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Diversity of Bacillus thuringiensis isolated from Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu State, India.  


The Western Ghats of India is the one of the world's 10 "Hottest biodiversity hotspots" that runs along the western part of India through four states including Tamil Nadu. The only biodiversity reserve in the Western Ghats is the Nilgiri biosphere located in the Tamil Nadu state. In the present study, 525 soil samples were collected from all the 14 different divisions of the Western Ghats in Tamil Nadu state, India. A total of 316 new isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that produce parasporal crystalline inclusions were isolated from 525 soil samples. Seven different types of crystalline inclusions were observed in the 316 new isolates of Bt. Cuboidal inclusion was predominantly present in 26.9% of the Bt isolates when compared to other shapes. Further characterization of 70 of the 316 Bt isolates for crystal protein profile through SDS-PAGE revealed six different types of crystal protein profile viz., 135 and 65, 135, 95, 65, 43, and 30 kDa crystal proteins. Variation in the mass of crystal protein(s) purified from the isolates of Bt revealed molecular diversity of this bacterium prevalent in the Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India. PMID:20033169

Ramalakshmi, A; Udayasuriyan, V



Characterization and genotoxicity evaluation of particulate matter collected from industrial atmosphere in Tamil Nadu state, India.  


Ambient particulate matter (PM) collected in the vicinity of five industries (Cement, Chemical, Thermal power plant, Sponge-iron and Steel) in Tamil Nadu state, India was characterized for size distribution, metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content. Genotoxicity of PM and organic matter (OM) extracted from PM was measured in human lung cancer cell-line, A549 and in human liver carcinoma cell-line, HepG2, respectively, using the comet assay. PM values varied from 57.0 ?g/m(3) of air at Cement industry upstream to 561.0 ?g/m(3) of air at Sponge iron industry downstream samples. Their metal content varied from 5.758 ?g/m(3) of air at Chemical industry to 46.144 ?g/m(3) of air at Sponge iron industry and PAH concentration varied from 0.5 ng/m(3) air in upstream Thermal power plant to 3302.4 ng/m(3) air in downstream Sponge iron industry samples. While all PM samples induced DNA strand breaks at higher dose levels, downstream samples of Steel and Sponge iron industries which contained relatively higher concentrations of PAHs and metals and exhibited higher levels of pro-oxidant activity as measured by DTT activity induced significantly higher levels of DNA damage in HepG2 and A549 cells. Pretreatment of A549 cells with vitamin C or quercetin significantly reduced PM induced DNA strand breaks. PMID:24797908

Senthilkumar, S; Manju, A; Muthuselvam, P; Shalini, D; Indhumathi, V; Kalaiselvi, K; Palanivel, M; Chandrasekar, P P; Rajaguru, P



Rabies control initiative in Tamil Nadu, India: a test case for the ‘One Health’ approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although India accounts for nearly 50\\\\% of the global rabies mortality, there is no organised national rabies control programme. Rabies control is generally confined to small urban pockets, with minimal intersectoral co-ordination. Tamil Nadu is the first state in India to implement a state-wide, multisectoral rabies control initiative. The CDC Program Evaluation Framework guided the current assessment of this rabies

Syed Shahid Abbas; Vidya Venkataramanan; Garima Pathak; Manish Kakkar



Numerical Simulation of Tsunamis on the Tamil Nadu Coast of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The State of Tamil Nadu was the most affected region in India during the tsunami of December 26, 2004, in the Indian Ocean, in terms of loss of life and damage. Numerical simulation was made for three tsunamis, the December 26, 2004, event, the Sumatra tsunami of 1833, and a hypothetical tsunami originating in the Andaman-Nicobar region. Since inundation is

R. Rajaraman; S. Joseph Winston; T. S. Murty; Hema Achyuthan; N. Nirupama



Jatropha tanjorensis Ellis & Saroja, a natural interspecific hybrid occurring in Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jatropha tanjorensis Ellis & Saroja, a species found abundantly in Tanjore, Pudukottai, Trichirapalli and Ramnad districts of Tamil Nadu state, India and grown as a fence plant showed intermediacy in phenotypic characters of J. curcas L. and J. gossypifolia L. A detailed survey at its place of occurrence supplemented with data employed from cytological and peroxidase isozyme studies revealed that

A. J. Prabakaran; M. Sujatha



Crime news in newspapers: A case study in Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a large?scale study of juvenile delinquency and public perceptions and attitudes regarding youthful misconduct in India, two English? and one Tamil?language newspapers in Tamil Nadu, India were content analyzed for the extent of their crime?news coverage. The data demonstrate that crime?news coverage resembles the pattern found in countries like the United States. Crime news was a staple,

S. Priyadarsini



Test Anxiety Levels of Board Exam Going Students in Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

The latest report by the National Crime Records Bureau has positioned Tamil Nadu as the Indian state with highest suicide rate. At least in part, this is happening due to exam pressure among adolescents, emphasizing the imperative need to understand the pattern of anxiety and various factors contributing to it among students. The present study was conducted to analyze the level of state anxiety among board exam attending school students in Tamil Nadu, India. A group of 100 students containing 50 boys and 50 girls from 10th and 12th grades participated in the study and their state anxiety before board exams was measured by Westside Test Anxiety Scale. We found that all board exam going students had increased level of anxiety, which was particularly higher among boys and 12th standard board exam going students. Analysis of various demographic variables showed that students from nuclear families presented higher anxiety levels compared to their desired competitive group. Overall, our results showing the prevalence of state anxiety among board exam going students in Tamil Nadu, India, support the recent attempt taken by Tamil Nadu government to improve student's academic performance in a healthier manner by appointing psychologists in all government schools. PMID:25143938

Ann Mary, Revina; Marslin, Gregory; Franklin, Gregory; Sheeba, Caroline J.



Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Western Ghats in Kerala and Tamil Nadu States, India. Part I. Description of four new species.  


In this communication four new species of phlebotomine sandflies collected from Western Ghats physiographic division in the states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu are described. Three of the new species are assigned to the Subgenus Neophlebotomus while one belongs to the nicnic group. PMID:8021431

Kaul, S M



Rabies control initiative in Tamil Nadu, India: A test case for the 'One Health' approach.  


Although India accounts for nearly 50% of the global rabies mortality, there is no organised national rabies control programme. Rabies control is generally confined to small urban pockets, with minimal intersectoral co-ordination. Tamil Nadu is the first state in India to implement a state-wide, multisectoral rabies control initiative. The CDC Program Evaluation Framework guided the current assessment of this rabies prevention and control initiative in Tamil Nadu. Principle stakeholders were engaged through a series of interviews in order to document policy initiatives, to describe the programme and to understand their various roles. Surveillance data on dog bites were triangulated with vaccine consumption and dog population data to identify trends at the district level in the state. Findings and recommendations were shared at different levels. Rabies control activities in Tamil Nadu were conducted by separate departments linked by similar objectives. In addition to public health surveillance, animal census and implementation of dog licensing rules, other targeted interventions included waste management, animal birth control and anti-rabies vaccination, awareness campaigns, and widespread availability of anti-rabies vaccine at all public health facilities. In conclusion, this assessment suggests that it is possible to implement a successful 'One Health' programme in an environment of strong political will, evidence-based policy innovations, clearly defined roles and responsibilities of agencies, co-ordination mechanisms at all levels, and a culture of open information exchange. PMID:24038495

Abbas, Syed Shahid; Venkataramanan, Vidya; Pathak, Garima; Kakkar, Manish



The scope and limitations of insecticide spraying in rural vector control programmes in the states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu in India.  


The resurgence of malaria in India began in 1966 and the states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu were no exception to this phenomenon. In both states the peak occurrence came in 1976. Malaria was largely confined to highly vulnerable and receptive areas. The problem of increased incidence was particularly associated with the development of several irrigation and hydro-electric schemes. Improperly maintained irrigation systems and reservoirs provided ideal breeding grounds. The present paper examines the scope and limitations of a major anti-malaria activity, namely residual insecticide spraying as adopted and practised in rural vector control programmes in irrigation development project areas. Past experiences (as during the National Malaria Eradication programme, 1958-1965) and current practices are reviewed on the basis of selected examples. Eradication programme, 1958-1965) and current practices are reviewed on the basis of selected examples. In view of the current re-emergence of the disease, the states are faced with new obstacles to residual insecticide spraying such as (a) the development of resistance of malaria vectors to DDT and other alternative compounds like BHC (benzene hexachloride), changing vector behaviour with avoidance of contact with indoor insecticide deposits on walls, (c) environmental contamination (risks of chemicals), (d) extensive use of insecticides and pesticides for crop protection under an expanding green revolution agricultural technology, particularly in irrigated areas and (e) the existence of outdoor resting populations of the major vector Anopheles culicifacies and their role in extra-domiciliary transmission, making residual insecticide spray less effective. Spraying operations are also hindered by the persistence of certain social and cultural factors. The custom of mud plastering, white-washing and rethatching rural houses, for example, results in the loss of insecticide-treated surfaces. Other outdoor rural activities persist as obstacles in attempts to break the transmission cycle; washing, bathing and sleeping outdoors; illegal fishing and woodcutting at night; poorly constructed make-shift structures;housing project labourers near water sources; cattle grazing in nearby forests and human population movements related to seasonal migrants. The chain and extent of the transmission is dependent upon the malaria parasite carriers in the community (both indigenous and imported types) and the degree of contact of the community with those sites where people carry on the above activities, and on the effectiveness of surveillance operations. PMID:6206995

Barai, D; Hyma, B; Ramesh, A



Innovations and Challenges in Reducing Maternal Mortality in Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Although India has made slow progress in reducing maternal mortality, progress in Tamil Nadu has been rapid. This case study documents how Tamil Nadu has taken initiatives to improve maternal health services leading to reduction in maternal morality from 380 in 1993 to 90 in 2007. Various initiatives include establishment of maternal death registration and audit, establishment and certification of comprehensive emergency obstetric and newborn-care centres, 24-hour x 7-day delivery services through posting of three staff nurses at the primary health centre level, and attracting medical officers to rural areas through incentives in terms of reserved seats in postgraduate studies and others. This is supported by the better management capacity at the state and district levels through dedicated public-health officers. Despite substantial progress, there is some scope for further improvement of quality of infrastructure and services. The paper draws out lessons for other states and countries in the region. PMID:19489416

Padmanaban, P.; Mavalankar, Dileep V.



Suspended kinship and youth sociality in Tamil Nadu, India.  


This paper examines so-called fictive, or tropic, uses of cross-kin terms by college-going youth in Tamil Nadu, India. The paper shows how youth usages of cross-kin terms are motivated out of normative kinship practices, even as they decenter and suspend the semantic and pragmatic norms of such terms. Through such suspensions, forms of youth sociality and identity are performed. Such sociality and identity turn on the ability of tropes on cross-kin terms to distance their users from various hierarchies that youth associate with traditional adult respectability and propriety. At the same time, such practices inscribe new hierarchies of college year, region, class, and gender. The paper then turns to how such kinship appropriations and suspensions are linked to changing conceptions of kinship and practices of cross-kin marriage. The spread of such terms among college youth has gone along with a tendency among the upwardly mobile and urban to avoid using such terms within their kin groups and to avoid such marriages. The paper concludes with reflections on the interplay between normative and tropic kinship, arguing that focusing on the dialectics between kinship semantics and pragmatics, norm and trope, resolves certain impasses in the study of kinship. PMID:24991679

Nakassis, Constantine V



Antibacterial activity of some actinomycetes from Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Objective To isolate novel actinomycetes and to evaluate their antibacterial activity. Methods Three soil samples were collected from Vengodu (village) in Kanchipuram district, Tamil Nadu, India. Actinomycetes were isolated using serial dilution and plating method on actinomycetes isolation agar. Results Totally 35 isolates were obtained on the basis of colony characteristics on actinomycetes isolation agar. All the isolates were screened for antibacterial activity by cross streak method. Medium and optimization of day were done for the potent strains using Nathan's agar well diffusion method. Isolation of bioactive compounds from significant active isolates was done by using different media. The most active isolate VAS 10 was identified as Actinobacterium Loyola PBT VAS 10 (accession No. JF501398) using 16s rRNA sequence method. The hexane, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and butanol extracts of VAS 10 were tested against bacteria. The maximum antibacterial activity was observed in dichloromethane and ethyl acetate; maximum zones of inhibition were observed against Enterococcus durans. The rRNA secondary structure and the restriction sites of Actinobacterium Loyola VAS 10 were predicted using Genebee and NEBCutter online tools respectively. Conclusions The present study showed that among the isolated actinomycetes, Actinobacterium Loyola PBT VAS 10 (accession No. JF501398) showed good antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria. PMID:23593572

Kumar, Pachaiyappan Saravana; Raj, John Poonga Preetam; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu



Metal Contamination in Select Species of Birds in Nilgiris District, Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in metal contamination in six species of birds, namely the Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo), Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis), Little Egret (Egretta garzetta), Pond Heron (Ardeola grayii), Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) and Jungle Babbler (Turdoides striatus) in Nilgiris district, Tamil Nadu, India. The accumulation of heavy metals differed among the species studied. On an average,\\u000a Little Egret accumulated high concentrations of

R. Jayakumar; S. Muralidharan



Forest dynamics in the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India.  


The primary deciduous forests in the Eastern Ghats (EG) of Tamil Nadu (TN) India have undergone many changes owing to various need-based forest managements, such as timber extraction for industry, railway sleepers, charcoal, and forest clearance for hydroelectric projects and agriculture, during preindependence and postindependence periods (i.e., from 1800 to 1980). The enactment of a forest conservation act during the 1980s changed the perception of forest managers from utilization to conservation. This study was taken up to assess the forests dynamics in the EG of TN spatially between 1990 and 2003 and nonspatially between 1900 and the 1980s. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Indian Remote Sensing satellite (IRS) 1D Linear Imaging and Self Scanning (LISS III) data were used to assess forests during 1990 and 2003, respectively. Field floristic survey and secondary data (such as published literature, floras, books, and forest working plans) were used to assess the forest dynamics in terms of forest type and species composition among the preindependence period, the postindependence period, and the present (i.e., before and after 1980). The satellite data analysis revealed a considerable amount of changes in all forest types during the 13 years. The comparison of species composition and forest types between the past and present revealed that need-based forest management along with anthropogenic activity have altered the primary deciduous forest in to secondary and postextraction secondary forests such as southern thorn and southern thorn scrub forests in the middle [400-900 m above mean sea level (MSL)] and lower slopes (<400 m MSL). However, the evergreen forests present at the upper slope (>900 m MSL) and plateau seemed not to be much affected by the forest management. The changes estimated by the satellite data processing in the major forest types such as evergreen, deciduous, southern thorn, and southern thorn scrub are really alarming because these changes have occurred after the implementation of a forest conservation act. The dependence of local people on forests for various purposes in this region is also considerably high, which might be a key factor for the changes in the forests. The results of this study not only provide an outlook on the present status of the forests and the change trends but also provide the basis for further studies on forests in the EG of TN. PMID:18953598

Jayakumar, S; Ramachandran, A; Bhaskaran, G; Heo, J



Forest Dynamics in the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary deciduous forests in the Eastern Ghats (EG) of Tamil Nadu (TN) India have undergone many changes owing to various need-based forest managements, such as timber extraction for industry, railway sleepers, charcoal, and forest clearance for hydroelectric projects and agriculture, during preindependence and postindependence periods (i.e., from 1800 to 1980). The enactment of a forest conservation act during the 1980s changed the perception of forest managers from utilization to conservation. This study was taken up to assess the forests dynamics in the EG of TN spatially between 1990 and 2003 and nonspatially between 1900 and the 1980s. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Indian Remote Sensing satellite (IRS) 1D Linear Imaging and Self Scanning (LISS III) data were used to assess forests during 1990 and 2003, respectively. Field floristic survey and secondary data (such as published literature, floras, books, and forest working plans) were used to assess the forest dynamics in terms of forest type and species composition among the preindependence period, the postindependence period, and the present (i.e., before and after 1980). The satellite data analysis revealed a considerable amount of changes in all forest types during the 13 years. The comparison of species composition and forest types between the past and present revealed that need-based forest management along with anthropogenic activity have altered the primary deciduous forest in to secondary and postextraction secondary forests such as southern thorn and southern thorn scrub forests in the middle [400-900 m above mean sea level (MSL)] and lower slopes (<400 m MSL). However, the evergreen forests present at the upper slope (>900 m MSL) and plateau seemed not to be much affected by the forest management. The changes estimated by the satellite data processing in the major forest types such as evergreen, deciduous, southern thorn, and southern thorn scrub are really alarming because these changes have occurred after the implementation of a forest conservation act. The dependence of local people on forests for various purposes in this region is also considerably high, which might be a key factor for the changes in the forests. The results of this study not only provide an outlook on the present status of the forests and the change trends but also provide the basis for further studies on forests in the EG of TN.

Jayakumar, S.; Ramachandran, A.; Bhaskaran, G.; Heo, J.



Metamorphism of the Oddanchatram anorthosite, Tamil Nadu, South India  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Oddanchatram anorthosite is located in the Madurai District of Tamil Nadu, near the town of Palni. It is emplaced into a granulite facies terrain commonly presumed to have undergone its last regional metamorphism in the late Archean about 2600 m.y. The surrounding country rock consists of basic granulites, charnockites and metasedimentary rocks including quartzites, pelites and calc-silicates. The anorthosite is clearly intrusive into the country rock and contains many large inclusions of previously deformed basic granulite and quartzite within 100 meters of its contact. Both this intrusion and the nearby Kaduvar anorthosite show evidence of having been affected by later metamorphism and deformation.

Wiebe, R. A.; Janardhan, A. S.



HLA antigens in South India: I. Major groups of Tamil Nadu.  


HLA-A, B profile of 385 normal healthy individuals living in Tamil Nadu, India was studied by microlymphocytotoxicity testing. Antigen, gene and haplotype frequencies of this population were calculated and compared to those already available in the literature. The sample was further divided into four major groups and the frequencies calculated. Genetic distances between the various major groups were also calculated: the analyses suggest that these different groups may differ by origin. The study further reveals that in any HLA genetic and disease association studies in India, one should give due consideration to the caste system of the sample studied. PMID:6515634

Pitchappan, R M; Kakkanaiah, V N; Rajashekar, R; Arulraj, N; Muthukkaruppan, V R



Optimal pricing and investment in the electricity sector in Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Faulty pricing policies and inadequate investment in the power sector are responsible for the chronic power shortages that plague Tamil Nadu and the rest of India. Formulae for optimal pricing rules are derived for a social welfare maximizing Electricity Board which sells electricity that is used both as an intermediate, and as a final good. Because of distributional constraints, the optimal prices deviate systematically from marginal costs. Optimal relative price-marginal cost differentials are computed for Tamil Nadu, and are found to indicate a lower degree of subsidization than the prevailing prices. The rationalization of electricity tariffs would very likely increase the Board's revenues. The cost-effectiveness of nuclear power in India is examined by comparing actual data for the Madras Atomic Power Project and the Singrauli coal-fired thermal power station. The conventional (non-environmental) costs of power generation are compared at both market prices and shadow prices, calculated according to the UNIDO guidelines for project evaluation. Despite favorable assumptions for the costs of the nuclear plant, coal had a decided edge over nuclear in Tamil Nadu. Remarkably, the edge varied little when market prices are replaced by shadow prices in the computations. With regard to the environmental costs, far too much remains unknown. More research is therefore needed on the environmental impacts of both types of power generation before a final choice can be made.

Murthy, Ranganath Srinivas



Synthetic Pyrethroid Resistance in Field Strains of Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Tamil Nadu, South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistance to synthetic pyrethroids was diagnosed in the field population of American bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) from Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, South India during 2003-2004 cropping seasons. A Discriminating Dose (DD) bioassay technique was used to monitor fortnightly changes in resistance at Coimbatore where number of crops served as host plants for this pest. The resistance level of various synthetic pyrethroids

P. Duraimurugan; A. Regupathy



Costs Analysis of a Population Level Rabies Control Programme in Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

The study aimed to determine costs to the state government of implementing different interventions for controlling rabies among the entire human and animal populations of Tamil Nadu. This built upon an earlier assessment of Tamil Nadu's efforts to control rabies. Anti-rabies vaccines were made available at all health facilities. Costs were estimated for five different combinations of animal and human interventions using an activity-based costing approach from the provider perspective. Disease and population data were sourced from the state surveillance data, human census and livestock census. Program costs were extrapolated from official documents. All capital costs were depreciated to estimate annualized costs. All costs were inflated to 2012 Rupees. Sensitivity analysis was conducted across all major cost centres to assess their relative impact on program costs. It was found that the annual costs of providing Anti-rabies vaccine alone and in combination with Immunoglobulins was $0.7 million (Rs 36 million) and $2.2 million (Rs 119 million), respectively. For animal sector interventions, the annualised costs of rolling out surgical sterilisation-immunization, injectable immunization and oral immunizations were estimated to be $ 44 million (Rs 2,350 million), $23 million (Rs 1,230 million) and $ 11 million (Rs 590 million), respectively. Dog bite incidence, health systems coverage and cost of rabies biologicals were found to be important drivers of costs for human interventions. For the animal sector interventions, the size of dog catching team, dog population and vaccine costs were found to be driving the costs. Rabies control in Tamil Nadu seems a costly proposition the way it is currently structured. Policy makers in Tamil Nadu and other similar settings should consider the long-term financial sustainability before embarking upon a state or nation-wide rabies control programme. PMID:24587471

Abbas, Syed Shahid; Kakkar, Manish; Rogawski, Elizabeth Tacket



Costs analysis of a population level rabies control programme in Tamil Nadu, India.  


The study aimed to determine costs to the state government of implementing different interventions for controlling rabies among the entire human and animal populations of Tamil Nadu. This built upon an earlier assessment of Tamil Nadu's efforts to control rabies. Anti-rabies vaccines were made available at all health facilities. Costs were estimated for five different combinations of animal and human interventions using an activity-based costing approach from the provider perspective. Disease and population data were sourced from the state surveillance data, human census and livestock census. Program costs were extrapolated from official documents. All capital costs were depreciated to estimate annualized costs. All costs were inflated to 2012 Rupees. Sensitivity analysis was conducted across all major cost centres to assess their relative impact on program costs. It was found that the annual costs of providing Anti-rabies vaccine alone and in combination with Immunoglobulins was $0.7 million (Rs 36 million) and $2.2 million (Rs 119 million), respectively. For animal sector interventions, the annualised costs of rolling out surgical sterilisation-immunization, injectable immunization and oral immunizations were estimated to be $ 44 million (Rs 2,350 million), $23 million (Rs 1,230 million) and $ 11 million (Rs 590 million), respectively. Dog bite incidence, health systems coverage and cost of rabies biologicals were found to be important drivers of costs for human interventions. For the animal sector interventions, the size of dog catching team, dog population and vaccine costs were found to be driving the costs. Rabies control in Tamil Nadu seems a costly proposition the way it is currently structured. Policy makers in Tamil Nadu and other similar settings should consider the long-term financial sustainability before embarking upon a state or nation-wide rabies control programme. PMID:24587471

Abbas, Syed Shahid; Kakkar, Manish; Rogawski, Elizabeth Tacket



Background radiation and individual dosimetry in the costal area of Tamil Nadu, India.  


South coast of India is known as the high-level background radiation area (HBRA) mainly due to beach sands that contain natural radionuclides as components of the mineral monazite. The rich deposit of monazite is unevenly distributed along the coastal belt of Tamil Nadu and Kerala. An HBRA site that laid in 2×7 m along the sea was found in the beach of Chinnavillai, Tamil Nadu, where the maximum ambient dose equivalent reached as high as 162.7 mSv y(-1). From the sands collected at the HBRA spot, the high-purity germanium semi-conductor detector identified six nuclides of thorium series, four nuclides of uranium series and two nuclides belonging to actinium series. The highest radioactivity observed was 43.7 Bq g(-1) of Th-228. The individual dose of five inhabitants in Chinnavillai, as measured by the radiophotoluminescence glass dosimetry system, demonstrated the average dose of 7.17 mSv y(-1) ranging from 2.79 to 14.17 mSv y(-1). PMID:21502300

Matsuda, Naoki; Brahmanandhan, G M; Yoshida, Masahiro; Takamura, Noboru; Suyama, Akihiko; Koguchi, Yasuhiro; Juto, Norimichi; Raj, Y Lenin; Winsley, Godwin; Selvasekarapandian, S



Metal contamination in select species of birds in Nilgiris district, Tamil Nadu, India.  


Variation in metal contamination in six species of birds, namely the Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo), Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis), Little Egret (Egretta garzetta), Pond Heron (Ardeola grayii), Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) and Jungle Babbler (Turdoides striatus) in Nilgiris district, Tamil Nadu, India. The accumulation of heavy metals differed among the species studied. On an average, Little Egret accumulated high concentrations of copper (53.31 ± 23.19 ppm) followed by Cattle Egret (16.27 ± 9.83 ppm) in liver. Of all the species, Jungle Babbler recorded the maximum concentrations (20.59 ± 9.07 ppm) in muscle. The Pond Heron recorded the maximum concentration (35.38 ± 11.14 ppm) in brain. On an average the maximum level was in the kidney of Common Myna (7.76 ± 1.80 ppm). PMID:21656294

Jayakumar, R; Muralidharan, S



Medico - botanical study of Yercaud hills in the eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

The study reports medicinal plant survey was conceded in Yercaud hills ranges of Eastern Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. The study primarily based on field surveys conducted throughout the hills, where dwellers provided information on plant species used as medicine, plant parts used to prepare the remedies and ailments to which the remedies were prescribed. The study resulted about 48- plant species belonging to 45- genera and 29- families of medicinal plants related to folk medicine used by the local people. Among them the most common plants viz., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Cissus quadrangularis L., Gymnema sylvestre R. Br., Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br., Justisia adhatoda L., Ocimum sanctum L., Phyllanthes amarus Schum. & Thonn., Piper nigrum L., Solanum nigrum L., Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers, Tridax procumbens L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe which are used in their daily life to cure various ailments. PMID:22557438

Parthipan, M; Aravindhan, V; Rajendran, A



Ethnobotanical investigations among tribes in Madurai District of Tamil Nadu (India)  

PubMed Central

Background An ethnobotanical survey was carried out to collect information on the use of medicinal plants in Southern Western Ghats of India (Madurai district, Tamil Nadu). Information presented in this paper was gathered from the paliyar tribes using an integrated approach of botanical collections, group discussions and interviews with questionnaires in the years 1998 – 1999. The informants interviewed were 12 among whom 4 were tribal practitioners. Results A total of 60 ethnomedicinal plant species distributed in 32 families are documented in this study. The medicinal plants used by paliyars are listed with Latin name, family, local name, parts used, mode of preparation and medicinal uses. Generally, fresh part of the plant was used for the preparation of medicine. Conclusion We observed that the documented ethnomedicinal plants were mostly used to cure skin diseases, poison bites, stomachache and nervous disorders. The results of this study showed that these tribal people still depend on medicinal plants in Madurai district forest areas. PMID:16689985

Ignacimuthu, S; Ayyanar, M; Sivaraman K, Sankara



HLA affinities of Iyers, a Brahmin population of Tamil Nadu, South India.  


Seventy-four randomly sampled Iyers, a Brahmin population of Tamil Nadu and preachers and followers of the Advaita philosophy, living in Madurai, were studied for their HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DR, HLA-DQ, C4A, C4B, and BF polymorphisms and compared with other populations. HLA alleles A1, A11.1, A24, A33, B35, B44, B51, B52, B57, Cw4, Cw6, Cw7, DR4, DR7, DR8, DR10, DR11, DR15, and DQ1 and C4A*3, C4A*4, C4A*6, C4A*Q0, C4B*1, and BF*S were represented in 15% of the samples studied. HLA alleles A25, A69, Cw3, Cw8, B45, B14, B39, B18, B50, and B56 were not identified. Various populations of Tamil Nadu were compared, but the Iyers of Madurai formed a separate cluster with Sourashtrans of Madurai and major group 4 (various Brahmin populations of Tamil Nadu); hill tribes (Irulas, Malayalis, and Badagas) and caste groups in the plains (Kallars and Nadars) formed distinct clusters. Comparison of the Iyers with other Indian and world populations revealed that Iyers form a distinct branch of the Indo-European and Central Asian tree. The Bhargavas of Lucknow, another Brahmin caste group from Uttar Pradesh, did not cluster with the Iyers but clustered with Central Asian populations. The Punjabis of Delhi clustered with European and Middle Eastern populations. Studies on two-locus haplotypes of Iyers revealed unique haplotypes in them (A26-B8, A33-B44, A33-Cw7, A1-B57, B8-DR3, B44-DR7, DR7-DQ2, C4A*32-C4B*Q0, and C4A*6-C4B*2), most of which were not identified in the Bhargavas of Lucknow and the Punjabis of Delhi. Thus it is possible that various Brahmin populations of India differ in their origin, migration, and settlement, although all of them adopted Hinduism in ancient times. A comparison of haplotypes in Iyers with the world population reveals a sharing of haplotypes with Southeast Asian populations. This implies that the ancestors of the Iyers of Madurai, who originated in the Eurasian steppes or Central Asia, might have migrated to India through Southeast Asia, thus developing the prevalent haplotypes en route. PMID:8754259

Balakrishnan, K; Pitchappan, R M; Suzuki, K; Kumar, U S; Santhakumari, R; Tokunaga, K



Snakebite and Its Socio-Economic Impact on the Rural Population of Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Background Snakebite represents a significant health issue worldwide, affecting several million people each year with as many as 95,000 deaths. India is considered to be the country most affected, but much remains unknown about snakebite incidence in this country, its socio-economic impact and how snakebite management could be improved. Methods/Principal Findings We conducted a study within rural villages in Tamil Nadu, India, which combines a household survey (28,494 people) of snakebite incidence with a more detailed survey of victims in order to understand the health and socio-economic effects of the bite, the treatments obtained and their views about future improvements. Our survey suggests that snakebite incidence is higher than previously reported. 3.9% of those surveyed had suffered from snakebite and the number of deaths corresponds to 0.45% of the population. The socio-economic impact of this is very considerable in terms of the treatment costs and the long-term effects on the health and ability of survivors to work. To reduce this, the victims recommended improvements to the accessibility and affordability of antivenom treatment. Conclusions Snakebite has a considerable and disproportionate impact on rural populations, particularly in South Asia. This study provides an incentive for researchers and the public to work together to reduce the incidence and improve the outcomes for snake bite victims and their families. PMID:24278244

Vaiyapuri, Sakthivel; Vaiyapuri, Rajendran; Ashokan, Rajesh; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan; Nattamaisundar, Kameshwaran; Jeyaraj, Anburaj; Chandran, Viswanathan; Gajjeraman, Prabu; Baksh, M. Fazil; Gibbins, Jonathan M.; Hutchinson, E. Gail



Registration and monitoring of pregnant women in Tamil Nadu, India: a critique.  


In 2008 a pregnancy registration system was introduced in rural Tamil Nadu, India, which is now being scaled up. It will collect data on antenatal, delivery and post-partum care in pregnant women and infant health. This is seen as an important public health intervention, justified for its potential to ensure efficiency in provision and use of maternity services. However, from another perspective, it can be seen as a form of control over women, reducing the experience of safe pregnancy and delivery to a few measurable variables. The burden of implementing this task falls on Village Health Nurses, who are also women, reducing their time for interacting with and educating people and visiting communities, which is their primary task and the basis on which they are evaluated. In addition, they face logistical constraints in rural settings that may affect the quality of data. In a health system with rigid internal hierarchies and power differentials, this system may become more of a supervisory and monitoring tool than a tool for a learning health system. It may also lead to a victim-blaming approach ("you missed two antenatal visits") rather than health system learning to improve maternal and infant health. The paper concludes by recommending ways to use the system and the data to tackle the broader social determinants of health, with women, health workers and communities as partners in the process. PMID:22789089

Gaitonde, Rakhal



HLA antigens in South India: II. Selected caste groups of Tamil Nadu.  


