--2009, India annually reported 559 to 874 cases of confirmed WPV, with cases centered in the northern states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. These cases accounted for 43% of confirmed cases of WPV reported worldwide during this period. However, in 2010, only 42 WPV cases were reported in India, and in 2011, only one WPV case had been confirmed as of October 31. This report updates previous reports and summarizes progress toward polio eradication in India during January 2010--September 2011. Throughout India, the most recent confirmed WPV type 3 (WPV3) case occurred on October 22, 2010, in Jharkhand, and the most recent confirmed WPV type 1 (WPV1) case occurred on January 13, 2011, in West Bengal; WPV2 has not been reported in India since 1999. Importation of WPV into India is a risk, and undetected low-level WPV transmission is a possibility, requiring high vaccination coverage in all states, continued focus on children in migrant and underserved populations, sensitive surveillance for prompt detection of any WPV, and preparedness to mount a robust emergency vaccination campaign in response to any WPV cases. PMID:22048729

2011-11-01

379

Burden of childhood diseases and malnutrition in a semi-urban slum in southern India  

PubMed Central

Background India has seen rapid unorganized urbanization in the past few decades. However, the burden of childhood diseases and malnutrition in such populations is difficult to quantify. The morbidity experience of children living in semi-urban slums of a southern Indian city is described. Methods A total of 176 children were recruited pre-weaning from four geographically adjacent, semi-urban slums located in the western outskirts of Vellore, Tamil Nadu for a study on water safety and enteric infections and received either bottled or municipal drinking water based on their area of residence. Children were visited weekly at home and had anthropometry measured monthly until their second birthday. Results A total of 3932 episodes of illness were recorded during the follow-up period, resulting in an incidence of 12.5 illnesses/child-year, with more illness during infancy than in the second year of life. Respiratory, mostly upper respiratory infections, and gastrointestinal illnesses were most common. Approximately one-third of children were stunted at two years of age, and two-thirds had at least one episode of growth failure during the two years of follow up. No differences in morbidity were seen between children who received bottled and municipal water. Conclusions Our study found a high burden of childhood diseases and malnutrition among urban slum dwellers in southern India. Frequent illnesses may adversely impact children’s health and development, besides placing an additional burden on families who need to seek healthcare and find resources to manage illness.

2013-01-01

380

China-India-Pakistan Water Crisis: Prospects for Interstate Conflict.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis examines the prospects of conflict caused by water scarcity in China, India, and Pakistan. The thesis uses indicators of water tensions, including water quality, water quantity, the management of water, state institutions, and national water p...

J. F. Brennan

2008-01-01

381

Children's Books on India and the Indian-American Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists recommended books that focus on Indians and the Indian-American experience in the United States. Includes folktales, myths, legends, nonfiction, fiction and titles published in India. Suggests how to select titles for classroom or library. (MMU)

Singleton Taylor, Gail; Sreenivasan, Jyotsna; Toke, Arun N.

1998-01-01

382

Education for Medical Librarianship in India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys the teaching of library science in India with special emphasis on the state of medical librarianship, including university school admission requirements, curriculum, and teaching staff; medical libraries and librarians; and education for medical librarianship--curriculum, admission requirements, teaching staff requirements, teaching…

Pathan, A. Majid

1978-01-01

383

K12 Inc. Scraps India Outsourcing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A company that runs one of the nation's largest networks of online schools recently decided to discontinue a program that arranged for high school teachers in the United States to send their students' English essays to India for evaluations by reviewers there. The existence of the program by Herndon, Virginia-based K12 Inc. is an example of the…

Trotter, Andrew

2008-01-01

384

Primary Education in India. Development in Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Having steadily raised primary enrollment rates over the past 4 decades, India now has 67 million children aged 6-10 who are attending primary school, but 28-32 million who are not. This book draws on a wide range of sources, including original analytical work by Indian researchers and others, to describe the current state of primary education in…

World Bank, Washington, DC.

385

SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA: A REGIONAL ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development is a multi-dimensional phenomenon. Some of its major dimensions include: the level of economic growth, level of education, level of health services, degree of modernization, status of women, level of nutrition, quality of housing, distribution of goods and services, and access to communication. In India, the progress of socio-eco- nomic development among major states is not uniform. This study

ABHIMAN DAS

1999-01-01

386

English Teaching Profile: India, Northern Region.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of the status of English language instruction in northern India (the states of Haryana, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, and Chandigarh UT) provides an overview of the role of English in the society in general and outlines the status of English use and instruction in the educational system at all levels (preprimary, elementary, secondary,…

British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

387

Molecular characterization of distinct YMV (Yellow mosaic virus) isolates affecting pulses in India with the aid of coat protein gene as a marker for identification.  

