Sample records for nadu state india

  1. ELECTRICAL IMAGING TECHNIQUES FOR GROUNDWATER POLLUTION STUDIES: A CASE STUDY FROM TAMIL NADU STATE, SOUTH INDIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Srinivasamoorthy K; Sarma VS; Vijayaraghavan K; Chidambaram S

    An attempt was made to identify the extent of pollution in the aquifer matrix of Tirupur, a highly industrialized zone of Tamilnadu state, South India. Electrical imaging techniques were adopted with a Syscal Pro-96 system, for measuring apparent resistivity values using different electrodes separation. The first profile conducted at Valipalayam recorded a resistivity range of <10 Ù m at a

  2. Remote sensing based agricultural drought assessment in Palar basin of Tamil Nadu state, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Murali Krishna; G. Ravikumar; M. Krishnaveni

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural drought has been a recurrent phenomenon in many parts of India. Remote sensing plays a vital role in real time\\u000a monitoring of the agricultural drought conditions over large area, there by effectively supplementing the ground mechanism.\\u000a Conventional drought monitoring is based on subjective data. The satellite based monitoring such as National Agricultural\\u000a Drought Assessment and Monitoring System (NADAMS) is

  3. Local knowledge and conservation of seagrasses in the Tamil Nadu state of India.

    PubMed

    Newmaster, A F; Berg, K J; Ragupathy, S; Palanisamy, M; Sambandan, K; Newmaster, S G

    2011-01-01

    Local knowledge systems are not considered in the conservation of fragile seagrass marine ecosystems. In fact, little is known about the utility of seagrasses in local coastal communities. This is intriguing given that some local communities rely on seagrasses to sustain their livelihoods and have relocated their villages to areas with a rich diversity and abundance of seagrasses. The purpose of this study is to assist in conservation efforts regarding seagrasses through identifying Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) from local knowledge systems of seagrasses from 40 coastal communities along the eastern coast of India. We explore the assemblage of scientific and local traditional knowledge concerning the 1. classification of seagrasses (comparing scientific and traditional classification systems), 2. utility of seagrasses, 3. Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) of seagrasses, and 4. current conservation efforts for seagrass ecosystems. Our results indicate that local knowledge systems consist of a complex classification of seagrass diversity that considers the role of seagrasses in the marine ecosystem. This fine-scaled ethno-classification gives rise to five times the number of taxa (10 species = 50 local ethnotaxa), each with a unique role in the ecosystem and utility within coastal communities, including the use of seagrasses for medicine (e.g., treatment of heart conditions, seasickness, etc.), food (nutritious seeds), fertilizer (nutrient rich biomass) and livestock feed (goats and sheep). Local communities are concerned about the loss of seagrass diversity and have considerable local knowledge that is valuable for conservation and restoration plans. This study serves as a case study example of the depth and breadth of local knowledge systems for a particular ecosystem that is in peril. PMID:22112297

  4. ANALYTICAL STUDY OF LIVING ENVIRONMENT IN THE TSUNAMI AFFECTED AREAS OF TAMIL NADU, INDIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vasudha A. Gokhale

    2005-01-01

    More than 4500 km stretch of the Indian coastline was badly affected by the tsunami on 26th December 2004. The worst affected state Tamil Nadu faced the loss of 7993 lives and destruction of about 123,105 houses. In a developing country like India both socio-economic and climatic aspects largely govern the architectural development as a whole and, consequently, the extent

  5. Murukan and Tamil Nadu (South India). A Geographical Approach of a Hindu God.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Murukan and Tamil Nadu (South India). A Geographical Approach of a Hindu God. Pierre persistent and popular Hindu gods of South India, whose main temples are confined in a very distinct territory : Tamil Nadu. He is believed to be a powerful god, and a protector of Tamil people. As his name

  6. Innovations and Challenges in Reducing Maternal Mortality in Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    Padmanaban, P.; Mavalankar, Dileep V.

    2009-01-01

    Although India has made slow progress in reducing maternal mortality, progress in Tamil Nadu has been rapid. This case study documents how Tamil Nadu has taken initiatives to improve maternal health services leading to reduction in maternal morality from 380 in 1993 to 90 in 2007. Various initiatives include establishment of maternal death registration and audit, establishment and certification of comprehensive emergency obstetric and newborn-care centres, 24-hour x 7-day delivery services through posting of three staff nurses at the primary health centre level, and attracting medical officers to rural areas through incentives in terms of reserved seats in postgraduate studies and others. This is supported by the better management capacity at the state and district levels through dedicated public-health officers. Despite substantial progress, there is some scope for further improvement of quality of infrastructure and services. The paper draws out lessons for other states and countries in the region. PMID:19489416

  7. Trace element concentration in groundwater, Tuticorin city, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S Krishna; Magesh, N S; Chandrasekar, N

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the pollution vulnerability of groundwater aquifers in the coastal regions of Tuticorin city, Tamil Nadu, India. Fourteen samples were analyzed to determine the concentration of trace elements (Pb, Zn, Cd, Hg, Cr and Cu) in the groundwater. Among the total samples six were collected from industrial areas and eight from non-industrial areas of Tuticorin city. The concentration of trace element ranges from 0.01 to 0.19 mg/kg(-1) for Pb, from 0.01 to 0.16 mg/kg(-1) for Zn, from BDL to 0.21 mg/kg(-1) for Cd, from BDL (Below Detection Limit) to 0.023 mg/kg(-1) for Hg, from 0.02 to 0.18 mg/kg(-1) for Cr and from 0.01 to 0.16 mg/kg(-1) for Cu. The trace element concentration in groundwater is higher than the WHO suggested maximum permissible limit except Zn and Cu. PMID:22481209

  8. Exposure from cooking with biofuels: pollution monitoring and analysis for rural Tamil Nadu, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jyoti Parikh; Kalpana Balakrishnan; Vijay Laxmi; Haimanti Biswas

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, statistical analysis to examine the links between pollution and the types of kitchen and fuels is carried out for rural houses by first monitoring the indoor air quality (IAQ) followed by regression analysis of 418 households in Tamil Nadu, India. Exposures to the chief cook (females, who are mainly involved in the cooking during monitoring) are measured

  9. Forest Dynamics in the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayakumar, S.; Ramachandran, A.; Bhaskaran, G.; Heo, J.

    2009-02-01

    The primary deciduous forests in the Eastern Ghats (EG) of Tamil Nadu (TN) India have undergone many changes owing to various need-based forest managements, such as timber extraction for industry, railway sleepers, charcoal, and forest clearance for hydroelectric projects and agriculture, during preindependence and postindependence periods (i.e., from 1800 to 1980). The enactment of a forest conservation act during the 1980s changed the perception of forest managers from utilization to conservation. This study was taken up to assess the forests dynamics in the EG of TN spatially between 1990 and 2003 and nonspatially between 1900 and the 1980s. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Indian Remote Sensing satellite (IRS) 1D Linear Imaging and Self Scanning (LISS III) data were used to assess forests during 1990 and 2003, respectively. Field floristic survey and secondary data (such as published literature, floras, books, and forest working plans) were used to assess the forest dynamics in terms of forest type and species composition among the preindependence period, the postindependence period, and the present (i.e., before and after 1980). The satellite data analysis revealed a considerable amount of changes in all forest types during the 13 years. The comparison of species composition and forest types between the past and present revealed that need-based forest management along with anthropogenic activity have altered the primary deciduous forest in to secondary and postextraction secondary forests such as southern thorn and southern thorn scrub forests in the middle [400-900 m above mean sea level (MSL)] and lower slopes (<400 m MSL). However, the evergreen forests present at the upper slope (>900 m MSL) and plateau seemed not to be much affected by the forest management. The changes estimated by the satellite data processing in the major forest types such as evergreen, deciduous, southern thorn, and southern thorn scrub are really alarming because these changes have occurred after the implementation of a forest conservation act. The dependence of local people on forests for various purposes in this region is also considerably high, which might be a key factor for the changes in the forests. The results of this study not only provide an outlook on the present status of the forests and the change trends but also provide the basis for further studies on forests in the EG of TN.

  10. Reproductive pattern, perinatal mortality, and sex preference in rural Tamil Nadu, South India: community based, cross sectional study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Birgitte Bruun Nielsen; Jerker Liljestrand; Morten Hedegaard; Shakuntala Haraksingh Thilsted; Abraham Joseph

    1997-01-01

    AbstractObjectives: To study reproductive pattern and perinatal mortality in rural Tamil Nadu, South India.Design: Community based, cross sectional questionnaire study of 30 randomly selected areas served by health subcentres.Setting: Rural parts of Salem District, Tamil Nadu, South India.Subjects: 1321 women and their offspring delivered in the 6 months before the interview.Main outcome measures: Number of pregnancies, pregnancy outcome, spacing of

  11. Reproductive biology of the commercial sea cucumber Holothuria spinifera (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) from Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. Asha; P. Muthiah

    2008-01-01

    The annual reproductive cycle of the commercial sea cucumber Holothuria spinifera was studied in Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu, India, from September 2000 to October 2001, by macroscopic and microscopic examination\\u000a of gonad tubule, gonad index and histology of gametogenic stages, to determine the spawning pattern. The gonad consists of\\u000a long tubules with uniform development. It does not confirm the progressive tubule

  12. Rates and Factors Associated with Suicide in Kaniyambadi Block, Tamil Nadu, South India, 2000–2002

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Prasad; V. J. Abraham; S. Minz; S. Abraham; A. Joseph; J. P. Muliyil; K. George; K. S. Jacob

    2006-01-01

    Background: Inefficient civil registration systems, non-report of deaths, variable standards in certifying death and the legal and social consequences of suicide are major obstacles to investigating suicide in the developing world.Objective: The aim of this study was to prospectively determine the suicide rate in Kaniyambadi Block, Tamil Nadu, South India, for the years 2000–2002 using verbal autopsies.Method: The setting for

  13. Virological Interpretations of Dengue Disease Spectrum in Infants in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, Need Reevaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Balasubramanian; S. M. Keshava; V. Thenmozhi; G. Sekar; S. C. Tewari; N. Arunachalam; R. Rajendran; K. Satyanarayana; Baijayantimala Mishra; R. K. Ratho

    2004-01-01

    We read with interest the study of Kabilan et al. (2) regard- ing the dengue disease spectrum in infants in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. However, certain points in this study regarding the virological investigations and their interpretations are not clear. As specified in the paper, the authors used dengue- specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG microenzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (microELISA)

  14. Metamorphism of the Oddanchatram anorthosite, Tamil Nadu, South India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiebe, R. A.; Janardhan, A. S.

    1988-01-01

    The Oddanchatram anorthosite is located in the Madurai District of Tamil Nadu, near the town of Palni. It is emplaced into a granulite facies terrain commonly presumed to have undergone its last regional metamorphism in the late Archean about 2600 m.y. The surrounding country rock consists of basic granulites, charnockites and metasedimentary rocks including quartzites, pelites and calc-silicates. The anorthosite is clearly intrusive into the country rock and contains many large inclusions of previously deformed basic granulite and quartzite within 100 meters of its contact. Both this intrusion and the nearby Kaduvar anorthosite show evidence of having been affected by later metamorphism and deformation.

  15. Natural gamma radioactivity in the villages of Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Padua, Jeni Chandar; Basil Rose, M R

    2013-01-01

    In situ radiometric survey carried out in 81 revenue villages of Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, India, using a portable radiation dosemeter/detector, revealed the existence of radiation hotspots along the coastal belt. A close observation of the coastal villages specifically revealed high background radioactivity in 14 coastal villages. A very high intrinsic anomalous radioactivity of 41.03 ?Sv h(-1) was observed, in a famous tourist spot in the coastal belt of Kanyakumari District. This is the highest level of radiation registered in South India, which is extremely higher than the permissible world average and is suggestive of causing severe clinical problems on continuous and prolonged exposure. PMID:23516264

  16. Optimal pricing and investment in the electricity sector in Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, Ranganath Srinivas

    2001-07-01

    Faulty pricing policies and inadequate investment in the power sector are responsible for the chronic power shortages that plague Tamil Nadu and the rest of India. Formulae for optimal pricing rules are derived for a social welfare maximizing Electricity Board which sells electricity that is used both as an intermediate, and as a final good. Because of distributional constraints, the optimal prices deviate systematically from marginal costs. Optimal relative price-marginal cost differentials are computed for Tamil Nadu, and are found to indicate a lower degree of subsidization than the prevailing prices. The rationalization of electricity tariffs would very likely increase the Board's revenues. The cost-effectiveness of nuclear power in India is examined by comparing actual data for the Madras Atomic Power Project and the Singrauli coal-fired thermal power station. The conventional (non-environmental) costs of power generation are compared at both market prices and shadow prices, calculated according to the UNIDO guidelines for project evaluation. Despite favorable assumptions for the costs of the nuclear plant, coal had a decided edge over nuclear in Tamil Nadu. Remarkably, the edge varied little when market prices are replaced by shadow prices in the computations. With regard to the environmental costs, far too much remains unknown. More research is therefore needed on the environmental impacts of both types of power generation before a final choice can be made.

  17. Hydrochemical characteristic of coastal aquifer from Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Nepal C; Singh, Vijay P; Singh, Somvir; Singh, Vijay S

    2011-04-01

    This article deals with a systematic hydrochemical study carried out in coastal aquifers, Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu, to assess groundwater quality. A total of 29 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed. Results showed that total dissolved solids (TDS), sodium (Na+), magnesium (Mg2+), chloride (Cl-), and sulfate (SO?²?) significantly damaged groundwater systems. The degree of salinization due to seawater mixing in a well or a given area could be indicated by an increase in nearly all major cations and anions. Toxic elements (i.e., Pb and As) were higher than the maximum permissible limits of drinking water. Cross plot of HCO??/Cl- (molar ratios) versus TDS indicated that about 62% of the analyzed samples were saline. Factor analysis showed that groundwaters, affected by seawater intrusion/industrial activity, were separated from the clusters. An attempt was made to identify the hydrochemical processes that accompany current intrusion of seawater using ionic changes. It was estimated that the mixing rate of seawater intrusion was about 5.81% during April 2007. An index, called 'Seawater Mixing Index' (SMI), was also adopted and its value was SMI>1.18 with EC>3,000 ?S/cm about 62% of the sampled waters, were saline. Further, a few trace elements (i.e., Sr, B, and Li) were used as indicators for responding to the change in fresh to saline groundwater environments in coastal aquifers. PMID:20544276

  18. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is an important cause of encephalitis among children in Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lalitha Kabilan; Sudhansu Vrati; S. Ramesh; S. Srinivasan; Mohan Babu Appaiahgari; N. Arunachalam; V. Thenmozhi; S. Muthu Kumaravel; P. Philip Samuel; R. Rajendran

    2004-01-01

    Background: Japanese encephalitis (JE) is endemic in Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu (TN), Southern India. The reports of JE cases from the local hospitals did not reflect the actual disease burden. It is likely that these cases were attending the nearby referral hospitals, for want of better treatment facilities. Objectives: Between July 2002 and February 2003, a pilot study was undertaken

  19. Social Inclusion: Teachers as Facilitators in Peer Acceptance of Students with Disabilities in Regular Classrooms in Tamil Nadu, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Ruffina; Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the impact of classroom teachers' attitudes towards inclusive education, teachers' self-efficacy and classroom practices on the social status of students with disabilities in inclusive classrooms in Tamil Nadu, India. Questionnaires, interviews and classroom observations were employed to gather data. The data analysis included…

  20. Costs Analysis of a Population Level Rabies Control Programme in Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Syed Shahid; Kakkar, Manish; Rogawski, Elizabeth Tacket

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to determine costs to the state government of implementing different interventions for controlling rabies among the entire human and animal populations of Tamil Nadu. This built upon an earlier assessment of Tamil Nadu's efforts to control rabies. Anti-rabies vaccines were made available at all health facilities. Costs were estimated for five different combinations of animal and human interventions using an activity-based costing approach from the provider perspective. Disease and population data were sourced from the state surveillance data, human census and livestock census. Program costs were extrapolated from official documents. All capital costs were depreciated to estimate annualized costs. All costs were inflated to 2012 Rupees. Sensitivity analysis was conducted across all major cost centres to assess their relative impact on program costs. It was found that the annual costs of providing Anti-rabies vaccine alone and in combination with Immunoglobulins was $0.7 million (Rs 36 million) and $2.2 million (Rs 119 million), respectively. For animal sector interventions, the annualised costs of rolling out surgical sterilisation-immunization, injectable immunization and oral immunizations were estimated to be $ 44 million (Rs 2,350 million), $23 million (Rs 1,230 million) and $ 11 million (Rs 590 million), respectively. Dog bite incidence, health systems coverage and cost of rabies biologicals were found to be important drivers of costs for human interventions. For the animal sector interventions, the size of dog catching team, dog population and vaccine costs were found to be driving the costs. Rabies control in Tamil Nadu seems a costly proposition the way it is currently structured. Policy makers in Tamil Nadu and other similar settings should consider the long-term financial sustainability before embarking upon a state or nation-wide rabies control programme. PMID:24587471

  1. Integrated Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Maize Farms and Farm Household Incomes in South India: A Case Study from Tamil Nadu. 9; Chapter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponnusamy, Paramasivam; Vellingiri, Geethalakshmi; Danda, Raji Reddy; Arunachalam, Lakshmanan; Murthy, Dakshina; Prema, Sunandini; Gade, Sreenivas; McDermid, Sonali P.; Valdivia, Roberto O.

    2015-01-01

    South India is characterized by a wide variety of landscapes, soils and climatic zones. It is comprised of tropical, semi-arid, humid-moist, and high-altitude environments, which support a diversity of agricultural systems. Our study focused on the state of Tamil Nadu, which is characterized by a generally tropical climate, and receive rainfall during both the southwest monsoon season (SWM, June to September) and the northeast monsoon (NEM, September to December). Agriculture continues to be an important sector in the state economy, as more than 56 of the people depend on agriculture and allied sectors for their livelihood. Analysis of land-use patterns in Tamil Nadu reveals that in the past decade there has been a reduction in net sown area and current fallow, while the share of cultivable wastelands has increased. The area under cereals, pulses, and oilseeds had marginally declined, although area under commercial crops like turmeric, sugar-cane, banana, fruits, and vegetables has shown an increasing trend. The production performance of major crops like cereals, pulses, and oilseeds has not shown any significant increase. Demand and supply gap of important crops in Tamil Nadu for the year 2010 indicates that the state is lagging far behind in the production of various crops.

  2. Background radiation and individual dosimetry in the costal area of Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Naoki; Brahmanandhan, G M; Yoshida, Masahiro; Takamura, Noboru; Suyama, Akihiko; Koguchi, Yasuhiro; Juto, Norimichi; Raj, Y Lenin; Winsley, Godwin; Selvasekarapandian, S

    2011-07-01

    South coast of India is known as the high-level background radiation area (HBRA) mainly due to beach sands that contain natural radionuclides as components of the mineral monazite. The rich deposit of monazite is unevenly distributed along the coastal belt of Tamil Nadu and Kerala. An HBRA site that laid in 2×7 m along the sea was found in the beach of Chinnavillai, Tamil Nadu, where the maximum ambient dose equivalent reached as high as 162.7 mSv y(-1). From the sands collected at the HBRA spot, the high-purity germanium semi-conductor detector identified six nuclides of thorium series, four nuclides of uranium series and two nuclides belonging to actinium series. The highest radioactivity observed was 43.7 Bq g(-1) of Th-228. The individual dose of five inhabitants in Chinnavillai, as measured by the radiophotoluminescence glass dosimetry system, demonstrated the average dose of 7.17 mSv y(-1) ranging from 2.79 to 14.17 mSv y(-1). PMID:21502300

  3. Organochlorine pesticide residues in eggs and tissues of house sparrow, Passer domesticus, from Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Dhananjayan, V; Muralidharan, S; Ranapratap, S

    2011-12-01

    This study provides information on the current status of contamination by organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in eggs and tissues of House Sparrow, Passer domesticus, in Tamil Nadu, India. The mean concentration of total hexachlorocyclohexane (?HCH) and total dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (?DDT) in eggs ranged from 0.01 to 1.81 ?g/g and 0.02 to 1.29 ?g/g, respectively. Concentration of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE) ranged from below detectable limit (BDL) to 0.64 ?g/g, representing more than 60% of the ?DDTs. About 28% of samples had p,p'-DDE levels above the critical concentration associated with reproductive impairment. However, the mean concentrations of cyclodiene insecticides were less than 0.5 ?g/g. Although OCPs levels detected in tissues are not indicative of toxicity, continuous monitoring is recommended. PMID:21979140

  4. Medico-botanical study of Yercaud hills in the eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Parthipan, M; Aravindhan, V; Rajendran, A

    2011-04-01

    The study reports medicinal plant survey was conceded in Yercaud hills ranges of Eastern Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. The study primarily based on field surveys conducted throughout the hills, where dwellers provided information on plant species used as medicine, plant parts used to prepare the remedies and ailments to which the remedies were prescribed. The study resulted about 48- plant species belonging to 45- genera and 29- families of medicinal plants related to folk medicine used by the local people. Among them the most common plants viz., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Cissus quadrangularis L., Gymnema sylvestre R. Br., Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br., Justisia adhatoda L., Ocimum sanctum L., Phyllanthes amarus Schum. & Thonn., Piper nigrum L., Solanum nigrum L., Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers, Tridax procumbens L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe which are used in their daily life to cure various ailments. PMID:22557438

  5. Ethnobotanical investigations among tribes in Madurai District of Tamil Nadu (India)

    PubMed Central

    Ignacimuthu, S; Ayyanar, M; Sivaraman K, Sankara

    2006-01-01

    Background An ethnobotanical survey was carried out to collect information on the use of medicinal plants in Southern Western Ghats of India (Madurai district, Tamil Nadu). Information presented in this paper was gathered from the paliyar tribes using an integrated approach of botanical collections, group discussions and interviews with questionnaires in the years 1998 – 1999. The informants interviewed were 12 among whom 4 were tribal practitioners. Results A total of 60 ethnomedicinal plant species distributed in 32 families are documented in this study. The medicinal plants used by paliyars are listed with Latin name, family, local name, parts used, mode of preparation and medicinal uses. Generally, fresh part of the plant was used for the preparation of medicine. Conclusion We observed that the documented ethnomedicinal plants were mostly used to cure skin diseases, poison bites, stomachache and nervous disorders. The results of this study showed that these tribal people still depend on medicinal plants in Madurai district forest areas. PMID:16689985

  6. Fluoride and other Quality Parameters in the Groundwater Samples of Pettaivaithalai and Kulithalai Areas of Tamil Nadu, Southern India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Sivasankar; R. Gomathi

    2009-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the status of the potable quality of the water samples in the Pettavaithalai\\u000a and Kulithalai areas of Tamil Nadu, Southern India. In the month of January 2007, a total of 90 water samples from 12 locations,\\u000a which include dug wells, bore wells, ponds and canals, were collected and investigated for Fluoride and

  7. HLA antigens in South India: II. Selected caste groups of Tamil Nadu.

    PubMed

    Rajasekar, R; Kakkanaiah, V N; Pitchappan, R M

    1987-09-01

    HLA-A, B antigen and haplotype frequencies were studied in four different caste groups of Tamil Nadu living in Madurai. A total number of 101 Nadars, 36 Kallars, 54 Iyers and 57 Telugu-speaking Naidus were studied. HLA A3 and B15 were significantly higher in Nadars; A10 & B8 in Kallars and Aw19, B12 & B35 in Iyers. HLA A-B haplotypes A10-B7, A28-B17 & A24-B- were characteristic of Nadars; A10-B8 & A1-B-, Kallars; Aw19-B12 & A1-B15, Iyers and A2-B-, Naidus. Negative linkage disequilibria for Aw19-B7, A28-B15 & A9-B51 were significant in Nadars; A1-B5, A1-B12 & Aw19-B- in Iyers and A2-B17 in Naidus. Heterogeneity chi-square based on antigen frequency and genetic distance also suggest the heterogeneous nature of the population of South India. Will these caste groups with such diverse haplotypic combinations differ from one another in their immune response and susceptibility to a given epidemic or infection? PMID:3424332

  8. Re-activating modern traditions of justice: mobilising around health in rural Tamil Nadu, South India.

    PubMed

    Ram, Kalpana

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses empirical material from health activists in Tamil Nadu to show that the health discourses that enjoy the greatest continuity and reach in India are also those that presume a radical connection between the health of the individual body and mobilising for a more just social order. The forging of this tradition is traced back to early anti-colonial forms of mobilisation. The transmission of this tradition is then ethnographically traced through various organisations that relay a characteristic set of orientations of thought and action to new generations and groups. The freshness of the synthesis of the tradition effected by each activist is emphasised. Arguing along phenomenological lines, these capacities to synthesise and renew a tradition are located in the capacities of the body. By attending to the unique place of the body in human experience, we may be in a better position to also understand the way in which health discourses that are embedded within wider experiences of injustice are able to circulate with renewed affective force. PMID:24735236

  9. Antimicrobial activity of some ethnomedicinal plants used by Paliyar tribe from Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Ayyanar, Muniappan; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2006-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial activity of 18 ethnomedicinal plant extracts were evaluated against nine bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Ervinia sp, Proteus vulgaris) and one fungal strain (Candida albicans). The collected ethnomedicinal plants were used in folk medicine in the treatment of skin diseases, venereal diseases, respiratory problems and nervous disorders. Methods Plants were collected from Palni hills of Southern Western Ghats and the ethnobotanical data were gathered from traditional healers who inhabit the study area. The hexane and methanol extracts were obtained by cold percolation method and the antimicrobial activity was found using paper disc diffusion method. All microorganisms were obtained from Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India. Results The results indicated that out of 18 plants, 10 plants exhibited antimicrobial activity against one or more of the tested microorganisms at three different concentrations of 1.25, 2.5 and 5 mg/disc. Among the plants tested, Acalypha fruticosa, Peltophorum pterocarpum, Toddalia asiatica,Cassia auriculata, Punica granatum and Syzygium lineare were most active. The highest antifungal activity was exhibited by methanol extract of Peltophorum pterocarpum and Punica granatum against Candida albicans. Conclusion This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of the some ethnomedicinal plants used in folkloric medicine. Compared to hexane extract, methanol extract showed significant activity against tested organisms. This study also showed that Toddalia asiatica, Syzygium lineare, Acalypha fruticosa and Peltophorum pterocarpum could be potential sources of new antimicrobial agents. PMID:17042964

  10. Study of Morbidity Pattern Among Salt Workers in Marakkanam, Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Zile; Bazroy, Joy; Purty, Anil jacob; Natesan, Murugan; Chavada, Vijay kantilal

    2015-01-01

    Background Salt workers are exposed to occupational hazards like contact with salt crystals and brine, physical stress, sunlight and glare due to sunlight reflected by salt crystals. Very few studies have documented the morbidity among the salt workers. Aim To assess the morbidity pattern among salt workers in Marakkanam, Tamil Nadu, India. Materials and Methods A community based cross-sectional study was undertaken in 4 randomly selected salt worker villages. Three hundred thirty one salt workers were reached by a house-to-house survey during April 2010 to March 2011. Demographic data was collected; clinical examination was conducted using a predesigned and pretested questionnaire. A pilot study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of morbidity before initiating the study. The data was analyzed using SPSS Version 11.5. Chi-square test and odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to determine the association of morbidity levels with various factors. Results Of the 331 salt workers in the study, 58% were females, mean age was 41.9 ± 10.8 y. Eighty seven percent salt workers had some or other morbidity. The observed morbidities include clinical pallor (44.4%), ocular morbidities including cataract, pterygium, conjunctivitis, pingecula and corneal ulcer (42%), caries teeth (41.7%), hypertension (23.3%), underweight (19.3%), goiter (19%), obesity (14.8%) and dermal conditions including dermatitis, thickening of palm and sole, tinea unguum, follicultitis (9.1%). The presence of morbidity did not show any significant association with increase in age, gender, duration of employment or the type of salt work involved with. However, the lower the education level, the higher is the morbidity level among salt workers (OR = 5.23, 95% CI= 2.07 to 13.21) Conclusion Morbidity among salt workers is high. Intervention programs are needed to alleviate the health problems in the salt workers. PMID:26023571

  11. Dental Caries and the Associated Factors Influencing It in Tribal, Suburban and Urban School Children of Tamil Nadu, India: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    John, J. Baby; Asokan, Sharath; Aswanth, KP; Priya, P.R. Geetha; Shanmugaavel, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    Background The study was planned to assess the prevalence of dental caries among tribal, suburban and urban children of Tiruchengode and Erode of Tamil Nadu state, India. The objective of the study was to assess the association of dental caries with family background, dental service availability, transportation and knowledge on preventive dental measures among these three groups Design and methods Cross-sectional study. A total of 1028 school children in the age range of 9-12 years from various government schools located in Palamalai and Kolli Hills (tribal), Tiruchengode (suburban) and Erode (urban), Tamil Nadu, were included in the study. Decayed, filled, and missing teeth (DMFT), decayed and filled teeth (dft) and Significant Caries Index were recorded. A specially prepared questionnaire was used to record all the data regarding oral hygiene practices, socioeconomic background, dental treatment availability, parent’s education level were used for the study. ANOVA t-test and post hoc test were used for comparing quantitative variables between the 3 subgroups. Results The tribal school children had 89.3% caries prevalence, where as it was 77% in suburban and 55% in urban school children. The mean DMFT score among tribal, suburban and urban school children were statistically significant different (P=0.001) between the three groups. There was a highly significant difference (P=0.001) in the mean DMFT score based on brushing frequency. There was a statistically significant difference (P=0.018) in the mean DMFT scores in the urban group based on the mothers education status. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean DMFT scores based on the presence or absence of television in their house and the parents’ income. Conclusions Oral hygiene practices, dietary habits and access to dental care services played an important role in prevalence of dental caries. It was observed that the socioeconomic status, parents’ educational status and mass media influenced the oral health of these children but without a significant contribution. Significance for public health It was observed from the present study that the socioeconomic status, parents’ educational status, media and family structure influence the oral health of children in under-privileged communities. Oral hygiene practices, dietary habits and access to dental care services also play an important role in the prevalence of dental caries among children. Children of government schools in Tamil Nadu, India, don’t get adequate information on oral health, related diseases and methods of prevention. Oral health education and health promotion should be mandatory for all school children. PMID:25918690

  12. Recovery of Ilmenite and Other Heavy Minerals from Teri Sands (Red Sands) of Tamil Nadu, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Babu; N. Vasumathi; R. Bhima Rao

    The red sand which is known as Teri sand in Tamil Nadu consists of 5.5% Total Heavy Minerals (THM) out of which 3.7% is ilmenite. The other minerals, zircon, sillimanite and garnet are in the order of abundance identified. On processing this feed to recover ilmenite by using spirals followed by dry high intensity magnetic separator and high tension separator,

  13. Assessment of (210)Po and (210)Pb in marine biota of the Mallipattinam ecosystem of Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Suriyanarayanan, S; Brahmanandhan, G M; Samivel, K; Ravikumar, S; Hameed, P Shahul

    2010-11-01

    To provide baseline data on background radiation levels for the future assessment of the impact of nuclear and thermal power stations, a systematic study was carried out in the Mallipattinam ecosystem of Tamil Nadu, India. Mallipattinam is located between the Kudankulam and Kalpakkam nuclear power plants and near to Tuticorin thermal power plant. Water, sediments, seaweeds, crustaceans, molluscs, and fish were collected to measure the concentrations of (210)Po and (210)Pb. The concentrations of (210)Po and (210)Pb in most samples are comparable to values reported worldwide. In fish, the concentrations of (210)Po and (210)Pb are in the range 16-190 Bq kg(-1) and 8-153 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The concentration factors of (210)Po and (210)Pb for the biotic components ranges from 10(3) to 10(6). PMID:20605061

  14. Unpacking the psychiatric advance directive in low-resource settings: an exploratory qualitative study in Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychiatric advance directives, a tool to document preferences for care in advance of decisional incapacity, have been shown to benefit persons with mental illness in a number of countries through improving medication adherence, reducing symptoms from escalating in a crisis, accelerating recovery, and enhancing service user autonomy. While concepts such as autonomy are important in a number of high-income country settings, it remains unclear whether tools like psychiatric advance directives are suitable in a different context. The recent introduction of the psychiatric advance directive into draft legislation in India prompts the question as to how feasible psychiatric advance directives are in the Indian context. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility and utility of PADs in India, with a focus on the need for individual control over decision making and barriers to implementation, by exploring views of its central stakeholders, service users and carers. Methods Qualitative semi-structured interviews (n =?51) with clients (n =?39) and carers (n =?12) seeking mental health treatment at outpatient clinics in urban and rural settings provided by a non-profit organisation in Tamil Nadu, India. Results Clients engaged in a number of forms of decision-making (passive, active, and collaborative) depending on the situation and decision at hand, and had high levels of self-efficacy. Most clients and carers were unfamiliar with PADs, and while some clients felt it is important to have a say in treatment wishes, carers expressed concerns about service user capacity to make decisions. After completing PADs, clients reported an increase in self-efficacy and an increased desire to make decisions. Conclusions The introduction of psychiatric advance directives in India appears to be associated with positive outcomes for some service users, however, there is a need to better understand how this tool can be adapted to better suit the care context in India and hold meaning and value for service users to complete. PMID:24369909

  15. Increasing condom use and declining STI prevalence in high-risk MSM and TGs: evaluation of a large-scale prevention program in Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper presents an evaluation of Avahan, a large scale HIV prevention program that was implemented using peer-mediated strategies, condom distribution and sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinical services among high-risk men who have sex with men (HR-MSM) and male to female transgender persons (TGs) in six high-prevalence state of Tamil Nadu, in southern India. Methods Two rounds of large scale cross-sectional bio-behavioural surveys among HR-MSM and TGs and routine program monitoring data were used to assess changes in program coverage, condom use and prevalence of STIs (including HIV) and their association to program exposure. Results The Avahan program for HR-MSM and TGs in Tamil Nadu was significantly scaled up and contacts by peer educators reached 77 percent of the estimated denominator by the end of the program’s fourth year. Exposure to the program increased between the two rounds of surveys for both HR-MSM (from 66 percent to 90 percent; AOR?=?4.6; p?Nadu achieved a high coverage, resulting in improved condom use by HR-MSM with their regular and commercial male partners. Declining STI prevalence and stable HIV prevalence reflect the positive effects of the prevention strategy. Outcomes from the program logic model indiacte the effectiveness of the program for HR-MSM and TGs in Tamil Nadu. PMID:24044766

  16. Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) of some tree species growing near rail roads of Madurai, Tamil Nadu (India).

    PubMed

    Thambavani, D Sarala; Kamala, C

    2010-10-01

    Biological monitoring and assessment studies due to urban--rail road pollutants were carried out using Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) of plants. Four plant (leaf) parameters--namely ascorbic acid, total chlorophyll, relative water content and leaf extract pH were combined together in a formulation signifying the APTI of plants. APTI was calculated for five different species such as Azadirachta indica, Delonix regia, Ficus religiosa, Pongamia pinnata and Polyalthia longifolia growing in two different areas, i.e. control area and along the railway track of Madurai, Tamil Nadu (India). The control site was selected in the college campus. None of the four plant parameters indicated a consistent response to pollutants. In the present study, Delonix regia and Pongamia pinnata lost the tolerance towards air pollutants and became more sensitive, but Azadirachta indica, Ficus religiosa, and Polyalthia longifolia indicated high APTI values over control area and hence considered as tolerant species. The APTI of plants showed a marked gradation as the pollutant load decreased from rail road to control area. The APTI can be used as a good indicator of impact of the air pollution on plants. PMID:22312796

  17. Molecular Serotyping and Pathogenic Potential of Listeria monocytogenes Isolated from Milk and Milk Products in Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Raman; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash

    2015-06-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, an important bacterial pathogen, is responsible for foodborne illnesses worldwide. Examination of food samples for the presence of L. monocytogenes and assessment of their pathogenicity is usually an effective strategy in the prevention of listeriosis. In the present study, we have tested 307 samples of milk and milk products from various places in Tamil Nadu, India for the presence of L. monocytogenes using ISO 11290 and U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual methods. 16S rDNA sequencing and duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for prs and iap genes were used to identify L. monocytogenes at the species level. Fifteen of the 307 samples screen tested positive for L. monocytogenes. Molecular serotyping of the L. monocytogenes isolates by multiplex PCR revealed the predominance of the serogroups 1/2a and 4b. Fourteen of the 15 isolates contained all the virulence genes (inlA, inlB, hlyA, and plcA) screened for using multiplex PCR. Only one isolate of L. monocytogenes was negative for the plcA gene and in vitro phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C activity. L. monocytogenes strains that belong to the serogroup 4b exhibited higher nematocidal activity against Caenorhabditis elegans than the serogroup 1/2a. Worms infected with L. monocytogenes were symptomatic with aberrant contraction of body muscles, loss of pharyngeal pumping, and decreased locomotion, which highlights the pathogenic potential of the L. monocytogenes isolates. PMID:25793931

  18. Environmental monitoring and assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments at Coleroon River Estuary in Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Venkatramanan, S; Chung, S Y; Ramkumar, T; Selvam, S

    2015-08-01

    The combined studies on grain size distribution, organic matter contents of sediments, sequential extraction and bulk concentration of heavy metals, statistical analysis, and ecological risk assessments were carried out to investigate the contamination sources and ecological risks of surface sediments at Coleroon River Estuary in Tamil Nadu, India. The sequential extraction of metals showed that a larger portion of the metals was associated with the residual phase and also in other fractions. The low concentrations of heavy metals were found in exchangeable and carbonate bounds (bioavailable phases). It revealed that sediments of Coleroon River Estuary were relatively unpolluted and were influenced mainly by natural sources. The observed order of bulk concentrations of heavy metals in the sediments was as follows: Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu > Pb > Cr > Ni > Co. Factor analyses represented that the enrichment of heavy metals was mostly resulted from lithogenic origins associated with anthropogenic sources. These sources were reconfirmed by cluster analysis. Risk assessment code (RAC) suggested that all metals were not harmful in monsoon season. However, Fe was in medium risk, and Mn and Cu were in low risk in summer. According to pollution load index (PLI) of sediments, all heavy metals were toxic. Cu might be related with adverse biological effects on the basis of sediment quality guidelines (SQG) in both seasons. These integrated approaches were very useful to identify the contamination sources and ecological risks of sediments in estuarine environment. It is expected that this research can give a useful information for the remediation of heavy metals in sediments. PMID:26178040

  19. Seven years of the field epidemiology training programme (FETP) at Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India: an internal evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background During 2001–2007, the National Institute of Epidemiology (NIE), Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India admitted 80 trainees in its two-year Field Epidemiology Training Programme (FETP). We evaluated the first seven years of the programme to identify strengths and weaknesses. Methods We identified core components of the programme and broke them down into input, process, output and outcome. We developed critical indicators to reflect the logic model. We reviewed documents including fieldwork reports, abstracts listed in proceedings and papers published in Medline-indexed journals. We conducted an anonymous online survey of the graduates to collect information on self-perceived competencies, learning activities, field assignments, supervision, curriculum, relevance to career goals, strengths and weaknesses. Results Of the 80 students recruited during 2001–2007, 69 (86%) acquired seven core competencies (epidemiology, surveillance, outbreaks, research, human subjects protection, communication and management) and graduated through completion of at least six field assignments. The faculty-to-student ratio ranged between 0.4 and 0.12 (expected: 0.25). The curriculum was continuously adapted with all resources available on-line. Fieldwork led to the production of 158 scientific communications presented at international meetings and to 29 manuscripts accepted in indexed, peer-reviewed journals. The online survey showed that while most graduates acquired competencies, unmet needs persisted in laboratory sciences, data analysis tools and faculty-to-student ratio. Conclusions NIE adapted the international FETP model to India. However, further efforts are required to scale up the programme and to develop career tracks for field epidemiologists in the country. PMID:23013473

  20. Report on the occurrence of synanthropic derived form of Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae) from Royapuram fishing harbour, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    Ramaraj, Paulchamy; Selvakumar, Chellappa; Ganesh, Arumugam

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The occurrence of dipteran fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) is reported for the first time from Royapuram fishing harbour (Chennai), Tamil Nadu, South East India. The fully grown third instar larvae of Chrysomya megacephala were collected from decaying fishes near Royapuram fishing harbour. This site is found to be the regular breeding site for Chrysomya megacephala. Larvae were reared under laboratory condition and freshly emerged adult flies from pupae were collected and identified by morphological features and molecular tools. Molecular identification through generation of DNA barcoding using mitochondrial COI gene of Chrysomya megacephala is appended. PMID:25057250

  1. Agency Perspectives on Transition to Participatory Forest Management: A Case Study From Tamil Nadu, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jagannadha Matta; Janaki Alavalapati; John Kerr; Evan Mercer

    2005-01-01

    India's Joint Forest Management (JFM) policy, in which government forest agencies and local communities jointly manage forests, has been touted as a successful strategy in helping both forests and people. Its efficacy in the field, however, is uneven. Although government forest departments are charged with implementing JFM, very little is known about their perspectives on this policy. Assessment of foresters'

  2. Myocilin mutations among POAG patients from two populations of Tamil Nadu, South India, a comparative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Rajiv; Balakrishnan, Anandan; Arumugam, Paramasivam; Shanmugam, Sambandham; Gopalswamy, Jayaraman

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common type of glaucoma. Among the POAG genes identified so far, myocilin (MYOC) is the most frequently mutated gene in POAG patients worldwide. The MYOC Gln48His mutation is unique among Indian POAG patients. This mutation has not been observed in some populations within India and in other populations worldwide. The objectives of this work were to characterize and compare the mutation spectrum among POAG patients from two places of South India and identify the occurrence and prevalence of Gln48His mutation in our study populations. Methods One hundred-one (101) POAG patients from Chennai, South India were recruited for the study. Earlier, 100 patients from the southernmost part of India, Kanyakumari district, were screened. MYOC was screened by polymerase chain reaction based single stand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) methodology. DNA sequencing of deviant samples was performed. Secondary structures of the proteins with amino acid sequence variations were predicted. Results The mutation frequency of MYOC among POAG patients in Chennai was 2%. Three types of mutations were observed. The MYOC Gln48His mutation was observed among 2 POAG patients from Chennai. However, absence of this mutation among patients from Kanyakumari suggests possible involvement of demographic factors in disease causation via this mutation. Two heterozygous sequence variants, Thr353Ile and Asn480Lys, in the same exon (exon III) of MYOC were observed in one POAG patient who had a severe disease phenotype. This is the first such report of a compound heterozygote individual with two mutations in the same exon of MYOC. Conclusions The presence of mutations at a rate similar to other studies suggests the causative role of MYOC among POAG patients from Chennai. Screening of more patients and families from all parts of India is required to identify the actual frequency of the Gln48His mutation and thus highlight its importance. The compound heterozygote with a severe disease phenotype reiterates the importance of MYOC in certain POAG patients. PMID:22194650

  3. Distribution of heavy metals in surface water of Ranipet industrial area in Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Srinivasa Gowd, S; Govil, Pradip K

    2008-01-01

    Ranipet industrial area is about 120 km from Chennai on Chennai-Bangalore highway and is a chronic polluted area identified by Central Pollution Control Board of India. It is one of the biggest exporting centers of tanned leather in India. The total number of industries located in and around Ranipet town are 240 tanneries along with ceramic, refractory, boiler auxiliaries plant, and chromium chemicals. Studies were carried out to find out the contamination of surface water bodies due to industrial effluents. The results reveal that the surface water in the area is highly contaminated showing very high concentrations of some of the heavy/toxic metals like Cadmium ranging from 0.2 to 401.4 microg/l (average of 51.1 microg/l), Chromium 2.4-1,308.6 (average of 247.2 microg/l), Copper 2.1-535.5 microg/l (average of 95.5 microg/l), Nickel 1.6-147.0 microg/l (average of 36.7 microg/l), Lead 6.4-2,034.4 microg/l (average of 467.8 microg/l) and Zinc 20.8-12,718.0 microg/l (average of 3,760.4 microg/l). The concentration levels of these metals are much above the permissible limits in surface water and are health hazards especially for the people working in the tannery industries. It was observed that the people in the area are seriously affected and suffering from occupational diseases such as asthma, chromium ulcers and skin diseases. Distribution of metals, their contents at different locations, and their effects on human health are discussed in this paper. PMID:17457685

  4. Mapping of groundwater potential zones in Salem Chalk Hills, Tamil Nadu, India, using remote sensing and GIS techniques.

    PubMed

    Thilagavathi, N; Subramani, T; Suresh, M; Karunanidhi, D

    2015-04-01

    This study proposes to introduce the remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques in mapping the groundwater potential zones. Remote sensing and GIS techniques have been used to map the groundwater potential zones in Salem Chalk Hills, Tamil Nadu, India. Charnockites and fissile hornblende biotite gneiss are the major rock types in this region. Dunites and peridodites are the ultramafic rocks which cut across the foliation planes of the gneisses and are highly weathered. It comprises magnesite and chromite deposits which are excavated by five mining companies by adopting bench mining. The thickness of weathered and fracture zone varies from 2.2 to 50 m in gneissic formation and 5.8 to 55 m in charnockite. At the contacts of gneiss and charnockite, the thickness ranges from 9.0 to 90.8 m favoring good groundwater potential. The mine lease area is underlined by fractured and sheared hornblende biotite gneiss where groundwater potential is good. Water catchment tanks in this area of 5 km radius are small to moderate in size and are only seasonal. They remain dry during summer seasons. As perennial water resources are remote, the domestic and agricultural activities in this region depend mainly upon the groundwater resources. The mines are located in gently slope area, and accumulation of water is not observed except in mine pits even during the monsoon period. Therefore, it is essential to map the groundwater potential zones for proper management of the aquifer system. Satellite imageries were also used to extract lineaments, hydrogeomorphic landforms, drainage patterns, and land use, which are the major controlling factors for the occurrence of groundwater. Various thematic layers pertaining to groundwater existence such as geology, geomorphology, land use/land cover, lineament, lineament density, drainage, drainage density, slope, and soil were generated using GIS tools. By integrating all the above thematic layers based on the ranks and weightages, eventually groundwater potential zones were demarcated. The study indicates that groundwater potential is good to high in 22 villages and moderate in 13 villages. The good to high potential zone occupies an area of 128 km2 and moderate potential zone occupies an area of 77 km2. Groundwater occurrence is poor in five villages which need artificial recharge to augment groundwater. PMID:25740689

  5. Are learning strategies linked to academic performance among adolescents in two States in India? A tobit regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan

    2014-01-01

    The results of the fourth cycle of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) revealed that an unacceptably large number of adolescent students in two states in India-Himachal Pradesh and Tamil Nadu-have failed to acquire basic skills in reading, mathematics, and science (Walker, 2011). Drawing on data from the PISA 2009 database and employing multivariate left-censored to bit regression as a data analytic strategy, the present study, therefore, examined whether or not the learning strategies-memorization, elaboration, and control strategies-of adolescent students in Himachal Pradesh (N = 1,616; Mean age = 15.81 years) and Tamil Nadu (N = 3,210; Mean age = 15.64 years) were linked to their performance on the PISA 2009 reading, mathematics, and science assessments. Tobit regression analyses, after accounting for student demographic characteristics, revealed that the self-reported use of control strategies was significantly positively associated with reading, mathematical, and scientific literacy of adolescents in Himachal Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. While the self-reported use of elaboration strategies was not significantly associated with reading literacy among adolescents in Himachal Pradesh and Tamil Nadu, it was significantly positively associated with mathematical literacy among adolescents in Himachal Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. Moreover, the self-reported use of elaboration strategies was significantly and positively linked to scientific literacy among adolescents in Himachal Pradesh alone. The self-reported use of memorization strategies was significantly negatively associated with reading, mathematical, and scientific literacy in Tamil Nadu, while it was significantly negatively associated with mathematical and scientific literacy alone in Himachal Pradesh. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25302590

  6. Study on the Prevalence of Leptospirosis among Fever Cases Reported from Private Clinics in the Urban areas of Villupuram District, Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    Basker, Parasuraman; Kannan, Pichai; Kolandaswamy, Karumana Gounder

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To know the prevalence of leptospirosis cases reported in private clinics among fever cases in Villupuram District, Tamil Nadu, India to know its real magnitude of the problem and to diagnose Leptospirosis among fever cases from differential diagnosis. Methods 1502 Blood serum samples collected from three urban towns namely Kallakurichi (Latitude: 11° 73? N; Longitude: 78° 97? E), Villupuram (Latitude: 11° 75? N; Longitude: 79° 92? E) and Thindivanam (Latitude: 12° 25? N; Longitude: 79° 65? E) in fifteen clinics based on case definition of leptospirosis delineated by the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP), Government of India. Samples were tested in the laboratory of the Zonal Entomological Team (ZET), Cuddalore with Macroscopic Slide Agglutination Test (MSAT) and Ig-M ELISA. Result There were 65 positive cases detected from 1502 blood serum samples in both MSAT and Ig-M ELISA. It could be known that there was 4% cases contributed from private clinics among fever cases. From this study, further it was known that all age groups of people affected irrespective of sexes based on their living condition associated with the environment prevailed of the disease. Conclusion From this study, it was quantified that 4% of cases reported in private clinics among fever cases and its findings ascertained both the importance of differential diagnosis as well as reports that should be included to the Government for knowing its real magnitude for planning. PMID:24955313

  7. Distribution patterns of natural radioactivity and delineation of anomalous radioactive zones using in situ radiation observations in Southern Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, H N; Shanker, D; Neelakandan, V N; Singh, V P

    2007-03-01

    In situ radiation measurements in the beach sectors and adjacent hinterlands and along rivers in the interiors of southern peninsular India were carried out using a portable radiation survey meter. A very high intrinsic anomalous radioactivity >26microGy/h has been observed in the hinterlands within a fresh quarry and weathered boulders in the syenite rock body around Puttetti in the western Kanyakumari district of southern Tamil Nadu. Over the weathered hillocks in the hinterlands adjacent to the coast around Inayam, Kurumpanai and Midalam, the in situ radiation measurements have also exhibited high radioactivity ranging from 4 to 22microGy/h which is significantly higher than the radiation exposure rates (RER) observed along the beach sectors at various locations from Chavara to Tuticorin (1-14microGy/h). The observed radiation levels are presumably the highest concentration in southern India and it is the first time that such a high intrinsic radiogenic source in the hinterlands is reported in southwest coast of India. It is also observed based on the laboratory analysis of samples and in situ radiation data that the rivers/channels in this region contain insignificant level of radioactivity concentration and hence they do not contribute much to the placer deposits on the beaches. The placer deposits associated with significant RER (both in situ observations as well as laboratory estimates from samples) in the beach sectors from Kadiapattanam to Inayam are inferred to be derived through the country rocks/weathered hillocks in the immediate hinterlands. PMID:16904260

  8. Hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality appraisal of part of south Chennai coastal aquifers, Tamil Nadu, India using WQI and fuzzy logic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna Kumar, S.; Bharani, R.; Magesh, N. S.; Godson, Prince S.; Chandrasekar, N.

    2014-12-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking purposes in the urban coastal aquifers of part of south Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Twenty-three groundwater samples were collected during March 2012. The minimum and maximum values of pH (6.3-8 on scale), electrical conductivity (620-12,150 ?S/cm), total dissolved solids (399.28-7,824.6 mg/l), carbonate (0-30 mg/l), bicarbonate (0.9-58.9 mg/l), chloride (70.9-4,067.89 mg/l), sulphate (17.4-105 mg/l), nitrate (0.4-6.0 mg/l), calcium (30-200 mg/l), magnesium (1.2-164 mg/l), sodium (69-1,490 mg/l) and potassium (8-340 mg/l) were recorded in the coastal aquifers of Chennai city. The groundwater samples show that the majority of the sampling points clustered on the NaCl and mixed CaMgCl facies of the piper trilinear diagram. In the Gibbs diagram, the majority of the sampling points fall under rock water and evaporation dominance field. Fuzzy membership classification suggests that the majority of the samples fall under good water type followed by excellent water and poor water categories. Groundwater quality index showing the majority of the samples falls under excellent to poor category of water. A positive correlation was observed with Cl-, SO4 2-, Ca2+, Na+, K+, EC and TDS. The extracted results of the correlation matrix and geochemical analysis suggest that the dominant ions of groundwater (Na+, Ca2+, K+, Cl- and SO4 2-) were derived from seawater intrusion and gypsum dissolution process. Nitrate concentration is most significantly derived from anthropogenic sources.

  9. Extreme events, intrinsic landforms and humankind: post-tsunami scenario along Nagore-Velankanni coast, Tamil Nadu, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Mascarenhas

    2006-01-01

    DESPITE frequent hydrometeorological events along the Indian east coast1-6, the occurrence of a tsunami that de v- astated the Indian seafront7-11 is yet another cruel r eminder of the acute vulnerability of the coastal residents. More particularly, human loss along the Nagore-Velankanni sector (Figure 1) has sent distress signals about the viabi lity of coastal management in India. In v

  10. Safe, accessible medical abortion in a rural Tamil Nadu clinic, India, but what about sexual and reproductive rights?

    PubMed

    Sri, Subha B; Ravindran, T K Sundari

    2015-02-01

    Women's control over their own bodies and reproduction is a fundamental prerequisite to the achievement of sexual and reproductive health and rights. A woman's ability to terminate an unwanted pregnancy has been seen as the exercise of her reproductive rights. This study reports on interviews with 15 women in rural South India who had a medical abortion. It examines the circumstances under which they chose to have an abortion and their perspectives on medical abortion. Women in this study decided to have an abortion when multiple factors like lack of spousal support for child care or contraception, hostile in-laws, economic hardship, poor health of the woman herself, spousal violence, lack of access to suitable contraceptive methods, and societal norms regarding reproduction and sexuality converged to oppress them. The availability of an easy and affordable method like medical abortion pills helped the women get out of a difficult situation, albeit temporarily. Medical abortion also fulfilled their special needs by ensuring confidentiality, causing least disruption of their domestic schedule, and dispensing with the need for rest or a caregiver. The study concludes that medical abortion can help women in oppressive situations. However, this will not deliver gender equality or women's empowerment; social conditions need to change for that. PMID:25702077

  11. Retrospective Evaluation of Pediatric Oral Biopsies from A Dental and Maxillofacial Surgery Centre in Salem, Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Ramesh; Ramesh, Maya; Paul, George

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the pediatric oral biopsies received between 2002-2011 from a dental and maxillofacial centre in Salem, Tamilnadu, India retrospectively based on age, sex, site and type of the pathologies. Materials and Methods: The records of dental and maxillofacial surgery centre were taken and a retrospective evaluation of the pediatric lesions biopsied over a period of ten years (2002-2011) was done. Patients aged 15 years and below were considered as pediatric patients and pathologies were grouped into 8 categories, according to age, gender, anatomic location and pathologic diagnosis. Results: A total of nine hundred twenty five biopsies were studied, of which 97 cases were from pediatric patients. The pathologies were predominant in mandible to maxilla (47:29).The distribution of the pathologies were 44 odontogenic pathologies, 18 connective tissue tumours, 3 salivary gland tumours, 5 fibro osseous lesions and 25 tumour like lesions. Out of this 44 odontogenic pathologies, 39 were odontogenic cysts, and 5 were odontogenic tumours. Conclusion: Unlike other studies, the lesions were more common in the mandible with a female predilection. The majority of oral and maxillofacial lesions detected in pediatric population were benign similar to the previous reports. PMID:24596780

  12. Physicochemical quality evaluation of groundwater and development of drinking water quality index for Araniar River Basin, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Jasmin, I; Mallikarjuna, P

    2014-02-01

    Groundwater is the most important natural resource which cannot be optimally used and sustained unless its quality is properly assessed. In the present study, the spatial and temporal variations in physicochemical quality parameters of groundwater of Araniar River Basin, India were analyzed to determine its suitability for drinking purpose through development of drinking water quality index (DWQI) maps of the post- and pre-monsoon periods. The suitability for drinking purpose was evaluated by comparing the physicochemical parameters of groundwater in the study area with drinking water standards prescribed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). Interpretation of physicochemical data revealed that groundwater in the basin was slightly alkaline. The cations such as sodium (Na(+)) and potassium (K(+)) and anions such as bicarbonate (HCO3 (-)) and chloride (Cl(-)) exceeded the permissible limits of drinking water standards (WHO and BIS) in certain pockets in the northeastern part of the basin during the pre-monsoon period. The higher total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration was observed in the northeastern part of the basin, and the parameters such as calcium (Ca(2+)), magnesium (Mg(2+)), sulfate (SO4 (2-)), nitrate (NO3 (-)), and fluoride (F(-)) were within the limits in both the seasons. The hydrogeochemical evaluation of groundwater of the basin demonstrated with the Piper trilinear diagram indicated that the groundwater samples of the area were of Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-), Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO3 (-) and Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-) types during the post-monsoon period and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-), Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-) and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO3 (-) types during the pre-monsoon period. The DWQI maps for the basin revealed that 90.24 and 73.46% of the basin area possess good quality drinking water during the post- and pre-monsoon seasons, respectively. PMID:24052238

  13. Food Security of Small Holding Farmers: Comparing Organic and Conventional Systems in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Panneerselvam; John Erik Hermansen; Niels Halberg

    2010-01-01

    This study compared farm production, crop yield, input cost, and income in organic and conventional farming systems in three states of India: Uttarakhand, Madhya Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu. The results showed that organic farming reduced the input cost without affecting the net margin in all three states. Total food production was found to be comparable for the two systems in

  14. How deceased donor transplantation is impacting a decline in commercial transplantation-the Tamil Nadu experience.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Georgi; Reddy, Yuvaram N V; Amalorpavanathan, Joseph; Daniel, Dolly; Roy-Chaudhury, Prabir; Shroff, Sunil; Reddy, Yogesh

    2012-04-27

    India with a population of 1.2 billion has a renal transplantation rate of 3.25 per million population. The major cause of chronic kidney disease is hypertension and diabetes. The crude and age-adjusted incidence rates of end-stage renal disease are estimated to be 151 and 232 per million population, respectively, in India. There was a remarkable lack of knowledge in the public about deceased organ donation until a decade ago. However, the role played by the media and nongovernmental organizations in partnership with the government has emphasized and implemented deceased donor transplantation in certain states in India-to mention particularly, the Tamil Nadu model. In the last 2 years, deceased organ donation has reached 1.3 per million population in Tamil Nadu, thereby effectively eliminating commercial transplantation. There is no religious bar for organ donation. A central transplant coordinator appointed by the government oversees legitimate and transparent allocation of deceased organs both in the public and private facilities as per the transplant waiting list. This model also takes care of the poor sections of society by conducting donation and transplantation through government-run public facilities free of cost. In the last 2 years, deceased donor transplantation has been performed through this network procuring organs such as the heart, heart valves, lung, liver, kidneys, cornea, and skin. The infrastructural lack of immunological surveillance-including donor-specific antibody monitoring, human leukocyte antigen typing, and panel reactive antibody except in a few tertiary care centers-prevents allocation according to the immunological status of the recipient. This private-public partnership promoting deceased donor transplantation has effectively eliminated commercialization in transplantation in the state of Tamil Nadu with a population of 72 million which is a model for other regions of South Asia and developing countries. PMID:22245870

  15. Government of India Geological Survey of India

    E-print Network

    Bilham, Roger

    that devastated the coastal regions of Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Sri Lanka, India and Maldives and affected. The impact of the tsunami was quite severe in the coasts of Andaman and Nicobar group of Islands, Tamil Nadu

  16. Outsourcing Development: The State, Entrepreneurship, and Information Technologies in India

    E-print Network

    Sanders, Seth

    Outsourcing Development: The State, Entrepreneurship, and Information Technologies in India_______________ ___________________________________________Date_______________ University of California, Berkeley Fall 2008 #12;Outsourcing Development: The State, Entrepreneurship, and Information Technologies in India Copyright 2008 By Renee Kuriyan #12;1 Abstract Outsourcing

  17. Pharmacy and self-report adherence measures to predict virological outcomes for patients on free antiretroviral therapy in Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, James H.; Manoharan, Anand; Wanke, Christine A.; Mammen, Shoba; Jose, Hepsibah; Malini, Thabeetha; Kadavanu, Tony; Jordan, Michael R.; Elliott, Julian H.; Lewin, Sharon R.; Mathai, Dilip

    2013-01-01

    Over 480,000 individuals receive free antiretroviral therapy (ART) in India yet data associating ART adherence with HIV viral load for populations exclusively receiving free ART are not available. Additionally estimates of adherence using pharmacy data on ART pick-up are not available for any population in India. After 12-months ART we found self-reported estimates of adherence were not associated with HIV viral load. Individuals with < 100% adherence using pharmacy data predicted HIV viral load, and estimates combining pharmacy data and self-report were also predictive. Pharmacy adherence measures proved a feasible method to estimate adherence in India and appear more predictive of virological outcomes than self-report. Predictive adherence measures identified in this study warrant further investigation in populations receiving free ART in India to allow for identification of individuals at risk of virological failure and in need of adherence support. PMID:23435750

  18. An environmental perspective of the post-tsunami scenario along the coast of Tamil Nadu, India: role of sand dunes and forests.