HLA-A, B antigen and haplotype frequencies were studied in four different caste groups of Tamil Nadu living in Madurai. A total number of 101 Nadars, 36 Kallars, 54 Iyers and 57 Telugu-speaking Naidus were studied. HLA A3 and B15 were significantly higher in Nadars; A10 & B8 in Kallars and Aw19, B12 & B35 in Iyers. HLA A-B haplotypes A10-B7, A28-B17 & A24-B- were characteristic of Nadars; A10-B8 & A1-B-, Kallars; Aw19-B12 & A1-B15, Iyers and A2-B-, Naidus. Negative linkage disequilibria for Aw19-B7, A28-B15 & A9-B51 were significant in Nadars; A1-B5, A1-B12 & Aw19-B- in Iyers and A2-B17 in Naidus. Heterogeneity chi-square based on antigen frequency and genetic distance also suggest the heterogeneous nature of the population of South India. Will these caste groups with such diverse haplotypic combinations differ from one another in their immune response and susceptibility to a given epidemic or infection? PMID:3424332

Rajasekar, R; Kakkanaiah, V N; Pitchappan, R M



A Different Type of Medicine: Women's Experiences With Ophthalmic Diseases in Rural and Urban Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

I conducted a study to understand how urban and rural women conceptualized eye diseases in Tamil Nadu state. I chose to examine eye diseases because ailments such as cataracts, glaucoma, refractive error, and diabetic retinopathy rank among the most serious diseases of Indian women. I collected observational, survey, and interview data to compare women from rural and urban areas. In

Keerthika Melissa Subramanian



Measles transmission following the tsunami in a population with a high one-dose vaccination coverage, Tamil Nadu, India 2004–2005  

PubMed Central

Background On 26 December 2004, a tsunami struck the coast of the state of Tamil Nadu, India, where one-dose measles coverage exceeded 95%. On 29 December, supplemental measles immunization activities targeted children 6 to 60 months of age in affected villages. On 30 December, Cuddalore, a tsunami-affected district in Tamil Nadu reported a cluster of measles cases. We investigated this cluster to estimate the magnitude of the problem and to propose recommendations for control. Methods We received notification of WHO-defined measles cases through stimulated passive surveillance. We collected information regarding date of onset, age, sex, vaccination status and residence. We collected samples for IgM antibodies and genotype studies. We modeled the accumulation of susceptible individuals over the time on the basis of vaccination coverage, vaccine efficacy and birth rate. Results We identified 101 measles cases and detected IgM antibodies against measles virus in eight of 11 sera. Cases were reported from tsunami-affected (n = 71) and unaffected villages (n = 30) with attack rates of 1.3 and 1.7 per 1000, respectively. 42% of cases in tsunami-affected villages had an onset date within 14 days of the tsunami. The median ages of case-patients in tsunami-affected and un-affected areas were 54 months and 60 months respectively (p = 0.471). 36% of cases from tsunami-affected areas were above 60 months of age. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the sequences of virus belonged to genotype D8 that circulated in Tamil Nadu. Conclusion Measles virus circulated in Cuddalore district following the tsunami, although there was no association between the two events. Transmission despite high one-dose vaccination coverage pointed to the limitations of this vaccination strategy. A second opportunity for measles immunization may help reducing measles mortality and morbidity in such areas. Children from 6 month to 14 years of age must be targeted for supplemental immunization during complex emergencies. PMID:16984629

Mohan, Arumugam; Murhekar, Manoj V; Wairgkar, Niteen S; Hutin, Yvan J; Gupte, Mohan D



Reproductive pattern, perinatal mortality, and sex preference in rural Tamil Nadu, south India: community based, cross sectional study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To study reproductive pattern and perinatal mortality in rural Tamil Nadu, South India. DESIGN: Community based, cross sectional questionnaire study of 30 randomly selected areas served by health subcentres. SETTING: Rural parts of Salem District, Tamil Nadu, South India. SUBJECTS: 1321 women and their offspring delivered in the 6 months before the interview. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of pregnancies, pregnancy outcome, spacing of pregnancies, sex of offspring, perinatal and neonatal mortality rates. RESULTS: 41% of the women (535) were primiparous; 7 women (0.5%) were grand multiparous (> 6 births). The women had a mean age of 22 years and a mean of 2.3 pregnancies and 1.8 live children. The sex ratio at birth of the index children was 107 boys per 100 girls. The stillbirth rate was 13.5/1000 births, the neonatal mortality rate was 35.3/1000, and the perinatal mortality rate was 42.0/1000. Girls had an excess neonatal mortality (rate ratio 3.42%; 95% confidence interval 1.68 to 6.98; this was most pronounced among girls born to multiparous women with no living sons (rate ratio 15.48 (2.04 to 177.73) v 1.87 (0.63 to 5.58) in multiparous women with at least one son alive). CONCLUSIONS: In this rural part of Tamil Nadu, women had a controlled reproductive pattern. The excess neonatal mortality among girls constitutes about one third of the perinatal mortality rate. It seems to be linked to a preference for sons and should therefore be addressed through a holistic societal approach rather than through specific healthcare measures. PMID:9169399

Nielsen, B. B.; Liljestrand, J.; Hedegaard, M.; Thilsted, S. H.; Joseph, A.



A Population based Study on Alcoholism among Adult Males in a Rural Area, Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Background:India’s reputation as a country with a culture of abstinence especially in matters regarding alcohol is underserved. There has been a rapid proliferation of city bars and nightclubs in recent years and people are fast shedding its inhibitions about alcohol as a lifestyle choice. This scenario has led to fears of an undocumented rise in alcohol abuse among all sections of society. Policies by the government has been laid down to regulate sales and pricing of alcohol, but not well improvised. Our aim was to find out the prevalence of alcoholism among adult males in a rural population and also to analyze its association between various factors. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study in a rural population at Kuthampakkam village, in Poonamallee block of Tiruvallur district in Tamil Nadu, India. The study population included adult male population. Simple random sampling method was adopted. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information regarding the background characteristics, history of alcoholism and certain social factors. Statistical Analysis: Data entry and analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15 software. Descriptive statistics were calculated for background variables and the prevalence of the alcoholism. Chi-square test and p-value were calculated to see the association between alcoholism and social factors. Results:A total of 157 adult male were enrolled in the study. The mean age of the study participants was 37.20 years. The prevalence of alcoholism among the study participants was 35.7%. Among them only 4.5% who presented with symptoms of chronic alcoholism had taken treatment. Reasons for not taking treatment for alcoholism among study population were mainly due to their family problems (55.2%). Conclusion:Although alcohol consumption has existed for many centuries, the quantity, usage pattern, and resultant problems have undergone substantial changes over the past 20 years. These developments have raised concerns about the public health and social consequences. Awareness among the population and necessary rehabilitation and self-help programs will help in bringing down the prevalence of alcoholism. PMID:25121005

Gnanasekaran, Sruthy; Suchithra, S; Srilalitha, V; Sujitha, R; Sivaranjani, S. Sowmya; Subitha, S; Dcruze, Lawrence



Assessment of (210)Po and (210)Pb in marine biota of the Mallipattinam ecosystem of Tamil Nadu, India.  


To provide baseline data on background radiation levels for the future assessment of the impact of nuclear and thermal power stations, a systematic study was carried out in the Mallipattinam ecosystem of Tamil Nadu, India. Mallipattinam is located between the Kudankulam and Kalpakkam nuclear power plants and near to Tuticorin thermal power plant. Water, sediments, seaweeds, crustaceans, molluscs, and fish were collected to measure the concentrations of (210)Po and (210)Pb. The concentrations of (210)Po and (210)Pb in most samples are comparable to values reported worldwide. In fish, the concentrations of (210)Po and (210)Pb are in the range 16-190 Bq kg(-1) and 8-153 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The concentration factors of (210)Po and (210)Pb for the biotic components ranges from 10(3) to 10(6). PMID:20605061

Suriyanarayanan, S; Brahmanandhan, G M; Samivel, K; Ravikumar, S; Hameed, P Shahul



Endoparasites in cattle nearby tribal areas of free-ranging protected areas of Tamil Nadu state.  


Fresh dung samples from cattle nearby and tribal areas of free-ranging regions, Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, Anamalai Tiger Reserve and forest divisions of Sathyamangalam-Erode of Tamil Nadu state were examined for identification of endoparasitic infection. A total of 50 dung samples were collected and examination of samples revealed the presence of eggs of Strongyle, Strongyloides sp., amphistomes, Toxocara sp. and oocysts of Eimeria sp. The risk of parasitic disease transmission from domestic livestock to wild populations was discussed. PMID:25320498

Vimalraj, P G; Jayathangaraj, M G; Sridhar, R; Senthilkumar, T M A; Latchumikanthan, A



Increasing condom use and declining STI prevalence in high-risk MSM and TGs: evaluation of a large-scale prevention program in Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Background This paper presents an evaluation of Avahan, a large scale HIV prevention program that was implemented using peer-mediated strategies, condom distribution and sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinical services among high-risk men who have sex with men (HR-MSM) and male to female transgender persons (TGs) in six high-prevalence state of Tamil Nadu, in southern India. Methods Two rounds of large scale cross-sectional bio-behavioural surveys among HR-MSM and TGs and routine program monitoring data were used to assess changes in program coverage, condom use and prevalence of STIs (including HIV) and their association to program exposure. Results The Avahan program for HR-MSM and TGs in Tamil Nadu was significantly scaled up and contacts by peer educators reached 77 percent of the estimated denominator by the end of the program’s fourth year. Exposure to the program increased between the two rounds of surveys for both HR-MSM (from 66 percent to 90 percent; AOR?=?4.6; p?Nadu achieved a high coverage, resulting in improved condom use by HR-MSM with their regular and commercial male partners. Declining STI prevalence and stable HIV prevalence reflect the positive effects of the prevention strategy. Outcomes from the program logic model indiacte the effectiveness of the program for HR-MSM and TGs in Tamil Nadu. PMID:24044766



Origin of Cretaceous phosphorites from the onshore of Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cretaceous phosphorites from the onshore of Tamil Nadu have been investigated for their origin and compared with those in the offshore. Cretaceous phosphorites occur as light brown to yellowish brown or white nodules in Karai Shale of the Uttatur Group in the onshore Cauvery basin. Nodules exhibit phosphatic nucleus encrusted by a chalky shell of carbonate. The nucleus of the nodules consists of light and dark coloured laminae, phosphate peloids/coated grains and detrital particles interspersed between the laminae. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies reveal trapping and binding activity of microbial filaments. A mat structure with linearly arranged microbial filaments and hollow, cell-based coccoid cyanobacterial mat are present. Nodules contain abundant carbonate fluorapatite, followed by minor calcite, quartz and feldspar. The P2O5 content of the phosphorites ranges from 18 to 26%. The CaO/P2O5, Sr and F contents are higher than that of pure carbonate fluorapatite. Concentrations of Si, Al, K, Fe, and Ti are low. We suggest that the nuclei of the nodules represent phosphate clasts related to phosphate stromatolites formed at intertidal conditions. At high energy levels the microbial mats were disintegrated into phosphate clasts, coated with carbonate and then reworked into Karai Shale. On the other hand, Quaternary phosphorites occur as irregular to rounded, grey coloured phosphate clasts at water depths between 180 and 320m on the continental shelf of Tamil Nadu. They exhibit grain-supported texture. Despite Quaternary in age, they also resemble phosphate stromatolites of intertidal origin and reworked as phosphate clasts onto the shelf margin depressions. Benthic microbial mats probably supplied high phosphorus to the sediments. Availability of excess phosphorus seems to be a pre-requisite for the formation of phosphate stromatolites.

Purnachandra Rao, V.; Kessarkar, Pratima M.; Nagendra, R.; Babu, E. V. S. S. K.



Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) of some tree species growing near rail roads of Madurai, Tamil Nadu (India).  


Biological monitoring and assessment studies due to urban--rail road pollutants were carried out using Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) of plants. Four plant (leaf) parameters--namely ascorbic acid, total chlorophyll, relative water content and leaf extract pH were combined together in a formulation signifying the APTI of plants. APTI was calculated for five different species such as Azadirachta indica, Delonix regia, Ficus religiosa, Pongamia pinnata and Polyalthia longifolia growing in two different areas, i.e. control area and along the railway track of Madurai, Tamil Nadu (India). The control site was selected in the college campus. None of the four plant parameters indicated a consistent response to pollutants. In the present study, Delonix regia and Pongamia pinnata lost the tolerance towards air pollutants and became more sensitive, but Azadirachta indica, Ficus religiosa, and Polyalthia longifolia indicated high APTI values over control area and hence considered as tolerant species. The APTI of plants showed a marked gradation as the pollutant load decreased from rail road to control area. The APTI can be used as a good indicator of impact of the air pollution on plants. PMID:22312796

Thambavani, D Sarala; Kamala, C



AM Fungal Diversity in Selected Medicinal Plants of Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, India.  


The association of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) with three medicinally important plants viz., Eclipta prostrata, Indigofera aspalathoides, I. tinctoria collected from three different localities of Kanyakumari District, South India was examined. The study reports the colonization percentage, diversity and species richness of different AM fungi in the rhizosphere of the three medicinal plants and discusses the impact of soil physicochemical characteristics such as soil texture, pH and available macro- and micro nutrient content on AM fungal communities. A total 21 AM fungal species were identified in field conditions of the three plants from three sites. AM fungal species richness, colorization percentage and Shannon index were found to be high in the two Indigofera sp. growing in the hilly areas of Kanyakumari District and were low in E. prostrata collected from the damp regions in the foothills of the three study sites. Five species registered 100% frequency in all the study sites of the three medicinally important plants with Glomus as the dominant genera. The study states that the mean colonization and diversity patterns were dependant on edaphic factors and type of vegetation. PMID:22754000

Sundar, S K; Palavesam, A; Parthipan, B



Medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Kancheepuram District of Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken to collect information from traditional healers on the use of medicinal plants in Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu during October 2003 to April 2004. The indigenous knowledge of local traditional healers and the native plants used for medicinal purposes were collected through questionnaire and personal interviews during field trips. The investigation revealed that, the traditional healers used 85 species of plants distributed in 76 genera belonging to 41 families to treat various diseases. The documented medicinal plants were mostly used to cure skin diseases, poison bites, stomachache and nervous disorders. In this study the most dominant family was Euphorbiaceae and leaves were most frequently used for the treatment of diseases. This study showed that many people in the studied parts of Kancheepuram district still continue to depend on medicinal plants at least for the treatment of primary healthcare. The traditional healers are dwindling in number and there is a grave danger of traditional knowledge disappearing soon since the younger generation is not interested to carry on this tradition. PMID:17026769

Muthu, Chellaiah; Ayyanar, Muniappan; Raja, Nagappan; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu



Report on the occurrence of synanthropic derived form of Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae) from Royapuram fishing harbour, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Abstract The occurrence of dipteran fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) is reported for the first time from Royapuram fishing harbour (Chennai), Tamil Nadu, South East India. The fully grown third instar larvae of Chrysomya megacephala were collected from decaying fishes near Royapuram fishing harbour. This site is found to be the regular breeding site for Chrysomya megacephala. Larvae were reared under laboratory condition and freshly emerged adult flies from pupae were collected and identified by morphological features and molecular tools. Molecular identification through generation of DNA barcoding using mitochondrial COI gene of Chrysomya megacephala is appended. PMID:25057250

Ramaraj, Paulchamy; Selvakumar, Chellappa; Ganesh, Arumugam



Traditional knowledge of Kani tribals in Kouthalai of Tirunelveli hills, Tamil Nadu, India.  


An ethnobotanical survey was carried out among the ethnic groups (Kani/Kanikaran) in Southern Western Ghats of India. Traditional uses of 54 plant species belonging to 26 families are described under this study. In this communication, the information got from the tribals were compared with the already existing literature on ethnobotany of India. The documented ethnomedicinal plants were mostly used to cure skin diseases, poison bites, wounds and rheumatism. The medicinal plants used by kanis are arranged alphabetically followed by family name, local name, major chemical constituents, parts used, mode of preparation and medicinal uses. PMID:16054791

Ayyanar, M; Ignacimuthu, S



Crop–weather model for turmeric yield forecasting for Coimbatore district, Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turmeric is native to India and its successful husbandry depends on the monsoon climate and the availability of irrigation. Yield forecasting in advance is required for export planning and policy decisions. A method to forecast turmeric yield from a time series of meteorological and yield data was developed and tested, using 20-year dataset of dry turmeric yield and monthly climatic

K Kandiannan; K. K Chandaragiri; N Sankaran; T. N Balasubramanian; C Kailasam



Myocilin mutations among POAG patients from two populations of Tamil Nadu, South India, a comparative analysis  

PubMed Central

Purpose Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common type of glaucoma. Among the POAG genes identified so far, myocilin (MYOC) is the most frequently mutated gene in POAG patients worldwide. The MYOC Gln48His mutation is unique among Indian POAG patients. This mutation has not been observed in some populations within India and in other populations worldwide. The objectives of this work were to characterize and compare the mutation spectrum among POAG patients from two places of South India and identify the occurrence and prevalence of Gln48His mutation in our study populations. Methods One hundred-one (101) POAG patients from Chennai, South India were recruited for the study. Earlier, 100 patients from the southernmost part of India, Kanyakumari district, were screened. MYOC was screened by polymerase chain reaction based single stand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) methodology. DNA sequencing of deviant samples was performed. Secondary structures of the proteins with amino acid sequence variations were predicted. Results The mutation frequency of MYOC among POAG patients in Chennai was 2%. Three types of mutations were observed. The MYOC Gln48His mutation was observed among 2 POAG patients from Chennai. However, absence of this mutation among patients from Kanyakumari suggests possible involvement of demographic factors in disease causation via this mutation. Two heterozygous sequence variants, Thr353Ile and Asn480Lys, in the same exon (exon III) of MYOC were observed in one POAG patient who had a severe disease phenotype. This is the first such report of a compound heterozygote individual with two mutations in the same exon of MYOC. Conclusions The presence of mutations at a rate similar to other studies suggests the causative role of MYOC among POAG patients from Chennai. Screening of more patients and families from all parts of India is required to identify the actual frequency of the Gln48His mutation and thus highlight its importance. The compound heterozygote with a severe disease phenotype reiterates the importance of MYOC in certain POAG patients. PMID:22194650

Rose, Rajiv; Balakrishnan, Anandan; Arumugam, Paramasivam; Shanmugam, Sambandham; Gopalswamy, Jayaraman



The transformation of amphibolite facies gneiss to charnockite in southern Karnataka and northern Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amphibolite facies metamorphic grade gives way southward to the granulite grade in southern Karnataka, as acid gneisses develop charnockite patches and streaks and basic enclaves develop pyroxenes. Petrologic investigations in the transitional zone south of Mysore have established the following points: 1) The transition is prograde. Amphibole-bearing gneisses intimately associated with charnockite at Kabbal and several similar localities are not retrogressive after charnockite, as proved by patchy obliteration of their foliation by transgressive, very coarse-grained charnockite, high fluorine content of biotite and amphibole in gneisses, and high large-ion lithophile element contents in gneisses and charnockites. These features are in contrast to very low fluorine in retrogressive amphiboles and biotites, very low large-ion lithophile element contents, and zonal bleaching of charnockite, in clearly retrogressive areas, as at Bhavani Sagar, Tamil Nadu. 2) Metamorphic temperatures in the transitional areas were 700° 800° C, pressures were 5 7 kbar, and H2O pressures were 0.1 0.3 times total pressures, based on thermodynamic calculations using mineral analyses. Dense CO2-rich fluid inclusions in the Kabbal rocks confirm the low H2O pressures at the first appearance of orthopyroxene. Farther to the south, in the Nilgiri Hills and adjacent granulite massif areas, peak metamorphic temperatures were 800° 900° C, pressures were 7 9 kbar, and water pressures were very low, so that primary biotites and amphiboles (those with high F contents) are rare. 3) The incipient granulite-grade metamorphism of the transitional areas was introduced by a wave of anatexis and K-metasomatism. This process was arrested by drying out under heavy CO2 influx. Charnockites so formed are hybrids of anatectic granite and metabasite, of metabasite and immediately adjacent gneiss, or are virtually isochemical with pre-existing gneiss despite gross recrystallization to granulite mineralogy. These features show that partial melting and metasomatism are attendant, rather than causative, in charnockite development. Copious CO2 from a deep-crustal or mantle source pushed ahead of it a wave of more aqueous solutions which promoted anatexis. Granulite metamorphism of both neosome and paleosome followed. The process is very similar to that deduced for the Madras granulites by Weaver (1980). The massif charnockites, for the most part extremely depleted in lithophile minor elements, show many evidences of having gone through the same process. A major problem remaining to be solved is the origin of the large amount of CO2 needed to charnockitize significant portions of the crust. The most important possibilities include CO2 from carbonate minerals in a mantle “hot spot” or diapir, from emanations from a crystallizing basaltic underplate, or from shelf sediments trapped at the continent-continent interface in continental overthrusting. Ancient granulite massifs may be such suture zones of continental convergence.

Janardhan, A. S.; Newton, R. C.; Hansen, E. C.



HIV/AIDS and the gendering of stigma in Tamil Nadu, South India.  


Drawing on the seminal theoretical work on stigma by Goffman, this article analyzes stigma through the lens of Parker and Aggleton, who call for the joining of Goffman and Foucault to better grasp relationships among stigma, power and social inequality. Studies on the social impact of HIV/AIDS globally have demonstrated that women tend to be blamed for the spread of HIV/AIDS, and as a result, HIV-positive women face greater stigma and discrimination than HIV-positive men. Based on ethnographic research among 50 HIV-positive women in South India in 2002-2003 and 2004, my research supports this standard argument. However, my findings suggest that the gendering of stigma and discrimination is more complex and context specific. The gendering of stigma varies depending on the social context of private versus public spheres. The tendency to stigmatize women is due in part to cultural constructions of gendered bodies and not only to a gendered double standard of sexual morality, as has been previously reported. Even when a cultural argument about women's wayward sexuality is evoked, this rhetoric must be understood in part as a strategy to mask economically motivated responses, rather simply being attributed to sexist ideology per se. PMID:20842521

Van Hollen, Cecilia



Natural radionuclides in ceramic building materials available in Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu, India.  


The activity concentrations of radium, thorium and potassium can vary from material to material and they should be measured as the radiation is hazardous for human health. Thus, studies have been planned to obtain the radioactivity of ceramic building materials used in Cuddalore District, Tamilnadu, India. The radioactivity of some ceramic materials used in this region has been measured using a gamma-ray spectrometry, which contains an NaI(Tl) detector connected to multichannel analyzer. The specific activities of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, from the selected ceramic building materials, were in the range of 9.89-30.75, 24.68-70.4, 117.19-415.83 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The radium equivalent activity, absorbed gamma dose rate (D) and annual effective dose rate associated with the natural radionuclides are calculated to assess the radiation hazards of the natural radioactivity in the ceramic building materials. It was found that none of the results exceeds the recommended limit value. PMID:23567197

Rajamannan, B; Viruthagiri, G; Suresh Jawahar, K



Hydrogeochemical Modelling for Groundwater in Neyveli Aquifer, Tamil Nadu, India, Using PHREEQC: A Case Study  

SciTech Connect

Sophisticated geochemical models have been used to describe and predict the chemical behaviour of complex natural waters and also to protect the groundwater resources from future contamination. One such model is used to study the hydrogeochemical complexity in a mine area. Extraction of groundwater from the coastal aquifer has been in progress for decades to mine lignite in Neyveli. This extraction has developed a cone of depression around the mine site. This cone of depression is well established by the geochemical nature of groundwater in the region. 42 groundwater samples were collected in a definite pattern and they were analysed for major cations, anions and trace elements. The saturation index (SI) of the groundwater for carbonate, sulphate and silica minerals was studied and it has been correlated with the recharge and the discharge regions. The SI of alumino silicates has been used to decipher the stage of weathering. The SI{sub Gibbsite} - SI{sub K-feldspar} has been spatially distributed and the regions of discharge and recharge were identified. Then two flow paths A1 and A2 were identified and inverse modelling using PHREEQC were carried out to delineate the geochemical process that has taken place from recharge to discharge. The initial and final solutions in both the flow paths were correlated with the thermodynamic silicate stability diagrams of groundwater and it was found that the state of thermodynamic stability of the end solutions along the flow path were approaching similar states of equilibrium at the discharge.

Chidambaram, S.; Anandhan, P. [Annamalai University, Department of Earth Sciences (India); Prasanna, M. V., E-mail: [Curtin University, Department of Applied Geology, School of Engineering and Science (Malaysia); Ramanathan, AL. [Jawaharlal Nehru University, School of Environmental Sciences (India); Srinivasamoorthy, K. [Pondicherry University, Department of Earth Sciences, School of Physical, Chemical and Applied Sciences (India); Senthil Kumar, G. [HNB Garwhal University, Department of Geology (India)



Distribution patterns of natural radioactivity and delineation of anomalous radioactive zones using in situ radiation observations in Southern Tamil Nadu, India.  


In situ radiation measurements in the beach sectors and adjacent hinterlands and along rivers in the interiors of southern peninsular India were carried out using a portable radiation survey meter. A very high intrinsic anomalous radioactivity >26microGy/h has been observed in the hinterlands within a fresh quarry and weathered boulders in the syenite rock body around Puttetti in the western Kanyakumari district of southern Tamil Nadu. Over the weathered hillocks in the hinterlands adjacent to the coast around Inayam, Kurumpanai and Midalam, the in situ radiation measurements have also exhibited high radioactivity ranging from 4 to 22microGy/h which is significantly higher than the radiation exposure rates (RER) observed along the beach sectors at various locations from Chavara to Tuticorin (1-14microGy/h). The observed radiation levels are presumably the highest concentration in southern India and it is the first time that such a high intrinsic radiogenic source in the hinterlands is reported in southwest coast of India. It is also observed based on the laboratory analysis of samples and in situ radiation data that the rivers/channels in this region contain insignificant level of radioactivity concentration and hence they do not contribute much to the placer deposits on the beaches. The placer deposits associated with significant RER (both in situ observations as well as laboratory estimates from samples) in the beach sectors from Kadiapattanam to Inayam are inferred to be derived through the country rocks/weathered hillocks in the immediate hinterlands. PMID:16904260

Singh, H N; Shanker, D; Neelakandan, V N; Singh, V P



Determinants of Patient's Adherence to Hypertension Medications in a Rural Population of Kancheepuram District in Tamil Nadu, South India  

PubMed Central

Context: Non-communicable diseases, no longer a disease of the rich, impose a great threat in the developing nations due to demographic and epidemiological transition. This increasing burden of non-communicable diseases and their risk factors is worrisome. Adherence to hypertension (HT) medication is very important for improving the quality of life and preventing complications of HT. Aim: To study the factors determining adherence to HT medication. Settings and Design: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in a rural area of Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu, with a total population of around 16,005. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out over a period of 6 months (February-July) using a pre-structured and validated questionnaire. All eligible participants were selected by house-to-house survey and individuals not available on three consecutive visits were excluded from the study. The questionnaire included information on demographic characteristics, lifestyle habits, adherence to HT medication, blood pressure, and body mass index (BMI). Caste was classified based on Tamil Nadu Public Service commission. Statistical Analysis: Data were entered in MS Excel and analyzed in SPSS version 16. P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Ethical Consideration: Informed verbal consent was obtained prior to data collection. The patient's adherence to HT medication was assessed using the Morisky 4-Item Self-Report Measure of Medication-taking Behavior [MMAS-4]. Results: We studied 473 hypertensive patients of which 226 were males and 247 were females. The prevalence of adherence was 24.1% (n = 114) in the study population. Respondents with regular physical activity, non-smokers and non-alcoholics were more adherent to HT medication as compared with respondents with sedentary lifestyle, smoking and alcohol intake (P < 0.005). Based on health belief model, the respondents who perceived high susceptibility, severity, benefit had better adherence compared with moderate and low susceptibility, severity, benefit.

Venkatachalam, J.; Abrahm, Sherin Billy; Singh, Zile; Stalin, P.; Sathya, G. R.



Impact of leachate on groundwater pollution due to non-engineered municipal solid waste landfill sites of erode city, Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Leachate and groundwater samples were collected from Vendipalayam, Semur and Vairapalayam landfill sites in Erode city, Tamil Nadu, India, to study the possible impact of leachate percolation on groundwater quality. Concentrations of various physicochemical parameters including heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Fe and Zn) were determined in leachate samples and are reported. The concentrations of Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, NH4+ were found to be in considerable levels in the groundwater samples particularly near to the landfill sites, likely indicating that groundwater quality is being significantly affected by leachate percolation. Further they were proved to be the tracers for groundwater contamination near Semur and Vendipalayam dumpyards. The presence of contaminants in groundwater particularly near the landfill sites warns its quality and thus renders the associated aquifer unreliable for domestic water supply and other uses. Although some remedial measures are suggested to reduce further groundwater contamination via leachate percolation, the present study demands for the proper management of waste in Erode city. PMID:23369323



Mortality patterns and the effect of socioeconomic factors on mortality in rural Tamil Nadu, south India: a community-based cohort study.  


The importance of mortality data for assessing the health status of any population and for planning disease control and health promotional interventions is well established. A population-based cohort study was conducted in Kaniyambadi Block, a rural block in North Arcot District in Tamil Nadu, India, with a population of approximately 120,000 people living in 88 villages. The mortality rates, patterns and effect of socioeconomic factors on mortality were studied. The overall incidence of mortality in the study cohort was 7.3/1000 person-years, with higher rates of mortality among men than women. People with low socioeconomic status (SES) had almost two-fold higher mortality rates across all age groups compared with people with high SES. Deaths due to injuries and other external causes contributed 23.0% of all deaths, among which the low socioeconomic group had 56% excess cause-specific mortality compared with the high socioeconomic group. Standardised mortality ratios indicated that the low socioeconomic group had 25% excess mortality compared with the overall standard mortality. This study clearly shows that the low SES group had a significantly higher incidence of mortality due to all causes and among all age groups. PMID:19464719

Mohan, Venkata Raghava; Muliyil, J



Psychological Morbidity Status Among the Rural Geriatric Population of Tamil Nadu, India: A Cross-sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Mental health problems like depression, cognitive impairment, anxiety, sleep disorders, and so on, arising out of senility, neurosis, and living conditions are common in the geriatric population. Aims: To study the psychiatric morbidity among the rural elderly. Settings and Design: A community-based, cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted on 800 rural elderly subjects, aged 60 years and more, living in ten randomly selected villages, served by the Rural Health Training Center (RHTC), Valadi, in Tamilnadu state, India. Cognitive functioning was assessed by the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE), and the depression by the Geriatric Depression Scale — Shorter version. Statistical Analysis: The data was analyzed with SPSS 16 version statistical software using proportions, and the chi-square. Results: A majority of the subjects were widows / widowers, illiterates, living with family, and showing economic dependency. The prevalence of cognitive impairment was 43.25%, with a mean MMSE score of 23.32±4.4, and the depression was 47.0% and 6.16±3.4. Cognitive impairment, depression, and a disturbed sleep pattern were associated with female sex, age, illiteracy, poverty, loneliness, and the low socioeconomic status of the family. Conclusions: The study showed a definite association between the sociodemographic factors and psychiatric morbidity. Encouraging the Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) working for the elderly, running of separate geriatric clinics, and effective implementation of schemes like old age pension are some of the measures to be taken. PMID:23441084

Reddy, N. Bayapa; Pallavi, M.; Reddy, N. Nagarjuna; Reddy, C. Sainarasimha; Singh, Rajiv Kumar; Pirabu, R. A.



No CAG repeat expansion of polymerase gamma is associated with male infertility in Tamil Nadu, South India  

PubMed Central

Mitochondria contains a single deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) polymerase, polymerase gamma (POLG) mapped to long arm of chromosome 15 (15q25), responsible for replication and repair of mitochondrial DNA. Exon 1 of the human POLG contains CAG trinucleotide repeat, which codes for polyglutamate. Ten copies of CAG repeat were found to be uniformly high (0.88) in different ethnic groups and considered as the common allele, whereas the mutant alleles (not -10/not -10 CAG repeats) were found to be associated with oligospermia/oligoasthenospermia in male infertility. Recent data suggested the implication of POLG CAG repeat expansion in infertility, but are debated. The aim of our study was to explore whether the not -10/not -10 variant is associated with spermatogenic failure. As few study on Indian population have been conducted so far to support this view, we investigated the distribution of the POLG CAG repeats in 61 infertile men and 60 normozoospermic control Indian men of Tamil Nadu, from the same ethnic background. This analysis interestingly revealed that the homozygous wild type genotype (10/-10) was common in infertile men (77% - 47/61) and in normozoospermic control men (71.7% - 43/60). Our study failed to confirm any influence of the POLG gene polymorphism on the efficiency of the spermatogenesis. PMID:24339545

Poongothai, J.



Characterising rice-based farming systems to identify opportunities for adopting water efficient cultivation methods in Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient water use in rice cultivation is a prerequisite for sustaining food security for the rice consuming population of India. Novel rice production practices, including water-saving techniques, modifications in transplanting, spacing, weeding and nutrient management, have been developed and shown to be effective on farm, but adoption of these techniques by farmers has remained restricted. Potential constraints include technical difficulties

K. Senthilkumar; P. S. Bindraban; W. de Boer; N. de Ridder; T. M. Thiyagarajan; K. E. Giller



Hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality appraisal of part of south Chennai coastal aquifers, Tamil Nadu, India using WQI and fuzzy logic method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study was carried out to evaluate the groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking purposes in the urban coastal aquifers of part of south Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Twenty-three groundwater samples were collected during March 2012. The minimum and maximum values of pH (6.3-8 on scale), electrical conductivity (620-12,150 ?S/cm), total dissolved solids (399.28-7,824.6 mg/l), carbonate (0-30 mg/l), bicarbonate (0.9-58.9 mg/l), chloride (70.9-4,067.89 mg/l), sulphate (17.4-105 mg/l), nitrate (0.4-6.0 mg/l), calcium (30-200 mg/l), magnesium (1.2-164 mg/l), sodium (69-1,490 mg/l) and potassium (8-340 mg/l) were recorded in the coastal aquifers of Chennai city. The groundwater samples show that the majority of the sampling points clustered on the NaCl and mixed CaMgCl facies of the piper trilinear diagram. In the Gibbs diagram, the majority of the sampling points fall under rock water and evaporation dominance field. Fuzzy membership classification suggests that the majority of the samples fall under good water type followed by excellent water and poor water categories. Groundwater quality index showing the majority of the samples falls under excellent to poor category of water. A positive correlation was observed with Cl-, SO4 2-, Ca2+, Na+, K+, EC and TDS. The extracted results of the correlation matrix and geochemical analysis suggest that the dominant ions of groundwater (Na+, Ca2+, K+, Cl- and SO4 2-) were derived from seawater intrusion and gypsum dissolution process. Nitrate concentration is most significantly derived from anthropogenic sources.

Krishna Kumar, S.; Bharani, R.; Magesh, N. S.; Godson, Prince S.; Chandrasekar, N.



Impact of Implementation of NRHM Program on NMR in Tamil Nadu (TN): A Case Study.  