PubMed

The present study was carried out to find out the variations present in different isolates of yellow mosaic virus (YMV) causing yellow mosaic disease of pulses in southern parts of India. The coat protein gene of YMV was amplified using gene specific and deng universal primers with DNA isolated from YMV infected samples. Further, cloning and DNA sequencing of CP gene was carried out. CP gene decrypt sequences revealed that YMV infected samples of Black gram, Cowpea and Green gram were similar to the MYMV-Tamil Nadu isolates. Whereas the YMV infected sample of Horse gram was found to be similar with HYMV. Hence, in the present study, two distinct YMV infecting pulses in Tamil Nadu (MYMV and HYMV species) were identified and it was observed that there exists considerable genetic variation among these species. In addition, Cowpea crop which was earlier supposed not to be susceptible for YMV infection also showed the presence of this virus similar to the MYMV. Overall, the findings of the present study indicate that the CP region is efficient enough to provide a simple, rapid, and reliable method for early detection of YMV infections in pulses, which would help to develop proper management strategies to control these viruses. PMID:24469717

Maheshwari, Richa; Panigrahi, Gatikrushna; Angappan, K

2014-04-01

388

Determination of environmental radioactivity (238U, 232Th and 40K) and indoor natural background radiation level in Chennai city (Tamilnadu State), India.  

PubMed

An extensive study on the determination of the natural radioactivity ((238)U, (232)Th and (40)K) levels in soil samples of Chennai city, India has been undertaken and the results of the same are compared with the levels reported in other Indian cities as well as other parts of the world. The radioactivity content in the soil samples, the absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose equivalent, radium equivalent activity, internal and external hazard indices were calculated and compared with UNSCEAR 2000 recommended values. In addition to the above, mapping of indoor natural background gamma radiation levels has been made using thermo luminescent dosemeters throughout Chennai city and the same are reported. PMID:22847868

Babai, K S; Poongothai, S; Punniyakotti, J

2013-01-01

389

Characterization of culturable vaginal Lactobacillus species among women with and without bacterial vaginosis from the United States and India: a cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus species play an integral part in the health of the vaginal microbiota. We compared vaginal Lactobacillus species in women from India and the USA with and without bacterial vaginosis (BV). Between July 2009 and November 2010, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 40 women attending a women's health clinic in Mysore, India, and a sexually transmitted diseases clinic in San Francisco, USA. Women were diagnosed with BV using Amsel's criteria and the Nugent score. Lactobacillus 16S rDNA was sequenced to speciate the cultured isolates. Ten Indian and 10 US women without BV were compared with an equal number of women with BV. Lactobacilli were isolated from all healthy women, but from only 10?% of Indian and 50?% of US women with BV. 16S rDNA from 164 Lactobacillus colonies was sequenced from healthy women (126 colonies) and women with BV (38 colonies). Seven cultivable Lactobacillus species were isolated from 11 Indian women and nine species from 15 US women. The majority of Lactobacillus species among Indian women were L. crispatus (25?.0%), L. jensenii (25.0?%) and L. reuteri (16.7?%). Among US women, L. crispatus (32.0?%), L. jensenii (20.0?%) and L. coleohominis (12.0?%) predominated. L. jensenii and L. crispatus dominated the vaginal flora of healthy Indian and US women. Indian women appeared to have a higher percentage of obligate heterofermentative species, suggesting the need for a larger degree of metabolic flexibility and a more challenging vaginal environment. PMID:24836413

Madhivanan, Purnima; Raphael, Eva; Rumphs, Alnecia; Krupp, Karl; Ravi, Kavitha; Srinivas, Vijaya; Arun, Anjali; Reingold, Arthur L; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Riley, Lee W

2014-07-01

390

Community Mobilization and Empowerment of Female Sex Workers in Karnataka State, South India: Associations With HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined the impact of community mobilization (CM) on the empowerment, risk behaviors, and prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infection in female sex workers (FSWs) in Karnataka, India. Methods. We conducted behavioral–biological surveys in 2008 and 2011 in 4 districts of Karnataka, India. We defined exposure to CM as low, medium (attended nongovernmental organization meeting or drop-in centre), or high (member of collective or peer group). We used regression analyses to explore whether exposure to CM was associated with the preceding outcomes. Pathway analyses explored the degree to which effects could be attributable to CM. Results. By the final survey, FSWs with high CM exposure were more likely to have been tested for HIV (adjusted odd ratio [AOR]?=?25.13; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?13.07, 48.34) and to have used a condom at last sex with occasional clients (AOR?=?4.74; 95% CI?=? 2.17, 10.37), repeat clients (AOR?=?4.29; 95% CI?=?2.24, 8.20), and regular partners (AOR?=?2.80; 95% CI?=?1.43, 5.45) than FSWs with low CM exposure. They were also less likely to be infected with gonorrhea or chlamydia (AOR?=?0.53; 95% CI?=?0.31, 0.87). Pathway analyses suggested CM acted above and beyond peer education; reduction in gonorrhea or chlamydia was attributable to CM. Conclusions. CM is a central part of HIV prevention programming among FSWs, empowering them to better negotiate condom use and access services, as well as address other concerns in their lives.