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, Antonio; Jayakumar, Seelam

    2008-10-01

    An endeavor to feel the pulse of a coast devastated by a powerful oceanographic event is made. Results of field investigations along Tamil Nadu seaside revealed that the tsunami of December 2004 demolished dwellings within strips ranging from 6 to 132 m (average width, 41 m) from the dune, and flooded up to 862 m (average, 247 m) from the shore. The event damaged sand dunes, ripped dune vegetation, created new water bodies and shattered high value assets. Comparatively, casuarina forests performed remarkably. Uprooting of trees was exclusively restricted to a frontal strip ranging from 5 to 25 m (average width, 14 m) nearest to the shore where the maximum wave run-up was 6.5m above sea level. Sand dunes in general, and casuarina forests in particular, possess an innate capacity to dissipate powerful waves. This inference is supported by (a) negligible over wash along belts characterized by high dune complexes, (b) intact villages shielded by dense forests as well as sand dunes, and (c) maximum destruction of open beach front influenced by intense human activity. In this context, the coastal regulation zone (CRZ) Notification of 1991 offers sufficient scientific validity to be endorsed. However, post-tsunami ecosystem management initiatives lack a scientific basis. Therefore, a coastal hazards policy, that considers adaptation, dune restoration and forested buffer zones, is a sustainable long-term option for Indian coasts. PMID:17517466

  19. A study on hydrochemical characteristics of surface and sub-surface water in and around Perumal Lake, Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu, South India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. V. Prasanna; S. Chidambaram; T. V. Gireesh; T. V. Jabir Ali

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogeochemical investigations are carried out in and around Perumal Lake, Cuddalore district, South India in order to assess\\u000a its suitability in relation to domestic and agricultural uses. The water samples (surface water = 16; groundwater = 12) were\\u000a analyzed for various physicochemical attributes like pH, electrical conductivity (EC), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), chloride (Cl?), bicarbonate (HCO3\\u000a ?), sulfate (SO4\\u000a 2?),

  20. Phylogenetic analysis and biolistic infectivity of a cloned Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus DNA-A from Tamil Nadu, India on Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Kushawaha, A K; Rabindran, R; Dasgupta, I

    2015-03-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus (SLCMV) DNA-A isolated from cassava in southern India was analyzed, a phylogenetic analysis with other begomoviral nucleotide sequences was performed and an efficient inoculation method of Nicotiana benthamiana with the cloned DNA was developed utilizing a biolistic device. The nucleotide sequence showed the conservation of all functional begomoviral protein domains and aligned most closely with begomoviruses reported from the Indian subcontinent, except for begomoviruses of cucurbits and legumes. Upon biolistic inoculation of N. benthamiana with the cloned DNA, most plants became symptomatic and showed the accumulation of viral DNA within 21-28 days post-inoculation. PMID:25790052

  1. The Gendered Nature of Disasters: Women Survivors in Post-Tsunami Tamil Nadu

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luke Juran

    2012-01-01

    The impacts of disasters rarely reveal themselves equally across an affected population. Rather, the extent of impact is determined by social constructs, such as religion, caste, socioeconomic status and most notably, gender, which cuts across all of these spheres. This article focuses on the variable of gender and the role it played in post-tsunami Tamil Nadu, India. In particular, gender

  2. Water Management To Meet Challenges In Food Production ­ An Example From South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadananan, K.

    Demands for food and water have been increasing with fast increasing population in many developing countries. Availability of water and fertile land, the two basic requirements for food production do not meet together in certain regions. In such regions, cooperation and efficient management practices can solve the problem to a good extend. The southern states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu of India are divided by the mountain chains, the Western Ghats the orography of which makes Kerala one among the heaviest rainfall region in the World itself and Tamil Nadu a scanty rainfall region. Kerala receives more than 300cm average annual rainfall, giving birth to a number of perennial rivers and other water bodies whereas Tamil Nadu receives rainfall less than100cm. Most of the rivers of Tamil Nadu are seasonal and it depends on interstate water transfer to face the permanent water shortage. Owing to the high density of population, peculiar topography and soil types, agricultural production in Kerala is quite inadequate and the State depends on neighbouring States, especially Tamil Nadu for rice and vegetables, but not willing to share water. According to the Constitution of India, control of rivers is by individual states and this often leads to transboundary water disputes that retard development activities. Around 80% of the rainfall of Kerala wastefully flows into the Sea, when there is acute water shortage in Tamil Nadu. All the rivers in Kerala originate in the Ghats and its steep slopes makes more water storage difficult. Cooperation among the States become essential for meeting the increasing needs in water and food. If some of the water from the catchments in Kerala is diverted into Tamil Nadu, and the States can do joint agriculture, it can meet the challenges due to increase in population and environmental changes and minimize unemployment problems. Water diversion to Tamil Naduwill reduce flood damage and soil erosion in Kerala. The existing socio-economic conditions in these States can be effectively utilised for the overall development. The present research paper is an assessment of the water and food situation in this region, in view of increasing needs associated with rise in population and change in environment. Detailed analysis of the water surpluses and deficiencies has been made using water balance model and suggestions for the better management have been presented.

  3. ADDITIONS TO THE FLORA OF NILGIRIS DISTRICT, TAMIL NADU

    PubMed Central

    Baburaj, D. Suresh; Nain, S. S.; Rajan, S.

    1991-01-01

    Nilgiri District, Tamil Nadu is one of the most botanised areas of southern India. In spite of it a number of wild plants had been missed by previous collectors. In addition a number of exotics and ornamentals having importance in alternative systems of medicine like Homoeopathy and Unani have not been collected and preserved as herbarium records. The present paper lists 36 species of wild plants and 69 species of exotics. Their areas of occurrence, phonological data, accession numbers, and names of collectors have been given. PMID:22556568

  4. Impact of two annual single-dose mass drug administrations with diethylcarbamazine alone or in combination with albendazole on Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaraemia and antigenaemia in South India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Rajendran; I. P Sunish; T. R Mani; A Munirathinam; N Arunachalam; K Satyanarayana

    2004-01-01

    A two-arm community-based lymphatic filariasis elimination trial is being carried out in Tamil Nadu state, India to assess the effect of 2 annual single-dose mass drug administrations of diethylcarbamazine+albendazole (DEC+ALB) on microfilaraemia and antigenaemia in one arm, and diethylcarbamazine(DEC) alone in the other arm. In a cross-sectional survey at each time-point, 450–650 subjects in childhood (2–9 years old) and young

  5. PROBLEMS OF VIOLENCE, STATES OF TERROR: TORTURE IN COLONIAL INDIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anupama Rao

    2001-01-01

    The 'discovery' of torture and its prevalence in the extraction of confessions produced a dilemma for the colonial state in India. Especially with the publication of the two-volume Report of the Commissioners for the Investigation of Alleged Cases of Torture in the Madras Presidency in 1855, colonial administrators became uncomfortably aware of the contrived nature of the 'truth' produced before

  6. State Level Fiscal Reforms in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Govinda Rao

    There has been a steep deterioration in State finances during the last decade as evidenced by sharp increases in revenue, fiscal and primary deficits, increases in their indebtedness and contingent liabilities, and decline in capital and maintenance expenditures. Low buoyancy of central transfers and spillover of central pay revisions have had the most adverse impact on State finances. However, the

  7. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie

    This text examines India's rich and long history, then uses this perspective to focus on present day problems and aspirations. It forces students to reevaluate their stereotyped images of India by presenting a nation that has striven to recover from a past of colonial domination, is presently faced with regional ethnic discord and disparity, and…

  8. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie; Lightman, Kathleen

    Not only is India one of the oldest continuous civilizations in the world, it has also become one of the greatest industrial nations. This package explores India's heritage, its people, and the traumatic changes of the 20th century. Contents include: Introduction, Climate, The Land, Cities, Agriculture, Rural Life, History, Religions, Dress, Food,…

  9. Nutrition scenario in Karnataka, a state in southern India.

    PubMed

    Sheela, K

    1999-06-01

    India is an agricultural country and the majority of India's population live in rural areas. This is so in Karnataka, a state in southern India. The present report consists of a detailed nutrition situation analysis. Karnataka has a population of 45 million, which is approximately 3-5% of India's population. One in every two women are agricultural labourers, reflecting women's predominance in the field of agriculture. The state has a literacy rate of 56%. The food consumption patterns reveal that cereals and millets are the main food items. However, protective foods (i.e. foods that are rich in proteins, vitamins and minerals) are consumed in lesser amounts. When compared with the average Indian recommended dietary intake (RDI), the intake of energy in adults was found to be higher, as was protein. The average intake of vitamins, however, was 50% less than the RDI. Unlike adults, energy deficiency is a problem in the diets of preschool children. Growth retardation has been observed in a vast majority of children in Karnataka. An improvement in the nutritional status of rural adults has been observed in recent years. Protein energy malnutrition, vitamin A deficiency and B-complex deficiencies are the major nutritional deficiencies among preschool children, while anaemia remains a major health problem in women. Improvement in the healthcare system has brought a decline in the infant mortality rate in Karnataka and the state attained universal immunization coverage in 1990. The National Nutrition Programme - Integrated Child Development Scheme provides an integrated package of services to residents of Karnataka. PMID:24393803

  10. Empirical Analysis of the Variability of Wind Generation in India: Implications for Grid Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Phadke, Amol; Abhyankar, NIkit; Rao, Poorvi

    2014-06-17

    We analyze variability in load and wind generation in India to assess its implications for grid integration of large scale wind projects using actual wind generation and load data from two states in India, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. We compare the largest variations in load and net load (load ?wind, i.e., load after integrating wind) that the generation fleet has to meet. In Tamil Nadu, where wind capacity is about 53percent of the peak demand, we find that the additional variation added due to wind over the current variation in load is modest; if wind penetration reaches 15percent and 30percent by energy, the additional hourly variation is less than 0.5percent and 4.5percent of the peak demand respectively for 99percent of the time. For wind penetration of 15percent by energy, Tamil Nadu system is found to be capable of meeting the additional ramping requirement for 98.8percent of the time. Potential higher uncertainty in net load compared to load is found to have limited impact on ramping capability requirements of the system if coal plants can me ramped down to 50percent of their capacity. Load and wind aggregation in Tamil Nadu and Karnataka is found to lower the variation by at least 20percent indicating the benefits geographic diversification. These findings suggest modest additional flexible capacity requirements and costs for absorbing variation in wind power and indicate that the potential capacity support (if wind does not generate enough during peak periods) may be the issue that has more bearing on the economics of integrating wind

  11. Establishing integrated rural–urban cohorts to assess air pollution-related health effects in pregnant women, children and adults in Southern India: an overview of objectives, design and methods in the Tamil Nadu Air Pollution and Health Effects (TAPHE) study

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Sambandam, Sankar; Ramaswamy, Padmavathi; Ghosh, Santu; Venkatesan, Vettriselvi; Thangavel, Gurusamy; Mukhopadhyay, Krishnendu; Johnson, Priscilla; Paul, Solomon; Puttaswamy, Naveen; Dhaliwal, Rupinder S; Shukla, D K

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In rapidly developing countries such as India, the ubiquity of air pollution sources in urban and rural communities often results in ambient and household exposures significantly in excess of health-based air quality guidelines. Few efforts, however, have been directed at establishing quantitative exposure–response relationships in such settings. We describe study protocols for The Tamil Nadu Air Pollution and Health Effects (TAPHE) study, which aims to examine the association between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposures and select maternal, child and adult health outcomes in integrated rural–urban cohorts. Methods and analyses The TAPHE study is organised into five component studies with participants drawn from a pregnant mother–child cohort and an adult cohort (n=1200 participants in each cohort). Exposures are assessed through serial measurements of 24–48?h PM2.5 area concentrations in household microenvironments together with ambient measurements and time-activity recalls, allowing exposure reconstructions. Generalised additive models will be developed to examine the association between PM2.5 exposures, maternal (birth weight), child (acute respiratory infections) and adult (chronic respiratory symptoms and lung function) health outcomes while adjusting for multiple covariates. In addition, exposure models are being developed to predict PM2.5 exposures in relation to household and community level variables as well as to explore inter-relationships between household concentrations of PM2.5 and air toxics. Finally, a bio-repository of peripheral and cord blood samples is being created to explore the role of gene–environment interactions in follow-up studies. Ethics and dissemination The study protocols have been approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of Sri Ramachandra University, the host institution for the investigators in this study. Study results will be widely disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and scientific presentations. In addition, policy-relevant recommendations are also being planned to inform ongoing national air quality action plans concerning ambient and household air pollution. PMID:26063570

  12. Subsurface Images Shed Light on Past Tsunamis in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Rajesh R.; Buynevich, Ilya; Goble, Ronald J.; Srinivasan, P.; Murthy, S. G. N.; Kandpal, S. C.; Lakshmi, C. S. Vijaya; Trivedi, D.

    2010-12-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caused massive devastation and left a lasting impact along many of the major coastal regions in South Asia, including the coast of Tamil Nadu, a state in the southeastern tip of India. Following the event, sand deposits draped the low-lying areas and buried the muddy sediments of the coastal plain [Babu et al., 2007; Srinivasalu et al., 2007]. In addition, erosional features related to the tsunami, such as channels and scarps, have been observed along many parts of the coast (Figure 1a). This tsunami, along with a recorded history of intense monsoons, has highlighted the need for focused research on the role of extreme events in shaping the geological character of India's coastal plains.

  13. Parenting Attitudes of Asian Indian Mothers Living in the United States and in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jambunathan, Saigeetha; Counselman, Kenneth P.

    2002-01-01

    Compared parenting attitudes of Asian Indian mothers living in the United States with those of mothers living in India. Found that the Asian Indian mothers in the United States had lower inappropriate expectations and tended not to reverse roles with their children. Asian Indian mothers living in India favored the use of corporal punishment more…

  14. Prevalence of and risk factors for hypertension in urban and rural India: the ICMR-INDIAB study.

    PubMed

    Bhansali, A; Dhandania, V K; Deepa, M; Anjana, R M; Joshi, S R; Joshi, P P; Madhu, S V; Rao, P V; Subashini, R; Sudha, V; Unnikrishnan, R; Das, A K; Shukla, D K; Kaur, T; Mohan, V; Pradeepa, R

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of hypertension (HTN) and its risk factors in urban and rural India. In Phase I of the Indian Council of Medical Research-India Diabetes (ICMR-INDIAB) study, individuals aged ?20 years were surveyed using a stratified multistage sampling design, in three states (Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and Jharkhand) and one union territory (Chandigarh) of India. Blood pressure was measured in all study subjects (n=14?059). HTN was defined as systolic blood pressure ?140?mm?Hg, and/or DBP ?90?mm?Hg and/or use of antihypertensive drugs. Overall age-standardized prevalence of HTN was 26.3% (self-reported: 5.5%; newly detected: 20.8%). Urban residents of Tamil Nadu, Jharkhand, Chandigarh and Maharashtra (31.5, 28.9, 30.7 and 28.1%) had significantly higher prevalence of HTN compared with rural residents (26.2, 21.7, 19.8 and 24.0%, respectively). Multivariate regression analysis showed that age, male gender, urban residence, generalized obesity, diabetes, physical inactivity and alcohol consumption were significantly associated with HTN. Salt intake ?6.5?g per day, showed significantly higher risk for HTN (odds ratio: 1.4, 95% confidence interval: 1.0-1.9, P=0.042) even after adjusting for confounding variables. In conclusion, prevalence of undiagnosed HTN is high in India and this calls for regular screening. PMID:25078490

  15. Private Provision of Elementary Education in India: Findings of a Survey in Eight States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrotra, Santosh; Panchamukhi, Parthasarthi R.

    2006-01-01

    Private sector growth in education is the new neo-liberal mantra. Based on data generated by a representative sample survey in eight states, six of which account for two-thirds of the children out of school in India, this paper examines the private sector in elementary education in India, and compares its characteristics with government schools.…

  16. CASSAVA AGRONOMY IN INDIA - LOW INPUT MANAGEMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. V. R. Nayar; G. Suja; K. Susan John; V. Ravi

    Agronomic research on cassava in India during the past three decades was instrumental in the development of management practices that led to substantial increases in yield, mainly in Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Research efforts have recently focused on the development of low-input technologies with special emphasis on the identification of genotypes adapted to low-input conditions, the utilization of locally available

  17. Enabling Housing Cooperatives: policy lessons from Sweden, India and the United States.

    PubMed

    Ganapati, Sukumar

    2010-01-01

    Housing cooperatives became active in urban areas in Sweden, India and the United States during the interwar period. Yet, after the second world war, while housing cooperatives grew phenomenally nationwide in Sweden and India, they did not do so in the United States. This article makes a comparative institutional analysis of the evolution of housing cooperatives in these three countries. The analysis reveals that housing cooperatives' relationship with the state and the consequent support structures explain the divergent evolution. Although the relationships between cooperatives and the state evolved over time, they can be characterized as embedded autonomy, overembeddedness and disembeddedness in Sweden, India and the United States respectively. Whereas the consequent support structures for housing cooperatives became well developed in Sweden and India, such structures have been weak in the United States. The article highlights the need for embedded autonomy and the need for supportive structures to enable the growth of housing cooperatives. PMID:20726147

  18. Burden of malaria in pregnancy in Jharkhand State, India

    PubMed Central

    Hamer, Davidson H; Singh, Mrigendra P; Wylie, Blair J; Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo; Tuchman, Jordan; Desai, Meghna; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Gupta, Priti; Brooks, Mohamad I; Shukla, Manmohan M; Awasthy, Kiran; Sabin, Lora; MacLeod, William B; Dash, Aditya P; Singh, Neeru

    2009-01-01

    Background Past studies in India included only symptomatic pregnant women and thus may have overestimated the proportion of women with malaria. Given the large population at risk, a cross sectional study was conducted in order to better define the burden of malaria in pregnancy in Jharkhand, a malaria-endemic state in central-east India. Methods Cross-sectional surveys at antenatal clinics and delivery units were performed over a 12-month period at two district hospitals in urban and semi-urban areas, and a rural mission hospital. Malaria was diagnosed by Giemsa-stained blood smear and/or rapid diagnostic test using peripheral or placental blood. Results 2,386 pregnant women were enrolled at the antenatal clinics and 718 at the delivery units. 1.8% (43/2382) of the antenatal clinic cohort had a positive diagnostic test for malaria (53.5% Plasmodium falciparum, 37.2% Plasmodium vivax, and 9.3% mixed infections). Peripheral parasitaemia was more common in pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in rural sites (adjusted relative risk [aRR] 4.31, 95%CI 1.84-10.11) and in those who were younger than 20 years (aRR 2.68, 95%CI 1.03-6.98). Among delivery unit participants, 1.7% (12/717) had peripheral parasitaemia and 2.4% (17/712) had placental parasitaemia. Women attending delivery units were more likely to be parasitaemic if they were in their first or second pregnancy (aRR 3.17, 95%CI 1.32-7.61), had fever in the last week (aRR 5.34, 95%CI 2.89-9.90), or had rural residence (aRR 3.10, 95%CI 1.66-5.79). Malaria control measures including indoor residual spraying (IRS) and untreated bed nets were common, whereas insecticide-treated bed nets (ITN) and malaria chemoprophylaxis were rarely used. Conclusion The prevalence of malaria among pregnant women was relatively low. However, given the large at-risk population in this malaria-endemic region of India, there is a need to enhance ITN availability and use for prevention of malaria in pregnancy, and to improve case management of symptomatic pregnant women. PMID:19728882

  19. Acute non-organic psychotic state in India: symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Verma, V K; Malhotra, S; Jiloha, R C

    1992-04-01

    Patients with acute onset, non-organic psychotic states are frequently reported from India and certain other developing countries. This paper relates to an investigation of such cases in terms of their clinical history and their symptomatology examining the extent to which these are similar /dissimilar to schizophrenia and affective psychosis. 109 cases of acute psychosis fulfilling specified screening criteria were assessed on the Schedule for Clinical Assessment Acute Psychotic States (SCAAPS) and Present Slate Examination (PSE). Vie findings revealed that about 34% of all patients experienced significant strees before the onset of psychosis. About 40% of all cases presented with Catego subtype which was not indicative clearly of a specific diagnostic category. This subgroup of patients differed from the remaining 60% of patient in having greater frequency of stress before the onset of psychosis. On the whole the delusions were more commonly seen in patients from upper socioeconomic status & urban background. Limitations of classificatory provisions in the ICD-9 and catego in dealing with acute psychotic state are highlighted. PMID:21776107

  20. Meningococcal meningitis C in Tamil Nadu, public health perspectives.

    PubMed

    David, Kirubah Vasandhi; Pricilla, Ruby Angeline; Thomas, Beeson

    2014-01-01

    Meningococcal meningitis has rarely been reported in Tamil Nadu. We report here two children diagnosed with meningococcal meningitis in Vellore, Tamil Nadu, on May 2014. The causative strain was Neisseria meningitidis serotype C. The role of the primary care physician in early diagnosis, appropriate referral, and preventive measures of this disease to the immediate family and community is stressed. PMID:25657960

  1. Issues and Challenges in Geomatics Education in Haryana State, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhary, B. S.

    2012-07-01

    In Haryana, the beginning of Geomatics may be traced back to the establishment of Haryana State Remote Sensing Application Centre (HARSAC) now renamed as Haryana Space Application Centre at Hisar under the aegis of Department of Science and Technology, Govt. of Haryana with the active support from Department of Space, Govt. of India in 1986. Though, Gurgaon has developed as Geomatics hub housing many national and international collaborators but mostly involved in RS& GIS applications and rarely as a training centre. Looking to the needs of the trained manpower in Geomatics, PG diploma course in remote sensing and GIS was started by MDU, Rohtak in 2005 followed by CRM, Jat College Hisar in 2007. GJU, Hisar came up with M. Tech. degree in Geoinformatics in collaboration with HARSAC, Hisar two years before i.e. in 2009. MDU, Rohtak has also come up the M. Tech. programme in Geoinformatics this year. The Geo-sciences disciplines including the department of Geophysics, Geology, Geography and Environmental Sciences in different universities in Haryana are also having a compulsory paper on RS, GIS and GPS emphasizing more on the fundamentals and applications specifically in their specific domains. The Department of Geophysics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra has also established Geoinformatics lab with funding from UGC to cater the training needs in this sector. The present paper discusses critical issues related to the present status, grey areas and future scenario of Geomatics education in Haryana.

  2. Current knowledge on the distribution of arsenic in groundwater in five states of India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Nickson; C. Sengupta; P. Mitra; S. N. Dave; A. K. Banerjee; A. Bhattacharya; S. Basu; N. Kakoti; N. S. Moorthy; M. Wasuja; M. Kumar; D. S. Mishra; A. Ghosh; D. P. Vaish; A. K. Srivastava; R. M. Tripathi; S. N. Singh; R. Prasad; S. Bhattacharya; P. Deverill

    2007-01-01

    Testing of groundwater used for drinking for arsenic has been undertaken more widely by state governments in several states of India in recent years with the support of UNICEF. Available data for five states are collated in this paper and this provides the most up-to-date picture of areas known to be affected by arsenic in groundwater in the Indian portion

  3. Effects of State-level Public Spending on Health on the mortality Probability in India

    PubMed Central

    Farahani, M; Subramanian, SV; Canning, D

    2011-01-01

    This study uses the second National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2) of India to estimate the effect of state-level public health spending on mortality across all age groups, controlling for individual, household, and state-level covariates. We use a state’s gross fiscal deficit as an instrument for its health spending. Our study shows a 10 % increase in public spending on health in India decreases the average probability of death by about 2%, with effects mainly on the young, the elderly, and women. Other major factors affecting mortality are rural residence, household poverty, and access to toilet facilities. PMID:19937613

  4. Microearthquake investigations near Sriramsagar reservoir, Andhra Pradesh State, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastogi, B. K.; Rao, B. R.; Rao, C. V. R. K.

    1986-10-01

    About 570 microearthquakes of magnitude -2.4 to 3.2 occurred during June to August, 1984 near the newly impounded Sriramsagar reservoir (19°N, 78°E) in Andhra Pradesh State, India. The seismic phenomenon unknown in the area caused panic among the villagers. The tremors started 10 months after the reservoir was filled to its capacity and the epicentres were located about 10 km from the reservoir. A network of seismic stations was operated around the epicentral area through which 36 epicentres were located giving a NW trend in an area of about 1.5 km × 4 km. The composite fault plane solution indicates right-lateral strike-slip faulting along the NW trending nodal plane matching with the general drainage pattern in the area, inferred NW faults in the area, and known fault 60 km east. The marginal faults in the Godavari Rift Valley also trend in a NW direction. The depth of the tremeors was within a few hundred metres to a maximum of 1.5 km and all the tremors were associated with blasting sound. The largest earthquake of magnitude 3.2 was felt upto a distance of 8 km. This as well as four other events of magnitude 2.2 caused minor cracks and falling of mud plaster in D-type houses, which are poorly constructed mud houses. The discriminatory seismic characteristics like foreshock-aftershock pattern, decay rate of aftershocks and magnitude ratio M 1/M 0 suggest that the seismicity was reservoir-induced. The seismic diffusivity of 4 × 10 4 cm 2 s -1 is within the range for other reservoirs. The large scale flooding in the previous year might have also weakened the subterranean beds. The larger events of the sequence having a magnitude of 2.2 and greater were associated with foreshock-aftershock activity. Increased foreshock activity for a few days and about a day of quiescence prior to some larger events was also noticed.

  5. Inconsistent condom use by male clients during anal intercourse with occasional and regular female sex workers (FSWs): survey findings from southern states of India

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Shreena; Nagarajan, Karikalan; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmi; Mainkar, Mandar K; Goswami, Prabuddhagopal; Yadav, Diwakar; Sen, Shrabanti; George, Bitra; Rachakulla, Harikumar; Subramanian, Thilakavathi; Paranjape, Ramesh S

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Self-reported anal intercourse by female sex workers (FSWs) documented in recent studies from India range between 11.9% and 22%. However, comparable data on anal intercourse and condom use from male clients of FSWs is lacking. Using data from a bio-behavioural survey (2009–2010), we examined prevalence of anal intercourse, male clients’ self-reported inconsistent condom use during anal intercourse with FSWs, and correlates of this behaviour in India's high HIV prevalence southern states (Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu combined). Methods Using two-stage time location cluster sampling, we recruited 4803 clients of FSWs, ages 18–60?years, who had purchased sex from an FSW in the past month. After obtaining informed consent, respondents were interviewed and tested for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (syphilis, gonorrhoea and chlamydia). Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with inconsistent condom use during anal intercourse (in the past 6?months) with FSWs. Results Overall, 12.3% clients reported anal intercourse in the past 6?months, of whom 48.4% used condoms inconsistently. Clients of FSWs who were ages 26?years or older (AOR 2.68, p=0.032); employed as manual labourers (AOR 2.43, p=0.013); consumed alcohol (AOR 2.63, p=0.001); reported five or more sex acts with FSWs in the past month (AOR 2.53, p=0.031); and perceived themselves to be at higher risk for HIV (AOR 4.82, p=0.001) were more likely to inconsistently use condoms during anal intercourse. Conclusions The results suggest that sex workers and their clients commonly practice anal intercourse, but a relatively high proportion of clients do not consistently use condoms, leading to a greater risk of acquiring HIV and its further transmission to other male and female sexual partners. Given the multidirectional risk, safer sex communication on heterosexual anal intercourse must be incorporated into HIV prevention programmes. PMID:25410604

  6. Hot springs and the geothermal energy potential of Jammu & Kashmir State, N.W. Himalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, J.; Absar, A.; Bhat, G.; Cadel, G.; Hafiz, M.; Hakhoo, N.; Kashkari, R.; Moore, J.; Ricchiuto, T. E.; Thurow, J.; Thusu, B.

    2013-11-01

    India has an estimated geothermal power potential of 10,600 MWe, but this potential is entirely undeveloped at present. The 'Geothermal Atlas of India' prepared by the Geological Survey of India (GSI) in 1991 describes some 340 hot spring sites and identifies more than 300 sites with geothermal potential in at least seven key geothermal provinces throughout India. There are more than 20 hot spring sites in Jammu & Kashmir State, mainly in the Chenab Valley in the Lesser/Central Himalaya, the Kashmir Valley and in the High Himalaya region of Ladakh. At least three localities in the Ladakh region - Chamuthang and Puga in the Indus valley and Panamik in the Nubra Valley - are considered to have geothermal power generation potential of between 3 and > 20 MWe.

  7. Transitional relief housing for tsunami victims of Tamil Nadu, India

    E-print Network

    Jin, Shauna

    2006-01-01

    In the wake of the recent tsunami that swept across Asia, there is a dire need to salvage and rebuild the lives and livelihoods that were swept away. The aim of this thesis project is to design and model a transitional ...

  8. Radiation safety concerns and diagnostic reference levels for computed tomography scanners in Tamil Nadu

    PubMed Central

    Livingstone, Roshan S.; Dinakaran, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation safety in computed tomography (CT) scanners is of concern due its widespread use in the field of radiological imaging. This study intends to evaluate radiation doses imparted to patients undergoing thorax, abdomen and pelvic CT examinations and formulate regional diagnostic reference levels (DRL) in Tamil Nadu, South India. In-site CT dose measurement was performed in 127 CT scanners in Tamil Nadu for a period of 2 years as a part of the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB)-funded project. Out of the 127 CT scanners,13 were conventional; 53 single-slice helical scanners (SSHS); 44 multislice CT (MSCT) scanners; and 17 refurbished scanners. CT dose index (CTDI) was measured using a 32-cm polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-body phantom in each CT scanner. Dose length product (DLP) for different anatomical regions was generated using CTDI values. The regional DRLs for thorax, abdomen and pelvis examinations were 557, 521 and 294 mGy cm, respectively. The mean effective dose was estimated using the DLP values and was found to be 8.04, 6.69 and 4.79 mSv for thorax, abdomen and pelvic CT examinations, respectively. The establishment of DRLs in this study is the first step towards optimization of CT doses in the Indian context. PMID:21430858

  9. Enabling Efficient, Responsive, and Resilient Buildings: Collaboration Between the United States and India

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, Chandrayee; Ghatikar, Girish

    2013-09-25

    The United States and India have among the largest economies in the world, and they continue to work together to address current and future challenges in reliable electricity supply. The acceleration to efficient, grid-responsive, resilient buildings represents a key energy security objective for federal and state agencies in both countries. The weaknesses in the Indian grid system were manifest in 2012, in the country’s worst blackout, which jeopardized the lives of half of India’s 1.2 billion people. While both countries are investing significantly in power sector reform, India, by virtue of its colossal growth rate in commercial energy intensity and commercial floor space, is better placed than the United States to integrate and test state-of-art Smart Grid technologies in its future grid-responsive commercial buildings. This paper presents a roadmap of technical collaboration between the research organizations, and public-private stakeholders in both countries to accelerate the building-to-grid integration through pilot studies in India.

  10. SOME RARE HOMOEOPATHIC MEDICINAL PLANTS OF SOUTH INDIA

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, S.

    1993-01-01

    This present study describes 11 species under 11 generate and 10 families of rare Homoeopathic Medicinal Plants introduced and cultivated in the Nilgiri district, Tamil Nadu, South India. The original citation, description, distribution and their medicinal uses are given. PMID:22556647

  11. Poverty and the state of nutrition in India.

    PubMed

    Varadharajan, Kiruba S; Thomas, Tinku; Kurpad, Anura V

    2013-01-01

    India is often thought of as a development paradox with relatively high economic growth rates in the past few years, but with lower progress in areas of life expectancy, education and standard of living. While serious inequalities in growth, development and opportunity explain the illusion of the paradox at the country level, still, a significant proportion of the world's poor live in India, as do a significant proportion of the world's malnourished children. Poverty and undernutrition coexist, and poor dietary quality is associated with poor childhood growth, as well as significant micronutrient deficiencies. Food security is particularly vulnerable to changes in the economic scenario and to inequities in wealth distribution. Migration from rural to urban settings with a large informal employment sector also ensures that migrants continue to live in food insecure situations. While food production has for the most part kept pace with the increasing population, it has been with regard to cereal rather than of pulses and millet production. Oil seeds, sugar cane and horticultural crops, along with non-food crops are also being promoted, which do not address nutrition security, and, coupled with the increase in the consumption of pre-prepared food, may indeed predispose towards the double burden of malnutrition. Access to food is also particularly susceptible to poverty and inequality. Many strategies and policies have been proposed to counter undernutrition in India, but their implementation has not been uniform, and it is still too early to assess their lasting impact at scale. PMID:23945402

  12. Genetic counselling in tribals in India

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Dipika; Das, Kishalaya

    2011-01-01

    Genetic counselling in tribals unlike general population residing in cities and near villages is a difficult task due of their lower literacy and poor socio-economic status. However, sustained effort is essential with a close interaction in the local language, certain misbeliefs need to be removed gradually taking into account their socio-cultural background. The present communication deals with our experience in counselling for haemoglobinopathies during Neonatal Screening Programme undertaken for sickle cell disease in Kalahandi district of Orissa and Community Screening Programmes in primitive tribes of India in four States viz. Orissa, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra. Counselling during neonatal screening programme was very well accepted demonstrating the benefit to the small babies as regards the morbidity. Premarital marriage counselling was also accepted by them. The success rate as followed up for 5 years is almost 50 per cent, the limitation being long follow up. Genetic counselling in these areas has to be continuous to achieve success and therefore the need for setting up of permanent centres in the tribal areas in India. PMID:22089621

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of canine parvovirus partial VP2 gene in India.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, H K; Matta, Samyukta Lakshmi; Amsaveni, S; Antony, P X; Thanislass, J; Pillai, R M

    2014-02-01

    A total of 85 samples (58.0 %) were found to be positive for Canine parvovirus (CPV) by PCR assay (Hfor/Hrev primers) out of 158 suspected faecal samples of dogs collected from various states/union territories of India. Nine CPV isolates could be obtained in A-72 cell line. The sequencing of the partial VP2 gene of CPV identified the predominant CPV strain as CPV-2a (Ser297Ala) with one CPV-2b (Ser297Ala) and another CPV-2a variant strain (Ser297Gly). Several non-synonymous and synonymous mutations were also recorded in this study. The phylogenetic tree revealed that most of the CPV sequences from Tamil Nadu (Southern India) and Maharashtra (Western India) obtained during 2011 and few sequences from Northern India obtained during 2012 were grouped together along with CPV-2a (Ser297Ala) strains from China and India and followed the same evolution; although there was definitive indication of separate lineages too by few other sequences. PMID:24174279

  14. Agrobiodiversity in a biodiversity hotspot: Kerala State, India. Its origin and status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. M. Nayar

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the status and characteristics of agrobiodiversity present in Kerala State, India, which is a part of\\u000a the Western Ghats—Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot. They show much heterogeneity. The State grows 142 crop plants belonging\\u000a to 104 genera and 43 families. Almost the entire agrobiodiversity conservation work is being carried out by the central government,\\u000a even though the states

  15. Age at return marriage and timing of first birth in India's Uttar Pradesh and Kerala states

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. K. Singh; C. M. Suchindran; Vipin Singh; R. Ramakumar

    1992-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between age at marriage and the length of first birth interval in two states of India: Uttar Pradesh and Kerala. Life tables of first?birth intervals and median first?birth intervals are computed for several subgroups of the study population. Multivariate hazards modelling technique is used to study the net effect of age at marriage, controlling for

  16. Food Price Subsidies and Nutrition: Evidence from State Reforms to India's Public Distribution System1

    E-print Network

    Bandyopadhyay, Antar

    Food Price Subsidies and Nutrition: Evidence from State Reforms to India's Public Distribution food price subsidies affect household nutrition using a dramatic expansion of the availability. These results differ from recent studies suggesting that food subsidies have little effect on nutrition

  17. Innovation, change, and order: Reflections on science and technology in India, China, and the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodney W. Nichols

    2008-01-01

    A comparative analysis of science and technology policies in China, India, and the United States shows striking similarities and sharp contrasts. These differences reveal much about the current problems and likely prospects in each country. This review distills the contributions of 15 distinguished leaders in science and technology who assess national goals and international ambitions. The review covers five themes:

  18. Human Resource Practices in Hotels: A Study from the Tourist State of Uttrakhand, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Bagri; Suresh Babu; Mohit Kukreti

    2010-01-01

    Human Resource Management, an integral part of an organization, often ensures the success of the shared relationship between employees and an organization by identifying and satisfying the needs of the employees beginning with recruitment and continuing throughout their career. This article aims to analyze the Human Resource practices in hotels in the mountainous state of Uttarakhand, India located in the

  19. Extent of Anaemia among Preschool Children in EAG States, India: A Challenge to Policy Makers

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Patra, Shraboni

    2014-01-01

    Background. India is the highest contributor to child anemia. About 89 million children in India are anemic. The study determines the factors that contributed to child anemia and examines the role of the existing programs in reducing the prevalence of child anemia particularly in the EAG states. Methods. The data from the latest round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) is used. Simple bivariate and multinomial logistics regression analyses are used. Results. About 70% children are anemic in all the EAG states. The prevalence of severe anemia is the highest (6.7%) in Rajasthan followed by Uttar Pradesh (3.6%) and Madhya Pradesh (3.4%). Children aged 12 to 17 months are significantly seven times (RR = 7.99, P < 0.001) more likely to be severely anemic compared to children of 36 to 59 months. Children of severely anemic mothers are also found to be more severely anemic (RR = 15.97, P < 0.001) than the children of not anemic mothers. Conclusions. The study reveals that the existing government program fails to control anemia among preschool children in the backward states of India. Therefore, there is an urgent need for monitoring of program in regular interval, particularly for EAG states to reduce the prevalence of anemia among preschool children. PMID:25140250

  20. EDIBLE FRUIT YIELDING PLANTS OF SHEVAROY HILLS IN TAMIL NADU

    PubMed Central

    Alagesaboopathi, C.; Balu, S.; Dwarakan, P.

    1996-01-01

    The paper deals with the common edible fruit yielding plants, During the course of medicinal plant survey of shevaroy hills of Eastern ghats. Salem district, Tamil Nadu. Thirty species belonging to 23 genera and 21 families yield edible fruits. They are listed in alphabetical order followed by family, common name and Tamil names. PMID:22556784

  1. State of roads : public works as research, India circa 1960

    E-print Network

    Khorakiwala, Ateya A

    2009-01-01

    That the road is a symbol of the prowess of the nation-state seems tautological, a uni"ed phenomenon of political symbolism that manifests as an infrastructural network. When subjected to a close historical examination, ...

  2. Suicide in South India: A community-based study in Kerala

    PubMed Central

    Soman, C. R.; Safraj, S.; Kutty, V. Raman; Vijayakumar, K.; Ajayan, K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Studies from Tamil Nadu, South India, have reported the world's highest suicide rates. As per official reports, Kerala, another South Indian state has the highest suicide rate among the major states in India. Objective: The purpose of this analysis is to estimate the rates and age-specific incidence of suicide in a rural community in Kerala, under continuous observation for the last five years. Settings and Design: The study setting comprised of seven contiguous panchayats constituting a development block in Kerala. A prospective cohort study design was used. Materials and Methods: Through regular home visits, every death that occurred in the community was captured by local resident health workers and the cause of death assigned. Statistical Analysis: Suicide rates by age and sex and relative share of suicide deaths to all-cause deaths in men and women were calculated. Results: During the five-year period from 2002 to 2007, 284 cases of suicide were reported. The suicide rates were 44.7/100,000 for males and 26.8/100,000 for females. Male to female suicide ratio was 1.7. Among females aged between 15 and 24, suicides constituted more than 50% of all deaths. Male to female ratio of suicide varied from 0.4 in children aged 14 years or less to 4.5 in the 45-54 year age group. Conclusion: Our analysis shows that the level of under-reporting of suicides in rural Kerala is much less than that reported in Tamil Nadu. PMID:20048450

  3. The political ecology of crop commercialization and dietary change in the Kolli Hills, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Finnis

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents an analysis of the intersections between access to food, agricultural decision-making and experiences with environmental change in three Malaiyali villages in the Kolli Hills, Tamil Nadu, India. Specifically, I examine why small farmers living in these villages might choose to shift from subsistence agriculture, to the cultivation of the cash crop tapioca (cassava). This entails examining agricultural

  4. Development of Operational Policy for a Multi-reservoir System in India using Genetic Algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Jothiprakash; Ganesan Shanthi; R. Arunkumar

    2011-01-01

    A genetic algorithm (GA) and a backward moving stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) model has been developed for derivation of operational policies for a multi-reservoir system in Kodaiyar River Basin, Tamil Nadu, India. The model was developed with the objective of minimizing the annual sum of squared deviation of desired target releases. The total number of population, crossover probability and number

  5. India: Gujarat

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... title:  Dewatering Effects from the Gujarat Earthquake     View Larger Image ... India's Republic Day is normally celebrated, a devastating earthquake hit the state of Gujarat. About 20,000 people died and millions were ...

  6. Prevention of Diabetes in Rural India with a Telemedicine Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Viswanathan; Deepa, Mohan; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Prathiba, Venkat; Datta, Manjula; Sethuraman, Ravikumar; Rakesh, Hari; Sucharita, Yarlagadda; Webster, Premila; Allender, Steven; Kapur, Anil; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan

    2012-01-01

    Background Diabetes care is not presently available, accessible, or affordable to people living in rural areas in developing countries, such as India. The Chunampet Rural Diabetes Prevention Project (CRDPP) was conceived with the aim of implementing comprehensive diabetes screening, prevention, and treatment using a combination of telemedicine and personalized care in rural India. Methods This project was undertaken in a cluster of 42 villages in and around the Chunampet village in the state of Tamil Nadu in southern India. A telemedicine van was used to screen for diabetes and its complications using retinal photography, Doppler imaging, biothesiometry, and electrocardiography using standardized techniques. A rural diabetes center was set up to provide basic diabetes care. Results Of the total 27,014 adult population living in 42 villages, 23,380 (86.5%) were screened for diabetes, of which 1138 (4.9%) had diabetes and 3410 (14.6%) had prediabetes. A total of 1001 diabetes subjects were screened for complications (response rate of 88.0%). Diabetic retinopathy was detected in 18.2%, neuropathy in 30.9%, microalbuminuria in 24.3%, peripheral vascular disease in 7.3%, and coronary artery disease in 10.8%. The mean hemoglobin A1c levels among the diabetes subjects in the whole community decreased from 9.3 ± 2.6% to 8.5 ± 2.4% within 1 year. Less than 5% of patients needed referral for further management to the tertiary diabetes hospital in Chennai. Conclusions The Chunampet Rural Diabetes Prevention Project is a successful model for screening and for delivery of diabetes health care and prevention to underserved rural areas in developing countries such as India. PMID:23294780

  7. Going against the flow: A critical analysis of inter-state virtual water trade in the context of India’s National River Linking Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Shilp; Kampman, Doeke A.; van der Zaag, Pieter; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    Virtual water trade has been promoted as a tool to address national and regional water scarcity. In the context of international (food) trade, this concept has been applied with a view to optimize the flow of commodities considering the water endowments of nations. The concept states that water rich countries should produce and export water intensive commodities (which indirectly carry embedded water needed for producing them) to water scarce countries, thereby enabling the water scarce countries to divert their precious water resources to alternative, higher value uses. While progress has been made on quantifying virtual water flows between countries, there exists little information on virtual water trade within large countries like India. This paper presents the results of two MSc theses which quantify and critically analyze inter-state virtual water flows in India in the context of a large inter-basin transfer plan of the Government of India. Our analysis shows that the existing pattern of inter-state virtual water trade is exacerbating scarcities in already water scarce states and that rather than being dictated by water endowments, virtual water flows are influenced by other factors such as “per capita gross cropped area” and “access to secure markets”. We therefore argue that in order to have a comprehensive understanding of virtual water trade, non-water factors of production need to be taken into consideration.

  8. Globalisation of birth markets: a case study of assisted reproductive technologies in India.

    PubMed

    Sarojini, Nadimpally; Marwah, Vrinda; Shenoi, Anjali

    2011-01-01

    The escalation of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs) in India into a veritable fertility industry is the result of a multitude of reasons. This paper places the bio-genetic industry within the larger political economy framework of globalisation and privatisation, thus employing a framework that is often omitted from discussions on ARTs, but has direct and significant bearings on the ART industry in India. As markets for human organs, tissues and reproductive body parts experience unprecedented growth, the limits of what can or should be bought and sold continue to be pushed. As such, bodies have emerged as sale-worthy economic capital. Commercial flows of reproductive material create and deploy the division of the body into parts over which ownership is claimed, in the process following 'modern routes of capital' and raising issues of structural inequality.This paper presents a brief picture of India's fertility industry with specific focus on its ground-level operation, nature and growth. It aims to explore the industry dimensions of ARTs, by highlighting the macro picture of health care markets and medical tourism in India, the proliferation of the ART industry, market features such as the social imperative to mother, costs, promotion and marketing, unverified claims, inflated success rates, deals and offers, actors and collaborations in the field, and finally, the absence of standards. This paper presents findings from the research 'Constructing Conceptions: The Mapping of Assisted Reproductive Technologies in India', by Sama, a Delhi-based resource group working on gender, health and rights. This research was conducted from 2008 to 2010 in the three states of Uttar Pradesh, Orissa and Tamil Nadu in India, and is one of the first of its kind, highlighting unethical medical practices and making a case for the regulation of the ART industry. As such, it forms a significant part of Sama's ongoing work on women and technologies, particularly policy-level advocacy. PMID:21838866

  9. Globalisation of birth markets: a case study of assisted reproductive technologies in India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The escalation of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs) in India into a veritable fertility industry is the result of a multitude of reasons. This paper places the bio-genetic industry within the larger political economy framework of globalisation and privatisation, thus employing a framework that is often omitted from discussions on ARTs, but has direct and significant bearings on the ART industry in India. As markets for human organs, tissues and reproductive body parts experience unprecedented growth, the limits of what can or should be bought and sold continue to be pushed. As such, bodies have emerged as sale-worthy economic capital. Commercial flows of reproductive material create and deploy the division of the body into parts over which ownership is claimed, in the process following 'modern routes of capital' and raising issues of structural inequality. This paper presents a brief picture of India's fertility industry with specific focus on its ground-level operation, nature and growth. It aims to explore the industry dimensions of ARTs, by highlighting the macro picture of health care markets and medical tourism in India, the proliferation of the ART industry, market features such as the social imperative to mother, costs, promotion and marketing, unverified claims, inflated success rates, deals and offers, actors and collaborations in the field, and finally, the absence of standards. This paper presents findings from the research 'Constructing Conceptions: The Mapping of Assisted Reproductive Technologies in India', by Sama, a Delhi-based resource group working on gender, health and rights. This research was conducted from 2008 to 2010 in the three states of Uttar Pradesh, Orissa and Tamil Nadu in India, and is one of the first of its kind, highlighting unethical medical practices and making a case for the regulation of the ART industry. As such, it forms a significant part of Sama's ongoing work on women and technologies, particularly policy-level advocacy. PMID:21838866

  10. Modeling Vulnerability and Resilience to Climate Change: A Case Study of India and Indian States

    SciTech Connect

    Brenkert, Antoinette L.; Malone, Elizabeth L.

    2005-09-01

    The vulnerability of India and Indian states to climate change was assessed using the Vulnerability-Resilience Indicator Prototype (VRIP). The model was adapted from the global/country version to account for Indian dietary practices and data availability with regard to freshwater resources. Results (scaled to world values) show nine Indian states to be moderately resilient to climate change, principally because of low sulfur emissions and a relatively large percentage of unmanaged land. Six states are more vulnerable than India as a whole, attributable largely to sensitivity to sea storm surges. Analyses of results at the state level (Orissa, and comparisons between Maharashtra and Kerala, and Andhra Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh) demonstrate the value of VRIP analyses used in conjunction with other socioeconomic information to address initial questions about the sources of vulnerability in particular places. The modeling framework allows analysts and stakeholders to systematically evaluate individual and sets of indicators and to indicate where the likely vulnerabilities are in the area being assessed.

  11. Age at return marriage and timing of first birth in India's Uttar Pradesh and Kerala states.

    PubMed

    Singh, K K; Suchindran, C M; Singh, V; Ramakumar, R

    1992-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between age at marriage and the length of first birth interval in two states of India: Uttar Pradesh and Kerala. Life tables of first-birth intervals and median first-birth intervals are computed for several subgroups of the study population. Multivariate hazards modelling technique is used to study the net effect of age at marriage, controlling for a multiple of socioeconomic factors. The result shows that the average first-birth interval varies by age at marriage and is much longer in Uttar Pradesh than in Kerala. PMID:1340047

  12. Diagnosis of Chikungunya dominated co-infection with dengue during an outbreak in south India (2010 and 2012).

    PubMed

    Venkatasubramani, K; Paramasivan, R; Thenmozhi, V; Dhananjeyan, K J; Balaji, T; Leo, S Victor Jerald

    2015-07-01

    Following a report of dengue outbreak from January 2010 to 2012 in the Tirunelveli, Theni, Dharmapuri and Thiruvallur districts of Tamil Nadu state, India, an investigation was carried out. The study was to demonstrate the probable presence of Chikungunya viral antibodies in patients clinically suspected of dengue fever. Out of 331 samples analysed, dengue viral antibodies were observed in 14.8% (n?=?49) of patients, while 16.6% (n?=?55) were positive for Chikungunya viral specific IgM antibodies. In the four districts surveyed, patients found positive for Chikungunya were found to be higher than dengue. The clinician should consider Chikungunya in the differential diagnosis of dengue-like infection appearing in the community. PMID:25990548

  13. Papillomavirus infection in rural women in southern India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Franceschi; R. Rajkumar; P. J. F. Snijders; A Arslan; C Mahe ´; M Plummer; R Sankaranarayanan; J. Cherian; C. J. L. M. Meijer; E Weiderpass

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of, and the risk factors for, cervical infection with 44 types of human papillomavirus (HPV) in a rural area in the Dindigul District, Tamil Nadu, India, we interviewed and obtained cervical cell samples from 1891 married women aged 16–59 years. HPV prevalence was 16.9% overall and 14.0% among women without cervical abnormalities, or 17.7 and 15.2%,

  14. Description of three new species of Pentelicus Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from India, with a key to world species.

    PubMed

    Manickavasagam, S; Chaitanya, T Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Three new species of Pentelicus Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) are described from Tamil Nadu, India: P. funiculatus sp. nov., P. punctatus sp. nov. and P. depunctatus sp. nov. A revised key to the world species of Pentelicus is also provided. PMID:25947686

  15. Knowledge and attitudes of dental interns in Karnataka state, India, regarding implants.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Sohini; Gowda, Triveni M; Kumar, Tarun A B; Mehta, Dhoom S

    2013-10-01

    Implant treatment today is highly reliable as a valid restorative option for missing teeth. As more patients worldwide opt for implant treatment, it is now imperative for dental practitioners to have sound information about dental implants so they can help patients make informed decisions. This study sought to define the knowledge and attitudes regarding dental implants of dental interns in the state of Karnataka, India, and to evaluate the dental implant curriculum structure at the undergraduate level. A survey was conducted of dental interns (students in their fifth, clinical year of undergraduate study) in seven of the forty-five academic dental institutions in this state. The questionnaire consisted of fifteen questions that assessed the respondents' level of knowledge and source of information regarding implants. A total of 500 questionnaires were distributed, and 417 interns responded for a response rate of 83.4 percent. In the results, 73.3 percent reported they were not provided sufficient information about implants in their undergraduate curriculum, and 95.7 percent of them wanted more. Also, 63.5 percent of the respondents believed that high costs could limit the use of dental implants as a tooth replacement modality in India. This study concludes that revision in the undergraduate dental curricula at these schools is needed to better prepare students for practicing implant dentistry. PMID:24098041

  16. Dengue Outbreak in a Hilly State of Arunachal Pradesh in Northeast India

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Siraj A.; Dutta, Prafulla; Topno, Rashmee; Soni, Monika; Mahanta, Jagadish

    2014-01-01

    Dengue has been reported from plains as well as hilly regions of India including some parts of Northeast India. In July-August 2012, outbreak of fever with unknown origin (FUO) indicative of Dengue was reported in Pasighat, East Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh (AP) state. Serum samples (n = 164) collected from patients from Health Training and Research Centre General Hospital, Pasighat, were tested for NS1 antigen and IgM antibodies. NS1-positive samples were analyzed by RT-PCR assay and entomological surveys were carried out. The majority of suspected cases reported NS1 antigen positivity. Females and young adults were mostly affected. The majority of the amplified NS1-positive samples showed Dengue serotype 3 infection. Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus, known as semiurban breeding mosquitoes, was the only potential vector species identified from the affected areas of Pasighat which single handedly contributed to the outbreak. Thus, the present work identifies Dengue as an emerging arboviral infection in hilly state of AP along with a looming risk of its spread to neighbouring areas. PMID:24587732

  17. How Culture Influences the "Social" in Social Media: Socializing and Advertising on Smartphones in India and the United States.

    PubMed

    Muralidharan, Sidharth; La Ferle, Carrie; Sung, Yongjun

    2015-06-01

    The importance of the mobile phone is evidenced by predictions that there will be 1.76 billion smartphone users worldwide at the start of 2015. A country that is spearheading this movement toward the digital era is India. To illustrate this, India is expected to surpass the United States in 2015 and record the second highest smartphone sales globally. Despite the rising penetration and adoption of smartphones, there is limited advertising research that sheds light on the Indian smartphone user. The current study aims to fill that void by cross-culturally comparing a national online panel of smartphone users from India (n=158) with users from the United States (n=114). Findings reveal that entertainment impacts Indians' attitudes toward smartphone advertising while informativeness is stronger for the American sample. Collectivism was found to be the driving force behind socializing activities on social networking sites for Indian consumers. Implications are discussed. PMID:25977980

  18. Geography of underweight and overweight among women in India: A multilevel analysis of 3204 neighborhoods in 26 states

    PubMed Central

    Ackerson, Leland K.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Barbeau, Elizabeth M.; Subramanian, S.V.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the geographic distribution and the relationship with neighborhood wealth of underweight and overweight in India. Using multilevel modeling techniques, we calculated state-specific smoothed shrunken state residuals of overweight and underweight, neighborhood and state variation of nutritional status, and the relationships between neighborhood wealth and nutritional status of 76,681 women living in 3204 neighborhoods in 26 Indian states. We found a substantial variation in overweight and underweight at the neighborhood and state levels, net of what could be attributed to individual-level factors. Neighborhood wealth was associated with increased levels of overweight and decreased levels of underweight, and was found to modify the relationship between personal living standard and nutritional status. These findings suggest that interventions to address the double burden of undernutrition and overnutrition in India must take into account state and neighborhood characteristics in order to be successful. PMID:18602351

  19. Role of Community Group Exposure in Reducing Sexually Transmitted Infection-Related Risk among Female Sex Workers in India

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Diwakar; Ramanathan, Shreena; Goswami, Prabuddhagopal; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmi; Saggurti, Niranjan; Sen, Shrabanti; George, Bitra; Paranjape, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Background Empowering female sex workers (FSWs) to address structural barriers and forming community groups (CGs) through community mobilization are seen as essential components of HIV prevention programs in India. Taking the membership of a CG as an exposure intervention, we hypothesized whether participation in a CG lead to reduced sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and increased treatment-seeking behavior among FSWs in three selected states of India — Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. Methods and Findings The propensity score matching (PSM) approach examined the effect of CG membership, as against no membership, on STI-related risk, described as selected outcome measures — presence of any STI, self-reported STI symptoms, and treatment-seeking behavior among FSWs. A cross sectional bio-behavioral survey was administered in 2009–2010 and covered 7,806 FSWs through two-stage probability-based conventional and time location cluster sampling in 23 administrative districts of Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. Only 2,939 FSWs were reported to be members of a CG and among them 4.5% had any STIs. A majority of FSWs were aged above 24 years (86.4%), had ever been married (73%), operated from a public place for solicitation (81.5%), and had ever received HIV test results (75.6%). The average effect of CG exposure was reduction in STI prevalence by 4%, while self-reported STI symptom treatment-seeking behavior increased by 13.7%. Conclusion FSWs who were exposed to a CG were at a substantially lower risk of STIs than those who were unexposed. The FSWs exposed to a CG had a higher chance of seeking STI treatment from public and private health facilities. Collectivization related challenges must be overcome to provide access to tailored STI prevention and care services. PMID:24205210

  20. Prevalence of Dyslipidemia in Urban and Rural India: The ICMR–INDIAB Study

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Shashank R.; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Deepa, Mohan; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Bhansali, Anil; Dhandania, Vinay K.; Joshi, Prashant P.; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Nirmal, Elangovan; Subashini, Radhakrishnan; Madhu, Sri Venkata; Rao, Paturi Vishnupriya; Das, Ashok Kumar; Kaur, Tanvir; Shukla, Deepak Kumar; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2014-01-01

    Aim To study the pattern and prevalence of dyslipidemia in a large representative sample of four selected regions in India. Methods Phase I of the Indian Council of Medical Research–India Diabetes (ICMR-INDIAB) study was conducted in a representative population of three states of India [Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and Jharkhand] and one Union Territory [Chandigarh], and covered a population of 213 million people using stratified multistage sampling design to recruit individuals ?20 years of age. All the study subjects (n?=?16,607) underwent anthropometric measurements and oral glucose tolerance tests were done using capillary blood (except in self-reported diabetes). In addition, in every 5th subject (n?=?2042), a fasting venous sample was collected and assayed for lipids. Dyslipidemia was diagnosed using National Cholesterol Education Programme (NCEP) guidelines. Results Of the subjects studied, 13.9% had hypercholesterolemia, 29.5% had hypertriglyceridemia, 72.3% had low HDL-C, 11.8% had high LDL-C levels and 79% had abnormalities in one of the lipid parameters. Regional disparity exists with the highest rates of hypercholesterolemia observed in Tamilnadu (18.3%), highest rates of hypertriglyceridemia in Chandigarh (38.6%), highest rates of low HDL-C in Jharkhand (76.8%) and highest rates of high LDL-C in Tamilnadu (15.8%). Except for low HDL-C and in the state of Maharashtra, in all other states, urban residents had the highest prevalence of lipid abnormalities compared to rural residents. Low HDL-C was the most common lipid abnormality (72.3%) in all the four regions studied; in 44.9% of subjects, it was present as an isolated abnormality. Common significant risk factors for dyslipidemia included obesity, diabetes, and dysglycemia. Conclusion The prevalence of dyslipidemia is very high in India, which calls for urgent lifestyle intervention strategies to prevent and manage this important cardiovascular risk factor. PMID:24817067

  1. Challenging Ties between State and Tobacco Industry: Advocacy Lessons from India

    PubMed Central

    Bhojani, Upendra; Venkataraman, Vidya; Manganawar, Bheemaray

    2013-01-01

    Background: Globally, tobacco use is a major public health concern given its huge morbidity and mortality burden that is inequitably high in low- and middle-income countries. The World Health Organization has suggested banning the advertisement, promotion and sponsorship of tobacco. However, governments in some countries, including India, are either directly engaged in tobacco industry operations or have a mandate to promote tobacco industry development. This paper analyses a short-term advocacy campaign that challenged the state-tobacco industry ties to draw lessons for effective public health advocacy. Method: This paper uses a case study method to analyze advocacy efforts in India to thwart the state-tobacco industry partnership: the Indian government’s sponsorship and support to a global tobacco industry event. The paper explores multiple strategies employed in the five-month advocacy campaign (May to October 2010) to challenge this state-industry tie. In doing so, we describe the challenges faced and the lessons learnt for effective advocacy. Results: Government withdrew participation and financial sponsorship from the tobacco industry event. Use of multiple strategies including engaging all concerned government agencies from the beginning, strategic use of media, presence and mobilization of civil society, and use of legal tools to gain information and judicial action, were complementary in bringing desired outcomes. Conclusion: Use of multiple and complementary advocacy strategies could lead to positive outcomes in a short-time campaign. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control could form an important advocacy tool, especially in countries that have ratified it, to advocate for improvements in national tobacco control regulations. PMID:24688958

  2. Estimating Wealth Effects Without Expenditure Data—Or Tears: An Application To Educational Enrollments In States Of India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deon Filmer; Lant H. Pritchett

    2001-01-01

    Using data from India, we estimate the relationship between household wealth and children's school enrollment. We proxy wealth by constructing a linear index from asset ownership indicators, us- ing principal-components analysis to derive weights. In Indian data this index is robust to the assets included, and produces internally coherent results. State-level results correspond well to independent data on per capita

  3. A Comparative Study of Early Intervention in Zimbabwe, Poland, China, India, and the United States of America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Yanhui; Richey, Dean

    2005-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces Early Intervention (EI) issues in five countries including Zimbabwe, Poland, People's Republic of China (PRC), India, and the United States of America (USA). In the overview section the national background, including religious, socio-economic development, and political systems, its policies, laws and acts, are…

  4. Use of e-services by faculty members of business schools in a state of India: a study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dillip K. Swain; K. C. Panda

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to assess and evaluate quantitative and qualitative use of electronic resources in the academic ambience of business schools in Orissa (India) with a view to examining the level of electronic information services (EIS) offered to the faculty members of the state with an opinion pool of the faculty members of the respective

  5. Characterization of minerals in air dust particles in the state of Tamilnadu, India through ftir spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil Kumar, R.; Rajkumar, P.