The Government of India had set up the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) in 2005 in an effort towards providing quality healthcare to the underserved rural areas and also to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015. While the trends in child and maternal mortality show great progress by India since 1990 with steady decline in Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) and Infant Mortality Rate (IMR), a comparison of the predicted trend and target of MDGs show that India would fall short by a few points. In contrast, Tamil Nadu has reached its MDGs and is ensuring sustained progress in reducing child and maternal mortality with an effective implementation of the various schemes of NRHM. Tamil Nadu leads the way in ensuring universal health coverage leveraging the expertise and funds of NRHM by providing round the clock services, introducing new and innovative programs to improve outcomes and regular monitoring of the functional operation and outcomes to ensure effective implementation. Adopting the features of the Tamil Nadu model of healthcare system that caters to their particular state and effectively implementing the initiatives of NRHM would help the other states in considerably reducing the child and maternal mortality and also ensure early achievement of MDGs by the nation. PMID:25398221

Kumutha, J; Chitra, N; Vidyasagar, Dharmapuri



Monsoon Harvests: Assessing the Impact of Rainwater Harvesting Ponds on Subsistence-Level Agriculture in the Gundar Basin, Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lack of consistent water availability for irrigated agriculture is recognized as one of the primary constraints to meeting the UN Millennium Development Goals to alleviate hunger, and in semi-arid landscapes such as those of southern India, which are characterized by high intra-annual variability in rainfall, provision of capabilities for seasonal storage is recognized to be one of the key strategies towards alleviating water scarcity problems and ensuring food security. Although the issue of increased storage can be addressed by centralized infrastructure projects such as large-scale irrigation systems and dams, an alternative is the "soft path" approach, in which existing large-scale projects are complemented by small-scale, decentralized solutions. Such a decentralized approach has been utilized in southern India for thousands of years in the form of village rainwater harvesting tanks or ponds, providing a local and inherently sustainable approach to providing sufficient water for rice cultivation. Over the last century, however, large-scale canal projects and groundwater pumping have replaced rainwater harvesting as the primary source of irrigation water. But with groundwater withdrawals now exceeding recharge in many areas and water tables continuing to drop, many NGOs and government agencies are advocating for a revival of the older rainwater harvesting systems. Questions remain, however, regarding the limits to which rainwater harvesting can provide a solution to decades of water overexploitation. In the present work, we have utilized secondary data sources to analyze the linkages between the tank irrigation systems and the village communities that depend on them within the Gundar Basin of southern Tamil Nadu. Combining socioeconomic data with information regarding climate, land use, groundwater depletion, and tank density, we have developed indicators of sustainability for these systems. Using these indicators, we have attempted to unravel the close coupling that exists between tanks, the village communities, and the natural landscape within which they are embedded. Preliminary results suggest that groundwater over-extraction is in many cases negatively impacting the ability of the rainwater harvesting ponds to provide a reliable water supply. In addition, while the social and economic benefits provided by these ponds reduce community vulnerability to variations in the region's yearly monsoons, there can be negative environmental impacts. Large-scale rainwater harvesting, similar to groundwater extraction, can change the overall water balance of a watershed, leading to a tradeoff of water availability between socioeconomic and ecosystem demands. Although traditional rainwater harvesting practices may appear to be more sustainable than the current high levels of groundwater pumping, the two practices carried out in tandem can increase water consumption even further, pushing the system closer to a threshold beyond which a profound crisis may loom.

Steiff, M.; Van Meter, K. J.; Basu, N. B.




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

On-farm sorghum ergot surveys were conducted in India in 1999, 2000 and 2001. A seven state area was surveyed including 250 fields in Andhra Pradesh, 451 fields in Karnataka, 413 fields in Maharashtra, 127 fields in Tamil Nadu, 3 in Rajasthan, 10 in Uttar Pradesh, and 1 in Gujarat. Ergot incidence ...


Assessment of water contribution on total fluoride intake of various age groups of people in fluoride endemic and non-endemic areas of Dindigul District, Tamil Nadu, South India.  


The prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the intake of large quantities of fluoride through water. It is necessary to determine the contribution of water used for drinking and food processing and other diet sources on daily fluoride intake for finding the ways to reduce the excess fluoride intake than the minimum safe level intake of 0.05 mg/kg/day. The main objectives of this study are to determine the quantitative impact of water through drinking and cooking of food and beverages on total fluoride intake as well as to estimate the contribution of commonly consumed diet sources on total fluoride intake. Contribution of water on daily fluoride intake and estimation of total fluoride intake through the diet sources were accomplished through analysis of fluoride in drinking water, solid and liquid food items, Infant formulae, tea and coffee infusions using fluoride ion selective electrode. Determination of incidence of fluorosis in different fluoride endemic areas in Dindigul District of Tamil Nadu, South India is achieved through clinical survey. The percentage of daily fluoride intake through water is significantly higher for infants than children, adults and old age groups of people. The percentile scores of fluoride intake through water from drinking and cooking increases with increase of water fluoride level. The rate of prevalence of fluorosis is higher in adolescent girls and females than adolescent boys and males residing in high fluoride endemic areas. More than 60% of the total fluoride intake per day derived from water used for drinking and food processing. Hence the people residing in the fluoride endemic areas in Dindigul District of Tamil Nadu, South India are advised to take serious concern about the fluoride level of water used for drinking and cooking to avoid further fluorosis risks. PMID:20728198

Viswanathan, Gopalan; Gopalakrishnan, S; Siva Ilango, S



Partners in Democracy: India and the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background on the historical connections between India and the United States and compares their political systems. Offers a number of learning activities designed to promote better understanding between India and the United States. (BSR)

Turkovich, Marilyn



Consistent condom use with regular, paying, and casual male partners and associated factors among men who have sex with men in Tamil Nadu, India: findings from an assessment of a large-scale HIV prevention program  

PubMed Central

Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) are a marginalized population at high risk for HIV infection. Promoting consistent condom use (CCU) during anal sex is a key risk reduction strategy for HIV prevention among MSM. To inform effective HIV prevention interventions, we examined the factors associated with CCU among MSM with their regular, paying, and casual partners, as well as with all three types of partners combined. Methods Data for this analysis were from a large-scale bio-behavioural survey conducted during 2009–2010 in Tamil Nadu, India. MSM aged 18 years or older were recruited for the survey using time-location cluster sampling at cruising sites in four districts of Tamil Nadu. Binary logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association of CCU with selected socio-demographic characteristics and other contextual factors. Results Among 1618 MSM interviewed, CCU during anal sex with regular, paying, and a casual male partner was 45.3%, 50.8% and 57.9%, respectively. CCU with all three types of partners combined was 52.6%. Characteristics associated with increased odds for CCU with MSM having all three types of partners combined were frequent receptive anal sex acts with regular partners (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-4.65), fewer number of casual partners (AOR 3.41, 95% CI 1.50-7.73) and membership in a community-based organization (CBO) for MSM (AOR 3.54, 95% CI 1.62-7.74). CCU with regular partners was associated with membership in a CBO (AOR 1.96, 95% CI 1.23-3.11), whereas CCU with paying, and casual male partners was associated with perceived higher risk of acquiring HIV (AOR 1.92, 95% CI 1.22-3.01) and exposure to any HIV prevention intervention (AOR 3.62, 95% CI 1.31-10.0), respectively. Being aged 26 years or older, being in debt, and alcohol use were factors associated with inconsistent condom use across partner types. Conclusion HIV interventions among MSM need to promote CCU with all types (regular, paying, and causal) of male partners, and need to reach MSM across all age groups. In addition to enhancing interventions that focus on individual level risk reduction, it is important to undertake structural interventions that promote social acceptance of same-sex sexuality and address contextual barriers to condom use such as alcohol use. PMID:24020613



Analysis of Social Aspects of Migrant Labourers Living With HIV/AIDS Using Fuzzy Theory and Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps: With Special Reference to Rural Tamil Nadu in India  

E-print Network

This book has seven chapters. The first chapter is introductory in nature and it speaks about the migrant labourers. In chapter two we use Fuzzy Cognitive Maps to analyze the socio-economic problems of HIV/AIDS infected migrant labourers in rural areas of Tamil Nadu. In chapter three we analyze the role played by the government helping these migrant labourers with HIV/AIDS and factors of migration and their vulnerability in catching HIV/AIDS. For the first time Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps are used in the study of migrant labourers who have become HIV/AIDS victims. This study is done in Chapter IV. In chapter V we use Neutrosophic Relational Maps and we define some new neutrosophic tools like Combined Disjoint Block FRM, Combined Overlap NRM and linked NRM. We adopt these new techniques in the study and analysis of this problem. Chapter VI gives a very brief sketch of the life history of these 60 HIV/AIDS infected migrant labourers so that people from different social and cultural backgrounds follow our analysis. The last chapter gives suggestions and conclusions based on our study.

W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache



An environmental perspective of the post-tsunami scenario along the coast of Tamil Nadu, India: role of sand dunes and forests.  


An endeavor to feel the pulse of a coast devastated by a powerful oceanographic event is made. Results of field investigations along Tamil Nadu seaside revealed that the tsunami of December 2004 demolished dwellings within strips ranging from 6 to 132 m (average width, 41 m) from the dune, and flooded up to 862 m (average, 247 m) from the shore. The event damaged sand dunes, ripped dune vegetation, created new water bodies and shattered high value assets. Comparatively, casuarina forests performed remarkably. Uprooting of trees was exclusively restricted to a frontal strip ranging from 5 to 25 m (average width, 14 m) nearest to the shore where the maximum wave run-up was 6.5m above sea level. Sand dunes in general, and casuarina forests in particular, possess an innate capacity to dissipate powerful waves. This inference is supported by (a) negligible over wash along belts characterized by high dune complexes, (b) intact villages shielded by dense forests as well as sand dunes, and (c) maximum destruction of open beach front influenced by intense human activity. In this context, the coastal regulation zone (CRZ) Notification of 1991 offers sufficient scientific validity to be endorsed. However, post-tsunami ecosystem management initiatives lack a scientific basis. Therefore, a coastal hazards policy, that considers adaptation, dune restoration and forested buffer zones, is a sustainable long-term option for Indian coasts. PMID:17517466

Mascarenhas, Antonio; Jayakumar, Seelam




Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT A complete and updated series on poverty measures for India is presented spanning the period 1951–1994. The series are presented at the all-India level as well as for 15 major states, and for rural and urban sectors separately. Key features of the evolution of poverty in India are described. CONTENTS

Gaurav Datt


Marital Status, Family Ties, and Self-rated Health Among Elders In South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the impact of familial social support ties (indicated by marital status, kin availability, sources of\\u000a economic support, and frequency and quality of emotional interaction) on subjective health perception among a sample of elderly\\u000a men and women aged 60 and older in South India. We used 1993 survey data from three states of South India: Kerala, Tamil Nadu,

S. Sudha; Chirayath Suchindran; Elizabeth J. Mutran; S. Irudaya Rajan; P. Sankara Sarma



Japanese encephalitis in south Arcot district, Tamil Nadu, India: a three-year longitudinal study of vector abundance and infection frequency.  


In the South Arcot district, an area endemic for Japanese encephalitis in Tamil Nadu, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles, Culex vishnui Theobald, Culex gelidus Theobald and Culex fuscocephala Theobald constituted 93.6% of 422,621 adult females representing 27 culicine species collected between August 1991 and July 1994. Vector abundance was lowest in the hot and dry season (April-June) and highest in the cool and wet season (October-December). Overall, 285,531 adult female mosquitoes (5,710 pools) were tested for virus using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or by inoculation into larvae of Toxorhynchites splendens Wiedemann and identification by immunofluorescent test using JE virus specific monoclonal antibody or by both. In total, 91 isolations were made, of which 80 (88%) were identified as JE virus; 58 isolations were from Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, 22 from Cx. vishnui, 6 from Cx. fuscocephala and 5 from Cx. gelidus, giving similar minimum infection rates (MIR) of 0.28, 0.41, 0.39, and 0.52, respectively. Vector abundance and MIR increased from July concurrently with the initiation of rice cultivation. MIR peaked in September followed by a decrease in October, but mosquitoes remained abundant until March. The decrease in MIR from October onward coincided with rising herd immunity in pigs. Although MIRs in October (0.47) and November (0.42) were lower than in September (0.92), a comparable high risk of infection for humans continued because of high vector abundance and human biting rates. In the South Arcot district, the probability of a child receiving an infective bite was 0.53 per JE transmission season. PMID:9439119

Gajanana, A; Rajendran, R; Samuel, P P; Thenmozhi, V; Tsai, T F; Kimura-Kuroda, J; Reuben, R



HLA-DRB1*, -DQB1* in Piramalai Kallars and Yadhavas, two Dravidian-speaking castes of Tamil Nadu, South India.  


Two Dravidian-speaking castes of Tamil Nadu, Piramalai Kallars (PKs, n = 205) and Yadhavas (YDs, n = 239) and a random panel (84) were studied for HLA-DRB1* and -DQB1* polymorphisms by DNA-SSOP typing methods. XI and XII International Histocompatibility primers and non-radioactive-labelled oligo probes were employed to identify the alleles. Results revealed that PKs possessed >0.1 allele frequencies of HLA-DRB1*15011, 0301, -DQB1*0201, 0501 and 0601; YDs, HLA-DRB1*0301, 0401, 07 and -DQB1*0601; and the random panel, DRB1*15021, 0401, 07, -DQB1 0201, 0301, 0302 and 0501. The highest frequency of DRB1*1501 in the world (GF = 0.225) was found in PKs. The most frequent two-locus haplotype (>500/10,000) in all the study samples was DRB1*10-DQB1*0501, while 1501-0601 was frequent in PKs and YDs. Comparison of the HLA-DRB1* data with Eastern European and South-East Asian populations suggested migration as the prime cause of the observed diversity in DRB1* allele frequencies. Nonetheless, the heterozygocity test and Watterson's homozygosity test indicated that balancing selection still operates on HLA-DRB1* locus, in this endemic region of various infectious diseases. This and spatial autocorrelation analysis support the view that selection may be a cause of "generating" new variants and allelic diversity in different ancient settlements. The study suggested that South Indian, inbred, endogamous, sympatrically isolated castes or similar well-defined breeding isolates around the world, living under the same milieu-epidemiology, may be ideal models to test the immunogenetic basis of disease susceptibility. PMID:12823769

Shanmugalakshmi, S; Balakrishnan, K; Manoharan, K; Pitchappan, R M



The Downside of Patriarchal Benevolence: Ambivalence in Addressing Domestic Violence and SocioEconomic Considerations for Women of Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social values and status cause diverse obstacles for escaping abuse (e.g., belief in the sanctity of marriage vs. financial\\u000a necessity to stay for survival). India provides a unique opportunity to explore the interplay of status and corresponding\\u000a patriarchal values in relation to the incidence of domestic violence and how it is viewed, coped with, and psychologically\\u000a impacting native women. Sixty-four

Lauren L. Tichy; Judith V. Becker; Melissa M. Sisco





In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the exception of the 1977-79 period of Janta Party rule. Domestically, India has made much progress since independnece. A relatively sophisticated industrial base and a large pool of skilled labor have been created, but agriculture remains the crucial sector and supports 70% of the people. It contributes about 40% of gross national product (GNP). Only modest gains in per capita GNP have been achieved. Agricultural production has been increasing at an average annual rate of around 3%. Cotton and jute textile production continues to be the most important industry, but public sector firms in steel, heavy industry, and chemicals have become important since 1960. Supreme command of India's armed forces rests with the president but actual responsibility for national defense lies with the Cabinet Committee for Political Affairs. The US and India have aimed at cordial relations. The US is India's largest trading partner and has been an important source of foreign economic assistance. PMID:12178110



Trace element geochemistry of river sediment, Orissa State, India  

E-print Network

Trace element geochemistry of river sediment, Orissa State, India K.O. Konhausera , M.A. Powellb analyses of bottom sediment from rivers flowing through Orissa State, India indi- cated that trace element% of the allochthonous sediments (Subramanian, 1979). In contrast, the major southern Peninsular rivers (i.e. Krishna

Konhauser, Kurt


Kerala State, India: radical reform as development.  


Kerala State in southwestern India has achieved some of the third world's best rates of life expectancy, literacy, and infant mortality, despite one of the lowest per capita incomes. Especially notable is the nearly equal distribution of development benefits to urban, rural, male, female, high-caste, and low-caste sections of the populations. An even population distribution, a cosmopolitan trading history, and the development of militant worker and small farmer organizations led by dedicated activists provide the main explanations for Kerala's achievements. Land reform has redistributed wealth and political power from a rich elite to small holders and landless laborers. Public food distribution at controlled prices, large-scale public health actions, accessible medical facilities, and widespread literacy combine with and reinforce each other to maintain and expand Kerala's achievements. Serious unemployment threatens the Kerala experiment, but Kerala nonetheless offers important lessons to development planners, policymakers, and third world activists. PMID:1735622

Franke, R W; Chasin, B H



Lymphatic filariasis in Madras, India.  


This study examines the state of mosquito-borne lymphatic filariasis in Madras, Tamil Nadu, in southern India during the 1970s and into the 1980s. In its various forms it remains a public health problem of considerable magnitude in many tropical countries and affects both rural and urban populations [1. World Health Organization (Third Report). Expert Committee on Filariasis. Tech. Rep. Ser. No. 542, p. 7, 1974]. Here problems of delimiting the spatial extent of morbidity in Madras are discussed and sample survey data are examined which suggest that the disease is prevalent throughout the city to varying extents and that community health education is still inadequate. PMID:2814584

Hyma, B; Ramesh, A; Gunasekaran, K



Metabolic Variations, Antioxidant Potential, and Antiviral Activity of Different Extracts of Eugenia singampattiana (an Endangered Medicinal Plant Used by Kani Tribals, Tamil Nadu, India) Leaf  

PubMed Central

Eugenia singampattiana is an endangered medicinal plant used by the Kani tribals of South India. The plant had been studied for its antioxidant, antitumor, antihyperlipidemic, and antidiabetic activity. But its primary and secondary metabolites profile and its antiviral properties were unknown, and so this study sought to identify this aspect in Eugenia singampattiana plant through different extraction methods along with their activities against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The GC-MS analysis revealed that 11 primary metabolites showed significant variations among the extracts. Except for fructose all other metabolites were high with water extract. Among 12 secondary metabolites showing variations, the levels of 4-hydroxy benzoic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, ferulic acid, coumaric acid, epigallocatechin gallate, quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol were high with methanol extract. Since the flavonoid content of methanol extracts was high, the antioxidant potential, such as ABTS, and phosphomolybdenum activity increased. The plants antiviral activity against PRRSV was for the first time confirmed and the results revealed that methanol 25?µg and 75 to 100?µg in case of water extracts revealed antiviral activity. PMID:25133179

John, K. M. Maria; Jeeva, Subbiah; Suresh, Murugesan; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Kim, Doo Hwan



Metabolic variations, antioxidant potential, and antiviral activity of different extracts of Eugenia singampattiana (an endangered medicinal plant used by Kani tribals, Tamil Nadu, India) leaf.  


Eugenia singampattiana is an endangered medicinal plant used by the Kani tribals of South India. The plant had been studied for its antioxidant, antitumor, antihyperlipidemic, and antidiabetic activity. But its primary and secondary metabolites profile and its antiviral properties were unknown, and so this study sought to identify this aspect in Eugenia singampattiana plant through different extraction methods along with their activities against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The GC-MS analysis revealed that 11 primary metabolites showed significant variations among the extracts. Except for fructose all other metabolites were high with water extract. Among 12 secondary metabolites showing variations, the levels of 4-hydroxy benzoic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, ferulic acid, coumaric acid, epigallocatechin gallate, quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol were high with methanol extract. Since the flavonoid content of methanol extracts was high, the antioxidant potential, such as ABTS, and phosphomolybdenum activity increased. The plants antiviral activity against PRRSV was for the first time confirmed and the results revealed that methanol 25?µg and 75 to 100?µg in case of water extracts revealed antiviral activity. PMID:25133179

John, K M Maria; Ayyanar, Muniappan; Jeeva, Subbiah; Suresh, Murugesan; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Kim, Doo Hwan



Temporal variation in the susceptibility of Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae) to Japanese encephalitis virus in an endemic area of Tamil Nadu, South India.  


The study area, Cuddalore, is one of the endemic districts for Japanese encephalitis (JE) in southern India and there is a strong seasonality in JE case incidence, as well as JE virus (JEV) infection in the principal vector Culex (Culex) tritaeniorhynchus Giles. In a longitudinal 3-year study (July 2003 to June 2006), we determined the susceptibility of wild-caught female Cx. tritaeniorhynchus for JEV infection over several seasons from several villages. The susceptibility varied in all four seasons with the lowest value (4.82 geometric mean [GM]) in hot and wet seasons and highest (13.22 GM) in cool and wet seasons. Infection rate was significant between seasons (7.08-11.85 GM) and years (4.82-13.22 GM). Although the vector was abundant throughout the year, with an average per man-hour density ranging from 58 to 652, the JEV infection rates showed no correlation with vector abundance during different seasons in the index villages. The temporal and spatial changes in the competency of the vector appeared to influence the JEV infection rate in vector, which may at least partially explain the seasonality in JEV human cases in the study area. PMID:20426689

Samuel, Pauiraj Philip; Arunachalam, Natarajan; Rajendran, Rathinasamy; Leo, Soosaimanickam Victor Jerold; Ayanar, Krishnan; Balasubramaniam, Ramakrishnan; Tyagi, Brij Kishore



Outbreak of Kyasanur Forest disease in Thirthahalli, Karnataka, India, 2014.  


Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV) was first identified in 1957, when it was isolated from a sick monkey from the Kyasanur Forest in Karnataka State, India. Since then it has been reported to be enzootic in five districts of Karnataka State, India. Recent reports of human infections have reached an alarming level, in spite of the availability of a vaccine. This disease has also been reported from new areas, such as Tamil Nadu and Kerala State. During January-March 2014, KFDV-positive cases were detected in Thirthahalli taluk, Shimoga District, Karnataka State, India. Here, we report an outbreak of Kyasanur Forest disease occurring in the Kannangi and Konandur area, Thirthahalli taluk in Karnataka State, India, with sporadic cases from eight other areas. PMID:25063021

Yadav, Pragya D; Shete, Anita M; Patil, Deepak Y; Sandhya, V K; Prakash, K S; Surgihalli, Rajesh; Mourya, Devendra T



Maxillofacial trauma in Tamil Nadu children and adolescents: A retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim of this retrospective study is to describe the incidence, aetiology, complexity and surgical indications of maxillofacial injuries in children and adolescents population of Tamil Nadu state of india during period of 4 years. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was conducted among 500 children and adolescents patients of age group 6 years to 16 years suffered or suffering with maxillofacial and skull fractures presenting to ten Level I trauma centers over a 4 year period.The data collected for this study included age, gender, etiology, associated maxillofacial trauma, anatomic site of fracture and treatment. Results and Conclusion: In our study the most common cause of trauma was traffic 35%, followed by falls 24% and sports 22%. Mandible was commenest bone prone to fracture, followed by maxilla and nasal bone. Mandible fractures accounted for 72% of all maxillofacial fractures. PMID:23946572

Arvind, Ramraj Jayabalan; Narendar, Ramesh; Kumar, Palanisamy Dinesh; Venkataraman, Sivasubramaniam; Gokulanathan, Subramanium





In 1988, India's population stood at 817 million, 25% of which was concentrated in urban areas. The annual rate of population growth is 2.01%. Life expectancy is currently 56 years, and infant mortality is 90/1000 live births. Education is compulsory to the age of 14 years, but the adult literacy rate is only 36%. Of the work force of 300 million, 70% are engaged in agriculture, 19% are in industry and commerce, 8% work in the services and government sector, and 3% are employed in transport and communications. India's gross national product currently stands at US$246 billion, with a real growth rate of 1.8% and a per capita income of $313. Although India is a federal republic, its central government has greater power in relation to its states than is the case in the US and there is a parliamentary system. Nonetheless, some states have been revitalizing traditional village councils and introducing grassroots democracy at the village level. A relatively sophisticated industrial base and pool of skilled labor have emerged since India achieved independence, although agriculture remains the crucial economic sector. There was a surge in agricultural production in the late 1960s and early 1970s as a result of the "green revolution" that made India largely self-sufficient in grain production through the use of hybrid seeds, irrigation, and fertilizer. However, failed monsoons and severe drought conditions have created fluctuations in the output of the agricultural sector in recent years. Gradual deregulation of industry and trade is providing increased incentives for foreign trade, and the Indian Government is encouraging collaborations that involve the transfer of high technology. PMID:12177992



Water Management To Meet Challenges In Food Production ­ An Example From South India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Demands for food and water have been increasing with fast increasing population in many developing countries. Availability of water and fertile land, the two basic requirements for food production do not meet together in certain regions. In such regions, cooperation and efficient management practices can solve the problem to a good extend. The southern states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu of India are divided by the mountain chains, the Western Ghats the orography of which makes Kerala one among the heaviest rainfall region in the World itself and Tamil Nadu a scanty rainfall region. Kerala receives more than 300cm average annual rainfall, giving birth to a number of perennial rivers and other water bodies whereas Tamil Nadu receives rainfall less than100cm. Most of the rivers of Tamil Nadu are seasonal and it depends on interstate water transfer to face the permanent water shortage. Owing to the high density of population, peculiar topography and soil types, agricultural production in Kerala is quite inadequate and the State depends on neighbouring States, especially Tamil Nadu for rice and vegetables, but not willing to share water. According to the Constitution of India, control of rivers is by individual states and this often leads to transboundary water disputes that retard development activities. Around 80% of the rainfall of Kerala wastefully flows into the Sea, when there is acute water shortage in Tamil Nadu. All the rivers in Kerala originate in the Ghats and its steep slopes makes more water storage difficult. Cooperation among the States become essential for meeting the increasing needs in water and food. If some of the water from the catchments in Kerala is diverted into Tamil Nadu, and the States can do joint agriculture, it can meet the challenges due to increase in population and environmental changes and minimize unemployment problems. Water diversion to Tamil Naduwill reduce flood damage and soil erosion in Kerala. The existing socio-economic conditions in these States can be effectively utilised for the overall development. The present research paper is an assessment of the water and food situation in this region, in view of increasing needs associated with rise in population and change in environment. Detailed analysis of the water surpluses and deficiencies has been made using water balance model and suggestions for the better management have been presented.

Shadananan, K.



PubMed Central

Nilgiri District, Tamil Nadu is one of the most botanised areas of southern India. In spite of it a number of wild plants had been missed by previous collectors. In addition a number of exotics and ornamentals having importance in alternative systems of medicine like Homoeopathy and Unani have not been collected and preserved as herbarium records. The present paper lists 36 species of wild plants and 69 species of exotics. Their areas of occurrence, phonological data, accession numbers, and names of collectors have been given. PMID:22556568

Baburaj, D. Suresh; Nain, S. S.; Rajan, S.



Broken People: Caste Violence Against India's "Untouchables"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Even though "the imposition of social disabilities on persons by reason of their birth in certain castes" was legally abolished under India's constitution in 1950, "untouchability" is still practiced today in much of rural India. The "untouchable" caste -- or Dalits, which literally means "broken people" -- comprises over one-sixth of India's population, or 160 million people. This 310-page report, recently issued by Human Rights Watch (HRW), documents the discrimination and violence suffered by Dalits under the societal rule of higher-caste groups in the Indian states of Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Gujarat. The report also examines the government's role in preserving the status quo by thwarting peaceful social activism and failing to abolish exploitative labor practices through appropriate legislation.


Molecular Characterization of Geographically Different Banana bunchy top virus Isolates in India.  


Banana bunchy top disease (BBTD) caused by Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is one of the most devastating diseases of banana and poses a serious threat for cultivars like Hill Banana (Syn: Virupakshi) and Grand Naine in India. In this study, we have cloned and sequenced the complete genome comprised of six DNA components of BBTV infecting Hill Banana grown in lower Pulney hills, Tamil Nadu State, India. The complete genome sequence of this hill banana isolate showed high degree of similarity with the corresponding sequences of BBTV isolates originating from Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh State, India, and from Fiji, Egypt, Pakistan, and Australia. In addition, sixteen coat protein (CP) and thirteen replicase genes (Rep) sequences of BBTV isolates collected from different banana growing states of India were cloned and sequenced. The replicase sequences of 13 isolates showed high degree of similarity with that of South Pacific group of BBTV isolates. However, the CP gene of BBTV isolates from Shervroy and Kodaikanal hills of Tamil Nadu showed higher amino acid sequence variability compared to other isolates. Another hill banana isolate from Meghalaya state had 23 nucleotide substitutions in the CP gene but the amino acid sequence was conserved. This is the first report of the characterization of a complete genome of BBTV occurring in the high altitudes of India. Our study revealed that the Indian BBTV isolates with distinct geographical origins belongs to the South Pacific group, except Shervroy and Kodaikanal hill isolates which neither belong to the South Pacific nor the Asian group. PMID:23637489

Selvarajan, R; Mary Sheeba, M; Balasubramanian, V; Rajmohan, R; Dhevi, N Lakshmi; Sasireka, T



77 FR 7132 - Request for Applicants for the Appointment to the United States-India CEO Forum  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Applicants for the Appointment to the United States- India CEO Forum AGENCY: Market Access and Compliance...2005, the Governments of the United States and India established the U.S.-India CEO Forum. This notice announces membership...



78 FR 65290 - Request for Applicants for the Appointment to the United States-India CEO Forum  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Applicants for the Appointment to the United States- India CEO Forum AGENCY: Global Markets, International...2005, the Governments of the United States and India established the U.S.-India CEO Forum. On February 10, 2012, we...



Tamil Nadu Budget Speech: 2012-13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speech of Thiru O. Panneerselvam, Hon’ble Minister for Finance, Government of Tamil Nadu, presenting the Budget for the year 2012-2013 to the Legislative Assembly on 26th March, 2012. [Government of Tamil Nadu]. URL:[http:\\/\\/\\/budget\\/budgetspeech_e_2012_2013.pdf].



State Level Fiscal Reforms in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a steep deterioration in State finances during the last decade as evidenced by sharp increases in revenue, fiscal and primary deficits, increases in their indebtedness and contingent liabilities, and decline in capital and maintenance expenditures. Low buoyancy of central transfers and spillover of central pay revisions have had the most adverse impact on State finances. However, the

M. Govinda Rao



ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This text examines India's rich and long history, then uses this perspective to focus on present day problems and aspirations. It forces students to reevaluate their stereotyped images of India by presenting a nation that has striven to recover from a past of colonial domination, is presently faced with regional ethnic discord and disparity, and…

Semaan, Leslie


Empirical Analysis of the Variability of Wind Generation in India: Implications for Grid Integration  

SciTech Connect

We analyze variability in load and wind generation in India to assess its implications for grid integration of large scale wind projects using actual wind generation and load data from two states in India, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. We compare the largest variations in load and net load (load ?wind, i.e., load after integrating wind) that the generation fleet has to meet. In Tamil Nadu, where wind capacity is about 53percent of the peak demand, we find that the additional variation added due to wind over the current variation in load is modest; if wind penetration reaches 15percent and 30percent by energy, the additional hourly variation is less than 0.5percent and 4.5percent of the peak demand respectively for 99percent of the time. For wind penetration of 15percent by energy, Tamil Nadu system is found to be capable of meeting the additional ramping requirement for 98.8percent of the time. Potential higher uncertainty in net load compared to load is found to have limited impact on ramping capability requirements of the system if coal plants can me ramped down to 50percent of their capacity. Load and wind aggregation in Tamil Nadu and Karnataka is found to lower the variation by at least 20percent indicating the benefits geographic diversification. These findings suggest modest additional flexible capacity requirements and costs for absorbing variation in wind power and indicate that the potential capacity support (if wind does not generate enough during peak periods) may be the issue that has more bearing on the economics of integrating wind

Phadke, Amol; Abhyankar, NIkit; Rao, Poorvi



Enabling Housing Cooperatives: Policy Lessons from Sweden, India and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Housing cooperatives became active in urban areas in Sweden, India and the United States during the interwar period. Yet, after the second world war, while housing cooperatives grew phenomenally nationwide in Sweden and India, they did not do so in the United States. This article makes a comparative institutional analysis of the evolution of housing cooperatives in these three countries.




Information systems for rabies control in Tamil Nadu Authors Introduction & Objectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction \\\\& Objectives Recent reports suggest that Tamil Nadu has made a coordinated effort for rabies control through state-wide population level interventions on the human as well as animal side. Experience from other LMIC countries that have managed to eliminate rabies demonstrates the importance of having a robust surveillance system to inform and monitor rabies control interventions. This study aims

Manish Kakkar; Syed Shahid Abbas



Jasminum sambac flower absolutes from India and China--geographic variations.  


Seven Jasminum sambac flower absolutes from different locations in the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu were analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Focus was placed on 41 key ingredients to investigate geographic variations in this species. These seven absolutes were compared with an Indian bud absolute and commercially available J. sambac flower absolutes from India and China. All absolutes showed broad variations for the 10 main ingredients between 8% and 96%. In addition, the odor of Indian and Chinese J. sambac flower absolutes were assessed. PMID:22799098

Braun, Norbert A; Sim, Sherina



Impact of targeted interventions on heterosexual transmission of HIV in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Targeted interventions (TIs) have been a major strategy for HIV prevention in India. We evaluated the impact of TIs on HIV\\u000a prevalence in high HIV prevalence southern states (Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A quasi-experimental approach was used to retrospectively compare changes in HIV prevalence according to the intensity of\\u000a targeted intervention implementation. Condom gap (number of condoms

Rajesh Kumar; Sanjay M Mehendale; Samiran Panda; S Venkatesh; PVM Lakshmi; Manmeet Kaur; Shankar Prinja; Tarundeep Singh; Navkiran K Virdi; Pankaj Bahuguna; Arun K Sharma; Samiksha Singh; Sheela V Godbole; Arun Risbud; Boymkesh Manna; V Thirumugal; Tarun Roy; Ruchi Sogarwal; Nilesh D Pawar



Emotional Expression and Control in School-Age Children in India and the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study compared 6- to 9-year-old children's reports of their decisions to express anger, sadness, and physical pain; methods of controlling and communicating felt emotion; and reasons for doing so in response to hypothetical situations across three groups: old-city India (n = 60), suburban India (n = 60), and suburban United States (n =…

Wilson, Stephanie L.; Raval, Vaishali V.; Salvina, Jennifer; Raval, Pratiksha H.; Panchal, Ila N.



Mending the seams of an Urban Patchwork Quilt : achieving an 'Ordered Chaos' in temple towns of Southern India  

E-print Network

Historically rich and culturally vibrant, the city of Mylapore (located in Tamil Nadu) is a prominent temple town of Southern India, in which the Kapaleeshwarar Temple is treasured. The analysis of this town, in relation ...