Mohan, Harnalli L.; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Chandrashekar, Sudha; Isac, Shajy; Wheeler, Tisha; Prakash, Ravi; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M.; Blanchard, James F.; Heise, Lori; Vickerman, Peter; Moses, Stephen; Watts, Charlotte

2014-01-01

391

Community Mobilization and Empowerment of Female Sex Workers in Karnataka State, South India: Associations With HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk.  

PubMed

Objectives. We examined the impact of community mobilization (CM) on the empowerment, risk behaviors, and prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infection in female sex workers (FSWs) in Karnataka, India. Methods. We conducted behavioral-biological surveys in 2008 and 2011 in 4 districts of Karnataka, India. We defined exposure to CM as low, medium (attended nongovernmental organization meeting or drop-in centre), or high (member of collective or peer group). We used regression analyses to explore whether exposure to CM was associated with the preceding outcomes. Pathway analyses explored the degree to which effects could be attributable to CM. Results. By the final survey, FSWs with high CM exposure were more likely to have been tested for HIV (adjusted odd ratio [AOR]?=?25.13; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?13.07, 48.34) and to have used a condom at last sex with occasional clients (AOR?=?4.74; 95% CI?=? 2.17, 10.37), repeat clients (AOR?=?4.29; 95% CI?=?2.24, 8.20), and regular partners (AOR?=?2.80; 95% CI?=?1.43, 5.45) than FSWs with low CM exposure. They were also less likely to be infected with gonorrhea or chlamydia (AOR?=?0.53; 95% CI?=?0.31, 0.87). Pathway analyses suggested CM acted above and beyond peer education; reduction in gonorrhea or chlamydia was attributable to CM. Conclusions. CM is a central part of HIV prevention programming among FSWs, empowering them to better negotiate condom use and access services, as well as address other concerns in their lives. PMID:24922143

Beattie, Tara S H; Mohan, Harnalli L; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Chandrashekar, Sudha; Isac, Shajy; Wheeler, Tisha; Prakash, Ravi; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M; Blanchard, James F; Heise, Lori; Vickerman, Peter; Moses, Stephen; Watts, Charlotte

2014-08-01

392

Clinical trials in India.  

PubMed

The concept of outsourcing for the development and global studies on new drugs has become widely accepted in the pharmaceutical industry due to its cost and uncertainty. India is going to be the most preferred location for contract pharma research and development due to its huge treatment naïve population, human resources, technical skills, adoption/amendment/implementation of rules/laws by regulatory authorities, and changing economic environment. But still 'miles to go' to fulfill the pre-requisites to ensure India's success. In spite of all the pitfalls, the country is ambitious and optimist to attract multinational pharmaceutical companies to conduct their clinical trials in India. PMID:17391981

Maiti, Rituparna; M, Raghavendra

2007-07-01

393

Economic Inequalities in Maternal Health Care: Prenatal Care and Skilled Birth Attendance in India, 1992-2006  

PubMed Central

Background The use of maternal health care is limited in India despite several programmatic efforts for its improvement since the late 1980's. The use of maternal health care is typically patterned on socioeconomic and cultural contours. However, there is no clear perspective about how socioeconomic differences over time have contributed towards the use of maternal health care in India. Methodology/Principal Findings Using data from three rounds of National Family Health Survey (NFHS) conducted during 1992–2006, we analyse the trends and patterns in utilization of prenatal care (PNC) in first trimester with four or more antenatal care visits and skilled birth attendance (SBA) among poor and nonpoor mothers, disaggregated by area of residence in India and three contrasting provinces, namely, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. In addition, we investigate the relative contribution of public and private health facilities in meeting the demand for SBA, especially among poor mothers. We also examine the role of salient socioeconomic, demographic and cultural factors in influencing aforementioned outcomes. Bivariate analyses, concentration curve and concentration index, logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression models are used to understand the trends, patterns and predictors of the two outcome variables. Results indicate sluggish progress in utilization of PNC and SBA in India and selected provinces during 1992–2006. Enormous inequalities in utilization of PNC and SBA were observed largely to the disadvantage of the poor. Multivariate analysis suggests growing inequalities in utilization of the two outcomes across different economic groups. Conclusions The use of PNC and SBA remains disproportionately lower among poor mothers in India irrespective of area of residence and province. Despite several governmental efforts to increase access and coverage of delivery services to poor, it is clear that the poor (a) do not use SBA and (b) even if they had SBA, they were more likely to use the private providers.