    2013-08-01

    The abstract of this paper explains the presence of minerals in air which causes great concern regarding public health issues. The spectroscopic investigation of air dust particles of several samples in various locations in the state of Tamilnadu, India is reported. Qualitative analyses were carried out to determine the major and minor constituent minerals present in the samples based on the FTIR absorption peaks. This study also identified the minerals like quartz, asbestos, kaolinite, calcite, hematite, montmorillonite, nacrite and several other trace minerals in the air dust particles. The presents of quartz is mainly found in all the samples invariably. Hence the percentage of quartz and its crystalline nature were determined with the help of extinction co-efficient and crystallinity index respectively.

  6. The Decentralisation Of Education In Kerala State, India: Rhetoric And Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukundan, Mullikottu-Veettil; Bray, Mark

    2004-07-01

    The decentralisation of educational administration has been widely advocated as a strategy to promote local participation in education. However, the fact that this advocacy has a long history raises the question why decentralisation has not been achieved in more educational systems. The answers to this question are many and complex. Among them are difficulties with the implementation of reforms. The present study examines some of these difficulties in Kerala State, India. It determines that although Kerala has a strong reputation for political participation, the rhetoric of decentralisation in the educational sector has not matched the reality there. The lessons to be learned in this context have wide implications for the theory and practice of decentralisation in education.

  7. State health insurance and out-of-pocket health expenditures in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Fan, Victoria Y; Karan, Anup; Mahal, Ajay

    2012-09-01

    In 2007 the state of Andhra Pradesh in southern India began rolling out Aarogyasri health insurance to reduce catastrophic health expenditures in households 'below the poverty line'. We exploit variation in program roll-out over time and districts to evaluate the impacts of the scheme using difference-in-differences. Our results suggest that within the first nine months of implementation Phase I of Aarogyasri significantly reduced out-of-pocket inpatient expenditures and, to a lesser extent, outpatient expenditures. These results are robust to checks using quantile regression and matching methods. No clear effects on catastrophic health expenditures or medical impoverishment are seen. Aarogyasri is not benefiting scheduled caste and scheduled tribe households as much as the rest of the population. PMID:22767078

  8. Use of polymerase chain reaction: Restriction fragment length polymorphism to detect acaricidal resistance to synthetic pyrethroids in Boophilus microplus ticks of South India

    PubMed Central

    Cattavarayane, Mathivathani; Basith, Abdul; Latha, Bhaskaran Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Boophilus microplus is an important ectoparasite of livestock. Apart from transmitting diseases, heavy tick burden can decrease production and damage hides. The synthetic pyrethroids which are advantageous over other acaricides for treatment of this infestation are now losing their efficacy due to development of resistant strains of ticks. Materials and Methods: Boophilus microplus ticks with a previous history of acaricidal treatment especially synthetic pyrethroids (SP) such as cypermethrin, deltamethrin and flumethrin were randomly collected from different pockets of four Southern States of India namely Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, and Puducherry from cattle. Deoxyribonucleic acid extracted from pooled adult B. microplus tick from each State was subjected to polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism to detect point mutation in carboxyl esterase gene. Results: A product size of 372 bp was obtained for cattle tick samples collected from all over Southern States of India. Conclusions: B. microplus ticks found in Southern part of India are not resistant to commonly used SP. PMID:23961446

  9. Inbreeding among some Brahman populations of Tamil Nadu.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, S; Mukherjee, D P

    1976-01-01

    A statewide survey of four endogamous Brahman populations of Tamil Nadu reveals a low level of inbreeding in three of them. In the fourth population, the Thengalai, the level is higher, but not as high as in other social castes. The Tamil Brahmans rank next to the Telugu and the Kanarese Brahmans in this respect. Uncle-niece marriages also occur as in Telugu-speaking populations, and these exceed in the two Ayyangar populations in comparison to the Ayyar. A decline of first-cousin marriages and an increase of uncle-niece marriages are detected in the first two living generations in each population. PMID:950239

  10. Diversity among Clients of Female Sex Workers in India: Comparing Risk Profiles and Intervention Impact by Site of Solicitation. Implications for the Vulnerability of Less Visible Female Sex Workers

    PubMed Central

    Suryawanshi, Dipak; Bhatnagar, Tarun; Deshpande, Sucheta; Zhou, Weiwei; Singh, Pankaj; Collumbien, Martine

    2013-01-01

    Background It seems generally accepted that targeted interventions in India have been successful in raising condom use between female sex workers (FSWs) and their clients. Data from clients of FSWs have been under-utilised to analyse the risk environments and vulnerability of both partners. Methods The 2009 Integrated Biological and Behavioural Assessment survey sampled clients of FSWs at hotspots in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu (n=5040). The risk profile of clients in terms of sexual networking and condom use are compared across usual pick-up place. We used propensity score matching (PSM) to estimate the average treatment effect on treated (ATT) of intervention messages on clients’ consistent condom use with FSW. Results Clients of the more hidden sex workers who solicit from home or via phone or agents had more extensive sexual networks, reporting casual female partners as well as anal intercourse with male partners and FSW. Clients of brothel-based sex workers, who were the least educated, reported the fewest number/categories of partners, least anal sex, and lowest condom use (41%). Consistent condom use varied widely by state: 65% in Andhra Pradesh, 36% in Maharashtra and 29% in Tamil Nadu. Exposure to intervention messages on sexually transmitted infections was lowest among men frequenting brothels (58%), and highest among men soliciting less visible sex workers (70%). Exposure had significant impact on consistent condom use, including among clients of home-based sex workers (ATT 21%; p=0.001) and among men soliciting other more hidden FSW (ATT 17%; p=0.001). In Tamil Nadu no impact could be demonstrated. Conclusion Commercial sex happens between two partners and both need to be, and can be, reached by intervention messages. Commercial sex is still largely unprotected and as the sex industry gets more diffuse a greater focus on reaching clients of sex workers seems important given their extensive sexual networks. PMID:24023877

  11. Organ Donation and Transplantation—The Chennai Experience in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Shroff; S. Rao; G. Kurian; S. Suresh

    2007-01-01

    Tamil Nadu has been at the forefront of medical care in the country. It was the first state in the country that started a living kidney transplant program. It is also the first state to successfully start the cadaver programme after the passing of the “Transplantation of Human Organ Act” of 1994 and in the last 5 years has formed

  12. Assessment and management of coastal multi-hazard vulnerability along the Cuddalore–Villupuram, east coast of India using geospatial techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Mahendra; P. C. Mohanty; H. Bisoyi; T. Srinivasa Kumar; S. Nayak

    2011-01-01

    The current study area is coastal zone of Cuddalore, Pondicherry and Villupuram districts of the Tamil Nadu along the southeast coast of India. This area is experiencing threat from many disasters such as storm, cyclone, flood, tsunami and erosion. This was one of the worst affected area during 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and during 2008 Nisha cyclone. The multi-hazard vulnerability

  13. Tetanus toxoid vaccine: Elimination of neonatal tetanus in selected states of India

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Ramesh; Khanna, Pardeep

    2012-01-01

    Tetanus is caused by a neurotoxin produced by Clostridium tetani (C. tetani), a spore-forming bacterium. Infection begins when tetanus spores are introduced into damaged tissue. Tetanus is characterized by muscle rigidity and painful muscle spasms caused by tetanus toxin’s blockade of inhibitory neurons that normally oppose and modulate the action of excitatory motor neurons. Maternal and neonatal tetanus (MNT) are caused by unhygienic methods of delivery, abortion, or umbilical-cord care. Maternal and neonatal tetanus are both forms of generalized tetanus and have similar clinical courses. About 90% of neonates with tetanus develop symptoms in the first 3–14 d of life, mostly on days 6–8, distinguishing neonatal tetanus from other causes of neonatal mortality which typically occur during the first two days of life. Overall case fatality rates for patients admitted to the hospital with neonatal tetanus in developing countries are 8–50%, while the fatality rate can be as high as 100% without hospital care. Tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccination of pregnant women to prevent neonatal tetanus was included in WHO’s Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) a few years after its inception in 1974. In 2000, WHO, UNICEF, and UNFPA formed a partnership to relaunch efforts toward this goal, adding the elimination of maternal tetanus as a program objective, and setting a new target date of 2005. By February 2007, 40 countries had implemented tetanus vaccination campaigns in high-risk areas, targeting more than 94 million women, and protecting more than 70 million subjects with at least two doses of TT. In 2011, 653 NT cases were reported in India compared with 9313 in 1990. As of February 2012, 25 countries and 15 States and Union Territories of India, all of Ethiopia except Somaliland, and almost 29 of 34 provinces in Indonesia have been validated to have eliminated MNT. PMID:22894950

  14. Marital status, family ties, and self-rated health among elders in South India.

    PubMed

    Sudha, S; Suchindran, Chirayath; Mutran, Elizabeth J; Rajan, S Irudaya; Sarma, P Sankara

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the impact of familial social support ties (indicated by marital status, kin availability, sources of economic support, and frequency and quality of emotional interaction) on subjective health perception among a sample of elderly men and women aged 60 and older in South India. We used 1993 survey data from three states of South India: Kerala, Tamil Nadu, and Karnataka. We hypothesized that (a) widowhood would be associated with poorer self-rated health, (b) number of kin ties would be positively associated with self-rated health, (c) economic and emotional support from kin would improve outcomes, and (d) these associations would be stronger among women than among men. Results of logistic regression techniques supported the first hypothesis and partially supported the third. With regard to the second hypothesis, the presence of specific kin rather than the number of each type of family member was important. For the fourth hypothesis, results suggest that men and women in this sample have broadly similar associations between widowhood and self-rated health. For women however, controlling for socioeconomic status did not weaken the association between widowhood and self-rated health, suggesting the symbolic/cultural importance of this status. In general, these findings suggest that theories on the importance of marital status and kin ties for older adults' self-rated health, which were developed and tested in Western societies, need to be refined for Asian societies, where the nature of marriage and widowhood are different. PMID:17242992

  15. PLANTS USED IN FOLK MEDICINE BY THE KOTAS OF NILGIRI DISTRICT, TAMIL NADU

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, S.; Sethuraman, M.

    1991-01-01

    The present report deals with 34 plants of ethno botanical significance used s food and medicine by the Kotas of Nilgiri District, Tamil Nadu. Dietary and medicinal applications of plants re briefly summarized and presented. PMID:22556537

  16. Barriers to Improving Patient Safety in India: Focus Groups with Providers in the Southern State of Kerala

    PubMed Central

    Landefeld, John; Sivaraman, Remadevi; Arora, Narendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To understand the perceptions of health care providers about barriers to improved patient safety in the Indian state of Kerala. Materials and Methods: Five focus group discussions were held with 16 doctors and 20 nurses across three institutions (primary, secondary and tertiary care centers) in Kerala, India. Transcripts were analyzed by thematic analysis. Setting: One rural primary care clinic, one secondary care hospital and one tertiary care center in Kerala, India. Participants: 16 doctors and 20 nurses participated in five focus groups. Results: Overall, there were 129 unique mentions of barriers to patient safety; these barriers were categorized into five major themes. ‘Limited resources’ was the most prominent theme, followed by barriers related to health systems issues, the medical culture, provider training and patient education/awareness. Conclusions: Although inadequate resources are likely a substantial challenge to the improvement of patient safety in India, other patient safety barriers such as health systems changes, training, and education, could be addressed with fewer resources. While initial approaches to improving patient safety in India and other low- and middle-income countries have focused on implementing processes that represent best practices, this study suggests that multifaceted interventions to also address more structural problems (such as resource constraints, systems issues, and medical culture) may be important. PMID:25861173

  17. India, China, and the United States in Space: Partners, Competitors, Combatants? A Perspective From the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victoria Samson

    2011-01-01

    India's space program used to fall solely under the civil category, but recently it appears to be expanding its use of space for national security efforts and developing capabilities that could give it an anti-satellite (ASAT) weapon capacity. This shift by India could have long-term consequences for its relationship with China and Asia's overall regional stability; it also may provide

  18. Grass pea consumption & present scenario of neurolathyrism in Maharashtra State of India

    PubMed Central

    Khandare, Arjun L.; Babu, J.J; Ankulu, M.; Aparna, N.; Shirfule, Amol; Rao, G. Shankar

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Neurolathyrism is a non progressive motor neuron disorder engendered by the prolonged over-consumption of Lathyrus sativus (grass pea) seeds which contain a neurotoxic amino acid, ?-N oxalyl- L-?, ?-diaminopropionic acid (?-ODAP). It is characterized by spastic paraparesis in the hind limbs. The present study was conducted in 105 households (HHs) of Gondia district in Maharashtra, India, where grass pea is cultivated and consumed to assess the health implication of its consumption. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 105 HHS in five villages and grass pea samples were collected for ?-ODAP estimation. Amino acid analysis was also done, neurolathyrism cases were identified by snowball sampling method and neurological examination was carried out. Results: The study revealed that 61 per cent of population was consuming this pulse as a part of diet. ?-ODAP concentration in grass pea was high in Bora village (1254.5 ± 528.21 mg %) and less in Malgaon village (413.6±415.79 mg %). The nutritional status of the people was within the normal range (BMI 18± 3.40 kg/m2) in the surveyed households. Consumption of grass pea was observed to be less than 25g. Conclusions: The cases of neurolathyrism declined in all the studied villages due to reduced ?-ODAP exposure through Lathyrus sativus consumption, however, the grass pea was cultivated and consumed in Gondia district of Maharashtra State. PMID:25222783

  19. Prevalence and molecular epidemiological data on Dirofilaria immitis in dogs from Northeastern States of India.

    PubMed

    Borthakur, Sonjoy Kumar; Deka, Dilip Kumar; Islam, Saidul; Sarma, Dilip Kumar; Sarmah, Prabhat Chandra

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis in stray, pet, and working dogs (n = 413, 266, and 103, resp.) from Guwahati (Assam) and Aizawl (Mizoram), areas located in two Northeastern States of India. Diagnostic methods applied were microscopy (wet film and Knott's concentration technique), immunological test (Ag ELISA by SNAP 4Dx ELISA kit), and molecular tools (polymerase chain reaction and sequencing), which evidenced 11.38, 18.03, and 13.93% of positive animals, respectively. No significant differences were observed by area (18.23% versus 17.68%) nor by sex (18.1% versus 17.9%), whereas stray dogs proved more infected than other groups (P < 0.05). ELISA test evidenced an overall 22.69% of occult infections, mainly in working dogs (60%), and molecular techniques detected Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens in 4 stray dogs from Guwahati. Characterization of D. immitis isolates for ITS-2 region showed close identity with South Asian isolates. PMID:25685835

  20. Prevalence of undernutrition, its determinants, and seasonal variation among tribal preschool children of Odisha state, India.

    PubMed

    Meshram, Indrapal I; Balakrishna, N; Arlappa, N; Mallikarjun Rao, K; Laxmaiah, A; Brahmam, G N V

    2014-09-01

    A community-based cross-sectional study was undertaken in the tribal areas of Odisha state, India, covering 1951 preschool children to assess their nutritional status in terms of underweight, stunting, and wasting; its correlates; and seasonal variation in nutritional status. ?(2) Test, one-way analysis of variance, and unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios were used for data analysis. The prevalence of underweight, stunting, and wasting was 58%, 65%, and 20%, respectively. The risk of underweight and stunting was, respectively, 1.9 and 2.4 times higher among children of illiterate mothers, whereas underweight and wasting was 1.4 times higher among children who had morbidities during the preceding fortnight. The prevalence of undernutrition was significantly (P < .01) higher during monsoon as compared with winter season. Undernutrition is an important public health problem and is associated with literacy of mother, morbidity, and season. Thus, improving socioeconomic condition, literacy, and sanitation along with insuring food security during monsoon season might improve nutritional status. PMID:22500042

  1. Prevalence and Molecular Epidemiological Data on Dirofilaria immitis in Dogs from Northeastern States of India

    PubMed Central

    Borthakur, Sonjoy Kumar; Deka, Dilip Kumar; Islam, Saidul; Sarma, Dilip Kumar; Sarmah, Prabhat Chandra

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis in stray, pet, and working dogs (n = 413, 266, and 103, resp.) from Guwahati (Assam) and Aizawl (Mizoram), areas located in two Northeastern States of India. Diagnostic methods applied were microscopy (wet film and Knott's concentration technique), immunological test (Ag ELISA by SNAP 4Dx ELISA kit), and molecular tools (polymerase chain reaction and sequencing), which evidenced 11.38, 18.03, and 13.93% of positive animals, respectively. No significant differences were observed by area (18.23% versus 17.68%) nor by sex (18.1% versus 17.9%), whereas stray dogs proved more infected than other groups (P < 0.05). ELISA test evidenced an overall 22.69% of occult infections, mainly in working dogs (60%), and molecular techniques detected Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens in 4 stray dogs from Guwahati. Characterization of D. immitis isolates for ITS-2 region showed close identity with South Asian isolates. PMID:25685835

  2. Overweight and obesity prevalence among Indian women by place of residence and socio-economic status: Contrasting patterns from 'underweight states' and 'overweight states' of India.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Angan; Angeli, Federica; Syamala, Thelakkat S; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Schayck, C P van

    2015-08-01

    Evidence from developing countries demonstrates a mixed relationship of overweight/obesity with socioeconomic status (SES) and place of residence. Theory of nutrition transition suggests that over the course of development, overweight first emerges among rich and urban people before spreading among rural and poor people. India is currently experiencing a rapid rise in the proportion of overweight and obese population especially among adult women. Under the backdrop of huge socio-economic heterogeneity across the states of India, the inter-state scenario of overweight and obesity differs considerably. Hence, this paper investigates the evolution over time of overweight and obesity among ever-married Indian women (15-49 years) from selected 'underweight states' (Bihar, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh, where underweight proportion is predominant) and 'overweight states' (Kerala, Delhi and Punjab, where overweight is the prime concern), in relation to a few selected socio-economic and demographic indicators. This study analysed National Family Health Surveys- NFHS-2 (1998-99) and NFHS-3 (2005-06) following Asian population specific BMI cut-offs for overweight and obesity. The results confirm that within India itself the relationship of overweight and obesity with place of residence and SES cannot be generalized. Results from 'overweight states' show that the overweight problem has started expanding from urban and well-off women to the poor and rural people, while the rural-urban and rich-poor difference has disappeared. On the other hand in 'underweight states' overweight and obesity have remained socially segregated and increasing strongly among urban and richer section of the population. The rate of rise of overweight and obesity has been higher in rural areas of 'OW states' and in urban areas of 'UW states'. Indian policymakers thus need to design state-specific approaches to arrest the rapid growth of overweight and its penetration especially towards under-privileged section of the society. PMID:26094178

  3. A rapid assessment and response approach to review and enhance Advocacy, Communication and Social Mobilisation for Tuberculosis control in Odisha state, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vishnu Vardhan Kamineni; Tahir Turk; Nevin Wilson; Srinath Satyanarayana; Lakbir Singh Chauhan

    2011-01-01

    Background  Tuberculosis remains a major public health problem in India with the country accounting for 1 in 5 of all TB cases reported\\u000a globally. An advocacy, communication and social mobilisation project for Tuberculosis control was implemented and evaluated\\u000a in Odisha state of India. The purpose of the study was to identify the impact of project interventions including the use of\\u000a 'Interface

  4. The Epidemiology of Soil-Transmitted Helminths in Bihar State, India

    PubMed Central

    Greenland, Katie; Dixon, Ruth; Khan, Shabbir Ali; Gunawardena, Kithsiri; Kihara, Jimmy H.; Smith, Jennifer L.; Drake, Lesley; Makkar, Prerna; Singh, Sarman; Kumar, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) infect over a billion individuals worldwide. In India, 241 million children are estimated to need deworming to avert the negative consequences STH infections can have on child health and development. In February-April 2011, 17 million children in Bihar State were dewormed during a government-led school-based deworming campaign. Prior to programme implementation, a study was conducted to assess STH prevalence in the school-age population to direct the programme. The study also investigated risk factors for STH infections, including caste, literacy, and defecation and hygiene practices, in order to inform the development of complementary interventions. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among children in 20 schools in Bihar. In addition to providing stool samples for identification of STH infections, children completed a short questionnaire detailing their usual defecation and hand-hygiene practices. Risk factors for STH infections were explored. Results In January-February 2011, 1279 school children aged four to seventeen provided stool samples and 1157 children also completed the questionnaire. Overall, 68% of children (10-86% across schools) were infected with one or more soil-transmitted helminth species. The prevalence of ascariasis, hookworm and trichuriasis was 52%, 42% and 5% respectively. The majority of children (95%) practiced open defecation and reported most frequently cleansing hands with soil (61%). Increasing age, lack of maternal literacy and certain castes were independently associated with hookworm infection. Absence of a hand-washing station at the schools was also independently associated with A. lumbricoides infection. Conclusions STH prevalence in Bihar is high, and justifies mass deworming in school-aged children. Open defecation is common-place and hands are often cleansed using soil. The findings reported here can be used to help direct messaging appropriate to mothers with low levels of literacy and emphasise the importance of water and sanitation in the control of helminths and other diseases. PMID:25993697

  5. Factors associated with HIV among female sex workers in a high HIV prevalent state of India.

    PubMed

    Medhi, Gajendra Kumar; Mahanta, Jagadish; Paranjape, Ramesh S; Adhikary, Rajatashuvra; Laskar, Nabjyoti; Ngully, P

    2012-01-01

    The study was carried out to assess the factors associated with HIV seropositivity among female sex workers (FSWs) in Dimapur, Nagaland, a high HIV prevalence state of India. A total of 426 FSWs were recruited into the study using respondent driven sampling (RDS). Data on demographic characteristics, sexual and injecting risk behaviours were collected from them and were tested for HIV, Syphilis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. RDS-weighted univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the factors associated with HIV seropositivity. Consistent condom use with regular and occasional sexual clients was 9% and 16.4%, respectively. About 25% of the participants ever used and 5.7% ever injected illicit drugs. RDS adjusted HIV prevalence was 11.6%. In the univariate analysis, factors associated with HIV were initiating sexual intercourse before the age of 15 years, ?2 years duration of sex work, serving clients at lodge/hotel, positive test result for one or more sexually transmitted infections (STIs), lifetime history of injecting drug use, lifetime history of consuming illicit drugs, ever having exchanged sex for drugs, having sexual partners who engaged in risky injecting practices and having been widowed or divorced. In multivariate analysis, factors found to be independently associated with HIV included lifetime injecting drug use, initiating sexual intercourse before the age of 15 years, positive test result for one or more STIs and having been widowed. Injecting drug use was found to be most potent independent risk factor for HIV (OR: 3.17, CI: 1.02-9.89). Because of lower consistent condom use among them, FSWs may act as bridge for HIV transmission to general population from injecting drug users (IDU) through their sexual clients. The informations from this study may be useful for enriching the HIV preventions effort for FSWs in this region. PMID:21902571

  6. Sensitivity analysis of seismic hazard for the northwestern portion of the state of Gujarat, India

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, M.D.; Rastogi, B.K.; Schweig, E.S.; Harmsen, S.C.; Gomberg, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    We test the sensitivity of seismic hazard to three fault source models for the northwestern portion of Gujarat, India. The models incorporate different characteristic earthquake magnitudes on three faults with individual recurrence intervals of either 800 or 1600 years. These recurrence intervals imply that large earthquakes occur on one of these faults every 266-533 years, similar to the rate of historic large earthquakes in this region during the past two centuries and for earthquakes in intraplate environments like the New Madrid region in the central United States. If one assumes a recurrence interval of 800 years for large earthquakes on each of three local faults, the peak ground accelerations (PGA; horizontal) and 1-Hz spectral acceleration ground motions (5% damping) are greater than 1 g over a broad region for a 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years' hazard level. These probabilistic PGAs at this hazard level are similar to median deterministic ground motions. The PGAs for 10% in 50 years' hazard level are considerably lower, generally ranging between 0.2 g and 0.7 g across northwestern Gujarat. Ground motions calculated from our models that consider fault interevent times of 800 years are considerably higher than other published models even though they imply similar recurrence intervals. These higher ground motions are mainly caused by the application of intraplate attenuation relations, which account for less severe attenuation of seismic waves when compared to the crustal interplate relations used in these previous studies. For sites in Bhuj and Ahmedabad, magnitude (M) 7 3/4 earthquakes contribute most to the PGA and the 0.2- and 1-s spectral acceleration ground motion maps at the two considered hazard levels. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Role of Directorates in Promoting Nursing and Midwifery Across the Various States of India: Call for Leadership for Reforms

    PubMed Central

    Bagga, Rajni; Jaiswal, Vaishali; Tiwari, Ritika

    2015-01-01

    Background: While the roles and responsibilities of nursing professionals have multiplied over the years, but there are huge concerns with regard to the development of the nursing workforce and human resources (HR) issues for their career growth. The major lacuna is in not involving the nursing professionals in policy framing and decision-making. As a result, there is a leadership crisis of the nursing workforce across India. Objectives: The paper, is part of the WHO supported study, entitled “Study on Nursing and Midwifery in India: a critical review”, is developed with the objective to review the current organizational and management structure for the nursing positions at the State Directorates in India and obtain a Leadership perspective to strengthen nursing management capacities to address maternal health issues. Materials and Methods: The study descriptive and qualitative in nature and the sources of information were both primary and secondary collected from 16 states of India. Results: Since none of the states have neither a Nursing Cell nor the post of Director Nursing, final decision-making powers rest with state health secretaries and medical directors. The nursing management structure majorly managed by senior policy makers from the medical fraternity, and provides very little scope for nursing professionals to participate in policy decision making to bring about reforms. There is no uniformity on HR issues concerning career graphs and pay structures across the states. Conclusions: In order to strengthen nursing as a profession and for facilitating their role at the policy level, more powers and autonomy needs to be given to them and this requires HR policy guidelines for nurses. Setting up a separate nursing directorate, to be headed by a senior nursing professional, is suggested in every state along with a strong nursing division at the National level. This total paradigm shift will empower nursing professionals to take up the leadership role at the policy level to bring about necessary reforms. Across the country, nursing professionals repeatedly echoed one requirement: To reframe nursing leadership at all levels. PMID:25861169

  8. Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing over Delhi NCR, India: Sensitivity to Mixing State and Particle Shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Parul; Dey, Sagnik; Srivastava, Atul; Singh, Sachchidanand; Agarwal, Poornima

    2015-04-01

    Aerosol properties changes with the change in mixing state of aerosols and thus aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF). The problem is important in the Indo-Gangetic Basin, Northern India, where various aerosol types mix and show strong seasonal variations. A detailed chemical composition analysis of aerosols for Delhi National capital region (NCR) is carried out during 2007-2008. These results were used to examine the sensitivity of optical properties to the aerosol mixing state. Black carbon, BC was measured directly by Aethalometer. The species are grouped into four major components; dust, water soluble (WS), water insoluble (WINS) and BC. To infer the probable mixing state of aerosols in the Delhi NCR, eight different mixing cases, external mixing, internal mixing, and six combinations of core- shell type mixing which includes two modes of dust (accumulation and coarse) have been considered. Core-shell mixing cases are considered to be as follows - BC over dust, WS over dust, BC over WS and, WS over BC. These core shell mixed components are then externally mixed with rest of the aerosol species. The spectral aerosol optical properties - extinction coefficient, single scattering albedo (SSA) and asymmetry parameter (g) for each of the mixing state cases are calculated. These optical properties are utilized to estimate the radiative forcing using a radiative transfer model. The surface-reaching fluxes for each of the cases are compared with MERRA downward shortwave surface flux. MISR aerosol products were also analyzed to understand the seasonal variations of the bulk aerosol properties that may help in interpreting the sensitivity results. We observed that for the pre-monsoon season (MAMJ), core shell mixed case; BC coated over WS (surface DRF is -10.52 Wm-2) and BC over coarse dust (surface DRF is -2.81 Wm-2) are the most probable mixing states. For monsoon season (JAS,) BC coated over coarse dust (often referred to as polluted dust) (surface DRF is -0.60 Wm-2) is in better agreement with MERRA. For the post-monsoon season (ON) and winter season (DJF); external and internal mixing states are comparatively closer to MERRA flux. The remaining discrepancy may be attributed to the assumption of uniform vertical distribution (calculated from CALIPSO data) for each individual aerosol species, whereas ideally different vertical profile should be considered. Secondly, dust is assumed to be spherical whereas literature suggests it to be non-spherical. Three non-spherical shapes - spheroid, cylinder and chebyshev are considered. We have calculated optical properties of dust assuming it to be non-spherical for all the three different shapes. Our results show that the SSA deviates from spherical dust case by ~55% for all the three shapes, while the corresponding deviations for g are 15% for spheroid and cylinder shape and 38% for chebyshev shape. The % deviation of the externally mixed aerosol surface flux from non- spherical to spherical dust is in the range of 2-10%. Thus we observe that the absorption is under estimated at the surface if non-sphericity is not included in forcing estimation. The results will help reducing the uncertainty in aerosol DRF estimates for the Indian region.

  9. ADULT EDUCATION IN INDIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STYLER, W.E.

    AGAINST A BACKGROUND OF MASS ILLITERACY, POOR PAY AND STATUS OF TEACHERS, AND AN ALIEN EDUCATION PATTERN, THE STATE GOVERNMENTS OF INDIA HAVE PROVIDED SOCIAL EDUCATION FOR CITIZENSHIP AS WELL AS LITERACY. INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP METHODS HAVE BEEN USED, VIDYAPEETHS (RESIDENTIAL COLLEGES) AND EDUCATIONAL CENTERS HAVE BEEN SET UP, AND ALL INDIA RADIO…

  10. The Screening India's Twin Epidemic: Study design and methodology (SITE-1)

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Shashank R.; Vadivale, Muruga; Dalal, Jamshed J.; Das, Ashok Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The recent years have seen a surge in the prevalence of both diabetes and hypertension. Significant demographic variations reported on the prevalence patterns of diabetes and hypertension in India establish a clear need for a nation-wide surveillance study. The Screening India's Twin Epidemic (SITE) study aimed at collecting information on the prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes and hypertension cases in outpatient settings in major Indian states to better understand disease management, as well as to estimate the extent of underlying risk factors. Materials and Methods: During 2009–2010, SITE was conducted in eight states, in waves – one state at a time. It was planned to recruit about 2000 patients from 100 centers per wave. Each center enrolled the first 10 eligible patients (?18 years of age, not pregnant, signed data release consent form, and ready to undergo screening tests) per day on two consecutive days. Patient demographics, medical history, and laboratory investigation results were collected and statistically interpreted. The protocol defined diabetes and hypertension as per the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7) recommendations, respectively. Results: After the first two pilot phases in Maharashtra and Delhi, the protocol was refined and the laboratory investigations were simplified to be further employed for all other states, namely, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, and Gujarat. Conclusion: SITE's nation-wide approach will provide a real-world perspective on diabetes and hypertension and its contributing risk factors. Results from the study will raise awareness on the need for early diagnosis and management of these diseases to reduce complications. PMID:22145145

  11. Modeling winter rainfall in Northwest India using a hidden Markov model: understanding occurrence of different states and their dynamical connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Indrani; Robertson, Andrew W.; Lall, Upmanu; Cane, Mark A.

    2015-02-01

    A multiscale-modeling framework for daily rainfall is considered and diagnostic results are presented for an application to the winter season in Northwest India. The daily rainfall process is considered to follow a hidden Markov model (HMM), with the hidden states assumed to be an unknown random function of slowly varying climatic modulation of the winter jet stream and moisture transport dynamics. The data used are from 14 stations over Satluj River basin in winter (December-January-February-March). The period considered is 1977/78-2005/06. The HMM identifies four discrete weather states, which are used to describe daily rainfall variability over study region. Each state was found to be associated with a distinct atmospheric circulation pattern, with the driest and drier states, State 1 and 2 respectively, characterized by a lack of synoptic wave activity. In contrast, the wetter and wettest states, States 3 and 4 respectively, are characterized by a zonally oriented wave train extending across Eurasia between 20N and 40N, identified with `western disturbances' (WD). The occurrence of State 4 is strongly conditioned by the El Nino and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) phenomena in winter, which is demonstrated using large-scale correlation maps based on mean sea level pressure and sea surface temperature. This suggests that there is a tendency of higher frequency of the wet days and intense WD activities in winter during El Nino and positive IOD years. These findings, derived from daily rainfall station records, help clarify the sequence of Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude storms bringing winter rainfall over Northwest India, and their association with potentially predictable low frequency modes on seasonal time scales and longer.

  12. India: Implications of Communication Infrastructure on the Production of Media in State Training Institutes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maughan, George R.

    1989-01-01

    Description of training institutes developed by the government of India to improve the irrigation system focuses on the communication system infrastructure for the production and use of audiovisual materials for training. Highlights include local production of media; equipment and communication networks; cost effectiveness; and recommendations for…

  13. Developing a sustainable phytomanagement strategy for excessive selenium in Western United States and India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. S. Bañuelos; K. S. Dhillon

    2011-01-01

    Phytomanagement technology is recognized as an inexpensive and environmental friendly strategy for managing natural-occurring selenium (Se) in soils and in poor quality waters. Multi-year field and greenhouse studies were conducted with different plant species in California, USA and Punjab, India under high Se growing conditions. Some of the plant species included; canola (Brassica napus), mustard (B. juncea), broccoli (B. oleracea),

  14. Paths to the future for science and technology in China, India and the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Thomas Ratchford; William A. Blanpied

    2008-01-01

    China and India are frequently referred to as emerging superpowers. First, we present evidence that by virtue of their economic strength, their ability to absorb and adapt to repeated foreign intrusions, and their cultural reach, both countries should be more properly regarded as re-emerging superpowers. They qualified for that status even when the Roman Empire was at its peak, and

  15. Census of India

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    India's richly diverse population of more than 975 million people, growing at a rate of over 43,000 persons per day, provides a wealth of fascinating data when its decennial census is taken by the Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner. Although the last Indian census was conducted in 1991, new data are still being released every month. This Website provides access to Census Publications; India and State Maps; State Publications; District Census Handbooks; Special Studies; India at a Glance; Key Population Statistics; Vital Statistics; State Census Directorates; and New Book Releases.

  16. Acceptability, willing to purchase and use long lasting insecticide treated mosquito nets in Orissa State, India.

    PubMed

    Gunasekaran, K; Sahu, S S; Vijayakumar, K N; Jambulingam, P

    2009-11-01

    Long lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) that require no re-treatment have been advocated as an effective tool against malaria transmission. However, success of this community based intervention measure largely depends on its acceptability and proper usage by the target population, besides assuring access to bed nets. To determine the acceptability of LLIN, its usage and people's willingness to buy the net, a study was conducted in two tribal districts viz., Malkangiri (with ongoing ITN programme) and Koraput (no ITN programme) of Orissa State, India. Both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods were used to collect information regarding the objective of the study. A total of 2457 LLINs (Olyset Nets) were distributed in the selected villages of these districts at free of cost. In the study villages of Malkangiri, 58% of the households had either ITNs (73%) or other types of mosquito nets aside from the LLINs and in the villages of Koraput, only 8% had other nets, as majority (96%) informed that buying nets from market was not affordable to them. Physical verification of the nets during the house visits revealed that 75.4% and 83% (in ITNs and non-ITNs villages, respectively) of the LLINs and 76% of the other nets (including ITNs) were used by the respondents, the night before the survey as nets were in a hanging position at the time of the visit. Majority of the respondents (76-98%) felt that reduction of mosquito bites as the main perceived benefit of using the LLINs. About 55% and 67% of the respondents from non-ITNs and ITNs areas, respectively, expressed their willingness to buy the LLINs. Among them, 76.8% and 94.7% offered to pay INR<100 for a net and also ready to buy it by cash payment. Social marketing of LLINs at a subsidized price or free supply to the deserving sections of people (socially/economically poor and/or under-privileged) and ensuring the availability of nets during harvesting season could encourage people to buy and use LLINs. PMID:19631186

  17. Geospatial characterization of deforestation, fragmentation and forest fires in Telangana state, India: conservation perspective.

    PubMed

    Sudhakar Reddy, C; Vazeed Pasha, S; Jha, C S; Dadhwal, V K

    2015-07-01

    Conservation of biodiversity has been put to the highest priority throughout the world. The process of identifying threatened ecosystems will search for different drivers related to biodiversity loss. The present study aimed to generate spatial information on deforestation and ecological degradation indicators of fragmentation and forest fires using systematic conceptual approach in Telangana state, India. Identification of ecosystems facing increasing vulnerability can help to safeguard the extinctions of species and useful for conservation planning. The technological advancement of satellite remote sensing and Geographical Information System has increased greatly in assessment and monitoring of ecosystem-level changes. The areas of threat were identified by creating grid cells (5 × 5 km) in Geographical Information System (GIS). Deforestation was assessed using multi-source data of 1930, 1960, 1975, 1985, 1995, 2005 and 2013. The forest cover of 40,746 km(2), 29,299 km(2), 18,652 km(2), 18,368 km(2), 18,006 km(2), 17,556 km(2) and 17,520 km(2) was estimated during 1930, 1960, 1975, 1985, 1995, 2005 and 2013, respectively. Historical evaluation of deforestation revealed that major changes had occurred in forests of Telangana and identified 1095 extinct, 397 critically endangered, 523 endangered and 311 vulnerable ecosystem grid cells. The fragmentation analysis has identified 307 ecosystem grid cells under critically endangered status. Forest burnt area information was extracted using AWiFS data of 2005 to 2014. Spatial analysis indicates total fire-affected forest in Telangana as 58.9 % in a decadal period. Conservation status has been recorded depending upon values of threat for each grid, which forms the basis for conservation priority hotspots. Of existing forest, 2.1 % grids had severe ecosystem collapse and had been included under the category of conservation priority hotspot-I, followed by 27.2 % in conservation priority hotspot-II and 51.5 % in conservation priority hotspot-III. This analysis complements assessment of ecosystems undergoing multiple threats. An integrated approach involving the deforestation and degradation indicators is useful in formulating the strategies to take appropriate conservation measures. PMID:26093894

  18. FOLK HERBAL MEDICINE: A SURVEY ON THE PANIYA TRIBES OF MUNDAKUNNU VILLAGE OF THE NILGIRI HILLS, SOUTH INDIA

    PubMed Central

    Manikandan, P. N. Arul

    2005-01-01

    The present paper represents the results of an ethnobotanical survey conducted in Mundakunnu village of Gudalur taluk, Nilgiri district of Tamil Nadu, India. It has been observed that the plant species are used to various ailments of analgesic, antidiarrhoeal, piles, antidiabetic, gynecological problems, vermifuge, antidandruff, venereal diseases, bone fracture and as vegetables. A total of 52 plants species belonging to 51 genera (33 dicot & 6 monocot) have been discussed. PMID:22557184

  19. Normative data for stretched penile length in term neonates born in Tamil Nadu

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, Sudha Rathna; Mahadevan, Shriraam; Bharath, R.; Jagadeesh, Sujatha; Kumutha, J.; Suresh, Seshadri

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To establish normative data for stretched penile length (SPL) in term male neonates born in Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: All live term male neonates delivered in a hospital during a given period were included. SPL was measured from the pubic ramus to the tip of the glans. Two consecutive measurements were taken and average was recorded. Results: The mean SPL observed in our study was 2.83 ± 0.49 cm. Conclusion: This study helps establish normative values for SPL in neonates of Tamil Nadu origin. PMID:25143923

  20. Climate variables as predictors for seasonal forecast of dengue occurrence in Chennai, Tamil Nadu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subash Kumar, D. D.; Andimuthu, R.

    2013-12-01

    Background Dengue is a recently emerging vector borne diseases in Chennai. As per the WHO report in 2011 dengue is one of eight climate sensitive disease of this century. Objective Therefore an attempt has been made to explore the influence of climate parameters on dengue occurrence and use for forecasting. Methodology Time series analysis has been applied to predict the number of dengue cases in Chennai, a metropolitan city which is the capital of Tamil Nadu, India. Cross correlation of the climate variables with dengue cases revealed that the most influential parameters were monthly relative humidity, minimum temperature at 4 months lag and rainfall at one month lag (Table 1). However due to intercorrelation of relative humidity and rainfall was high and therefore for predictive purpose the rainfall at one month lag was used for the model development. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models have been applied to forecast the occurrence of dengue. Results and Discussion The best fit model was ARIMA (1,0,1). It was seen that the monthly minimum temperature at four months lag (?= 3.612, p = 0.02) and rainfall at one month lag (?= 0.032, p = 0.017) were associated with dengue occurrence and they had a very significant effect. Mean Relative Humidity had a directly significant positive correlation at 99% confidence level, but the lagged effect was not prominent. The model predicted dengue cases showed significantly high correlation of 0.814(Figure 1) with the observed cases. The RMSE of the model was 18.564 and MAE was 12.114. The model is limited by the scarcity of the dataset. Inclusion of socioeconomic conditions and population offset are further needed to be incorporated for effective results. Conclusion Thus it could be claimed that the change in climatic parameters is definitely influential in increasing the number of dengue occurrence in Chennai. The climate variables therefore can be used for seasonal forecasting of dengue with rise in minimum temperature and rainfall at a city level. Table 1. Cross correlation of climate variables with dengue cases in Chennai ** p<0.01,*p<0.05

  1. The state of health services in China and India: a larger context.

    PubMed

    Bardhan, Pranab

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the problems of health services in China and India are related to some structural features of the two economies. Some similarities and differences exist across these two countries in terms of political economy, with differential results. Both countries have experienced remarkable economic growth during the past quarter-century, but this has not always translated into improvements in health for the poor. Although China used to have an egalitarian basic public health service, the system has become quite inegalitarian during the past quarter-century, with the disintegration of the communes and adoption of fee-based services under a system of decentralized public finance. India's health system has remained inegalitarian throughout. PMID:18607025

  2. Social Sector Expenditure and Child Mortality in India: A State-Level Analysis from 1997 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Makela, Susanna M.; Dandona, Rakhi; Dilip, T. R.; Dandona, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    Background India is unlikely to meet the Millennium Development Goal for child mortality. As public policy impacts child mortality, we assessed the association of social sector expenditure with child mortality in India. Methods and Findings Mixed-effects regression models were used to assess the relationship of state-level overall social sector expenditure and its major components (health, health-related, education, and other) with mortality by sex among infants and children aged 1–4 years from 1997 to 2009, adjusting for potential confounders. Counterfactual models were constructed to estimate deaths averted due to overall social sector increases since 1997. Increases in per capita overall social sector expenditure were slightly higher in less developed than in more developed states from 1997 to 2009 (2.4-fold versus 2-fold), but the level of expenditure remained 36% lower in the former in 2009. Increase in public expenditure on health was not significantly associated with mortality reduction in infants or at ages 1–4 years, but a 10% increase in health-related public expenditure was associated with a 3.6% mortality reduction (95% confidence interval 0.2–6.9%) in 1–4 years old boys. A 10% increase in overall social sector expenditure was associated with a mortality reduction in both boys (6.8%, 3.5–10.0%) and girls (4.1%, 0.8–7.5%) aged 1–4 years. We estimated 119,807 (95% uncertainty interval 53,409 – 214,662) averted deaths in boys aged 1–4 years and 94,037 (14,725 – 206,684) in girls in India in 2009 that could be attributed to increases in overall social sector expenditure since 1997. Conclusions Further reduction in child mortality in India would be facilitated if policymakers give high priority to the social sector as a whole for resource allocation in the country’s 5-year plan for 2012–2017, as public expenditure on health alone has not had major impact on reducing child mortality. PMID:23409166

  3. Cluster Randomized Trial to Compare Spectacle Delivery Systems at Outreach Eye Camps in South India

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Dhivya; Joseph, Sanil; Valaguru, Vijayakumar; Mitta, Vinod P.; Ravilla, Thulasiraj D; Cotch, Mary Frances

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To study the optimal method for delivery of spectacles at eye camps to maximize procurement and use. Methods A cluster randomized controlled trial, undertaken in the catchment districts of Aravind Eye Hospital – Theni, in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. Community eye camps (n = 21) were allocated to offer one of three types of service for purchase of spectacles to correct refractive error: (1) Issuance of a prescription only; (2) booking orders for spectacles with subsequent delivery; (3) on-the-spot fitting and dispensing of spectacles. Follow-up questionnaires were administered 6 weeks after interventions to assess patient outcomes. The primary outcome measured was spectacle procurement at follow-up 6 weeks post-screening. Secondary outcomes included use of and satisfaction with spectacles. Reasons for purchase/non-purchase were also assessed. Results Compared to those who were issued only a prescription and adjusting for distance from base hospital, spectacle procurement was significantly higher for those allowed to book spectacles for subsequent delivery (odds ratio, OR, 8.79, 95% confidence interval, CI, 4.61–16.78) and for those receiving spectacles on the spot (OR 13.97, 95% CI 8.12–24.05). Among those with spectacles at 6 weeks, spectacle use was nearly universal and satisfaction with spectacles varied between 92 and 94% among the three different dispensing modalities. Conclusion Making spectacles available on the spot is important to ensure procurement in a context where availability and access to dispensing opticians is poor. PMID:24070102

  4. Hydrogeochemical analysis and evaluation of groundwater quality in the Gadilam river basin, Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasanna, M. V.; Chidambaram, S.; Hameed, A. Shahul; Srinivasamoorthy, K.

    2011-02-01

    Water samples were collected from different formations of Gadilam river basin and analyzed to assess the major ion chemistry and suitability of water for domestic and drinking purposes. Chemical parameters of groundwater such as pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), Sodium (Na + ), Potassium (K + ), Calcium (Ca + ), Magnesium (Mg + ), Bicarbonate (HCO3^{ -}), Sulphate (SO4^{ -}), Phosphate (PO4^{ -}) and Silica (H4SiO4) were determined. The geochemical study of the aquatic systems of the Gadilam river basin show that the groundwater is near-acidic to alkaline and mostly oxidizing in nature. Higher concentration of Sodium and Chloride indicates leaching of secondary salts and anthropogenic impact by industry and salt water intrusion. Spatial distribution of EC indicates anthropogenic impact in the downstream side of the basin. The concentration levels of trace metals such as Iron (Fe), Lead (Pb), Nickel (Ni), Bromide (Br), Iodide (I) and Aluminium (Al) have been compared with the world standard. Interpretation of data shows that some trace metals such as Al, Ni and Pb exceed the acceptable limit of world standard. Geophysical study was carried out to identify the weathered zone in the hard rock and contaminated zone by anthropogenic impact in the downstream of river Gadilam. A few of the groundwater samples in the study area were found to be unsuitable for domestic and drinking purposes.

  5. The local climate–development nexus: jatropha and smallholder adaptation in Tamil Nadu, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca A. Rittenburg; Miroslav Kummel; Eric P. Perramond

    2011-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol has initiated Clean Development Mechanism projects in developing countries as one means to offset carbon emitted in developed nations. Biofuels may be a viable solution, but we argue here that it may also compete with local smallholder farming systems and labour resources. This study assesses the integration of tree bio-diesel crop Jatropha curcas into smallholder agriculture in

  6. The transformation of amphibolite facies gneiss to charnockite in southern Karnataka and northern Tamil Nadu, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Janardhan; R. C. Newton; E. C. Hansen

    1982-01-01

    Amphibolite facies metamorphic grade gives way southward to the granulite grade in southern Karnataka, as acid gneisses develop charnockite patches and streaks and basic enclaves develop pyroxenes. Petrologic investigations in the transitional zone south of Mysore have established the following points:1)The transition is prograde. Amphibole-bearing gneisses intimately associated with charnockite at Kabbal and several similar localities are not retrogressive after

  7. Spatial assessment of groundwater quality in Mamundiyar basin, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Dar, Imran Ahmad; Sankar, K; Dar, Mithas Ahmad

    2011-07-01

    Understanding the groundwater quality is important as it is the main factor determining its suitability for drinking, domestic, agricultural, and industrial purposes. In order to assess the groundwater quality, 30 groundwater samples have been collected in year 2008. The water samples collected in the field were analyzed for electrical conductivity, pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), major cations like calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and anions like bicarbonate, carbonate, chloride, nitrate, and sulfate, in the laboratory using the standard methods given by the American Public Health Association. The groundwater locations were selected to cover the entire study area and attention was been given to the area where contamination is expected. The expected groundwater contaminants were chloride, nitrate, TDS, etc. The results were evaluated in accordance with the drinking water quality standards given by the World Health Organization (WHO 1993). To know the distribution pattern of the concentration of different elements and to demarcate the higher concentration zones, the contour maps for various elements were also generated, discussed, and presented. PMID:20878466

  8. Landscape Heterogeneity mapping for Access to Tribal health care in Nilgiris District of Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brindha, B.; Prashanthi Devi, M.

    2014-11-01

    The Nilgiris district in Tamilnadu has a rich biodiversity in terms of flora, fauna and ethnic population. The district is basically a mountainous region, situated at an elevation of 2000 to 2,600 meters above MSL and constituting of several hill and Steep Mountain valleys. This region houses six tribes who are mainly forest dwellers and live in close settlements depending on the forest resources for their livelihood. The Tribes of Nilgiris have been diagnosed and monitored for Sickle cell Anemia which is a disease of major concern among these ethnic populations. This genetic disorder developed due to the sickling of Red Blood Cells has increased during the past few decades. The Tribes, as they live in close encounter with the forest regions and have strict social cultural barriers, face difficulty in availing treatment or counseling from the Sickle Cell Research Center (SCRC) and other NGOs like NAWA and AHWINI in the region. It was observed that many factors such as landscape terrain, climatic conditions and improper roads tend to hinder the access to appropriate health care. The SCRC in Gudalur region is a facility established to monitor the disease cases inspite of these influencing factors. On analyzing the year bound age wise classification among male and female patients, certain dropouts in cases were observed which may be due to inaccessible condition or migration of the patient. In our study, Landscape heterogeneity mapping for different climatic seasons was done in ArcGIS 10.1. For this, contour and terrain maps, road networks and villages were prepared and factors that determine Terrain Difficulty were assessed. Vegetation mapping using IRS satellite images for the study region was attempted and associated with the landscape map. A risk analysis was proposed based on terrain difficulty and access to the nearest Health care Center. Based on this, the above factors alternate routes were suggested to access the difficult areas.

  9. FT-IR Spectroscopic Studies of Beach Rocks of South East Coast of Tamil Nadu, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Ravisankar; A. Rajalakshmi; P. Eswaran; K. Thillaivelavan; K. Vijay Anand

    2008-01-01

    The mineral composition of a sedimentary rock is one of its most important attributes. The presence or absence of a given mineral may be a clue to the history of a rock. Beach rock is one of the types of sedimentary rock. Beach rock is a peculiar type of formation when compared to other types of rock formations. It is

  10. Genetic affinity between diverse ethnoreligious communities of Tamil Nadu, India: a microsatellite study.

    PubMed

    Eaaswarkhanth, M; Vasulu, T S; Haque, Ikramul

    2008-12-01

    Historically, a number of local Hindu caste groups have converted to Islam and formed religious endogamous groups. Therefore the local caste groups and religious communities in a region are expected to show genetic relatedness. In this study we investigate the genetic relationship between Tamil-speaking (Dravidian language) Muslims (Sunni), six endogamous Hindu castes, and a tribal ethnic group (Irulars) using 13 CODIS (Combined DNA Index System) autosomal microsatellite markers. Muslims show the highest average heterozygosity (0.405) compared to the other groups. The neighbor-joining tree and the multidimensional-scaling plot show clustering of Tamil-speaking Muslims with three caste groups (Gounder, Paraiyar, and Vanniyar), whereas the Irular tribe is separated out of the cluster. PMID:19728538

  11. From "Time Pass" to Transformative Force: School-Based Human Rights Education in Tamil Nadu, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajaj, Monisha

    2012-01-01

    This article presents data collected at the level of practice to highlight one non-governmental organization's approach to human rights education and how household-, school-, and community-level factors mediated student impact. Findings suggest that a variety of factors at the three levels contribute to the program's successful implementation in…

  12. Drought assessment and monitoring through remote sensing and GIS in western tracts of Tamil Nadu, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Muthumanickam; P. Kannan; R. Kumaraperumal; S. Natarajan; R. Sivasamy; C. Poongodi

    2011-01-01

    Drought is an insidious hazard of nature and is considered to be the most complex but least understood of all natural hazards. Large historical datasets are required to study drought and these involve complex interrelationships between climatological and meteorological data. Rainfall is an important meteorological parameter; the amount and distribution influence the type of vegetation in a region. To analyse

  13. The relationship between physical intimate partner violence and sexually transmitted infection among women in India and the United States.

    PubMed

    Spiwak, Rae; Afifi, Tracie O; Halli, Shiva; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia; Sareen, Jitender

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the association between physical intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexually transmitted infection (STI) in two national samples. Data came from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions Wave 2 (n=34,653) and the National Family Health Survey-3 (n=124 385). Ever-married women between the ages of 20 and 49 were asked if they had experienced physical violence by their partner in the past year. Outcomes were presence of doctor confirmed HIV and self-reported STI. Age at first intercourse was examined as a mediator of the relationship between IPV and STI. Logistic regression examined associations between IPV, age at first intercourse and STI. Compared to individuals with no physical IPV, risk for STI was higher for individuals who experienced past year IPV living in the United States and India, however once controlling for age at first intercourse, age, education, household wealth/income and past year sexual violence, the relationship between IPV, and STI was significant in the American sample [(AOR)=1.65, 95% (CI)=1.21-2.26], however not for individuals living in India [(AOR)=1.75, 95% (CI)=0.84-3.65]. Individuals with exposure to physical IPV are at increased odds for STI. Age at first intercourse although a marker of risk, may not be an accurate marker of risky sexual behavior in both samples. PMID:23778315

  14. Burden of Complicated Malaria in a Densely Forested Bastar Region of Chhattisgarh State (Central India)

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Vidhan; Basak, Sanjay; Bhandari, Sneha; Bharti, Praveen K.; Thomas, Trilok; Singh, Mrigendra P.; Singh, Neeru

    2014-01-01

    Background A prospective study on severe and complicated malaria was undertaken in the tribal dominated area of Bastar division, Chhattisgarh (CG), Central India, with an objective to understand the clinical epidemiology of complicated malaria in patients attending at a referral hospital. Methods Blood smears, collected from the general medicine and pediatric wards of a government tertiary health care facility located in Jagdalpur, CG, were microscopically examined for malaria parasite from July 2010 to December 2013. The Plasmodium falciparum positive malaria cases who met enrollment criteria and provided written informed consent were enrolled under different malaria categories following WHO guidelines. PCR was performed to reconfirm the presence of P.falciparum mono infection among enrolled cases. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to identify different risk factors using STATA 11.0. Results A total of 40,924 cases were screened for malaria. The prevalence of malaria and P.falciparum associated complicated malaria (severe and cerebral both) in the hospital was 6% and 0.81%, respectively. P.falciparum malaria prevalence, severity and associated mortality in this region peaked at the age of>4–5 years and declined with increasing age. P.falciparum malaria was significantly more prevalent in children than adults (P<0.00001). Among adults, males had significantly more P.falciparum malaria than females (P<0.00001). Case fatality rate due to cerebral malaria and severe malaria was, respectively, 32% and 9% among PCR confirmed mono P.falciparum cases. Coma was the only independent predictor of mortality in multivariate regression analysis. Mortality was significantly associated with multi-organ complication score (P?=?0.0003). Conclusion This study has revealed that the pattern of morbidity and mortality in this part of India is very different from earlier reported studies from India. We find that the peak morbidity and mortality in younger children regardless of seasonality. This suggests that this age group needs special care for control and clinical management. PMID:25531373

  15. Complex Behaviour of Glaciers in Ladakh Mountains (J & K State, India) : Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganjoo, R. K.

    2011-12-01

    The Ladakh Mountains house approximately 4500 glaciers in its two major basins, namely Indus (1800 glaciers) and Shyok (2700 glaciers).Glaciers in Indian Himalaya have been under monitor for past about five decades. Monitoring of scores of glaciers have been both in terms of documentary record and field studies of the glaciers in northwest Himalaya. The studies suggest that glaciers of Ladakh mountains show an extremely different behavior as compared to the glaciers of rest of northwest Himalaya. Four glaciers, namely Durung Drung, Kangriz, Machoi and Siachen, representing the Indus and Shyok basin are dealt herein. Sufficient documentary and field evidences of these four glaciers support the view that glaciers housed in Ladakh mountains contradict the commonly accepted concept of fast melting glaciers in Himalaya (Ganjoo and Koul 2009; Ganjoo et al. 2010). The studies further suggest that the secular movement of glaciers in Ladakh mountains is a complex phenomena of several micro and macro-climatic factors, terrain morphology, and tectonics (Ganjoo 2009, Koul and Ganjoo 2010). The change in the morphology of glaciers is not necessarily related with the change in climate as commonly believed and hyped. Ganjoo, R.K. (2009) Holocene Tectonics and Climate of Durung Drung Glacier Basin, Zanskar Himalaya, India (Abstract). The 5th International Symposium on Tibetan Plateau and 24th Himalaya- Karakorum-Tibet Workshop, Aug. 11-14, Beijing, China. Ganjoo, R.K. and Koul, M.N. (2009) Is the Siachen glacier melting? Current Science, 97(3), 309-310. Ganjoo, RK; Koul, MN; Ajai; Bahuguna, IM (2010) Glaciers of Nubra valley, Karakorum mountains, Ladakh (India) vis-à-vis climate change (abstract). 7th Annual Meeting of Asia Oceania Geosciences Society, Hyderabad. Koul, M.N. and Ganjoo, R.K. (2010) Impact of inter- and intra-annual variation in weather parameters on mass balance and equilibrium line altitude of Naradu glacier (Himachal Pradesh), NW Himalaya, India. Climatic Change, 99, 119-139.