Rajaraman, Harini S



Prevalence of and risk factors for hypertension in urban and rural India: the ICMR-INDIAB study.  


The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of hypertension (HTN) and its risk factors in urban and rural India. In Phase I of the Indian Council of Medical Research-India Diabetes (ICMR-INDIAB) study, individuals aged ?20 years were surveyed using a stratified multistage sampling design, in three states (Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and Jharkhand) and one union territory (Chandigarh) of India. Blood pressure was measured in all study subjects (n=14?059). HTN was defined as systolic blood pressure ?140?mm?Hg, and/or DBP ?90?mm?Hg and/or use of antihypertensive drugs. Overall age-standardized prevalence of HTN was 26.3% (self-reported: 5.5%; newly detected: 20.8%). Urban residents of Tamil Nadu, Jharkhand, Chandigarh and Maharashtra (31.5, 28.9, 30.7 and 28.1%) had significantly higher prevalence of HTN compared with rural residents (26.2, 21.7, 19.8 and 24.0%, respectively). Multivariate regression analysis showed that age, male gender, urban residence, generalized obesity, diabetes, physical inactivity and alcohol consumption were significantly associated with HTN. Salt intake ?6.5?g per day, showed significantly higher risk for HTN (odds ratio: 1.4, 95% confidence interval: 1.0-1.9, P=0.042) even after adjusting for confounding variables. In conclusion, prevalence of undiagnosed HTN is high in India and this calls for regular screening. PMID:25078490

Bhansali, A; Dhandania, V K; Deepa, M; Anjana, R M; Joshi, S R; Joshi, P P; Madhu, S V; Rao, P V; Subashini, R; Sudha, V; Unnikrishnan, R; Das, A K; Shukla, D K; Kaur, T; Mohan, V; Pradeepa, R



Parallel cousin marriages in Madras, Tamil Nadu: new trends in Dravidian kinship.  


The frequency distribution of various consanguineous marriages was studied in the city of Madras, Tamil Nadu, South India. Parallel first cousin marriages (PFC) were found to occur in appreciable frequencies in all caste groups of Hindus. While it has been generally believed that PFC marriages among Hindus are mere exceptions and are usually not tolerated, our data show that they can no longer be treated as exceptions. The high frequency (27 per cent) of PFC marriages in some Hindu communities necessitates in-depth studies to elucidate the forces at work which go against the very fundamentals of Dravidian kinship. PMID:2629111

Ramesh, A; Srikumari, C R; Sukumar, S




Microsoft Academic Search

Agronomic research on cassava in India during the past three decades was instrumental in the development of management practices that led to substantial increases in yield, mainly in Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Research efforts have recently focused on the development of low-input technologies with special emphasis on the identification of genotypes adapted to low-input conditions, the utilization of locally available

T. V. R. Nayar; G. Suja; K. Susan John; V. Ravi


Meningococcal Meningitis C in Tamil Nadu, Public Health Perspectives  

PubMed Central

Meningococcal meningitis has rarely been reported in Tamil Nadu. We report here two children diagnosed with meningococcal meningitis in Vellore, Tamil Nadu, on May 2014. The causative strain was Neisseria meningitidis serotype C. The role of the primary care physician in early diagnosis, appropriate referral, and preventive measures of this disease to the immediate family and community is stressed.

David, Kirubah Vasandhi; Pricilla, Ruby Angeline; Thomas, Beeson



Effects of state-level public spending on health on the mortality probability in India.  


This study uses the second National Family Health Survey of India to estimate the effect of state-level public health spending on mortality across all age groups, controlling for individual, household, and state-level covariates. We use a state's gross fiscal deficit as an instrument for its health spending. Our study shows a 10% increase in public spending on health in India decreases the average probability of death by about 2%, with effects mainly on the young, the elderly, and women. Other major factors affecting mortality are rural residence, household poverty, and access to toilet facilities. PMID:19937613

Farahani, Mansour; Subramanian, S V; Canning, David



Hot springs and the geothermal energy potential of Jammu & Kashmir State, N.W. Himalaya, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

India has an estimated geothermal power potential of 10,600 MWe, but this potential is entirely undeveloped at present. The 'Geothermal Atlas of India' prepared by the Geological Survey of India (GSI) in 1991 describes some 340 hot spring sites and identifies more than 300 sites with geothermal potential in at least seven key geothermal provinces throughout India. There are more than 20 hot spring sites in Jammu & Kashmir State, mainly in the Chenab Valley in the Lesser/Central Himalaya, the Kashmir Valley and in the High Himalaya region of Ladakh. At least three localities in the Ladakh region - Chamuthang and Puga in the Indus valley and Panamik in the Nubra Valley - are considered to have geothermal power generation potential of between 3 and > 20 MWe.

Craig, J.; Absar, A.; Bhat, G.; Cadel, G.; Hafiz, M.; Hakhoo, N.; Kashkari, R.; Moore, J.; Ricchiuto, T. E.; Thurow, J.; Thusu, B.



Enabling Efficient, Responsive, and Resilient Buildings: Collaboration Between the United States and India  

SciTech Connect

The United States and India have among the largest economies in the world, and they continue to work together to address current and future challenges in reliable electricity supply. The acceleration to efficient, grid-responsive, resilient buildings represents a key energy security objective for federal and state agencies in both countries. The weaknesses in the Indian grid system were manifest in 2012, in the country’s worst blackout, which jeopardized the lives of half of India’s 1.2 billion people. While both countries are investing significantly in power sector reform, India, by virtue of its colossal growth rate in commercial energy intensity and commercial floor space, is better placed than the United States to integrate and test state-of-art Smart Grid technologies in its future grid-responsive commercial buildings. This paper presents a roadmap of technical collaboration between the research organizations, and public-private stakeholders in both countries to accelerate the building-to-grid integration through pilot studies in India.

Basu, Chandrayee; Ghatikar, Girish



Understanding Behavior Disorders: Their Perception, Acceptance, and Treatment--A Cross-Cultural Comparison between India and the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions, identification and treatment of students with behavior problems or disorders in India and the United States. Participants in the study were students and teachers in the United States and India. A qualitative approach included in-depth interviews and participant observations. These were…

Chakraborti-Ghosh, Sumita



Transitional relief housing for tsunami victims of Tamil Nadu, India  

E-print Network

In the wake of the recent tsunami that swept across Asia, there is a dire need to salvage and rebuild the lives and livelihoods that were swept away. The aim of this thesis project is to design and model a transitional ...

Jin, Shauna



Who killed Rambhor?: The state of emergency medical services in India  

PubMed Central

In India, the healthcare delivery system starts up from the sub-center at the village level and reaches up to super specialty medical centers providing state of the art emergency medical services (EMS). These highest centers, located in big cities, are considered the last referral points for the patients from nearby cities and states. As the incidents of rail and road accidents have increased in recent years, the role of EMS becomes critical in saving precious lives. But when the facilities and management of these emergency centers succumbs before the patient, then the question arises regarding the adequate availability and quality of EMS. The death of an unknown common man, Rambhor, for want of EMS in three big hospitals in the national capital of India put a big question on the “health” of the emergency health services in India. The emergency services infrastructure seems inadequate and quality and timely provision of EMS to critical patients appears unsatisfactory. There is lack of emergency medicine (EM) specialists in India and also the postgraduation courses in EM have not gained foot in our medical education system. Creation of a Centralized Medical Emergency Body, implementation of management techniques, modification of medical curriculum, and fixing accountability are some of the few steps which are required to improve the EMS in India. PMID:22416155

Garg, Rajesh H



Food Price Subsidies and Nutrition: Evidence from State Reforms to India's Public Distribution System1  

E-print Network

Food Price Subsidies and Nutrition: Evidence from State Reforms to India's Public Distribution food price subsidies affect household nutrition using a dramatic expansion of the availability. These results differ from recent studies suggesting that food subsidies have little effect on nutrition

Bandyopadhyay, Antar


Self Help Group-Banking-Poverty Reduction Nexus: A Case Study of Uttarakhand State, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to fight back poverty, the Central as well as States Governments in India have attempted a number of programs leading to income generation. Like in any developing country, poor governance with lack of proper focus in implementing the programs are the main sources contributing to low human capital development and thereby to rising number of people living below

Kaliappa Kalirajan; Kanhaiya Singh



LESSONS FROM THE CUBAN HEALTH SYSTEM: Comparative Mortality of Cuba, India, and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

In three countries as diverse as Cuba, India, and the United States, it is difficult to draw parallels relating to health, given that each of the three countries has such varied economies, social structures, and health indicators. However, comparing health indicators across these countries allows a unique perspective on the advantages and drawbacks of each of these countries' health systems.

Rahima Dosani


Palatoscopy: An adjunct to forensic odontology: A comparative study among five different populations of India  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study was conducted to analyze and identify differences in the palatal rugae patterns and to identify gender wise changes in the palatal rugae shapes in populations of five different states of India. Study Design: Study was conducted in five different Indian states. 500 sample subjects from Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra were included. Rugae patterns with predominant shapes were analyzed and categorized according to different states and both genders, data was statistically analyzed using SPSS software 15.0 and the results were obtained by Chi-square analysis. Results: “Wavy” type of palatal rugae pattern is the most predominant variant in five different study groups in both the genders. Conclusion: This study could identify variations in distribution of various palatal rugae pattern in five different states and confirmed the “wavy” type of palatal rugae patterns to be the most predominant variant in five different study groups. PMID:24678197

Byatnal, Amit; Byatnal, Aditi; Kiran, A. Ravi; Samata, Y.; Guruprasad, Yadavalli; Telagi, Neethu



Genetic counselling in tribals in India  

PubMed Central

Genetic counselling in tribals unlike general population residing in cities and near villages is a difficult task due of their lower literacy and poor socio-economic status. However, sustained effort is essential with a close interaction in the local language, certain misbeliefs need to be removed gradually taking into account their socio-cultural background. The present communication deals with our experience in counselling for haemoglobinopathies during Neonatal Screening Programme undertaken for sickle cell disease in Kalahandi district of Orissa and Community Screening Programmes in primitive tribes of India in four States viz. Orissa, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra. Counselling during neonatal screening programme was very well accepted demonstrating the benefit to the small babies as regards the morbidity. Premarital marriage counselling was also accepted by them. The success rate as followed up for 5 years is almost 50 per cent, the limitation being long follow up. Genetic counselling in these areas has to be continuous to achieve success and therefore the need for setting up of permanent centres in the tribal areas in India. PMID:22089621

Mohanty, Dipika; Das, Kishalaya



HLA diversity among Nadars, a primitive Dravidian caste of South India.  


South India is one of the oldest geophysical regions mainly occupied by Dravidian language-speaking people. Here a random panel of 61 unrelated Nadar healthy individual from Tamil Nadu State were analyzed and compared with other populations of India and the world. HLA-A, B and C alleles frequencies and their haplotype frequencies were determined by high-resolution typing of genomic DNA. The analysis revealed that the Nadar caste of South India have several characters shared with East Asian populations consistent with the demographic history of South India, as well as specific features including several unique alleles such as A*03011, A*31011, B*15011, B*3501, B*51011, Cw*02022. In addition, haplotypes such as A*31011-Cw*02022-B*3501, A*03011-Cw*04011-B*4406 and A*2402101-Cw*04011-B*51011 are of high frequency in both these populations but are rare or absent in other populations of India and the world. The study suggests that a comparatively lesser degree of genetic admixture occurred between the South Indian and North Indian racial groups than that between South Indian and East Asian groups. PMID:14617038

Shankarkumar, U; Sridharan, B; Pitchappan, R M



Girl prostitution in India.  


This article discusses the nature, magnitude, causes, and consequences of female child prostitution in India and offers measures for control and prevention of girl prostitution. Data are obtained from the 6-city study of prostitution and the author's own research. An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi entered the work at an early age. The numbers are rising. The promotion of tourism is linked with prostitution. Girl prostitutes are primarily located in low-middle income areas and business districts and are known by officials. Brothel keepers regularly recruit young girls. An estimated 33% of prostitutes are young girls. In Bangalore, Calcutta, Delhi, and Hyderabad, there are an estimated 10,000 girl prostitutes. UNICEF estimates about 300,000 child prostitutes. Girl prostitutes are grouped as common prostitutes, singers and dancers, call girls, religious prostitutes or devdasi, and caged brothel prostitutes. Religious prostitutes are mainly found in the South. Caged ones are found in Bombay. A little over 50% of prostitutes come from other countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The girls tend to come from urban slums and poor rural areas. High prostitute supply regions include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengel states. About 85% are Hindus, and about 66% are from scheduled castes and tribes. Bangalore and Bombay have a higher proportion of girl prostitutes. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution. Economic causes include poverty and economic distress. Psychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection. Most enter involuntarily. A brief profile is given of the life of a prostitute. PMID:12158002

Mukhopadhyay, K K



Organizing for rural energy development: Improved cookstoves, local organizations, and the state in Gujarat, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proponents of the sustainable development of Third World States frequently urge the integration of local non-government organizations (NGOs) into State-sponsored, centrally administered programs of rural-resource development. This study draws on literatures on energy use, biomass technologies, and organization theory, and on interviews, archival research, and organizational surveys of eight Gujarati NGOs conducted in India in 1986 and 1987. It concludes




A tale of 2 countries: the cost of my mother's cardiac care in the United States and India.  


When my mother fell ill while visiting me in the United States, I had the opportunity to compare costs of surgical cardiac care in the United States and India. I faced challenges in making well-informed decisions in the United States due to the lack of cost transparency and the minimal flexibility offered in choice of care, whereas in India costs are readily available and allow most people to freely choose their preferred type of care. PMID:25354412

Rao, Sowmya R



Rapid spread of HIV among injecting drug users in north-eastern states of India.  


Manipur, a north-eastern state of India bordering Myanmar, has experienced very rapid transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among its vast drug-injecting population. Seroprevalence among intravenous drug users increased from 0 per cent in September 1989 to 50 per cent within six months. With a minimum injecting population of 15,000 and seropositivity of over 50 per cent, the infection quickly spread to the population at large. One per cent of antenatal mothers tested seropositive by 1991. Forming part of the area of South-East Asia known as the Golden Triangle, and producing opium and its derivatives, Myanmar shares a long international border with four States of the region, and populations with a common language and culture move freely across borders. Two other north-eastern states of India bordering Myanmar have faced a similar epidemic within a short period of time. As a result of serosurveillance for HIV since 1986, the epidemic could be detected at an early stage. The present paper provides an account of the results of ongoing comprehensive studies conducted in the north-eastern states of India on drug-related HIV infection, already a serious problem, but possibly still restricted to that region of the country. The prevalence of intravenous drug users, their HIV serological status, the demographic profile, risk behaviour, the spread of the infection to other groups and the problems of harm minimization are also covered. PMID:8305909

Sarkar, S; Das, N; Panda, S; Naik, T N; Sarkar, K; Singh, B C; Ralte, J M; Aier, S M; Tripathy, S P



Extent of Anaemia among Preschool Children in EAG States, India: A Challenge to Policy Makers  

PubMed Central

Background. India is the highest contributor to child anemia. About 89 million children in India are anemic. The study determines the factors that contributed to child anemia and examines the role of the existing programs in reducing the prevalence of child anemia particularly in the EAG states. Methods. The data from the latest round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) is used. Simple bivariate and multinomial logistics regression analyses are used. Results. About 70% children are anemic in all the EAG states. The prevalence of severe anemia is the highest (6.7%) in Rajasthan followed by Uttar Pradesh (3.6%) and Madhya Pradesh (3.4%). Children aged 12 to 17 months are significantly seven times (RR = 7.99, P < 0.001) more likely to be severely anemic compared to children of 36 to 59 months. Children of severely anemic mothers are also found to be more severely anemic (RR = 15.97, P < 0.001) than the children of not anemic mothers. Conclusions. The study reveals that the existing government program fails to control anemia among preschool children in the backward states of India. Therefore, there is an urgent need for monitoring of program in regular interval, particularly for EAG states to reduce the prevalence of anemia among preschool children. PMID:25140250

Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Patra, Shraboni



Application of wheat yield model to United States and India. [Great Plains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The wheat yield model was applied to the major wheat-growing areas of the US and India. In the US Great Plains, estimates from the winter and spring wheat models agreed closely with USDA-SRS values in years with the lowest yields, but underestimated in years with the highest yields. Application to the Eastern Plains and Northwest indicated the importance of cultural factors, as well as meteorological ones in the model. It also demonstrated that the model could be used, in conjunction with USDA-SRRS estimates, to estimate yield losses due to factors not included in the model, particularly diseases and freezes. A fixed crop calendar for India was built from a limited amount of available plot data from that country. Application of the yield model gave measurable evidence that yield variation from state to state was due to different mixes of levels of meteorological and cultural factors.

Feyerherm, A. M. (principal investigator)



State of roads : public works as research, India circa 1960  

E-print Network

That the road is a symbol of the prowess of the nation-state seems tautological, a uni"ed phenomenon of political symbolism that manifests as an infrastructural network. When subjected to a close historical examination, ...

Khorakiwala, Ateya A



Experiences of HIV Positive Mothers From Rural South India during Intra-Natal Period  

PubMed Central

Context: Tamil Nadu comes under group I high prevalence state, with less than 1% prevalence of HIV infection in antenatal women but above 5% prevalence in high risk group. One of the ways to control HIV/AIDS in India is through Prevention of Parent to Child Transmission (PPTCT), the success of which lies in identifying pregnant women with HIV infection. But due to the stigma against HIV/AIDS among health care providers, HIV positive patients face discrimination in the health sector. Aims: To explore the difficulties faced by rural HIV positive mothers during the intra-natal period. Methods: A descriptive qualitative study was conducted among HIV positive mothers, in Gingee block of Villupuram district, Tamil Nadu, India. All the mothers who tested positive between June 2006 and May 2010 were interviewed in-depth using an interview guide. Results: There were 21 HIV positive mothers during this period, 19 of whom gave consent. Majority of the mothers were <30 years of age from families belonging to lower socio-economic class. The discriminations faced from the health staff was avoidance of physical examination, rude behaviour like throwing of records on the face, discriminatory comments, unnecessary referrals and even refusal to provide intra-partum services. The negative attitude of the staff made a few mothers to deliver in some other institution without disclosing their HIV status. Conclusion: Stigma among health care providers towards HIV positive pregnant women acts as a barrier for improving access to PPTCT services in India and it poses high risk to the mothers, babies and also the health care providers. There is a pressing need to improve access to quality PPTCT services especially during the intranatal period. PMID:24298476

Subramaniyan, Anbarasi; Sarkar, Sonali; Roy, Gautam; Lakshminarayanan, Subitha



Social determinants of health in India: progress and inequities across states.  


IntroductionDespite the recognized importance of social determinants of health (SDH) in India, no compilation of the status of and inequities in SDH across India has been published. To address this gap, we assessed the levels and trends in major SDH in India from 1990 onwards and explored inequities by state, gender, caste, and urbanicity.MethodsHousehold- and individual-level SDH indicators were extracted from national household surveys conducted between 1990 and 2011 and means were computed across population subgroups and over time. The multidimensional poverty index (MPI), a composite measure of health, education, and standard of living, was calculated for all three rounds of the National Family Health Survey, adjusting the methodology to generate comparable findings from the three datasets. Data from government agencies were analyzed to assess voting patterns, political participation, and air and water pollution.ResultsChanges in the MPI demonstrate progress in each domain over time, but high rates persist in important areas: the majority of households in India use indoor biomass fuel and have unimproved sanitation, and over one-third of households with a child under the age of 3 years have undernourished children. There are large, but narrowing, gender gaps in education indicators, but no measurable change in women¿s participation in governance or the labor force. Less than 25% of workers have job security and fewer than 15% have any social security benefit. Alarming rates of air pollution are observed, with particulate matter concentrations persistently above the critical level at over 50% of monitoring stations.ConclusionsThis assessment indicates that air pollution (indoor and outdoor), child undernutrition, unimproved sanitation, employment conditions, and gender inequality are priority areas for public policy related to SDH in India. PMID:25294304

Cowling, Krycia; Dandona, Rakhi; Dandona, Lalit



Is the HIV burden in India being overestimated?  

PubMed Central

Background The HIV burden estimate for India has a very wide plausibility range. A recent population-based study in a south Indian district demonstrated that the official method used in India to estimate HIV burden in the population, which directly extrapolates annual sentinel surveillance data from large public sector antenatal and sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics, led to a 2–3 times higher estimate than that based on population-based data. Methods We assessed the generalisability of the reasons found in the Guntur study for overestimation of HIV by the official sentinel surveillance based method: addition of substantial unnecessary HIV estimates from STI clinics, the common practice of referral of HIV positive/suspect patients by private practitioners to public hospitals, and a preferential use of public hospitals by lower socioeconomic strata. We derived conservative correction factors for the sentinel surveillance data and titrated these to the four major HIV states in India (Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu), and examined the impact on the overall HIV estimate for India. Results HIV data from STI clinics are not used elsewhere in the world as a component of HIV burden estimation in generalised epidemics, and the Guntur study verified that this was unnecessary. The referral of HIV positive/suspect patients from the private to the public sector is a widespread phenomenon in India, which is likely causing an upward distortion in HIV estimates from sentinel surveillance in other parts of India as well. Analysis of data from the nationwide Reproductive and Child Health Survey revealed that lower socioeconomic strata were over-represented among women seeking antenatal care at public hospitals in all major south Indian states, similar to the trend seen in the Guntur study. Application of conservative correction factors derived from the Guntur study reduced the 2005 official sentinel surveillance based HIV estimate of 3.7 million 15–49 years old persons in the four major states to 1.5–2.0 million, which would drop the official total estimate of 5.2 million 15–49 years old persons with HIV in India to 3–3.5 million. Conclusion Plausible and cautious extrapolation of the trends seen in a recent large and rigorous population-based study of HIV in a south Indian district suggests that India is likely grossly overestimating its HIV burden with the current official sentinel surveillance based method. This method needs revision. PMID:17181865

Dandona, Lalit; Lakshmi, Vemu; Kumar, G Anil; Dandona, Rakhi



T-Cube Web Interface as a Tool for Detecting Disease Outbreaks in Real-Time: A Pilot in India and Sri Lanka  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by existing gaps and inefficiencies in the paper-based manually processed disease surveillance and notification systems in India and Sri Lanka, the Real-Time Biosurveillance Program (RTBP) introduces technology to health departments in Tamil Nadu, India and Sri Lanka, to answer the question: “Can software programs that detect events in public health data, and mobile phones that collect health data and

Nuwan Waidyanatha; Chamindu Sampath; A. Dubrawski; M. Sabhnani; Lujie Chen; M. Ganesan; P. Vincy



India: Bihar  

article title:  MISR Data Reveal Immense Pollution Pool over Bihar, India     ... satellite data have discovered an immense wintertime pool of pollution over the northern Indian state of Bihar. The discovery was made by ...



India: Gujarat  

... title:  Dewatering Effects from the Gujarat Earthquake     View Larger Image ... India's Republic Day is normally celebrated, a devastating earthquake hit the state of Gujarat. About 20,000 people died and millions were ...



Modeling Vulnerability and Resilience to Climate Change: A Case Study of India and Indian States  

SciTech Connect

The vulnerability of India and Indian states to climate change was assessed using the Vulnerability-Resilience Indicator Prototype (VRIP). The model was adapted from the global/country version to account for Indian dietary practices and data availability with regard to freshwater resources. Results (scaled to world values) show nine Indian states to be moderately resilient to climate change, principally because of low sulfur emissions and a relatively large percentage of unmanaged land. Six states are more vulnerable than India as a whole, attributable largely to sensitivity to sea storm surges. Analyses of results at the state level (Orissa, and comparisons between Maharashtra and Kerala, and Andhra Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh) demonstrate the value of VRIP analyses used in conjunction with other socioeconomic information to address initial questions about the sources of vulnerability in particular places. The modeling framework allows analysts and stakeholders to systematically evaluate individual and sets of indicators and to indicate where the likely vulnerabilities are in the area being assessed.

Brenkert, Antoinette L.; Malone, Elizabeth L.



Edible fruit yielding plants of shevaroy hills in Tamil Nadu.  


The paper deals with the common edible fruit yielding plants, During the course of medicinal plant survey of shevaroy hills of Eastern ghats. Salem district, Tamil Nadu. Thirty species belonging to 23 genera and 21 families yield edible fruits. They are listed in alphabetical order followed by family, common name and Tamil names. PMID:22556784

Alagesaboopathi, C; Balu, S; Dwarakan, P



Age at return marriage and timing of first birth in India's Uttar Pradesh and Kerala states.  


The study investigates the relationship between age at marriage and the length of first birth interval in two states of India: Uttar Pradesh and Kerala. Life tables of first-birth intervals and median first-birth intervals are computed for several subgroups of the study population. Multivariate hazards modelling technique is used to study the net effect of age at marriage, controlling for a multiple of socioeconomic factors. The result shows that the average first-birth interval varies by age at marriage and is much longer in Uttar Pradesh than in Kerala. PMID:1340047

Singh, K K; Suchindran, C M; Singh, V; Ramakumar, R



Physiological characterisation of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, the incitant of anthracnose disease of noni in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten isolates of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides were collected from different noni growing areas of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Kerala in India and their pathogenicity was proved under glass house conditions. Effect of different pH levels, temperature, light intensity and media were tested against the growth of C. gloeosporioides under in vitro. The results indicated that the growth of C. gloeosporioides was

Manjunath Hubballi; Sevugapperumal Nakkeeran; Thiruvengadam Raguchander; Theerthagiri Anand; Perumal Renukadevi



Globalisation of birth markets: a case study of assisted reproductive technologies in India  

PubMed Central

The escalation of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs) in India into a veritable fertility industry is the result of a multitude of reasons. This paper places the bio-genetic industry within the larger political economy framework of globalisation and privatisation, thus employing a framework that is often omitted from discussions on ARTs, but has direct and significant bearings on the ART industry in India. As markets for human organs, tissues and reproductive body parts experience unprecedented growth, the limits of what can or should be bought and sold continue to be pushed. As such, bodies have emerged as sale-worthy economic capital. Commercial flows of reproductive material create and deploy the division of the body into parts over which ownership is claimed, in the process following 'modern routes of capital' and raising issues of structural inequality. This paper presents a brief picture of India's fertility industry with specific focus on its ground-level operation, nature and growth. It aims to explore the industry dimensions of ARTs, by highlighting the macro picture of health care markets and medical tourism in India, the proliferation of the ART industry, market features such as the social imperative to mother, costs, promotion and marketing, unverified claims, inflated success rates, deals and offers, actors and collaborations in the field, and finally, the absence of standards. This paper presents findings from the research 'Constructing Conceptions: The Mapping of Assisted Reproductive Technologies in India', by Sama, a Delhi-based resource group working on gender, health and rights. This research was conducted from 2008 to 2010 in the three states of Uttar Pradesh, Orissa and Tamil Nadu in India, and is one of the first of its kind, highlighting unethical medical practices and making a case for the regulation of the ART industry. As such, it forms a significant part of Sama's ongoing work on women and technologies, particularly policy-level advocacy. PMID:21838866



Dengue Outbreak in a Hilly State of Arunachal Pradesh in Northeast India  

PubMed Central

Dengue has been reported from plains as well as hilly regions of India including some parts of Northeast India. In July-August 2012, outbreak of fever with unknown origin (FUO) indicative of Dengue was reported in Pasighat, East Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh (AP) state. Serum samples (n = 164) collected from patients from Health Training and Research Centre General Hospital, Pasighat, were tested for NS1 antigen and IgM antibodies. NS1-positive samples were analyzed by RT-PCR assay and entomological surveys were carried out. The majority of suspected cases reported NS1 antigen positivity. Females and young adults were mostly affected. The majority of the amplified NS1-positive samples showed Dengue serotype 3 infection. Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus, known as semiurban breeding mosquitoes, was the only potential vector species identified from the affected areas of Pasighat which single handedly contributed to the outbreak. Thus, the present work identifies Dengue as an emerging arboviral infection in hilly state of AP along with a looming risk of its spread to neighbouring areas. PMID:24587732

Khan, Siraj A.; Dutta, Prafulla; Topno, Rashmee; Soni, Monika; Mahanta, Jagadish



Indigenous perspectives on depression in rural regions of India and the United States.  


Depression is a major health concern in India, yet indigenous Indian perspectives on depression have often been disregarded in favor of Western conceptualizations. The present study used quantitative and qualitative measures modeled on the Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC) to elicit beliefs about the symptoms, causes, treatments, and stigma associated with depression. Data were collected from 92 students at a university in the Himalayan region of Northern India and from 97 students at a university in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States. U.S. participants in this study were included primarily to approximate a "Western baseline" (in which professional conceptions of depression are predominantly rooted) from which to elucidate Indian perspectives. Compared to U.S. participants, Indian participants were more likely to view restive symptoms (e.g., irritation, anxiety, difficulty thinking) as common features of depression, to view depression as the result of personally controllable causes (e.g., failure), to endorse social support and spiritual reflection or relaxation (e.g., yoga, meditation) as useful means for dealing with depression, and to associate stigma with depression. Efforts aimed at reducing depression among Indians should focus more on implementing effective and culturally acceptable interventions, such as yoga, meditation, and increasing social support. PMID:22021105

Nieuwsma, Jason A; Pepper, Carolyn M; Maack, Danielle J; Birgenheir, Denis G



Strengthening Primary Level Health Service Delivery: Lessons from a State in India  

PubMed Central

The main aim of the study was to assess primary health centers (PHCs) in terms of availability of assured services, facility of primary management of selected cases, surgeries, maternal and newborn health care services, and child health care services with respect to Indian Public Health Standards (IPHS). Data were collected from service providers (medical officerin-charge) at PHCs through well-structured questionnaire developed by referring the IPHS for PHCs prescribed by the Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. The study was conducted at five districts (i.e. Bundi, SawaiMadhopur, Kota, Tonk, and Karauli) of Rajasthan state of India. All 148 PHCs of these five districts were included in the study. Findings depict that more than 90% of the study PHCs showed availability of services such as outpatient department (OPD), antenatal check up (ANC), postnatal check up (PNC), management of reproductive tract infections/sexual transmitted infection (RTI/STI), immunization, and treatment of diarrhea. However, services such as emergency services (24 h), primary management of fractures, surgery of cataract, medical termination of pregnancy (MTP) services, management of low-birth-weight babies, facility for tubectomy and vasectomy, and facility for internal examination for gynecological conditions were poor at PHCs of the study districts, which need to be addressed for further strengthening of primary health centers. PMID:24479021

Sodani, Prahlad Rai; Sharma, Kalpa



Geography of underweight and overweight among women in India: A multilevel analysis of 3204 neighborhoods in 26 states  

PubMed Central

We investigated the geographic distribution and the relationship with neighborhood wealth of underweight and overweight in India. Using multilevel modeling techniques, we calculated state-specific smoothed shrunken state residuals of overweight and underweight, neighborhood and state variation of nutritional status, and the relationships between neighborhood wealth and nutritional status of 76,681 women living in 3204 neighborhoods in 26 Indian states. We found a substantial variation in overweight and underweight at the neighborhood and state levels, net of what could be attributed to individual-level factors. Neighborhood wealth was associated with increased levels of overweight and decreased levels of underweight, and was found to modify the relationship between personal living standard and nutritional status. These findings suggest that interventions to address the double burden of undernutrition and overnutrition in India must take into account state and neighborhood characteristics in order to be successful. PMID:18602351

Ackerson, Leland K.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Barbeau, Elizabeth M.; Subramanian, S.V.



Challenging Ties between State and Tobacco Industry: Advocacy Lessons from India  

PubMed Central

Background: Globally, tobacco use is a major public health concern given its huge morbidity and mortality burden that is inequitably high in low- and middle-income countries. The World Health Organization has suggested banning the advertisement, promotion and sponsorship of tobacco. However, governments in some countries, including India, are either directly engaged in tobacco industry operations or have a mandate to promote tobacco industry development. This paper analyses a short-term advocacy campaign that challenged the state-tobacco industry ties to draw lessons for effective public health advocacy. Method: This paper uses a case study method to analyze advocacy efforts in India to thwart the state-tobacco industry partnership: the Indian government’s sponsorship and support to a global tobacco industry event. The paper explores multiple strategies employed in the five-month advocacy campaign (May to October 2010) to challenge this state-industry tie. In doing so, we describe the challenges faced and the lessons learnt for effective advocacy. Results: Government withdrew participation and financial sponsorship from the tobacco industry event. Use of multiple strategies including engaging all concerned government agencies from the beginning, strategic use of media, presence and mobilization of civil society, and use of legal tools to gain information and judicial action, were complementary in bringing desired outcomes. Conclusion: Use of multiple and complementary advocacy strategies could lead to positive outcomes in a short-time campaign. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control could form an important advocacy tool, especially in countries that have ratified it, to advocate for improvements in national tobacco control regulations. PMID:24688958

Bhojani, Upendra; Venkataraman, Vidya; Manganawar, Bheemaray



Use of e-services by faculty members of business schools in a state of India: a study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to assess and evaluate quantitative and qualitative use of electronic resources in the academic ambience of business schools in Orissa (India) with a view to examining the level of electronic information services (EIS) offered to the faculty members of the state with an opinion pool of the faculty members of the respective

Dillip K. Swain; K. C. Panda



Marriage Satisfaction and Wellness in India and the United States: A Preliminary Comparison of Arranged Marriages and Marriages of Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty-five individuals (22 couples and 1 widowed person) living in arranged marriages in India completed questionnaires measuring marital satisfaction and wellness. The data were compared with existing data on individuals in the United States living in marriages of choice. Differences were found in importance of marital characteristics, but no…

Myers, Jane E.; Madathil, Jayamala; Tingle, Lynne R.