Pathak, Praveen Kumar; Singh, Abhishek; Subramanian, S. V.

2010-01-01

394

India suspends pioglitazone: is it justified?  

PubMed

In the month of June 2013 the Government of India suddenly suspended three drugs for use. The suspension of the anti-diabetic agent came as a rude shock to the medical community who has been utilizing this insulin sensitizer for more than a decade. We took a close look at the controversies surrounding this agent, the current state in the global scenario and how India has reacted in this mini review. Like most of the drugs utilized in the management of medical disorders pioglitazone also has been under the scanner for quite some time. However no definitive cause and effect association with any of the adverse events namely bladder cancer, anemia, fractures and heart failure was found. The international community responded with caution and refrained from banning the drug outright except for France. The ban in India in the absence of incriminating data on the Indian population seems out of place. PMID:24661760

Sadikot, S M; Ghosal, Samit

2014-01-01

395

Library Legislation in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author presents a history of library legislation in India and recommends the establishment of library networks by law to ensure an integrated service which will effectively serve all library patrons. (17 references) (SJ)

Srivastava, Shyan Nath

1972-01-01

396

Climate change and groundwater: India's opportunities for mitigation and adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For millennia, India used surface storage and gravity flow to water crops. During the last 40 years, however, India has witnessed a decline in gravity-flow irrigation and the rise of a booming 'water-scavenging' irrigation economy through millions of small, private tubewells. For India, groundwater has become at once critical and threatened. Climate change will act as a force multiplier; it will enhance groundwater's criticality for drought-proofing agriculture and simultaneously multiply the threat to the resource. Groundwater pumping with electricity and diesel also accounts for an estimated 16-25 million mt of carbon emissions, 4-6% of India's total. From a climate change point of view, India's groundwater hotspots are western and peninsular India. These are critical for climate change mitigation as well as adaptation. To achieve both, India needs to make a transition from surface storage to 'managed aquifer storage' as the center pin of its water strategy with proactive demand- and supply-side management components. In doing this, India needs to learn intelligently from the experience of countries like Australia and the United States that have long experience in managed aquifer recharge.

Shah, Tushaar

2009-07-01

397

Cognitive psychiatry in India  

PubMed Central

Cognitive deficits have been shown to exist in various psychiatric disorders. Though most Indian studies pertaining to cognition have been replication studies, well designed original studies have also been conducted. This article traces the evolution of cognitive psychiatry in India. Cognitive research has huge potential in India and can help us unravel mysteries of the human mind, identify etiopathogenesis and facilitate treatment of psychiatric disorders.

Dalal, P. K.; Sivakumar, T.

2010-01-01

398

Wheat Marketing and its Efficiency in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examines the marketing of wheat in India, focusing on the private marketing system, the marketing efficiency and quality. Wheat is now a major food staple in India, crucial to India’s food economy and security. With production reaching 70 to 75 million tons and a large demand, India’s wheat economy is the second largest in the world. The efficiency

Vasant P. Gandhi; Abraham Koshy

2006-01-01

399

Perceptions of the use of complementary therapy and Siddha medicine among rural patients with HIV/AIDS: a case study from India.  

PubMed

Allopathic practitioners in India are outnumbered by practitioners of traditional Indian medicine, such as Ayurveda and Siddha. These forms of traditional medicine are currently used by up to two-thirds of its population to help meet primary healthcare needs, particularly in rural areas. Gandeepam is one of the pioneering Siddha clinics in rural Tamil Nadu that is specialized in providing palliative care to HIV/AIDS patients with effective treatment. This article examines and critically discusses the perceptions of patients regarding the efficacy of Siddha treatment and their motivation in using this form of treatment. The issues of gender equality in the access of HIV/AIDS treatment as well as the possible challenges in complementing allopathic and traditional/complementary health sectors in research and policy are also discussed. The article concludes by emphasizing the importance of complementing allopathic treatment with traditional medicine for short-term symptoms and some opportunistic diseases present among HIV/AIDS patients. PMID:22887471

Torri, Maria Costanza

2013-01-01

400

The private sector: Cautiously interested in distribution in India  

SciTech Connect

As privatization and liberalization proceed in India--the world`s second largest growth market for electricity--sensible experimentation by the states on the rules of the game is vital. A new joint venture approach in Rajasthan may be a helpful model. This article provides an overview of the principal challenges confronting US utilities interested in investing in distribution in India as well as a summary of two mechanisms developed to facilitate private investment. These challenges also should be considered in view of the changing political conditions in India owing to the recent election of the coalition government led by the Bharatiya Janata Party.