  16. State of Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry in India: Current status and vision for future

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sandeep

    2011-01-01

    Over the years Consultation-Liaison (C-L) psychiatry has contributed significantly to the growth of the psychiatry and has brought psychiatry very close to the advances in the medicine. It has also led to changes in the medical education and in the providing comprehensive management to the physically ill. In India, although the General Hospital Psychiatric units were established in 1930s, C-L Psychiatry has never been the main focus of training and research. Hence there is an urgent need to improve C-L Psychiatry services and training to provide best and optimal care to the patients and provide best education to the trainees. PMID:22135437

  17. A Population-Based Assessment of Presbyopia in the State of Andhra Pradesh, South India: The Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Praveen K. Nirmalan; Sannapaneni Krishnaiah; Bindiganavale R. Shamanna; Gullapalli N. Rao; Ravi Thomas

    PURPOSE. To determine the prevalence of presbyopia in the state of Andhra Pradesh in south India. METHODS. Comprehensive ocular examinations including log- MAR (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution) distance and near (presenting and best corrected) visual acuity, slit lamp biomicroscopy of the anterior segment, and dilated posterior segment examinations were performed using a standardized protocol for subjects identified

  18. Empowerment and continuous improvement in the United States, Mexico, Poland, and India: Predicting fit on the basis of the dimensions of power distance and individualism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Robert; Tahira M. Probst; Joseph J. Martocchio; Fritz Drasgow; John J. Lawler

    2000-01-01

    Although variations in national cultures predominate as explanations for the belief that universal approaches to management do not exist, there have been few reports of systematic studies. Data from employees of a single firm with operations in the United States, Mexico, Poland, and India were used to test the fit of empowerment and continuous improvement practices with national culture. Using

  19. “We're having a good (or bad) day”: Differences in emotional synchrony in married couples in the United States and India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashley K. Randall; Shannon A. Corkery; Deepti Duggi; Shanmukh V. Kamble; Emily A. Butler

    2011-01-01

    Partners in close relationships often experience similar day-to-day emotions. However, little is known about whether emotional synchrony between partners is similar across marriages in different cultural contexts. We assess differences in levels of synchrony using daily diaries from 35 couples from the United States and 89 couples from India (41 in love marriages, 48 in arranged marriages). Results show group

  20. “We're having a good (or bad) day”: Differences in emotional synchrony in married couples in the United States and India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashley K. Randall; Shannon A. Corkery; Deepti Duggi; Shanmukh V. Kamble; Emily A. Butler

    2012-01-01

    Partners in close relationships often experience similar day-to-day emotions. However, little is known about whether emotional synchrony between partners is similar across marriages in different cultural contexts. We assess differences in levels of synchrony using daily diaries from 35 couples from the United States and 89 couples from India (41 in love marriages, 48 in arranged marriages). Results show group

  1. Peer-to-Peer Consultations: Ancillary Services Peer Exchange with India: Experience from South Africa, Europe & the United States (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-05-01

    In support of national and subnational decision makers, the 21st Century Power Partnership regularly works with country partners to organize peer-to-peer consultations on critical issues. In March 2014, 21CPP collaborated with the Regulatory Assistance Project - India to host two peer-to-peer exchanges among experts from India, South Africa, Europe, and the United States to discuss the provision of ancillary services, particularly in the context of added variability and uncertainty from renewable energy. This factsheet provides a high level summary of the peer-to-peer consultation.

  2. Characterization of minerals in air dust particles in the state of Tamilnadu, India through FTIR, XRD and SEM analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil Kumar, R.; Rajkumar, P.

    2014-11-01

    The abstract of this paper explains the presence of minerals in air which causes great concern regarding public health issues. The spectroscopic investigation of air dust particles of several samples in various locations in the state of Tamilnadu, India is reported. Qualitative analyses were carried out to determine the major and minor constituent minerals present in the samples based on the FTIR, XRD absorption peaks. This study also identified the minerals like quartz, asbestos, kaolinite, calcite, hematite, montmorillonite, nacrite and several other trace minerals in the air dust particles. The presents of quartz is mainly found in all the samples invariably. Hence the percentage of quartz and its crystalline nature were determined with the help of extinction co-efficient and crystallinity index respectively. The shape and size of the particulates are studied with SEM analysis.

  3. Non-Disclosure of Violence among Female Sex Workers: Evidence from a Large Scale Cross-Sectional Survey in India

    PubMed Central

    Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Battala, Madhusudana; Porwal, Akash; Saggurti, Niranjan

    2014-01-01

    Objective One of the indicators critical to the success of violence reduction programmes among female sex workers (FSWs) is the pattern of disclosure of violence. This study examines the rate of non-disclosure of violence among FSWs in India by perpetrators of violence and programme exposure. Methods Data were drawn from a cross-sectional study conducted among FSWs in 2009 across four states of India: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. The analytical sample included 1341 FSWs who experienced physical violence in past six months. Multilevel logistic regression stratified by state was conducted to examine predictors of non-disclosure. Results About 54% of FSWs did not disclose their experience of violence to anyone with considerable variations in the pattern of disclosure across states. Another 36% of FSWs shared the experience with NGO worker/peer. Compared to violence perpetrated by paying partners/stranger, that by non-paying partner were twice more likely to report non-disclosure (53% vs. 68%, Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]: 1.8, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.3–2.4). Similarly, FSWs who were not registered with an NGO/sex worker collective were 40% more likely to report non-disclosure of violence against those registered (58% vs. 53%, AOR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1–1.9). Conclusions Non-disclosure of physical violence is quite high among FSWs which can be a barrier to the success of violence reduction efforts. Immediate efforts are required to understand the reasons behind non-disclosure based on which interventions can be developed. Community collectivisation and designing gender-based interventions with the involvement of non-paying partners should be the way forward. PMID:24846145

  4. Transmission dynamics of hepatitis C virus among intra venous drug users in the border state of Manipur, India.

    PubMed

    Saha, Kallol; Firdaus, Rushna; Biswas, Aritra; Mukherjee, Anirban; Sarkar, Kamalesh; Chakrabarti, Sekhar; Sadhukhan, Provash Chandra

    2014-06-01

    Intra venous drug users (IVDUs) are at high risk for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection owing to their high rate of drug abuses. The north-eastern part of India has a high prevalence of IVDUs with Manipur being the worst hit state. The aim of the study was to document the molecular epidemiology, the patterns of HCV transmission, genomic variation and recombination events within HCV genome among IVDUs of Manipur, India. 91 anti-HCV sero-reactive blood samples were collected from IVDUs in Manipur. The samples were processed for RNA extraction, nested RT-PCR, sequencing and quantitative viral RNA estimation. Phylogeographic analysis of the sequenced core and NS5B regions of HCV genome was performed to determine the probable transmission route and recombinant HCV strains. 83 out of 91 anti-HCV seropositive samples were RNA positive (91.20%) based on 5'UTR of HCV genome by nested RT-PCR. Of the RNA positive samples, 73 paired partial core and NS5B gene were sequenced. Three major genotype and eight subtypes were detected while no recombinant strains were found. Individuals with genotype 1 had the mean viral load (5.94 ± 0.705 log10IU/ml) followed by genotype 3 (4.91 ± 0.49 log10IU/ml) and 6 (3.96 ± 0.32 log10IU/ml). The viral load was statistically significant among the male individuals at 4.822 ± 1.36 log10IU/ml compared to 4.767 ± 0.49 log10IU/ml for females (t=3.249, p<0.005). The phylogeographic results indicated 3b, 6h originated from Vietnam, 1a had Indian origin, 3a, 6k originated from southern China while 1b originated from Myanmar, respectively. The incidence of eight different subtypes in Manipur reflects the transmission of these strains from the "Golden Triangle" drug trafficking regions. Sequence analysis confirmed the transmission routes of HCV, which is linked to China and Vietnam for the newly emergent genotype 6 in north-eastern India. PMID:24650917

  5. Assessment of ‘Accredited Social Health Activists’—A National Community Health Volunteer Scheme in Karnataka State, India

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Mohan; Varadharajan, Kiruba S.; Krishnamurthy, Aditi; Ananthkumar, S.R.; Mony, Prem K.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT About 700,000 Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHA) have been deployed as community health volunteers throughout India over the last few years. The objective of our study was to assess adherence to selection criteria in the recruitment of ASHA workers and to assess their performance against their job descriptions in Karnataka state, India. A cross-sectional survey, using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods, was undertaken in 2012. Three districts, 12 taluks (subdistricts), and 300 villages were selected through a sequential sampling scheme. For the quantitative survey, 300 ASHAs and 1,800 mothers were interviewed using sets of structured questionnaire. For the qualitative study, programme officers were interviewed via in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Mean±SD age of ASHAs was 30.3±5.0 years, and about 90% (261/294) were currently married, with eight years of schooling. ASHAs were predominantly (>80%) involved in certain tasks: home-visits, antenatal counselling, delivery escort services, breastfeeding advice, and immunization advice. Performance was moderate (40-60%) for: drug provision for tuberculosis, caring of children with diarrhoea or pneumonia, and organizing village meetings for health action. Performance was low (<25%) for advice on: contraceptive-use, obstetric danger sign assessment, and neonatal care. This was self-reported by ASHAs and corroborated by mothers. In conclusion, ASHA workers were largely recruited as per preset selection criteria with regard to age, education, family status, income, and residence. The ASHA workers were found to be functional in some areas with scope for improvement in others. The role of an ASHA worker was perceived to be more of a link-worker/facilitator rather than a community health worker or a social activist. PMID:25995730

  6. Comparison of some sediment-hosted, stratiform barite deposits in China, the United States, and India

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, S.H.B.; Poole, F.G.; Wang, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Shifts in world barite production since the 1980s have resulted in China becoming the world's largest barite-producing country followed by the US and India. Most barite produced for use in drilling fluids is derived from black shale- and chert-hosted, stratiform marine deposits. In China, Late Proterozoic to Early Cambrian marine barite deposits occur on the oceanic margins of the Yangtze platform, in the Qinling region in the north and the Jiangnan region in the south. Most US ore-grade deposits are in the Nevada barite belt; most commercial deposits occur in Ordovician and Devonian marine rocks along the western margin of the early Paleozoic North American continent. Production in India is predominantly from a single Middle Proterozoic deposit in a sedimentary basin located on Archean basement in Andrah Pradesh.The geologic and geochemical characteristics of the deposits are consistent with origins from a variety of sedimentary-exhalative processes, with biogenic processes contributing to the concentration of some seafloor barite. Linear distributions of clusters of lenticular deposits suggest a geographic relationship to syndepositional seafloor fault zones. Sulfur isotope data of the barite deposits range from values that are similar to coeval seawater sulfate to significantly higher ??34S values. Strontium isotope values of continental-margin-type deposits in Nevada and China are less radiogenic than those of cratonic-rift deposits (e.g. Meggen and Rammelsberg). Comparison of Lan/ Cen ratios of barite in the Qinling region of China with marine chert ratios suggests a relationship to hydrothermal fluids, whereas ratios from the Jiangnan region and Nevada can be interpreted as reflecting a biogenic influence.The California Borderland provides a potential modern analog where hydrothermal barium is being deposited on the seafloor in fault-block-bounded basins. Anoxic to dysaerobic conditions on some marine basin floors result from upwelling, nutrient-rich currents and high productivity in surface waters. In this setting, biogenic processes could contribute to the concentration of barium from hydrothermal sources. ?? 2003 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Availability and Distribution of Emergency Obstetric Care Services in Karnataka State, South India: Access and Equity Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Mony, Prem K.; Krishnamurthy, Jayanna; Thomas, Annamma; Sankar, Kiruba; Ramesh, B. M.; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James; Avery, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Background As part of efforts to reduce maternal deaths in Karnataka state, India, there has been a concerted effort to increase institutional deliveries. However, little is known about the quality of care in these healthcare facilities. We investigated the availability and distribution of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) services in eight northern districts of Karnataka state in south India. Methods & Findings We undertook a cross-sectional study of 444 government and 422 private health facilities, functional 24-hours-a-day 7-days-a-week. EmOC availability and distribution were evaluated for 8 districts and 42 taluks (sub-districts) during the year 2010, based on a combination of self-reporting, record review and direct observation. Overall, the availability of EmOC services at the sub-state level [EmOC?=?5.9/500,000; comprehensive EmOC (CEmOC)?=?4.5/500,000 and basic EmOC (BEmOC)?=?1.4/500,000] was seen to meet the benchmark. These services however were largely located in the private sector (90% of CEmOC and 70% of BemOC facilities). Thirty six percent of private facilities and six percent of government facilities were EmOC centres. Although half of eight districts had a sufficient number of EmOC facilities and all eight districts had a sufficient number of CEmOC facilities, only two-fifths of the 42 taluks had a sufficient number of EmOC facilities. With the private facilities being largely located in select towns only, the ‘non-headquarter’ taluks and ‘backward’ taluks suffered from a marked lack of coverage of these services. Spatial mapping further helped identify the clustering of a large number of contiguous taluks without adequate government EmOC facilities in northeastern Karnataka. Conclusions In conclusion, disaggregating information on emergency obstetric care service availability at district and subdistrict levels is critical for health policy and planning in the Indian setting. Reducing maternal deaths will require greater attention by the government in addressing inequities in the distribution of emergency obstetric care services. PMID:23717547

  8. Indoor concentration of radon, thoron and their progeny around granite regions in the state of Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Sannappa, J; Ningappa, C

    2014-03-01

    An extensive studies on the indoor activity concentrations of thoron, radon and their progeny in the granite region in the state of Karnataka, India, has been carried out since, 2007 in the scope of a lung cancer epidemiological study using solid-state nuclear track detector-based double-chamber dosemeters (LR-115, type II plastic track detector). Seventy-four dwellings of different types were selected for the measurement. The dosemeters containing SSNTD detectors were fixed 2 m above the floor. After an exposure time of 3 months (90 d), films were etched to reveal tracks. From the track density, the concentrations of radon and thoron were evaluated. The value of the indoor concentration of thoron and radon in the study area varies from 16 to 170 Bq m(-3) and 18 to 300 Bq m(-3) with medians of 66 and 82.3 Bq m(-3), respectively, and that of their progeny varies from 1.8 to 24 mWL with a median of 3.6 mWL and 1.6 to 19.6 mWL, respectively. The concentrations of indoor thoron, radon and their progeny and their equivalent effective doses are discussed. PMID:24106330

  9. Cost & efficiency evaluation of a publicly financed & publicly delivered referral transport service model in three districts of Haryana State, India

    PubMed Central

    Prinja, Shankar; Manchanda, Neha; Aggarwal, Arun Kumar; Kaur, Manmeet; Jeet, Gursimer; Kumar, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Various models of referral transport services have been introduced in different States in India with an aim to reduce maternal and infant mortality. Most of the research on referral transport has focussed on coverage, quality and timeliness of the service with not much information on cost and efficiency. This study was undertaken to analyze the cost of a publicly financed and managed referral transport service model in three districts of Haryana State, and to assess its cost and technical efficiency. Methods: Data on all resources spent for delivering referral transport service, during 2010, were collected from three districts of Haryana State. Costs incurred at State level were apportioned using appropriate methods. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) technique was used to assess the technical efficiency of ambulances. To estimate the efficient scale of operation for ambulance service, the average cost was regressed on kilometres travelled for each ambulance station using a quadratic regression equation. Results: The cost of referral transport per year varied from ?5.2 million in Narnaul to ?9.8 million in Ambala. Salaries (36-50%) constituted the major cost. Referral transport was found to be operating at an average efficiency level of 76.8 per cent. Operating an ambulance with a patient load of 137 per month was found to reduce unit costs from an average ? 15.5 per km to ? 9.57 per km. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that the publicly delivered referral transport services in Haryana were operating at an efficient level. Increasing the demand for referral transport services among the target population represents an opportunity for further improving the efficiency of the underutilized ambulances. PMID:24521648

  10. Use of contraceptives and unmet need for family planning among tribal women in India and selected hilly states.

    PubMed

    Prusty, Ranjan Kumar

    2014-06-01

    The paper provides a comprehensive picture of knowledge and use of contraceptives among scheduled tribes of India and selected central hilly states where tribal population contributes more than 30% of the total tribal population of the country. An attempt is also made to know how far scheduled tribes differ from non-tribes in the states, namely Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, and Chhattisgarh, using information collected in the third round of District-level Household Survey (DLHS-RCH III: 2007-2008). Bivariate analysis was used for understanding the level of knowledge, use of and unmet need for contraception among different tribal and non-tribal groups. Binary logistic regression was used for understanding the factors associated with the use of contraception and unmet need for family planning among tribal women. Knowledge and use of temporary contraceptive methods are considerably lower among tribal women compared to their non-tribal counterparts in the three states under study. Low acceptance due to phobia of adverse health consequences, accessibility to and lack of sound knowledge of contraception are the leading reasons for not using contraceptives. The unmet need for family planning among them was quite high, especially in the state of Jharkhand. Multivariate analysis substantiated the role of women and husbands' education, age of women, and number of surviving boys in the use of any modem method of contraception. Educating women and their respective husbands about proper use and benefits of modem contraceptives is important to solve the problem of high unmet need for family planning among these tribal women. A simultaneous attention to the health systems strengthening component is crucial for ensuring sustained delivery of good-quality family planning services. PMID:25076671

  11. Potential and prospects of solar energy in Uttara Kannada, District of Karnataka State, India

    SciTech Connect

    Ramachandra, T.V.; Subramanian, D.K. [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India). Centre for Ecological Sciences

    1997-11-01

    Estimation of solar radiation for Uttara Kannada district is done on the basis of solar and other climatological data available at stations located at Karwar, Honnavar, Shirali, Mangalore, and Goa. The most commonly used empirical formula is the one that relates sunshine duration and global radiation, also referred to as Angstrom`s equation. The authors have used this relationship to estimate global radiation based on 20 years of data at Mangalore and 25 years of data at Goa provided by the India Meteorological Department. It is seen that computed and measured values (actual values) of global radiation (GR) agree within the range of 2--5% for most months. Data at Goa and Mangalore have been analyzed in order to improve accuracy and to establish the role of other climatological parameters, such as mean daily temperature, relative humidity, specific humidity, minimum and maximum temperature, and rainfall. The computed and estimated values are within the range {+-}5%. With this empirical relationship, GR is estimated (kWh/m{sup 2}) for Karwar (with 37 years of climatological data), Honnavar (with 50 years of climatological data), and Bhatkal (Shirali, with 15 years of climatological data). Karwar has a GR range of 5.5--6.5 for January--May and is in the range of 4--5 during the monsoon months, July--September, while at Honnovar the GR range during January--May is 5.47--6.5 and its minimum during the monsoon months. This study suggests that solar conversion technologies have considerable potential for application, provided that questions of storage and the monsoon season requirement can be adequately addressed through other options. The abundance of solar resources can be illustrated by comparing the land requirements of solar projects (thermal or photovoltaic) with those of hydro or energy plantation projects.

  12. State and socio-demographic group variation in out-of-pocket expenditure, borrowings and Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) programme use for birth deliveries in India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background High out-of-pocket-expenditure (OOPE) deters families from seeking skilled/institutional care. ‘Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), a conditional cash transfer programme launched in 2005 to mitigate OOPE and to promote institutional deliveries among the poor, is part of Government of India’s efforts to achieve Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5. The objective of this study is to estimate variations in OOPE for normal/caesarean-section deliveries, JSY-programme use and delivery associated borrowings - by states and union territories, and socio-demographic profiling of families, in India. Methods Secondary analysis of data from the District Level Household Survey (DLHS-3), 2007–08. Mean and median OOPE, percentage use of JSY and percentage of families needing to borrow money to pay for delivery associated expenditure was estimated for institutional and home deliveries. Results Half (52%) of all deliveries in India occurred at home in 2007/08. OOPE for women having institutional deliveries remained high, with considerable variation between states and union territories. Mean OOPE (SD) of a normal delivery in public and private institution respectively in India were Rs. 1,624 and Rs. 4,458 and for a caesarean-section it was Rs. 5,935 and Rs. 14,276 respectively. There was considerable state-level variation in use of the JSY programme for normal deliveries (15% nationally; ranging from 0% in Goa to 43% in Madhya Pradesh) and the percentage of families having to borrow money to pay for a caesarean-section in a private institution (47% nationally; ranging from 7% in Goa to 69% in Bihar). Increased literacy and wealth were associated with a higher likelihood of an institutional delivery, higher OOPE but no major variations in use of the JSY. Conclusions Our study highlights the ongoing high OOPE and impoverishing impact of institutional care for deliveries in India. Supporting families in financial planning for maternity care, additional investment in the JSY programme and strengthening state level planning are required to increase the proportion of institutional deliveries. PMID:23217140

  13. Changes in risk behaviours and prevalence of sexually transmitted infections following HIV preventive interventions among female sex workers in five districts in Karnataka state, south India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B M Ramesh; Tara S H Beattie; Isac Shajy; Reynold Washington; Latta Jagannathan; Sushena Reza-Paul; James F Blanchard; Stephen Moses

    2010-01-01

    ObjectivesTo examine the impact of a large-scale HIV prevention programme for female sex workers (FSW) in Karnataka state, south India, on the prevalence of HIV\\/sexually transmitted infections (STI), condom use and programme coverage.MethodsBaseline and follow-up integrated biological and behavioural surveys were conducted on random samples of FSW in five districts in Karnataka between 2004 and 2009.Results4712 FSW participated in the

  14. Private Schooling Industry in North East India: A Trend Analysis of Nagaland State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Biswambhara; Suresh, P. Srinivasa; Rio, K.

    2006-01-01

    The present study is an attempt to examine the intricacies of the growth of Private School industry in the North-Eastern Indian State of Nagaland. The study was carried out in Kohima, the capital city of Nagaland State. Data were obtained from field studies as well as from published reports of the Government. The main objective of the study was to…

  15. Can India's "Literate" Read?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata

    2010-01-01

    This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading Method…

  16. POTA: Lessons Learned From India’s Anti-Terror Act

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Gagné

    2005-01-01

    Shortly after the September 11 terrorist attacks in the United States, India passed its own anti-terrorism ordinance, the Prevention of Terrorism Act (POTA), following a terrorist attack on India’s Parliament building in December 2001. As with the USA PATRIOT Act, Indian legislators acted quickly, declaring the Act to be a necessary weapon against terrorism. But POTA, like the USA PATRIOT

  17. India: A Performance Based Unit. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1998 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Sharon L.

    This unit of study aims to help students in grades 9-12 experience the history, culture, religion, and literature of India by emphasizing active participation in the diverse art forms indigenous to India and those that are shared by India and the United States. Components of study in the unit are: The "Ramayana"; Indian Classical Dance; The…

  18. Residue dynamics of fenamidone and mancozeb on gherkin under two agro climatic zones in the state of Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Soudamini; Deepa, M

    2012-04-01

    Residue dynamics of fenamidone and mancozeb on gherkin was evaluated at two different agro climatic zones i.e. at Bangalore (Zone-1) and Dharwad (Zone-2) in the state of Karnataka, India. Two treatments of the combination formulation (fenamidone 10% + mancozeb 50%) were given at the standard dose 150 + 750 g a.i. ha(-1) and double dose 300 + 1,500 g a.i. ha(-1). Initial residue deposits of fenamidone were 0.467 and 0.474 mg kg(-1) at Zone-1 and 2, respectively from standard dose treatment. From double dose treatment they were 0.964 and 0.856 mg kg(-1), respectively. Fenamidone residues persisted for 15 and 10 days and dissipated with the half-life of 4 and 3 days at Zone-1 and 2, respectively. Mancozeb residue deposits on gherkin were 0.383 and 0.428 mg kg(-1) from standard dose and 0.727 and 0.626 mg kg(-1) from double dose treatment at Zone-1 and 2, respectively. Mancozeb residues dissipated with the half-life of 2 and 1 day, respectively. Residues of both fenamidone and mancozeb dissipated faster at Zone-2 compared to Zone-1. The limit of quantification of fenamidone and mancozeb were 0.02 and 0.1 mg kg(-1), respectively in both gherkin and soil. Residues of fenamidone and mancozeb in soil collected on the 20th day from the 2 locations were found to be below quantifiable limit of both fungicides. PMID:22349284

  19. Usage pattern of synthetic food colours in different states of India and exposure assessment through commodities preferentially consumed by children.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Sumita; Purshottam, S K; Khanna, S K; Das, Mukul

    2011-08-01

    Exposure studies in children are emphasized nowadays given children's higher consumption vulnerability. The present study generated national-level data covering 16 major states of India on the usage pattern of colours and it identified food commodities through which a particular colour has the scope to exceed ADI limits. Out of the total analysed samples, 87.8% contained permitted colours, of which only 48% adhered to the prescribed limit of 100?mg?kg(-1). The majority of candyfloss, sugar toys, beverages, mouth fresheners, ice candy and bakery product samples exceeded the prescribed limit. Non-permitted colours were mostly prevalent in candyfloss and sugar toy samples. Though sunset yellow FCF (SSYFCF) and tartrazine were the two most popular colours, many samples used a blend of two or more colours. The blend of SSYFCF and tartrazine exceeded the prescribed limit by a factor of 37 in one sample, and the median and 95th percentile levels of this blend were 4.5- and 25.7-fold, respectively. The exposure assessment showed that the intake of erythrosine exceeded the ADI limits by two to six times at average levels of detected colours, whereas at the 95th percentile level both SSYFCF and erythrosine exceeded the respective ADI limits by three- to 12-fold in all five age groups. Thus, the uniform prescribed limit of synthetic colours at 100?mg?kg(-1) under Indian rules needs to be reviewed and should be governed by consumption profiles of the food commodities to check the unnecessary exposure of excessive colours to those vulnerable in the population that may pose a health risk. PMID:21790487

  20. Socio-economic factors & longevity in a cohort of Kerala State, India

    PubMed Central

    Sauvaget, Catherine; Ramadas, Kunnambath; Fayette, Jean-Marie; Thomas, Gigi; Thara, Somanathan; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives Even though Kerala State is well-known for its egalitarian policies in terms of healthcare, redistributive actions and social reforms, and its health indicators close to those of high-resource countries despite a poor per-capita income, it is not clear whether socio-economic disparities in terms of life expectancy are observed. This study was therefore carried out to study the impact of socio-economic level on life expectancy in individuals living in Kerala. Methods A cohort of 1,67,331 participants aged 34 years and above in Thiruvananthapuram district, having completed a lifestyle questionnaire at baseline in 1995, was followed up for mortality and cause of death until 2005. Survival estimates were based on the participants’ vital status and death rates were calculated separately for men and women and for several socio-economic factors, stratified by age. Results At 40 years, men and women were expected to live another 34 and 37 years, respectively. Life expectancy varied across the participants’ different socio-economic categories: those from high income households with good housing conditions, materially privileged households and small households, had a 2-3 years longer life expectancy as compared to the deprived persons. Also, those who went to college lived longer than the illiterates. The gaps between categories were wider in men than in women. Interpretation & conclusions Socio-economic disparity in longevity was observed: wealthy people from Kerala State presented a longer life expectancy. PMID:21623031

  1. Fusarium mangiferae associated with mango malformation in the tarai region of the Uttarakhand state of India

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Bhavna; Ansari, Mohammad Wahid; Bains, Gurdeep; Pant, Ramesh Chandra; Shukla, Alok; Tuteja, Narendra; Kumar, J

    2014-01-01

    Mango malformation is the most dangerous disease to mango worldwide. There are hints that Fusarium mangiferae might be one of the probable casual agents of disease. Recently, we reported on Fusarium isolates obtained from the mango tarai region of Uttarakhand acquiring morphological features of F. mangiferae. Here, further confirmation of Fusarium isolates were made by PCR amplification using primers specific to the translation elongation factors 1? and ?-tubulin gene of F. mangiferae. Further, SDS-PAGE and RAPD profiles showed genetic variability among isolates of F. mangiferae. This study provides further direct evidence of involvement of different strains of F. mangiferae in malformation diseases of mango in the tarai region of the Uttarakhand state. PMID:24691131

  2. India: Kachchh

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Liquefaction Effects from the Bhuj Earthquake     View Larger Image ... of western India. On January 26, 2001, a magnitude 7.7 earthquake devastated this area, killing 20,000 people and destroying ...

  3. Greater India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason R. Ali; Jonathan C. Aitchison

    2005-01-01

    “Greater India” is an 80-yr-old concept that has been used by geoscientists in plate tectonic models of the India–Asia collision system. Numerous authors working on the orogen and\\/or plate models of the broader region have added various sized chunks of continental lithosphere to the now northern edge of their reconstructed Indian plate. Prior to plate tectonic theory, Emile Argand (1924)

  4. The Profile of Injection Drug Users in Chennai, India: Identification of Risk Behaviours and Implications for Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Sunil Suhas; Desai, Monica; Srikrishnan, AK; Thamburaj, E; Vasudevan, CK; Kumar, M Suresh; Solomon, Suniti; Celentano, David D.; Mehta, Shruti H.

    2010-01-01

    We characterize the demographics, injection practices and risk behaviours of 1158 injection drug users (IDUs) in Chennai, the capital of Tamil Nadu in southern India who were recruited in 2005–2006 by community outreach. The median age was 35 years; the majority of IDUs were male, of Tamil ethnicity and married, earning less than USD 75 per month. Most (76%) had injected in the prior month. The median age at first injection was 25 years; the most common drug injected was heroin (80%) followed by buprenorphine. High risk behaviours were common and included needle sharing, unsafe disposal and inappropriate cleaning of needles as well as limited condom use. IDUs in India need to be educated on harm reduction and safe-injection practices; Pharmacies could serve as potential venues for HIV prevention interventions among IDUs in India as most IDUs obtain their needles from pharmacies without prescription. PMID:20141452

  5. Knowledge and awareness of diabetes in urban and rural India: The Indian Council of Medical Research India Diabetes Study (Phase I): Indian Council of Medical Research India Diabetes 4

    PubMed Central

    Deepa, M.; Bhansali, A.; Anjana, R. M.; Pradeepa, R.; Joshi, S. R.; Joshi, P. P.; Dhandhania, V. K.; Rao, P. V.; Subashini, R.; Unnikrishnan, R.; Shukla, D. K.; Madhu, S. V.; Das, A. K.; Mohan, V.; Kaur, T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Representative data on knowledge and awareness about diabetes is scarce in India and is extremely important to plan public health policies aimed at preventing and controlling diabetes. Aim: The aim of the following study is to assess awareness and knowledge about diabetes in the general population, as well as in individuals with diabetes in four selected regions of India. Materials and Methods: The study subjects were drawn from a representative sample of four geographical regions of India, Chandigarh, Tamil Nadu, Jharkhand and Maharashtra representing North, South, East and West and covering a population of 213 million. A total of 16,607 individuals (5112 urban and 11,495 rural) aged ?20 years were selected from 188 urban and 175 rural areas. Awareness of diabetes and knowledge of causative factors and complications of diabetes were assessed using an interviewer administered structured questionnaire in 14,274 individuals (response rate, 86.0%), which included 480 self-reported diabetic subjects. Results: Only 43.2% (6160/14,274) of the overall study population had heard about a condition called diabetes. Overall urban residents had higher awareness rates (58.4%) compared to rural residents (36.8%) (P < 0.001). About 46.7% of males and 39.6% of females reported that they knew about a condition called diabetes (P < 0.001). Of the general population, 41.5% (5726/13,794) knew about a condition called diabetes. Among them, 80.7% (4620/5726) knew that the prevalence of diabetes was increasing, whereas among diabetic subjects, it was 93.0% (448/480). Among the general and diabetic population, 56.3% and 63.4% respectively, were aware that diabetes could be prevented. Regarding complications, 51.5% of the general population and 72.7% diabetic population knew that diabetes could affect other organs. Based on a composite knowledge score to assess knowledge among the general population, Tamil Nadu had the highest (31.7) and Jharkhand the lowest score (16.3). However among self-reported diabetic subjects, Maharashtra had the highest (70.1) and Tamil Nadu, the lowest score (56.5). Conclusion: Knowledge and awareness about diabetes in India, particularly in rural areas, is poor. This underscores the need for conducting large scale diabetes awareness and education programs. PMID:24944935

  6. Structural patterns in high grade terrain in parts of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugavanam, E. B.; Vidyadharan, K. T.

    1988-01-01

    Detailed geological mapping in parts of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka has brought out vast areas occupied by highly deformed charnockite and high grade gneisses. These areas, similar to high grade shield terrains in other parts of the world have the impress of extensive tectonic reworking multideformation and polymetamorphism and are closely associated with layered ultramafics, shelf type sediments and different igneous events. In North Arcot and Charmapuri districts of Tamil Nadu and Kollegal taluk in Mysore district in Karnataka, charnockite is intensely cofolded with a supracrustal succession of layered ultramafics, pyroxene granulite, pink granolites, magnetite quartzite and khondalites. These areas have undergone five phases of deformation, five generations of basic dyke activities, four phases of migmatisation and two periods of metallogeny. Geochronological data ranges from 2900 m.y. to 750 m.y. In working out the tectanostratigraphy of the above areas the basic dykes of different generations have served as major time markers. In addition, the persistent strike continuity of linear bands of pyroxene granulite, pink granolite and magnetite quartzite has been of great utility in using them as structural markers for bringing out the complex structural history in these areas.

  7. Can currently available advanced combustion biomass cook-stoves provide health relevant exposure reductions? Results from initial assessment of select commercial models in India.

    PubMed

    Sambandam, Sankar; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Ghosh, Santu; Sadasivam, Arulselvan; Madhav, Satish; Ramasamy, Rengaraj; Samanta, Maitreya; Mukhopadhyay, Krishnendu; Rehman, Hafeez; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran

    2015-03-01

    Household air pollution from use of solid fuels is a major contributor to the national burden of disease in India. Currently available models of advanced combustion biomass cook-stoves (ACS) report significantly higher efficiencies and lower emissions in the laboratory when compared to traditional cook-stoves, but relatively little is known about household level exposure reductions, achieved under routine conditions of use. We report results from initial field assessments of six commercial ACS models from the states of Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh in India. We monitored 72 households (divided into six arms to each receive an ACS model) for 24-h kitchen area concentrations of PM2.5 and CO before and (1-6 months) after installation of the new stove together with detailed information on fixed and time-varying household characteristics. Detailed surveys collected information on user perceptions regarding acceptability for routine use. While the median percent reductions in 24-h PM2.5 and CO concentrations ranged from 2 to 71% and 10-66%, respectively, concentrations consistently exceeded WHO air quality guideline values across all models raising questions regarding the health relevance of such reductions. Most models were perceived to be sub-optimally designed for routine use often resulting in inappropriate and inadequate levels of use. Household concentration reductions also run the risk of being compromised by high ambient backgrounds from community level solid-fuel use and contributions from surrounding fossil fuel sources. Results indicate that achieving health relevant exposure reductions in solid-fuel using households will require integration of emissions reductions with ease of use and adoption at community scale, in cook-stove technologies. Imminent efforts are also needed to accelerate the progress towards cleaner fuels. PMID:25293811

  8. 76 FR 18248 - Sulfanilic Acid From China and India

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ...731-TA-538 and 561 (Third Review)] Sulfanilic Acid From China and India AGENCY: United States...the countervailing duty order on sulfanilic acid from India and the antidumping duty orders on sulfanilic acid from China and...

  9. Detection of multi-drug resistance & characterization of mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from North- Eastern States of India using GenoType MTBDRplus assay

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Ritu; Myneedu, Vithal Prasad; Arora, Jyoti; Singh, Niti; Sah, Girish Chander; Sarin, Rohit

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Information on drug resistance tuberculosis is sparse from North-East (N-E) States of India. We undertook this study to detect multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) among MDR-TB suspects, and common mutations among MDR-TB cases using GenoType MTBDRplus. Methods: All MDR suspect patients deposited sputum samples to peripheral designated microscopy centres (DMC) in North-East States. The district TB officers (DTOs) facilitated the transport of samples collected during January 2012 to August 2012 to our laboratory. The line probe assay to detect common mutations in the rpoB gene for rifampicin (RIF) and katG and inhA genes for isoniazid (INH), respectively was performed on 339 samples or cultures. Results: A total of 553 sputum samples from MDR suspects were received of which, 181 (32.7%) isolates were found to be multi-drug resistant. Missing WT8 along with mutation in codon S531L was commonest pattern for rifampicin resistant isolates (65.1%) and missing WT along with mutations in codon S315T1 of katG gene was commonest pattern for isoniazid resistant isolates (86.2%). Average turn-around time for dispatch of LPA result to these States from cultures and samples was 23.4 and 5.2 days, respectively. Interpretations & conclusions: The MDR-TB among MDR-TB suspects in North-Eastern States of India was found to be 32.7 per cent. The common mutations obtained for RIF and INH in the region were mostly similar to those reported earlier. PMID:25488443

  10. Genetic diversity of 15 autosomal short tandem repeats loci using the AmpFLSTR® Identifiler™ kit in a Bhil Tribe Population from Gujarat state, India

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhari, Ramesh R.; Dahiya, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The genetic diversity and forensic parameters based on 15 autosomal short tandem repeats (STR) loci; D8S1179,D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317,D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51,D5S818, and FGA in AmpFLSTR® Identifiler™ kit from Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA were evaluated in saliva samples of 297 unrelated individuals from the Bhil Tribe population of Gujarat state, India to study genetic diversities and relatedness of this population with other national and international populations. RESULTS: Statistical analysis of the data revealed all loci were within Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium expectations with the exception of the locus vWA (0.019) and locus D18S51 (0.016). The neighbour joining phylogeny tree and Principal Co-ordinate Analysis plot constructed based on Fst distances from autosomal STRs allele frequencies of the present study and other national as well as international populations show clustering of all the South Asian populations in one branch of the tree, while Middle Eastern and African populations cluster in a separate branch. CONCLUSION: Our findings reveal strong genetic affinities seen between the Indo-European (IE) speaking Bhil Tribe of Gujarat and Dravidian groups of South India. PMID:25400342

  11. The expanding host tree species spectrum of Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans and their isolations from surrounding soil in India.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, H S; Kowshik, T; Chowdhary, Anuradha; Preeti Sinha, K; Khan, Z U; Sun, Sheng; Xu, Jianping

    2008-12-01

    This study reports the widespread prevalence of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii in decayed wood inside trunk hollows of 14 species representing 12 families of trees and from soil near the base of various host trees from Delhi and several places in the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Tamil Nadu and Chandigarh Union Territory. Of the 311 trees from which samples were obtained, 64 (20.5%) were found to contain strains of the C. neoformans species complex. The number of trees positive for C. neoformans var grubii (serotypeA) was 51 (16.3%), for C. gattii (serotype B) 24 (7.7%) and for both C. neoformans and C. gattii 11 (3.5%). The overall prevalence of C. neoformans species complex in decayed wood samples was 19.9% (111/556). There was no obvious correlation between the prevalence of these two yeast species and the species of host trees. The data on prevalence of C. gattii (24%) and C. neoformans (26%) in soil around the base of some host trees indicated that soil is another important ecologic niche for these two Cryptococcus species in India. Among our sampled tree species, eight and six were recorded for the first time as hosts for C. neoformans var grubii and C. gattii, respectively. A longitudinal surveillance of 8 host tree species over 0.7 to 2.5 years indicated long term colonization of Polyalthia longifolia, Mimusops elengi and Manilkara hexandra trees by C. gattii and/or C. neoformans. The mating type was determined for 153 of the isolates, including 98 strains of serotype A and 55 of serotype B and all proved to be mating type alpha (MAT alpha). Our observations document the rapidly expanding spectrum of host tree species for C. gattii and C. neoformans and indicate that decayed woods of many tree species are potentially suitable ecological niches for both pathogens. PMID:18608895

  12. Regional disparities, targeting, and poverty in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gaurav Datt; Martin Ravallion

    1990-01-01

    How much can India reduce poverty nationwide by manipulating the distribution of income between regions or sectors? What is the overall effect on the poor of targeting resources toward the poorer states of India - or toward the generally poorer rural sector. Given real constraints on policy changes, it can be argued that the costs and the benefits of regional

  13. Greater India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Jason R.; Aitchison, Jonathan C.

    2005-10-01

    "Greater India" is an 80-yr-old concept that has been used by geoscientists in plate tectonic models of the India-Asia collision system. Numerous authors working on the orogen and/or plate models of the broader region have added various sized chunks of continental lithosphere to the now northern edge of their reconstructed Indian plate. Prior to plate tectonic theory, Emile Argand (1924) [Argand, E., 1924. La tectonique de l' Asie. Proc. 13th Int. Geol. Cong. 7 (1924), 171-372.] and Arthur Holmes (1965) [Holmes, A., 1965. Principles of Physical Geology, Second Edition. The Ronald Press Company, New York, 1128.] thought that the Himalayan Mountains and Tibetan Plateau had been raised due to the northern edge of the Indian craton under-thrusting the entire region. Since the advent of plate tectonic theory, Greater India proposals have been based principally on three lines of logic. One group of workers has added various amounts of continental lithosphere to India as part of their Mesozoic Gondwana models. A second form of reconstruction is based on Himalayan crustal-shortening estimates. A third body of researchers has used India continent extensions as means of allowing initial contact between the block and the Eurasian backstop plate in southern Tibet to take place at various times between the Late Cretaceous and late Eocene in what we call "fill-the-gap" solutions. The Indian craton and the southern edge of Eurasia were almost invariably some distance from one another when the collision was supposed to have started; extensions to the sub-continent were used to circumvent the problem. Occasionally, Greater India extensions have been based on a combination of fill-the-gap and shortening estimate arguments. In this paper, we exhume and re-examine the key Greater India proposals. From our analysis, it is clear that many proponents have ignored key information regarding the sub-continent's pre break-up position within Gondwana and the bathymetry of the Indian Ocean west of Australia, in particular the Wallaby-Zenith Plateau Ridge and the Wallaby-Zenith Fracture Zone. We suggest that the Indian continent probably extended no more than 950 km in the central portion of the Main Boundary Thrust, up to the Wallaby-Zenith Fracture Zone. At the Western Syntaxis, the extension was about 600 km. These estimates are broadly compatible with some of the geophysically-derived models depicting subducted Indian lithosphere beneath Tibet, as well as estimates of Himalayan shortening. Models requiring sub-continent extensions > 9° ahead of the craton are probably wrong. We also suggest that northern India did not have a thinned rifted passive margin due to the earlier rifting of blocks away from it when it formed part of Gondwana. Instead, the boundary developed as a transform fault and probably had a very narrow ocean-continent transition zone (5-10 km wide), similar to the Romanche Fracture Zone offshore of Ghana, West Africa.

  14. Evaluation of groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and agricultural use in Thanjavur city, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, R; Rajmohan, N; Mahendran, U; Senthamilkumar, S

    2010-12-01

    As groundwater is a vital source of water for domestic and agricultural activities in Thanjavur city due to lack of surface water resources, groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and agricultural usage were evaluated. In this study, 102 groundwater samples were collected from dug wells and bore wells during March 2008 and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, temperature, major ions, and nitrate. Results suggest that, in 90% of groundwater samples, sodium and chloride are predominant cation and anion, respectively, and NaCl and CaMgCl are major water types in the study area. The groundwater quality in the study site is impaired by surface contamination sources, mineral dissolution, ion exchange, and evaporation. Nitrate, chloride, and sulfate concentrations strongly express the impact of surface contamination sources such as agricultural and domestic activities, on groundwater quality, and 13% of samples have elevated nitrate content (>45 mg/l as NO(3)). PHREEQC code and Gibbs plots were employed to evaluate the contribution of mineral dissolution and suggest that mineral dissolution, especially carbonate minerals, regulates water chemistry. Groundwater suitability for drinking usage was evaluated by the World Health Organization and Indian standards and suggests that 34% of samples are not suitable for drinking. Integrated groundwater suitability map for drinking purposes was created using drinking water standards based on a concept that if the groundwater sample exceeds any one of the standards, it is not suitable for drinking. This map illustrates that wells in zones 1, 2, 3, and 4 are not fit for drinking purpose. Likewise, irrigational suitability of groundwater in the study region was evaluated, and results suggest that 20% samples are not fit for irrigation. Groundwater suitability map for irrigation was also produced based on salinity and sodium hazards and denotes that wells mostly situated in zones 2 and 3 are not suitable for irrigation. Both integrated suitability maps for drinking and irrigation usage provide overall scenario about the groundwater quality in the study area. Finally, the study concluded that groundwater quality is impaired by man-made activities, and proper management plan is necessary to protect valuable groundwater resources in Thanjavur city. PMID:20072811

  15. Risk factors of post-traumatic stress disorder in tsunami survivors of Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    Pyari, T. T.; Kutty, Raman V.; Sarma, P. S.

    2012-01-01

    Context: In this study, we assessed the relation of possible risk factors with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the survivors of December 2004 tsunami in Kanyakumari district. Materials and Methods: We identified cases (n=158) and controls (n=141) by screening a random sample of 485 tsunami survivors from June 2005 to October 2005 using a validated tool, “Impact of events scale-revised (IES-R),” for symptoms suggestive of PTSD. Subjects whose score was equal to or above the 70th percentile (total score 48) were cases and those who had score below or equal to 30th percentile (total score 33) were controls. Analysis was done using statistical package for the social sciences to find the risk factors of PTSD among various pre-disaster, within-disaster and post-disaster factors. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that PTSD was related to female gender [odds ratio (OR) 6.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.26-12.39], age 40 years and above (OR 2.38, 95% CI 1.23-4.63), injury to self (OR 2.97, 95% CI 1.55-5.67), injury to family members (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.05-4.15), residence in urban area (area of maximum destruction) (OR 3.37, 95% CI 1.35-8.41) and death of close relatives (OR 3.83, 95% CI 1.91-7.68). Absence of fear of recurrence of tsunami (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.17-0.60), satisfaction of services received (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.36-0.92) and counseling services received more than three times (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.26-0.78) had protective effect against PTSD. Conclusions: There is an association of pre-disaster, within-disaster and post-disaster factors with PTSD, which demands specific interventions at all phases of disaster, with a special focus on vulnerable groups. PMID:22556437

  16. Groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and irrigational use in the Southern Tiruchirappalli district, Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvakumar, S.; Ramkumar, K.; Chandrasekar, N.; Magesh, N. S.; Kaliraj, S.

    2014-12-01

    A total of 20 groundwater samples were collected from both dug and bore wells of southern Tiruchirappalli district and analyzed for various hydrogeochemical parameters. The analyzed physicochemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, carbonate, sulfate, chloride, nitrate, and fluoride are used to characterize the groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and irrigational uses. The results of the chemical analysis indicates that the groundwater in the study area is slightly alkaline and mainly contains Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ cations as well as HCO3 2-, Cl-, SO4 2-and NO3 - anions. The total dissolved solids mainly depend on the concentration of major ions such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, HCO3, Cl, and SO4. Based on TDS, 55 % of the samples are suitable for drinking and rest of the samples are unsuitable for drinking. The total hardness indicates that majority of the groundwater samples are found within the permissible limit of WHO. The dominant hydrochemical facies for groundwater are Ca-Mg-Cl, Ca-HCO3, and Ca-Cl type. The USSL graphical geochemical representation of groundwater quality suggests that majority of the water samples belongs to high medium salinity with low alkali hazards. The Gibb's plot indicates that the groundwater chemistry of the study area is mainly controlled by evaporation and rock-water interaction. Spearman's correlation and factor analysis were used to distinguish the statistical relation between different ions and contamination source in the study area.

  17. Ground Water Control Techniques for Safe Exploitation of the Neyveli Lignite Deposit, Cuddalore District, Tamil Nadu, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. S. Anandan; S. N. Sahay; T. K. Ramabadran; S. Shiv Prasad

    2010-01-01

    Dewatering in deep opencast mines generally focuses on extraction of seepage water from the phreatic zones above the ore\\/mineral\\u000a deposits and storm water that collects in mine pits. But at the Neyveli lignite deposit in the Cuddalore District, there was\\u000a a danger of the mine floor bursting due to the hydrostatic head pressures in the underlying thick confined aquifers, a

  18. Major ion chemistry and hydrochemical studies of groundwater of parts of Palar river basin, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Dar, Mithas Ahmad; Sankar, K; Dar, Imran Ahmad

    2011-05-01

    Groundwater is almost globally important for human consumption as well as for the support of habitat and for maintaining the quality of base flow to rivers, while its quality assessment is essential to ensure sustainable safe use of the resources for drinking, agricultural, and industrial purposes. In the current study, 50 groundwater samples were collected from parts of Palar river basin to assess water quality and investigate hydrochemical nature by analyzing the major cations (Ca, Mg, Na, K) and anions (HCO(3), Cl, F,SO(4), NO(3), PO(4),CO(3), HCO(3), and F) besides some physical and chemical parameters (pH, electrical conductivity, alkalinity, and total hardness). Also, geographic information system-based groundwater quality mapping in the form of visually communicating contour maps was developed using ArcGIS-9.2 to delineate spatial variation in physicochemical characteristics of groundwater samples. Wilcox classification and US Salinity Laboratory hazard diagram suggests that 52% of the groundwater fall in the field of C2-S1, indicating water of medium salinity and low sodium, which can be used for irrigation in almost all types of soil with little danger of exchangeable sodium. Remaining 48% is falling under C1-SI, indicating water of low salinity and low sodium. PMID:20886289

  19. Coastal Sedimentation And Risks Of Tsunami Associated With 26Th December 2004 In The Kanyakumari Coast Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekar, N.

    2007-05-01

    The Tsunami signatures were formulated from the field evidence from 26th December 2004 tsunami surge in the Kanyakumari coast. The impact of Tsunami can be identified form the preservation of geomorphic signatures and sedimentary deposits. The more common signature of Tsunami in the deposition of sand with thickness of 20cm towards landward and are sandwiched between finer material and debris on flat coastal plains. Black sands were transported by the strong Tsunami wave flow across the coastal vegetation and could be seen as deposits discontinuous pencil thin lenses in the landward. Thicker units were characterized by a series of lighter minerals fining upwards stacked one upon each other. Each unit indicates the single wave in the Tsunami wave train. Further the relative size of sediment in each site gives and indication of the magnitude of each Tsunami wave. Coarse marine sand mixed with pebbles in landward. tapering sheets was noticed. The Tsunami characteristics were heavily dependent upon the configuration of the coastline. Run up heights In the many locations were three times greater than the initial height of the wave at shore. The damage of concrete roof and Manakudi Bridge indicates the flow velocities and force of tsunami. The Tsunami deposited 15 to 20 can thick sand splays behind sand dunes of chothavilai, pallam and Azhikal coast were seen. The dump deposits were observed around obstacles and road erosion also occurred with formation of turbulent vortices around obstacles and in channelised backwash. Flow velocities were interpreted form these sediment features with those of structural and building damages. A careful observation in the fields indicate that the coast of Kanyakamari is more susceptible to tsunami run up, flooding and inundation. The type of offshore bathymetry and coastal setting are prone to tsunami. The tsunami flood across river inlet and offshore bathymetry is steep. The river mouth surfaces lying only a few metters above sea level have allowed tsunami to penetrate long distances inland. Tsunami wave approached the shore rapidly and with most of their energy intact in manakudi and colachel. The wave at shallow depth of river inlet / creek has traveled less whereas the deep area experienced the more flood. The residents living along the river banks were affected by the tsunami. The risk is very high. Tsunami has an affinity for head lands. They are not blocked by cliffs. The wave energy is concentrated here by wave refraction. Amplitude of wave on headlands is two to three folds relative to an adjacent embayed beach.

  20. An Outbreak of Neonatal Candidemia Due to Non-albicans Candida Species in a Resource Constrained Setting of Uttarakhand State, India

    PubMed Central

    Juyal, Deepak; Adekhandi, Shamanth; Negi, Vikrant; Sharma, Neelam

    2013-01-01

    This case report describes the outbreak of candidemia caused by non-albicans Candida (NAC) species, which within a short period of 11 days, affected six neonates housed in the same room of neonatal intensive care unit of a rural tertiary care center in Uttarakhand state, India. The NAC species isolated showed complete resistance to azole compounds tested. All the neonates were having central venous catheters at the time of diagnosis, received total parenteral nutrition and were on broad spectrum antibiotics. Though two neonates survived the infection, but four of them had an unfortunate outcome and they died despite of aggressive therapy with amphotericin B. It was concluded that candidemia was associated with previously described risk factors and that poor infection control practices were likely responsible for outbreak. PMID:24404531

  1. An Outbreak of Neonatal Candidemia Due to Non-albicans Candida Species in a Resource Constrained Setting of Uttarakhand State, India.

    PubMed

    Juyal, Deepak; Adekhandi, Shamanth; Negi, Vikrant; Sharma, Neelam

    2013-10-01

    This case report describes the outbreak of candidemia caused by non-albicans Candida (NAC) species, which within a short period of 11 days, affected six neonates housed in the same room of neonatal intensive care unit of a rural tertiary care center in Uttarakhand state, India. The NAC species isolated showed complete resistance to azole compounds tested. All the neonates were having central venous catheters at the time of diagnosis, received total parenteral nutrition and were on broad spectrum antibiotics. Though two neonates survived the infection, but four of them had an unfortunate outcome and they died despite of aggressive therapy with amphotericin B. It was concluded that candidemia was associated with previously described risk factors and that poor infection control practices were likely responsible for outbreak. PMID:24404531

  2. Tobacco control in India.

    PubMed Central

    Shimkhada, Riti; Peabody, John W.

    2003-01-01

    Legislation to control tobacco use in developing countries has lagged behind the dramatic rise in tobacco consumption. India, the third largest grower of tobacco in the world, amassed 1.7 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 1990 due to disease and injury attributable to tobacco use in a population where 65% of the men and 38% of the women consume tobacco. India's anti-tobacco legislation, first passed at the national level in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and proved to be insufficient. In the last decade state legislation has increasingly been used but has lacked uniformity and the multipronged strategies necessary to control demand. A new piece of national legislation, proposed in 2001, represents an advance. It includes the following key demand reduction measures: outlawing smoking in public places; forbidding sale of tobacco to minors; requiring more prominent health warning labels; and banning advertising at sports and cultural events. Despite these measures, the new legislation will not be enough to control the demand for tobacco products in India. The Indian Government must also introduce policies to raise taxes, control smuggling, close advertising loopholes, and create adequate provisions for the enforcement of tobacco control laws. PMID:12640476

  3. Bombay, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Formerly known as Bombay, the city of Mumbai is situated on India's west coast, on the Arabian Sea, roughly 500 km (310 miles) south of the Tropic of Cancer. Its large harbor and ideal location facing Africa, Europe, and the Middle East make it an excellent city for trade. Sometimes referred to as the 'Gateway of India,' Mumbai handles more than one third of the country's foreign trade. The city supports a population of more than 12 million people in an area of roughly 619 square km (239 square miles). The port was acquired in 1534 by Portugal, which named it Bom Bahia, meaning 'beautiful bay.' Originally, the city rested upon seven small islands, mostly basaltic bedrock from earlier lava flows. These islands are now connected to one another by reclaimed land, but each island, or neighborhood, still retains a distinct identity within the city. (For more details, visit Welcome to Bombay: The Gateway of India.) The blue-grey pixels in this false-color image are urban areas. The dark green areas are heavily vegetated surfaces while the light brown regions are more sparsely vegetated. This image of Mumbai was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+), flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. July 23, 2002, marks the 30th anniversary of the Landsat program. (Click to read the press release-Celebrating 30 Years of Imaging the Earth.) The Landsat program has been particularly instrumental in tracking land use and land cover changes-such as increased urban growth-over the last three decades. Image courtesy Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  4. India's Worsening Uranium Shortage

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, Michael M.

    2007-01-15

    As a result of NSG restrictions, India cannot import the natural uranium required to fuel its Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs); consequently, it is forced to rely on the expediency of domestic uranium production. However, domestic production from mines and byproduct sources has not kept pace with demand from commercial reactors. This shortage has been officially confirmed by the Indian Planning Commission’s Mid-Term Appraisal of the country’s current Five Year Plan. The report stresses that as a result of the uranium shortage, Indian PHWR load factors have been continually decreasing. The Uranium Corporation of India Ltd (UCIL) operates a number of underground mines in the Singhbhum Shear Zone of Jharkhand, and it is all processed at a single mill in Jaduguda. UCIL is attempting to aggrandize operations by establishing new mines and mills in other states, but the requisite permit-gathering and development time will defer production until at least 2009. A significant portion of India’s uranium comes from byproduct sources, but a number of these are derived from accumulated stores that are nearing exhaustion. A current maximum estimate of indigenous uranium production is 430t/yr (230t from mines and 200t from byproduct sources); whereas, the current uranium requirement for Indian PHWRs is 455t/yr (depending on plant capacity factor). This deficit is exacerbated by the additional requirements of the Indian weapons program. Present power generation capacity of Indian nuclear plants is 4350 MWe. The power generation target set by the Indian Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) is 20,000 MWe by the year 2020. It is expected that around half of this total will be provided by PHWRs using indigenously supplied uranium with the bulk of the remainder provided by breeder reactors or pressurized water reactors using imported low-enriched uranium.

  5. Willingness to Pay for Annual Health Care Services in Small Ruminants: The Case of South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathiravan, G.; Thirunavukkarasu, M.; Michealraj, P.

    A study was undertaken in southern peninsular State of India, the Tamil Nadu State, to assess the farmers Willingness To Pay` (WTP) for annual health care services in small ruminants. The districts of the State were categorized as Livestock Developed (LD) and Livestock Under Developed (LUD) based on initial base line developed. Contingent Valuation (CV) approach was used to study the farmers maximum WTP value for two types of health care services: (a) providing animal health care services at government veterinary centres, (b) extending animal health care services at farmers door steps. A Payment Card (PC) format was used to assess the farmers` maximum WTP for ensuring health care services to sheep and goat. The Maximum Likelihood technique was used on interval midpoints. The study revealed that the farmers were willing to pay a maximum of INR 56.34 and INR 61.61 for availing health services to their sheep and goat, respectively, by in-centre services, while they were ready to offer INR 87.49 and INR 95.27 for the animal health services delivered at doorsteps. The mean maximum WTP value was found to be more for goats than sheep, postulated both in-centre and home services. Of the factors incorporated in the in-centre service model for sheep, age of respondent, livelihood share of livestock, number of sheep and VLU owned and distance from nearest public veterinary centre were found to significantly influence the WTP values. Unlike sheep, age of respondent, VLU possession, distance of the public veterinary centre and district versatility had a significant role in determining WTP values for goats. WTP values in sheep for home service were found to be significantly predisposed by all the significant factors of in-centre services model, except number of sheep owned. Similarly, in goat, the age of respondent turned to be insignificant in home services model. The results indicated that the people were willing to pay more for getting their small ruminants adequately protected from diseases and treated at once with quality services.

  6. Mughal India

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    As you enter a large room filled with various items, including a well-worn globe, a medium-sized file cabinet, and a wall of books, you wonder to yourself, Where am I?. It turns out that you have stumbled across the British Museum's fine interactive website on Mughal India. Designed for young people, the site is set up as an office where visitors may click on various items (such as a globe or a model of the Taj Mahal) in order to entire Flash-enabled learning environments that address various aspects of this most grand and productive period in India's history. While visitors will want to spend a good deal of time exploring the site, one particular representative area of the site is the coin cabinet. Clicking on the coin cabinet opens up a small chest that holds various pieces of currencies from the Mughal Empire. Visiting the different drawers in the chest allows users to learn what each type of coin can tell contemporary observers about the Empire's religious traditions, emperors, and politics. Thoroughly engaging and dynamic in its layout and content, this is a site that is worth a close look.