Sizing of integrated renewable energy system based on load profiles and reliability index for the state of Uttarakhand in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years the decentralized rural electrification is becoming cost effective and convenient for areas where grid extension is very difficult. The present paper deals with the electrification of dense forest areas of Uttarakhand state in India by Integrated Renewable Energy Optimization Model (IREOM). The IREOM consists of locally available renewable energy resources such as Micro-Hydropower (MHP), biomass, biogas, wind

A. B. Kanase-Patil; R. P. Saini; M. P. Sharma



Decline in lymphatic filariasis transmission with annual mass drug administration using DEC with and without albendazole over a 10year period in India.  


The National Programme for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis is underway in the endemic districts of Tamil Nadu State, South India, since 2001. Annual mass drug administration (MDA) was carried out by the state health department to all eligible individuals. The impact of MDAs on transmission parameters was evaluated in 2 revenue blocks, viz, one with DEC alone and the other with a combination of albendazole. After 10years with 6 annual MDAs, the transmission indices reached low levels in both treatment arms, but still persisted. However, the DEC alone arm showed higher transmission rates, compared to the DEC+ALB arm. Few villages which demonstrated persistent transmission need to be targeted with an additional control measure viz, vector control, to achieve LF elimination. It is evident from the 10year period of the study that inclusion of albendazole along with DEC has significantly reduced the transmission indices to almost nil level, as compared to DEC alone. PMID:25205435

Sunish, I P; Kalimuthu, M; Rajendran, R; Munirathinam, A; Ashok Kumar, V; Nagaraj, J; Tyagi, B K



Characterization of minerals in air dust particles in the state of Tamilnadu, India through ftir spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abstract of this paper explains the presence of minerals in air which causes great concern regarding public health issues. The spectroscopic investigation of air dust particles of several samples in various locations in the state of Tamilnadu, India is reported. Qualitative analyses were carried out to determine the major and minor constituent minerals present in the samples based on the FTIR absorption peaks. This study also identified the minerals like quartz, asbestos, kaolinite, calcite, hematite, montmorillonite, nacrite and several other trace minerals in the air dust particles. The presents of quartz is mainly found in all the samples invariably. Hence the percentage of quartz and its crystalline nature were determined with the help of extinction co-efficient and crystallinity index respectively.

Senthil Kumar, R.; Rajkumar, P.



Detection of Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxin B1 in rice in India.  


Twelve hundred rice samples consisting of paddy (675) and milled rice (525) were collected from 20 states across India. These samples were assessed for Aspergillus spp. infection on selective medium and aflatoxin B(1) (AFB1) by indirect competitive ELISA. In this investigation, Aspergillus flavus contamination dominated in all the seed samples. The other major contaminants were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ochraceus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Out of 1200 rice samples, 67.8% showed AFB1 ranging from 0.1 to 308.0 microg/kg. All the paddy samples from Chattishgarh, Meghalaya and Tamil Nadu showed AFB1 contamination. Milled rice grains from different states showed below the permissible levels of AFB1 (average 0.5-3.5 microg/kg). Eighty-two percent of samples from open storage that were exposed to rain showed AFB1 contamination followed by one-year-old seed. Out of 1200 samples, 2% showed AFB1 contamination above the permissible limits (>30 microg/kg). This is the first comprehensive report of aflatoxin contamination in rice across 20 states in India. PMID:19028301

Reddy, K R N; Reddy, C S; Muralidharan, K



Disparities in child mortality trends in two new states of India  

PubMed Central

Background India has the world’s highest total number of under-five deaths of any nation. While progress towards Millennium Development Goal 4 has been documented at the state level, little information is available for greater disaggregation of child health markers within states. In 2000, new states were created within the country as a partial response to political pressures. State-level information on child health trends in the new states of Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand is scarce. To fill this gap, this article examines under-five and neonatal mortality across various equity markers within these two new states, pre-and post-split. Methods Both direct and indirect estimation using pooled data from five available sources were undertaken. Inter-population disparities were evaluated by mortality data stratification of rural–urban location, ethnicity, wealth and districts. Results Both states experienced an overall reduction in under-five and neonatal mortality, however, this has stagnated post-2001 and various disparities persist. In cases where disparities have declined, such as between urban–rural populations and low- and high-income groups, this has been driven by modest declines within the disadvantaged groups (i.e. low-income rural households) and stagnation or worsening of outcomes within the advantaged groups. Indeed, rising trends in mortality are most prevalent in urban middle-income households. Conclusions The results suggest that rural health improvements may have come at the expense of urban areas, where poor performance may be attributed to factors such as lack of access to quality private health facilities. In addition, the disparities may in part be associated with geographical access, traditional practices and district-level health resource allocation. PMID:23978236



Prevalence of Dyslipidemia in Urban and Rural India: The ICMR–INDIAB Study  

PubMed Central

Aim To study the pattern and prevalence of dyslipidemia in a large representative sample of four selected regions in India. Methods Phase I of the Indian Council of Medical Research–India Diabetes (ICMR-INDIAB) study was conducted in a representative population of three states of India [Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and Jharkhand] and one Union Territory [Chandigarh], and covered a population of 213 million people using stratified multistage sampling design to recruit individuals ?20 years of age. All the study subjects (n?=?16,607) underwent anthropometric measurements and oral glucose tolerance tests were done using capillary blood (except in self-reported diabetes). In addition, in every 5th subject (n?=?2042), a fasting venous sample was collected and assayed for lipids. Dyslipidemia was diagnosed using National Cholesterol Education Programme (NCEP) guidelines. Results Of the subjects studied, 13.9% had hypercholesterolemia, 29.5% had hypertriglyceridemia, 72.3% had low HDL-C, 11.8% had high LDL-C levels and 79% had abnormalities in one of the lipid parameters. Regional disparity exists with the highest rates of hypercholesterolemia observed in Tamilnadu (18.3%), highest rates of hypertriglyceridemia in Chandigarh (38.6%), highest rates of low HDL-C in Jharkhand (76.8%) and highest rates of high LDL-C in Tamilnadu (15.8%). Except for low HDL-C and in the state of Maharashtra, in all other states, urban residents had the highest prevalence of lipid abnormalities compared to rural residents. Low HDL-C was the most common lipid abnormality (72.3%) in all the four regions studied; in 44.9% of subjects, it was present as an isolated abnormality. Common significant risk factors for dyslipidemia included obesity, diabetes, and dysglycemia. Conclusion The prevalence of dyslipidemia is very high in India, which calls for urgent lifestyle intervention strategies to prevent and manage this important cardiovascular risk factor. PMID:24817067

Joshi, Shashank R.; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Deepa, Mohan; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Bhansali, Anil; Dhandania, Vinay K.; Joshi, Prashant P.; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Nirmal, Elangovan; Subashini, Radhakrishnan; Madhu, Sri Venkata; Rao, Paturi Vishnupriya; Das, Ashok Kumar; Kaur, Tanvir; Shukla, Deepak Kumar; Mohan, Viswanathan



Is India a Flailing State? Detours on the Four Lane Highway to Modernization  

Microsoft Academic Search

India is an emerging global superpower as its rapid growth has transformed its economy and has maintained itself as the world's largest democracy. But at the same time India lags in many dimensions--its malnutrition rate is one of the highest in the world, its immunization rates are lower than most African countries, and Bangladesh has a better infant mortality rate.

Lant Pritchett



Is India a Flailing State?: Detours on the Four Lane Highway to Modernization  

Microsoft Academic Search

India is an emerging global superpower as its rapid growth has transformed its economy and has maintained itself as the world’s largest democracy. But at the same time India lags in many dimensions—its malnutrition rate is one of the highest in the world, its immunization rates are lower than most African countries, and Bangladesh has a better infant mortality rate.

Lant Pritchett



Uncertainty in Resilience to Climate Change in India and Indian States  

SciTech Connect

This study builds on an earlier analysis of resilience of India and Indian states to climate change. The previous study (Brenkert and Malone 2005) assessed current resilience; this research uses the Vulnerability-Resilience Indicators Model (VRIM) to project resilience to 2095 and to perform an uncertainty analysis on the deterministic results. Projections utilized two SRES-based scenarios, one with fast-and-high growth, one with delayed growth. A detailed comparison of two states, the Punjab and Orissa, points to the kinds of insights that can be obtained using the VRIM. The scenarios differ most significantly in the timing of the uncertainty in economic prosperity (represented by GDP per capita) as a major factor in explaining the uncertainty in the resilience index. In the fast-and-high growth scenario the states differ most markedly regarding the role of ecosystem sensitivity, land use and water availability. The uncertainty analysis shows, for example, that resilience in the Punjab might be enhanced, especially in the delayed growth scenario, if early attention is paid to the impact of ecosystems sensitivity on environmental well-being of the state. By the same token, later in the century land-use pressures might be avoided if land is managed through intensification rather than extensification of agricultural land. Thus, this methodology illustrates how a policy maker can be informed about where to focus attention on specific issues, by understanding the potential changes at a specific location and time – and, thus, what might yield desired outcomes. Model results can point to further analyses of the potential for resilience-building.

Malone, Elizabeth L.; Brenkert, Antoinette L.



Organ Donation and Transplantation—The Chennai Experience in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tamil Nadu has been at the forefront of medical care in the country. It was the first state in the country that started a living kidney transplant program. It is also the first state to successfully start the cadaver programme after the passing of the “Transplantation of Human Organ Act” of 1994 and in the last 5 years has formed

S. Shroff; S. Rao; G. Kurian; S. Suresh



Aboriginal uses and management of ethnobotanical species in deciduous forests of Chhattisgarh state in India.  


A study on the native uses of ethnobotanical species was carried out in the south Surguja district of Chhattisgarh state in India with the major objective of identifying different food and medicinal plant species and also to understand their ongoing management and conservation. Through questionnaire and personal interviews, a total of 73 ethnobotanical species used by tribal and non-tribal communities were documented, of these 36 species were used in curing different types of diseases and 22 were used as edible food plants. This rich traditional knowledge of local people has an immense potential for pharmacological studies. The outside forces, at present, were mainly blamed to change the traditional system of harvesting and management of ethnobotanical species. The destructive harvesting practices have damaged the existing populations of many ethnobotanical species viz., Asparagus racemosus, Dioscorea bulbifera, Boswellia serrata, Buchnania lanzan, Sterculia urens and Anogeissus latifolia. The sustainable harvesting and management issues of ethnobotanical species are discussed in view of their conservation and management. PMID:19653889

Kala, Chandra Prakash



Grass pea consumption & present scenario of neurolathyrism in Maharashtra State of India  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Neurolathyrism is a non progressive motor neuron disorder engendered by the prolonged over-consumption of Lathyrus sativus (grass pea) seeds which contain a neurotoxic amino acid, ?-N oxalyl- L-?, ?-diaminopropionic acid (?-ODAP). It is characterized by spastic paraparesis in the hind limbs. The present study was conducted in 105 households (HHs) of Gondia district in Maharashtra, India, where grass pea is cultivated and consumed to assess the health implication of its consumption. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 105 HHS in five villages and grass pea samples were collected for ?-ODAP estimation. Amino acid analysis was also done, neurolathyrism cases were identified by snowball sampling method and neurological examination was carried out. Results: The study revealed that 61 per cent of population was consuming this pulse as a part of diet. ?-ODAP concentration in grass pea was high in Bora village (1254.5 ± 528.21 mg %) and less in Malgaon village (413.6±415.79 mg %). The nutritional status of the people was within the normal range (BMI 18± 3.40 kg/m2) in the surveyed households. Consumption of grass pea was observed to be less than 25g. Conclusions: The cases of neurolathyrism declined in all the studied villages due to reduced ?-ODAP exposure through Lathyrus sativus consumption, however, the grass pea was cultivated and consumed in Gondia district of Maharashtra State. PMID:25222783

Khandare, Arjun L.; Babu, J.J; Ankulu, M.; Aparna, N.; Shirfule, Amol; Rao, G. Shankar



Prevalence and Molecular Epidemiological Data on Dirofilaria immitis in Dogs from Northeastern States of India  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis in stray, pet, and working dogs (n = 413, 266, and 103, resp.) from Guwahati (Assam) and Aizawl (Mizoram), areas located in two Northeastern States of India. Diagnostic methods applied were microscopy (wet film and Knott's concentration technique), immunological test (Ag ELISA by SNAP 4Dx ELISA kit), and molecular tools (polymerase chain reaction and sequencing), which evidenced 11.38, 18.03, and 13.93% of positive animals, respectively. No significant differences were observed by area (18.23% versus 17.68%) nor by sex (18.1% versus 17.9%), whereas stray dogs proved more infected than other groups (P < 0.05). ELISA test evidenced an overall 22.69% of occult infections, mainly in working dogs (60%), and molecular techniques detected Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens in 4 stray dogs from Guwahati. Characterization of D. immitis isolates for ITS-2 region showed close identity with South Asian isolates.

Borthakur, Sonjoy Kumar; Deka, Dilip Kumar; Islam, Saidul; Sarma, Dilip Kumar; Sarmah, Prabhat Chandra



Deviations from the O3-NO-NO2 photo-stationary state in Delhi, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A network of air quality and weather monitoring stations was set-up across Delhi, India, under the System of Air quality Forecasting And Research (SAFAR) project. The objective of this network was to enable better understanding of air quality in terms of atmospheric chemistry, emissions and forecasting in Delhi, one of the largest metropolises in the world. In this study, we focus on the O3-NO-NO2-triad Photo Stationary State (PSS), and investigate site-specific deviations in the Leighton Ratio (?) during a short period in 2012 (1-31 December). Large variations were observed in the NO (<1 ppbv to a peak of 295 ppbv), NO2 (<2 ppbv-47 ppbv) and O3 (4 ppbv-95 ppbv) mixing ratios, all of which showed strong diurnal variation. The ? values showed large deviations from unity over the measurement period, with mostly negative deviations (? < 1), showing that the air masses were dominated by local sources of NOx and that the PSS was not achieved. Positive deviations (? > 1) were also observed occasionally, and these data were used to estimate the total peroxy radical (PO2) mixing ratios. This is the first estimate of PO2 reported for the city of Delhi and compares well with the results in the literature.

Chate, Dilip M.; Ghude, Sachin D.; Beig, Gurfan; Mahajan, Anoop S.; Jena, Chinmay; Srinivas, Reka; Dahiya, Anita; Kumar, Nandini



Aboriginal uses and management of ethnobotanical species in deciduous forests of Chhattisgarh state in India  

PubMed Central

A study on the native uses of ethnobotanical species was carried out in the south Surguja district of Chhattisgarh state in India with the major objective of identifying different food and medicinal plant species and also to understand their ongoing management and conservation. Through questionnaire and personal interviews, a total of 73 ethnobotanical species used by tribal and non-tribal communities were documented, of these 36 species were used in curing different types of diseases and 22 were used as edible food plants. This rich traditional knowledge of local people has an immense potential for pharmacological studies. The outside forces, at present, were mainly blamed to change the traditional system of harvesting and management of ethnobotanical species. The destructive harvesting practices have damaged the existing populations of many ethnobotanical species viz., Asparagus racemosus, Dioscorea bulbifera, Boswellia serrata, Buchnania lanzan, Sterculia urens and Anogeissus latifolia. The sustainable harvesting and management issues of ethnobotanical species are discussed in view of their conservation and management. PMID:19653889

Kala, Chandra Prakash




E-print Network

SOIL MOISTURE RETENTION CHARACTERISTICS AND HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY FOR DIFFERENT AREAS IN INDIA systems require knowledge of the relationships between soil moisture content (), soil water pressure (h) and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (K). This study involved field and laboratory determination of soil

Kumar, C.P.


The State of Steel Industry in India and its Future Prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a India is the fifth largest steel-producing nation in the world. The Indian steel industry accounts for over 7% of the world’s\\u000a total steel production. The domestic crude steel production grew at a compounded annual growth rate of 8.6% during 2004–2005\\u000a to 2008–2009. The National Steel Policy of the Government of India has a target for taking steel production up to

Sanak Mishra


Utilization behaviour patterns of Siddha clinics in Salem, Tamil Nadu.  


In Tamil Nadu, indigenous Siddha medicine (SM) is officially recognized and extensively used. Yet very little research information or published material is available on the extent of utilization behaviour of Siddha medicine in urban settings. This study examines the current patterns of utilization and consumer behavioural characteristics of SM through a field-based questionnaire survey of a sample of 300 patients attending 15 Siddha clinics in Salem, Tamil Nadu. Four areas were investigated: Socio-economic characteristics of the users; utilization behaviour pattern of patients; reasons for choice of Siddha therapy; opinions, attitudes, perception and satisfaction of users regarding Siddha therapy. The survey points out there is an inverse relationship between the number of patients using SM and income, education and distance travelled. Various factors were cited in choosing SM-such as, effectiveness of treatment, social influences of a relative or friend. Survey indicates that both modern medicine and SM seem to act as supporting rather than as competitive systems in a setting like Salem. People tend to seek both the system in search of a permanent cure. PMID:2767433

Ramesh, A; Hyma, B; Srinivasan, N



Abuse against elderly in India – The role of education  

PubMed Central

Background Abuse against the elderly is recognized as an important challenge to elderly health, but its determinants are not yet well understood. We present findings from a new dataset which covers a representative sample of the population aged 60 years and above from seven Indian states across India – all of which have a higher proportion aged 60 plus compared to the national average. Earlier studies suggest that schooling levels can be relevant in determining the level of abuse against seniors. This study focuses on the role of education on the prevalence of elderly abuse in India. Methods We conduct an analysis of cross sectional primary data that contains information on elderly abuse. The households in the sample were randomly selected from the seven demographically oldest states in India. These states are Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. A total of 9852 elderly from 8329 households were interviewed. The statistical analysis is based on logistic regression to understand the independent relation of education with abuse against the elderly. Results Our findings reveal that 11% of 60+ year olds have experienced at least one type of elderly abuse (Physical 5.3%, Verbal 10.2%, Economic 5.4%, Disrespect 6%, Neglect 5.2%). The most common perpetrator is the son, who is reported to be responsible for the abuse among 41% of male victims and 43% of female victims. Formal education among elderly beyond a certain level (8 years) has a strong relation with reduced violence against elderly. Conclusions Our findings suggest that level of schooling among elderly is strongly negatively related to abuse against them. More members in the household reduces the chance of abuse while having a greater number of children increases the chance of abuse (neglect and verbal abuse). We find that education even after controlling for wealth and other relevant variables is the factor that most consistently lowers elderly abuse. However, the relation of education to abuse is limited to those with more than 8 years of schooling. This suggests that the ongoing educational expansion beyond the basic schooling years in India may lead to a decline in the incidence of elderly abuse. PMID:24717052



Using Third-Party Inspectors in Building Energy Codes Enforcement in India  

SciTech Connect

India is experiencing fast income growth and urbanization, and this leads to unprecedented increases in demand for building energy services and resulting energy consumption. In response to rapid growth in building energy use, the Government of India issued the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) in 2007, which is consistent with and based on the 2001 Energy Conservation Act. ECBC implementation has been voluntary since its enactment and a few states have started to make progress towards mandatory implementation. Rajasthan is the first state in India to adopt ECBC as a mandatory code. The State adopted ECBC with minor additions on March 28, 2011 through a stakeholder process; it became mandatory in Rajasthan on September 28, 2011. Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, and Andhra Pradesh have started to draft an implementation roadmap and build capacity for its implementation. The Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) plans to encourage more states to adopt ECBC in the near future, including Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, West Bengal, and Delhi. Since its inception, India has applied the code on a voluntary basis, but the Government of India is developing a strategy to mandate compliance. Implementing ECBC requires coordination between the Ministry of Power and the Ministry of Urban Development at the national level as well as interdepartmental coordination at the state level. One challenge is that the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs), the enforcement entities of building by-laws, lack capacity to implement ECBC effectively. For example, ULBs in some states might find the building permitting procedures to be too complex; in other cases, lack of awareness and technical knowledge on ECBC slows down the amendment of local building by-laws as well as ECBC implementation. The intent of this white paper is to share with Indian decision-makers code enforcement approaches: through code officials, third-party inspectors, or a hybrid approach. Given the limited capacity and human resources available in the state and local governments, involving third-party inspectors could rapidly expand the capacity for plan reviews and broad implementation. However, the procedures of involving third-parties need to be carefully designed in order to guarantee a fair process. For example, there should be multiple checks and certification requirements for third-party inspectors, and the government should have the final approval when third-party inspectors are used in a project. This paper discusses different approaches of involving third-parties in ECBC enforcement; the Indian states may choose the approaches that work best in their given circumstances.

Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Kumar, Pradeep; Van Wie, Laura; Bhatt, Vatsal



Emergence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Amreli District of Gujarat State, India, June to July 2013.  


Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) etiology was detected in a family cluster (nine cases, including two deaths) in the village of Karyana, Amreli District, and also a fatal case in the village of Undra, Patan District, in Gujarat State, India. Anti-CCHFV IgG antibodies were detected in domestic animals from Karyana and adjoining villages. Hyalomma ticks from households were found to be positive for CCHF viral RNA. This confirms the emergence of CCHFV in new areas and the wide spread of this disease in Gujarat State. PMID:24211848

Yadav, Pragya D; Gurav, Yogesh K; Mistry, Madhulika; Shete, Anita M; Sarkale, Prasad; Deoshatwar, Avinash R; Unadkat, Vishwa B; Kokate, Prasad; Patil, Deepak Y; Raval, Dinkar K; Mourya, Devendra T



A rapid assessment and response approach to review and enhance Advocacy, Communication and Social Mobilisation for Tuberculosis control in Odisha state, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Tuberculosis remains a major public health problem in India with the country accounting for 1 in 5 of all TB cases reported\\u000a globally. An advocacy, communication and social mobilisation project for Tuberculosis control was implemented and evaluated\\u000a in Odisha state of India. The purpose of the study was to identify the impact of project interventions including the use of\\u000a 'Interface

Vishnu Vardhan Kamineni; Tahir Turk; Nevin Wilson; Srinath Satyanarayana; Lakbir Singh Chauhan



Molecular characterization of peste-des-petits ruminants virus (PPRV) isolated from an outbreak in the Indo-Bangladesh border of Tripura state of North-East India.  


Peste-des-petits- ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious and devastating disease of goats and sheep. Although India is endemic for PPR, Tripura, a state in North East India has never been reported confirmed PPR outbreaks. Recently, an outbreak of PPR occurred in non-descript goats at the Sabroom town of Tripura state in North-East India in June, 2013. The causative agent, PPR virus (PPRV) was confirmed by sandwich ELISA, virus isolation and N gene based RT-PCR and sequencing. The sequence and phylogenetic analysis confirmed the involvement of lineage IV PPR virus in the outbreak. The outbreak viruses from Tripura state were clustered mainly with circulating viruses from Bangladesh, India, China, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Dubai and Kurdistan. However, the nucleotide sequence homology ranged from 99.2 to 99.6% with the PPR strains circulating in Bangladesh during 2011 and 2012 whereas 95.5-98% homology has been observed with the viruses from India and other countries. These findings suggest the transboundary circulation of PPR virus between India and Bangladesh border, which warrant immediate vaccination across the international border to create an immune belt. PMID:25465184

Muthuchelvan, Dhanavelu; De, Ankan; Debnath, Bikas; Choudhary, Dheeraj; Venkatesan, Gnanavel; Rajak, Kaushal Kishore; Sudhakar, Shashi Bhusan; Himadri, Divakar; Pandey, Awadh Bihari; Parida, Satya



Preschool Quality and the Development of Children From Economically Disadvantaged Families in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research Findings: The influence of preschool quality on the development of 67 4-year-old children from poor and rural families in South India was examined. Children's developmental status was assessed using a modified version of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities and through physician ratings. Preschool quality was assessed through repeated systematic observations and using the Tamil Nadu Early Childhood Environment

Nirmala Rao



Groundwater geochemistry and identification of hydrogeochemical processes in a hard rock region, Southern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogeochemical investigations were carried out in Chithar River basin, Tamil Nadu, India to identify the major geochemical\\u000a processes that regulate groundwater chemistry. For this study, long-term (1991–1997) and recent water quality data (2001–2002)\\u000a for 30 groundwater wells spread over the study area were used to understand the groundwater geochemistry and hydrogeochemical\\u000a process regulating groundwater quality. Groundwater quality data obtained from

T. Subramani; N. Rajmohan; L. Elango



Public health system readiness to treat malaria in Odisha State of India  

PubMed Central

Background Early diagnosis and prompt treatment is a cornerstone of malaria control. In India, artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) became the first-line treatment for falciparum malaria and rapid diagnostic test (RDTs) kits were recommended for use at the grass-root level in the new malaria treatment policy (2010). Odisha State contributes about one-fourth of the total Indian malaria burden and 40% of falciparum infection. The present study assessed the health system readiness to deploy RDTs and ACT for malaria control across the State. Methods Data collection was carried out from February to July 2012. Five of Odisha’s 30 districts were selected through stratified random sampling, with stratification based on the phased roll-out of ACT and RDT. Two administrative 'blocks’ were selected randomly in each district and data collected through health facility, auxiliary nurse midwives (ANMs) and accredited social health activist (ASHAs) assessments. Key informant interviews were conducted with individuals involved in the implementation of the malaria control programme. Results Of the 220 ANMs interviewed, 51.4% had been trained in malaria case management, including the use of ACT and RDT. A high proportion of ANM (80%) and AHSA (77%) had the necessary level of knowledge to be able to use RDT for malaria diagnosis. The proportion of ASHAs trained on malaria case management was 88.9% (209/235). However, 71% of ANM and 55% of ASHAs usually referred falciparum-positive patients to the health facility for treatment, the major reason for referral being the non-availability of drugs at the ANM and ASHA level. Conclusion The relatively high level of knowledge about how to diagnose and treat malaria at the grass-root level was undermined by the poor availability of RDTs, ACT and primaquine tablets. This was associated with an unnecessarily high referral rate and potential delays in the treatment of this potentially life-threatening infection. Improvements in the supply chain for RDTs and ACT could dramatically enhance the effectiveness of malaria control in Odisha. PMID:24088525



Future Time Perspectives of Adolescents in India and The United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of event-listing research suggests that longer time perspective is associated with more favorable characteristics including higher socio-economic level. The major samples consisted of approximately 100 boys and 80 girls each in ninth grades in small towns in India and America. They did not show significant differences on median time attributed to seven expected life events, though Indian boys

Perin Mehta; Norman D. Sundberg; Pritam K. Rohila; Leona E. Tyler



Paths to the future for science and technology in China, India and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

China and India are frequently referred to as emerging superpowers. First, we present evidence that by virtue of their economic strength, their ability to absorb and adapt to repeated foreign intrusions, and their cultural reach, both countries should be more properly regarded as re-emerging superpowers. They qualified for that status even when the Roman Empire was at its peak, and

J. Thomas Ratchford; William A. Blanpied



India: Implications of Communication Infrastructure on the Production of Media in State Training Institutes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Description of training institutes developed by the government of India to improve the irrigation system focuses on the communication system infrastructure for the production and use of audiovisual materials for training. Highlights include local production of media; equipment and communication networks; cost effectiveness; and recommendations for…

Maughan, George R.




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




Census of India  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

India's richly diverse population of more than 975 million people, growing at a rate of over 43,000 persons per day, provides a wealth of fascinating data when its decennial census is taken by the Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner. Although the last Indian census was conducted in 1991, new data are still being released every month. This Website provides access to Census Publications; India and State Maps; State Publications; District Census Handbooks; Special Studies; India at a Glance; Key Population Statistics; Vital Statistics; State Census Directorates; and New Book Releases.


Frequent exposure to suboptimal temperatures in vaccine cold-chain system in India: results of temperature monitoring in 10 states  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To estimate the proportion of time the vaccines in the cold-chain system in India are exposed to temperatures of ?8 °C. Methods In each of 10 states, the largest district and the one most distant from the state capital were selected for study. Four boxes, each containing an electronic temperature recorder and two vials of diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus vaccine, were placed in the state or regional vaccine store for each study state. Two of these boxes were then shipped – one per facility – towards the two most peripheral health facilities where vaccine was stored in each study district. The boxes were shipped, handled and stored as if they were routine vaccine supplies. Findings In state, regional and district vaccine stores and peripheral health facilities, respectively, the temperatures in the boxes exceeded 8 °C for 14.3%, 13.2%, 8.3% and 14.7% of their combined storage times and fell below 0 °C for 1.5%, 0.2%, 0.6% and 10.5% of these times. The boxes also spent about 18% and 7% of their combined times in transit at ?8 °C, respectively. In shake tests conducted at the end of the study, two thirds of the vaccine vials in the boxes showed evidence of freezing. Conclusion While exposure to temperatures above 8 °C occurred at every level of vaccine storage, exposure to subzero temperatures was only frequent during vaccine storage at peripheral facilities and vaccine transportation. Systematic efforts are needed to improve temperature monitoring in the cold-chain system in India. PMID:24347729

Dutta, Srihari; Kapoor, Ambujam Nair; Bitragunta, Sailaja; Dodum, Raja; Ghosh, Pramit; Swamy, Karumanagounder Kolanda; Mukhopadhyay, Kalyanranjan; Ningombam, Somorjit; Parmar, Kamlesh; Ravishankar, Devegowda; Singh, Balraj; Singh, Varsha; Sisodiya, Rajesh; Subramanian, Ramaratnam; Takum, Tana



The Rhetoric of Participation Re-examined: The State, NGOs and Water Users at Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the rhetoric of popular participation in the implementation of the Ganga Action Plan (GAP) at Varanasi, India, first major attempt to systematically control and monitor the pollution of a significant river in India. (Contains 42 references.) (MDH)

Ahmed, Sara



Temporal change in land use by irrigation source in Tamil Nadu and management implications.  


Interannual variation in rainfall throughout Tamil Nadu has been causing frequent and noticeable land use changes despite the rapid development in groundwater irrigation. Identifying periodically water-stressed areas is the first and crucial step to minimizing negative effects on crop production. Such analysis must be conducted at the basin level as it is an independent water accounting unit. This paper investigates the temporal variation in irrigated area between 2000-2001 and 2010-2011 due to rainfall variation at the state and sub-basin level by mapping and classifying Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 8-day composite satellite imagery using spectral matching techniques. A land use/land cover map was drawn with an overall classification accuracy of 87.2 %. Area estimates between the MODIS-derived net irrigated area and district-level statistics (2000-2001 to 2007-2008) were in 95 % agreement. A significant decrease in irrigated area (30-40 %) was observed during the water-stressed years of 2002-2003, 2003-2004, and 2009-2010. Major land use changes occurred three times during 2000 to 2010. This study demonstrates how remote sensing can identify areas that are prone to repeated land use changes and pin-point key target areas for the promotion of drought-tolerant varieties, alternative water management practices, and new cropping patterns to ensure sustainable agriculture for food security and livelihoods. PMID:25481120

Gumma, Murali Krishna; Kajisa, Kei; Mohammed, Irshad A; Whitbread, Anthony M; Nelson, Andrew; Rala, Arnel; Palanisami, K



Unusual occurrence of non carotenogenic strains of Dunaliella bardawil and Dunaliella parva in India.  


Identification of green algal genus Dunaliella by conventional method is hard target since the strains vary morphologically and physiologically with conditions of growth. In this study, a total of nine different isolates of Dunaliella isolated from the salt pans of Tamil Nadu, India, were identified based on their morphology and cultural characteristics. In addition, the isolates were subjected to molecular identification using genus specific and species specific primers which distinguished the discrepancy in the conventional identification. This study evidently reported the first occurrence of non carotenogenic strains (a new variety) of D. bardawil and D. parva in India. PMID:21656806

Jayappriyan, K R; Rajkumar, R; Rengasamy, R



Is Hemoglobin E Gene Widely Spread in the State of Madhya Pradesh in Central India? Evidence from Five Typical Families  

PubMed Central

Background Red cell inherited hemoglobin (Hb) anomalies are commonly encountered in the central region of India. These cause a public health concern due to high level of morbidity, mortality, and fetal loss in the backward, underprivileged, and vulnerable people. Purpose To report five typical families of Hb E disorders for the first time detected and identified from various districts of the state of Madhya Pradesh in central India. Methods Out of a total of 447 couples/families referred from a tertiary hospital in central India for investigations of anemia/hemoglobinopathies during the period from March 2010 to February 2014, we came across five typical rare couples/families of Hb E disorders (1.1%) worthy of detailed investigations that we have reported here. Laboratory investigations were carried out following the standard procedures after cross checking for quality control from time to time. Results For the first time, out of total 27 cases studied, we have encountered nine cases of heterozygous Hb E trait (33.3%), two members (7.4%) with Hb E-?-thalassemia (double heterozygosity), two cases (7.4%) of sickle cell-Hb E disease (double heterozygosity), two ?-thalassemia traits (7.4%), three sickle cell traits (11.1%), 9 normal (33.3%), and none with homozygous Hb E disease. Cases of Hb E trait, Hb E-?-thalassemia, and sickle cell-E disease showed moderate to severe anemia, and target cells, and reduced values of red cell indices like red blood cell count, Hb level, hematocrit, mean cell volume, mean cell Hb and mean cell Hb cencentration, describing abnormal hematological profile and clinical manifestations before blood transfusion. Conclusions Double heterozygosity of ?-thalassemia with Hb S and Hb E is a rare entity, but occurs with severe clinical manifestations, testifying either migrations and/or genetic admixture. Co-occurrence of Hb E/?-thalassemia in different districts indicates that these anomalies along with other hemoglobinopathies are wide spread in Madhya Pradesh and posing a major genetic burden on vulnerable people of central India. PMID:25237473

Balgir, R.S.



The relationship between physical intimate partner violence and sexually transmitted infection among women in India and the United States.  