Banks, J.P. [Stone and Webster Management Consultants, Washington, DC (United States)] [Stone and Webster Management Consultants, Washington, DC (United States); Bowman, C.D.; Guy, J. [International Resources Group, Washington, DC (United States)] [International Resources Group, Washington, DC (United States); Gross, T.P. [Morley Caskin, Washington, DC (United States)] [Morley Caskin, Washington, DC (United States)

1998-06-01

401

Religion and identity in India’s heritage tourism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing worth of heritage in the renegotiation and dissemination of identities has intensified conflicts over whose voice dominates heritage tourism representations. Therefore, this study compares the way India’s heritage is represented by the Indian government, by the domestic tourism trade media and by the popular tourism media. The findings reveal that India is consistently represented as an ethnically diverse

Duarte B. Morais; Garry Chick

2008-01-01

402

Adoption of Food Safety Practices in Milk Production: Implications for Dairy Farmers in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the status, estimates the cost, and identifies the determinants of compliance with food safety measures in milk production in India. The study is based on the cross section primary data collected at the farm level in 3 states of India, namely, Bihar, Punjab, and Uttar Pradesh, in the year 2007. These states capture the geographical and institutional

Anjani Kumar; Iain A. Wright; Dhiraj K. Singh

2011-01-01

403

Practices of entomophagy and entomotherapy by members of the Nyishi and Galo tribes, two ethnic groups of the state of Arunachal Pradesh (North-East India)  

PubMed Central

We prepared a consolidated list of edible and therapeutic insects used in Arunachal Pradesh (N.E. India) by two tribal societies (i.e., the Nyishi of East Kameng and the Galo of West Siang). The list is based on thorough, semi-structured field-interviews with 20 informants of each tribal group. At least 81 species of local insects, belonging to 26 families and five orders of insects, namely Coleoptera (24 species), Orthoptera (17 species), Hemiptera (16 species), Hymenoptera (15 species) and Odonata (9 species), are being used as food among members of these two indigenous societies. However, Nyishi use overall more species of insects as food than Galo people do and consume mostly Coleoptera and Hemiptera; amongst the Galo, on the other hand, Odonata and Orthoptera dominate. The selection of the food insects amongst the Nyishi and Galo is dictated by traditional tribal beliefs as well as the taste and availability of the insects. Depending on the species, only particular or all developmental stages are consumed. Some food insects may be included in the local diet throughout the year, others only when seasonally available. Commonly specimens are being prepared for consumption by roasting, frying or boiling. Twelve species of insects are deemed therapeutically valuable by the locals and are being used by the tribes investigated to treat a variety of disorders in humans and domestic animals. Members of the Galo use a greater number of insect species for remedial purposes than the Nyishi. With the degradation of natural resources, rapid population growth, and increasing influence of 'westernization', the traditional wisdom of entomophagy and entomotherapy is at risk of being lost. There is thus an urgent need to record the role insects play as components of local diets and folk remedies and to assess insect biodiversity in the light of these uses.

2011-01-01

404

Pharmacy Education in India  

PubMed Central

Pharmacy education in India traditionally has been industry and product oriented. In contrast to the situation in developed nations, graduate pharmacists prefer placements in the pharmaceutical industry. To practice as a pharmacist in India, one needs at least a diploma in pharmacy, which is awarded after only 2 years and 3 months of pharmacy studies. These diploma-trained pharmacists are the mainstay of pharmacy practice. The pharmacy practice curriculum has not received much attention. In India, there has been a surge in the number of institutions offering pharmacy degrees at various levels and a practice-based doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree program was started in some private institutions in 2008. However, relatively little information has been published describing the current status of complex pharmacy education of India. In this paper we describe pharmacy education in India and highlight major issues in pharmacy practice including deficiencies in curriculum. The changing face of the profession is discussed, including the establishment of the PharmD program. The information presented in this paper may stimulate discussion and critical analysis and planning, and will be of value in further adaptation of the pharmacy education to desired educational outcomes.

Sathyanarayana, Dondeti

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