  7. Non-paying partnerships and its association with HIV risk behavior, program exposure and service utilization among female sex workers in India

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In India, HIV prevention programs have focused on female sex workers’ (FSWs’) sexual practices vis-à-vis commercial partners leading to important gains in HIV prevention. However, it has become apparent that further progress is contingent on a better understanding of FSWs’ sexual risks in the context of their relationships with non-paying partners. In this paper, we explored the association between FSWs’ non-paying partner status, including cohabitation and HIV risk behaviors, program exposure and utilization of program services. Methods We used data from the cross-sectional Integrated Behavioral and Biological Assessment (IBBA) survey (2009–2010) conducted among 8,107 FSWs in three high priority states of India- Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine the association between non-paying partner and cohabitation status of FSWs with HIV risk behaviors, program exposure and utilization of program services. Results FSWs reporting a non-paying partner were more likely to be exposed to and utilize HIV prevention resources than those who did not have a non-paying partner. Analyses revealed that FSWs reporting a non-cohabiting non-paying partner were more likely to be exposed to HIV prevention programs (adjusted OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.3 – 2.1), attend meetings (adjusted OR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2 – 1.8), and visit a sexually transmitted infections clinic at least twice in the last six months (adjusted OR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.3 – 1.9) as compared to those reporting no non-paying partner. That said, FSWs with a non-paying partner rarely used condoms consistently and were more vulnerable to HIV infection because of being street-based (p?India should focus on addressing relationship factors like risk communication and condom negotiation, including specific vulnerabilities like indebtedness and street based solicitation among women in sex work. PMID:24621082

  8. Estimating the Impact of Reducing Under-Nutrition on the Tuberculosis Epidemic in the Central Eastern States of India: A Dynamic Modeling Study

    PubMed Central

    Oxlade, Olivia; Huang, Chuan-Chin; Murray, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) and under-nutrition are widespread in many low and middle-income countries. Momentum to prioritize under-nutrition has been growing at an international level, as demonstrated by the "Scaling Up Nutrition" movement. Low body mass index is an important risk factor for developing TB disease. The objective of this study was to project future trends in TB related outcomes under different scenarios for reducing under-nutrition in the adult population in the Central Eastern states of India. Methods A compartmental TB transmission model stratified by body mass index was parameterized using national and regional data from India. We compared TB related mortality and incidence under several scenarios that represented a range of policies and programs designed to reduce the prevalence of under-nutrition, based on the experience and observed trends in similar countries. Results The modeled nutrition intervention scenarios brought about reductions in TB incidence and TB related mortality in the Central Eastern Indian states ranging from 43% to 71% and 40% to 68% respectively, relative to the scenario of no nutritional intervention. Modest reductions in under-nutrition averted 4.8 (95% UR 0.5, 17.1) million TB cases and 1.6 (95% UR 0.5, 5.2) million TB related deaths over a period of 20 years of intervention, relative to the scenario of no nutritional intervention. Complete elimination of under-nutrition in the Central Eastern states averted 9.4 (95% UR 1.5, 30.6) million TB cases and 3.2 (95% UR 0.7-, 10.1) million TB related deaths, relative to the scenario of no nutritional intervention. Conclusion Our study suggests that intervening on under-nutrition could have a substantial impact on TB incidence and mortality in areas with high prevalence of under-nutrition, even if only small gains in under-nutrition can be achieved. Focusing on under-nutrition may be an effective way to reduce both rates of TB and other diseases associated with under-nutrition. PMID:26046649

  9. Regional case studies--India.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K Srinath

    2009-01-01

    As a proportion of all deaths in India, cardiovascular disease (CVD) will be the largest cause of disability and death, by the year 2020. At the present stage of India's health transition, an estimated 53% of deaths and 44% of disability-adjusted life-years lost are contributed to chronic diseases. India also has the largest number of people with diabetes in the world, with an estimated 19.3 million in 1995 and projected 57.2 million in 2025. The prevalence of hypertension has been reported to range from 20 to 40% in urban adults and 12-17% among rural adults. The number of people with hypertension is expected to increase from 118.2 million in 2000 to 213.5 million in 2025, with nearly equal numbers of men and women. Over the coming decade, until 2015, CVD and diabetes will contribute to a cumulative loss of USD237 billion for the Indian economy. Much of this enormous burden is already evident in urban as well as semi-urban and slum dwellings across India, where increasing lifespan and rapid acquisition of adverse lifestyles related to the demographic transition contribute to the rising prevalence of CVDs and its risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. The underlying determinants are sociobehavioral factors such as smoking, physical inactivity, improper diet and stress. The changes in diet and physical activity have resulted largely from the epidemiological transition that is underway in most low income countries including India. The main driving forces of these epidemiological shifts are the globalized world, rapid and uneven urbanization, demographic shifts and inter- and intra-country migrations--all of which result in alterations in dietary practices and decreased physical activity. While these changes are global, India has several unique features. The transitions in India are uneven with several states in India still battling the ill effects of undernutrition and infectious diseases, while in other states with better indices of development, chronic diseases including diabetes are emerging as a major area of concern. Regional and urban-rural differences in the occurrence of CVD are the hallmark. All these differences result in a differing prevalence of CVD and its risk factors. Therefore while studying nutrition and physical activity shifts in India, the marked heterogeneity and secular changes in dietary and physical activity practices should be taken into account. This principle should also apply to strategies, policies and nutrition and physical activity guidelines so that they take the regional differences into account. PMID:19346764

  10. 3 CFR - Delegation of Certain Functions Under Section 204(c) of the United States-India Nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...State By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to you the functions conferred upon the President by...

  11. Occurrence of mycotoxins in livestock feeds and feed stuffs of Tamil Nadu.

    PubMed

    Sarathchandra, G; Muralimanohar, B

    2013-07-01

    The livestock feed and feed ingredients were screened for the presence of aflatoxin B1, citrinin, penicillic Acid, T2, ochratoxin A and zearalenone. The samples were collected from different livestock farmers/farms of Tamil Nadu. Mycotoxins were determined in all the samples. The present study clearly indicates high occurrence of citrinin highly predominant followed by Aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A in feedstuffs and feeds. Aflatoxins B1, citrinin, ochratoxin A were the most common mycotoxins observed. The aflatoxin B1 levels ranged between 50 to 80 microg kg(-1), ochratoxin A levels ranged between 20 to 160 microg kg(-1), Citrinin levels ranged between 20 to 350 microg kg(-1), penicillic acid levels ranged between 20 to 30 microg kg(-1), T2 Toxin levels ranged between 75 to 450 microg kg(-1) and zearalenone levels ranged between 150 to 1000 microg kg(-1) respectively. The results of the study warrant the need for sustained monitoring of these commodities periodically and evolve policies which discourage the marketing of toxin contaminated feeds as existing in the developed countries. PMID:24640264

  12. Diversity and community structure of butterfly of Arignar Anna Zoological Park, Chennai, Tamil Nadu.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, T; Sekar, M; Manimozhi, A; Baskar, N; Archunan, G

    2011-03-01

    Investigation was carried out on the diversity of butterfly fauna in selected localities of conservation and breeding center of Arignar Anna Zoological Park (AAZP), Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Atotal of 56 species were recorded, 15 of them belonged to Pieridae, 12 Nymphalidae, 9 Satyridae, 8 Papilionidae, 7 Danaidae, 3 Lycaenidae and 1 species each belonged to the families Acraeidae and Hesperidae. Qualitatively and quantitatively Pieridae family were comparatively dominant than that of other families. The notable addition to the 25 more species listed during this observation were compared to previous field survey. Comparison of butterfly species distribution between the different localities revealed that butterfly species richness was higher at mountain region with 52 species and lowest of 25 species at public visiting areas. Visitor's activities may be that reason for effects on butterfly distribution and lack of vegetation. Each five endemic and protected species (i.e. endangered) listed under the Wildlife (Protection)Act were highlighted greater conservation importances of the AAZP. It is suggest that butterfly species diversity generally increase with increase in vegetation and declines with the increase in disturbance. PMID:21882656

  13. GIS based malaria information management system for urban malaria scheme in India.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Aruna; Nagpal, B N; Saxena, Rekha; Eapen, Alex; Ravindran, K John; Subbarao, S K; Rajamanikam, C; Palanisamy, M; Kalra, N L; Appavoo, N C

    2003-05-01

    A GIS based information management system has been developed to help Urban Malaria Control in India. The basic objective is to develop a model to assist planning and implementation of a suitable control measure. The system can help in: (i) identifying high receptive areas in time and space domain; (ii) identifying risk factors for high receptivity; (iii) monitoring and evaluating control measures. To demonstrate this system, information on 33 parameters and malaria cases has been attached to a digitised map of Dindigul, an urban town in Tamil Nadu. Functionalities of the system and its utility are described in this paper. A GIS based information management system ensures that if a localised spurt of the disease occurs, it can be associated rapidly with a likely cause, a specific vector, and a probable human source, so that appropriate preventive action can be taken to arrest any rising trend. PMID:12725965

  14. DNA damage induction and repair inhibition among building construction workers in South India.

    PubMed

    Sellappa, Sudha; Prathyumnan, Shibily; Balachandar, Vellingiri

    2010-01-01

    Construction industry workers are exposed to many known carcinogens in their complex occupational environment. Since there are no past studies on genotoxicity among this group in the Indian subcontinent, workers engaged in different construction sites at Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India, were assessed here. We enrolled 96 workers and 68 control subjects with similar mean age, smoking, tobacco chewing prevalence and alcohol consumption, for analysis of DNA damage in blood leucocytes by micronucleus (MN) and comet assays. DNA repair inhibition was also analyzed by assessing the XPD gene. Construction workers showed a significant increase in MN and comet tail length compared to controls with adjustment for smoking habits, tobacco chewing, alcohol consumption and years of exposure (P<0.05). The results indicated that chronic occupational exposure to cement during construction work could lead to increased levels of DNA damage and repair inhibition. PMID:21133594

  15. Pre-hospital care among victims of road traffic accident in a rural area of Tamil Nadu: A cross-sectional descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Saurabh R.; Pandian, Pradeep; Shrivastava, Prateek S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization has estimated that globally almost 1.24 million people die annually on the world's roads. The aim of the study was to assess the attributes of pre-hospital care in road traffic accidents (RTAs) victim brought to the health care establishment and to evaluate the pre-hospital trauma care provided in the rural areas of Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study of 3 months duration (June 2014 to August 2014) was conducted in the Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Kancheepuram. The method of sampling was universal sampling and all RTA victims satisfying the inclusion criteria were included in the study. During the entire study duration, total 200 RTA victims were included. A pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire was used to elicit the desired information after the victims of RTAs are stabilized. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Institutional Ethics Committee prior to the start of the study. Written informed consent was obtained from the study participants (patient/guardian of children) before obtaining any information from them. Data entry and statistical analysis were done using SPSS version 18. Frequency distributions and percentages were computed for all the variables. Results: Majority of the RTA victims 158 (79%) were from the age-group of 15-45 years. Most of the accidents were reported in night time [77 (38.5%)], on week-ends [113 (56.5%)], and involved two-wheelers [153 (76.5%)]. Almost 66 (33%) of the victims were not aware of the existence of emergency ambulance services. Also, only 15 (7.5%) victims were brought to the hospital in the emergency ambulance, of which only 3 victims were accompanied by a doctor. Conclusion: To conclude, the study indicates that a significant proportion of people were unaware about the emergency trauma ambulance services and the existing pre-hospital care services lack in multiple dimensions in a rural area of South India. PMID:25540536

  16. Evidence for the presence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and monodon baculovirus (MBV) in wild Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) broodstock, in the southeast coast of India.

    PubMed

    Remany, M C; Daly, C; Nagaraj, S; Panda, A K; Jaideep, K; Samraj, Y C T

    2012-11-01

    A survey on the presence of the viruses of two economically significant diseases, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and monodon baculovirus (MBV) in wild-collected Penaeus monodon broodstock, was conducted during different seasons of the year in two major coastal areas of southeast India. The broodstock were collected along the coast of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh during summer, premonsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons for three consecutive years. A total of 7905 samples were collected and subjected to MBV screening, and 6709 samples that were screened as MBV negative were diagnosed for WSSV. MBV was detected using rapid malachite green staining and WSSV by nested polymerase chain reaction. Prevalence data of the viruses were analysed using the EpiCalc 2000 program at 95% confidence interval. Samples collected from the Andhra Pradesh coast displayed a slightly higher prevalence of WSSV and MBV infection than those collected from Tamil Nadu, although this difference was not statistically significant (P > 005). In addition, it was found that the prevalence of both WSSV and MBV infections fluctuated according to season. Data on prevalence of these viruses in broodstock would be useful to develop strategies for shrimp health management along the southeast coast of India. PMID:22924635

  17. Soil gas radon-thoron monitoring in Dharamsala area of north-west Himalayas, India using solid state nuclear track detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Gulshan; Kumar, Arvind; Walia, Vivek; Kumar, Jitender; Gupta, Vikash; Yang, Tsanyao Frank; Singh, Surinder; Bajwa, Bikramjit Singh

    2013-10-01

    The study described here is based on the measurements of soil gas radon-thoron concentrations performed at Dharamsala region of north-west (NW) Himalayas, India. The study area is tectonically and environmentally significant and shows the features of ductile shear zone due to the presence of distinct thrust planes. Solid state nuclear track detectors (LR-115 films) have been used for the soil gas radon-thoron monitoring. Twenty five radon-thoron discriminators with LR-115 films were installed in the borehole of about 50 cm in the study areas. The recorded radon concentration varies from 1593 to 13570 Bq/m3 with an average value of 5292 Bq/m3. The recorded thoron concentration varies from 223 to 2920 Bq/m3 with an average value of 901 Bq/m3. The anomalous value of radon-thoron has been observed near to the faults like main boundary thrust (MBT and MBT2) as well as neotectonic lineaments in the region.

  18. Self-reported Practices and Attitudes of Community Health Workers (Accredited Social Health Activist) in Tobacco Control – Findings from two states in India

    PubMed Central

    Persai, Divya; Panda, Rajmohan; Mathur, Manu Raj

    2015-01-01

    Background: The 1978 declaration (Alma-Ata declaration) made at the International Conference on Primary Health Care, meeting in Alma-Ata highlighted the critical role played by Community Health Workers (CHWs) to link communities to the health system. The flagship program of Government of India proposed introduction of CHWs namely Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA). As a link between community and health system ASHA is in a unique position to generate awareness on tobacco-related issues. However, there is limited evidence on practices of ASHAs in tobacco control in India. The present study explores whether CHWs such as ASHAs can be utilized as a resource for informing and educating community on tobacco and its harmful effects. The study captured perceptions and practices of ASHAs regarding tobacco control. Methods: The study was a cross-sectional study conducted among 512 ASHAs in six intervention districts each in Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh. The study settings (i.e., health facilities and villages) were selected through systematic random sampling. The study participants were selected through simple random sampling. Responses were captured through self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression model was applied to measure associations between variables such as knowledge level of ASHAs and information provided on different tobacco-related diseases by them in both the states, with statistical significance based on the Chi-square test. Results: Our findings indicate that ASHAs linked tobacco usage to diseases such as respiratory problems, lung cancer, tuberculosis, and oral disease. Only one-third of ASHAs reported informing all patients about the harmful health effects of tobacco, whereas more than half of them reported providing information only to patients suffering from specific illness. ASHAs who reported having received training in tobacco control were about Two times more likely to give information on effects of tobacco on respiratory diseases (odds ratio [OR]-1.5; confidence interval [CI]: 1.1–2.4) and adverse reproductive outcomes (OR-2.1; CI: 1.1–20.2). Conclusions: Study findings reflect suboptimal engagement of ASHAs in providing information pertaining to specific tobacco-related diseases. There is an urgent need to sensitize and train ASHAs in appropriate tobacco control practices. PMID:26124945

  19. Large-scale STI services in Avahan improve utilization and treatment seeking behaviour amongst high-risk groups in India: an analysis of clinical records from six states

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Avahan, the India AIDS Initiative, implemented a large HIV prevention programme across six high HIV prevalence states amongst high risk groups consisting of female sex workers, high risk men who have sex with men, transgenders and injecting drug users in India. Utilization of the clinical services, health seeking behaviour and trends in syndromic diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections amongst these populations were measured using the individual tracking data. Methods The Avahan clinical monitoring system included individual tracking data pertaining to clinical services amongst high risk groups. All clinic visits were recorded in the routine clinical monitoring system using unique identification numbers at the NGO-level. Visits by individual clinic attendees were tracked from January 2005 to December 2009. An analysis examining the limited variables over time, stratified by risk group, was performed. Results A total of 431,434 individuals including 331,533 female sex workers, 10,280 injecting drug users, 82,293 men who have sex with men, and 7,328 transgenders visited the clinics with a total of 2,700,192 visits. Individuals made an average of 6.2 visits to the clinics during the study period. The number of visits per person increased annually from 1.2 in 2005 to 8.3 in 2009. The proportion of attendees visiting clinics more than four times a year increased from 4% in 2005 to 26% in 2009 (p<0.001). The proportion of STI syndromes diagnosed amongst female sex workers decreased from 39% in 2005 to 11% in 2009 (p<0.001) while the proportion of STI syndromes diagnosed amongst high risk men who have sex with men decreased from 12% to 3 % (p<0.001). The proportion of attendees seeking regular STI check-ups increased from 12% to 48% (p<0.001). The proportion of high risk groups accessing clinics within two days of onset of STI-related symptoms and acceptability of speculum and proctoscope examination increased significantly during the programme implementation period. Conclusions The programme demonstrated that acceptable and accessible services with marginalised and often difficult–to-reach populations can be brought to a very large scale using standardized approaches. Utilization of these services can dramatically improve health seeking behaviour and reduce STI prevalence. PMID:22970436

  20. global warming's six indias

    E-print Network

    Haller, Gary L.

    global warming's six indias: An Audience Segmentation Analysis #12;Global Warming's Six Indias 1............................................................................................................................................20 2. Global Warming Beliefs and Attitudes................................................................................ 21 Knowledge about global warming varies widely by group

  1. Enhancing innovation between scientific and indigenous knowledge: pioneer NGOs in India

    PubMed Central

    Torri, Maria-Costanza; Laplante, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Background Until recently, little attention has been paid to local innovation capacity as well as management practices and institutions developed by communities and other local actors based on their traditional knowledge. This paper doesn't focus on the results of scientific research into innovation systems, but rather on how local communities, in a network of supportive partnerships, draw knowledge for others, combine it with their own knowledge and then innovate in their local practices. Innovation, as discussed in this article, is the capacity of local stakeholders to play an active role in innovative knowledge creation in order to enhance local health practices and further environmental conservation. In this article, the innovative processes through which this capacity is created and reinforced will be defined as a process of "ethnomedicine capacity". Methods The field study undertaken by the first author took place in India, in the State of Tamil Nadu, over a period of four months in 2007. The data was collected through individual interviews and focus groups and was complemented by participant observations. Results The research highlights the innovation capacity related to ethnomedical knowledge. As seen, the integration of local and scientific knowledge is crucial to ensure the practices anchor themselves in daily practices. The networks created are clearly instrumental to enhancing the innovation capacity that allows the creation, dissemination and utilization of 'traditional' knowledge. However, these networks have evolved in very different forms and have become entities that can fit into global networks. The ways in which the social capital is enhanced at the village and network levels are thus important to understand how traditional knowledge can be used as an instrument for development and innovation. Conclusion The case study analyzed highlights examples of innovation systems in a developmental context. They demonstrate that networks comprised of several actors from different levels can synergistically forge linkages between local knowledge and formal sciences and generate positive and negative impacts. The positive impact is the revitalization of perceived traditions while the negative impacts pertain to the transformation of these traditions into health commodities controlled by new elites, due to unequal power relations. PMID:19849851

  2. AUSTRALIA, INDIA AND THE US: TERMS OF ALLIANCE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Auriol Weigold

    This paper examines from media and online records in India and Australia, their different relationships with the United States. These relationships are explored within the context of regional security and perceptions of the benefits accruing to both countries as a result of their connection with America. The terms of alliance between India and the United States and Australia and the

  3. Bluetongue virus infection in India: a review.

    PubMed

    Prasad, G; Jain, N C; Gupta, Y

    1992-09-01

    The history and epizootiology of bluetongue (BT) in India are reviewed. BT has become endemic in India. The first outbreak of BT in sheep and goats in the country was recorded in 1964 in Maharashtra State. Since then, several outbreaks of BT have been reported in sheep. Exotic sheep are more susceptible than indigenous and cross-bred sheep. A serological survey has indicated the presence of bluetongue virus (BTV) antibodies in cattle and buffalo in several states in India. However, clinical BT has not been observed in cattle or buffalo to date. Of the 24 known serotypes of BTV, 18 have been reported in India. Although BTV has been isolated from Culicoides midges, the particular species responsible for transmission has not yet been identified. PMID:1335304

  4. Utilization of a State Run Public Private Emergency Transportation Service Exclusively for Childbirth: The Janani (Maternal) Express Program in Madhya Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Sidney, Kristi; Ryan, Kayleigh; Diwan, Vishal; De Costa, Ayesha

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2009 the state government of Madhya Pradesh, India launched an emergency obstetric transportation service, Janani Express Yojana (JEY), to support the cash transfer program that promotes institutional delivery. JEY, a large scale public private partnership, lowers geographical access barriers to facility based care. The state contracts and pays private agencies to provide emergency transportation at no cost to the user. The objective was to study (a) the utilization of JEY among women delivering in health facilities, (b) factors associated with usage, (c) the timeliness of the service. Methods A cross sectional facility based study was conducted in facilities that carried out > ten deliveries a month. Researchers who spent five days in each facility administered a questionnaire to all women who gave birth there to elicit socio-demographic characteristics and transport related details. Results 35% of women utilised JEY to reach a facility, however utilization varied between study districts. Uptake was highest among women from rural areas (44%), scheduled tribes (55%), and poorly educated women (40%). Living in rural areas and belonging to scheduled tribes were significant predictors for JEY usage. Almost 1/3 of JEY users (n?=?104) experienced a transport related delay. Discussion The JEY service model complements the cash transfer program by providing transport to a facility to give birth. A study of the distribution of utilization in population subgroups suggests the intervention was successful in reaching the most vulnerable population, promoting equity in access. While 1/3 of women utilized the service and it saved them money; 30% experienced significant transport related delays in reaching a facility, which is comparable to women using public transportation. Further research is needed to understand why utilization is low, to explore if there is a need for service expansion at the community level and to improve the overall time efficiency of JEY. PMID:24828520

  5. Magnetic parameters, trace elements, and multivariate statistical studies of river sediments from southeastern India: a case study from the Vellar River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcos A. E. Chaparro; Mauro A. E. Chaparro; P. Rajkumar; V. Ramasamy; Ana M. Sinito

    2011-01-01

    This contribution constitutes a new study using magnetic parameters and trace element determinations of pollutants in river\\u000a sediments from the Tamil Nadu state. The Vellar River covers a total length of about 200 km and flows into the Bay of Bengal.\\u000a Sediment samples were collected at different sediment depths (up to 90 cm) from 12 sites to investigate their magnetic properties\\u000a (27

  6. A study of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs according to dental aesthetic index among school children of a hilly state of India

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Deepak; Sachdev, Vinod; Chauhan, Tripti; Gupta, Kamal K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The documentation of magnitude of malocclusion in terms of prevalence and severity has not been done till date in Himachal Pradesh, India. Aims: To assess the prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs (OTNs) among 9-and 12-year-old school children by using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) in the state. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1188 children from randomly selected schools. The survey was done according to the Oral Health Assessment Form (modified). DAI was used to assess the severity of malocclusion, along with collection of demographic data. Results: The overall prevalence of malocclusion was 12.5% and required orthodontic treatment, whereas 87.5% did not require treatment. A severe malocclusion for which treatment was highly desirable was recorded in 3.1%; 8% had a definite malocclusion for which treatment was elective. Only about 1.3% had a handicapping malocclusion that needed mandatory treatment. Almost equal proportions of males and females were affected with malocclusion with the means 20 ± 4.6 and 19.9 ± 4.9, respectively (P < 0.641). The prevalence and severity of malocclusion was more in 12-year age group than in 9-year age group (P = 0.002**). There was an increase in the proportion of malocclusion among older children: In 12-year age group, 15.7% with mean 20.5 ± 5.1 and in 9-year-old children, 8.9% with the mean 19.3 ± 4.1 were in the need of orthodontic treatment. Conclusion: Severity and treatment needs, both are important factors in public health planning. PMID:24478978

  7. (Coal utilization in India)

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, R.P.

    1991-01-15

    Under the Phase II, Alternative Energy Resources Development (AERD) project of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Government of India (GOI), five collaborative coal projects have been initiated in the areas of: (1) NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} control from coal-fired power plants, (2) slagging combustor development for high-ash Indian coals, (3) characterization of Indian coals for combustion and gasification, (4) diagnostic studies for prediction of power plant life expectancy, and (5) environmental and natural resource analysis of coal cycle. The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) has the implementation responsibility for these projects. The Indian collaborative institutions identified for these projects are the Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. (BHEL), Trichy, (Projects 1--4), and the Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI) for Project 5. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is providing cross-cut technical coordination and support for these five projects.

  8. Study of Morbidity Profile of a Rural Population in Tamil Nadu

    PubMed Central

    Ganeshkumar, P.; Katta, Ajitha

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the reported morbidity profile of people according to age, gender and organ system affected using International Classification of Diseases (ICD) coding, in a demographically defined area in Tamil Nadu in order to identify their health care needs and to plan appropriate interventions strategies. Materials and Methods: This is a-cross sectional study using a convenience sample of 12308 persons sceened from the 41 panchayat units of the Kattankulathur block, comprising 90 villages with a population of about 2,00,890, over a period of one year. Diagnosis made were coded using ICD 10 version and data collected was analysed by appropriate statistical methods to explain the distribution of morbidity profile among the study population. Result: Out of total, 38.1% screened were males and 61.9% were females. Underfives were 5.3%, school going children 43.3%, adults 39.2% and elderly 12.3%. Majority had illness affecting respiratory system (20%), ‘symptoms and signs’ (19%), musculo-skeletal system (16.1%) and digestive system(11.9%). ‘Symptoms and signs’ classification, is a group of conditions which is of nonspecific diseases, signs, symptoms, abnormal findings and complaints, apart from the system specific conditions diagnosed properly and not elsewhere classified, More males were affeced with respiratory, digestive and illnesses with ‘symptoms and signs’ while more women were affected with musculo-skeletal problems. Only 9.7 % of patients reported with non-communicable diseases. Among them, 55 % women and 42.3 % men had osteoarthritis and 15.7 % women and 21.3 % men had cataract. About 15.8 % women and 18.1 % men had hypertension and other heart diseases while 9.7 % women and 8.4 % men had diabetes and 10.0 % men and 3.9 % women had chronic respiratory diseases. Conclusion: School going children and adults have higher levels of morbidity when compared to elderly and under five children. More females reported with illness but morbidity was found to be higher among males. The burden of illness increased with age. Acute ailments were responsible for high morbidity among children, while chronic ailments caused high morbidity among the elderly. PMID:25859470

  9. Dynamic Site Characterization and Correlation of Shear Wave Velocity with Standard Penetration Test ` N' Values for the City of Agartala, Tripura State, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sil, Arjun; Sitharam, T. G.

    2014-08-01

    Seismic site characterization is the basic requirement for seismic microzonation and site response studies of an area. Site characterization helps to gauge the average dynamic properties of soil deposits and thus helps to evaluate the surface level response. This paper presents a seismic site characterization of Agartala city, the capital of Tripura state, in the northeast of India. Seismically, Agartala city is situated in the Bengal Basin zone which is classified as a highly active seismic zone, assigned by Indian seismic code BIS-1893, Indian Standard Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures, Part-1 General Provisions and Buildings. According to the Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi (2002), it is the highest seismic level (zone-V) in the country. The city is very close to the Sylhet fault (Bangladesh) where two major earthquakes ( M w > 7) have occurred in the past and affected severely this city and the whole of northeast India. In order to perform site response evaluation, a series of geophysical tests at 27 locations were conducted using the multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) technique, which is an advanced method for obtaining shear wave velocity ( V s) profiles from in situ measurements. Similarly, standard penetration test (SPT-N) bore log data sets have been obtained from the Urban Development Department, Govt. of Tripura. In the collected data sets, out of 50 bore logs, 27 were selected which are close to the MASW test locations and used for further study. Both the data sets ( V s profiles with depth and SPT-N bore log profiles) have been used to calculate the average shear wave velocity ( V s30) and average SPT-N values for the upper 30 m depth of the subsurface soil profiles. These were used for site classification of the study area recommended by the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP) manual. The average V s30 and SPT-N classified the study area as seismic site class D and E categories, indicating that the city is susceptible to site effects and liquefaction. Further, the different data set combinations between V s and SPT-N (corrected and uncorrected) values have been used to develop site-specific correlation equations by statistical regression, as ` V s' is a function of SPT- N value (corrected and uncorrected), considered with or without depth. However, after considering the data set pairs, a probabilistic approach has also been presented to develop a correlation using a quantile-quantile (Q-Q) plot. A comparison has also been made with the well known published correlations (for all soils) available in the literature. The present correlations closely agree with the other equations, but, comparatively, the correlation of shear wave velocity with the variation of depth and uncorrected SPT-N values provides a more suitable predicting model. Also the Q-Q plot agrees with all the other equations. In the absence of in situ measurements, the present correlations could be used to measure V s profiles of the study area for site response studies.

  10. ICT Usage by Distance Learners in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awadhiya, Ashish Kumar; Gowthaman, K.

    2014-01-01

    Open Universities across the world are embracing ICT based teaching and learning process to disseminate quality education to their learners spread across the globe. In India availability and access of ICT and learner characteristics are uneven and vary from state to state. Hence it is important to establish the facts about ICT access among…

  11. Survey of acaricides resistance status of Rhipiciphalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from selected places of Bihar, an eastern state of India.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Srikant; Kumar, Rinesh; Nagar, Gaurav; Kumar, Sachin; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Srivastava, Aman; Kumar, Suman; Ajith Kumar, K G; Saravanan, B C

    2015-07-01

    Monitoring acaricide resistance in field ticks and use of suitable managemental practices are essential for controlling tick populations infesting animals. In the present study, the acaricide resistance status in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks infesting cattle and buffaloes of five districts located in the eastern Indian state, Bihar were characterized using three data sets (AIT, Biochemical assays and gene sequences). Adult immersion test (AIT) was adopted using seven field isolates and their resistance factor (RF) was determined. Six isolates (DNP, MUZ, BEG, VSH, DRB and SUL) were found resistant to both deltamethrin and diazinon and except VSH all were resistant to cypermethrin. One isolate (PTN) was susceptible with a RF below 1.5. To understand the possible mode of resistance development, targeted enzymes and gene sequences of the para sodium channel and achetylcholinesterase 2 (AChE2) were analyzed. The esterase, monooxygenase and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity of reference susceptible IVRI-I line was determined as 2.47±0.007nmol/min/mg protein, 0.089±0.0016nmol/mg of protein and 0.0439±0.0003nmol/mg/min respectively, which increased significantly in the resistant field isolates. However, except esterases, the fold increase of monooxygenase (1.14-2.27 times) and GST (0.82-1.53 times) activities were not very high. A cytosine (C) to adenine (A) nucleotide substitution (CTC to ATC) at position 190 in domain II S4-5 linker region was detected only in one isolate (SUL) having RF of 34.9 and in the reference deltamethrin resistant line (IVRI-IV). However, the T2134A mutation was not detected in domain IIIS6 transmembrane segment of resistant isolates and also in reference IVRI-IV line despite of varying degree of resistance. The flumethrin specific G215T and the recently identified T170C mutations were also absent in domain II sequences under study. Four novel amino acid substitutions in AChE2 gene of field isolates and in organophosphate (OP) resistant reference IVRI-III line were identified which can possibly have a role in resistance development. PMID:26117183

  12. Color-Coded Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interviews (C-ACASI) for Poorly Educated Men and Women in a Semi-rural Area of South India: “Good, Scary and Thrilling”

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, Tarun; Brown, Joelle; Saravanamurthy, P. Sakthivel; Kumar, Raju Mohan; Detels, Roger

    2013-01-01

    It is challenging to collect accurate and complete data on sensitive issues such as sexual behaviors. Our objective was to explore experience and perceptions regarding the use of a locally programmed color-coded audio computer-assisted self interview (C-ACASI) system among men and women in a semi-rural setting in south India. We conducted a mixed-methods cross-sectional survey using semi-structured interviews among 89 truck drivers and 101 truck driver wives who had participated earlier in the C-ACASI survey across a predominantly rural district in Tamil Nadu. To assess the color-coded format used, descriptive quantitative analysis was coupled with thematic content analysis of qualitative data. Only 10 % of participants had ever used a computer before. Nearly 75 % did not report any problem in using C-ACASI. The length of the C-ACASI survey was acceptable to 98 % of participants. Overall, 87 % of wives and 73 % of truck drivers stated that C-ACASI was user-friendly and felt comfortable in responding to the sensitive questions. Nearly all (97 %) participants reported that using C-ACASI encouraged them to respond honestly compared to face-to-face personal interviews. Both the drivers and wives expressed that C-ACASI provided confidentiality, privacy, anonymity, and an easy mechanism for responding truthfully to potentially embarrassing questions about their personal sexual relationships. It is feasible and acceptable to use C-ACASI for collecting sensitive data from poorly computer-literate, non-English-speaking, predominantly rural populations of women and men. Our findings support the implementation of effective and culturally sensitive C-ACASI for data collection, albeit with additional validation. PMID:23361948

  13. Color-coded audio computer-assisted self-interviews (C-ACASI) for poorly educated men and women in a semi-rural area of South India: "good, scary and thrilling".

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Tarun; Brown, Joelle; Saravanamurthy, P Sakthivel; Kumar, Raju Mohan; Detels, Roger

    2013-07-01

    It is challenging to collect accurate and complete data on sensitive issues such as sexual behaviors. Our objective was to explore experience and perceptions regarding the use of a locally programmed color-coded audio computer-assisted self interview (C-ACASI) system among men and women in a semi-rural setting in south India. We conducted a mixed-methods cross-sectional survey using semi-structured interviews among 89 truck drivers and 101 truck driver wives who had participated earlier in the C-ACASI survey across a predominantly rural district in Tamil Nadu. To assess the color-coded format used, descriptive quantitative analysis was coupled with thematic content analysis of qualitative data. Only 10% of participants had ever used a computer before. Nearly 75% did not report any problem in using C-ACASI. The length of the C-ACASI survey was acceptable to 98% of participants. Overall, 87% of wives and 73% of truck drivers stated that C-ACASI was user-friendly and felt comfortable in responding to the sensitive questions. Nearly all (97%) participants reported that using C-ACASI encouraged them to respond honestly compared to face-to-face personal interviews. Both the drivers and wives expressed that C-ACASI provided confidentiality, privacy, anonymity, and an easy mechanism for responding truthfully to potentially embarrassing questions about their personal sexual relationships. It is feasible and acceptable to use C-ACASI for collecting sensitive data from poorly computer-literate, non-English-speaking, predominantly rural populations of women and men. Our findings support the implementation of effective and culturally sensitive C-ACASI for data collection, albeit with additional validation. PMID:23361948

  14. Joint forest management in India: Experiences of two decades

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prodyut Bhattacharya; Lolita Pradhan; Ganesh Yadav

    2010-01-01

    Joint Forest Management (JFM), embracing the philosophy of forest conservation and livelihood improvement through cooperation between state and civil society, has emerged over the past decades both as a specific paradigm of forest governance in India and as India's largest community forestry program. The JFM program, evolved during early 1970s covering a few forest villages as a model for reversing

  15. India's Doctor Shortage Reflects Problems in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neelakantan, Shailaja

    2008-01-01

    This article reports that India's medical profession is in a crisis. For every 10,000 people in India there are only six doctors, compared with nearly 55 in the United States and nearly 21 in Canada. The problem is likely to get worse before it gets better. Professors are leaving medical schools for better-paying jobs in private hospitals and in…

  16. Consumer Protection Act, 1986: Law and policy in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajendra Kumar Nayak

    1987-01-01

    India passed its new Consumer Protection Act in 1986. The author points out that the Act is a landmark in the history of the consumer protection movement in India. It concerns mainly the regulation of consumer disputes and creates specific redress agencies at district, state, and Union level. It also contains general provisions for consumer rights and for the organization

  17. Photocopy of sketch in India Ink on a quilt from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of sketch in India Ink on a quilt from 1842 (quilt at the Chester County Historical Society, West Chester, Pennsylvania) Photocopy taken by Ned Goode, April 14, 1960 sketch of house in india ink on quilt from 1842 - Primitive Hall, State Route 841 (West Marlborough Township), Clonmell, Chester County, PA

  18. Estimating Wealth Effects without Expenditure Data--or Tears: An Application to Educational Enrollments in States of India. Policy Research Working Papers No. 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filmer, Deon; Pritchett, Lant

    The relationship between household wealth and educational enrollment of children can be estimated without expenditure data. A method for doing this uses an index based on household asset ownership indicators. To estimate the relationship between household wealth in India and the probability that a child aged 6-14 would be enrolled in school, data…

  19. Assessment of the status of municipal solid waste management in metro cities, state capitals, class I cities, and class II towns in India: An insight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunil Kumar; J. K. Bhattacharyya; A. N. Vaidya; Tapan Chakrabarti; Sukumar Devotta; A. B. Akolkar

    2009-01-01

    Solid waste management is one of the most challenging issues in urban cities, which are facing a serious pollution problem due to the generation of huge quantities of solid waste. This paper presents an assessment of the existing situation of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in major cities in India. The quantity and composition of MSW vary from place to

  20. Black carbon aerosol mass concentrations over Ahmedabad, an urban location in western India: Comparison with urban sites in Asia, Europe, Canada, and the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ramachandran; T. A. Rajesh

    2007-01-01

    Black carbon (BC) aerosol mass concentrations measured using an aethalometer at Ahmedabad, an urban location in western India, from September 2003 to June 2005 are analyzed. BC mass concentrations are found to show diurnal and seasonal variations. Diurnal evolution in BC is marked with two peaks, one in the morning hours, just after the sunrise, and the other in the

  1. Inter-Generational Differences in Individualism/Collectivism Orientations: Implications for Outlook towards HRD/HRM Practices in India and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Rajashi; Chaudhuri, Sanghamitra

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a conceptual model to explore the effects of intergenerational transition in individualism/collectivism orientations on the outlook towards different human resource development (HRD) and management practices. It contributes to the existing cross-cultural research in HRD by defining three prominent generations in India and by…

  2. Predictors of HIV prevalence among street-based female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh state of India: a district-level analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A decline in HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs) has been reported from the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh between the two rounds of integrated biological and behavioural assessment (IBBA) surveys in 2005–06 and 2009, the first of these around the time of start of the Avahan HIV prevention intervention. In order to facilitate further planning of FSW interventions, we report the factors associated with HIV prevalence among street-based FSWs. Methods Behavioural data from the two rounds of IBBA surveys, district-level FSW HIV prevention program data, and urbanisation data from the Census of India were utilized. A multilevel logistic model was used to investigate factors associated with inter-district variations in HIV positivity among street-based FSWs in the districts by fitting a two-level model. Results The estimated HIV prevalence among street-based FSWs changed from 16% (95% confidence interval [CI] 14.2 – 17.7%) to 12.9% (95% CI 11.5 – 14.2%) from 2005–06 to 2009. HIV positivity was significantly higher in districts with a high proportion of FSWs registered with targeted interventions (odds ratio [OR] 2.02; 95% CI 1.18-3.45), and in districts with medium (OR 2.54; 95% CI 1.58-4.08) or high (OR 1.55; 95% CI 1.05-2.29) proportion of urban population. Districts which had met the condom requirement targets for FSWs had significantly lower HIV positivity (OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.26-0.97). In round 2 survey, the districts with medium level urbanisation had significantly higher proportion of FSWs registered with HIV intervention programmes and also reported higher consistent condom use with regular partner (p?

  3. 76 FR 20954 - Certain Lined Paper Products From India: Amended Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ...Administration [A-533-843] Certain Lined Paper Products From India: Amended Final...duty investigation on certain lined paper products (``CLPP'') from India. See Association of American School Paper Suppliers v. United States,...

  4. Energy Usage Attitudes of Urban India IBM Research India

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    Energy Usage Attitudes of Urban India Mohit Jain IBM Research India mohitjain@in.ibm.com Deepika@cs.cmu.edu Amarjeet Singh IIIT Delhi, India amarjeet@iiitd.ac.in Abstract-- Though rapid increase in energy factors affecting energy consumption in urban India. However, the small numbers of participants in those

  5. End-of-life decision-making in India.

    PubMed

    Freckelton, Ian

    2014-09-01

    The extraordinary circumstances and the tragic life of Aruna Shanbaug, together with the landmark Supreme Court of India decision in Shanbaug v Union of India (2011) 4 SCC 454, have provided a fillip and focus to debate within India about end-of-life decision-making. This extends to passive euthanasia, decision-making about withdrawal of nutrition, hydration and medical treatment from persons in a permanent vegetative or quasi-vegetative state, the role of the courts in such matters, the risks of corruption and misconduct, the criminal status of attempted suicide, and even the contentious issue of physician-assisted active euthanasia. The debates have been promoted further by important reports of the Law Commission of India. This editorial reviews the current state of the law and debate about such issues in India. PMID:25341315

  6. Experience of violence and adverse reproductive health outcomes, HIV risks among mobile female sex workers in India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Female sex workers (FSWs) are a population sub-group most affected by the HIV epidemic in India and elsewhere. Despite research and programmatic attention to FSWs, little is known regarding sex workers' reproductive health and HIV risk in relation to their experiences of violence. This paper therefore aims to understand the linkages between violence and the reproductive health and HIV risks among a group of mobile FSWs in India. Methods Data are drawn from a cross-sectional behavioural survey conducted in 22 districts from four high HIV prevalence states (Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu) in India between September 2007 and July 2008. The survey sample included 5,498 FSWs who had moved to at least two different places for sex work in the past two years, and are classified as mobile FSWs in the current study. Analyses calculated the prevalence of past year experiences of violence; and adjusted logistic regression models examined the association between violence and reproductive health and HIV risks after controlling for background characteristics and program exposure. Results Approximately one-third of the total mobile FSWs (30.5%, n = 1,676) reported experiencing violence at least once in the past year; 11% reported experiencing physical violence, and 19.5% reported experiencing sexual violence. Results indicate that FSWs who had experienced any violence (physical or sexual) were significantly more likely to be vulnerable to both reproductive health and HIV risks. For example, FSWs who experienced violence were more likely than those who did not experience violence to have experienced a higher number of pregnancies (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-1.6), ever experienced pregnancy loss (adjusted OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.2-1.6), ever experienced forced termination of pregnancy (adjusted OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 2.0-2.7), experienced multiple forced termination of pregnancies (adjusted OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.7-2.8), and practice inconsistent condom use currently (adjusted OR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.4-2.0). Among FSWs who experienced violence, those who experienced sexual violence were more likely than those who had experienced physical violence to report inconsistent condom use (adjusted OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.4-2.3), and experience STI symptoms (adjusted OR = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1-1.7). Conclusion The pervasiveness of violence and its association with reproductive health and HIV risk highlights that the abuse in general is an important determinant for reproductive health risks; and sexual violence is significantly associated with HIV risks among those who experienced violence. Existing community mobilization programs that have primarily focused on empowering FSWs should broaden their efforts to promote reproductive health in addition to the prevention of HIV among all FSWs, with particular emphasis on FSWs who experienced violence. PMID:21599984

  7. As India's Plates Collide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This winning entry in the museum's Young Naturalist Awards 1999 by Rikesh, a 12 year old student from New York, reports on the causes of earthquakes, using India as a focal point. He discusses the earthquakes that have hit India from 1737 to 1991 and their effects, including tsunamis, and the work engineers are doing to reduce the damage from earthquakes.

  8. Physico-chemical parameters and Ichthyofauna diversity of Arasalar estuary in southeast coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, C.; Sridharan, G.; Mariappan, P.; Chelladurai, G.

    2015-01-01

    The physico-chemical changes may have the tendency to accumulate in the various organs of estuarine organisms, especially fish which may in turn enter into the human metabolism through consumption causing serious hazards. Hence, the present study was carried out to dete rmine the physico-chemical characteristics of water and Ichthyofauna in Arasalar estuary in southeast coast of India for the period of 1 year during September 2012-August 2013. The environmental parameters such as, temperature, pH, salinity, DO, silicate, nitrate and phosphate were observed from Department of Zoology, Rajah Serfoji Goverment College, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India. During the period of study, air temperature varied from 28.8 to 35 °C. The surface water temperature also varied from 25 to 31.5 °C. The monthly mean values of hydrogen ion concentration of water varied from 7.1 to 8.2. The salinity of water varied from 5.5 ‰ to 34. Dissolved oxygen in Arasalar estuary was varied from 3.5 to 7.2 mg/l. The total phosphorus varied from 0.29 to 2.15 µg/1. The nitrate varied from 0.47 to 3.75 µg/l. The silicate content varied from 28.25 to 98.74 µg/l. Totally 866 fishes were collected belonging to 4 orders and 5 families. Mystus gulio was found to be the dominant species (25.40 %) in the study area.

  9. Post-tsunami relocation of fisher settlements in South Asia: evidence from the Coromandel Coast, India.

    PubMed

    Bavinck, Maarten; de Klerk, Leo; van der Plaat, Felice; Ravesteijn, Jorik; Angel, Dominique; Arendsen, Hendrik; van Dijk, Tom; de Hoog, Iris; van Koolwijk, Ant; Tuijtel, Stijn; Zuurendonk, Benjamin

    2015-07-01

    The tsunami that struck the coasts of India on 26 December 2004 resulted in the large-scale destruction of fisher habitations. The post-tsunami rehabilitation effort in Tamil Nadu was directed towards relocating fisher settlements in the interior. This paper discusses the outcomes of a study on the social effects of relocation in a sample of nine communities along the Coromandel Coast. It concludes that, although the participation of fishing communities in house design and in allocation procedures has been limited, many fisher households are satisfied with the quality of the facilities. The distance of the new settlements to the shore, however, is regarded as an impediment to engaging in the fishing profession, and many fishers are actually moving back to their old locations. This raises questions as to the direction of coastal zone policy in India, as well as to the weight accorded to safety (and other coastal development interests) vis-à-vis the livelihood needs of fishers. PMID:25546250

  10. Arsenic groundwater contamination and its health effects in the state of Uttar Pradesh (UP) in upper and middle Ganga plain, India: A severe danger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sad Ahamed; Mrinal Kumar Sengupta; Amitava Mukherjee; M. Amir Hossain; Bhaskar Das; Bishwajit Nayak; Arup Pal; Subhas Chandra Mukherjee; Shyamapada Pati; Rathindra Nath Dutta; Garga Chatterjee; Adreesh Mukherjee; Rishiji Srivastava; Dipankar Chakraborti

    2006-01-01

    This communication presents results of our 2-year survey on groundwater arsenic contamination in three districts Ballia, Varanasi and Gazipur of Uttar Pradesh (UP) in the upper and middle Ganga plain, India. Analyses of 4780 tubewell water samples revealed that arsenic concentrations in 46.5% exceeded 10 ?g\\/L, in 26.7%, 50 ?g\\/L and in 10% 300 ?g\\/L limits. Arsenic concentrations up to 3192 ?g\\/\\/L were observed.

  11. Borrowing From the East to Strengthen the West: Merging Public Health Case Studies of Community-Based Service-Learning Practices From India and the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donna E. Howard; Chythra R. Rao; Sharon M. Desmond

    2010-01-01

    Case studies of classroom-based pedagogy linked with service-learning practicum experiences, which promote population health by encouraging civic engagement and community-based participatory actions, are highlighted. The community diagnosis activities engaged in by the Department of Community Medicine, Manipal University, Karnataka, India and the community health fair implemented by the Department of Public and Community Health (in partnership with the Seat Pleasant

  12. Economic Inequalities in Maternal Health Care: Prenatal Care and Skilled Birth Attendance in India, 1992–2006

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Praveen Kumar; Singh, Abhishek; Subramanian, S. V.

    2010-01-01

    Background The use of maternal health care is limited in India despite several programmatic efforts for its improvement since the late 1980's. The use of maternal health care is typically patterned on socioeconomic and cultural contours. However, there is no clear perspective about how socioeconomic differences over time have contributed towards the use of maternal health care in India. Methodology/Principal Findings Using data from three rounds of National Family Health Survey (NFHS) conducted during 1992–2006, we analyse the trends and patterns in utilization of prenatal care (PNC) in first trimester with four or more antenatal care visits and skilled birth attendance (SBA) among poor and nonpoor mothers, disaggregated by area of residence in India and three contrasting provinces, namely, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. In addition, we investigate the relative contribution of public and private health facilities in meeting the demand for SBA, especially among poor mothers. We also examine the role of salient socioeconomic, demographic and cultural factors in influencing aforementioned outcomes. Bivariate analyses, concentration curve and concentration index, logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression models are used to understand the trends, patterns and predictors of the two outcome variables. Results indicate sluggish progress in utilization of PNC and SBA in India and selected provinces during 1992–2006. Enormous inequalities in utilization of PNC and SBA were observed largely to the disadvantage of the poor. Multivariate analysis suggests growing inequalities in utilization of the two outcomes across different economic groups. Conclusions The use of PNC and SBA remains disproportionately lower among poor mothers in India irrespective of area of residence and province. Despite several governmental efforts to increase access and coverage of delivery services to poor, it is clear that the poor (a) do not use SBA and (b) even if they had SBA, they were more likely to use the private providers. PMID:21048964

  13. Teacher Absence in India: A Snapshot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Kremer; Nazmul Chaudhury; F. Halsey Rogers; Karthik Muralidharan; Jeffrey Hammer

    2005-01-01

    Twenty-five percent of teachers were absent from school, and only about half were teaching, during unannounced visits to a nationally representative sample of government primary schools in India. Absence rates varied from 15% in Maharashtra to 42% in Jharkhand, with higher rates concentrated in the poorer states. We do not find that higher pay is associated with lower absence. Older

  14. Food policy in India: the importance of electoral politics in policy implementation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jos Mooij

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses, compares and contrasts the politics of food policy implementation in two Indian States: Karnataka in South India and Bihar in North India. Both states are covered by the Public Distribution System (PDS), a major intervention in the Indian food economy intended to reduce food insecurity and improve welfare. As in most South Indian States, the PDS in

  15. After the CTB... India`s intentions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Bidwai; A. Vanaik

    1997-01-01

    More than six months after it was adopted in the U.N. General Assembly, the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTB) remains a victim of narrowly perceived national security interests. Three sour ironies marked the way agreement was reached. First, India, which pioneered the proposal in 1954, became its bitterest opponent, alone vetoing it at the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva, thus

  16. Combating Iron Deficiency Anemia among School Going Adolescent Girls in a Hilly State of North India: Effectiveness of Intermittent Versus Daily Administration of Iron Folic Acid Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Anmol; Parashar, Anupam; Thakur, Anita; Sharma, Deepak; Bhardwaj, Parveen; Jaswal, Saroj

    2014-01-01

    Background: National surveys in India have documented an increasing number of adolescent girls suffering from anemia. Efforts to build iron stores in adolescent girls will help them improve their prepregnancy hemoglobin level. To assess the effectiveness of school-based supervised weekly, bi–weekly, and daily regimen of iron folic tablets in the treatment of anemia among adolescent girls. Methods: This randomized clinical trial included 331 anemic school going adolescent girls of Shimla district of North India. Study subjects were randomized to once weekly, bi–weekly, and daily iron folic acid regimen group. An intent-to-treat approach was used to analyze the change in hemoglobin level and serum ferritin levels at the end of the trial period. Results: The rate of change of hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels from baseline to the end of the intervention was found to be similar in all the three groups (P = 0.64 and 0.98 for change in hemoglobin and serum ferritin). Bi-weekly treatment regimen results in comparatively more increase in hemoglobin levels (3.1 g/dl) as compared to once weekly (2.4 g/dl) and daily groups (2.3 g/dl) (ANOVA F statistics = 6.08, P = 0.003). Among the study subjects who reported side effects, more were from daily regimen group (55%) as compared to intermittent regimen group (25% in bi-weekly group; 18% in weekly group; P < 0.001). Conclusions: In Shimla hills of North India, school-based intermittent iron-folic acid therapy is a feasible and effective intervention for increasing hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels of anemic adolescent girls. PMID:25538845

  17. Coastal zone management programme in Kerala, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tapas K. Mallik

    1987-01-01

    The physiographic setting of Kerala State, India, is unique. A narrow strip of the state contains a chain of lagoons and estuaries\\u000a with a very high population density. The strip is subjected to severe coastal erosion during the monsoon season. A number\\u000a of other problems are also associated with the coastal zone of Kerala, such as irregular dredging of black

  18. The Hidden Burden of Dengue and Chikungunya in Chennai, India

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Barraquer, Isabel; Solomon, Sunil S.; Kuganantham, Periaswamy; Srikrishnan, Aylur Kailasom; Vasudevan, Canjeevaram K.; Iqbal, Syed H.; Balakrishnan, Pachamuthu; Solomon, Suniti; Mehta, Shruti H.; Cummings, Derek A. T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dengue and chikungunya are rapidly expanding viruses transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. Few epidemiological studies have examined the extent of transmission of these infections in South India despite an increase in the number of reported cases, and a high suitability for transmission. Methods and findings We conducted a household-based seroprevalence survey among 1010 individuals aged 5-40 years living in fifty randomly selected spatial locations in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Participants were asked to provide a venous blood sample and to complete a brief questionnaire with basic demographic and daily activity information. Previous exposure to dengue and chikungunya was determined using IgG indirect ELISA (Panbio) and IgG ELISA (Novatec), respectively. We used this data to estimate key transmission parameters (force of infection and basic reproductive number) and to explore factors associated with seropositivity. While only 1% of participants reported history of dengue and 20% of chikungunya, we found that 93% (95%CI 89-95%) of participants were seropositive to dengue virus, and 44% (95%CI 37-50%) to chikungunya. Age-specific seroprevalence was consistent with long-tem, endemic circulation of dengue and suggestive of epidemic chikungunya transmission. Seropositivity to dengue and chikungunya were significantly correlated, even after adjusting for individual and household factors. We estimate that 23% of the susceptible population gets infected by dengue each year, corresponding to approximately 228,000 infections. This transmission intensity is significantly higher than that estimated in known hyperendemic settings in Southeast Asia and the Americas. Conclusions These results provide unprecedented insight into the very high transmission potential of dengue and chikungunya in Chennai and underscore the need for enhanced surveillance and control methods. PMID:26181441

  19. India has done it: demographic transition already underway in India.

    PubMed

    Gowarikar, V

    1995-10-01

    The author posits that a classical demographic transition in India in underway. Birth and death rates are declining in both rural and urban areas of all states. Specifically, the following four stages were completed. 1) During 1941-71, the death rate declined sharply and the birth rate declined somewhat. 2) The natural growth rate increased dramatically from 8.7 to 22.2. 3) After 1971, the birth rate began to decline dramatically over a 10-year period and the natural growth rate stabilized at 22.2. 4) During 1981-91, the magnitude of the birth rate decline was greater than the death rate decline. The natural growth rate declined to 19.7. The final stage of transition is the current one. The natural growth rate is expected to decline at a faster rate until it reaches zero. The birth rate ranges from 18.1 in Kerala to 35.8 in Madhya Pradesh. It is expected in the final stage of India's demographic transition that the crude birth rate will decline to 21 in 2003 and the crude death rate will decline to 8. The natural growth rate under such a scenario would be 13. The estimation of the decline in the crude birth rate is based on present determinant factors, such as literacy, wealth generation, energy consumption, and food availability. Future strategies should continue with the improvement in the role of the Family Welfare Department and with continued strengthening of existing programs. The rise in population size should be understood as a natural historical demographic process and not a reason to dismantle and destabilize a program going back to 1951. Rajasthan and Haryana have legislation that bars people from holding office, if their family size is greater than two children. This action is commended. India has a need for government to demystify contraception as was accomplished in Thailand and to create awareness of modern methods and the potential for side effects without discouraging use. PMID:12291348

  20. Multilevel Analysis of the Predictors of HIV Prevalence among Pregnant Women Enrolled in Annual HIV Sentinel Surveillance in Four States in Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Thamattoor, Usha; Thomas, Tinku; Banandur, Pradeep; S, Rajaram; Duchesne, Thierry; Abdous, Belkacem; Washington, Reynold; B M, Ramesh; Moses, Stephen; Alary, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Background Heterogeneity of the HIV epidemic across districts of south India is reflected in HIV positivity among antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees. Along with individual factors, contextual factors also need consideration for effective HIV interventions. Thus, identifying district and individual level factors that influence ANC HIV positivity assumes importance to intervene effectively. Methods Data on HIV sentinel surveillance among the ANC population were obtained from the National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) between years 2004 and 2007. Data from serial cross-sectional studies among female sex workers (FSWs) conducted during this time period in 24 districts were used to generate district level variables corresponding to parameters concerning this high risk population. Other district level data were obtained from various official/governmental agencies. Multilevel logistic regression was used to identify individual and district level factors associated with ANC-HIV positivity. Results The average ANC-HIV prevalence from 2004 to 2007 in the 24 integrated biological and behavioural assessments (IBBA) districts ranged from 0.25 to 3.25%. HIV positivity was significantly higher among ANC women with age?25 years [adjusted odds ratio (AOR):1.49; 95% confidence interval (95%CI):1.27 to 1.76] compared to those with age<25 years; illiterate (AOR:1.62; 95%CI:1.03 to 2.54) compared to literate; employed in agriculture (AOR:1.34; 95%CI:1.11 to 1.62) or with occupations like driver/helper/industry/factory workers/hotel staff (AOR:1.59; 95%CI:1.26 to 2.01) compared to unemployed. District level HIV prevalence among FSWs (AOR:1.03; 95%CI:1.0 to 1.05) and percentage women marrying under 18 years were significantly associated with ANC-HIV positivity (AOR:1.02; 95%CI:1.00 to 1.04). Conclusion Illiteracy of the woman, higher HIV prevalence among FSWs and early marriage were associated with HIV positivity among pregnant women in southern India. In addition to targeted HIV preventive interventions among FSWs, studying and changing the behavior of FSW clients and addressing structural drivers of the epidemic might indirectly help reduce HIV infection among women in southern India. PMID:26147208

  1. India. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1994 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickler, Paul

    This curriculum packet on politics and international relations in India contains an essay, three lessons and a variety of charts, maps, and additional readings to support the unit. The essay is entitled "India 1994: The Peacock and the Vulture." The lessons include: (1) "The Kashmir Dispute"; (2) "India: Domestic Order and International Affairs, A…

  2. The trade in human organs in Tamil Nadu: the anatomy of regulatory failure.

    PubMed

    Muraleedharan, Vangal R; Jan, Stephen; Ram Prasad, S

    2006-01-01

    There has been much recent interest in the trade in human organs in India. This paper examines both the extent to which regulatory controls through the Transplantation of Human Organs Act (1994) are effective in curbing commercialization and the nature of the constraints on the effective implementation of this Act. The study, a politico-economic analysis of health sector regulation, is based on a stakeholder analysis drawing on the views of key decision makers, service providers, organ donors and recipients. The findings indicate widespread acknowledgement of an organs trade and highlight four major constraints on the effective implementation of the Act: the commercial interests of middlemen and service providers, the ambiguities and loopholes in the Act; the low monitoring capacity of the regulatory authorities, and the pressures and responsibilities exerted upon the Authorizing Committees. A feature of the Act is that its implementation is subject to a major incentive compatibility constraint - it is seemingly not in the interests of any of the key players, including the regulatory authorities, to restrict the organ trade. To some extent, this institutional problem is created by the specific nature of the regulatory intervention, and, as a consequence, measures involving straightforward redrafting of the regulation might go some way to addressing this incentive problem. Another solution may entail a 'harm-reduction' strategy involving a controlled trade where procurement and organ matching is carried out by a government agency (this would require, however, the prior resolution of the broader ethical question concerning the legitimacy of such trade). PMID:18634702

  3. The private sector: Cautiously interested in distribution in India

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, J.P. [Stone and Webster Management Consultants, Washington, DC (United States)] [Stone and Webster Management Consultants, Washington, DC (United States); Bowman, C.D.; Guy, J. [International Resources Group, Washington, DC (United States)] [International Resources Group, Washington, DC (United States); Gross, T.P. [Morley Caskin, Washington, DC (United States)] [Morley Caskin, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-06-01

    As privatization and liberalization proceed in India--the world`s second largest growth market for electricity--sensible experimentation by the states on the rules of the game is vital. A new joint venture approach in Rajasthan may be a helpful model. This article provides an overview of the principal challenges confronting US utilities interested in investing in distribution in India as well as a summary of two mechanisms developed to facilitate private investment. These challenges also should be considered in view of the changing political conditions in India owing to the recent election of the coalition government led by the Bharatiya Janata Party.