To investigate the association between physical intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexually transmitted infection (STI) in two national samples. Data came from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions Wave 2 (n=34,653) and the National Family Health Survey-3 (n=124 385). Ever-married women between the ages of 20 and 49 were asked if they had experienced physical violence by their partner in the past year. Outcomes were presence of doctor confirmed HIV and self-reported STI. Age at first intercourse was examined as a mediator of the relationship between IPV and STI. Logistic regression examined associations between IPV, age at first intercourse and STI. Compared to individuals with no physical IPV, risk for STI was higher for individuals who experienced past year IPV living in the United States and India, however once controlling for age at first intercourse, age, education, household wealth/income and past year sexual violence, the relationship between IPV, and STI was significant in the American sample [(AOR)=1.65, 95% (CI)=1.21-2.26], however not for individuals living in India [(AOR)=1.75, 95% (CI)=0.84-3.65]. Individuals with exposure to physical IPV are at increased odds for STI. Age at first intercourse although a marker of risk, may not be an accurate marker of risky sexual behavior in both samples. PMID:23778315

Spiwak, Rae; Afifi, Tracie O; Halli, Shiva; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia; Sareen, Jitender



Burden of Complicated Malaria in a Densely Forested Bastar Region of Chhattisgarh State (Central India)  

PubMed Central

Background A prospective study on severe and complicated malaria was undertaken in the tribal dominated area of Bastar division, Chhattisgarh (CG), Central India, with an objective to understand the clinical epidemiology of complicated malaria in patients attending at a referral hospital. Methods Blood smears, collected from the general medicine and pediatric wards of a government tertiary health care facility located in Jagdalpur, CG, were microscopically examined for malaria parasite from July 2010 to December 2013. The Plasmodium falciparum positive malaria cases who met enrollment criteria and provided written informed consent were enrolled under different malaria categories following WHO guidelines. PCR was performed to reconfirm the presence of P.falciparum mono infection among enrolled cases. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to identify different risk factors using STATA 11.0. Results A total of 40,924 cases were screened for malaria. The prevalence of malaria and P.falciparum associated complicated malaria (severe and cerebral both) in the hospital was 6% and 0.81%, respectively. P.falciparum malaria prevalence, severity and associated mortality in this region peaked at the age of>4–5 years and declined with increasing age. P.falciparum malaria was significantly more prevalent in children than adults (P<0.00001). Among adults, males had significantly more P.falciparum malaria than females (P<0.00001). Case fatality rate due to cerebral malaria and severe malaria was, respectively, 32% and 9% among PCR confirmed mono P.falciparum cases. Coma was the only independent predictor of mortality in multivariate regression analysis. Mortality was significantly associated with multi-organ complication score (P?=?0.0003). Conclusion This study has revealed that the pattern of morbidity and mortality in this part of India is very different from earlier reported studies from India. We find that the peak morbidity and mortality in younger children regardless of seasonality. This suggests that this age group needs special care for control and clinical management. PMID:25531373

Jain, Vidhan; Basak, Sanjay; Bhandari, Sneha; Bharti, Praveen K.; Thomas, Trilok; Singh, Mrigendra P.; Singh, Neeru



Complex Behaviour of Glaciers in Ladakh Mountains (J & K State, India) : Case Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ladakh Mountains house approximately 4500 glaciers in its two major basins, namely Indus (1800 glaciers) and Shyok (2700 glaciers).Glaciers in Indian Himalaya have been under monitor for past about five decades. Monitoring of scores of glaciers have been both in terms of documentary record and field studies of the glaciers in northwest Himalaya. The studies suggest that glaciers of Ladakh mountains show an extremely different behavior as compared to the glaciers of rest of northwest Himalaya. Four glaciers, namely Durung Drung, Kangriz, Machoi and Siachen, representing the Indus and Shyok basin are dealt herein. Sufficient documentary and field evidences of these four glaciers support the view that glaciers housed in Ladakh mountains contradict the commonly accepted concept of fast melting glaciers in Himalaya (Ganjoo and Koul 2009; Ganjoo et al. 2010). The studies further suggest that the secular movement of glaciers in Ladakh mountains is a complex phenomena of several micro and macro-climatic factors, terrain morphology, and tectonics (Ganjoo 2009, Koul and Ganjoo 2010). The change in the morphology of glaciers is not necessarily related with the change in climate as commonly believed and hyped. Ganjoo, R.K. (2009) Holocene Tectonics and Climate of Durung Drung Glacier Basin, Zanskar Himalaya, India (Abstract). The 5th International Symposium on Tibetan Plateau and 24th Himalaya- Karakorum-Tibet Workshop, Aug. 11-14, Beijing, China. Ganjoo, R.K. and Koul, M.N. (2009) Is the Siachen glacier melting? Current Science, 97(3), 309-310. Ganjoo, RK; Koul, MN; Ajai; Bahuguna, IM (2010) Glaciers of Nubra valley, Karakorum mountains, Ladakh (India) vis-à-vis climate change (abstract). 7th Annual Meeting of Asia Oceania Geosciences Society, Hyderabad. Koul, M.N. and Ganjoo, R.K. (2010) Impact of inter- and intra-annual variation in weather parameters on mass balance and equilibrium line altitude of Naradu glacier (Himachal Pradesh), NW Himalaya, India. Climatic Change, 99, 119-139.

Ganjoo, R. K.



State of Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry in India: Current status and vision for future  

PubMed Central

Over the years Consultation-Liaison (C-L) psychiatry has contributed significantly to the growth of the psychiatry and has brought psychiatry very close to the advances in the medicine. It has also led to changes in the medical education and in the providing comprehensive management to the physically ill. In India, although the General Hospital Psychiatric units were established in 1930s, C-L Psychiatry has never been the main focus of training and research. Hence there is an urgent need to improve C-L Psychiatry services and training to provide best and optimal care to the patients and provide best education to the trainees. PMID:22135437

Grover, Sandeep



India Votes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The world's largest democracy goes to the polls in Mid-February for parliamentary elections. India Today (discussed in the August 29, 1997 Scout Report), a weekly news magazine with a circulation of over 11 million, provides this site for interested Internauts to follow the elections. It provides ongoing daily news, an election calendar, and election information organized by state, constituency, party, and leaders. In addition, there are links to IT articles of interest. Newcomers to the Indian electoral process are advised to consult the Reference section first.



Empowerment and continuous improvement in the United States, Mexico, Poland, and India: Predicting fit on the basis of the dimensions of power distance and individualism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although variations in national cultures predominate as explanations for the belief that universal approaches to management do not exist, there have been few reports of systematic studies. Data from employees of a single firm with operations in the United States, Mexico, Poland, and India were used to test the fit of empowerment and continuous improvement practices with national culture. Using

Christopher Robert; Tahira M. Probst; Joseph J. Martocchio; Fritz Drasgow; John J. Lawler



Peer-to-Peer Consultations: Ancillary Services Peer Exchange with India: Experience from South Africa, Europe & the United States (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

In support of national and subnational decision makers, the 21st Century Power Partnership regularly works with country partners to organize peer-to-peer consultations on critical issues. In March 2014, 21CPP collaborated with the Regulatory Assistance Project - India to host two peer-to-peer exchanges among experts from India, South Africa, Europe, and the United States to discuss the provision of ancillary services, particularly in the context of added variability and uncertainty from renewable energy. This factsheet provides a high level summary of the peer-to-peer consultation.

Not Available



Characterization of minerals in air dust particles in the state of Tamilnadu, India through FTIR, XRD and SEM analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abstract of this paper explains the presence of minerals in air which causes great concern regarding public health issues. The spectroscopic investigation of air dust particles of several samples in various locations in the state of Tamilnadu, India is reported. Qualitative analyses were carried out to determine the major and minor constituent minerals present in the samples based on the FTIR, XRD absorption peaks. This study also identified the minerals like quartz, asbestos, kaolinite, calcite, hematite, montmorillonite, nacrite and several other trace minerals in the air dust particles. The presents of quartz is mainly found in all the samples invariably. Hence the percentage of quartz and its crystalline nature were determined with the help of extinction co-efficient and crystallinity index respectively. The shape and size of the particulates are studied with SEM analysis.

Senthil Kumar, R.; Rajkumar, P.



Production of alkaline lipase by Corynebacterium paurometabolum, MTCC 6841 isolated from Lake Naukuchiatal, Uttaranchal State, India.  


A moderately psychrophilic bacterium Corynebacterium paurometabolum MTCC 6841 (gram positive, short rod type) producing extracellular alkaline lipase was isolated from Lake Naukuchiatal, Uttaranchal, India. The bacterium was able to grow within a broad range of pH (5-10). Soyabean oil and olive oil served as the best carbon sources for lipase production. The bacterium preferred inorganic nitrogenous compounds, NaNO3 and KNO3, over organic nitrogenous compound for its growth. Maximum lipase production occurred at 25 degrees C and 8.5 pH. The enzyme activity was found to be maximum at the same values of temperature and pH. The enzyme was reasonably stable in the presence of various organic solvents. No significant effect of Ca+, Cu++, Fe++, Na+, K+, Mg++, Mn+, NH4+, Co++ ions over enzyme activity was detected. Treatment with EDTA reduced the activity to nearly one half. PMID:16604420

Joshi, Gopal K; Kumar, Sarvesh; Tripathi, Bhumi Nath; Sharma, Vinay



Genetic affinity between diverse ethnoreligious communities of Tamil Nadu, India: a microsatellite study.  


Historically, a number of local Hindu caste groups have converted to Islam and formed religious endogamous groups. Therefore the local caste groups and religious communities in a region are expected to show genetic relatedness. In this study we investigate the genetic relationship between Tamil-speaking (Dravidian language) Muslims (Sunni), six endogamous Hindu castes, and a tribal ethnic group (Irulars) using 13 CODIS (Combined DNA Index System) autosomal microsatellite markers. Muslims show the highest average heterozygosity (0.405) compared to the other groups. The neighbor-joining tree and the multidimensional-scaling plot show clustering of Tamil-speaking Muslims with three caste groups (Gounder, Paraiyar, and Vanniyar), whereas the Irular tribe is separated out of the cluster. PMID:19728538

Eaaswarkhanth, M; Vasulu, T S; Haque, Ikramul



The local climate–development nexus: jatropha and smallholder adaptation in Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kyoto Protocol has initiated Clean Development Mechanism projects in developing countries as one means to offset carbon emitted in developed nations. Biofuels may be a viable solution, but we argue here that it may also compete with local smallholder farming systems and labour resources. This study assesses the integration of tree bio-diesel crop Jatropha curcas into smallholder agriculture in

Rebecca A. Rittenburg; Miroslav Kummel; Eric P. Perramond



An investigation on the pollution status of holy aquifers of Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu, India.  


The Study area is the sacred Ramanathasamy temple and selected for the characterization of physico-chemical parameters viz., pH, EC, TDS, Salinity, TA, TH, Ca( + 2), Mg( + 2), Chloride and Fluoride for 22 groundwater samples and the impact of pre- and post-monsoon on the groundwater quality was also studied. The study area is well known for the chronic fresh water shortage and the locals depend mostly on springs for their fresh water needs. The Water Quality Index (WQI) computed shows the transfer of samples under unacceptable quality to acceptable quality. The Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) reflected that majority of the samples have the tendency to form scale. The Karl Pearson correlation matrix has approved the maximum relationship of calcium and chloride with respect to the total dissolved solids (TDS). It is interesting to conclude that the groundwater in the study area has very hard nature, especially of non-carbonate type. PMID:18716889

Sivasankar, V; Ramachandramoorthy, T



Origin and evolution of Gneiss-Charnockite rocks of Dharmapuri District, Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low- to high-grade transition area in Dharmapuri district was investigated petrologically and geochemically. The investigation confirmed the presence of a continuous section through a former lower crust, with felsic charnockites predominating the lower part and felsic gneisses the upper part. The structure of original gneisses is preserved in charnockites and the latter show petrographic evidence for prograde metamorphism. The prograde metamorphism is of isochemical nature as revealed by the similarity of compositions of tonalitic gneisses and tonalitic charnockites. However, the depletion of LIL elements particularly Rb, caused variation in K/Rb ratios from low values (345) in the gneisses in upper part to higher values (1775) in the charnockites in the lower crust. This variation in K/Rb ratio in a north to south traverse is related to the progressive break-down of hydrous minerals under decreasing H2O and increasing CO2 fluid conditions. Metasomatism and partial melting has also taken place to a limited extent along shear planes and weak zones. During cooling the H2O circulation affected substantial auto-regression in the transition zone resulting in the formation of second generation biotite.

Rao, D. Rameshwar; Narayana, B. L.



Perchlorate contamination of groundwater from fireworks manufacturing area in South India.  


Perchlorate contamination was investigated in groundwater and surface water from Sivakasi and Madurai in the Tamil Nadu State of South India. Sensitive determination of perchlorate (LOQ?=?0.005 ?g/L) was achieved by large-volume (500 ?L) injection ion chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Concentrations of perchlorate were <0.005-7,690 ?g/L in groundwater (n?=?60), <0.005-30.2 ?g/L in surface water (n?=?11), and 0.063-0.393 ?g/L in tap water (n?=?3). Levels in groundwater were significantly higher in the fireworks factory area than in the other locations, indicating that the fireworks and safety match industries are principal sources of perchlorate pollution. This is the first study that reports the contamination status of perchlorate in this area and reveals firework manufacture to be the pollution source. Since perchlorate levels in 17 out of 57 groundwater samples from Sivakasi, and none from Madurai, exceeded the drinking water guideline level proposed by USEPA (15 ?g/L), further investigation on human health is warranted. PMID:23108714

Isobe, Tomohiko; Ogawa, Shohei P; Sugimoto, Rina; Ramu, Karri; Sudaryanto, Agus; Malarvannan, Govindan; Devanathan, Gnanasekaran; Ramaswamy, Babu Rajendran; Munuswamy, Natesan; Ganesh, Deavaraj Sankar; Sivakumar, Jeyaraj; Sethuraman, A; Parthasarathy, V; Subramanian, Annamalai; Field, Jennifer; Tanabe, Shinsuke



Transmission dynamics of hepatitis C virus among intra venous drug users in the border state of Manipur, India.  


Intra venous drug users (IVDUs) are at high risk for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection owing to their high rate of drug abuses. The north-eastern part of India has a high prevalence of IVDUs with Manipur being the worst hit state. The aim of the study was to document the molecular epidemiology, the patterns of HCV transmission, genomic variation and recombination events within HCV genome among IVDUs of Manipur, India. 91 anti-HCV sero-reactive blood samples were collected from IVDUs in Manipur. The samples were processed for RNA extraction, nested RT-PCR, sequencing and quantitative viral RNA estimation. Phylogeographic analysis of the sequenced core and NS5B regions of HCV genome was performed to determine the probable transmission route and recombinant HCV strains. 83 out of 91 anti-HCV seropositive samples were RNA positive (91.20%) based on 5'UTR of HCV genome by nested RT-PCR. Of the RNA positive samples, 73 paired partial core and NS5B gene were sequenced. Three major genotype and eight subtypes were detected while no recombinant strains were found. Individuals with genotype 1 had the mean viral load (5.94 ± 0.705 log10IU/ml) followed by genotype 3 (4.91 ± 0.49 log10IU/ml) and 6 (3.96 ± 0.32 log10IU/ml). The viral load was statistically significant among the male individuals at 4.822 ± 1.36 log10IU/ml compared to 4.767 ± 0.49 log10IU/ml for females (t=3.249, p<0.005). The phylogeographic results indicated 3b, 6h originated from Vietnam, 1a had Indian origin, 3a, 6k originated from southern China while 1b originated from Myanmar, respectively. The incidence of eight different subtypes in Manipur reflects the transmission of these strains from the "Golden Triangle" drug trafficking regions. Sequence analysis confirmed the transmission routes of HCV, which is linked to China and Vietnam for the newly emergent genotype 6 in north-eastern India. PMID:24650917

Saha, Kallol; Firdaus, Rushna; Biswas, Aritra; Mukherjee, Anirban; Sarkar, Kamalesh; Chakrabarti, Sekhar; Sadhukhan, Provash Chandra



Impact of Community-Based Lymphedema Management on Perceived Disability among Patients with Lymphatic Filariasis in Orissa State, India  

PubMed Central

Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF) infects approximately 120 million people worldwide. As many as 40 million have symptoms of LF disease, including lymphedema, elephantiasis, and hydrocele. India constitutes approximately 45% of the world's burden of LF. The Indian NGO Church's Auxiliary for Social Action (CASA) has been conducting a community-based lymphedema management program in Orissa State since 2007 that aims to reduce the morbidity associated with lymphedema and elephantiasis. The objective of this analysis is to evaluate the effects of this program on lymphedema patients' perceived disability. Methodology/Principal Findings For this prospective cohort study, 370 patients ?14 years of age, who reported lymphedema lasting more than three months in one or both legs, were recruited from villages in the Bolagarh sub-district, Khurda District, Orissa, India. The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II was administered to participants at baseline (July, 2009), and then at regular intervals through 24 months (July, 2011), to assess patients' perceived disability. Disability scores decreased significantly (p<0.0001) from baseline to 24 months. Multivariable analysis using mixed effects modeling found that employment and time in the program were significantly associated with lower disability scores after two years of program involvement. Older age, female gender, the presence of other chronic health conditions, moderate (Stage 3) or advanced (Stage 4–7) lymphedema, reporting an adenolymphangitis (ADL) episode during the previous 30 days, and the presence of inter-digital lesions were associated with higher disability scores. Patients with moderate or advanced lymphedema experienced greater improvements in perceived disability over time. Patients participating in the program for at least 12 months also reported losing 2.5 fewer work days per month (p<0.001) due to their lymphedema, compared to baseline. Significance These results indicate that community-based lymphedema management programs can reduce disability and prevent days of work lost. These effects were sustained over a 24 month period. PMID:23516648

Mues, Katherine E.; Kennedy, Erin D.; Prakash, Aiysha; Rout, Jonathan; Fox, LeAnne M.



Determination of Key Correlates of Agricultural Labour Migration in Less Resources Endowed Areas of Tamil Nadu  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study has been conducted in the backward district of Perambalur, which is a less resource-endowed district of Tamil Nadu, with the following objectives: (i) to identify the major causes and empirically determine the key correlates of agricultural labour migration in the study area, and (ii) to identify the causes for rural out-migration. The study has been conducted by taking

K. R. Sundaravaradarajan; P. Sivakumar; K. R. Jahanmohan



Availability and Distribution of Emergency Obstetric Care Services in Karnataka State, South India: Access and Equity Considerations  

PubMed Central

Background As part of efforts to reduce maternal deaths in Karnataka state, India, there has been a concerted effort to increase institutional deliveries. However, little is known about the quality of care in these healthcare facilities. We investigated the availability and distribution of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) services in eight northern districts of Karnataka state in south India. Methods & Findings We undertook a cross-sectional study of 444 government and 422 private health facilities, functional 24-hours-a-day 7-days-a-week. EmOC availability and distribution were evaluated for 8 districts and 42 taluks (sub-districts) during the year 2010, based on a combination of self-reporting, record review and direct observation. Overall, the availability of EmOC services at the sub-state level [EmOC?=?5.9/500,000; comprehensive EmOC (CEmOC)?=?4.5/500,000 and basic EmOC (BEmOC)?=?1.4/500,000] was seen to meet the benchmark. These services however were largely located in the private sector (90% of CEmOC and 70% of BemOC facilities). Thirty six percent of private facilities and six percent of government facilities were EmOC centres. Although half of eight districts had a sufficient number of EmOC facilities and all eight districts had a sufficient number of CEmOC facilities, only two-fifths of the 42 taluks had a sufficient number of EmOC facilities. With the private facilities being largely located in select towns only, the ‘non-headquarter’ taluks and ‘backward’ taluks suffered from a marked lack of coverage of these services. Spatial mapping further helped identify the clustering of a large number of contiguous taluks without adequate government EmOC facilities in northeastern Karnataka. Conclusions In conclusion, disaggregating information on emergency obstetric care service availability at district and subdistrict levels is critical for health policy and planning in the Indian setting. Reducing maternal deaths will require greater attention by the government in addressing inequities in the distribution of emergency obstetric care services. PMID:23717547

Mony, Prem K.; Krishnamurthy, Jayanna; Thomas, Annamma; Sankar, Kiruba; Ramesh, B. M.; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James; Avery, Lisa



Post-sterilization autonomy among young mothers in South India.  


Summary This study examined the post-sterilization autonomy of women in south India in the context of early sterilization and low fertility. Quantitative data were taken from the third round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) carried out in 2005-06, and qualitative data from one village each in Kerala and Tamil Nadu during 2010-11. The incident rate ratios and thematic analysis showed that among currently married women under the age of 30 years, those who had been sterilized had significantly higher autonomy in household decision-making and freedom of mobility compared with women who had never used any modern family planning method. Early age at sterilization and low fertility enables women to achieve the social status that is generally attained at later stages in the life-cycle. Policies to capitalize on women's autonomy and free time resulting from early sterilization and low fertility should be adopted in south India. PMID:25487194

Pallikadavath, Saseendran; Rajan, Irudaya; Singh, Abhishek; Ogollah, Reuben; Page, Samantha



TATA INSTITUTE OF FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH National Centre of the Government of India for Nuclear Science & Mathematics  

E-print Network

. This is also the reason why neutrinos are difficult to detect. We need to build huge detectors to even detect a handful of neutrino events from a huge background of cosmic ray events. Once you go deep underground, say border, the tunnel and laboratory are entirely located below the mountain inside the state of Tamil Nadu

Udgaonkar, Jayant B.


Indoor concentration of radon, thoron and their progeny around granite regions in the state of Karnataka, India.  


An extensive studies on the indoor activity concentrations of thoron, radon and their progeny in the granite region in the state of Karnataka, India, has been carried out since, 2007 in the scope of a lung cancer epidemiological study using solid-state nuclear track detector-based double-chamber dosemeters (LR-115, type II plastic track detector). Seventy-four dwellings of different types were selected for the measurement. The dosemeters containing SSNTD detectors were fixed 2 m above the floor. After an exposure time of 3 months (90 d), films were etched to reveal tracks. From the track density, the concentrations of radon and thoron were evaluated. The value of the indoor concentration of thoron and radon in the study area varies from 16 to 170 Bq m(-3) and 18 to 300 Bq m(-3) with medians of 66 and 82.3 Bq m(-3), respectively, and that of their progeny varies from 1.8 to 24 mWL with a median of 3.6 mWL and 1.6 to 19.6 mWL, respectively. The concentrations of indoor thoron, radon and their progeny and their equivalent effective doses are discussed. PMID:24106330

Sannappa, J; Ningappa, C



Body form and nutritional status among adult males of different social groups in Orissa and Bihar States in India.  


This paper aims to carry out a biological investigation of the body form and nutritional status of the major social groups of Orissa and Bihar States in India. For this, Cormic Index (CI) and Body Mass Index (BMI) have been computed using data on height, sitting height and weight, taken from adult males of age 18-62 years of various ethnic groups in these two states. The subjects have been classified on the basis of chronic energy deficiency (CED). It is found that a substantial proportion of the people with CED are in the grade II and grade III categories. ANOVA, t-tests, correlation and regression were carried out separately. The results reveal that in Orissa, Scheduled Tribes are shorter, lighter and have lowest mean values of BMI and Cormic Index compared to other groups, but in Bihar, though the Scheduled Tribes are shorter, Scheduled Castes are lower in weight and have the lowest mean values of BMI. There are significant differences in BMI as well as in CI between Scheduled Tribes of Orissa and Bihar. Scheduled Castes and Tribes of Bihar have the highest percentage of CED with 64.71% and 57.45%, respectively. Muslims of Bihar are also affected (52.95%), but overall prevalence of CED is lower in Orissa (49.11%) than in Bihar (54.62%). BMI and CI are highly correlated for each of the social groups in Bihar and Orissa. PMID:18501357

Chakrabarty, S; Pal, M; Bharati, S; Bharati, P



Use of contraceptives and unmet need for family planning among tribal women in India and selected hilly states.  


The paper provides a comprehensive picture of knowledge and use of contraceptives among scheduled tribes of India and selected central hilly states where tribal population contributes more than 30% of the total tribal population of the country. An attempt is also made to know how far scheduled tribes differ from non-tribes in the states, namely Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, and Chhattisgarh, using information collected in the third round of District-level Household Survey (DLHS-RCH III: 2007-2008). Bivariate analysis was used for understanding the level of knowledge, use of and unmet need for contraception among different tribal and non-tribal groups. Binary logistic regression was used for understanding the factors associated with the use of contraception and unmet need for family planning among tribal women. Knowledge and use of temporary contraceptive methods are considerably lower among tribal women compared to their non-tribal counterparts in the three states under study. Low acceptance due to phobia of adverse health consequences, accessibility to and lack of sound knowledge of contraception are the leading reasons for not using contraceptives. The unmet need for family planning among them was quite high, especially in the state of Jharkhand. Multivariate analysis substantiated the role of women and husbands' education, age of women, and number of surviving boys in the use of any modem method of contraception. Educating women and their respective husbands about proper use and benefits of modem contraceptives is important to solve the problem of high unmet need for family planning among these tribal women. A simultaneous attention to the health systems strengthening component is crucial for ensuring sustained delivery of good-quality family planning services. PMID:25076671

Prusty, Ranjan Kumar



Cost & efficiency evaluation of a publicly financed & publicly delivered referral transport service model in three districts of Haryana State, India  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Various models of referral transport services have been introduced in different States in India with an aim to reduce maternal and infant mortality. Most of the research on referral transport has focussed on coverage, quality and timeliness of the service with not much information on cost and efficiency. This study was undertaken to analyze the cost of a publicly financed and managed referral transport service model in three districts of Haryana State, and to assess its cost and technical efficiency. Methods: Data on all resources spent for delivering referral transport service, during 2010, were collected from three districts of Haryana State. Costs incurred at State level were apportioned using appropriate methods. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) technique was used to assess the technical efficiency of ambulances. To estimate the efficient scale of operation for ambulance service, the average cost was regressed on kilometres travelled for each ambulance station using a quadratic regression equation. Results: The cost of referral transport per year varied from ?5.2 million in Narnaul to ?9.8 million in Ambala. Salaries (36-50%) constituted the major cost. Referral transport was found to be operating at an average efficiency level of 76.8 per cent. Operating an ambulance with a patient load of 137 per month was found to reduce unit costs from an average ? 15.5 per km to ? 9.57 per km. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that the publicly delivered referral transport services in Haryana were operating at an efficient level. Increasing the demand for referral transport services among the target population represents an opportunity for further improving the efficiency of the underutilized ambulances. PMID:24521648

Prinja, Shankar; Manchanda, Neha; Aggarwal, Arun Kumar; Kaur, Manmeet; Jeet, Gursimer; Kumar, Rajesh



Use of Contraceptives and Unmet Need for Family Planning among Tribal Women in India and Selected Hilly States  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The paper provides a comprehensive picture of knowledge and use of contraceptives among scheduled tribes of India and selected central hilly states where tribal population contributes more than 30% of the total tribal population of the country. An attempt is also made to know how far scheduled tribes differ from non-tribes in the states, namely Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, and Chhattisgarh, using information collected in the third round of District-level Household Survey (DLHS-RCH III: 2007-2008). Bivariate analysis was used for understanding the level of knowledge, use of and unmet need for contraception among different tribal and non-tribal groups. Binary logistic regression was used for understanding the factors associated with the use of contraception and unmet need for family planning among tribal women. Knowledge and use of temporary contraceptive methods are considerably lower among tribal women compared to their non-tribal counterparts in the three states under study. Low acceptance due to phobia of adverse health consequences, accessibility to and lack of sound knowledge of contraception are the leading reasons for not using contraceptives. The unmet need for family planning among them was quite high, especially in the state of Jharkhand. Multivariate analysis substantiated the role of women and husbands’ education, age of women, and number of surviving boys in the use of any modern method of contraception. Educating women and their respective husbands about proper use and benefits of modern contraceptives is important to solve the problem of high unmet need for family planning among these tribal women. A simultaneous attention to the health systems strengthening component is crucial for ensuring sustained delivery of good-quality family planning services. PMID:25076671



The numbers game: a demographic profile of free India.  


India's population has grown since independence from 350 million in 1947 to 950 million in 1997 and will probably reach 1 billion by the year 2000. Projections made from the most recent census indicate that India will be the world's most populous country by 2040. According to World Bank projections, India's population will surpass 1.7 billion by 2097. India's leaders, allocating funds to industrialization, but not enough to health care and education, failed to understand the nature and consequences of high population growth. Rapid population growth in India has led to considerable unemployment among the working-age population, considerable population pressure upon renewable and nonrenewable resources, and a demand for basic facilities which surpasses their supply. The quality of life and the environment have been adversely affected. This paper considers how investments in social development led to the achievement of replacement level fertility in Kerala, Goa, and Tamil Nadu; the sex ratio; child survival; neglect of girls; the politics of population control; and the future. PMID:12321221

Siddiqui, N



Adult Education in India & Abroad.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey is made of various aspects of adult education in India since 1947, together with comparative accounts of the origin, development, and notable features of adult education in Denmark, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and the United States. Needs and objectives in India, largely in the eradication of illiteracy, are set forth, and pertinent…

Roy, Nikhil Ranjan


Distribution, population structure, and conservation of lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus) in the Anaimalai Hills, Western Ghats, India.  


The lion-tailed macaque is an endangered species, and hence it is necessary that the remaining populations in the rainforests of the Western Ghats, India, be located and their habitats assessed for effective conservation. The Anaimalai Hills in the state of Tamil Nadu harbor 31 groups of lion-tailed macaques. However, the rainforest in these hills is highly fragmented. Since lion-tailed macaques are typically arboreal, the groups have become isolated. Two large rain-forest complexes in these hills harbor 12 and seven groups, respectively, and the remaining 12 groups inhabit small, isolated forest fragments. Group size ranges from six to 53 individuals, with a mean size of 16.3. In the small forest fragments, the standard deviation (SD) of group size was considerably higher than it was in the larger forest complexes. The disturbed fragments also had a higher variability in group size than the relatively undisturbed habitats. It is believed that fragmentation may impede male migration. We suggest that the fragments be managed in such a way that male migration among groups can be facilitated to overcome the potential effects of isolation. PMID:12111684

Singh, Mewa; Singh, Mridula; Kumar, M Ananda; Kumara, H N; Sharma, A K; Kaumanns, W



Saving the Next Generation: Political Capacity and Infant Mortality Decline in India's States  

Microsoft Academic Search

National political development and its effect on economic and demographic changes are topics extensively addressed by power transition theory. Studies in political demography demonstrate that the political capacity of national governments plays a critical role in altering mortality and fertility patterns in developing nations. We test the effects of political capacity on infant mortality rates in fifteen Indian states in

Siddharth Swaminathan; John Thomas



Historical analysis of the development of health care facilities in Kerala State, India.  


Kerala's development experience has been distinguished by the primacy of the social sectors. Traditionally, education and health accounted for the greatest shares of the state government's expenditure. Health sector spending continued to grow even after 1980 when generally the fiscal deficit in the state budget was growing and government was looking for ways to control expenditure. But growth in the number of beds and institutions in the public sector had slowed down by the mid-1980s. From 1986-1996, growth in the private sector surpassed that in the public sector by a wide margin. Public sector spending reveals that in recent years, expansion has been limited to revenue expenditure rather than capital, and salaries at the cost of supplies. Many developments outside health, such as growing literacy, increasing household incomes and population ageing (leading to increased numbers of people with chronic afflictions), probably fueled the demand for health care already created by the increased access to health facilities. Since the government institutions could not grow in number and quality at a rate that would have satisfied this demand, health sector development in Kerala after the mid-1980s has been dominated by the private sector. Expansion in private facilities in health has been closely linked to developments in the government health sector. Public institutions play by far the dominant role in training personnel. They have also sensitized people to the need for timely health interventions and thus helped to create demand. At this point in time, the government must take the lead in quality maintenance and setting of standards. Current legislation, which has brought government health institutions under local government control, can perhaps facilitate this change by helping to improve standards in public institutions. PMID:10731241

Kutty, V R



Response of malaria vectors to conventional insecticides in the southern districts of Odisha State, India  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Updating information on response (susceptible / resistant status) of vectors to the insecticides in use is essential to formulate and introduce appropriate resistance management strategy. Therefore, a study was undertaken in the 10 southern districts of Odisha State, which are endemic for Plasmodium falciparum malaria, to determine the insecticide susceptibility/ resistance status of Anopheles fluviatilis and An. culicifacies, the vectors of malaria. Methods: Mosquitoes were collected during September 2010 - February 2012 from 60 randomly selected villages in the 10 districts and blood-fed females were exposed to the diagnostic dosage of DDT (4.0%), malathion (5.0%) and deltamethrin (0.05%) for one hour. Mortality was recorded at 24 h after the exposure. The test mortality was corrected to the control mortality. Results: An. fluviatilis was susceptible to the three insecticides tested while, An. culicifacies was resistant to DDT and malathion in all the 10 districts except in two, where its response against malathion was under ‘verification required’ category. Against deltamethrin, An. culicifacies was susceptible in two districts; while in the other eight districts its response was under ‘verification required’ category. Interpretation & conclusions: Since An. fluviatilis the vector species primarily associated with transmission of malaria, was still susceptible to DDT, indoor residual spraying with DDT could be continued in the 10 districts. Also, in view of the large scale implementation of long lasting insecticidal nets and the signs of development of resistance in An. culicifacies to deltamethrin, response of the vectors to synthetic pyrethroids needs to be periodically monitored. PMID:24718406

Sahu, S.S.; Gunasekaran, K.; Raju, H.K.; Vanamail, P.; Pradhan, M.M.; Jambulingam, P.



Black carbon aerosol mass concentrations over Ahmedabad, an urban location in western India: Comparison with urban sites in Asia, Europe, Canada, and the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black carbon (BC) aerosol mass concentrations measured using an aethalometer at Ahmedabad, an urban location in western India, from September 2003 to June 2005 are analyzed. BC mass concentrations are found to show diurnal and seasonal variations. Diurnal evolution in BC is marked with two peaks, one in the morning hours, just after the sunrise, and the other in the late evening hours. The peaks occur due to fumigation effect of boundary layer, gradual increase in the anthropogenic activities, and rush hour traffic. January BC values are about a factor of 5 higher than July mass concentrations. During winter the surface boundary layer is shallow resulting in trapping of pollutants in a lesser volume which leads to higher BC concentrations. In July an increase in boundary layer height, surface temperature, convective activity, and rainfall result in lower BC values. BC mass concentrations are about 0.8 ?g m-3 in July 2004 (southwest monsoon), while BC was higher than 5 ?g m-3 in January 2004 (northeast monsoon). Ahmedabad BC mass concentrations are higher than those measured over central, western India and Hyderabad, an urban city in south India during a land campaign in February 2004. BC values measured over Ahmedabad are found to be higher than those measured over various locations representing different environments in Europe. Seasonal variations are less pronounced in urban locations in Europe. BC mass concentrations at east St. Louis, Illinois, an urban site are found to be less than 2 ?g m-3 during September 2003 to June 2005, with less pronounced seasonal variations. BC mass concentrations at various land locations in India, Beijing, and Seoul are higher than those measured over various locations in Europe, Canada, and the United States.