  4. Evaluation of a community-based HIV preventive intervention for female sex workers in rural areas of Karnataka State, south India.

    PubMed

    Washington, Reynold G; Nath, Anita; Isac, Shajy; Javalkar, Prakash; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Moses, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    To examine changes in behavioral outcomes among rural female sex workers (FSWs) involved in a community-based comprehensive HIV preventive intervention program in south India. A total of 14, 284 rural FSWs were reached by means of a community-based model for delivering outreach, medical, and referral services. Changes in behavior were assessed using 2 rounds of polling booth surveys conducted in 2008 and 2011. In all, 95% of the mapped FSWs were reached at least once, 80.3% received condoms as per need, and 71% received health services for sexually transmitted infections. There was a significant increase in condom use (from 60.4% to 72.4%, P = .001) and utilization of HIV counseling and testing services (from 63.9% to 92.4%; P = .000) between the 2 time periods. This model for a community-based rural outreach and HIV care was effective and could also be applied to many other health problems. PMID:24871816

  5. Community Mobilization and Empowerment of Female Sex Workers in Karnataka State, South India: Associations With HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Harnalli L.; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Chandrashekar, Sudha; Isac, Shajy; Wheeler, Tisha; Prakash, Ravi; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M.; Blanchard, James F.; Heise, Lori; Vickerman, Peter; Moses, Stephen; Watts, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the impact of community mobilization (CM) on the empowerment, risk behaviors, and prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infection in female sex workers (FSWs) in Karnataka, India. Methods. We conducted behavioral–biological surveys in 2008 and 2011 in 4 districts of Karnataka, India. We defined exposure to CM as low, medium (attended nongovernmental organization meeting or drop-in centre), or high (member of collective or peer group). We used regression analyses to explore whether exposure to CM was associated with the preceding outcomes. Pathway analyses explored the degree to which effects could be attributable to CM. Results. By the final survey, FSWs with high CM exposure were more likely to have been tested for HIV (adjusted odd ratio [AOR]?=?25.13; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?13.07, 48.34) and to have used a condom at last sex with occasional clients (AOR?=?4.74; 95% CI?=? 2.17, 10.37), repeat clients (AOR?=?4.29; 95% CI?=?2.24, 8.20), and regular partners (AOR?=?2.80; 95% CI?=?1.43, 5.45) than FSWs with low CM exposure. They were also less likely to be infected with gonorrhea or chlamydia (AOR?=?0.53; 95% CI?=?0.31, 0.87). Pathway analyses suggested CM acted above and beyond peer education; reduction in gonorrhea or chlamydia was attributable to CM. Conclusions. CM is a central part of HIV prevention programming among FSWs, empowering them to better negotiate condom use and access services, as well as address other concerns in their lives. PMID:24922143

  6. Protocol for a prospective, controlled study of assertive and timely reperfusion for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in Tamil Nadu: the TN-STEMI programme

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Thomas; Victor, Suma M; Mullasari, Ajit S; Veerasekar, Ganesh; Subramaniam, Kala; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Over the past two decades, India has witnessed a staggering increase in the incidence and mortality of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Indians have higher rates of STEMI and younger populations that suffer from it when compared with developed countries. Yet, the recommended reperfusion therapy with fibrinolysis and percutaneous coronary intervention is available only to a minority of patients. This gap in care is a result of financial barriers, limited healthcare infrastructure and poor knowledge and accessibility of acute medical services for a majority of its population. Methods and analysis This is a prospective, multicentre, ‘pretest/post-test’ quasi-experimental, community-based study. This programme will use a ‘hub-and-spoke’ model of an integrated healthcare network based on clusters of primary-care health clinics, small hospitals and large tertiary-care facilities. It is an ‘all-comers’ study which will enrol consecutive patients presenting with STEMI to the participating hospitals. The primary objectives of the study is to improve the use of reperfusion therapy and reduce the time from first medical contact to device or drug in STEMI patients; and to increase the rates of early invasive risk stratification with coronary angiography within 3–24?h of fibrinolytic therapy in eligible patients through changes in process of care. Outcomes will be measured with statistical comparison made before and after implementing the TN-STEMI programme. The estimated sample size is based on the Kovai Erode Pilot study, which provided an initial work on establishing this type of programme in South India. It will be adequately powered at 80% with a superiority margin of 10% if 36 patients are enrolled per cluster or 108 patients in three clusters. Thus, the enrolment period of 9?months will result in a sample size of 1500 patients. Ethics This study will be conducted in accordance with the ethical principles that have their origin in the current Declaration of Helsinki and ‘ethical guidelines for biomedical research on human participants’ as laid down by the Indian Council for Medical Research. All participating hospitals will still obtain local ethics committee approval of the study protocol and written informed consent will be obtained from all participants. Dissemination and results Our findings will be reported through scientific publications, research conferences and public policy venues aimed at state and local governments in India. If successful, this model can be extended to other areas of India as well as serve as a model of STEMI systems of care for low-income and middle-income countries across the world. Registration Trial is registered with Clinical trial registry of India, No: CTRI/2012/09/003002. PMID:24302505

  7. Bioefficacy of certain plant extracts against the red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae (Nietner) (Acarina: Tetranychidae) infesting tea in Tamil Nadu, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amsalingam Roobakkumar; Mariappan S. R. Subramaniam; Azariah Babu; Narayanannair Muraleedharan

    2010-01-01

    Bioefficacy, ovicidal action and ovipositional deterrence of a few selected bio-pesticides such as neem kernel aqueous extract (NKAE), pongam kernel aqueous extract (PKAE) and garlic aqueous extract (GAE) were evaluated in the laboratory against the tea red spider mite (RSM). Data were collected on the mortality of eggs and adults and also on the reduction in the fecundity of female

  8. Regulation in Health Care in Tamil Nadu (India): A study of the Implementation of Transplantation of Human Organs Act (THOA) 1994, and Consumer Protection Act (CPA) 1986

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vangal R Muraleedharan; S Ram Prasad

    2010-01-01

    The functioning of healthcare sector could be substantially influenced by the design and implementation of regulatory policies that govern the behaviour of various stakeholders. The empirical challenge is to assess whether and how far have regulations brought about “desirable and intended†changes in the functioning of the healthcare delivery system. Tthe experience of the Consumer Protection Act (1986) and the

  9. Rb-Sr Geochronology, Nd-Sr Isotopes and Whole Rock Geochemistry of Yelagiri and Sevattur Syenites, Tamil Nadu, South India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Miyazaki; H. Kagami; K. Shuto; T. Morikiyo; V. Ram Mohan; K. C. Rajasekaran

    2000-01-01

    Alkaline magmatism during the late Proterozoic is an important event in the northern part of the South Indian granulite terrain. A number of alkaline plutons comprising saturated syenite and ultramafic rocks often associated with carbonatite are found localized along NEHYPHEN;SW trending lineaments, which are considered as deep crustal fractures. Along one such lineament, the alkaline complexes of Yelagiri, Sevattur and

  10. Economic development trends in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Hazaray

    1972-01-01

    On August 15, 1972, India celebrated the 25th anniversary of its independence. It is therefor appropriate to give on this\\u000a occasion an account of india’s past achievements and failures in view of its striving still more tenaciously towards a balanced\\u000a economic development in the years to come.

  11. India's nuclear power program : a study of India's unique approach to nuclear energy

    E-print Network

    Murray, Caitlin Lenore

    2006-01-01

    India is in the middle of the biggest expansion of nuclear power in its history, adding 20 GWe in the next 14 years in the form of pressure water reactors and fast breeder reactors. At the same time, the United States is ...

  12. Sediment and hydro biogeochemistry of Lake Nainital, Kumaun Himalaya, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Purushothaman; S. Mishra; A. Das; G. J. Chakrapani

    The picturesque Nainital Lake, in the Uttarakhand state of India, is one of the major tourist attractions in the northern\\u000a part of India. The increasing tourism and population around these lakes are a major concern for the ecology and good sustenance\\u000a of the lakes. The present study is aimed to understand the behaviour of nutrients and metals in the sediment

  13. Sediments from the Boxing Day tsunami on the coasts of southeastern India and Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, R.; Bahlburg, H.

    2006-12-01

    On the Boxing Day 2004, the world community experienced a catastrophic tsunami in the Indian Ocean and could also saw how unprepared and unaware countries along the Indian ocean were. Beyond the tragedy of the tremendous loss of lives, the result of this event is an opportunity to study a global tsunami (mega-tsunami) in many regards. Here, we report on tsunami sediments left behind on beaches at the coast of Tamil Nadu (India) and on beaches between Malindi and Lamu (Kenya). Characteristic debris accumulations on the beach surface at Tamil Nadu (India) showed the impact of three tsunami waves. In this area, the tsunami climbed ~5 m up the beach; the last traces of a tsunami wave were found ~580 m away from the shoreline. Palm trees indicated an overland flow depth of 3.5 m, ~50 m from the shoreline. The tsunami deposits were up to 30 cm thick. They had an erosional base to the underlying soil and pre-tsunami beach deposits and were made up of moderately well- to well-sorted coarse and medium sand. The sand sheet thins inland, but without a decrease in grain size. Three distinct layers could be identified within the tsunami deposit. The lower one occasionally displayed cross-bedding with foresets dipping landward indicating deposition during run-up. The two upper layers were graded or parallel-laminated without indicators of flow directions. The boundaries between the different layers were marked by dark laminae, rich in heavy minerals. Also, the presence of benthic foraminifera indicates entrainment of sediment into the water column by the incoming tsunami wave in water depths less than 30 m. On beaches between Malindi and Lamu, Kenya, the traces of only one tsunami wave could be found, which attained a run-up height of about 3 m and traveled ~35 m inland with respect to the tidal stage at tsunami impact. The tsunami sediments consist of one layer of fine sand and are predominantly composed of heavy minerals supplied to the sea by nearby rivers. A slight fining-inland trend could be identified in the thinning- inland sand layer. Benthic foraminifera also indicate an entrainment of sediment by the incoming tsunami wave in a water depth less than 30 m, however there are indications that sediment might be entrained in a water depth of 80 m. The fact that only one sand layer occurs in Kenya as opposed to three at Tamil Nadu might lead to the conclusion that only one wave approached the Kenyan coast. This interpretation is misleading because the Kenyan coast is several thousand kilometers away from source area of the tsunami; the non-linear behavior of the incoming tsunami waves, especially the interaction with the nearby reef, may have resulted in the discovered sedimentologic evidence of the tsunami impact on the Kenyan coast.

  14. India Through Literature: An Annotated Bibliography for Teaching India. Part I: India Through the Ancient Classics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Donald; Johnson, Jean

    The past and the present interweave in contemporary India. To understand India, one must know of the traditional stories. Two short pocket books make them accessible and acceptable to students: 1) The Dance of Shiva and Other Tales from India by Oroon Ghosh, published by the New American Library in New York; and, 2) Gods, Demons, and Others by R.…

  15. Urology in ancient India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sakti

    2007-01-01

    The practice of medical and surgical measures in the management of urological ailments prevailed in ancient India from the Vedic era around 3000 BC. Subsequently in the Samhita period, the two stalwarts - Charaka in medicine and Susruta in surgery elevated the art of medicine in India to unprecedented heights. Their elaboration of the etiopathological hypothesis and the medical and surgical treatments of various urological disorders of unparalleled ingenuity still remain valid to some extent in our contemporary understanding. The new generation of accomplished Indian urologists should humbly venerate the legacy of the illustrious pioneers in urology of our motherland. PMID:19675749

  16. Archaeological Survey of India

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Taj Mahal. Hawa Mahal. Mysore Palace. Sanchi Stupa. The historical monuments of India are some of the grandest and most beautiful in the world. The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), which oversees Indiaâ??s ancient monuments and archaeological sites, hosts a useful page for exploring Indiaâ??s methods of preserving its cultural heritage. After reading About Us, where you can learn about the organization itself, have a look at Monuments, Excavations, Conservation and Preservation, each of which provides important insights into the managing of essential subcontinental sites. Site visitors should also peruse the beautiful Photo Gallery, providing numerous images of both World Monuments and Excavations.

  17. Creating rigorous pathways to monetize methane and nitrous oxide emission reductions at small scale rice farms in three states of semi-arid peninsular India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kritee, K.; Tiwari, R.; Nair, D.; Adhya, T. K.; Rudek, J.

    2014-12-01

    As a part of a joint undertaking by Environmental Defense Fund and the Fair Climate Network, we have measured reduction in methane and nitrous oxide emissions due to alternate "low carbon" rice cultivation practices for three ago-ecological zones in India for the past two years. Sampling for nitrous oxide and methane emissions was done on approximately 60-80% of the total number of days in a growing season and was based on modified GRACEnet protocol. In recognition of farmer's economic interest and global food security demands, we also measured the effect of rice cultivation practices on farm economics and yields. Our data from three agro-ecological zones for 2012-2014 suggest that, for semi-arid peninsular India, low-carbon rice cultivation practices offer large range of emission reduction potential (0.5-5 metric tons CO2e/acre/year). The regions with sandy soils (Alfisols) had high rates of nitrous oxide emissions even under baseline "flooded" rice cultivation regimes and, thus, the Tier 1 IPCC emissions factors grossly underestimate both the amount of nitrous oxide emission from conventional rice cultivation practices, and the extent to which it can be reduced through better fertilizer management. Also, the IPCC factors overestimate the methane emission reduction possible due to water management for rice paddies. Therefore, it is crucial to customize N and water management to each region such that yields and net GHG emission reduction are maximized. These practices also have the potential to decrease water use by 10-30% and improve long term soil health by optimizing organic matter and increasing water-holding capacity. In addition, through GPS based demarcation of farmer plots, recording baseline practices through extensive surveys, documenting the parameters required to aggregate and prove implementation of low carbon rice farming practices, and to model the GHG emission reduction over large scales, we have put forward a path for better monetization of GHG emission reductions which will incentivize adoption of such practices. The payoff is a "triple win" including increased long-term food security (through enhanced yields), rural economic development (through improved farm profitability and adaptation), and lower environmental impacts (including lower GHG emissions).

  18. Seroprevalence of HCV and its co-infection with HBV and HIV among liver disease patients of South Tamil Nadu

    PubMed Central

    Anbazhagan, Ganesh Kumar; Krishnamoorthy, Sridharan; Thiyagarajan, Thirunalasundari

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and its co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis delta agent (HDV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among liver disease patients of south Tamil Nadu. METHODS: A total of 1012 samples comprising 512 clinically diagnosed cases of liver disease patients and 500 apparently healthy age and sex matched individuals were screened for Hepatitis C virus (anti HCV and HCV RNA), Hepatitis B virus (HBsAg), Hepatitis delta agent (anti HDV) and Human immuno virus (antibodies to HIV-1 and HIV-2) using commercially available enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kits. HCV RNA was detected by RT-PCR. Liver function tests like ALT, AST, GGT, ALP, bilirubin and albumin were also studied. RESULTS: The seroprevalence of HCV was found to be 5.6% among liver disease patients by ELISA. 27/512, 49/512 and 12/512 patients were positive for HIV, HBV & HDV respectively. Co-infection of HCV & HBV was found in 8 patients, with 6 for HCV & HIV and 4 for HCV, HBV & HIV co-infections. Sex-wise analysis showed that HIV, HCV & HBV and HCV & HIV co-infection was high among females whereas for HBV it was high in males. The mean ALT and AST in HCV positive cases were 42.1 ± 8.3 and 49 ± 10.1. In people co-infected with HCV & HBV or HCV & HIV or HCV, HBV & HIV the mean ALT of 58.0 ± 03.16, 56.78 ± 4.401 and 64.37 ± 4.01 respectively. CONCLUSION: We strongly recommend routine test of the blood for HCV in addition to HBV and HIV. We also recommend individualized counseling to identify those at risk and testing for those who want it. Improved surveillance and periodic epidemiological studies will have to be undertaken to monitor and prevent these blood-borne viruses. PMID:21160955

  19. ISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, Paper No. 456, Vol. 42, No. 2-3, June-September 2005, pp. 63-78 STRUCTURAL DAMAGES ON THE COAST OF TAMIL NADU DUE TO

    E-print Network

    Gupta, Vinay Kumar

    ISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, Paper No. 456, Vol. 42, No. 2-3, June-September 2005, pp. 63-78 STRUCTURAL DAMAGES ON THE COAST OF TAMIL NADU DUE TO TSUNAMI CAUSED BY DECEMBER 26, 2004 SUMATRA EARTHQUAKE B.K. Maheshwari, M.L. Sharma and J.P. Narayan Department of Earthquake Engineering Indian Institute of Technology

  20. MASTERS OF EDUCATION STEM OSU-INDIA DUAL-DEGREE PROGRAM 2014-2016 Pursuant to the successful proposal on the partnership between the Ohio State University (OSU) and Aligarh

    E-print Network

    Nahar, Sultana Nurun

    MASTERS OF EDUCATION ­ STEM OSU-INDIA DUAL-DEGREE PROGRAM 2014-2016 Pursuant to the successful) for the project entitled "Training the Next Generation of STEM Faculty at Higher Education Institutions in India-degree program will provide an OSU MEd-STEM degree. The proposed program composed largely of the existing MEd

  1. The Impact of India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montessori, Mario M.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the experiences of Maria Montessori and her son, Mario, during their internment in India during World War II. Discusses how their observations of communities of Buddhists, Christians, Hindus, Muslims, and Zoroastrians at the Theosophical Society contributed to ideas related to the absorbent mind, and enabled the extension of the…

  2. Asbestos problem in India.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, V; Madhavan, N

    2005-07-01

    Primary exposure to asbestos in India can be encountered in the form of asbestos mining, asbestos cement industries, asbestos processing unit and during renovation and demolition of old asbestos cemented roof or other structures as well as modern electrical as well as mechanical appliances in which asbestos is still found. Ultimately construction workers, electricians, vehicle mechanics and other workers in the building trades who are exposed to asbestos inhale hundreds and thousands of amphiboles, which causes lung damage. It is being mined in India at places such as Andhra Pradesh (Pulivendla), Jharkand (Roro), Rajasthan (Ajmer, Bhilwara, Udaipur, Rajsamand) and the common problem faced by the locals are asbestosis through air and fluorosis through drinking water. The problem continues to be in India as well as other developing countries. Also, India import and re-export asbestos to other countries and workers at shipyard, transport of the hazardous material on road and roadside residents all are vulnerable to this uncommon disease. The signs and symptoms generally found with the workers are shortness of breath, persistent and productive cough due to pulmonary fibrosis can show up many years after the asbestos exposure. PMID:15950810

  3. India's rocket propellant developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mama, Hormuz P.

    1995-01-01

    On 15 October 1994, the first successful launch took place of India's fourstage Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) from the Sriharikota launch base. Behind this success lies a long-standing and active program of Indian rocket propulsion development and propellant production. This paper provides an overview of this work, particularly in relation to the PSLV.

  4. Organochlorine pesticides in commercial marine fishes of Coimbatore, India and their suitability for human consumption.

    PubMed

    Muralidharan, Subramaniyan; Dhananjayan, Venugopal; Jayanthi, Palaniyappan

    2009-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticide residues were determined in 10 species of fishes caught at Cochin and Rameshwaram coast, and sold in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. Species were selected on the basis of their regular availability throughout the year and commercial value. A total of 389 fishes were analyzed for organochlorine residues and their suitability for human consumption was evaluated. Results show varying levels of residues of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), DDT, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan and dieldrin. Among the 10 species, high concentration of pesticide residues were recorded in Sardinella longiceps, Carangoides malabaricus, Chlorophthalmus agassizi, Saurida tumbil and Rastrelliger kanagurta. The variation in total organochlorine residues among species and between places was not significant (P>0.05). Only five species of fishes showed monthly variation in residue levels and there was no significant correlation between the body size and residue levels in the tissue. About 22% of the fishes exceeded the maximum residue limits (MRL) of total HCH prescribed by FAO/WHO for fish products. The calculated dietary intake of total HCH through consumption of C. malabaricus, C. agassizi and S. longiceps exceeded the maximum acceptable dietary intake (ADI) limits prescribed for human consumption. The present study recommends continuous monitoring of environmental contaminants in marine fishes to assess the possible impact on human health. PMID:18849026

  5. Potential for Riverbank filtration in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cornelius Sandhu; Thomas Grischek; Pradeep Kumar; Chittaranjan Ray

    2011-01-01

    Riverbank filtration (RBF) has been used for many decades in Europe and the United States to provide drinking water to communities\\u000a located on riverbanks. In India, the development of RBF has the potential to provide drinking water to many cities located\\u000a on the Ganga Plains currently using surface water as a source for their public water supply. Water diversion for

  6. Noncommunicable Diseases Risk Factor Surveillance: Experience and Challenge from India

    PubMed Central

    Deepa, M; Pradeepa, R; Anjana, RM; Mohan, V

    2011-01-01

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are reaching epidemic proportions worldwide and in India. Surveillance of NCD risk factors are therefore needed as they could help in policy planning and implementation of preventive measures. This article will focus on the experiences gained, and challenges faced, in conducting NCD risk factor surveillance studies in India. Two major surveillance studies on NCDs were conducted in India – the World Health Organization (WHO) – Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) NCD risk factor surveillance study and the Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP). The WHO-ICMR study was a six-site pilot study representing six different geographical locations in India with a sample size of 44,537 including rural, peri-urban/slum and urban. Phase 1 of the IDSP was completed and included seven states in India with a sample size of 5000 per state. The NCD risk factor surveillance showed that high prevalence of diabetes, hypertension and obesity in urban areas with slightly lower prevalence rates in semi-urban and rural areas. There are several challenges in obtaining data on NCD risk factors, which include challenges in obtaining anthropometric and blood pressure measures and in assessing tobacco consumption, diet and physical activity. The challenges in field operations include contacting and convincing subjects, creating rapport, tracking subjects, climatic conditions, recall ability and interviewer skills. Success in surveillance studies depends on anticipating and managing these challenges Conclusion: Improving country-level surveillance and monitoring is a valuable step in prevention and control of NCDs in India. PMID:22628912

  7. Authority and Environment: Institutional Landscapes in Rajasthan, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Robbins

    1998-01-01

    To date, there have been few systematic assessments of the role of social institutions—rules, norms, and systems of authority and power—in creating and reconfiguring natural environments. In the desert grass and shrub lands of Rajasthan, India, where multiple, contending institutions govern village resources in a state of legal pluralism, the need for such research is pressing. Here, state political interventions

  8. Adivasis (Original Dwellers) "in the Way of" State-Corporate Development: Development Dispossession and Learning in Social Action for Land and Forests in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapoor, Dip

    2009-01-01

    This paper traces the kinds of learning engendered through Adivasi trans-local and local subaltern social movement (SSM) action addressing state-corporate developmental collusions, state-caste interests and the resulting dispossession of Adivasis from land, forest and their ways of life given the economic liberalization drive to exploit resources…

  9. Difference in the effect of Swadhyay due to differing cultural environments: a study of college age youth in Gujurat, India and Texas, United States 

    E-print Network

    Brahmbhatt, Reshma Raj

    2013-02-22

    . Once I returned to the United States, I complemented my Indian research with the same types of activities and interviews with Swadhyayee college youth in the United States over the fall and winter of 2003. The compiled data was then analyzed...

  10. The US-India Nuclear Deal: The End of Universal NonProliferation Efforts?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    OLIVER MEIER

    he us government's plan to lift the nuclear embargo on India runs counter to global efforts against the proliferation of nuclear weapons. The acceptance of India into the circle of recognized nuclear weapon states would prove that universal and generally binding principles no longer form the basis of global non-proliferation efforts but rather that Western countries are increasingly deciding between

  11. Spellings Joins Passage to India on Education: Trip Tied to Initiatives on Competitiveness Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alyson

    2006-01-01

    Secretary of Education Margaret Spellings and several key senators traveled to India last week to examine how that country, whose schools generally have fewer resources than those in the United States, has managed to produce top-notch engineers and technology professionals. Secretary Spellings arrived in India early in the week and met with…

  12. Teachers' Beliefs and Practices regarding Developmentally Appropriate Practices: A Study Conducted in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegde, Archana V.; Cassidy, Deborah J.

    2009-01-01

    The study assessed kindergarten teachers' beliefs, stated practices and actual practices regarding developmentally appropriate practices (DAP) in India. Forty kindergarten teachers from the urban city of Mumbai (India) participated in the study. Overall, the results indicated that teachers' beliefs were more developmentally appropriate than their…

  13. Assessment of small hydropower potential using remote sensing data for sustainable development in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Surekha Dudhani; A. K. Sinha; S. S. Inamdar

    2006-01-01

    India being a developing country has witnessed a rapidly growing energy needs owing to fast industrialization. Sustainable and qualitative growth for developing economics and habitat requires increased energy input from various resources while maintaining balance in the ecosystem during exploitation. Paper discusses state of the resource potentials, achievements and various issues related to the power generation in India. The growing

  14. Secondary School Education in Assam (India) with Special Reference to Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Das, N. R.; Baruah, Karuna

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the prevailing academic scenarios of a representative group of secondary schools in Assam (India) with special references to students performance in general and mathematics performance in particular. The state of Assam is one of the economically backward regions of India and is witnessing socio-political disturbances mainly…

  15. Diagnosis of Nutrient Constraints in Citrus Orchards of Humid Tropical India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. Srivastava; Shyam Singh

    2006-01-01

    Citrus growing in humid, tropical India is concentrated in east to northeast India. The region is well known for large-scale commercial cultivation of Citrus reticulata Blanco, cultivar ‘Khasi,’ mandarin. Extensive surveys were conducted covering as many as 108 orchards from 52 locations representing eight states, namely West Bengal, Sikkim, Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh, and Manipur. Expressed in milligrams

  16. Relative Abundance and Plasmodium Infection Rates of Malaria Vectors in and around Jabalpur, a Malaria Endemic Region in Madhya Pradesh State, Central India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Neeru; Mishra, Ashok K.; Chand, Sunil K.; Bharti, Praveen K.; Singh, Mrigendra P.; Nanda, Nutan; Singh, Om P.; Sodagiri, Kranti; Udhyakumar, Venkatachalam

    2015-01-01

    Background This study was undertaken in two Primary Health Centers (PHCs) of malaria endemic district Jabalpur in Madhya Pradesh (Central India). Methods In this study we had investigated the relative frequencies of the different anopheline species collected within the study areas by using indoor resting catches, CDC light trap and human landing methods. Sibling species of malaria vectors were identified by cytogenetic and molecular techniques. The role of each vector and its sibling species in the transmission of the different Plasmodium species was ascertained by using sporozoite ELISA. Results A total of 52,857 specimens comprising of 17 anopheline species were collected by three different methods (39,964 by indoor resting collections, 1059 by human landing and 11,834 by CDC light trap). Anopheles culicifacies was most predominant species in all collections (55, 71 and 32% in indoor resting, human landing and light trap collections respectively) followed by An. subpictus and An. annularis. All five sibling species of An. culicifacies viz. species A, B, C, D and E were found while only species T and S of An. fluviatilis were collected. The overall sporozoite rate in An. culicifacies and An. fluviatilis were 0.42% (0.25% for P. falciparum and 0.17% for P. vivax) and 0.90% (0.45% for P. falciparum and 0.45% for P. vivax) respectively. An. culicifacies and An. fluviatilis were found harbouring both P. vivax variants VK-210 and VK-247, and P. falciparum. An. culicifacies sibling species C and D were incriminated as vectors during most part of the year while sibling species T of An. fluviatilis was identified as potential vector in monsoon and post monsoon season. Conclusions An. culicifacies species C (59%) was the most abundant species followed by An. culicifacies D (24%), B (8.7%), E (6.7%) and A (1.5%). Among An. fluviatilis sibling species, species T was common (99%) and only few specimens of S were found. Our study provides crucial information on the prevalence of An. culicifacies and An. fluviatilis sibling species and their potential in malaria transmission which will assist in developing strategic control measures against these vectors. PMID:25970291

  17. Hemovigilance program-India.

    PubMed

    Bisht, Akanksha; Singh, Surinder; Marwaha, Neelam

    2013-01-01

    A centralized hemovigilance program to assure patient safety and to promote public health has been launched for the first time in India on Dec 10, 2012 in 60 medical colleges in the first phase along with a well-structured program for monitoring adverse reactions associated with blood transfusion and blood product administration. National Institute of Biologicals (NIB) will be the National Coordinating Centre for Hemovigilance. This program will be implemented under overall ambit of Pharmacovigilance Program of India (PvPI), which is being coordinated by Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission (IPC). All medical colleges of the country will be enrolled in this program by the year 2016 in order to have a National Centre of Excellence for Hemovigilance at NIB, which will act as a global knowledge platform. PMID:23559771

  18. Severe Flooding in India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Floods devestated parts of eastern India along the Brahmaputra River in June 2000. In some tributaries of the Brahmaputra, the water reached more than 5 meters (16.5 feet) above flood stage. At least 40 residents died, and the flood waters destroyed a bridge linking the region to the rest of India. High water also threatened endangered Rhinos in Kaziranga National Park. Flooded areas are shown in red in the above image. The map was derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data taken on June 15, 2000. For more information on observing floods with satellites, see: Using Satellites to Keep our Head above Water and the Dartmouth Flood Observatory Image by the Dartmouth Flood Observatory

  19. Stroke program for India

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Nishant K.; Khadilkar, Satish V.

    2010-01-01

    India is silently witnessing a stroke epidemic. There is an urgent need to develop a national program towards “Fighting Stroke”. This program should be specific to our national needs. In order to recommend on who should lead an Indian fight-stroke program, we examined the published opinions of stroke clinicians and the official documents on stroke care training abroad. We identified the resources that already exist in India and can be utilized to develop a national fight-stroke program. Through a review of published literature, we noted different opinions that exist on who would best manage stroke. We found that because stroke is a cardiovascular disorder of the central nervous system, its management requires a multi-disciplinary approach involving clinicians with background not limited to neurology. India has very few neurologists trained in stroke medicine and they cannot care for all stroke patients of the country. We propose a mechanism that would quickly put in place a stroke care model relevant in Indian context. We recommend for tapping the clinical expertise available from existing pool of non-neurologist physicians who can be trained and certified in stroke medicine (Strokology). We have discussed an approach towards developing a national network for training and research in Strokology hoping that our recommendations would initiate discussion amongst stroke academicians and motivate the national policy makers to quickly develop an “Indian Fight Stroke Program.” PMID:20436743

  20. Medicine in South India

    PubMed Central

    McHenry, Malcolm M.

    1978-01-01

    A three-month sabbatical allowed a superficial overview of Indian medical history and practice. As in Western nations, cost is a major determinant of health care delivery in India; poverty and fiscal shortages, however, deny care to many. The education of Indian physicians is similar to that in Western nations and a high level of clinical competence is seen. However, physician compensation is woefully low by Western standards. India possesses its own indigenous medical systems, purported to be the oldest in the world and predating Hippocrates by several millenia. Most Indians are cared for by native practitioners whose medical techniques are intricately related to the Hindu and Islamic religions. Many of their herbal medicines have been assimilated into contemporary Western practice. Diseases unknown to us except by textbooks are commonly seen and effectively treated. On the other hand, Western diseases such as coronary arteriosclerosis are not uncommon in a land of massive overpopulation and malnutrition. The humbling aspect of this experience is the realization that medical practice dating back several millenia can be made more modern and carried out competently by contemporary physicians. A Western physician working in India finds an unparalleled variety of disease in a totally different medical-religious environment allowing him to reorganize his priorities and to rediscover himself in the world within which he lives. PMID:716392

  1. Child maltreatment in India.

    PubMed

    Singhi, Pratibha; Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Malhi, Prabhjot

    2013-11-01

    Child maltreatment is a global problem but is more difficult to assess and manage in developing countries such as India where one-fifth of the world's total child population resides. Certain forms of maltreatment such as feticide, infanticide, abandonment, child labour, street-begging, corporal punishment and battered babies are particularly prevalent in India. Most physicians still need to be sensitized in order to suspect child abuse on the basis of unexplained trauma, multiple fractures, parental conflict and other corroborative evidence. This article summarizes the various aspects of this major problem in resource-poor settings in the hope that it will assist in the planning of services addressing child physical and sexual abuse and neglect in India and in other developing countries. A culture of non-violence towards children needs to be built into communities in order to provide an environment conducive to the overall development of the child. Rehabilitation of abused children and their families requires a multi-disciplinary service including paediatricians, child psychologists and social workers, and the training of police forces in how to tackle the problem. PMID:24070123

  2. Promoting safe motherhood in rural India.

    PubMed

    Maclean, G

    1997-01-01

    This article identifies some activities performed to promote safe motherhood in rural India. Nurses from a voluntary organization in Hyderabad, India, trained women's groups from 32 villages in rural Andhra Pradesh state over 3 days in 1996 in maternal and child care, health and family welfare, gender issues, sanitation, leadership, literacy, negotiating skills, and health monitoring. The women were encouraged to perform health activities in their villages. In October 1996, a Conference of Women celebrated the birthday of Mahatma Gandhi, with women's groups reporting on health activities in specific villages. Each women's group had its own banner. Every woman wore a conference delegate badge. One woman's group was rewarded for making the most significant progress. Participants included women from 29 villages and auxiliary nurse-midwives. For some women, this was the first time away from home. Conference delegates toured the primary health center facilities at Shamirpet and met with staff. The aim was to reduce fear and reluctance to use the services and to promote awareness of available health care. Most villages in India rely on auxiliary nurse-midwives for maternal and child health care. Promotion of safe motherhood requires close cooperation between the auxiliary nurse-midwifes and women's groups. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of India is introducing in-service training to improve the clinical skills of auxiliary nurse-midwives in eight states. The nurse-midwives use adapted and new educational material from WHO's safe motherhood midwifery training modules. A workshop was used to introduce the new modules and to propose teaching methods for senior project staff. The five modules include a trainers' manual of educational methods. PMID:12321357

  3. India Co2 Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharan, S.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.

    2010-12-01

    Is there a way to find a balance between improving living conditions for the people on the margins and also reducing emissions while limiting our negative impacts on the climate? This is a critical question today because there are many arguments between developed and developing countries about who is responsible for global warming. Developed countries believe that it is the poor countries because they are not educated enough to know about how they are affecting the climate. While the developing countries hold wealthy nations responsible because they are using the most resources. However it is important to acknowledge the fact that if there was no gap in between the developed and developing countries our emissions total would be much higher. This “gap” has been a natural controlling factor in climate change. This is why I wanted to see if I could plot what it would look like if a developing country such as India were to produce emissions that the US or Switzerland or Norway are producing as developed countries. India has a population total of 1.1 billion compared to the US with only 298 million, Switzerland with 7.5 million, and Norway with 4.6 million people. When the population is compared to the emissions output in metric tons, per capita, India produced the least emissions out of these countries, 1.4 tons per person while having the second largest population in the world, while the US produced 19 tons per capita, Switzerland produced 5.6 and Norway produced 8.7 tons per capita in 2006. The emissions rate is growing every year and increases widely and globally. If India was producing emissions that equal Norway, Switzerland and the US the total emissions it would be producing annually would be 9 billion for Norway, 6 billion for Switzerland and 20 billion emissions for the US, all in the year 2006 alone. This shows how the balance between countries with huge populations and very little emission output and average population and high emission out put has created a balance in between the “developed” and developing countries. If India was producing the same amounts of emissions per capita as the it would have a total of 20 billion metric tons of CO2 emissions annually.

  4. First report of Cobboldia elephantis (Cobbold, 1866) larvae in a free ranging wild elephant from Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Venu, R; Thoiba Singh, Th; Veeraharin, R; Rajesh, D; Srilatha, Ch

    2015-06-01

    Larvae of Cobboldia elephantis have been reported from the stomach of a free ranging wild elephant (Elephas maximus) while conducting post mortem examination at Palamner forest range, Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh state, India. This is the first report of C. elephantis in free ranging wild elephant in Andhra Pradesh state, India. PMID:26063993

  5. India`s first solar chicken brooder

    SciTech Connect

    Chaturvedi, P.; Naryanaswamy, T.S.; Kumar, A.; Choudhary, U. [Indian Association for the Advancement of Science, New Delhi (India); Sharma, S.K. [Panjab Univ., Chandigarh (India). Energy Research Centre

    1995-12-31

    A 1,200 bird solar chicken brooder was indigenously designed and operated by the Indian scientists for the first time in the country as a Project under funding by the Ministry of Non Conventional Energy Sources to the All India Women`s Conference. This multi disciplinary project was taken up on the International Sun Day, May 3, 1993 and completed on May, 1994. Data has been collected for the first nine months of operation. Its successful operation has justified multi disciplinary approach. The solar chicken brooder incorporates modern poultry concepts of breeding under controlled temperatures. In view of the mixed climate of Delhi, provision was made for heating and cooling both to take care of the 24 hour cycle. Comfort conditions have been identified and maintained (as is done in the their genetic characteristics) at different temperatures for a period of 8--10 weeks to grow them to a uniform weight of 2.0 kg. Growing them under controlled temperature for the first 4 weeks and then at room temperature was another new concept to grow hard stock. This development has opened avenues for new food industry based on processing of chicken utilizing internationally available technologies.

  6. Status of CFD in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Prahlad

    This paper gives an overview of the status of CFD activity that is being carried out in a number of organisations in India. It discusses the drive for CFD in India and its relevance, the general pattern of growth for CFD in the country, the present CFD scenario, some applications and directions for the future. The emphasis is mainly on

  7. Status of CFD in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. S. Prahlad

    1995-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the status of CFD activity that is being carried out in a number of organisations in India. It discusses the drive for CFD in India and its relevance, the general pattern of growth for CFD in the country, the present CFD scenario, some applications and directions for the future. The emphasis is mainly on

  8. Indigenisation of Psychology in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalal, Ajit K.

    2011-01-01

    Academic psychology which made a new beginning in India in the early part of 20th century was modelled on the Western scientific tradition. The teaching of psychology was very much on the British pattern since the colonial rule, whereas the research was mostly an extension of the Western work in India. Psychology went through massive expansion…

  9. Optimizing biodiesel production in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvain Leduc; Karthikeyan Natarajan; Erik Dotzauer; Ian McCallum; Michael Obersteiner

    2009-01-01

    India is expected to at least double its fuel consumption in the transportation sector by 2030. To contribute to the fuel supply, renewable energies such as jatropha appear to be an attractive resource for biodiesel production in India as it can be grown on waste land and does not need intensive water supply. In order to produce biodiesel at a

  10. E-Learning in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Sanjaya

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the e-learning in India. It describes the historical developments of e-learning and identifies major stakeholders and institutions that have initiated e-learning programs after the creation of the National Task Force on Information Technology and Software Development constituted by the Prime Minister of India

  11. Occupational Health Research in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Habibullah N SAIYED; Rajnarayan R TIWARI

    2004-01-01

    India being a developing nation is faced with traditional public health problems like communicable diseases, malnutrition, poor environmental sanitation and inadequate medical care. However, globalization and rapid industrial growth in the last few years has resulted in emergence of occupational health related issues. Agriculture (cultivators i.e. land owners+ agriculture labourers) is the main occupation in India giving employment to about

  12. Passages From India, Vol. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geils, Kenneth, Ed.

    This collection of articles from Indian newspapers is designed for use in the secondary classroom to assist with the study of India. There are 12 categories of articles: (1) Women: Like Avis, #2 But Trying Harder; (2) Calcutta: City of Joy; (3) India: Feeling Its Curry; (4) Us & Them: Misunderstandings; (5) Those Monsoon Showers May Come Your Way;…

  13. Passages from India, Vol. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geils, Kenneth, Ed.

    This is compendium of readings designed for use in the secondary classroom to assist with the study of India. There are seventeen categories of readings: (1) introduction to the subcontinent; (2) description of society; (3) caste and its continuing impact; (4) leadership roles; (5) women in India; (6) role playing in society; (7) marriage; (8)…

  14. Environment and Culture in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuthold, David

    India suffers from severe environmental problems with respect to deforestation, flooding, and pollution. These problems are associated with industrialization, lack of money to enforce anti-pollution practices, climatic and population pressures, and cultural factors. Half of India's forests have been cut in the last 40 years. Deforestation is the…

  15. Interstate migration and changing food preferences in India.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Amarnath; Srivastava, Shraddha

    2011-01-01

    India is a diversified country. Just as the geography, religion, and culture of India are diverse, so are Indians' food habits. Even so, regional heterogeneity in food consumption exists across states. But it may be hypothesized that regional heterogeneity in food consumption across states has been declining. This hypothesis is based on the fact that interstate migration has been growing since 1991. The present study tested whether or not regional heterogeneity in food consumption has been declining over the years 1993-1994, 1999-2000, and 2004-2005. The authors show that regional heterogeneity declined over these periods and that both rural and urban consumers shifted their preference from cereals to non-cereals. However, the article also provides some evidence that regional disparities remain in India. Implications of this shift in consumption are discussed. PMID:21895420

  16. Astronomical Instruments in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Sreeramula Rajeswara

    The earliest astronomical instruments used in India were the gnomon and the water clock. In the early seventh century, Brahmagupta described ten types of instruments, which were adopted by all subsequent writers with minor modifications. Contact with Islamic astronomy in the second millennium AD led to a radical change. Sanskrit texts began to lay emphasis on the importance of observational instruments. Exclusive texts on instruments were composed. Islamic instruments like the astrolabe were adopted and some new types of instruments were developed. Production and use of these traditional instruments continued, along with the cultivation of traditional astronomy, up to the end of the nineteenth century.

  17. Cancer notification in India.

    PubMed

    Lakshmaiah, K C; Guruprasad, B; Lokesh, K N; Veena, V S

    2014-01-01

    In many developed countries, notification of cancer cases is compulsory. Developing countries including India accounts for more than half of new cancer cases in the world, however notification of cancer is not yet mandatory. The primary purpose of notification is to effect prevention and control and better utilization of resources. It is also a valuable source for incidence, prevalence, mortality and morbidity of the disease. Notification of cancer will lead to improved awareness of common etiologic agents, better understanding of common preventable causes and better utilization of health resources with better monitoring and evaluation of the effectiveness of health programs such as cancer screening and cancer treatment programs, which ultimately might improve survival. Notification of cancer can be done by the doctor or the hospital. Akin to the integrated disease surveillance project where more than 90% of the districts report weekly data through E-mail/portal, notification of cancer can be implemented if it is incorporated into the National Program for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular diseases and Stroke scheme. The need of the hour is cancer notification in India. PMID:24665453

  18. Holocene aridification of India

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ponton, C.; Giosan, L.; Eglinton, T.I.; Fuller, D.Q.; Johnson, J.E.; Kumar, P.; Collett, T.S.

    2012-01-01

    Spanning a latitudinal range typical for deserts, the Indian peninsula is fertile instead and sustains over a billion people through monsoonal rains. Despite the strong link between climate and society, our knowledge of the long-term monsoon variability is incomplete over the Indian subcontinent. Here we reconstruct the Holocene paleoclimate in the core monsoon zone (CMZ) of the Indian peninsula using a sediment core recovered offshore from the mouth of Godavari River. Carbon isotopes of sedimentary leaf waxes provide an integrated and regionally extensive record of the flora in the CMZ and document a gradual increase in aridity-adapted vegetation from ???4,000 until 1,700 years ago followed by the persistence of aridity-adapted plants after that. The oxygen isotopic composition of planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber detects unprecedented high salinity events in the Bay of Bengal over the last 3,000 years, and especially after 1,700 years ago, which suggest that the CMZ aridification intensified in the late Holocene through a series of sub-millennial dry episodes. Cultural changes occurred across the Indian subcontinent as the climate became more arid after ???4,000 years. Sedentary agriculture took hold in the drying central and south India, while the urban Harappan civilization collapsed in the already arid Indus basin. The establishment of a more variable hydroclimate over the last ca. 1,700 years may have led to the rapid proliferation of water-conservation technology in south India. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. India Habitat Centre

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The India Habitat Centre(IHC) was created in New Delhi, India, to "provide a physical environment [to] serve as a catalyst for a synergetic relationship between individuals and institutions working in diverse habitat related areas." Their website gives visitors a generous glimpse into what it is like to enjoy such features as the "Habitat Film Club", "Habitat Learning Centre", and the "IHC Visual Arts Gallery". Like a multi-faceted community center, the IHC houses a "Habitat Library & Resource Centre" and offers a monthly "Habitat Walk", among other activities. The "Habitat Walk" gives community members the opportunity to visit various natural and historical sites, and provides several pages of background on the sites that visitors can download or print from the "Habitat Walk" link on the website. The center also reaches out and empowers the community by encouraging students and non-students to participate in their annual contest for the Habitat Young Visionary Award, a photography fellowship, and in the recent past, internships in a non-governmental organization.

  20. The influence of cohort effects on mortality trends in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Navaneetham

    1993-01-01

    The inferences drawn from this study are as follows: The stagnation\\/ increase in mortality rates of adult ages in the recent years in India as well as for the major states may be attributed to food shortages and price hikes experienced in the country during 1960–74. In other words, all those who were adults during 1980s had experienced the crisis

  1. Teacher Education in Northeast India--Status, Weaknesses and Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhattacharjee, D. S.

    2011-01-01

    Northeast India comprises of a cluster of eight states--Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura. The region is usually stereotyped as underdeveloped. Geographically, the region is surrounded by international border with part of Nepal, Bhutan, China, Myanmar and Bangladesh. Prevalence of insurgency and…

  2. SEROPREVALENCE OF NEOSPORA CANINUM ANTIBODIES IN DOGS IN INDIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neospora caninum is one of most important causes of abortion in cattle worldwide and dogs are an important risk factor for N. caninum infection in cattle. Antibodies to N. caninum were determined in 184 (126 rural, 58 urban) dogs from the Punjab State, India, by a commercial monoclonal antibody bas...

  3. The public library system in India: challenges and opportunities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maitrayee Ghosh

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – The current situation of Indian public libraries has been viewed by some as follows: the public library system in India is condemned to remain peripheral to the actual information needs of the masses; that it is in a depressed state, and serves as little more than a warehouse of recreational reading materials, a majority of which are in

  4. Prevalence of lipodystrophy and dyslipidemia among patients with HIV infection on generic ART in rural South India.

    PubMed

    Kalyanasundaram, Annie Phoebe; Jacob, Saramma Mini; Hemalatha, Ramachandran; Sivakumar, Mampakkam Rajappa

    2012-01-01

    As antiretroviral therapy (ART) becomes more available to the HIV-infected population, it is important to determine the prevalence of its long-term complications. In this cross-sectional study, 145 HIV-positive patients on ART, 146 HIV-positive patients not on ART, and 72 HIV-negative individuals visiting the Namakkal District Head Quarters Hospital, Tamil Nadu, India, were recruited from February 2007 to April 2009. Among the patients on ART, the prevalence of lipodystrophy was 60.7%; 22.7% with lipohypertrophy, 51.1% with lipoatrophy, and 22.7% with mixed pattern. The proportion of patients with dyslipidemia was significantly higher in the treatment group when compared to ART-naive and HIV-negative controls (P = .00). Total duration of ART was significantly associated with lipodystrophy (P = .04) and dyslipidemia (P = .01). Also, by logistic regression, abnormal metabolic levels were a risk factor in lipodystrophy (P = .02). This study highlights the need for development of inexpensive and accessible treatments for the reduction of lipodystrophy. PMID:21508297

  5. India's nuclear energy program and US policies today. revision. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlstetter, R.

    1980-02-01

    Contents include --From Indira to Morarji to Indira; On Desai's Vain Gandhism; Pakistan, India and the Afghanistan Crisis; Appendices - Letter to Congressman Ottinger; Licensing Requirements for Export of Heavy Water to India; Morarji Desai's Views in 1965; Prime Minister Desai's Comments on Nuclear Questions, Press Conference, January 12, 1978; and Excerpt of Address by Desai in the United Nations, June 9, 1978; Notice to Aircraft Contractors from the United States Department of State.

  6. Sociodemographic patterning of non-communicable disease risk factors in rural India: a cross sectional study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjay Kinra; Liza J Bowen; Tanica Lyngdoh; Dorairaj Prabhakaran; Kolli Srinath Reddy; Lakshmy Ramakrishnan; Ruby Gupta; Ankalmadagu V Bharathi; Mario Vaz; Anura V Kurpad; George Davey Smith; Yoav Ben-Shlomo; Shah Ebrahim

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the sociodemographic patterning of non-communicable disease risk factors in rural India.Design Cross sectional study.Setting About 1600 villages from 18 states in India. Most were from four large states due to a convenience sampling strategy.Participants 1983 (31% women) people aged 20–69 years (49% response rate).Main outcome measures Prevalence of tobacco use, alcohol use, low fruit and vegetable intake,

  7. Remote Sensing based Drought Information System for Palar and Thamiravaruni Basins using GIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Ravikumar; M. Krishnaveni

    This study analyses meteorological, hydrological and agricultural droughts of an area and integrates using GIS. For retrieving and querying the data stored in the database interactively by the user, the study further looks at creating the GIS based Drought Information System. Palar and Thamiravaruni river basins, located in Northeast and Southwest parts of Tamil Nadu State, India, respectively were selected

  8. Arecanut: India’s popular masticatory — history, chemistry and utilization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Raghavan; H. K. Baruah

    1958-01-01

    To the Indians, Malayans, or the Indonesians, betel-nut chewing is as familiar as chewing gum to the Americans. In India the\\u000a use of arecanut and its cultivation constitute a distinct agricultural practice scarcely less important than that of other\\u000a economic crops, but little attention has been given to a proper assessment of the fruit either in India or elsewhere.

  9. Fortification of Foods with Vitamin D in India

    PubMed Central

    G, Ritu; Gupta, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is widely prevalent in India, despite abundant sunshine. Fortification of staple foods with vitamin D is a viable strategy to target an entire population. Vitamin D fortification programs implemented in the United States and Canada have improved the vitamin D status in these countries, but a significant proportion of the population is still vitamin D deficient. Before fortification programs are designed and implemented in India, it is necessary to study the efficacy of the American and Canadian vitamin D fortification programs and then improve upon them to suit the Indian scenario. This review explores potential strategies that could be used for the fortification of foods in the Indian context. These strategies have been proposed considering the diverse dietary practices necessitated by social, economic, cultural and religious practices and the diverse climatic conditions in India. Fortification of staple foods, such as chapati flour, maida, rice flour and rice, may be more viable strategies. Targeted fortification strategies to meet the special nutritional needs of children in India are discussed separately in a review entitled, “Fortification of foods with vitamin D in India: Strategies targeted at children”. PMID:25221975

  10. Advancing Cervical Cancer Prevention in India: Implementation Science Priorities

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Emily; Porterfield, Deborah; Varghese, Beena

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in India, accounting for 17% of all cancer deaths among women aged 30 to 69 years. At current incidence rates, the annual burden of new cases in India is projected to increase to 225,000 by 2025, but there are few large-scale, organized cervical cancer prevention programs in the country. We conducted a review of the cervical cancer prevention research literature and programmatic experiences in India to summarize the current state of knowledge and practices and recommend research priorities to address the gap in services. We found that research and programs in India have demonstrated the feasibility and acceptability of cervical cancer prevention efforts and that screening strategies requiring minimal additional human resources and laboratory infrastructure can reduce morbidity and mortality. However, additional evidence generated through implementation science research is needed to ensure that cervical cancer prevention efforts have the desired impact and are cost-effective. Specifically, implementation science research is needed to understand individual- and community-level barriers to screening and diagnostic and treatment services; to improve health care worker performance; to strengthen links among screening, diagnosis, and treatment; and to determine optimal program design, outcomes, and costs. With a quarter of the global burden of cervical cancer in India, there is no better time than now to translate research findings to practice. Implementation science can help ensure that investments in cervical cancer prevention and control result in the greatest impact. PMID:24217555

  11. The need for a drug abuse documentation center in India.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, R P

    1990-01-01

    The problems of alcoholism and drug addiction are major concerns in India. Alcohol and drugs were used in the past to obtain relief from pain and misery and to attain a state of forgetfulness. India is presently facing the problem of increased trafficking in drugs; heroin and hashish are supplied to the west through the subcontinent. Addiction has become a major problem in metropolitan centers. The Ministry of Welfare is responsible for drug abuse prevention programs and the rehabilitation of addicts. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare is concerned with drug treatment. A deaddiction center, established at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, became operational in 1988; it is responsible for health manpower training, research, and documentation. India has witnessed an exponential growth in the literature on drug abuse; it is no longer possible for a single library to acquire all of the international literature. There is a clear need to establish a drug abuse information center in India. This paper describes the aims, objectives, and planning for such a center and recommends the establishment of a national center in New Delhi with regional centers in other geographic areas. Images PMID:2224297

  12. Tackling antibiotic resistance in India.

    PubMed

    Wattal, Chand; Goel, Neeraj

    2014-12-01

    Infectious diseases are major causes of mortality in India. This is aggravated by the increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) both in the community and in hospitals. Due to the emergence of resistance to all effective antibiotics in nosocomial pathogens, the situation calls for emergency measures to tackle AMR in India. India has huge challenges in tackling AMR, ranging from lack of surveillance mechanisms for monitoring AMR and use; effective hospital control policies; sanitation and non-human use of antimicrobial. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of Govt. of India has taken initiatives to tackle AMR. Extensive guidelines have been drafted and a model worksheet has been developed as a roadmap to tackle AMR. PMID:25353717

  13. Gender, region, religion and reproductive behaviour in India and Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zeba Sathar; Christine Callum; Shireen Jejeebhoy

    The demographic profile of South Asia is one of high levels of fertility, low ages at marriage and relatively low contraceptive prevalence. This generalisation, however, obscures considerable variations in reproductive behaviour and there exist such notable exceptions from this standard pattern as Sri Lanka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, which pioneered the fertility transition in South Asia (Dyson and Crook 1984).

  14. Violence against female sex workers in Karnataka state, south India: impact on health, and reductions in violence following an intervention program

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Violence against female sex workers (FSWs) can impede HIV prevention efforts and contravenes their human rights. We developed a multi-layered violence intervention targeting policy makers, secondary stakeholders (police, lawyers, media), and primary stakeholders (FSWs), as part of wider HIV prevention programming involving >60,000 FSWs in Karnataka state. This study examined if violence against FSWs is associated with reduced condom use and increased STI/HIV risk, and if addressing violence against FSWs within a large-scale HIV prevention program can reduce levels of violence against them. Methods FSWs were randomly selected to participate in polling booth surveys (PBS 2006-2008; short behavioural questionnaires administered anonymously) and integrated behavioural-biological assessments (IBBAs 2005-2009; administered face-to-face). Results 3,852 FSWs participated in the IBBAs and 7,638 FSWs participated in the PBS. Overall, 11.0% of FSWs in the IBBAs and 26.4% of FSWs in the PBS reported being beaten or raped in the past year. FSWs who reported violence in the past year were significantly less likely to report condom use with clients (zero unprotected sex acts in previous month, 55.4% vs. 75.5%, adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.3 to 0.5, p < 0.001); to have accessed the HIV intervention program (ever contacted by peer educator, 84.9% vs. 89.6%, AOR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4 to 1.0, p = 0.04); or to have ever visited the project sexual health clinic (59.0% vs. 68.1%, AOR 0.7, 95% CI 0.6 to 1.0, p = 0.02); and were significantly more likely to be infected with gonorrhea (5.0% vs. 2.6%, AOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.3, p = 0.02). By the follow-up surveys, significant reductions were seen in the proportions of FSWs reporting violence compared with baseline (IBBA 13.0% vs. 9.0%, AOR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.9 p = 0.01; PBS 27.3% vs. 18.9%, crude OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.4 to 0.5, p < 0.001). Conclusions This program demonstrates that a structural approach to addressing violence can be effectively delivered at scale. Addressing violence against FSWs is important for the success of HIV prevention programs, and for protecting their basic human rights. PMID:20701791

  15. Living Donor Liver Transplant is a Transparent Activity in India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Subash

    2013-03-01

    Living donor liver transplant (LDLT) has progressed rapidly in India with at least two major centers performing over 200 transplants annually. There have been concerns regarding donor safety as donor deaths have been reported worldwide. In India, there is a possible underreporting of donor complications and mortality leading to the allegation that LDLT is a clandestine activity. Deceased donor liver transplantation activity may be less transparent as there are no national guidelines for retrieval and allocation of organs. LDLT is for a named person and as the activity can only be conducted in major hospitals with involvement of over 100 medical personnel in each operation, it cannot be a clandestine operation. Government regulations require licensing of hospitals following inspection by senior doctors and reporting of transplant activity periodically. About 2500 living donor liver transplants have been conducted in India and there have been 7 donor deaths reported in India. Rather than not being transparent, donor morbidity and mortality has received excessive media attention. Most liver transplant activity in India is well organized with clearance from hepatologists and anesthetists. Unrelated donation needs to be cleared from a State appointed Authorization Committee. Foreigners cannot be transplanted without State clearance and approval of the concerned embassy. The donor risk is discussed and the success of the recipient operation is also explained to all patients. The ever-increasing popularity of the operation in spite of the high cost and the requirement for donation from a family member suggests that many patients are living healthy life after transplantation. Overall LDLT is a transparent activity in India. PMID:25755472

  16. Chronic kidney disease and its prevention in India.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Sanjay K

    2005-09-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important, chronic, noncommunicable disease epidemic that affects the world, including India. Because of the absence of a renal registry in India, the true magnitude of CKD/end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is unknown. Two community-based studies, although methodologically different, have shown a prevalence of chronic renal failure of 0.16% and 0.79%. The cost of maintenance hemodialysis for a single session varies between 10 US dollars to 40 between government-run and private hospitals. The average cost of erythropoetin is approximately 150 US dollars to 200 per month. The cost of chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis with "Y" set at 3 exchanges per week, which most patients in India do, is US 400 US dollars per month. The cost of a renal transplant (RT) procedure is approximately US 700 US dollars to 800 in the government sector and 6000 US dollars in the private sector. The cost of immunosuppression with basic triple immunosuppression drugs (cyclosporine, steroid, and azathioprin) is US 250 US dollars per month. There are hardly any state-funded medical treatment and medical insurance facilities for CKD and ESRD patients in India. India has nearly 700 nephrologists and approximately 400 dialysis units with 1000 dialysis stations, with the majority being in the private sector. A maximum of 2% of patients can be subjected to maintenance hemodialysis. Until now, approximately 3000 patients have been initiated on chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. India has approximately 100 RT centers, mostly in private setup, and not more than 3000 to 4000 RTs are performed annually. Thus, only 3% to 5% of all patients with ESRD in India get some form of renal replacement therapy. Thus, planning for prevention of CKD on a long-term basis is the only practical solution for India. It appears that even in India, diabetes and hypertension are responsible for 40% to 50% of all cases of chronic renal failure. Screening for these 2 diseases and CKD is simple and easy to perform. The best approach will be to start screening for CKD in a high-risk group, like first-degree relatives of patients with diabetes, hypertension, and CKD, and simultaneously making a platform to run the program through the existing health care system of the country. The key issue of funding the program needs to be explored. Initial funding may come from international agencies like the World Health Organization, World Bank, and International Society of Nephrology, along with support from the country itself. Ultimately, funding has to be sustained from our own existing health care system. PMID:16108970

  17. Anglican Evangelism in North India and the Punjabi Missionary Classroom: The Failure To Educate the Masses, 1860-77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allender, Tim

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on the dominant Anglican missionary schools in Punjab (India). States that the Anglican missions failed to fulfill their original design, but that Hindu schools were successful and played a role in India's movement for independence over British settlements in the northern region. (KDR)

  18. Prevalence and clustering of soil-transmitted helminth infections in a tribal area in southern India

    PubMed Central

    Kaliappan, Saravanakumar Puthupalayam; George, Santosh; Francis, Mark Rohit; Kattula, Deepthi; Sarkar, Rajiv; Minz, Shantidani; Mohan, Venkata Raghava; George, Kuryan; Roy, Sheela; Ajjampur, Sitara Swarna Rao; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Kang, Gagandeep

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence, spatial patterns and clustering in the distribution of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections, and factors associated with hookworm infections in a tribal population in Tamil Nadu, India. Methods Cross-sectional study with one-stage cluster sampling of 22 clusters. Demographic and risk factor data and stool samples for microscopic ova/cysts examination were collected from 1237 participants. Geographical information systems mapping assessed spatial patterns of infection. Results The overall prevalence of STH was 39% (95% CI 36%–42%), with hookworm 38% (95% CI 35–41%) and Ascaris lumbricoides 1.5% (95% CI 0.8–2.2%). No Trichuris trichiura infection was detected. People involved in farming had higher odds of hookworm infection (1.68, 95% CI 1.31–2.17, P < 0.001). In the multiple logistic regression, adults (2.31, 95% CI 1.80–2.96, P < 0.001), people with pet cats (1.55, 95% CI 1.10–2.18, P = 0.011) and people who did not wash their hands with soap after defecation (1.84, 95% CI 1.27–2.67, P = 0.001) had higher odds of hookworm infection, but gender and poor usage of foot wear did not significantly increase risk. Cluster analysis, based on design effect calculation, did not show any clustering of cases among the study population; however, spatial scan statistic detected a significant cluster for hookworm infections in one village. Conclusion Multiple approaches including health education, improving the existing sanitary practices and regular preventive chemotherapy are needed to control the burden of STH in similar endemic areas. PMID:24237860

  19. India Culture Trunk. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doeksen, Peggy

    This unit is intended to provide students with a general knowledge of the history and culture of India. Activities include: (1) "What Do You Know about India?"; (2) "What Is All This Stuff For?"; (3) "Name That Spice and Why It's Nice"; (4) "Where and How Are These Elephants Marching?"; (5) "Why Is India What It Is?"; (6) "Why is India the Cover…

  20. Government of India Department of Science & Technology

    E-print Network

    Kumar, M. Jagadesh

    Government of India Department of Science & Technology Department of Biotechnology Australian for bilateral collaboration in science Jointly managed by Australian and Indian governments Supports & Technology (DST), Government of India & Department of Industry, Innovation, Science, Research and Tertiary

  1. Attempted suicides in India: a comprehensive look.

    PubMed

    Saddichha, Sahoo; Prasad, M N V; Saxena, Mukul Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Suicide continues to be one of the biggest killers in the world, with suicide rates varying between 8.1 and 58.3/100,000 population for different parts of India. Andhra Pradesh, the fourth largest state in India, is responsible for more than 11% of these. Unfortunately, most suicides are under-reported and there is scant data on attempted suicides. This study aimed to comprehensively study the characteristics of attempted suicides in Andhra Pradesh and using the primary data, make secondary projections for the forthcoming years. Using Patient Care Record (PCR) forms of all emergencies serviced by 108, the first comprehensive emergency service in India, an analysis of all cases was done to detect possible suicides during the period January-December 2007. A follow up 48 hours later was then done to confirm status and diagnosis. A total of 1007 cases were recorded as confirmed suicides. Hanging and insecticide poisoning (72%) were the most common methods used. Males preferred hanging and insecticide poisoning while females preferred self-immolation and hanging as common methods. Self-immolation and insecticide poisoning had the highest mortality (41.6%). Estimates of attempted suicides for the year 2008 revealed a mean of 3.2-3.8 per 1000 population for males, 3.3-3.7 per 1000 population for females and 6.4-7.6 per 1000 population combined. A serious epidemic of suicides seems to be in store in the coming years unless preventive steps in the form of policy changes are undertaken. Restricting access to poisonous substances or prescription drugs and taking into consideration the prevailing social, economic and cultural factors could help in reducing numbers. Starting tele-help services or offering brief interventions during hospital stays are other programs which may be considered. PMID:20112144

  2. Delhi: India's urban example.

    PubMed

    Cutler, B

    1988-06-01

    Demography, migration, economy, employment, education, planning, housing and transportation in the Delhi Union Territory are described. The Territory is an administrative district that includes Old Delhi, the site of the ancient walled city, the New Delhi Municipal Corporation, the center of government, the Delhi Cantonment, a military center, and 27 smaller towns, many of which are rural in character. The Delhi Territory is notable for its relatively high per capita income ($321), high sex ratio (124), high proportion of recent migrants (over half), but also high employment rate and educational status of these migrants. Much of the economy is based on government service, retail trade and services. School enrollment is high, nearly 100% of primary school age children, 77% of middle school, and 50% of secondary school. Rapid growth has stressed the public health, sanitation, housing, electric power systems. Transportation is coping relatively well, considering that 20% of all motor vehicles in India are in Delhi. 50% of daily trips are made by bus, 22% by bicycle, 10% by motorcycles, and 4% by cars. Accommodations for tourists in Delhi's old center are good in both expensive and inexpensive hotels. PMID:12342348

  3. Caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda) from India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra-García, J. M.; Ganesh, T.; Jaikumar, M.; Raman, A. V.

    2010-12-01

    The caprellid fauna of India is investigated. A total of 538 samples (including algae, seagrasses, sponges, hydroids, ascidians, bryozoans, encrusted dead corals, coral rubble, fine and coarse sediments) were collected from 39 stations along the coast of India, covering a wide diversity of habitats from intertidal to 12 m water depth. A new species ( Jigurru longimanus n.sp.) is described, and figures of the 11 valid species reported so far from India are given together with a key for their identification. No caprellids were found in sediments from the northeast (16-20ºN) coast of India while they were abundant in the southeast and west coast. Decreases in salinity due to river discharges associated with lower values of oxygen, higher water temperatures and lower nutrient inputs along the east coast could explain these differences in caprellid composition between the two coastlines. Significantly, lower abundance of caprellids in India, as in other tropical ecosystems, is probably related to the lack of species belonging to the genus Caprella, which reach very high abundances in temperate waters.

  4. ENGINEERING EDUCATION IN INDIA Draft Final report

    E-print Network

    Banerjee, Rangan

    ENGINEERING EDUCATION IN INDIA Draft Final report Rangan Banerjee Vinayak P. Muley Sponsored by the Observer Research Foundation to examine engineering education in India, we felt that this may have built up data from primary and secondary sources for engineering education in India and have

  5. Food Insecurity in India: Causes and Dimensions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dand Sejal A; Chakravarty Sujoy

    In this study we explore causes of the widespread food insecurity that prevails in India. It has been observed that even though the proportion of the malnourished fell by about 1 percent (FAO, 2002) through the nineties in India, their absolute number increased by about 18 million. Thus the problem of food insecurity in India is not of general systemic

  6. India's Energy Future and Carbon Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Kumar; Devleena Mani

    The energy scenario in India is driven by coal, oil & gas, hydroelectric, nuclear and renew- able resources. Coal is the most important & abundant fossil fuel in India and accounts for 51% of India's energy need. 45% of energy requirements are met by petroleum products, 2% by hydroelectric and the remainder by nuclear and other resources. The energy requirements

  7. Carbonaceous aerosol emissions from India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parashar, D. C.; Gadi, Ranu; Mandal, T. K.; Mitra, A. P.

    Budget estimate for carbonaceous aerosols including black carbon (BC) and organic carbon, emitted from the combustion of various fuels, is very important for regional climate studies. Emission factors for carbonaceous aerosols from bio-fuels and soft coke were determined in a controlled combustion study. The emission factors thus obtained along with those available for other fossil fuels consumed in different sectors have been applied to assess the budget for carbonaceous aerosols from India. Preliminary calculations give a range of 1.6-1.8 Tg of carbonaceous aerosols that include 0.4-1.4 Tg of BC. A major (˜80%) portion of carbonaceous aerosols emitted from India is found to originate from the use of biomass for energy as 70-80% of energy requirement in rural India is met by combustion of traditional bio-fuels.

  8. Challenges in Achieving Food Security in India

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, R Prakash; Palanivel, C

    2011-01-01

    First Millennium Development Goal states the target of “Halving hunger by 2015”. Sadly, the recent statistics for India present a very gloomy picture. India currently has the largest number of undernourished people in the world and this is in spite of the fact that it has made substantial progress in health determinants over the past decades and ranks second worldwide in farm output. The causes of existing food insecurity can be better viewed under three concepts namely the: ‘traditional concept’ which includes factors such as unavailability of food and poor purchasing capacity; ‘socio-demographic concept’ which includes illiteracy, unemployment, overcrowding, poor environmental conditions and gender bias; ‘politico-developmental concept’ comprising of factors such as lack of intersectoral coordination and political will, poorly monitored nutritional programmes and inadequate public food distribution system. If the Millennium Development Goal is to be achieved by 2015, efforts to improve food and nutrition security have to increase considerably. Priority has to be assigned to agriculture and rural development along with promoting women empowerment, ensuring sustainable employment and improving environmental conditions (water, sanitation and hygiene). As the problem is multi-factorial, so the solution needs to be multi-sectoral. PMID:23113100

  9. Challenges in achieving food security in India.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, R Prakash; Palanivel, C

    2011-12-01

    First Millennium Development Goal states the target of "Halving hunger by 2015". Sadly, the recent statistics for India present a very gloomy picture. India currently has the largest number of undernourished people in the world and this is in spite of the fact that it has made substantial progress in health determinants over the past decades and ranks second worldwide in farm output. The causes of existing food insecurity can be better viewed under three concepts namely the: 'traditional concept' which includes factors such as unavailability of food and poor purchasing capacity; 'socio-demographic concept' which includes illiteracy, unemployment, overcrowding, poor environmental conditions and gender bias; 'politico-developmental concept' comprising of factors such as lack of intersectoral coordination and political will, poorly monitored nutritional programmes and inadequate public food distribution system. If the Millennium Development Goal is to be achieved by 2015, efforts to improve food and nutrition security have to increase considerably. Priority has to be assigned to agriculture and rural development along with promoting women empowerment, ensuring sustainable employment and improving environmental conditions (water, sanitation and hygiene). As the problem is multi-factorial, so the solution needs to be multi-sectoral. PMID:23113100

  10. Status of CFD in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prahlad, T. S.

    This paper gives an overview of the status of CFD activity that is being carried out in a number of organisations in India. It discusses the drive for CFD in India and its relevance, the general pattern of growth for CFD in the country, the present CFD scenario, some applications and directions for the future. The emphasis is mainly on aerospace related CFD, eventhough other applications are briefly mentioned. The paper indicates how the problem of computational capability is being tackled through the development of parallel computing platforms.

  11. Human Milk Fortification in India.

    PubMed

    Kler, Neelam; Thakur, Anup; Modi, Manoj; Kaur, Avneet; Garg, Pankaj; Soni, Arun; Saluja, Satish

    2015-01-01

    Human milk fortification in preterm babies has become a standard of care in developed countries. Use of human milk fortifier (HMF) in very-low-birthweight infants is not a routine practice in India. There are concerns about high osmolality, feed intolerance, necrotizing enterocolitis, risk of contamination and added cost associated with use of HMF. There are limited data from India which address the issue of safety and short-term benefits of human milk fortification. This chapter highlights the issues related to human milk fortification in our country. © 2015 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:26111571

  12. Mucormycosis in India: unique features.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Singh, Rachna

    2014-12-01

    Mucormycosis remains a devastating invasive fungal infection, with high mortality rates even after active management. The disease is being reported at an alarming frequency over the past decades from India. Indian mucormycosis has certain unique features. Rhino-orbito-cerebral presentation associated with uncontrolled diabetes is the predominant characteristic. Isolated renal mucormycosis has emerged as a new clinical entity. Apophysomyces elegans and Rhizopus homothallicus are emerging species in this region and uncommon agents such as Mucor irregularis and Thamnostylum lucknowense are also being reported. This review focuses on these distinct features of mucormycosis observed in India. PMID:25187095

  13. Chloroquine efficacy studies confirm drug susceptibility of Plasmodium vivax in Chennai, India

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Assessing the Plasmodium vivax burden in India is complicated by the potential threat of an emerging chloroquine (CQ) resistant parasite population from neighbouring countries in Southeast Asia. Chennai, the capital of Tamil Nadu and an urban setting for P. vivax in southern India, was selected as a sentinel site for investigating CQ efficacy and sensitivity in vivax malaria. Methods CQ efficacy was evaluated with a 28-day in vivo therapeutic study, while CQ sensitivity was measured with an in vitro drug susceptibility assay. In both studies, isolates also underwent molecular genotyping to investigate correlations between parasite diversity and drug susceptibility to CQ. Molecular genotyping included sequencing a 604 base pair (bp) fragment of the P. vivax multidrug resistant gene-1 (Pvmdr1) for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and also the amplification of eight microsatellite (MS) loci located across the genome on eight different chromosomes. Results In the 28-day in vivo study (N=125), all subjects were aparasitaemic by Day 14. Passive case surveillance continuing beyond Day 28 in 22 subjects exposed 17 recurrent infections, which ranged from 44 to 148 days post-enrollment. Pvmdr1 sequencing of these recurrent infections revealed that 93.3% had identical mutant haplotypes (958M/Y976/1076L) to their baseline Day 0 infection. MS genotyping further revealed that nine infection pairs were related with ?75% haplotype similarity (same allele at six or more loci). To test the impact of this mutation on CQ efficacy, an in vitro drug assay (N=68) was performed. No correlation between IC50 values and the percentage of ring-stage parasites prior to culture was observed (rsadj: -0.00063, p = 0.3307) and the distribution of alleles among the Pvmdr1 SNPs and MS haplotypes showed no significant associations with IC50 values. Conclusions Plasmodium vivax was found to be susceptible to CQ drug treatment in both the in vivo therapeutic drug study and the in vitro drug assay. Though the mutant 1076L of Pvmdr1 was found in a majority of isolates tested, this single mutation did not associate with CQ resistance. MS haplotypes revealed strong heterogeneity in this population, indicating a low probability of reinfection with highly related haplotypes. PMID:24685286

  14. Past, present & future scenario of thalassaemic care & control in India

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Ishwar C.; Saxena, Renu; Kohli, Sudha

    2011-01-01

    The first case of thalassaemia, described in a non-Mediterranean person, was from India. Subsequently, cases of thalassaemia were documented in all parts of India. Centres for care of thalassaemics were started in the mid-1970s in Mumbai and Delhi, and then in other cities. The parent's associations, with the help of International Thalassemia Federation, greatly helped in improving the care of thalassaemics. Obtaining blood for transfusion was difficult, but the Indian Red Cross Society and the parent's associations played a crucial role in arranging voluntary donations of blood. Chelation with deferoxamine was used sparingly due to the high cost. The Indian physicians conducted trials with deferiprone, and the drug was first approved and marketed in India. Deferasirox is also now being administered. Studies of physical and pubertal growth documented significant retardation, suggesting that generally patients receive inadequate chelation and transfusions. Bone marrow transplantation is available at a number of centres, and cord blood stem cell storage facilities have been established. Information about mutations in different parts of India is available, and ThalInd, an Indian database has been set up. There is a need to set up preimplantation genetic diagnosis and non-invasive prenatal diagnosis. It is argued that too much emphasis should not be placed on premarital screening. The focus should be on screening pregnant women to yield immediate results in reducing the burden of this disorder. Care of thalassaemia has been included in the 12th 5-year Plan of the Government of India. Many States now provide blood transfusions and chelation free of cost. Although inadequacies in care of thalassaemia remain, but the outlook is bright, and the stage is set for initiating a control programme in the high risk States. PMID:22089615

  15. Catastrophic landslip activity in two hard rock terrains of peninsular India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramana, Y. V.; Gogte, B. S.

    1990-05-01

    This paper presents the case histories of two catastrophic landslips in hard rock terrains with varied climatic and geological environments. The first slip is associated with a power project in very close proximity (200 m) of the Porthimund Dam (11°22'N, 76°34'30''E), in a charnockitic terrain in the Nilgiri hills (Tamil Nadu), and the second is associated with a railroad structure (19°52'5''N, 78°17'20''E), in Adilabad district (Andhra Pradesh), in a basaltic terrain. The landslip in the charnockites is attributable to: (1) a high degree of saprolitization in the charnockites, with maximum intensity in the crest portion; (2) the coincidence of a major joint pattern in a NE-SW direction, with the strike of the foliation; and (3) the poor-to-fair physical rock quality in the crest and scarp portions. The slips in the basaltic terrain are due to: (1) the partially altered, highly jointed nature of the regional trap rocks with boulder sizes varying from 20 cm to 250 cm in diameter and the debris accumulating in a precarious condition on the northeast side of the rail track, with unfavorable alignment direction; and (2) the instability created in the weak rock mass by the vibrational forces of heavily loaded running trains. The weathered state of the rock masses in both the cases, showing good agreement with their physical state, accounts for the landslips. The remedial measures suggested are also discussed.

  16. Smuggling India: Deconstructing Western India’s Illicit Export Trade, 1818-1870

    E-print Network

    Boehme, Kate

    2015-02-16

                                                                                                                             5 E. Eastwick. Murray’s Hand-Book for India; being an account of The Three Presidencies, and of The Overland Route; intended as A Guide for Travellers, Officers, and Civilians; with vocabularies and dialogues of the spoken language of India, Part II... the Persian Gulf and Red Sea regions. Through the employment of Bania agents the Portuguese were able to gain access to a greater number of markets, including those such as Aden – which at the time was administered by Ottoman Turkey – where they themselves...

  17. Outbreak of Chikungunya Fever, Dakshina Kannada District, South India, 2008

    PubMed Central

    Manimunda, Sathya P.; Sugunan, Attayur P.; Rai, Subhodh K.; Vijayachari, Paluru; Shriram, Ananganallur N.; Sharma, Sameer; Muruganandam, Nagarajan; Chaitanya, Itta K.; Guruprasad, Dev R.; Sudeep, Anakkathil B.

    2010-01-01

    The outbreak of chikungunya fever that surfaced in India during late 2005 has affected more than 1.56 million people, spread to more than 17 states/union territories, and is still ongoing. Many of these areas are dengue- and leptospirosis-endemic settings. We carried out a cross-sectional survey in one such chikungunya-affected location in Dakshina Kannada District of Karnataka State to estimate the magnitude of the epidemic and the proportion of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infections that remained clinically inapparent. The seropositivity for CHIKV infection was 62.2%, and the attack rate of confirmed CHIK fever was 58.3%. The proportion of inapparent CHIKV infection was 6.3%. The increasing trend in the seropositivity and attack rate of CHIKV infection with age group was statistically significant. The present study is an indicator of the magnitude of the ongoing outbreak of CHIKV infection in India that started during 2005–2006. PMID:20889860

  18. History of Cardiology in India.

    PubMed

    Das, Mrinal Kanti; Kumar, Soumitra; Deb, Pradip Kumar; Mishra, Sundeep

    2015-01-01

    History as a science revolves around memories, travellers' tales, fables and chroniclers' stories, gossip and trans-telephonic conversations. Medicine itself as per the puritan's definition is a non-exact science because of the probability-predictability-sensitivity-specificity factors. Howsoever, the chronicles of Cardiology in India is quite interesting and intriguing. Heart and circulation was known to humankind from pre-Vedic era. Various therapeutics measures including the role of Yoga and transcendental meditation in curing cardiovascular diseases were known in India. Only recently there has been resurgence of the same globally. There have been very few innovations in Cardiology in India. The cause of this paucity possibly lie in the limited resources. This has a vicious effect on the research mentality of the population who are busy in meeting their daily requirements. This socio-scientific aspect needs a thorough study and is beyond the scope of the present documentation. Present is the future of past and so one must not forget the history which is essentially past that give the present generation the necessary fulcrum to stand in good stead. The present article essentially aims to pay tribute to all the workers and pioneers in the field of Cardiology in India, who in spite of limited resources ventured in an unchartered arena. PMID:26071301

  19. Epidemiology of filariasis in India

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, N. G. S.

    1957-01-01

    The author reviews the history of filarial infections in India and discusses factors affecting the filariae, their vectors, and the human reservoir of infection. A detailed description is given of techniques for determining the degree of infection, disease and endemicity of filariasis in a community, and aspects which require further study are indicated. PMID:13472411

  20. India: From SITE to INSAT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhri, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    Identifies core of India's illiteracy problem and describes use of educational technology to educate rural children. Highlights include descriptions of the Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) project; motivation behind low-cost educational aids development in rural areas; an educational radio pilot project; and development and…

  1. Radiochemistry in India : An Overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. B. Manohar; B. S. Tomar; V. K. Manchanda

    2000-01-01

    A major expansion in the experimental programme of Atomic Energy occurred with the establishment of Atomic Energy Establishment at Trombay (AEET). Along with the setting up of the India's first reactor APSARA, a prototype radiochemistry laboratory was set up at the Trombay site. This laboratory was to serve as a training ground for a team of chemists, chemical engineers and

  2. India and Fast Breeder Reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. V. RAMANA

    2009-01-01

    India has long pursued a fast breeder program, motivated in part by the availability of only poor quality uranium resources within the country. But progress so far has been disappointing, with only one test reactor having been constructed and having a chequered operating history. The larger Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor that is being constructed has a design that compromises safety

  3. Corruption in India Andrew Sanchez

    E-print Network

    50 Corruption in India Andrew Sanchez The momentum of last year's hunger strike by the anti-corruption corruption ombudsman. Hazare's campaign rests upon the proposition that the democratic ideals with which. Hazare's supporters argue that this process has two primary effects. First, corruption allows wealthier

  4. Poverty among Elderly in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srivastava, Akanksha; Mohanty, Sanjay K.

    2012-01-01

    Using consumption expenditure data of the National Sample Survey 2004-2005, this paper estimates the size of elderly poor and tests the hypotheses that elderly households are not economically better-off compared to non-elderly households in India. Poverty estimates are derived under three scenarios--by applying the official cut-off point of the…

  5. Understanding Child Rights in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grewal, Imandeep Kaur; Singh, Nandita Shukla

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: This article traces the status of child rights in India, with special attention to traditional beliefs that have shaped and sustain gender discrimination. The article examines the possibilities and limitations of the newly implemented Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act of 2009 for operating as an equalizing…

  6. Women of the World: Women's Health in India

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Adlakha, Arjun, 1941-.

    The US Census Bureau offers this report that profiles the current state of women's health and education in India. The report was released as part of the bureau's Women of the World series, which focuses on socio-economic gender issues in various countries. The reports present data from a variety of sources and summarize germane findings to provide a snapshot of Indian literacy, education level, fertility, infant mortality, and maternal mortality, among other statistical factors related to women's health and education.

  7. Understanding epidemiological transition in India

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Suryakant; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam

    2014-01-01

    Background Omran's theory explains changing disease patterns over time predominantly from infectious to chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). India's epidemiological transition is characterized by dual burden of diseases. Kumar addressed low mortality and high morbidity in Kerala, which seems also to be true for India as a country in the current demographic scenario. Methods NSS data (1986–1987, 1995–1996, 2004) and aggregated data on causes of death provided by Registrar General India (RGI) were used to examine the structural changes in morbidity and causes of death. A zero-inflated poisson (ZIP) regression model and a beta-binomial model were used to corroborate the mounting age pattern of morbidity. Measures, namely the 25th and 75th percentiles of age-at-death and modal age-at-death, were used to examine the advances in mortality transition. Objective This study addressed the advances in epidemiological transition via exploring the structural changes in pattern of diseases and progress in mortality transition. Results The burden of NCDs has been increasing in old age without replacing the burden of communicable diseases. The manifold rise of chronic diseases in recent decades justifies the death toll and is responsible for transformation in the age pattern of morbidity. Over time, deaths have been concentrated near the modal age-at-death. Modal age-at-death increased linearly by 5 years for females (r2=0.9515) and males (r2=0.9020). Significant increase in modal age-at-death ascertained the dominance of old age mortality over the childhood/adult age mortality. Conclusions India experiences a dual burden of diseases associated with a remarkable transformation in the age pattern of morbidity and mortality, contemporaneous with structural changes in disease patterns. Continued progress in the pattern of diseases and mortality transition, accompanied by a linear rise in ex, unravels a compelling variation in advances found so far in epidemiological transition witnessed by the developed nations, with similar matrices for India. PMID:24848651

  8. Spatial and temporal patterns of air pollutants in rural and urban areas of India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Disha; Kulshrestha, U C

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we analysed spatial and temporal patterns of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) concentrations across India. We have also assessed MODIS-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) variations to characterize the air quality and relate it to SPM, NO2 and SO2 in different areas. In addition, the pollutant concentrations have been mapped using geospatial techniques. The results indicated significant differences in air pollutant levels across rural and urban areas. In general, districts of central and northern India had relatively higher SPM concentrations compared to southern India. Out of the top ten SPM polluted districts in India, nine were located in the state of Uttar Pradesh (UP). We observed significant correlations between the SPM and AOD at different sites. Although spatial and temporal patterns of NO2 and SO2 matched AOD patterns, the correlation strength (r2) varied based on location. The causes and implications of these findings are presented. PMID:25244965

  9. Restructuring and performance in India's electricity sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Arun Kumar

    Restructuring and privatization, used as major tools in electricity sector reform, are often viewed as part of the same process and the terms used interchangeably. Although related, they represent quite different dimensions of change and reform. Privatization is the result of change in the management/ownership. Restructuring, on the other hand, refers to changes in structure such as the unbundling of vertically integrated utilities, and the introduction of competition. Most studies attempt to assess the impact of privatization of the electric utilities on their tariff structure, performance and efficiency. They have not tried to estimate the effect of restructuring on the performance of the unbundled utilities. Using panel data on the state electricity boards and the thermal power plants, and employing variance-component fixed effects and random effects models, this study examines the effects of restructuring and ownership on the performance of India's electricity sector. We also study the effects of absolute majority of political parties on performance. The study also uses a cross-country-comparison-framework to compare the electricity sector reforms of India with those of Chile, Hungary and Norway. Results show that restructuring has significantly positive effects on such performance indicators as plant availability, plant load factor, forced outage, average tariff collection, and sales revenue as a ratio of cost. With regard to labor efficiency indicators, we find mixed results. Restructuring also appears to entail reduction in the extent of cross-subsidization. However, the cost of supply seems to be unaffected by restructuring. Absolute majority of the party in government shows adverse effects on costs, sales revenue as a ratio of cost, and labor efficiency. The effects of ownership are somewhat mixed, with state ownership (as opposed to federal or private) indicating adverse effects on plant performance. Interestingly, after controlling for location-specific effects, we do not find significant difference between privately owned plants and other plants in areas like plant availability, and plant load factor. In a developing country like India with a long tradition of public ownership and vertical integration in electricity sector, this has important policy implications.

  10. Continuing challenge of infectious diseases in India.

    PubMed

    John, T Jacob; Dandona, Lalit; Sharma, Vinod P; Kakkar, Manish

    2011-01-15

    In India, the range and burden of infectious diseases are enormous. The administrative responsibilities of the health system are shared between the central (federal) and state governments. Control of diseases and outbreaks is the responsibility of the central Ministry of Health, which lacks a formal public health department for this purpose. Tuberculosis, malaria, filariasis, visceral leishmaniasis, leprosy, HIV infection, and childhood cluster of vaccine-preventable diseases are given priority for control through centrally managed vertical programmes. Control of HIV infection and leprosy, but not of tuberculosis, seems to be on track. Early success of malaria control was not sustained, and visceral leishmaniasis prevalence has increased. Inadequate containment of the vector has resulted in recurrent outbreaks of dengue fever and re-emergence of Chikungunya virus disease and typhus fever. Other infectious diseases caused by faecally transmitted pathogens (enteric fevers, cholera, hepatitis A and E viruses) and zoonoses (rabies, leptospirosis, anthrax) are not in the process of being systematically controlled. Big gaps in the surveillance and response system for infectious diseases need to be addressed. Replication of the model of vertical single-disease control for all infectious diseases will not be efficient or viable. India needs to rethink and revise its health policy to broaden the agenda of disease control. A comprehensive review and redesign of the health system is needed urgently to ensure equity and quality in health care. We recommend the creation of a functional public health infrastructure that is shared between central and state governments, with professional leadership and a formally trained public health cadre of personnel who manage an integrated control mechanism of diseases in districts that includes infectious and non-infectious diseases, and injuries. PMID:21227500

  11. Nuclear fuel cycle assessment of India: a technical study for U.S.-India cooperation 

    E-print Network

    Woddi, Taraknath Venkat Krishna

    2009-05-15

    assessment of India emphasizes the entwinment of the military and civilian facilities and would aid in moving forward with the separation plan. To estimate the existing uranium reserves in India, a complete historical assessment of ore production, conversion...

  12. Nuclear fuel cycle assessment of India: a technical study for U.S.-India cooperation 

    E-print Network

    Woddi, Taraknath Venkat Krishna

    2008-10-10

    assessment of India emphasizes the entwinment of the military and civilian facilities and would aid in moving forward with the separation plan. To estimate the existing uranium reserves in India, a complete historical assessment of ore production, conversion...

  13. Snakebite Mortality in India: A Nationally Representative Mortality Survey

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, Bijayeeni; Warrell, David A.; Suraweera, Wilson; Bhatia, Prakash; Dhingra, Neeraj; Jotkar, Raju M.; Rodriguez, Peter S.; Mishra, Kaushik; Whitaker, Romulus; Jha, Prabhat

    2011-01-01

    Background India has long been thought to have more snakebites than any other country. However, inadequate hospital-based reporting has resulted in estimates of total annual snakebite mortality ranging widely from about 1,300 to 50,000. We calculated direct estimates of snakebite mortality from a national mortality survey. Methods and Findings We conducted a nationally representative study of 123,000 deaths from 6,671 randomly selected areas in 2001–03. Full-time, non-medical field workers interviewed living respondents about all deaths. The underlying causes were independently coded by two of 130 trained physicians. Discrepancies were resolved by anonymous reconciliation or, failing that, by adjudication. A total of 562 deaths (0.47% of total deaths) were assigned to snakebites. Snakebite deaths occurred mostly in rural areas (97%), were more common in males (59%) than females (41%), and peaked at ages 15–29 years (25%) and during the monsoon months of June to September. This proportion represents about 45,900 annual snakebite deaths nationally (99% CI 40,900 to 50,900) or an annual age-standardised rate of 4.1/100,000 (99% CI 3.6–4.5), with higher rates in rural areas (5.4/100,000; 99% CI 4.8–6.0), and with the highest state rate in Andhra Pradesh (6.2). Annual snakebite deaths were greatest in the states of Uttar Pradesh (8,700), Andhra Pradesh (5,200), and Bihar (4,500). Conclusions Snakebite remains an underestimated cause of accidental death in modern India. Because a large proportion of global totals of snakebites arise from India, global snakebite totals might also be underestimated. Community education, appropriate training of medical staff and better distribution of antivenom, especially to the 13 states with the highest prevalence, could reduce snakebite deaths in India. PMID:21532748

  14. Girls' Higher Education in India on the Road to Inclusiveness: On Track but Heading Where?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahni, Rohini; Shankar, V. Kalyan

    2012-01-01

    The scope of this paper spans from macro-level national and inter-state comparisons to more micro-level intra-state scrutiny of systemic fault-lines shaping the contours of girls' education in India. Post independence, national level indicators have been suggestive of greater gender parity. Yet, there is more to inclusiveness of girls in Indian…

  15. Social security and the family: Coping with seasonality and calamity in rural India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bina Agarwal

    1990-01-01

    This article examines how poor rural families in India cope with the food insecurity associated with seasonal troughs in the agricultural production cycle, and with calamities such as drought and famine; the effectiveness of the coping mechanisms they adopt; the intra?household sharing of the burden of coping; and the appropriate state and non?state interventions that would strengthen the survival mechanisms

  16. Understanding the Dynamics of Food Insecurity and Vulnerability in Orissa, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Romer Lovendal

    2007-01-01

    This paper documents the main findings of a study on food insecurity and vulnerability in the Indian state of Orissa in support of promoting interventions for food security and livelihoods at state level. A similar study was undertaken in Himachal Pradesh, India. The paper analyses the main characteristics and causes of food insecurity and vulnerability. It seeks to identify who

  17. The Sex Education Debates: Teaching "Life Style" in West Bengal, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakravarti, Paromita

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the recent controversies surrounding the decision to introduce sex education in secondary schools in India to combat the rapid spread of HIV and AIDS in the country. While 11 Indian states have banned it, the Left-ruled state of West Bengal has designed a teachers' manual to impart sex education. However, a close analysis of…

  18. Class Divided: Global Pressures, Domestic Pulls and a Fractured Education Policy in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tukdeo, Shivali

    2015-01-01

    Interdisciplinary scholarship in recent years has begun to pay attention to the state (re) formation in India under neoliberal conditions. The particularities of this transformation have arisen from the points of re-imagination of the relationship between the post-colonial state and global capital. Working through the contradictions and conflicts…

  19. 76 FR 62843 - Sulfanilic Acid From China and India

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ...Third Review)] Sulfanilic Acid From China and India Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed...countervailing duty order on sulfanilic acid from India and antidumping duty orders on sulfanilic acid from China and India would...

  20. Molecular biology research in neuropsychiatry: India’s contribution

    PubMed Central

    Sathyanarayana Rao, T. S.; Ramesh, B. N.; Vasudevaraju, P.; Rao, K. S. J.

    2010-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorders represent the second largest cause of morbidity worldwide. These disorders have complex etiology and patho-physiology. The major lacunae in the biology of the psychiatric disorders include genomics, biomarkers and drug discovery, for the early detection of the disease, and have great application in the clinical management of disease. Indian psychiatrists and scientists played a significant role in filling the gaps. The present annotation provides in depth information related to research contributions on the molecular biology research in neuropsychiatric disorders in India. There is a great need for further research in this direction as to understand the genetic association of the neuropsychiatric disorders; molecular biology has a tremendous role to play. The alterations in gene expression are implicated in the pathogenesis of several neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug addiction and depression. The development of transgenic neuropsychiatric animal models is of great thrust areas. No studies from India in this direction. Biomarkers in neuropsychiatric disorders are of great help to the clinicians for the early diagnosis of the disorders. The studies related to gene-environment interactions, DNA instability, oxidative stress are less studied in neuropsychiatric disorders and making efforts in this direction will lead to pioneers in these areas of research in India. In conclusion, we provided an insight for future research direction in molecular understanding of neuropsychiatry disorders. PMID:21836667

  1. Contract Teachers in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goyal, Sangeeta; Pandey, Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we use non-experimental data from government schools in Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, two of the largest Indian states, to present average school outcomes by contract status of teachers. We find that contract teachers are associated with higher effort than civil service teachers with permanent tenures, before as well as after…

  2. The stigmata and discrimination experienced, in southern India, by cases of lymphatic filariasis.

    PubMed

    Krishna Kumari, A; Harichandrakumar, K T; Krishnamoorthy, K; Das, L K

    2010-07-01

    Between November 2006 and November 2009, the stigmata and discrimination experienced by 201 cases of lymphatic filariasis (LF) living in three areas of the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu (the Pondicherry urban agglomeration and two, endemic, rural villages in Villupuram district) were investigated in interviews. The narratives of nine of the interviewees are reported here in detail, to bring to light the various domains of life in which LF cases are stigmatized and discriminated against. Lymphatic filariasis can, and often does, adversely affect each case's livelihood, marital prospects, and social and marital life and can also diminish the marital prospects of a case's children. The deformity caused by the disease and the incapacitation resulting from the often-frequent attacks of adenolymphangitis appeared to be the main reasons for the stigmatization and discrimination. Although morbidity control is one of the 'twin pillars' of the Global Programme for Elimination of Filariasis, the stigmata and discrimination associated with such morbidity also need to be addressed. PMID:20819310

  3. India at 50. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, John

    This unit is intended to provide students with an understanding of India in 1997 by drawing on some of the major cultural, political, intellectual, and economic themes of its recent history. This snapshot of India uses the 50th anniversary as the occasion to evaluate the path modern India has taken. The unit examines the country's reactions to…

  4. The motion and active deformation of India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Paul; R. Bürgmann; V. K. Gaur; R. Bilham; K. M. Larson; M. B. Ananda; S. Jade; M. Mukal; T. S. Anupama; G. Satyal; D. Kumar

    2001-01-01

    Measurements of surface displacements using GPS constrain the motion and deformation of India and India-Eurasia plate boundary deformation along the Himalaya. The GPS velocities of plate-interior sites constrain the pole of the angular velocity vector of India with respect to Eurasia to lie at 25.6+\\/-1.0°N11.1+\\/-9.0°E, approximately 6° west of the NUVEL-1A pole of <3 Ma plate motion. The angular rotation

  5. India going nuclear: A bomb against China?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weixing Hu

    1998-01-01

    As China and India were gradually repairing their relations since the late 1980s, India’s nuclear tests in May 1998 caused\\u000a a major setback for the improvement of the bilateral relationship. By discussing the question whether New Delhi is developing\\u000a the bomb against China or not, this article attempts to shed some light on the strategic fallouts of the Indian nuclear

  6. Nehruvian science and postcolonial India.

    PubMed

    Arnold, David

    2013-06-01

    This essay uses the seminal figure of Jawaharlal Nehru to interrogate the nature and representation of science in modern India. The problem posed by Nehruvian science--the conflict between (yet simultaneity of) science as both universal phenomenon and local effect--lies at the heart of current debates about what science means for the non-West. The problematic of Nehruvian science can be accessed through Nehru's own speeches and writings, but also through the wider project of science with which he identified--critiquing colonialism, forging India's place in the modern world, marrying intellectual endeavor with practical nation building. The essay makes a case for looking at Nehruvian science as a way of structuring the problem of postcolonial science, particularly in relation to understanding the authority of science and its evaluation in terms of its capacity to deliver socioeconomic change. PMID:23961694

  7. Healthcare waste management in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. D. Patil; A. V. Shekdar

    2001-01-01

    Health-care waste management in India is receiving greater attention due to recent regulations (the Biomedical Wastes (Management & Handling) Rules, 1998). The prevailing situation is analysed covering various issues like quantities and proportion of different constituents of wastes, handling, treatment and disposal methods in various health-care units (HCUs). The waste generation rate ranges between 0·5 and 2·0kg bed?1day?1. It is

  8. Psychiatric thoughts in ancient India.

    PubMed

    Abhyankar, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    A review of the literature regarding psychiatric thoughts in ancient India is attempted. Besides interesting reading, many of the concepts are still relevant and can be used in day-to-day practice especially towards healthy and happy living. Certain concepts are surprisingly contemporary and valid today. They can be used in psychotherapy and counselling and for promoting mental health. However, the description and classification of mental illness is not in tune with modern psychiatry. PMID:25838724

  9. EIA practice in India and its evaluation using SWOT analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Paliwal, Ritu [Centre for Regulatory and Policy Research, TERI School of Advanced Studies, Habitat Centre, Lodhi Road, Delhi-110003 (India)]. E-mail: ritup@terischool.ac.in

    2006-07-15

    In India Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has been formally introduced in 1994. It relied on the institutional framework that has a strong supporting legislative, administrative and procedural set-up. Both central and state authorities together are sharing the responsibility of its development and management. A Strength, Weakness, Opportunity and Threat (SWOT) analysis taken up in this article has suggested that there are several issues that need to be readdressed. It highlights several constraints, ranging from improper screening and scoping guidelines to ineffective monitoring and post project evaluation. The opportunities are realised as increasing public awareness, initiatives of environmental groups and business community and forward thinking to integrate environmental consideration into plans and policies. Poor governance, rapid economic reforms, and favours to small-scale units are some of the foreseen threats to the system. This article concludes with some suggestions to improve EIA process in India.

  10. Menstruation related myths in India: strategies for combating it

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Suneela; Anand, Tanu

    2015-01-01

    Menstruation is a phenomenon unique to girls. However, it has always been surrounded by taboos and myths that exclude women from many aspects of socio-cultural life. In India, the topic has been a taboo until date. Such taboos about menstruation present in many societies impact on girls’ and women's emotional state, mentality and lifestyle and most importantly, health. The challenge, of addressing the socio-cultural taboos and beliefs in menstruation, is further compounded by the low girls’ knowledge levels and understandings of puberty, menstruation, and reproductive health. Thus, there is the need to follow a strategic approach in combating these issues. The current paper aims to discuss menstruation related myths prevalent in India, their impact on women's life, relevance of addressing these issues in primary care and a brief description about various strategies to combat them. PMID:25949964

  11. Coastal resource complexes of South India: options for sustainable management.

    PubMed

    Damodaran, A

    2006-04-01

    India's coastal resource complexes were traditionally characterized by a continuum of 'common property resources' or 'commons' that stretched from the shores to the seas. The continuum aided the existence of sustainable livelihood systems for local communities. Today, fragmented policy approaches and economic welfare schemes have caused the disintegration of community control over the continuum. As a consequence, livelihood systems of local communities have declined. The introduction of coastal management guidelines in the 1990s has exacerbated the situation. With reference to a coastal village located in the State of Kerala in South West India, the paper describes the trajectory of unsustainable change that has taken place in the coastal area resource complexes of the country. The paper argues for restoring the continuum of commons in the study area through community driven systems of natural resource management that are based on networks of nested institutions. PMID:16171937

  12. Adoption of appropriate technology: smokeless wood stoves in Rajasthan, India

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, A.H.

    1987-01-01

    A multi-method research design consisting of in-depth interviews with program officials and builders, field-level observation, and field surveys with randomly chosen acceptors was used to provide a unique set of insights into the process of diffusion and acceptance of improved smokeless wood stoves in Rajasthan, India. Over 450 village women were interviewed about their energy use, use of their stove, and cooking practices as well as family characteristics. These women were improved stove acceptors and non-acceptors associated with three improved stove-disseminating organizations in Rajasthan, the Rural Development Department of the Rajasthan state government, the Local Self Government Institute and the Social Work and Research Center. The improved stoves disseminated by these three programs are all largely subsidized by the Government of India. A variable named Levels of Acceptance is used to aid in quantifying differences in stove condition and frequency of stove use.

  13. Menstruation related myths in India: strategies for combating it.

    PubMed

    Garg, Suneela; Anand, Tanu

    2015-01-01

    Menstruation is a phenomenon unique to girls. However, it has always been surrounded by taboos and myths that exclude women from many aspects of socio-cultural life. In India, the topic has been a taboo until date. Such taboos about menstruation present in many societies impact on girls' and women's emotional state, mentality and lifestyle and most importantly, health. The challenge, of addressing the socio-cultural taboos and beliefs in menstruation, is further compounded by the low girls' knowledge levels and understandings of puberty, menstruation, and reproductive health. Thus, there is the need to follow a strategic approach in combating these issues. The current paper aims to discuss menstruation related myths prevalent in India, their impact on women's life, relevance of addressing these issues in primary care and a brief description about various strategies to combat them. PMID:25949964

  14. Improving health services in India: a different perspective.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, Julian

    2008-01-01

    Two papers in this volume focus on public finance and decentralization as central to resolving India's systemic public health crisis. However, some states and districts have achieved success despite serious financial and administrative deficits; this suggests that factors such as political commitment, community participation, human resource management, women's empowerment, and governance may be as or more important. The success of the National Rural Health Mission will depend on state and local institutional capacity, including strong partnerships with civil society organizations and private-sector actors. Increased resources and decentralization will not be sufficient by themselves. PMID:18607033

  15. Association between early marriage and intimate partner violence in India: a focus on youth from Bihar and Rajasthan.

    PubMed

    Speizer, Ilene S; Pearson, Erin

    2011-07-01

    The relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and early marriage is explored using the 2005-2006 India National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3). The NFHS-3 collected data from a representative sample of women and men in India with a large enough sample size to have a representative sample at the state level. The focus is on youth from Bihar and Rajasthan, two states with high IPV and early marriage. Multivariate logistic regression analyses demonstrate that women aged 20 to 24 who married before age eighteen, the legal age at marriage in India, are more likely to have ever experienced IPV in their lifetime and recently experienced IPV (in the last 12 months) than their counterparts who married later. The results were significant in Rajasthan but not in Bihar. To reduce IPV, targeted efforts must be made to decrease the proportion of India's girls who are married under the legal age of marriage. PMID:20587462

  16. Epilepsy in ancient India.

    PubMed

    Manyam, B V

    1992-01-01

    The ancient Indian medical system, Ayurveda, meaning science of life, is the oldest system of medicine in the world. Epilepsy is defined as Apasmara: apa, meaning negation or loss of; smara, meaning recollection or consciousness. Aura was recognized and was called Apasmara Poorva Roopa. A large number of symptoms indicative of aura were listed. Worthy of mention are subjective sensation of sounds, sensation of darkness, feeling of delusion, and dream-like state. An actual attack of Apasmara includes falling down; shaking of the hands, legs, and body; rolling up of the eyes; grinding of the teeth; and foaming at the mouth. Four major types of epilepsy based on the disturbance of doshas (humors) that govern the physiological and physiochemical activities of the body are mentioned. Apasmara is considered a dangerous disease that is chronic and difficult to treat. Several causes are mentioned. Treatment included correcting the etiological factors and dietary regimen and avoiding dangerous places that may result in injuries. PMID:1592022

  17. Coalbed methane could cut India`s energy deficit

    SciTech Connect

    Kelafant, J. [Advanced Resources International Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Stern, M. [MathTech International Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1998-05-25

    Foreign interest in upcoming Indian coalbed methane (CBM) concession rounds will depend on prospect quality, fiscal regime attractiveness, and perceptions interested parties will have concerning the government`s willingness to promote development. The more liberal tax and royalty provisions for foreign producers announced by the ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas indicate that India is interested in attracting international CBM investments. This article examines the potential for developing the country`s large CBM resource base, estimated between 30 tcf (250 billion cu m) and 144 tcf (4 trillion cu m) of gas. It also provides an overview of the current contractual and regulatory framework governing CBM development.

  18. India's Higher Education Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    India, with the world's second largest higher education system and a rapidly growing economy as one of the BRIC nations, faces significant challenges in building both capacity and excellence in higher education. India's higher education system is characterized by "islands of excellence in a sea of mediocrity." The mainstream…

  19. Development of Public Libraries in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zahid Ashraf Wani

    2008-01-01

    India is no exception. Libraries were established in ancient India mainly by the patronage extended by emperors, major capitalists, and scholars. Indian emperors and kings were supported scholars and scholarship. There is evidence of well-developed libraries even in the sixth century A.D. The famous Nalanda University in Bihar had its own magnificent library with a massive collection of manuscripts covering

  20. Food Insecurity in India: Natural or Manmade?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vijay Kumbhar

    2010-01-01

    The issue of food security, especially in a developing nation like India, raises the twin problems of uncertain food production and unequal food distribution. The impact of unequal food distribution can have adverse effects on the rural and urban population living below the poverty line. Food insecurity is not only economic problem but also problem of non-humanity approach in India.

  1. Travel to India (A Culture Project).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornhill, Harold R., Jr.

    An activity designed to introduce secondary students to the history, culture, and geography of India is presented. Students are asked to complete a four-page project, consisting of questions on travel to India. Students look at general and specific information about the country. (DB)

  2. Current genetic research in cotton in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. Basu

    1996-01-01

    Genetic research on cotton in India in recent times is reviewed. Establishment of a gene bank with global accessions of the four cultivated species, as well as wild relatives, has facilitated genetic improvement of cotton in India. Genetic control of the economic traits has been studied by biometrical approaches, particularly the line x tester analysis, diallel cross and generation mean

  3. India: Economic Development and Social Opportunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean Dreze; Amartya Sen

    1995-01-01

    This book presents analysis of endemic deprivation in India and the role of public action in addressing the problem. The analysis is based on a broad view of economic development, focusing on human well-being and 'social opportunity' rather than the standard indicators of economic growth. India's success in reducing deprivation since Independence has been limited. Recent diagnoses of this failure

  4. Some new and noteworthy plants from India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. N. Naik

    1970-01-01

    The paper deals with three species of flowering plants of whichIndigofera duthiei Drum. ex Naik is new to Science.Amaranthus dubius Mart. ex Thell. is a new record for India.Biophytum helenae Busc.et Musch. is the correct name of the plant widely occurring in India and recorded asB. sensitivum DC.

  5. Putin's India Policy: Mutual Gains for Future

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Biju Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The importance of India in the foreign policy of Russia increased after Putin became the president. Despite Putin's westward orientation much of the contradictions remain. In the east, the improvement of relations with China is accompanied by views of China's possible geopolitical domination in Far East and Central Asia. Putin's policy is to retain India as a major strategic partner

  6. Trends and geographic differentials in mortality under age 60 in India.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Nandita; Jasilionis, Domantas; Ram, Faujdar; Shkolnikov, Vladimir M

    2011-03-01

    The study examines overall and region-specific mortality changes and regional mortality variation in India since the 1970s, using data from the Sample Registration System (SRS). An evaluation of the quality of SRS data confirms their reliability for children and adults under age 60. The results suggest the convergence of mortality across the regions of India with important inter-state differences in the pace of health improvements over time. After spectacular progress during the 1970s and the 1980s, many Indian states have witnessed slower mortality improvements in both young and adult age groups. India faces difficulties in making further reductions in infant mortality and in the burden of chronic and man-made diseases at adult ages. PMID:21240833

  7. Prospects for better nutrition in India.

    PubMed

    Sankar, Rajan; van den Briel, Tina

    2014-01-01

    Being home to 31% of the world's children who are stunted and 42% of those who are underweight, and with many children and adults affected by micronutrient deficiencies, India is facing huge challenges in the field of nutrition. Even though the Indian Government is investing vast amounts of money into programs that aim to enhance food security, health and nutrition (the Integrated Child Development Services program alone costs 3 billion USD per year), overall impact has been rather disappointing. However, there are some bright spots on the horizon. The recent District Level Health Surveys (DLHS-4) do show significant progress, ie a reduction in stunting of around 15% over the past 6 years in a few states for which preliminary results are available. The reasons for this reduction are not unambiguous and appear to include state government commitment, focus on the 'window of opportunity', improved status and education of women, a lowered fertility rate, and combinations of nutrition- specific and nutrition-sensitive interventions. Apart from the government many other agencies play a role in driving improvements in nutrition. Since 2006 the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN) has worked with a range of partners to improve access to nutritious foods for large parts of the population, through public and private delivery channels. This supplement presents a selection of these activities, ranging from a capacityassessment of frontline workers in the ICDS system, large scale staple food fortification, salt iodization, fortification of mid-day meals for school children and decentralized complementary food production. PMID:25384721

  8. India's self-sufficiency outlook bleak

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-13

    This paper reports on India's push to stem the rising tide of oil imports and turn around its flagging oil production which continues to experience setbacks. State owned Oil and Natural Gas Commission (ONGC) has slashed its oil production target to 510,800 b/D in fiscal 1992-93 from 580,000 b/d in fiscal 1991-92. It is the latest sign of the state owned oil sector's growing inability to meet rapidly rising domestic oil demand through a sizable increase in production. The government previously had pegged the year to year decline at only 20,000 b/d. But present estimates show that the year to year drop will be five times that volume. Government and ONGC officials previously had fixed a target of 1 million b/d of domestic production by fiscal 1994-95, which other industry officials called too ambitious to achieve without a major discovery going on stream in just 2 years. That situation is being aggravated by ONGC's decision to shut in certain wells in the Bombay high area as part of a major field rehabilitation program, expected to result in a loss of 60,000 b/d this year. The deeper than expected decline in production means a bigger than expected oil import bill, which had eased the past fiscal year because of lagging oil prices in light of economic recession and an end to the Persian Gulf war.

  9. Multidimensional Poverty and Child Survival in India

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Sanjay K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Though the concept of multidimensional poverty has been acknowledged cutting across the disciplines (among economists, public health professionals, development thinkers, social scientists, policy makers and international organizations) and included in the development agenda, its measurement and application are still limited. Objectives and Methodology Using unit data from the National Family and Health Survey 3, India, this paper measures poverty in multidimensional space and examine the linkages of multidimensional poverty with child survival. The multidimensional poverty is measured in the dimension of knowledge, health and wealth and the child survival is measured with respect to infant mortality and under-five mortality. Descriptive statistics, principal component analyses and the life table methods are used in the analyses. Results The estimates of multidimensional poverty are robust and the inter-state differentials are large. While infant mortality rate and under-five mortality rate are disproportionately higher among the abject poor compared to the non-poor, there are no significant differences in child survival among educationally, economically and health poor at the national level. State pattern in child survival among the education, economical and health poor are mixed. Conclusion Use of multidimensional poverty measures help to identify abject poor who are unlikely to come out of poverty trap. The child survival is significantly lower among abject poor compared to moderate poor and non-poor. We urge to popularize the concept of multiple deprivations in research and program so as to reduce poverty and inequality in the population. PMID:22046384

  10. NONMELANOMA SKIN CANCER IN INDIA: CURRENT SCENARIO

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Saumya

    2010-01-01

    Incidence of skin cancers has been increasing since the last few decades worldwide. Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the commonest variety of cutaneous malignancy. Conventional wisdom has it that the incidence of all varieties of skin cancers is lower among Indians due to the protective effects of melanin. Though national surveys and cross-country data in India are unavailable, there are indirect indications from several smaller reports that NMSCs may be on the rise in India. Reports of quite a few atypical cases lead us to hypothesize that factors other than ultraviolet radiation may be important in the occurrences of these cancers, particularly in the skin types prevalent in India. The descriptive epidemiology and clinical characteristics of squamous and basal cell carcinoma in India, including their variants, are discussed here along with hypotheses on their etiopathogenesis. Novel management techniques currently available in India are also highlighted. PMID:21430894

  11. Present and Future Energy Scenario in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Bhattacharyya, B.; Gupta, V. K.

    2014-09-01

    India's energy sector is one of the most critical components of an infrastructure that affects India's economic growth and therefore is also one of the largest industries in India. India has the 5th largest electricity generating capacity and is the 6th largest energy consumer amounting for around 3.4 % of global energy consumption. India's energy demand has grown at 3.6 % pa over the past 30 years. The consumption of the energy is directly proportional to the progress of manpower with ever growing population, improvement in the living standard of the humanity and industrialization of the developing countries. Very recently smart grid technology can attribute important role in energy scenario. Smart grid refers to electric power system that enhances grid reliability and efficiency by automatically responding to system disturbances. This paper discusses the new communication infrastructure and scheme designed to integrate data.

  12. Telepsychiatry in Chennai, India: the SCARF experience.

    PubMed

    Thara, Rangaswamy; John, Sujit; Rao, Kotteswara

    2008-01-01

    India, with its huge population and limited mental health resources, must find alternative ways of delivering its mental healthcare services. Telepsychiatry seems to be a promising option even with no regulatory authority in place or specific laws in India that deal with telemedicine practice, there has been a mushrooming of telemedicine services in India. Healthy cooperation between government organizations such as the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) and institutions in the non-government and private sectors is another key feature in India. The experience of the Schizophrenia Research Foundation (SCARF), at Chennai, in South India, in running and establishing a telepsychiatry network is presented in this article. We identified the following tasks as essential to ensure an efficient intervention using telemedicine: identifying a suitable technology, a suitable location, and a local collaborator; providing training and creating awareness; establishing peripheral telepsychiatry centers and ensuring case documentation; and accountability. PMID:18548517

  13. Rheumatology in India--quo vadis?

    PubMed

    Handa, Rohini

    2015-03-01

    Rheumatology has been a neglected subspecialty in India. A staggering patient load, a severely inadequate number of trained rheumatology specialists, therapeutic nihilism and limited advocacy are some of the critical challenges that confront rheumatology care, and possibly explain the high rates of reliance on complementary and alternative medicines in India. Disease spectrum and treatment patterns are not remarkably different from those in other countries, but biologic agents have limited use and are administered for short periods only. Consequently, outcomes in India do not yet match those reported in developed countries. Furthermore, the high prevalence of infectious diseases continues to be a major contributor to mortality in patients with rheumatic disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus. Several tropical diseases with rheumatic manifestations are relevant in India, including chikungunya, brucellosis, leptospirosis, dengue and melioidosis. To address the many problems with rheumatology care in India, curricular reforms, capacity building, patient education and political support are sorely needed. PMID:25366186

  14. Medical device vigilance systems: India, US, UK, and Australia

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Pooja; Janodia, Manthan D; Jagadish, Puralea C; Udupa, Nayanabhirama

    2010-01-01

    The term medical device includes a wide category of products ranging from therapeutic medical devices exerting their effects locally such as tissue cutting, wound covering or propping open clogged arteries, to highly sophisticated computerized medical equipment and diagnostic medical devices. To achieve uniformity among the national medical device regulatory systems and increase the access to safe, effective, and clinically beneficial medical technologies, the Global Harmonization Task Force (GHTF) was conceived in 1992 by five members: European Union, United States, Australia, Japan, and Canada. All regulated countries have clearly defined medical devices, as has the GHTF. Although GHTF has tried to achieve harmonization with respect to medical devices, some differences still exist in the national laws of the countries of GHTF. Further, regulated countries have classified medical devices on the basis of their associated risk. In the Indian regulatory system, medical devices are still considered as drugs. In 2006, the Medical Device Regulation Bill was recommended to consolidate laws for medical devices and to establish the Medical Device Regulatory Authority of India. In addition, medical devices are not classified by any Indian regulatory authority. Although India has moved towards harmonizing its medical device regulations with those of regulated countries, this study aims to identify whether India should have a vigilance system in harmony with those of GHTF or develop its own system for medical devices. PMID:22915923

  15. ENGAGING THE COMMUNITY IN HEALTH RESEARCH IN INDIA

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Kristen J.; Preuss, Charles; Pathak, Yashwant; Kosambiya, J. K.; Kumar, Ambuj

    2013-01-01

    Community-engaged research approaches involve members of the community in various aspects of a research endeavor to improve the health of populations. Engaging the community in research is important in the development, dissemination, and evaluation of new interventions, technologies, and other medical advancements to improve population health globally. A review of published community-engaged research studies conducted in India was performed. Fifteen published studies were identified and reviewed to evaluate the state of community-engaged research in India. The review indicated that community-engaged research in India is limited. Most published community-engaged research focused on health promotion, especially in the prevention or management of HIV/AIDS and other STIs. Community members were involved in a variety of aspects of the research, but there was not one published article indicating that community members had defined the disease of focus. Community-engaged research often led to valuable insights into the views, experiences, and behaviors of community members and also led to increased community participation in health initiatives. It is anticipated that future community-engaged research will lead to improvements in global health through increased empowerment of communities and a better ability to implement new and innovative medical advances, technologies, and interventions. PMID:24353757

  16. The Indian Council of Medical Research–India Diabetes (ICMR–INDIAB) Study: Methodological Details

    PubMed Central

    Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Deepa, Mohan; Datta, Manjula; Sudha, Vasudevan; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Nath, Lalith M; Das, Ashok Kumar; Madhu, Sri Venkata; Rao, Paturi Vishnupriya; Shukla, Deepak Kumar; Kaur, Tanvir; Ali, Mohammed K; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2011-01-01

    Background Currently available estimates of diabetes prevalence in India are based on published data derived from very few studies. The Indian Council of Medical Research–India Diabetes (ICMR–INDIAB) study is a community-based survey conceived with the aim of obtaining the prevalence rates of diabetes in India as a whole, covering all 28 states, the National Capital Territory of Delhi, and two of the union territories in the mainland of India, with a total sample size of 124,000 individuals. Methods A stratified multistage sampling design has been used. In all study subjects, a structured questionnaire was administered and anthropometric parameters and blood pressure were measured. Fasting capillary blood glucose was first determined using a glucose meter. An oral glucose load was then administered to all subjects except those with self-reported diabetes, and the 2 h post-load capillary blood glucose was estimated. In every fifth subject, a fasting venous sample was collected for measurement of lipids and creatinine, a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram was performed, and dietary assessment questionnaire was administered. In all diabetic subjects, an additional diabetes questionnaire was used and a fasting venous sample drawn for glycated hemoglobin. Results All biological samples collected were analyzed in a central laboratory. All data collected were stored electronically. Quality control was achieved through multiple tiers of checks. Conclusions The ICMR–INDIAB study is the first of its kind attempting to provide accurate and comprehensive state- and national-level data on diabetes prevalence in India. PMID:21880233

  17. India Energy Outlook: End Use Demand in India to 2020

    SciTech Connect

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; McNeil, Michael; Sathaye, Jayant

    2009-03-30

    Integrated economic models have been used to project both baseline and mitigation greenhouse gas emissions scenarios at the country and the global level. Results of these scenarios are typically presented at the sectoral level such as industry, transport, and buildings without further disaggregation. Recently, a keen interest has emerged on constructing bottom up scenarios where technical energy saving potentials can be displayed in detail (IEA, 2006b; IPCC, 2007; McKinsey, 2007). Analysts interested in particular technologies and policies, require detailed information to understand specific mitigation options in relation to business-as-usual trends. However, the limit of information available for developing countries often poses a problem. In this report, we have focus on analyzing energy use in India in greater detail. Results shown for the residential and transport sectors are taken from a previous report (de la Rue du Can, 2008). A complete picture of energy use with disaggregated levels is drawn to understand how energy is used in India and to offer the possibility to put in perspective the different sources of end use energy consumption. For each sector, drivers of energy and technology are indentified. Trends are then analyzed and used to project future growth. Results of this report provide valuable inputs to the elaboration of realistic energy efficiency scenarios.