Ramachandran, S.; Rajesh, T. A.



Can India's "Literate" Read?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading Method…

Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata



Health system capacity: maternal health policy implementation in the state of Gujarat, India  

PubMed Central

Introduction The Government of Gujarat has for the past couple of decades continuously initiated several interventions to improve access to care for pregnant and delivering women within the state. Data from the last District Family Heath survey in Gujarat in 2007–2008 show that 56.4% of women had institutional deliveries and 71.5% had at least one antenatal check-up, indicating that challenges remain in increasing use of and access to maternal health care services. Objective To explore the perceptions of high-level stakeholders on the process of implementing maternal health interventions in Gujarat. Method Using the policy triangle framework developed by Walt and Gilson, the process of implementation was approached using in-depth interviews and qualitative content analysis. Result Based on the analysis, three themes were developed: lack of continuity; the complexity of coordination; and lack of confidence and underutilization of the monitoring system. The findings suggest that decisions made and actions advocated and taken are more dependent on individual actors than on sustainable structures. The findings also indicate that the context in which interventions are implemented is challenged in terms of weak coordination and monitoring systems that are not used to evaluate and develop interventions on maternal health. Conclusions The implementation of interventions on maternal health is dependent on the capacity of the health system to implement evidence-based policies. The capacity of the health system in Gujarat to facilitate implementation of maternal health interventions needs to be improved, both in terms of the role of actors and in terms of structures and processes. PMID:23522352

Sanneving, Linda; Kulane, Asli; Iyer, Aditi; Ahgren, Bengt



Tsunami: India  

article title:  Breaking Tsunami Waves along India's Eastern Coast     ... several meters due to the quake, resulting in large ocean waves, called "tsunamis" from the Japanese for "harbor waves." The tsunami ...



India: Kachchh  

... article title:  Liquefaction Effects from the Bhuj Earthquake     View Larger Image ... of western India. On January 26, 2001, a magnitude 7.7 earthquake devastated this area, killing 20,000 people and destroying ...



75 FR 67110 - Forged Stainless Steel Flanges From India and Taiwan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Forged Stainless Steel Flanges From India and Taiwan AGENCY: United States International...on forged stainless steel flanges from India and Taiwan...on forged stainless steel flanges from India and Taiwan would be likely to lead to...



77 FR 59970 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela; Institution of Five-Year Reviews...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela; Institution of Five-Year Reviews...Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela AGENCY: United States International...silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela would be likely to lead to...



78 FR 13380 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews...Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela AGENCY: United States International...silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela would be likely to lead to...



75 FR 3756 - Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia AGENCY: United States International...mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia...mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia would be likely to lead to...



Comparative study of economics of different models of family size biogas plants for state of Punjab, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogas, the end product of anaerobic digestion of cattle dung, can successfully supplement the cooking fuels in the countryside areas of India, where the raw material needed for its production is plentifully available. Because of the lack of awareness regarding selection of a suitable model and size of biogas plant, the full potential of the biogas producing material is not

K. Jatinder Singh; Sarbjit Singh Sooch



DNA profiling of the VNTR locus D2S44 in the population of Madras City and in the tribal Kotas of the Nilgiri Hills, south India.  


Allele frequency distribution of the VNTR locus D2S44 was studied in Tamil Nadu (South India) population. Randomly chosen individuals (Tamils of the plains, Madras City; N = 142) were tested for HaeIII-generated polymorphism detectable by probe YNH24, and the allele sizes and frequencies were determined. Heterozygosity (93.6%) observed in the Tamils is comparable to that of other populations; the size and frequency distribution of alleles, however, vary significantly. The most prevalent allele, which ranges from 1.2 to 1.9 kb, appears to be unique to the Tamil Nadu population. No mutation was observed for the D2S44 locus in family material made up by 54 subjects (N = 54) including 37 offspring. DNA polymorphism at D2S44 locus was also studied in the endogamous Kota tribe of the Nilgiri Hills, South India, using enzyme HaeIII and probe YNH24. The Kota group (N = 48) is characterized by a very high frequency (32.3%) of the bin 1197-1352 bp. The DNA profile of the Kotas shows distinct differences from that of the urban population in the plains of Tamil Nadu, South India (Tamils of Madras City). The results have also been compared with the literature available on other world populations. The outcome indicates the uniqueness of the tribal Kotas and warrants the importance of DNA profiling in other tribal, caste/endogamous groups of India. This report incidentally represents the first comprehensive DNA profiling data for the locus D2S44 from India fulfilling the requirement for forensic and other applications. PMID:8634219

Pandian, S K; Kumar, S; Dharmalingam, K; Damodaran, C



Impact of a Community-Based Lymphedema Management Program on Episodes of Adenolymphangitis (ADLA) and Lymphedema Progression - Odisha State, India  

PubMed Central

Background Lymphedema management programs have been shown to decrease episodes of adenolymphangitis (ADLA), but the impact on lymphedema progression and of program compliance have not been thoroughly explored. Our objectives were to determine the rate of ADLA episodes and lymphedema progression over time for patients enrolled in a community-based lymphedema management program. We explored the association between program compliance and ADLA episodes as well as lymphedema progression. Methodology/Principal Findings A lymphedema management program was implemented in Odisha State, India from 2007–2010 by the non-governmental organization, Church's Auxiliary for Social Action, in consultation with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A cohort of patients was followed over 24 months. The crude 30-day rate of ADLA episodes decreased from 0.35 episodes per person-month at baseline to 0.23 at 24 months. Over the study period, the percentage of patients who progressed to more severe lymphedema decreased (P-value ?=?0.0004), while those whose lymphedema regressed increased over time (P-value<0.0001). Overall compliance to lymphedema management, lagged one time point, appeared to have little to no association with the frequency of ADLA episodes among those without entry lesions (RR?=?0.87 (0.69, 1.10)) and was associated with an increased rate (RR?=?1.44 (1.11, 1.86)) among those with entry lesions. Lagging compliance two time points, it was associated with a decrease in the rate of ADLA episodes among those with entry lesions (RR?=?0.77 (95% CI: 0.59, 0.99)) and was somewhat associated among those without entry lesions (RR?=?0.83 (95% CI: 0.64, 1.06)). Compliance to soap was associated with a decreased rate of ADLA episodes among those without inter-digital entry lesions. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that a community-based lymphedema management program is beneficial for lymphedema patients for both ADLA episodes and lymphedema. It is one of the first studies to demonstrate an association between program compliance and rate of ADLA episodes. PMID:25211334

Mues, Katherine E.; Deming, Michael; Kleinbaum, David G.; Budge, Philip J.; Klein, Mitch; Leon, Juan S.; Prakash, Aishya; Rout, Jonathan; Fox, LeAnne M.



Going against the flow: A critical analysis of inter-state virtual water trade in the context of India’s National River Linking Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual water trade has been promoted as a tool to address national and regional water scarcity. In the context of international (food) trade, this concept has been applied with a view to optimize the flow of commodities considering the water endowments of nations. The concept states that water rich countries should produce and export water intensive commodities (which indirectly carry

Shilp Verma; Doeke A. Kampman; Pieter van der Zaag; Arjen Y. Hoekstra



India Today for August 18, 1997  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1997 India elebrated its 50th anniversary of independence from Britain, and to honor the occasion, this well known weekly magazine devoted a special issue to the subject. This issue presents a state of the nation India Today-ORG-MARG poll of over 12,000 that discussed nine topics, including morality, India and Pakistan, and the economy. There is also a feature on three famous protest walks led by Ghandi, views of the New Delhi based Center for Policy Research on the shape of India in the year 2047, views of 35 people on what it means to be Indian, essays by Salman Rushdie, Shahid Amin, and Upamanyu Chatterjee, and a photo section. The India Today home page contains a connection to India Today, as well as six other Living Media India Limited publications.



The biological sciences in India  

PubMed Central

India is gearing up to become an international player in the life sciences, powered by its recent economic growth and a desire to add biotechnology to its portfolio. In this article, we present the history, current state, and projected future growth of biological research in India. To fulfill its aspirations, India's greatest challenge will be in educating, recruiting, and supporting its next generation of scientists. Such challenges are faced by the US/Europe, but are particularly acute in developing countries that are racing to achieve scientific excellence, perhaps faster than their present educational and faculty support systems will allow. PMID:19204144

Dell, Karen



Correlates of Occurrence of Obstetric Fistula among Women in Selected States of India: An Analysis of DLHS1-3 Data  

PubMed Central

Obstetric fistula is the most devastating form of maternal morbidity. It is an opening in the wall of vagina connecting to bladder or to rectum due to prolonged obstructed labour without timely medical assistance. A few research studies carried out in India and recently conducted DLHS-3 survey (2007-08) has information on obstetric fistula that gives scope for further research. This paper examines prevalence of obstetric fistula and its correlates using DLHS-3 data for selected states in India. Ever experience of obstetric fistula among women in these states ranges from 0.3 percent to 3.4 percent, being highest in Uttarakhand. Women living in rural areas have higher chance of obstetric fistula. Age and physical maturity is important factor in the occurrence of fistula and it is found that those women who were below 18 years at the time of their first birth have higher risk of fistula in comparison to those who had child at 18 or above years. In addition to this, those having problems at the time of delivery are around two times more likely to have fistula. Auxulary Nurse Midwife can be key players in the early detection and referral of cephalo-pelvic disproportion, malpresentation and prolonged, obstructed labour cases. PMID:24753857

Gulati, B.K.; Unisa, S.; Pandey, A.; Sahu, D.; Ganguly, S.



Students from India at a Major Research University in the United States: A Phenomenological Study of Transition, Adjustment, and Transformation  

E-print Network

-being, resulting in low self-esteem, disappointment, resentment, anger, sadness, physical illness, and difficulty in interacting socially (Constantine, Okazaki & Utsey, 2004). In accordance with this finding, Shupe (2007) also found that because... of transition? Why This Study? Although many empirical studies on intercultural adjustments have been conducted on Asian international students (Constantine et al., 2004), research investigating the adjustment experiences of students from India in the U...

Chennamsetti, Prashanti



Knowledge and awareness of diabetes in urban and rural India: The Indian Council of Medical Research India Diabetes Study (Phase I): Indian Council of Medical Research India Diabetes 4  

PubMed Central

Background: Representative data on knowledge and awareness about diabetes is scarce in India and is extremely important to plan public health policies aimed at preventing and controlling diabetes. Aim: The aim of the following study is to assess awareness and knowledge about diabetes in the general population, as well as in individuals with diabetes in four selected regions of India. Materials and Methods: The study subjects were drawn from a representative sample of four geographical regions of India, Chandigarh, Tamil Nadu, Jharkhand and Maharashtra representing North, South, East and West and covering a population of 213 million. A total of 16,607 individuals (5112 urban and 11,495 rural) aged ?20 years were selected from 188 urban and 175 rural areas. Awareness of diabetes and knowledge of causative factors and complications of diabetes were assessed using an interviewer administered structured questionnaire in 14,274 individuals (response rate, 86.0%), which included 480 self-reported diabetic subjects. Results: Only 43.2% (6160/14,274) of the overall study population had heard about a condition called diabetes. Overall urban residents had higher awareness rates (58.4%) compared to rural residents (36.8%) (P < 0.001). About 46.7% of males and 39.6% of females reported that they knew about a condition called diabetes (P < 0.001). Of the general population, 41.5% (5726/13,794) knew about a condition called diabetes. Among them, 80.7% (4620/5726) knew that the prevalence of diabetes was increasing, whereas among diabetic subjects, it was 93.0% (448/480). Among the general and diabetic population, 56.3% and 63.4% respectively, were aware that diabetes could be prevented. Regarding complications, 51.5% of the general population and 72.7% diabetic population knew that diabetes could affect other organs. Based on a composite knowledge score to assess knowledge among the general population, Tamil Nadu had the highest (31.7) and Jharkhand the lowest score (16.3). However among self-reported diabetic subjects, Maharashtra had the highest (70.1) and Tamil Nadu, the lowest score (56.5). Conclusion: Knowledge and awareness about diabetes in India, particularly in rural areas, is poor. This underscores the need for conducting large scale diabetes awareness and education programs. PMID:24944935

Deepa, M.; Bhansali, A.; Anjana, R. M.; Pradeepa, R.; Joshi, S. R.; Joshi, P. P.; Dhandhania, V. K.; Rao, P. V.; Subashini, R.; Unnikrishnan, R.; Shukla, D. K.; Madhu, S. V.; Das, A. K.; Mohan, V.; Kaur, T.



76 FR 18248 - Sulfanilic Acid From China and India  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Review)] Sulfanilic Acid From China and India AGENCY: United States International Trade...countervailing duty order on sulfanilic acid from India and the antidumping duty orders on sulfanilic acid from China and...



Neurosurgery in India: an overview.  


This overview of neurosurgery in India during the last six decades gives a holistic perspective of the phenomenal advances made. Neurosurgical education, the change in clinical spectrum of diseases and their presentation, evolution of various subspecialties and societies, the state of research, the issues peculiar to India, including the urban-rural health divide, the increasing role of information and communication technology in neurosurgery, and the gradual but definite global recognition of Indian neurosurgery will be addressed. PMID:23454398

Ganapathy, Krishnan



Are Female Sex Workers Able to Negotiate Condom Use with Male Clients? The Case of Mobile FSWs in Four High HIV Prevalence States of India  

PubMed Central

Introduction Condom promotion among female sex workers (FSWs) is a key intervention in India’s National AIDS Control Program. However, there is limited understanding of how FSWs negotiate condom use with male clients, particularly in the context of their mobility for sex work. The objective of this study is to examine the factors associated with the mobile FSWs’ ability to refuse unsafe sex and successfully negotiate condom use with unwilling male clients. Methods Data for 5498 mobile FSWs from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 22 districts of four states in southern India were analyzed. Questions assessed FSWs’ ability to refuse clients unprotected sex, convince unwilling clients for condom use and negotiate condom use in a new location. Logistic regression models were constructed to examine the association between socio-demographics, economic vulnerability, sex work practice, and program exposure and condom negotiation ability. Results A majority of FSWs (60%) reported the ability to refuse clients for unprotected sex, but less than one-fifth reported the ability to successfully convince an unwilling client to use a condom or to negotiate condom use in a new site. Younger and older mobile FSWs compared to those who were in the middle age group, those with longer sex work experience, with an income source other than sex work, with program exposure and who purchased condoms for use, reported the ability to refuse unprotected sex, to successfully negotiate condom use with unwilling clients and to do so at new sites. Conclusion FSWs need to be empowered to not only refuse unprotected sex but also to be able to motivate and convince unwilling clients for condom use, including those in new locations. In addition to focusing on condom promotion, interventions must address the factors that impact FSWs’ ability to negotiate condom use. PMID:23840806

Bharat, Shalini; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Roy, Suchismita; Saggurti, Niranjan



India Illustrated  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This remarkable collection from the University of Houston's Digital Library brings together over 210 black and white photographs from a rare book entitled, India Illustrated. This work was originally published around 1905 and it came from the publishers of the English language newspaper, Times of India. Visitors can get started with the Browse the Collection section which offers thumbnails of such photos as "A Bathing Fair on the Gangesâ and "A Corner of Fort St. George.â The collection contains some rather curious images of British colonialism, including shots of the Madras Cricket Club, the Adyar Club, and a range of polo matches.


Demographic and socio-economic status of women in different family structures in a rural area of south India.  


The authors study "women's demographic and socio-economic position in different family types...[using data] from a sample survey conducted in a rural area of Tamil Nadu [India] during May and June of 1988....Comparison of demographic characteristics of ever-married women in the reproductive age, such as marital status, age, marriage duration, age at marriage and living children, and socio-economic characteristics, such as educational status, occupational status, per capita annual income of the family and number of rooms in the house, is made between family types." PMID:12345797

Padmini, I K; Krishnamoorthy, S



Operational aspects of remote sensing and gis for water resources conservation and management: few examples from Haryana state, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote Sensing as the term signifies is the technique of gathering information about an object or surface phenomenon without being in physical contact with it and essentially by using electromagnetic radiation. The principle of remote sensing is based on the solar radiation reflected or emitted from the surface of the earth. As different objects behave differently for the incoming solar radiation and have different thermal properties, the amount of solar radiation reflected, absorbed or emitted is also different. GIS is defined as an information system that is used to input, store, retrieve, manipulate, analyze and output geographically referenced data or geospatial data in order to support decision making for planning and management of natural resources. It has four essential components - hardware, software, geospatial data and the users. GIS is needed because of some inherent demerits in the manual methods. The conventional methods of surveying and mapping are time consuming, labour intensive and tedious. The techniques of Remote Sensing (RS) and GIS are effective in timely and efficient generation of database of various resources. The synoptic view and multi resolution satellite data is helpful in generating information at various scales. The mapping and monitoring of dynamic phenomenon such as floods, water logging, deforestation can be done very effectively with the aid of RS and GIS. The effective planning for water resources conservation and management at district level can be made if the data is generated on 1:50,000 scale. Hydrogeomorphological maps on 1:50,000 scale showing different ground water prospect zones have been prepared for different districts in Haryana State, India. This information has been supplemented with the available inputs from existing sources about the depth to water level and ground water quality. The other maps prepared under National (Natural) Resources Information System (NRIS) such as land use/ land cover, geomorphology, drainage/ canal network and soils etc have also been consulted for preparing water resources action plan. The maps thus prepared depict different units for further ground water prospecting. It is to mention here that some of the Palaeo-channels have been picked up first time. Various sites has been suggested for site specific water resources conservation measures such check dams/ gully plugging, earthen dams etc for recharging the ground water. The information thus developed has been submitted to PWD (Public Health) Department, Govt. of Haryana as well as other district agencies involved in the planning and management of natural resources, for further implementation of the activities suggested in different areas. During visit to different areas, it was found that the water resources action plans suggested are being implemented in the field to its maximum possibility both in the direction of fresh ground water areas exploration as well as water resources conservation. The ground water in the areas suggested is being recharged and the people are taking good crops.

Chaudhary, B. S.


Detection of multi-drug resistance & characterization of mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from North- Eastern States of India using GenoType MTBDRplus assay  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Information on drug resistance tuberculosis is sparse from North-East (N-E) States of India. We undertook this study to detect multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) among MDR-TB suspects, and common mutations among MDR-TB cases using GenoType MTBDRplus. Methods: All MDR suspect patients deposited sputum samples to peripheral designated microscopy centres (DMC) in North-East States. The district TB officers (DTOs) facilitated the transport of samples collected during January 2012 to August 2012 to our laboratory. The line probe assay to detect common mutations in the rpoB gene for rifampicin (RIF) and katG and inhA genes for isoniazid (INH), respectively was performed on 339 samples or cultures. Results: A total of 553 sputum samples from MDR suspects were received of which, 181 (32.7%) isolates were found to be multi-drug resistant. Missing WT8 along with mutation in codon S531L was commonest pattern for rifampicin resistant isolates (65.1%) and missing WT along with mutations in codon S315T1 of katG gene was commonest pattern for isoniazid resistant isolates (86.2%). Average turn-around time for dispatch of LPA result to these States from cultures and samples was 23.4 and 5.2 days, respectively. Interpretations & conclusions: The MDR-TB among MDR-TB suspects in North-Eastern States of India was found to be 32.7 per cent. The common mutations obtained for RIF and INH in the region were mostly similar to those reported earlier. PMID:25488443

Singhal, Ritu; Myneedu, Vithal Prasad; Arora, Jyoti; Singh, Niti; Sah, Girish Chander; Sarin, Rohit



Can Currently Available Advanced Combustion Biomass Cook-Stoves Provide Health Relevant Exposure Reductions? Results from Initial Assessment of Select Commercial Models in India.  


Household air pollution from use of solid fuels is a major contributor to the national burden of disease in India. Currently available models of advanced combustion biomass cook-stoves (ACS) report significantly higher efficiencies and lower emissions in the laboratory when compared to traditional cook-stoves, but relatively little is known about household level exposure reductions, achieved under routine conditions of use. We report results from initial field assessments of six commercial ACS models from the states of Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh in India. We monitored 72 households (divided into six arms to each receive an ACS model) for 24-h kitchen area concentrations of PM2.5 and CO before and (1-6 months) after installation of the new stove together with detailed information on fixed and time-varying household characteristics. Detailed surveys collected information on user perceptions regarding acceptability for routine use. While the median percent reductions in 24-h PM2.5 and CO concentrations ranged from 2 to 71% and 10-66%, respectively, concentrations consistently exceeded WHO air quality guideline values across all models raising questions regarding the health relevance of such reductions. Most models were perceived to be sub-optimally designed for routine use often resulting in inappropriate and inadequate levels of use. Household concentration reductions also run the risk of being compromised by high ambient backgrounds from community level solid-fuel use and contributions from surrounding fossil fuel sources. Results indicate that achieving health relevant exposure reductions in solid-fuel using households will require integration of emissions reductions with ease of use and adoption at community scale, in cook-stove technologies. Imminent efforts are also needed to accelerate the progress towards cleaner fuels. PMID:25293811

Sambandam, Sankar; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Ghosh, Santu; Sadasivam, Arulselvan; Madhav, Satish; Ramasamy, Rengaraj; Samanta, Maitreya; Mukhopadhyay, Krishnendu; Rehman, Hafeez; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran



Structural patterns in high grade terrain in parts of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed geological mapping in parts of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka has brought out vast areas occupied by highly deformed charnockite and high grade gneisses. These areas, similar to high grade shield terrains in other parts of the world have the impress of extensive tectonic reworking multideformation and polymetamorphism and are closely associated with layered ultramafics, shelf type sediments and different igneous events. In North Arcot and Charmapuri districts of Tamil Nadu and Kollegal taluk in Mysore district in Karnataka, charnockite is intensely cofolded with a supracrustal succession of layered ultramafics, pyroxene granulite, pink granolites, magnetite quartzite and khondalites. These areas have undergone five phases of deformation, five generations of basic dyke activities, four phases of migmatisation and two periods of metallogeny. Geochronological data ranges from 2900 m.y. to 750 m.y. In working out the tectanostratigraphy of the above areas the basic dykes of different generations have served as major time markers. In addition, the persistent strike continuity of linear bands of pyroxene granulite, pink granolite and magnetite quartzite has been of great utility in using them as structural markers for bringing out the complex structural history in these areas.

Sugavanam, E. B.; Vidyadharan, K. T.



Internet India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews a number of Internet sites containing information on every aspect of life in Modern India. The various sites provide information on such diverse topics as the Indian film industry, politics, the booming Indian computer industry, changing status of women, and financial and political issues. (MJP)

Pahl, Ronald H.



7 CFR 319.56-46 - Mangoes from India.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Mangoes from India. 319.56-46 Section 319.56-46...Vegetables § 319.56-46 Mangoes from India. Mangoes (Mangifera indica ) may...into the continental United States from India only under the following...



U.S.–India Nuclear Cooperation and NonProliferation  

Microsoft Academic Search

he “Agreement for Cooperation Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of India Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy”1 (hereinafter referred to as “U.S.-India Nuclear Cooperation Agreement” or “123 agreement”) acknowledges a shift in international strategies and relations in both countries. As to India, it marks the end of nuclear isolation resulting from constraints, embargoes

Yash Thomas Mannully



Teaching India. Footnotes. Volume 11, Number 2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On March 11-12, 2006 the FPRI's Marvin Wachman Fund for International Education hosted 44 teachers from 16 states across the country for a weekend of discussion on teaching about India. Sessions included: (1) Why It's Important to Know about India (Ainslie T. Embree); (2) Early Indian History (Richard H. Davis); (3) Modern Indian History (Marc…

Kuehner, Trudy



Reimbursement for critical care services in India  

PubMed Central

There are significant variations in critical care practices, costs, and reimbursements in various countries. Of note, there is a paucity of reliable information on remuneration and reimbursement models for intensivists in India. This review article aims to analyze the existing reimbursement models in United States and United Kingdom and propose a frame-work model that may be applicable in India. PMID:23833469

Jayaram, Raja; Ramakrishnan, Nagarajan



Delhi, India  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Delhi is the second largest metropolis in India, with a population of 16 million. Located in northern India along the banks of the Yamuna River, Delhi has the status of a federally-administered union territory. Within it is the district of New Delhi, India's capital. Delhi is one of the oldest continually inhabited cites in the world, with traces of human occupation dating to the second millennium BC. The image was acquired September 22, 2003, covers an area of 30.6 x 34.8 km, and is located near 28.6 degrees north latitude, 77.2 degrees east longitude.

The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.



Plant diseases in India and their control.  


The concept of development is reviewed in terms of sustainability. Food production in India driven by pressure from an increasing human population uses 90,000 t per year of technical-grade pesticide: 12% of this is fungicide and a good part is insecticide for the control of vectors of plant viruses. A change in the cropping pattern and irrigation have provided a summer 'green bridge' along Tamil Nadu/Andhra Pradesh border areas for the tungro virus that affects rice and its vector. Epidemics occur along the coramandal coast, if the weather is suitable. Red rot disease of sugarcane is promoted by poor drainage, river widening, ratooning, contaminated planting material and variation in the pathogen throughout the Indo-Gangetic plain. Apple production uses large amounts of fungicide. For every 1000 t of apples produced 1t of fungicide is sprayed 8-10 times sequentially. Systemic application of fungicides has led to pesticide resistance and resurgence of other diseases. 70-80% of the Nagpur Mandrin produce reaches the market by trucks that have to traverse 1000 km. 10.6% of fruits are lost to post-harvest diseases; culling, sunburn and injuries account for another 11.6%. In the control of leaf rust of wheat in North India, the use of varietal mosaics, resistance genes and extra-late wheat sowings that do not coincide with favourable weather have all collectively contributed to loss reduction. The drop in the production of exportable crops such as peppers and coconuts because of diseases needs attention. The traditional wisdom on crop mixtures, organic manuring, shifting sowings, etc, needs scientific re-evaluation. PMID:8149823

Nagarajan, S



Observations on life cycle of certain spiders from Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu.  


Survey was conducted, in the different forests ecosystems of Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu in Nilgris, Coimbatore, Erode, Virudhunagar and Tirunelveli districts to collect the adult spiders and study them taxonomically. Fifty-six species of spider collections were made. From the fifty six, biology was studied for six spider species, such as Micrommata virescens n.sp., Oxyopes javanus, Peucetia virridana, Agelena kariansholensis n.sp., Heteropoda venatoria and Olios hampsoni. Biology studies with Peucetia virridana and Micrommata virescens showed that both species took more than 350 days to complete their life cycles. Heteropoda venetoria and Oxyopes javanus took more than 250 days to complete their life cycle. Agelena kariansholensis took 381 days and Olios hampsoni took 345 days to complete their life cycles. 30% of Peucetia virridana and more than 20% of Heteropoda venatoria and Micrommata virescens and 7% of Oxyopes javanus developed into adults in captivity. PMID:15847343

Sugumaran, M P; Kumar, M Ganesh; Ramasamy, K; Vincent, S



Ecological analysis of the association between high-risk population parameters and HIV prevalence among pregnant women enrolled in sentinel surveillance in four southern India states  

PubMed Central

Background The HIV epidemic is very heterogeneous at the district level in the four Southern states of India most affected by the epidemic and where transmission is mainly heterosexual. The authors carried out an ecological study of the relationship between high-risk population parameters and HIV prevalence among pregnant women (ANC HIV prevalence). Methods The data used in this study included: ANC HIV prevalence available from the National AIDS Control Organization (dependent variable); data on prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers (FSWs), their clients and high-risk men who have sex with men (HR-MSM) from studies carried out in 24 districts under Avahan; data on clients' volume reported by FSWs and on the size estimates of FSWs and HR-MSM in each district; and census data. The latter two sets of data were used to estimate the percentage of female (male) adults who are FSWs (HR-MSM). The latter was also multiplied by HIV prevalence in FSWs (HR-MSM) to obtain the percentage of HIV-positive FSWs (HR-MSM) in the adult female (male) population. Linear regression was used for statistical analyses. Results In univariate analyses, HIV (r=0.59, p=0.002) and HSV-2 (r=0.49, p=0.014) prevalence among FSWs and mean number of clients in the last week reported by FSWs (r=0.43, p=0.036) were significant predictors of ANC HIV prevalence. In multivariate analysis, only FSW HIV prevalence remained significant. Conclusions This ecological study suggests that there is a link between HIV prevalence among FSWs and the spread of HIV to the general population in Southern India. Such an observation supports the rationale of interventions targeted at the sex industry. PMID:20167724

Jayachandran, A A; Lowndes, Catherine M; Bradley, Jan; Demers, Eric; Adhikary, Rajatashuvra; Mainkar, Mandar K



Major ion chemistry and hydrochemical studies of groundwater of parts of Palar river basin, Tamil Nadu, India.  


Groundwater is almost globally important for human consumption as well as for the support of habitat and for maintaining the quality of base flow to rivers, while its quality assessment is essential to ensure sustainable safe use of the resources for drinking, agricultural, and industrial purposes. In the current study, 50 groundwater samples were collected from parts of Palar river basin to assess water quality and investigate hydrochemical nature by analyzing the major cations (Ca, Mg, Na, K) and anions (HCO(3), Cl, F,SO(4), NO(3), PO(4),CO(3), HCO(3), and F) besides some physical and chemical parameters (pH, electrical conductivity, alkalinity, and total hardness). Also, geographic information system-based groundwater quality mapping in the form of visually communicating contour maps was developed using ArcGIS-9.2 to delineate spatial variation in physicochemical characteristics of groundwater samples. Wilcox classification and US Salinity Laboratory hazard diagram suggests that 52% of the groundwater fall in the field of C2-S1, indicating water of medium salinity and low sodium, which can be used for irrigation in almost all types of soil with little danger of exchangeable sodium. Remaining 48% is falling under C1-SI, indicating water of low salinity and low sodium. PMID:20886289

Dar, Mithas Ahmad; Sankar, K; Dar, Imran Ahmad




PubMed Central

The communication deals wit 9 plant species used as a traditional medicine and the application of indigenous beliefs, knowledge is concerned with their health care practices by the anamalai ills aborigines. PMID:22556895

Rajendran, A.; Rajan, S.



Groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and irrigational use in the Southern Tiruchirappalli district, Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A total of 20 groundwater samples were collected from both dug and bore wells of southern Tiruchirappalli district and analyzed for various hydrogeochemical parameters. The analyzed physicochemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, carbonate, sulfate, chloride, nitrate, and fluoride are used to characterize the groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and irrigational uses. The results of the chemical analysis indicates that the groundwater in the study area is slightly alkaline and mainly contains Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ cations as well as HCO3 2-, Cl-, SO4 2-and NO3 - anions. The total dissolved solids mainly depend on the concentration of major ions such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, HCO3, Cl, and SO4. Based on TDS, 55 % of the samples are suitable for drinking and rest of the samples are unsuitable for drinking. The total hardness indicates that majority of the groundwater samples are found within the permissible limit of WHO. The dominant hydrochemical facies for groundwater are Ca-Mg-Cl, Ca-HCO3, and Ca-Cl type. The USSL graphical geochemical representation of groundwater quality suggests that majority of the water samples belongs to high medium salinity with low alkali hazards. The Gibb's plot indicates that the groundwater chemistry of the study area is mainly controlled by evaporation and rock-water interaction. Spearman's correlation and factor analysis were used to distinguish the statistical relation between different ions and contamination source in the study area.

Selvakumar, S.; Ramkumar, K.; Chandrasekar, N.; Magesh, N. S.; Kaliraj, S.



Mate selection and its impact on female marriage age, pregnancy wastages, and first child survival in Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marriage in Indian society is a religious duty. Consanguineous marriage is common, where individuals prefer to marry within their clan (a unilateral kin group based on either matrilineal or patrilineal descent). Keeping in mind that this form of marriage has certain disadvantages for social and biological as well as demographic aspects of individuals and families, the present study examines the

S. Sureender; B. Prabakaran; A. G. Khan



Knowledge, stigma, and behavioral outcomes among antiretroviral therapy patients exposed to Nalamdana's radio and theater program in Tamil Nadu, India.  


Arts-based programs have improved HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and behavior in general and at-risk populations. With HIV transformed into a chronic condition, this study compares patients at consecutive stages of receiving antiretroviral treatment, coinciding with exposure to a radio-and-theater-based educational program (unexposed [N = 120], just exposed [N = 77], Exposed a month ago [N = 60]). Exposure was associated with significantly higher HIV-related knowledge (15-20%, all p < .01), lower levels of stigma (2-7% lower, all p < .10), and over four times the adjusted odds of asking doctors questions about HIV (p = .07). Higher dose of exposure was associated with lower felt stigma (28% reduction per message recalled), greater odds of consistent condom use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.12, p = .01), doctor-patient communication (AOR: 1.20, p = .003), peer advice-giving (AOR: 1.18, p = .03) and HIV-related advocacy (AOR: 2.35, p = .07). Similar partnerships between arts-based nongovernmental organizations and government hospitals may improve patient outcomes in HIV treatment settings. PMID:21861609

Nambiar, Devaki; Ramakrishnan, Vimala; Kumar, Paresh; Varma, Rajeev; Balaji, Nithya; Rajendran, Jeeva; Jhona, Loretta; Chandrasekar, Chokkalingam; Gere, David



Paragonimus & paragonimiasis in India.  