  18. "India Population Projects" in Karnataka.

    PubMed

    Reddy, P H; Badari, V S

    1991-12-01

    An overview, objectives, implementation, and research and evaluation studies of 2 India Population Projects in Karnataka are presented. The India Population Project I (IPP-I) was conducted in Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh. India Population Project III (IPP-III) took place between 1984-92 in 6 districts of Karnataka: Belgaum, Bijapur, Dharwad, Bidar, Gulbarga, and Raichur, and 4 districts in Kerala. The 6 districts in Karnataka accounted for 36% (13.2 million) of the total national population. The project cost was Rs. 713.1 million which was shared by the World Bank, and the Indian national and regional government. Due to poor past performance, these projects were undertaken to improve health and family welfare status. Specific project objectives are outlined. IPP-I included an urban component, and optimal Government of India program, and an intensive rural initiative. The urban program aimed to improved pre- and postnatal services and facilities, and the family planning (FP) in Bangalore city. The rural program was primarily to provide auxiliary nurse-midwives and hospitals and clinics, and also supplemental feeding program for pregnant and nursing mothers and children up to 2 years. The government program provided FP staff and facilities. IPP-I had 3 units to oversee building construction, to recruit staff and provide supplies and equipment, and to establish a Population Center. IPP-III was concerned with service delivery; information, education, and communication efforts (IEC) and population education; research and evaluation; and project management. Both projects contributed significantly to improving the infrastructure. A brief account of the types and kinds of studies undertaken is given. Studies were grouped into longitudinal studies of fertility, mortality, and FP; management information and evaluation systems for health and family welfare programs; experimental strategies; and other studies. Research and evaluation studies in IPP-III encompassed studies in gaps in knowledge, skills, and practice of health and FP personnel; baseline and endline surveys; and operational evaluation of the management information and evaluation system; factors affecting primary health care in Gulbarga district; evaluation of radio health lessons and the impact of the Kalyana Matha Program; and studies of vaccination and child survival and maternal mortality. Training programs were also undertaken. PMID:12343763

  19. Research on antipsychotics in India

    PubMed Central

    Avasthi, Ajit; Aggarwal, Munish; Grover, Sandeep; Khan, Mohd Khalid Rasheed

    2010-01-01

    Antipsychotic as a class of medications became available for treatment of various psychiatric disorders in the early 1950’s. Over the last 60 years many antipsychotics have become available. In line with the west, Indian researchers have evaluated the efficacy of antipsychotics in various conditions. Additionally, researchers have also evaluated the important safety and tolerability issues. Here, we review data originating from India in the form of drug trials, effectiveness, usefulness, safety and tolerability of antipsychotics. Additionally, data with respect to other important treatment related issues is discussed. PMID:21836703

  20. History of psychiatry in India

    PubMed Central

    Nizamie, S. Haque; Goyal, Nishant

    2010-01-01

    History is a screen through which the past lightens the present and the present brightens the future. Psychiatry by virtue of its ability to deal with human thoughts and emotions and provide a pathway for healthy minds provides an important platform towards being a mentally sound human being and largely the society. This review takes a sneak peek into the foundations of modern psychiatry in India. The description is largely based on the time frame, which provides a better understanding of the factual information in each period starting from the Vedic era and culminating in the post independence period. PMID:21836719

  1. India's baseline plan for nuclear energy self-sufficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Bucher

    2009-01-01

    India's nuclear energy strategy has traditionally strived for energy self-sufficiency, driven largely by necessity following trade restrictions imposed by the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) following India's 'peaceful nuclear explosion' of 1974. On September 6, 2008, the NSG agreed to create an exception opening nuclear trade with India, which may create opportunities for India to modify its baseline strategy. The purpose

  2. Case studies on heat stress related perceptions in different industrial sectors in southern India.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Ramalingam, Ayyappan; Dasu, Venkatesan; Stephen, Jeremiah Chinnadurai; Sivaperumal, Mohan Raj; Kumarasamy, Deepan; Mukhopadhyay, Krishnendu; Ghosh, Santu; Sambandam, Sankar

    2010-01-01

    Linkages between thermal loads and its physiological consequences have been widely studied in non-tropical developed country settings. In many developing countries like India, despite the widespread recognition of the problem, limited attempts have been made to estimate health impacts related to occupational heat stress and fewer yet to link heat stress with potential productivity losses. This is reflected in the ubiquity of workplaces with limited or no controls to reduce exposures. As a prelude to understanding the feasibility of alternative interventions in different industrial sectors, we present case studies from 10 different industrial units in Tamil Nadu, Chennai, which describe perceptions of occupational heat stress among the workers and supervisors/management.Units were selected from among those who had previously requested an assessment of workplace heat stress exposure at select locations as part of routine industrial hygiene services provided by the investigators. Since the earlier measurements were performed in response to a management request, all units were revisited to generate a simple job and process profile using checklists in order to understand the overall heat exposure situation in the concerned unit. This was followed by a simple questionnaire administration to a small subsample of employees to evaluate the perceptions of workers and supervisors/management. Finally, we retrieved available quantitative data from previous measurements of heat stress at these units to correlate prevalence of exposures with respective perceptions.Results indicate that the existing level of controls may not be sufficient for managing work-related heat stress in any of the sectors studied, with wide variations in perceived risks. There was a noticeable disconnect between worker's perceptions and their ability to secure workplace improvements related to heat stress from the management. Wider availability of engineering and administrative controls in the industries may be facilitated by monitoring worker discomfort, disability, and performance in more intensive ways so that the top management is able to justify the associated cost benefits.Given the potential implications of future climate change related increases in ambient heat stress that are likely to translate into workplace exposures in developing country settings, concerted efforts are needed to integrate exposure assessments with assessments of productivity as well as health impacts. This will likely build the momentum for much needed interventions for large worker populations in the developing world. PMID:21139999

  3. Case studies on heat stress related perceptions in different industrial sectors in southern India

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Ramalingam, Ayyappan; Dasu, Venkatesan; Stephen, Jeremiah Chinnadurai; Sivaperumal, Mohan Raj; Kumarasamy, Deepan; Mukhopadhyay, Krishnendu; Ghosh, Santu; Sambandam, Sankar

    2010-01-01

    Linkages between thermal loads and its physiological consequences have been widely studied in non-tropical developed country settings. In many developing countries like India, despite the widespread recognition of the problem, limited attempts have been made to estimate health impacts related to occupational heat stress and fewer yet to link heat stress with potential productivity losses. This is reflected in the ubiquity of workplaces with limited or no controls to reduce exposures. As a prelude to understanding the feasibility of alternative interventions in different industrial sectors, we present case studies from 10 different industrial units in Tamil Nadu, Chennai, which describe perceptions of occupational heat stress among the workers and supervisors/management. Units were selected from among those who had previously requested an assessment of workplace heat stress exposure at select locations as part of routine industrial hygiene services provided by the investigators. Since the earlier measurements were performed in response to a management request, all units were revisited to generate a simple job and process profile using checklists in order to understand the overall heat exposure situation in the concerned unit. This was followed by a simple questionnaire administration to a small subsample of employees to evaluate the perceptions of workers and supervisors/management. Finally, we retrieved available quantitative data from previous measurements of heat stress at these units to correlate prevalence of exposures with respective perceptions. Results indicate that the existing level of controls may not be sufficient for managing work-related heat stress in any of the sectors studied, with wide variations in perceived risks. There was a noticeable disconnect between worker's perceptions and their ability to secure workplace improvements related to heat stress from the management. Wider availability of engineering and administrative controls in the industries may be facilitated by monitoring worker discomfort, disability, and performance in more intensive ways so that the top management is able to justify the associated cost benefits. Given the potential implications of future climate change related increases in ambient heat stress that are likely to translate into workplace exposures in developing country settings, concerted efforts are needed to integrate exposure assessments with assessments of productivity as well as health impacts. This will likely build the momentum for much needed interventions for large worker populations in the developing world. PMID:21139999

  4. Trends for nanotechnology development in China, Russia, and India

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pengzhu; Li, Xin; Chen, Hsinchun; Dang, Yan; Larson, Catherine; Roco, Mihail C.; Wang, Xianwen

    2009-01-01

    China, Russia, and India are playing an increasingly important role in global nanotechnology research and development (R&D). This paper comparatively inspects the paper and patent publications by these three countries in the Thomson Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI) database and United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) database (1976–2007). Bibliographic, content map, and citation network analyses are used to evaluate country productivity, dominant research topics, and knowledge diffusion patterns. Significant and consistent growth in nanotechnology papers are noted in the three countries. Between 2000 and 2007, the average annual growth rate was 31.43% in China, 11.88% in Russia, and 33.51% in India. During the same time, the growth patterns were less consistent in patent publications: the corresponding average rates are 31.13, 10.41, and 5.96%. The three countries’ paper impact measured by the average number of citations has been lower than the world average. However, from 2000 to 2007, it experienced rapid increases of about 12.8 times in China, 8 times in India, and 1.6 times in Russia. The Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), and the Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT) were the most productive institutions in paper publication, with 12,334, 6,773, and 1,831 papers, respectively. The three countries emphasized some common research topics such as “Quantum dots,” “Carbon nanotubes,” “Atomic force microscopy,” and “Scanning electron microscopy,” while Russia and India reported more research on nano-devices as compared with China. CAS, RAS, and IIT played key roles in the respective domestic knowledge diffusion. PMID:21170128

  5. A brief history of vaccines & vaccination in India

    PubMed Central

    Lahariya, Chandrakant

    2014-01-01

    The challenges faced in delivering lifesaving vaccines to the targeted beneficiaries need to be addressed from the existing knowledge and learning from the past. This review documents the history of vaccines and vaccination in India with an objective to derive lessons for policy direction to expand the benefits of vaccination in the country. A brief historical perspective on smallpox disease and preventive efforts since antiquity is followed by an overview of 19th century efforts to replace variolation by vaccination, setting up of a few vaccine institutes, cholera vaccine trial and the discovery of plague vaccine. The early twentieth century witnessed the challenges in expansion of smallpox vaccination, typhoid vaccine trial in Indian army personnel, and setting up of vaccine institutes in almost each of the then Indian States. In the post-independence period, the BCG vaccine laboratory and other national institutes were established; a number of private vaccine manufacturers came up, besides the continuation of smallpox eradication effort till the country became smallpox free in 1977. The Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI) (1978) and then Universal Immunization Programme (UIP) (1985) were launched in India. The intervening events since UIP till India being declared non-endemic for poliomyelitis in 2012 have been described. Though the preventive efforts from diseases were practiced in India, the reluctance, opposition and a slow acceptance of vaccination have been the characteristic of vaccination history in the country. The operational challenges keep the coverage inequitable in the country. The lessons from the past events have been analysed and interpreted to guide immunization efforts. PMID:24927336

  6. Moving from Rabies Research to Rabies Control: Lessons from India

    PubMed Central

    Kakkar, Manish; Venkataramanan, Vidya; Krishnan, Sampath; Chauhan, Ritu Singh; Abbas, Syed Shahid

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite the availability of effective interventions and public recognition of the severity of the problem, rabies continues to suffer neglect by programme planners in India and other low and middle income countries. We investigate whether this state of ‘policy impasse’ is due to, at least in part, the research community not catering to the information needs of the policy makers. Methods & Findings Our objective was to review the research output on rabies from India and examine its alignment with national policy priorities. A systematic literature review of all rabies research articles published from India between 2001 and 2011 was conducted. The distribution of conducted research was compared to the findings of an earlier research prioritization exercise. It was found that a total of 93 research articles were published from India since 2001, out of which 61% consisted of laboratory based studies focussing on rabies virus. Animals were the least studied group, comprising only 8% of the research output. One third of the articles were published in three journals focussing on vaccines and infectious disease epidemiology and the top 4 institutions (2 each from the animal and human health sectors) collectively produced 49% of the national research output. Biomedical research related to development of new interventions dominated the total output as opposed to the identified priority domains of socio-politic-economic research, basic epidemiological research and research to improve existing interventions. Conclusion The paper highlights the gaps between rabies research and policy needs, and makes the case for developing a strategic research agenda that focusses on rabies control as an expected outcome. PMID:22880139

  7. Literature based species occurrence data of birds of northeast India

    PubMed Central

    Narwade, Sujit; Kalra, Mohit; Jagdish, Rajkumar; Varier, Divya; Satpute, Sagar; Khan, Noor; Talukdar, Gautam; Mathur, V. B.; Vasudevan, Karthikeyan; Pundir, Dinesh Singh; Chavan, Vishwas; Sood, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The northeast region of India is one of the world’s most significant biodiversity hotspots. One of the richest bird areas in India, it is an important route for migratory birds and home to many endemic bird species. This paper describes a literature-based dataset of species occurrences of birds of northeast India. The occurrence records documented in the dataset are distributed across eleven states of India, viz.: Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. The geospatial scope of the dataset represents 24 to 29 degree North latitude and 78 to 94 degree East longitude, and it comprises over 2400 occurrence records. These records have been collated from scholarly literature published between1915 and 2008, especially from the Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society (JBNHS). The temporal scale of the dataset represents bird observations recorded between 1909 and 2007. The dataset has been developed by employing MS Excel. The key elements in the database are scientific name, taxonomic classification, temporal and geospatial details including geo-coordinate precision, data collector, basis of record and primary source of the data record. The temporal and geospatial quality of more than 50% of the data records has been enhanced retrospectively. Where possible, data records are annotated with geospatial coordinate precision to the nearest minute. This dataset is being constantly updated with the addition of new data records, and quality enhancement of documented occurrences. The dataset can be used in species distribution and niche modeling studies. It is planned to expand the scope of the dataset to collate bird species occurrences across the Indian peninsula. PMID:22207820

  8. Empowering the people: Development of an HIV peer education model for low literacy rural communities in India

    PubMed Central

    Van Rompay, Koen KA; Madhivanan, Purnima; Rafiq, Mirriam; Krupp, Karl; Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Selvam, Durai

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite ample evidence that HIV has entered the general population, most HIV awareness programs in India continue to neglect rural areas. Low HIV awareness and high stigma, fueled by low literacy, seasonal migration, gender inequity, spatial dispersion, and cultural taboos pose extra challenges to implement much-needed HIV education programs in rural areas. This paper describes a peer education model developed to educate and empower low-literacy communities in the rural district of Perambalur (Tamil Nadu, India). Methods From January to December 2005, six non-governmental organizations (NGO's) with good community rapport collaborated to build and pilot-test an HIV peer education model for rural communities. The program used participatory methods to train 20 NGO field staff (Outreach Workers), 102 women's self-help group (SHG) leaders, and 52 barbers to become peer educators. Cartoon-based educational materials were developed for low-literacy populations to convey simple, comprehensive messages on HIV transmission, prevention, support and care. In addition, street theatre cultural programs highlighted issues related to HIV and stigma in the community. Results The program is estimated to have reached over 30 000 villagers in the district through 2051 interactive HIV awareness programs and one-on-one communication. Outreach workers (OWs) and peer educators distributed approximately 62 000 educational materials and 69 000 condoms, and also referred approximately 2844 people for services including voluntary counselling and testing (VCT), care and support for HIV, and diagnosis and treatment of sexually-transmitted infections (STI). At least 118 individuals were newly diagnosed as persons living with HIV (PLHIV); 129 PLHIV were referred to the Government Hospital for Thoracic Medicine (in Tambaram) for extra medical support. Focus group discussions indicate that the program was well received in the communities, led to improved health awareness, and also provided the peer educators with increased social status. Conclusion Using established networks (such as community-based organizations already working on empowerment of women) and training women's SHG leaders and barbers as peer educators is an effective and culturally appropriate way to disseminate comprehensive information on HIV/AIDS to low-literacy communities. Similar models for reaching and empowering vulnerable populations should be expanded to other rural areas. PMID:18423006

  9. Coastal Zone Management program in Kerala, India

    SciTech Connect

    Mallik, T.K. (Centre for Earth Science Studies, Kerala (India))

    1987-01-01

    The physiographic setting of Kerala State, India, is unique. A narrow strip of the state contains a chain of lagoons and estuaries with a very high population density. The strip is subjected to severe coastal erosion during the monsoon season. A number of other problems are also associated with the coastal zone of Kerala, such as irregular dredging of black sands from the beaches, coastal flooding, hazards due to developmental activities, etc. A Coastal Zone Management Program was developed and administered by the Centre for Earth Science Studies, Trivandrum, to provide efficient coastal management and solve some of these problems. Various programs included under the Coastal Zone Management are the following: (1) Sedimentological, bathymetric, and geochemical studies of lagoons and estuaries; (2) monitoring of planimetric changes of beaches by profiling beaches during different seasons all along the coast; (3) studies of the nature, distribution, and provenance of black sand deposits from beaches; (4) studies of the peculiar occurrence of patchy, calm, turbid areas of water in the offshore containing high suspended sediment concentrate known as mud banks; (5) wave studies involving continuous monitoring of wave data all along the coast in order to understand wave climate and erosion; (6) sediment movement studies using fluorescent tracer to aid in the development of ports and harbors; (7) studies on various aspects of offshore. The outlines of the various programs discussed in this article will help other states and countries to develop a coastal zone management program according to the needs of the state or country and the nature of the problem occurring in the coastal zone.

  10. Coastal zone management programme in Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallik, Tapas K.

    1987-06-01

    The physiographic setting of Kerala State, India, is unique. A narrow strip of the state contains a chain of lagoons and estuaries with a very high population density. The strip is subjected to severe coastal erosion during the monsoon season. A number of other problems are also associated with the coastal zone of Kerala, such as irregular dredging of black sands from the beaches, coastal flooding, hazards due to developmental activities, etc. A Coastal Zone Management Programme was developed and administered by the Centre for Earth Science Studies, Trivandrum, to provide efficient coastal management and solve some of these problems. Various programmes included under the Coastal Zone Management are the following: (1) Sedimentological, bathymetric, and geochemical studies of lagoons and estuaries; (2) monitoring of planimetric changes of beaches by profiling beaches during different seasons all along the coast; (3) studies of the nature, distribution, and provenance of black sand deposits from beaches; (4) studies of the peculiar occurrence of patchy, calm, turbid areas of water in the offshore containing high suspended sediment concentrate known as mud banks; (5) wave studies involving continuous monitoring of wave data all along the coast in order to understand wave climate and erosion; (6) sediment movement studies using fluorescent tracer to aid in the development of ports and harbors; (7) studies on various aspects of offshore. The outlines of the various programmes discussed in this article will help other states and countries to develop a coastal zone management programme according to the needs of the state or country and the nature of the problem occurring in the coastal zone.

  11. World bank EMCP malaria project in Orissa, India — A field reality

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Rajan R; Kumar, Ravi K

    2011-01-01

    Background: Under the National Vector Borne Disease Control Program, the Enhanced Malaria Control Project (EMCP) with World Bank assistance was implemented in India, in the eastern state of Orissa. Aims: This article tries to analyze the possible reasons for the poor performance of EMCP in a few states of India. Settings and Design: The eastern state of India is taken as a case study for looking into systemic, human resource, and logistics related issues that could explain the poor performance of EMCP in a few states of India. Materials and Methods: Field visits were made to some selected EMCP areas in the state of Orissa. Operational issues-related implementation of various components of the project were scrutinized. Statistical analysis: Not Applicable. Results: While the project was highly successful in a few states of India, it had limited success in some states. It was learnt that the honorarium meant for Fever Treatment depot [FTD] work was divided among all the malaria workers. In high-risk areas, presumptive radical treatment was being carried on by malaria workers for every case of fever. Using Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) in such areas seemed to have no relevance. The laboratory technician ignored malaria work, due to a high work load and no additional incentive. In the Primary Health Centers (PHCs) the Medical officers had either not visited the village under indoor residual spray or symbolically visited only five to six houses. Cement tanks had to be built for larvivorus fish breeding. However, they had not been mad. Conclusions: The success of a public health program is dependent more on project implementation, management, monitoring, and evaluation of project activities than the volume of financial resource allocation. PMID:23507915

  12. Energy audits reveal significant energy savings potential in India`s commercial air-conditioned building sector

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, G.; Presny, D.; Fafard, C. [Resource Management Associates of Madison, Inc., WI (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) began its Energy Management Consultation and Training (EMCAT) project in India. The EMCAT project began in 1991 as a six-year (1991--1997) project to improve India`s technological and management capabilities for both the supply of energy and its efficient end use. The end-use component of EMCAT aims for efficient energy utilization by industries and other sectors such as the commercial sector. A specific task under the end-use component was to conduct energy surveys/audits in high energy-use sectors, such as air-conditioned (AC) buildings in the commercial sector, and to identify investment opportunities that could improve energy utilization. This article presents results of pre-investment surveys that were conducted at four commercial air-conditioned facilities in 1995. The four facilities included two luxury hotels in New Delhi, and one luxury hotel and a private hospital in Bombay. Energy conservation opportunities (ECOs) were explored in three major energy-using systems in these buildings: air-conditioning, lighting, and steam and domestic hot water systems.

  13. History of rocketry in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasant, Gowarikar; Suresh, B. N.

    2009-12-01

    The Indian Space programme took birth on November 21, 1963, with the launch of Nike-Apache, an American sounding rocket from the shores of Thumba near Thiruvananthapuram on the west coast of India. From a family of operational sounding rockets known as the Rohini Sounding Rockets, India's launch vehicles have now grown up through SLV-3 and Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle (ASLV) to the current gigantic satellite launchers, PSLV and Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV). Though we had failures in the initial launches of SLV-3, ASLV and PSLV, these failures gave Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) a thorough and in depth understanding of the nuances of launch vehicle technology that later led to successful missions. An entirely new dimension was added to the Indian space programme when a space capsule was recovered very precisely after it had orbited the Earth for 12 days. The future for launch vehicles in ISRO looks bright with the GSLV MKIII, which is currently under development and the pursuit of cutting edge technologies such as reusable launch vehicles and air-breathing propulsion.

  14. The isolation of peste des petits ruminants virus from Northern India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. P. Nanda; A. Chatterjee; A. K. Purohit; A. Diallo; K. Innui; R. N. Sharma; G. Libeau; J. A. Thevasagayam; A. Brüning; R. P. Kitching; J. Anderson; T. Barrett; W. P. Taylor

    1996-01-01

    The aetiological agent responsible for an epizootic of a rinderpest-like disease afflicting sheep and goats in three states of northern India was confirmed as peste des petits ruminants virus. To differentiate the virus from rinderpest a number of diagnostic tests were used, including immunocapture ELISA, specific oligonucleotide primers in a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence with virus specific monoclonal

  15. Chemical characteristics of groundwater in parts of the Gambhir River basin, Bharatpur District, Rajasthan, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Umar; A. Absar

    2003-01-01

    Twenty-nine dug well samples have been collected from the Gambhir River basin in the Bharatpur District of Rajasthan State in India for hydrogeochemical study to understand the sources of dissolved ions and assess the chemical quality of the water. Broadly speaking, the groundwaters have a chemical composition within the permissible limits suggested for drinking water. Nitrate is higher than the

  16. Observations on the foliar nematode, Aphelenchoides besseyi, infecting tuberose and rice in India

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The foliar nematode Aphelenchoides besseyi causes white tip disease in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and floral malady in tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.). This nematode is widely distributed in the rice fields of many states of India, including West Bengal (WB), Andhra Pradesh (AP), Madhya Pradesh (MP) a...

  17. Phytophagous mites – a potential threat to medicinal plants in Kerala, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kinathi Sheela; Niravath Ramani

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of a brief survey of mites infesting medicinal plants in the Kannur district of Kerala state in south India. Six species, damaging five species of important medicinal plants, were found. These species included Tetranychus urticae Koch (Tetranychidae), Brevipalpus phoenicis Geij. 1939 (Tenuipalpidae) and four Eriophyid species, Paratetra murrayae ChannaBasavanna 1966, Anthocoptes vitexae Mohanasundaram 1981, Aceriasp.

  18. Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii from Eucalyptus camaldulensis in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ARUNALOKE CHAKRABARTI; M. JATANA; P. KUMAR; L. CHATHA; A. KAUSHAL; ARVIND A. PADHYE

    1997-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii has an ecological association with five Eucalyptus species: E. blakelyi, E. camaldulensis, E. gomphocephala, E. rudis, and E. tereticornis. After human infections due to C. neoformans var. gattii were diagnosed in the states of Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, and Karnataka, India, a study was un- dertaken to investigate the association of C. neoformans var. gattii with Indian

  19. Cladonia singhii and other new reports of Cladonia from the Eastern Himalayan Region of India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teuvo Ahti; P. K. Dixit; K. P. Singh; G. P. Sinha

    2002-01-01

    Abstract:A new species, Cladonia singhii Ahti & Dixit (type from the state of Arunachal Pradesh), is described. A further seven Cladonia species, C. corniculata, C. kanewskii, C. laii, C. luteoalba, C. mauritiana, C. mongolica and C. rei, are reported as new to the recent checklist of lichens of the Indian subcontinent. The presence of C. cartilaginea in India is confirmed.

  20. Level of Formalisation of Human Resource Management in Small and Medium Enterprises in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manjari Singh; Neharika Vohra

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the current state of management of human resources in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in India is explored. The owner-managers play important roles in managing human resources in SMEs. The direct involvement of the owner manager also leads to ad hoc and informal HR practices. However, formal HRM systems can help increase performance. This study specifically examines

  1. Impact of Physical, Psychological, and Sexual Violence on Social Adjustment of School Children in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deb, Sibnath; Walsh, Kerryann

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to understand the pervasiveness and impact of physical, psychological, and sexual violence on the social adjustment of Grade 8 and 9 school children in the state of Tripura, India. The study participants, 160 boys and 160 girls, were randomly selected from classes in eight English and Bengali medium schools in Agartala city,…

  2. Heavy metal accumulation by three species of mosses in Shillong, North-Eastern India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abhik Gupta

    1995-01-01

    Comparisons were made of the accumulation of cadmium, copper, manganese, lead, and zinc in Plagiothecium denticulatum, Bryum argenteum and Sphagnum sp. in Shillong, Meghalaya State, Northeastern India. Samples of P. denticulatum and B. argenteum were collected inside Shillong city (urban) and its immediately adjacent outskirts (suburban), while Sphagnum sp. was collected from a suburban site only. Lead and copper levels

  3. Gestures of India: A Study of Emblems among Punjabi Residents of Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Christopher R.

    Based on the theoretical concepts and research methodology of Paul Ekman and Wallace Friesen, a study examined the emblems (gestures with exact verbal meanings) of Punjabi (India) immigrants in Canada. A limited repertoire of 63 emblems was elicited from nine Punjabi informants and then shown to nine Canadian citizens and one United States

  4. Estimating Transfer Multiplier using Spending on Rural Development Programmes in India

    E-print Network

    Bandyopadhyay, Antar

    Estimating Transfer Multiplier using Spending on Rural Development Programmes in India Girish N activity in rural areas. This paper estimates the multiplicative effects of rural transfer spending Programmes implemented after 1980, we first construct a measure of state-wise total rural transfer spending

  5. A shared Y-chromosomal heritage between Muslims and Hindus in India.

    PubMed

    Gutala, Ramana; Carvalho-Silva, Denise R; Jin, Li; Yngvadottir, Bryndis; Avadhanula, Vasanthi; Nanne, Khaja; Singh, Lalji; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2006-11-01

    Arab forces conquered the Indus Delta region in 711 AD: and, although a Muslim state was established there, their influence was barely felt in the rest of South Asia at that time. By the end of the tenth century, Central Asian Muslims moved into India from the northwest and expanded throughout the subcontinent. Muslim communities are now the largest minority religion in India, comprising more than 138 million people in a predominantly Hindu population of over one billion. It is unclear whether the Muslim expansion in India was a purely cultural phenomenon or had a genetic impact on the local population. To address this question from a male perspective, we typed eight microsatellite loci and 16 binary markers from the Y chromosome in 246 Muslims from Andhra Pradesh, and compared them to published data on 4,204 males from East Asia, Central Asia, other parts of India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Iran, the Middle East, Turkey, Egypt and Morocco. We find that the Muslim populations in general are genetically closer to their non-Muslim geographical neighbors than to other Muslims in India, and that there is a highly significant correlation between genetics and geography (but not religion). Our findings indicate that, despite the documented practice of marriage between Muslim men and Hindu women, Islamization in India did not involve large-scale replacement of Hindu Y chromosomes. The Muslim expansion in India was predominantly a cultural change and was not accompanied by significant gene flow, as seen in other places, such as China and Central Asia. PMID:16951948

  6. Midwives of India: missing in action.

    PubMed

    Mavalankar, Dileep; Sankara Raman, Parvathy; Vora, Kranti

    2011-10-01

    India had well-trained European and indigenous midwives during the time of British rule. The strong midwifery profession lost its importance after independence for various reasons. As a result maternal mortality remains high in India. This paper analyses reasons for the dilution in the midwifery profession, which include amended regulations, lack of social or political priorities, and change in health programme directions. This paper also presents a framework for midwifery-based maternal health services. This analysis shows that there are local as well as internationally supported efforts to improve midwifery in India. PMID:20708311

  7. Floods in Northeast India and Bangladesh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    For the past two weeks floods have ravaged Bangladesh (center) and eastern India (draped around Bangladesh to the north), killing over 50 people and displacing hundreds of thousands from their homes. These false-color images acquired on July 15 and 16, 2002, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra satellite show some of the worst flooding. The dark brown, swollen river in the images (top right on July 16; center on July 15) is the Brahmaputra River, which flows through the middle of the Indian state of Assam at the foothills of the Himalaya Mountains. A large, black area south of the Brahmaputra (partially obscured by clouds) shows flooded areas in Bangladesh. Floods of this magnitude have been known to occur in southern Bangladesh and are caused by storms washing seawater over coastal regions. This year, however, unrelenting torrential rains across the entire eastern sub-continent gave rise to the deluge. The massive amounts of rainwater that fell on Nepal and Assam drained into an already waterlogged eastern Bangladesh. Normally, the Brahmaputra River and its tributaries would resemble a tangle of thin lines, and the large black patches in Bangladesh would be the color of the rest of the land surface, tan. In these false-color images, land is tan, and clouds are pink and white. Water comes across as black or dark brown, depending on its sediment level, with clearer water being closer to black. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  8. Leprosy in post-elimination era in India: difficult journey ahead.

    PubMed

    Singal, Archana; Sonthalia, Sidharth

    2013-11-01

    Leprosy is a chronic inflammatory disease of skin and peripheral nerves. Elimination of leprosy as a public health problem was reached at the global level in the year 2000 and by India on 31(st) December, 2005. Thereafter, leprosy services in India have been integrated with General Health-Care System resulting in reduced focus and funds. Sustaining the gains made so far in controlling leprosy is a big challenge and there is no time for complacency. Pockets of high endemicity with prevalence rate of > 1 still exist in many states. Our data from a tertiary care center indicates poor epidemiological control and ongoing disease transmission. To combat this, dermatologists all over India should continue to play a central role in capacity building and training of undergraduate and post-graduate students, medical officers, and field workers. PMID:24249895

  9. SELCO: A model for solar rural electrification in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hande, H. Harish

    1999-11-01

    The following thesis presents the concept of a Rural Energy Service Company in India, known as SELCO. The model is being set up as a sustainable proposition for the implementation of solar photovoltaics as a viable alternative to provide reliable home lighting in the rural areas of India. The SELCO approach has already achieved noteworthy social and commercial results. Institutional, policy and operational problems have long plagued the rural electrification programs in India, resulting in thousands of villages without access to electricity. SELCO is a solar energy service company operating in Southern India since 1995, focusing on the enormous untapped market for home lighting where thousands of households have no access to electricity and severe power shortages face those already connected to the electric grid. The Company has installed nearly 2,000 solar home lighting systems. From a modest two employees company in 1995, it has grown to 35 in 1997 and from one office to eight. The hypothesis to be tested in this study is that in rural India, in a market not subsidized by the government, a solar service company with available loans from local banks and cooperatives and with sales, installation, and maintenance personnel in the villages can be successful in introducing photovoltaic systems to provide basic amenities such as lighting and water pumping for the improvement of the quality of life, public health, and the environment. The initial success of SELCO lends considerable evidence to the acceptance of the hypothesis. To accomplish its mission, SELCO works with commercial, retail, and rural development banks with large rural branch networks to stimulate loans to SELCO's customers based on a standard set of attractive financing terms. SELCO through its successful model has convinced the policy makers that a way to increase rural families' access to consumer financing for solar home lighting systems is through the existing financial network available in the country. Private investments, loans, and conditional grants totaling approximately US$ 650,000 have provided the working capital to date. A successful SELCO project would serve as a model for the world. The project would serve as a model not only for the Indian Government, the State Electricity Boards, and other Indian companies, but for the bulk of the world's utilities that are finding it difficult to electrify the vast majority of their rural service territories.

  10. The British Museum: Ancient India

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Ancient India Web site from the British Museum is designed especially for middle schoolers and teachers, but all ages will enjoy exploring. There are six chapters: Buddha, Geography, Hinduism, Indus Valley, Time, and Writing; each with divisions entitled Story, Explore, and Challenge. Story in the Buddha chapter is the life of the Buddha; Explore under Hinduism features trading card-sized images of 16 Hindu gods and short descriptions; and the Geography Challenge is to plan a pilgrimage to see holy sites of the Buddha's life, traveling on foot. Other fun sections include the Writing section challenge, where students decipher ancient Indian writing, and the interactive timelines in the Time chapter. Throughout the site, clicking linked words in the text pops open a glossary with definitions of difficult terms.

  11. An alternative to India ink stain.

    PubMed

    Ibembe, Isaac Nicholas; Wiggin, Timothy Roger

    2015-07-01

    Accessing India ink in rural Uganda is difficult and costly. An alternative stain was sought to assist in microbiological diagnoses of cryptococcal infections in immunosuppressed patients with meningitis. Mascara proved to be an excellent and cheap alternative. PMID:25999353

  12. Diabetes mellitus: Trends in northern India

    PubMed Central

    Gutch, Manish; Razi, Syed Mohd; Kumar, Sukriti; Gupta, Keshav Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is becoming a global health issue with more than 80% diabetics living in developing countries. India accounts for 62.4 million diabetics (2011). Indian Council of Medical Research India Diabetes Study (ICMR-INDIAB) study showed highest weighted prevalence rate in the north India among all studied regions. Diabetes in north India has many peculiarities in all aspects from risk factors to control programmers. North Indians are becoming more prone for diabetes and dyslipidemia because rapid westernization of living style and diet due rapid migration to metropolitan cities for employment. North Indian diabetes is plagued with gender bias against females, poor quality of health services, myths, and lack of disease awareness compounded with small number of prevention and awareness programmers that too are immature to counteract the growing pandemic. PMID:25285295

  13. Empirical essays on firm behavior in India

    E-print Network

    Ryan, Nicholas (Nicholas James)

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, I study the behavior of industrial firms in India in the electricity market and with respect to locational choice and environmental regulation. In the first chapter, I study the competitive effects of ...

  14. 2012 Summer of Service Kolkata, India

    E-print Network

    2012 Summer of Service Kolkata, India Dan Lee For our Summer of Service, Rani Berry, Tina Ramineni was very special to me because it was essentially my "Indian" version of morning coffee. It prepared me

  15. Emerging Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Activities in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R N Jayaraj

    2011-01-01

    Presently the installed capacity of electricity generation in India is 160 GWe. The integrated ene rgy policy aims at an installed capacity of 778 GWe by 2031-32 to achieve per capita electricity consumption of 2700 kWh\\/year as against the 700 kWh\\/year. The share of nuclear power in India is around 3% presently. The increase in installed capacity is possible by

  16. Platforms will handle sour streams offshore India

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-07-21

    The recently installed Panna facilities, offshore the west coast of India, are designed to produce 50,000 b/d of highly paraffinic, sour oil, 180 MM-scfd of sour gas, and 100,000 bw/d. The field lies in about 154 ft of water. Enron Oil and Gas India Ltd. is operator. Enercon Engineering Inc., Houston, provided detailed design, procurement, and inspection services for the development that includes installation of six platforms and 22 pipelines.

  17. Socio-economic inequality of immunization coverage in India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    To our knowledge, the present study provides a first time assessment of the contributions of socioeconomic determinants of immunization coverage in India using the recent National Family Health Survey data. Measurement of socioeconomic inequalities in health and health care, and understanding the determinants of such inequalities in terms of their contributions, are critical for health intervention strategies and for achieving equity in health care. A decomposition approach is applied to quantify the contributions from socio-demographic factors to inequality in immunization coverage. The results reveal that poor household economic status, mother's illiteracy, per capita state domestic product and proportion of illiterate at the state level is systematically related to 97% of predictable socioeconomic inequalities in full immunization coverage at the national level. These patterns of evidence suggest the need for immunization strategies targeted at different states and towards certain socioeconomic determinants as pointed out above in order to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in immunization coverage. JEL Classification: I10, I12 PMID:22828353

  18. Antimalarial plants of northeast India: An overview.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Rama; Deb, Sourabh; Sharma, B K

    2012-01-01

    The need for an alternative drug for malaria initiated intensive efforts for developing new antimalarials from indigenous plants. The information from different tribal communities of northeast India along with research papers, including books, journals and documents of different universities and institutes of northeast India was collected for information on botanical therapies and plant species used for malaria. Sixty-eight plant species belonging to 33 families are used by the people of northeast India for the treatment of malaria. Six plant species, namely, Alstonia scholaris, Coptis teeta, Crotolaria occulta, Ocimum sanctum, Polygala persicariaefolia, Vitex peduncularis, have been reported by more than one worker from different parts of northeast India. The species reported to be used for the treatment of malaria were either found around the vicinity of their habitation or in the forest area of northeast India. The most frequently used plant parts were leaves (33%), roots (31%), and bark and whole plant (12%). The present study has compiled and enlisted the antimalarial plants of northeast India, which would help future workers to find out the suitable antimalarial plants by thorough study. PMID:22529674

  19. Recommended vaccines for international travelers to India.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ramesh; Khanna, Pardeep; Chawla, Suraj

    2014-06-18

    India's tourism industry generated 6.6% of the nation's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) during 2012. International travel to India is predicted to grow at an average annual rate of ~8% over the next decade. The number of foreign tourists has increased by 9% to 5.8 million. Approximately 8% of travelers to developing countries require medical care during or after travel; the main diagnoses are vaccine-preventable diseases. Travelers to India can be exposed to various infectious diseases; water-borne, water-related, and zoonotic diseases may be imported to India where the disease is not endemic. The World Health Organization (WHO) emphasizes that all international travelers should be up to date with routine vaccinations. The recommended vaccinations for travelers to India vary according to the traveler's age, immunization history, existing medical conditions, duration, legal requirements for entry into countries being visited, travelers preferences, and values. Travelers should consult with a doctor so that there is sufficient time for completion of optimal vaccination schedules. No matter where traveling, one should be aware of potential exposure to certain organisms that can cause severely illnesses, even death. There is no doubt that vaccines have reduced or virtually eliminated many diseases that killed or severely disabled children and adults just a few generations ago. Thus, travelers must take recommended vaccines per schedule before traveling to India. PMID:24940884

  20. Recommended vaccines for international travelers to India.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ramesh; Khanna, Pardeep; Chawla, Suraj

    2014-06-18

    India's tourism industry generated 6.6% of the nation's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) during 2012. International travel to India is predicted to grow at an average annual rate of ~8% over the next decade. The number of foreign tourists has increased by 9% to 5.8 million. Approximately 8% of travelers to developing countries require medical care during or after travel; the main diagnoses are vaccine-preventable diseases. Travelers to India can be exposed to various infectious diseases; water-borne, water-related, and zoonotic diseases may be imported to India where the disease is not endemic. The World Health Organization (WHO) emphasizes that all international travelers should be up to date with routine vaccinations. The recommended vaccinations for travelers to India vary according to the traveler's age, immunization history, existing medical conditions, duration, legal requirements for entry into countries being visited, travelers preferences, and values. Travelers should consult with a doctor so that there is sufficient time for completion of optimal vaccination schedules. No matter where traveling, one should be aware of potential exposure to certain organisms that can cause severely illnesses, even death. There is no doubt that vaccines have reduced or virtually eliminated many diseases that killed or severely disabled children and adults just a few generations ago. Thus, travelers must take recommended vaccines per schedule before traveling to India. PMID:25483659

  1. India: HIV spreads despite World Bank project.

    PubMed

    1999-05-17

    According to estimates of India's Parliamentary Standing Committee on Dreaded Diseases, 25% of all people infected with HIV worldwide live in India. This statistic was presented in Parliament even as another World Bank AIDS prevention project worth $250,000 was launched. This new project follows the bank's $84 million AIDS control project which ran from 1992 to 1997. India could face a major public health crisis with severe socioeconomic implications. UN agencies estimate that an HIV/AIDS epidemic could cost India $11 billion, or 5% of its total national income, by 2000 in health care and lost economic productivity. However, these latest UNAIDS calculations are based upon the assumption that only 4 million people in the country are currently infected with HIV. The World Bank funds to combat AIDS are provided to the National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) which invests it on information and communication activities, as well as the importation of expensive blood banking equipment which is mostly unused due to the country's lack of basic infrastructure like a steady power supply. India should instead follow the example of Thailand which successfully integrated HIV/AIDS management into its primary health care (PHC) system, for the types of HIV/AIDS control programs being promoted by donors cannot work in India in the absence of an effective PHC system. PMID:12295211

  2. On reproductive justice: 'domestic violence', rights and the law in India.

    PubMed

    Madhok, Sumi; Unnithan, Maya; Heitmeyer, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we draw attention to the difficulty of accessing reproductive rights in the absence of effective state and legal guarantees for gender equity and citizenship, and argue that if reproductive rights are to be meaningful interventions on the ground, they must be reframed in terms of reproductive justice. Drawing on multi-sited ethnographic fieldwork conducted in Rajasthan, Northwest India, we track two dynamic legal aid interventions on reproductive health rights in India, concerned with domestic violence and maternal mortality respectively, that have sought to fill this existing gap between ineffective state policies and the rhetoric on reproductive rights. Through an analysis of these interventions, we propose that requirements of reproductive justice cannot be met through discrete or private, albeit creative legal initiatives, pursued by individuals or civil society organisations but must involve comprehensive policies as well as strategies and alliances between state, non-state, transnational organisations and progressive political groups. PMID:24927257

  3. Performance Evaluation of Reverse Osmosis Desalination Plants for Rural Water Supply in a Developing Country – A Case Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. Kelkar; V. A. Joshi; M. H. Ansari; U. Manivel

    2003-01-01

    Performance evaluation of two reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plants (DSP) at villages: Melasirupodhu (30 m3 day-1) and Sikkal (50 m3 day-1) in Ramanathpuram district,Tamil Nadu (India) were studied so as to bring out the state-of-art of their operation and maintenance (O&M). Detailedinformation on plant design and engineering, water quality,plant personnel, and cost of O&M was collected for a period ofthree

  4. Discrimination of low-grade magnetite ores using remote sensing techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Rajendran; A. Thirunavukkaraasu; B. Poovalingaganesh; K. Vinod Kumar; G. Bhaskaran

    2007-01-01

    The remote sensing community in geology is widely using the Multispectral Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data which has a wider\\u000a choice of spectral bands (six between 0.45 and 2.35 ?m, plus a thermal infrared channel 10.4-12.5 urn). These were evaluated for low-grade magnetite ores mapping over the high-grade\\u000a granulite region of Kanjamalai area of Tamil Nadu state, India. The Fourier

  5. Textile Arts of India, Curriculum Project. Fulbright Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1995 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Barbara

    This interdisciplinary unit focuses on five techniques found in the textile arts of India: tie-dye, embroidery, applique, block printing, and weaving. The unit is designed for students in third through sixth grades but could be adapted to other levels. This unit could be incorporated with a study of India's land, history, and geography. The…

  6. Chinese ELT students in India 59 Chinese ELT students in India

    E-print Network

    Chaudhuri, Sanjay

    learning courses, the Chinese students who come to India are provided a separate course in English that help Chinese students in India learn English in more effective ways, especially through the use. KEYWORDS: English skills, instruction, constructivism, interaction, use of technology tools Introduction

  7. BiotechinIndia Regional Focus: A season of change for India

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    of positioning India as a launch pad of sorts for several biosimilars given their similar- ity to other existing and patents already expired or soon to expire, India may well emerge as the ideal launch pad for biosimilars before their launch elsewhere in the world. This would especially be relevant for biologics

  8. Girls’ higher education in India on the road to inclusiveness: on track but heading where?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rohini SahniV; V. Kalyan Shankar

    The scope of this paper spans from macro-level national and inter-state comparisons to more micro-level intra-state scrutiny\\u000a of systemic fault-lines shaping the contours of girls’ education in India. Post independence, national level indicators have\\u000a been suggestive of greater gender parity. Yet, there is more to inclusiveness of girls in Indian higher education than increasing\\u000a absolute numbers or improving gender ratios.

  9. Tsunami Relief Work - Biopesticide Spray Operations - A Case Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kadarkarai Murugan

    2006-01-01

    Tsunami occurred on 26th December, 2004 and in India more than 8000 people were killed due to the massive attack. The worst affected districts in Tamil Nadu were Viz., Velankanni, Nagapattinam and Cuddalore, Tamil Nadu, India. Official sources said that due to massive death of animals and human beings, the public health has been affected\\/spoiled and it will cause further

  10. Serosurveillance for Japanese encephalitis virus infection among equines in India

    PubMed Central

    Singha, Harisankar; Singh, Birendra K.; Virmani, Nitin; Khurana, Sandip K.; Singh, Raj K.

    2011-01-01

    The seroprevalence of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) among equines was evaluated from January 2006 to December 2009 in 13 different states of India by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and virus neutralization test (VNT). Antibodies against JEV were detected in 327 out of 3,286 (10%) equines with a maximum prevalence reported in the state of Manipur (91.7%) followed by Gujarat (18.5%), Madhya Pradesh (14.4%), and Uttar Pradesh (11.6%). Evidence of JEV infection was observed in equines in Indore (Madhya Pradesh) where a 4-fold or higher rise in antibody titer was observed in 21 out of 34 horses in November 2007 to October 2006. In March 2008, seven of these horses had a subsequent 4-fold rise in JEV antibody titers while this titer decreased in nine animals. JEV-positive horse sera had a JEV/WNV (West Nile virus) ratio over 2.0 according to the HI and/or VNT. These results indicated that JEV is endemic among equines in India. PMID:22122900

  11. A longitudinal study to assess the impact of exercise on clinical, biochemical, and anthropometric parameters among the type 2 diabetes patients of South India

    PubMed Central

    Sukla, Pradeep; Shrivastava, Saurabh RamBihariLal; Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Aim of the study isto assess the scope of physical activity among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients residing in an urban area of SouthIndia. Materials and Methods: A longitudinal interventional study was conducted for a period of 8months (January 2014–August 2014) among patients of T2DM accessing the healthcare services at an Urban Health and Training Center (UHTC) of a Medical College located in Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu. Universal sampling method was employed and all diagnosed T2DM patients attending UHTC during the month of January were enrolled in the study provided they satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Overall 151 participants were considered for final analysis and all of them were subjected to indulge in moderate type of aerobic exercise in the form of brisk walking for 2.5 h spread over a period of 1 week, for the next 6months. Before and after the exercise regimen, cases were subjected to clinical evaluation, measurement of weight and waist circumference, and estimation of fasting and postprandial blood sugar; and the results were compared with the baseline estimates. The associations were tested using paired t-test for continuous (mean ± standard deviation ( SD)) variables. Results: Majority (86, 57%) of the diabetics were from the age group of 40–60 years with a definite female preponderance (82/151) in contrast to males (69/151). A significant reduction in both fasting and postprandial sugar was observed before and after the exercise. However, from the perspective of the weight and waist circumference, although a reduction was observed, the association was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The findings of the present longitudinal study suggest that compliance with moderate type of physical activity can significantly improve the fasting and postprandial blood sugar, apart from reduction in weight of T2DM patients. PMID:25625085

  12. CLEAN HYDROGEN TECHNOLOGY FOR 3-WHEEL TRANSPORTATION IN INDIA

    SciTech Connect

    Krishna Sapru

    2005-11-15

    Hydrogen is a clean burning, non-polluting transportation fuel. It is also a renewable energy carrier that can be produced from non-fossil fuel resources such as solar, wind and biomass. Utilizing hydrogen as an alternative fuel for vehicles will diversify the resources of energy, and reduce dependence on oil in the transportation sector. Additionally, clean burning hydrogen fuel will also alleviate air pollution that is a very severe problem in many parts of world, especially major metropolitan areas in developing countries, such as India and China. In our efforts to foster international collaborations in the research, development, and demonstration of hydrogen technologies, through a USAID/DOE cost-shared project, Energy Conversion Devices, Inc.,(www.ovonic.com) a leading materials and alternative energy company, in collaboration with Bajaj Auto Limited, India's largest three-wheeler taxi manufacturer, has successfully developed and demonstrated prototype hydrogen ICE three-wheelers in the United States and India. ECD's proprietary Ovonic solid-state hydrogen storage technology is utilized on-board to provide a means of compact, low pressure, and safe hydrogen fuel. These prototype hydrogen three-wheelers have demonstrated comparable performance to the original CNG version of the vehicle, achieving a driving range of 130 km. The hydrogen storage system capable of storing 1 kg hydrogen can be refilled to 80% of its capacity in about 15 minutes at a pressure of 300 psi. The prototype vehicles developed under this project have been showcased and made available for test rides to the public at exhibits such as the 16th NHA annual meeting in April 2005, Washington, DC, and the SIAM (Society of Indian Automotive Manufacturers) annual conference in August 2005, New Delhi, India. Passengers have included members of the automotive industry, founders of both ECD and Bajaj, members of the World Bank, the Indian Union Minister for Finance, the President of the Asia Development Bank, members of USAID, USDOE and many other individuals, all of whom have had praise for the vehicle and the technology. The progress made through this phase I work and the importance of hydrogen three-wheelers has also resulted in extensive press coverage by the news media around the world.

  13. Health care and equity in India

    PubMed Central

    Balarajan, Yarlini; Selvaraj, S; Subramanian, S V

    2011-01-01

    India’s health system faces the ongoing challenge of responding to the needs of the most disadvantaged members of Indian society. Despite progress in improving access to health care, inequalities by socioeconomic status, geography and gender continue to persist. This is compounded by high out-of-pocket expenditures, with the rising financial burden of health care falling overwhelming on private households, which account for more than three-quarter of health spending in India. Health expenditures are responsible for more than half of Indian households falling into poverty; the impact of this has been increasing pushing around 39 million Indians into poverty each year. In this paper, we identify key challenges to equity in service delivery, and equity in financing and financial risk protection in India. These include imbalanced resource allocation, limited physical access to quality health services and inadequate human resources for health; high out-of-pocket health expenditures, health spending inflation, and behavioral factors that affect the demand for appropriate health care. Complementing other paper in this Series, we argue for the application of certain principles in the pursuit of equity in health care in India. These are the adoption of equity metrics in monitoring, evaluation and strategic planning, investment in developing a rigorous knowledge-base of health systems research; development of more equity-focused process of deliberative decision-making in health reform, and redefinition of the specific responsibilities and accountabilities of key actors. The implementation of these principles, together with strengthening of public health and primary care services, provide an approach for ensuring more equitable health care for India’s population. PMID:21227492

  14. Suicide in India: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    RANE, Anil; NADKARNI, Abhijit

    2014-01-01

    Background Suicide is an important cause of death in India but estimated suicide rates based on data from India’s National Crime Records Bureau are unreliable. Aim Systematically review existing literature on suicide and the factors associated with suicide in India. Methods PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Global Health, Google Scholar and IndMED were searched using appropriate search terms. The abstracts of relevant papers were independently examined by both authors for possible inclusion. A standardized set of data items were abstracted from the full text of the selected papers. Results Thirty-six papers met inclusion criteria for the analysis. The heterogeneity of sampling procedures and methods of the studies made meta-analysis of the results infeasible. Verbal autopsy studies in several rural locations in India report high suicide rates, from 82 to 95 per 100,000 population – up to 8-fold higher than the official national suicide rates. Suicide rates are highest in persons 20 to 29 years of age. Female suicide rates are higher than male rates in persons under 30 years of age but the opposite is true in those 30 years of age or older. Hanging and ingestion of organophosphate pesticides are the most common methods of suicide. Among women, self-immolation is also a relatively common method of suicide. Low socioeconomic status, mental illness (especially alcohol misuse) and inter-personal difficulties are the factors that are most closely associated with suicide. Conclusion The quality of the information about suicide in India is quite limited, but it is clearly an important and growing public health problem. Compared to suicides in high-income countries, suicide in India is more prevalent in women (particularly young women), is much more likely to involve ingestion of pesticides, is more closely associated with poverty, and is less closely associated with mental illness. PMID:25092952

  15. Deteriorating food security in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milesi, C.; Samanta, A.; Hashimoto, H.; Kumar, K.; Ganguly, S.; Thenkabail, P. S.; Srivastava, A. N.; Nemani, R. R.; Myneni, R. B.

    2009-12-01

    One of the major challenges we face on our planet is increasing agricultural production to meet the dietary requirements of an additional 2.5 billion people by the mid of the century while limiting cropland expansion and other damages to natural resources. This problem is even more so challenging given that nearly all the population growth will take place where the majority of the hungry live today and where ongoing and future climate changes are projected to most negatively impact agricultural production, the semi-arid tropics (SAT). The SAT contain 40% of the global irrigated and rainfed croplands in over 50 developing countries and a growing population of over a billion and half people, many of which live in absolute poverty and strongly depend on agriculture that is constrained by chronic water shortages. Rates of food grain production in many of the countries of the SAT have progressively increased since the mid 1960s aided by the Green Revolution and relatively favourable climatic conditions. However, aggregated agricultural production statistics indicate that the rate of food grain production has recently stalled or declined in several of the countries in this region, escalating the concerns over matters of food security, that is availability of food and one’s access to it, in a region where many people live in extreme poverty, depend on an agrarian economy and are expected to face increasingly worse climatic conditions in the near future. In this paper we analyze the agricultural deceleration and its drivers over the country of India, which faces the daunting challenge of needing a 50-100% increase in yields of major crops by the middle to the 21st century to feed its growing population. We analyze the long term (1982-2006) record of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (NOAA/AVHRR) together with climate, land use, and crop production statistics. We show that while there are no significant changes in long-term precipitation, there are geographically matching patterns of enhanced crop production and irrigation expansion with groundwater, initially, but both of which have levelled off in the past decade. In addition to increasing pressure on water resources, a decline in expansion of cropland area, a warming climate and increasing air pollution compound to challenging long term food security in India.

  16. Design and implementation of multi-asset funds in India

    E-print Network

    Singh, Yuvraj

    2011-01-01

    India, over the past decade, has steadily emerged as a center of attractive investment opportunities, owing to high GDP growth rates and rising levels of per capita income. Asset management in India is going through a ...

  17. Three empirical essays on trade and development in India

    E-print Network

    Topalova, Petia

    2005-01-01

    This thesis is a collection of three empirical essays on economic development and trade in India. Chapter 1 uses the sharp trade liberalization in India in the early 1990s, spurred to a large extent by external factors, ...

  18. Opportunities and challenges of M&A in India

    E-print Network

    Gupta, Nikhil, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    The Indian economy has witnessed a major transformation since the government of India introduced the liberalization policies in 1991 .Since then M&A activity in India has picked up pace as foreign companies began to enter ...

  19. Health in China and India: a cross-country comparison in a context of rapid globalisation.

    PubMed

    Dummer, Trevor J B; Cook, Ian G

    2008-08-01

    China and India are similarly huge nations currently experiencing rapid economic growth, urbanisation and widening inequalities between rich and poor. They are dissimilar in terms of their political regimes, policies for population growth and ethnic composition and heterogeneity. This review compares health and health care in China and India within the framework of the epidemiological transition model and against the backdrop of globalisation. We identify similarities and differences in health situation. In general, for both countries, infectious diseases of the past sit alongside emerging infectious diseases and chronic illnesses associated with ageing societies, although the burden of infectious diseases is much higher in India. Whilst globalisation contributes to widening inequalities in health and health care in both countries--particularly with respect to increasing disparities between urban and rural areas and between rich and poor--there is evidence that local circumstances are important, especially with respect to the structure and financing of health care and the implementation of health policy. For example, India has huge problems providing even rudimentary health care to its large population of urban slum dwellers whilst China is struggling to re-establish universal rural health insurance. In terms of funding access to health care, the Chinese state has traditionally supported most costs, whereas private insurance has always played a major role in India, although recent changes in China have seen the burgeoning of private health care payments. China has, arguably, had more success than India in improving population health, although recent reforms have severely impacted upon the ability of the Chinese health care system to operate effectively. Both countries are experiencing a decline in the amount of government funding for health care and this is a major issue that must be addressed. PMID:18554766

  20. Age and Sex Pattern of Cardiovascular Mortality, Hospitalisation and Associated Cost in India

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Akanksha; Mohanty, Sanjay K.

    2013-01-01

    Context Though the cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality in India, little is known about the human and economic loss attributed to the disease. The aim of this paper is to account the age and sex pattern of mortality, hospitalisation and the cost of hospitalisation for cardiovascular diseases in India. Data and Methods Data for the present study has been drawn from multiple sources; 52nd and 60th rounds of the National Sample Survey, Special Survey of Death, 2001–03 and the Sample Registration System 2004–2010. Under the changing demographics and constant assumptions of mortality, hospitalisation and cost of hospitalisation, we have estimated the deaths, hospitalisation and cost of hospitalisation for cardiovascular diseases in India during 2004 to 2021. Descriptive analyses and multivariate techniques were used to understand the socio-economic differentials in cost of hospitalisation for cardiovascular diseases in India. Findings In India, the cardiovascular diseases accounted for an estimated 1.4 million deaths in 2004 and it is likely to be 2.1 million in 2021. An estimated 6.7 million people were hospitalised for cardiovascular diseases in 2004, and projected to be 10.9 million by 2021. Unlike mortality, majority of the hospitalisation due to cardiovascular diseases will be in the prime working age group (25–59). The estimated cost of hospitalisation for cardiovascular diseases was 94/? billion rupees in 2004 and expected to be 152/? billion rupees by 2021, at 2004 prices. The cost of hospitalisation for cardiovascular diseases was significantly high in private health centres, high fertility states and among high socio-economic groups. Conclusion The cardiovascular mortality and hospitalisation will be largely concentrated in the prime working age group and the cost of hospitalisation is expected to increase substantially in coming years. This calls for mobilising resources, increasing access to health insurance and devising strategies for the prevention, control and treatment of cardiovascular diseases in India. PMID:23667455