Ever since the discovery of the first indigenous case in 1981, paragonimiasis has gained recognition as a significant food borne parasitic zoonosis in India. The data available on the occurrence of paragonimiasis, until today, may be just the tip of an iceberg as the study areas covered were restricted to Northeast Indian States. Nevertheless, the results of research on paragonimiasis in India have revealed valuable information in epidemiology, life cycle, pathobiology and speciation of Indian Paragonimus. Potamiscus manipurensis, Alcomon superciliosum and Maydelliathelphusa lugubris were identified as the crab hosts of Paragonimus. Paragonimus miyazakii manipurinus n. sub sp., P. hueit'ungensis, P. skrjabini, P. heterotremus, P. compactus, and P. westermani have been described from India. P. heterotremus was found as the causative agent of human paragonimiasis. Ingestion of undercooked crabs and raw crab extract was the major mode of infection. Pulmonary paragonimiasis was the commonest clinical manifestation while pleural effusion and subcutaneous nodules were the common extra-pulmonary forms. Clinico-radiological features of pulmonary paragonimiasis simulated pulmonary tuberculosis. Intradermal test, ELISA and Dot-immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) were used for diagnosis and epidemiological survey of paragonimiasis. Phylogenitically, Indian Paragonimus species, although nested within the respective clade were distantly related to others within the clade. PMID:22960885

Singh, T Shantikumar; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Rangsiruji, Achariya



India's Worsening Uranium Shortage  

SciTech Connect

As a result of NSG restrictions, India cannot import the natural uranium required to fuel its Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs); consequently, it is forced to rely on the expediency of domestic uranium production. However, domestic production from mines and byproduct sources has not kept pace with demand from commercial reactors. This shortage has been officially confirmed by the Indian Planning Commission’s Mid-Term Appraisal of the country’s current Five Year Plan. The report stresses that as a result of the uranium shortage, Indian PHWR load factors have been continually decreasing. The Uranium Corporation of India Ltd (UCIL) operates a number of underground mines in the Singhbhum Shear Zone of Jharkhand, and it is all processed at a single mill in Jaduguda. UCIL is attempting to aggrandize operations by establishing new mines and mills in other states, but the requisite permit-gathering and development time will defer production until at least 2009. A significant portion of India’s uranium comes from byproduct sources, but a number of these are derived from accumulated stores that are nearing exhaustion. A current maximum estimate of indigenous uranium production is 430t/yr (230t from mines and 200t from byproduct sources); whereas, the current uranium requirement for Indian PHWRs is 455t/yr (depending on plant capacity factor). This deficit is exacerbated by the additional requirements of the Indian weapons program. Present power generation capacity of Indian nuclear plants is 4350 MWe. The power generation target set by the Indian Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) is 20,000 MWe by the year 2020. It is expected that around half of this total will be provided by PHWRs using indigenously supplied uranium with the bulk of the remainder provided by breeder reactors or pressurized water reactors using imported low-enriched uranium.

Curtis, Michael M.



The political economy of farmers’ suicides in India: indebted cash-crop farmers with marginal landholdings explain state-level variation in suicide rates  

PubMed Central

Background A recent Lancet article reported the first reliable estimates of suicide rates in India. National-level suicide rates are among the highest in the world, but suicide rates vary sharply between states and the causes of these differences are disputed. We test whether differences in the structure of agricultural production explain inter-state variation in suicides rates. This hypothesis is supported by a large number of qualitative studies, which argue that the liberalization of the agricultural sector in the early-1990s led to an agrarian crisis and that consequently farmers with certain socioeconomic characteristics–cash crops cultivators, with marginal landholdings, and debts–are at particular risk of committing suicide. The recent Lancet study, however, contends that there is no evidence to support this hypothesis. Methods We report scatter diagrams and linear regression models that combine the new state-level suicide rate estimates and the proportion of marginal farmers, cash crop cultivation, and indebted farmers. Results When we include all variables in the regression equation there is a significant positive relationship between the percentage of marginal farmers, cash crop production, and indebted farmers, and suicide rates. This model accounts for almost 75% of inter-state variation in suicide rates. If the proportion of marginal farmers, cash crops, or indebted farmers were reduced by 1%, the suicide rate–suicides per 100,000 per year–would fall by 0?·?437, 0?·?518 or 0?·?549 respectively, when all other variables are held constant. Conclusions Even if the Indian state is unable to enact land reforms due to the power of local elites, interventions to stabilize the price of cash crops and relieve indebted farmers may be effective at reducing suicide rates. PMID:24669945



Mughal India  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As you enter a large room filled with various items, including a well-worn globe, a medium-sized file cabinet, and a wall of books, you wonder to yourself, Where am I?. It turns out that you have stumbled across the British Museum's fine interactive website on Mughal India. Designed for young people, the site is set up as an office where visitors may click on various items (such as a globe or a model of the Taj Mahal) in order to entire Flash-enabled learning environments that address various aspects of this most grand and productive period in India's history. While visitors will want to spend a good deal of time exploring the site, one particular representative area of the site is the coin cabinet. Clicking on the coin cabinet opens up a small chest that holds various pieces of currencies from the Mughal Empire. Visiting the different drawers in the chest allows users to learn what each type of coin can tell contemporary observers about the Empire's religious traditions, emperors, and politics. Thoroughly engaging and dynamic in its layout and content, this is a site that is worth a close look.


Phylogenetic analysis of bovine Theileria spp. isolated in south India.  


The objective of the present study is to determine the phylogenetic position of the Theileria organisms in blood of cattle of southern India using molecular tools. Theileria annulata (Namakkal isolate, Tamil Nadu) and three Theileria field isolates (free of T. annulata) from Wayanad, Kerala (Wayanad 1, 2, 3) were used. The small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) and major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) gene products were cloned, sequenced and the phylogenetic tree constructed. SSU rRNA gene of Wayanad 1 isolate (JQ706077) revealed maximum identity with Theileria velifera or Theileria cervi. The phylogenetic tree constructed based on SSU rRNA genes revealed that Wayanad 1 isolate belonged to a new type which share common ancestor with all the other theilerial species while Wayanad 2 and 3 isolates (JX294459, JX294460) were close to types A and C respectively. Based on MPSP gene sequences, Wayanad 2 and 3 (JQ706078, JX648208) isolates belonged to Type 1 and 3 (Chitose) respectively. When, the previously reported MPSP type 7 is also considered from the same study area, Theileria orientalis types 1, 3 and 7 are observed in south India. SSU rRNA sequence of South Indian T. annulata (JX294461) showed a maximum identity with Asian isolates while the Tams1 merozoite surface antigen (MSA) gene (JX648210) showed maximum identity with north Indian isolate. PMID:23959494

Aparna, M; Vimalkumar, M B; Varghese, S; Senthilvel, K; Ajithkumar, K G; Raji, K; Syamala, K; Priya, M N; Deepa, C K; Jyothimol, G; Juliet, S; Chandrasekhar, L; Ravindran, R



Education and Caste in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyses the policy of reservation for lower castes in India. This policy is similar to that of affirmative action in the United States. The paper provides a brief overview of the caste system and discusses the types of groups that are eligible for reservation, based on data from government reports. The stance of this paper is that…

Chauhan, Chandra Pal Singh



Spatial changes in water quality of urban lakes in Chennai (India)--a case study.  


Manifold increase in population of Chennai city (India) has resulted in a rapid decrease in the groundwater level due to its over exploitation. The Government of Tamil Nadu has been exploring various ways and means to combat this problem. The present study was undertaken to assess the quality of water in three important major lakes of Chennai and its suburbs such as Porur lake, Puzhal lake and Chembarambakkam lake which recharge the groundwater as well as these lakes are harnessed by the Tamil Nadu Government to supply potable water to the residents of Chennai. The parameters studied were colour, odour, taste, turbidity, temperature, pH, Dissolved Oxygen, Biological Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand, alkalinity, acidity, chlorides, Total Suspended Solids, Total Dissolved Solids and total hardness. Results indicate that the quality of water from these lakes is within the acceptable values. However, the TDS values were on the higher side in all the three lakes even though within the permissible limit prescribed by BIS. All the three lakes appear to be vulnerable to pollution as they are situated within or in close proximity to heavily populated areas. PMID:21391401

Raveen, R; Daniel, M



State Support for Private Schooling in India: What Do the Evaluations of the British Assisted Places Schemes Suggest?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Section 12 of the Indian Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009 (the RTE Act) states that 25% of the entry-level places in all private schools should be free and reserved for students from economically and socially disadvantaged families. The Indian State governments will pay schools a per-child fee based on costs in the…

Walford, Geoffrey



Willingness to Pay for Annual Health Care Services in Small Ruminants: The Case of South India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study was undertaken in southern peninsular State of India, the Tamil Nadu State, to assess the farmers Willingness To Pay` (WTP) for annual health care services in small ruminants. The districts of the State were categorized as Livestock Developed (LD) and Livestock Under Developed (LUD) based on initial base line developed. Contingent Valuation (CV) approach was used to study the farmers maximum WTP value for two types of health care services: (a) providing animal health care services at government veterinary centres, (b) extending animal health care services at farmers door steps. A Payment Card (PC) format was used to assess the farmers` maximum WTP for ensuring health care services to sheep and goat. The Maximum Likelihood technique was used on interval midpoints. The study revealed that the farmers were willing to pay a maximum of INR 56.34 and INR 61.61 for availing health services to their sheep and goat, respectively, by in-centre services, while they were ready to offer INR 87.49 and INR 95.27 for the animal health services delivered at doorsteps. The mean maximum WTP value was found to be more for goats than sheep, postulated both in-centre and home services. Of the factors incorporated in the in-centre service model for sheep, age of respondent, livelihood share of livestock, number of sheep and VLU owned and distance from nearest public veterinary centre were found to significantly influence the WTP values. Unlike sheep, age of respondent, VLU possession, distance of the public veterinary centre and district versatility had a significant role in determining WTP values for goats. WTP values in sheep for home service were found to be significantly predisposed by all the significant factors of in-centre services model, except number of sheep owned. Similarly, in goat, the age of respondent turned to be insignificant in home services model. The results indicated that the people were willing to pay more for getting their small ruminants adequately protected from diseases and treated at once with quality services.

Kathiravan, G.; Thirunavukkarasu, M.; Michealraj, P.


Strengthening government management capacity to scale up HIV prevention programs through the use of Technical Support Units: lessons from Karnataka state, India  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Scaling up HIV prevention programming among key populations (female sex workers and men who have sex with men) has been a central strategy of the Government of India. However, state governments have lacked the technical and managerial capacity to oversee and scale up interventions or to absorb donor-funded programs. In response, the national government contracted Technical Support Units (TSUs), teams with expertise from the private and nongovernmental sectors, to collaborate with and assist state governments. In 2008, a TSU was established in Karnataka, one of 6 Indian states with the highest HIV prevalence in the country and where monitoring showed that its prevention programs were reaching only 5% of key populations. The TSU provided support to the state in 5 key areas: assisting in strategic planning, rolling out a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation system, providing supportive supervision to intervention units, facilitating training, and assisting with information, education, and communication activities. This collaborative management model helped to increase capacity of the state, enabling it to take over funding and oversight of HIV prevention programs previously funded through donors. With the combined efforts of the TSU and the state government, the number of intervention units statewide increased from 40 to 126 between 2009 and 2013. Monthly contacts with female sex workers increased from 5% in 2008 to 88% in 2012, and with men who have sex with men, from 36% in 2009 to 81% in 2012. There were also increases in the proportion of both populations who visited HIV testing and counseling centers (from 3% to 47% among female sex workers and from 6% to 33% among men who have sex with men) and sexually transmitted infection clinics (from 4% to 75% among female sex workers and from 7% to 67% among men who have sex with men). Changes in sexual behaviors among key populations were also documented. For example, between 2008 and 2010, the proportion of surveyed female sex workers in 9 districts reporting that they used a condom at last intercourse rose from 60% to 68%; in 6 districts, the proportion of surveyed men who have sex with men reporting that they used a condom at last anal sex increased from 89% to 97%. The Karnataka experience suggests that TSUs can help governments enhance managerial and technical resources and leverage funds more effectively. With careful management of the working and reporting relationships between the TSU and the state government, this additional capacity can pave the way for the government to improve and scale up programs and to absorb previously donor-funded programs. PMID:25611478

Sgaier, Sema K; Anthony, John; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Baer, James; Malve, Vidyacharan; Bhalla, Aparajita; Hugar, Vijaykumar S



Strengthening government management capacity to scale up HIV prevention programs through the use of Technical Support Units: lessons from Karnataka state, India.  


Scaling up HIV prevention programming among key populations (female sex workers and men who have sex with men) has been a central strategy of the Government of India. However, state governments have lacked the technical and managerial capacity to oversee and scale up interventions or to absorb donor-funded programs. In response, the national government contracted Technical Support Units (TSUs), teams with expertise from the private and nongovernmental sectors, to collaborate with and assist state governments. In 2008, a TSU was established in Karnataka, one of 6 Indian states with the highest HIV prevalence in the country and where monitoring showed that its prevention programs were reaching only 5% of key populations. The TSU provided support to the state in 5 key areas: assisting in strategic planning, rolling out a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation system, providing supportive supervision to intervention units, facilitating training, and assisting with information, education, and communication activities. This collaborative management model helped to increase capacity of the state, enabling it to take over funding and oversight of HIV prevention programs previously funded through donors. With the combined efforts of the TSU and the state government, the number of intervention units statewide increased from 40 to 126 between 2009 and 2013. Monthly contacts with female sex workers increased from 5% in 2008 to 88% in 2012, and with men who have sex with men, from 36% in 2009 to 81% in 2012. There were also increases in the proportion of both populations who visited HIV testing and counseling centers (from 3% to 47% among female sex workers and from 6% to 33% among men who have sex with men) and sexually transmitted infection clinics (from 4% to 75% among female sex workers and from 7% to 67% among men who have sex with men). Changes in sexual behaviors among key populations were also documented. For example, between 2008 and 2010, the proportion of surveyed female sex workers in 9 districts reporting that they used a condom at last intercourse rose from 60% to 68%; in 6 districts, the proportion of surveyed men who have sex with men reporting that they used a condom at last anal sex increased from 89% to 97%. The Karnataka experience suggests that TSUs can help governments enhance managerial and technical resources and leverage funds more effectively. With careful management of the working and reporting relationships between the TSU and the state government, this additional capacity can pave the way for the government to improve and scale up programs and to absorb previously donor-funded programs. PMID:25611478

Sgaier, Sema K; Anthony, John; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Baer, James; Malve, Vidyacharan; Bhalla, Aparajita; Hugar, Vijaykumar S



Prevalence and incrimination of Anopheles fluviatilis species S (Diptera: Culicidae) in a malaria endemic forest area of Chhattisgarh state, central India  

PubMed Central

Background Chhattisgarh state in central India is highly endemic for malaria and contributes about 13% of annually reported malaria cases in the country with predominance of P. falciparum. Entomological investigations were carried out in a tribal forested area of district Bastar located in the southern part of Chhattisgarh state to record the prevalence of sibling species of Anopheles fluviatilis and An. culicifacies complexes. The vector species complexes were investigated at sibling species level for their biology in terms of resting and feeding behavior and malaria transmission potential. Methods Indoor resting vector mosquitoes collected during 2010–2011 were identified to sibling species by cytotaxonomy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The blood meal source analysis and incrimination studies were done at sibling species level by counter current immunoelectrophoresis and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) respectively. Results Analysis of sibling species composition revealed predominance of An. fluviatilis species S in the study area, which was found to be highly anthropophagic and rested in human dwellings whereas the sympatric species T was primarily zoophagic. Incrimination studies showed high sporozoite rate in species S, thereby confirming its vectorial efficiency. An. culicifacies was encountered in low numbers and comprised species B and C in almost equal proportion. Both these species were found to be exclusively zoophagic. Conclusion The observations made strongly suggest that species S of Fluviatilis Complex is the principal vector of malaria in certain forest areas of district Bastar, Chhattisgarh state and should be the target species for vector control operation. Vector control strategies based on biological characteristics of Fluviatilis S will lead to substantial decline in malaria incidence in such areas. PMID:23021620



Non-paying partnerships and its association with HIV risk behavior, program exposure and service utilization among female sex workers in India  

PubMed Central

Background In India, HIV prevention programs have focused on female sex workers’ (FSWs’) sexual practices vis-à-vis commercial partners leading to important gains in HIV prevention. However, it has become apparent that further progress is contingent on a better understanding of FSWs’ sexual risks in the context of their relationships with non-paying partners. In this paper, we explored the association between FSWs’ non-paying partner status, including cohabitation and HIV risk behaviors, program exposure and utilization of program services. Methods We used data from the cross-sectional Integrated Behavioral and Biological Assessment (IBBA) survey (2009–2010) conducted among 8,107 FSWs in three high priority states of India- Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine the association between non-paying partner and cohabitation status of FSWs with HIV risk behaviors, program exposure and utilization of program services. Results FSWs reporting a non-paying partner were more likely to be exposed to and utilize HIV prevention resources than those who did not have a non-paying partner. Analyses revealed that FSWs reporting a non-cohabiting non-paying partner were more likely to be exposed to HIV prevention programs (adjusted OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.3 – 2.1), attend meetings (adjusted OR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2 – 1.8), and visit a sexually transmitted infections clinic at least twice in the last six months (adjusted OR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.3 – 1.9) as compared to those reporting no non-paying partner. That said, FSWs with a non-paying partner rarely used condoms consistently and were more vulnerable to HIV infection because of being street-based (p?India should focus on addressing relationship factors like risk communication and condom negotiation, including specific vulnerabilities like indebtedness and street based solicitation among women in sex work. PMID:24621082



India’s R&D for Energy Efficient Buildings: Insights for U.S. Cooperation with India  

SciTech Connect

This report outlines India’s current activities and future plans in building energy efficiency R&D and deployment, and maps them with R&D activities under the Department of Energy’s Building Technologies Program. The assessment, conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in FY10, reviews major R&D programs in India including programs under the 11th Five-Year Plan, programs under the NEF, R&D and other programs under state agencies and ongoing projects in major research institutions .

Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd



Utilization of a State Run Public Private Emergency Transportation Service Exclusively for Childbirth: The Janani (Maternal) Express Program in Madhya Pradesh, India  

PubMed Central

Background In 2009 the state government of Madhya Pradesh, India launched an emergency obstetric transportation service, Janani Express Yojana (JEY), to support the cash transfer program that promotes institutional delivery. JEY, a large scale public private partnership, lowers geographical access barriers to facility based care. The state contracts and pays private agencies to provide emergency transportation at no cost to the user. The objective was to study (a) the utilization of JEY among women delivering in health facilities, (b) factors associated with usage, (c) the timeliness of the service. Methods A cross sectional facility based study was conducted in facilities that carried out > ten deliveries a month. Researchers who spent five days in each facility administered a questionnaire to all women who gave birth there to elicit socio-demographic characteristics and transport related details. Results 35% of women utilised JEY to reach a facility, however utilization varied between study districts. Uptake was highest among women from rural areas (44%), scheduled tribes (55%), and poorly educated women (40%). Living in rural areas and belonging to scheduled tribes were significant predictors for JEY usage. Almost 1/3 of JEY users (n?=?104) experienced a transport related delay. Discussion The JEY service model complements the cash transfer program by providing transport to a facility to give birth. A study of the distribution of utilization in population subgroups suggests the intervention was successful in reaching the most vulnerable population, promoting equity in access. While 1/3 of women utilized the service and it saved them money; 30% experienced significant transport related delays in reaching a facility, which is comparable to women using public transportation. Further research is needed to understand why utilization is low, to explore if there is a need for service expansion at the community level and to improve the overall time efficiency of JEY. PMID:24828520

Sidney, Kristi; Ryan, Kayleigh; Diwan, Vishal; De Costa, Ayesha



Economic Sanctions and the Arms Race in India & Pakistan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News explores the United States' response to nuclear tests in India and Pakistan through economic sanctions. The eight resources discussed provide background economic pictures of India and Pakistan as well as recent press releases from the United States, India, Pakistan, and beyond. On May 11, 1998 India declared itself a nuclear state and conducted the first of five underground nuclear tests in defiance of international law. Neighboring Pakistan responded with a similar test on May 28 causing President Clinton to enact economic sanctions against both nations. Although India's Minister of Finance, Yashwant Sinha, is confident that a financially strong "new India," will not be affected by US action, Pakistan's fragile economy is highly dependent on US support and may lead to an end to this dangerous arms race.

Waters, Megan.



Mobile phone-based clinical guidance for rural health providers in India.  


There are few tried and tested mobile technology applications to enhance and standardize the quality of health care by frontline rural health providers in low-resource settings. We developed a media-rich, mobile phone-based clinical guidance system for management of fevers, diarrhoeas and respiratory problems by rural health providers. Using a randomized control design, we field tested this application with 16 rural health providers and 128 patients at two rural/tribal sites in Tamil Nadu, Southern India. Protocol compliance for both groups, phone usability, acceptability and patient feedback for the experimental group were evaluated. Linear mixed-model analyses showed statistically significant improvements in protocol compliance in the experimental group. Usability and acceptability among patients and rural health providers were very high. Our results indicate that mobile phone-based, media-rich procedural guidance applications have significant potential for achieving consistently standardized quality of care by diverse frontline rural health providers, with patient acceptance. PMID:24621929

Gautham, Meenakshi; Iyengar, M Sriram; Johnson, Craig W



global warming's six indias  

E-print Network

global warming's six indias: An Audience Segmentation Analysis #12;Global Warming's Six Indias 1............................................................................................................................................20 2. Global Warming Beliefs and Attitudes................................................................................ 21 Knowledge about global warming varies widely by group

Haller, Gary L.


Diversity and community structure of butterfly of Arignar Anna Zoological Park, Chennai, Tamil Nadu.  


Investigation was carried out on the diversity of butterfly fauna in selected localities of conservation and breeding center of Arignar Anna Zoological Park (AAZP), Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Atotal of 56 species were recorded, 15 of them belonged to Pieridae, 12 Nymphalidae, 9 Satyridae, 8 Papilionidae, 7 Danaidae, 3 Lycaenidae and 1 species each belonged to the families Acraeidae and Hesperidae. Qualitatively and quantitatively Pieridae family were comparatively dominant than that of other families. The notable addition to the 25 more species listed during this observation were compared to previous field survey. Comparison of butterfly species distribution between the different localities revealed that butterfly species richness was higher at mountain region with 52 species and lowest of 25 species at public visiting areas. Visitor's activities may be that reason for effects on butterfly distribution and lack of vegetation. Each five endemic and protected species (i.e. endangered) listed under the Wildlife (Protection)Act were highlighted greater conservation importances of the AAZP. It is suggest that butterfly species diversity generally increase with increase in vegetation and declines with the increase in disturbance. PMID:21882656

Rajagopal, T; Sekar, M; Manimozhi, A; Baskar, N; Archunan, G



Misallocation and manufacturing TFP in China and India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resource misallocation can lower aggregate total factor productivity (TFP).We use microdata on manufacturing establishments to quantify the potential extent of misallocation in China and India versus the United States. We measure sizable gaps in marginal products of labor and capital across plants within narrowly defined industries in China and India compared with the United States. When capital and labor are

Tai Hsieh Chang; J-Klenow Peter



Misallocation and Manufacturing TFP in China and India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resource misallocation can lower aggregate total factor productivity (TFP). We use microdata on manufacturing establishments to quantify the potential extent of misallocation in China and India versus the United States. We measure sizable gaps in marginal products of labor and capital across plants within narrowly defined industries in China and India compared with the United States. When capital and labor

Chang-Tai Hsieh; Peter J. Klenow



Pre-hospital care among victims of road traffic accident in a rural area of Tamil Nadu: A cross-sectional descriptive study  

PubMed Central

Background: The World Health Organization has estimated that globally almost 1.24 million people die annually on the world's roads. The aim of the study was to assess the attributes of pre-hospital care in road traffic accidents (RTAs) victim brought to the health care establishment and to evaluate the pre-hospital trauma care provided in the rural areas of Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study of 3 months duration (June 2014 to August 2014) was conducted in the Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Kancheepuram. The method of sampling was universal sampling and all RTA victims satisfying the inclusion criteria were included in the study. During the entire study duration, total 200 RTA victims were included. A pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire was used to elicit the desired information after the victims of RTAs are stabilized. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Institutional Ethics Committee prior to the start of the study. Written informed consent was obtained from the study participants (patient/guardian of children) before obtaining any information from them. Data entry and statistical analysis were done using SPSS version 18. Frequency distributions and percentages were computed for all the variables. Results: Majority of the RTA victims 158 (79%) were from the age-group of 15-45 years. Most of the accidents were reported in night time [77 (38.5%)], on week-ends [113 (56.5%)], and involved two-wheelers [153 (76.5%)]. Almost 66 (33%) of the victims were not aware of the existence of emergency ambulance services. Also, only 15 (7.5%) victims were brought to the hospital in the emergency ambulance, of which only 3 victims were accompanied by a doctor. Conclusion: To conclude, the study indicates that a significant proportion of people were unaware about the emergency trauma ambulance services and the existing pre-hospital care services lack in multiple dimensions in a rural area of South India. PMID:25540536

Shrivastava, Saurabh R.; Pandian, Pradeep; Shrivastava, Prateek S.



75 FR 14468 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From China and India  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From China and India AGENCY: United States International Trade...order on carbazole violet pigment 23 from India and the antidumping duty orders on carbazole violet pigment 23 from China and...



Structural state transformation in alkali feldspar: evidence for post-crystallization deformation from Proterozoic granite, Kumaun Himalaya (India)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Paleoproterozoic Amritpur Granite Series (AGS) constitutes a cogenetic magmatic suite of S-type granites. The granitic complex shows variation with respect to chemical and mineralogical properties. However, it shows uniformity in the structural state of alkali feldspars. Homogenization experiments on alkali feldspars of the AGS indicate >700 °C magmatic melt temperatures. The alkali feldspars are intermediate to maximum microcline ( ?=0.604-0.833) with Al concentrations ranging from 0.738-1.00 in the T1O tetrahedral site. This indicates a higher degree of ordering following an ideal one-step ordering path. The two-feldspar thermometry for granite suggests a temperature of 400±50 °C, which is the inversion temperature of orthoclase into microcline due to deformation. This suggests that the structural state transformation of alkali feldspar in the Amritpur Granite took place during a post crystallization thermal event. Subsequent to the crystallization of AGS in the Himalayas, an Early Palaeozoic and a Tertiary Himalayan event associated with a low temperature event are recognized. The P- T conditions of the Himalayan event are more conducive for the phase transformation of the alkali feldspar.

Pandey, Prabha; Rawat, R. S.; Jowhar, T. N.



Development of Multi Objective Plan Using Fuzzytechnique for Optimal Cropping Pattern Incommand Area of Aundha Minor Irrigationproject of Maharashtra State (India)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to consider the importance of efficient and judicious use of available resources, a case study was undertaken to allocate the land under selected crops in command area of Aundha Minor irrigation project, of Maharashtra State, India so as to maximize the net benefit and production. A linear programming allocation model was formulated by considering the four objectives viz. (i) the maximization of net benefit, (ii) the maximization of total production, (iii) the maximization and minimization of labour employment and (iv) the minimization of investment subject to the constraints dealing with the crops, soil, land, individual crop area, food and nutrient requirement, fertilizer and labour availability, irrigation water release policy, area restriction on individual crops were considered. Irrigation efficiencies of 50, 60 and 70 % were considered, while fertilizer availability was considered at 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 times of present level along with unlimited availability. Single objective allocation model was developed by using Gam 205 package. Single objective alternate plan was worked out with the constraints of 1.5 times the present fertilizer availability and 60 % irrigation efficiency. The programme was verified by using Lindo package. Multi-objective allocation model was worked out using fuzzy technique to obtain a compromise alternate plan. As a whole compromised solution obtained under multi-objectives plan using fuzzy technique equally helps both the farming community and nation as a whole. In fact, the single objective net benefit optimization gave a benefit to the tune of Rs. 9665 ha-1 y-1, whereas the compromise solution by fuzzy technique gave better return to the tune of Rs. 10278 ha-1 y-1 as against existing benefit of Rs. 4310 ha-1 y-1. Farmers are advised to advocate the optimal cropping pattern obtained by multi-objective allocation model for better return.

Gore, K. P.; Panda, R. K.


Spatial and temporal trends of mean and extreme rainfall and temperature for the 33 urban centers of the arid and semi-arid state of Rajasthan, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trend analysis of the mean (monsoon season, non-monsoon season and annual) and extreme annual daily rainfall and temperature at the spatial and temporal scales was carried out for all the 33 urban centers of the arid and semi-arid state of Rajasthan, India. Statistical trend analysis techniques, namely the Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope estimator, were used to examine trends (1971-2005) at the 10% level of significance. Both positive and negative trends were observed in mean and extreme events of rainfall and temperature in the urban centers of Rajasthan State. The magnitude of the significant trend of monsoon rainfall varied from (-) 6.00 mm/hydrologic year at Nagaur to (-) 8.56 mm/hydrologic year at Tonk. However, the magnitude of the significant negative trends of non-monsoon rainfall varied from (-) 0.66 mm/hydrologic year at Dungarpur to (-) 1.27 mm/hydrologic year at Chittorgarh. The magnitude of positive trends of non-monsoon rainfall varied from 0.93 mm/hydrologic year at Churu to 1.70 mm/hydrologic year at Hanumangarh. The magnitude of the significant negative trends of annual rainfall varied from (-) 6.47 mm/year at Nagaur to (-) 10.0 mm/year at Tonk. The minimum, average and maximum temperature showed significant increasing warming trends on an annual and seasonal scale in most of the urban centers in Rajasthan State. The magnitude of statistically significant annual extreme daily rainfall varied from 2.00 mm at Jhalawar to (-) 1.64 mm at Tonk, while the magnitude of statistically significant extreme annual daily minimum and maximum temperature varied from 0.03 °C at Ganganagar to 0.05 °C at Jhalawar, respectively. The spatial variations of the trends in mean (monsoon season, non-monsoon season and annual) and extreme annual daily rainfall and temperature were also determined using the inverse-distance-weighted (IDW) interpolation technique. IDW results are helpful to identify trends and variability in mean and extreme rainfall and temperature in space and time for the study locations where the data is not available and the quality of data is not good. These spatial maps of temperature and rainfall can help local stakeholders and water managers to understand the risks and vulnerabilities related to climate change in terms of mean and extreme events in the region.

Pingale, Santosh M.; Khare, Deepak; Jat, Mahesh K.; Adamowski, Jan



India Network Gopher  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The India Network Gopher: The network of the Asian Indian Community, the India Network of mailing lists and gopher and Web sites was established to discuss and provide information about issues related to India facing Indians living abroad. The India Network and Research Foundation was established in 1993 to provide stable network resources and to fund a graduate assistantship to work on network related chores. The 'welcome' file includes detailed information about joining their mailing lists, such as the India News Digest and the list for faculty of Indian origin.


Enhancing innovation between scientific and indigenous knowledge: pioneer NGOs in India  

PubMed Central

Background Until recently, little attention has been paid to local innovation capacity as well as management practices and institutions developed by communities and other local actors based on their traditional knowledge. This paper doesn't focus on the results of scientific research into innovation systems, but rather on how local communities, in a network of supportive partnerships, draw knowledge for others, combine it with their own knowledge and then innovate in their local practices. Innovation, as discussed in this article, is the capacity of local stakeholders to play an active role in innovative knowledge creation in order to enhance local health practices and further environmental conservation. In this article, the innovative processes through which this capacity is created and reinforced will be defined as a process of "ethnomedicine capacity". Methods The field study undertaken by the first author took place in India, in the State of Tamil Nadu, over a period of four months in 2007. The data was collected through individual interviews and focus groups and was complemented by participant observations. Results The research highlights the innovation capacity related to ethnomedical knowledge. As seen, the integration of local and scientific knowledge is crucial to ensure the practices anchor themselves in daily practices. The networks created are clearly instrumental to enhancing the innovation capacity that allows the creation, dissemination and utilization of 'traditional' knowledge. However, these networks have evolved in very different forms and have become entities that can fit into global networks. The ways in which the social capital is enhanced at the village and network levels are thus important to understand how traditional knowledge can be used as an instrument for development and innovation. Conclusion The case study analyzed highlights examples of innovation systems in a developmental context. They demonstrate that networks comprised of several actors from different levels can synergistically forge linkages between local knowledge and formal sciences and generate positive and negative impacts. The positive impact is the revitalization of perceived traditions while the negative impacts pertain to the transformation of these traditions into health commodities controlled by new elites, due to unequal power relations. PMID:19849851

Torri, Maria-Costanza; Laplante, Julie



Effectiveness of Medicinal Plant Conservation Areas in Western Ghats, India  

E-print Network

Effectiveness of Medicinal Plant Conservation Areas in Western Ghats, India Narayani Barve Medicinal Plant Conservation Areas (MPCA) ? Designated by State Forest Department ? Established early 1990s ? Network of 200 sites all over India... ? Selection based on Plant diversity and known medicinal plant hotspots The Western Ghats (Sahyadri) Biodiversity Hotspot ? Less than 6% of the land area of India, but contains more than 30% of all plant, bird, and mammal species found in the country...

Barve, Narayani



Correlation between “ABO” blood group phenotypes and periodontal disease: Prevalence in south Kanara district, Karnataka state, India  

PubMed Central

Background: The correlation between certain systemic diseases and ABO blood group is a well-documented fact. The association between periodontal disease and ABO blood group is not studied in relation to a specific geographic location. Here is a study conducted on a group of patients belonging to South Kanara district of Karnataka state. Materials and Methods: A total of 750 subjects aged between 30and 38 years belonging to South Kanara district were selected on random basis. The study subjects were segregated into healthy/mild gingivitis, moderate/severe gingivitis, and periodontitis group, based on Loe and Silness index and clinical attachment loss as criteria. The study group was further categorized and graded using Ramfjord's periodontal disease index. Blood samples were collected to identify ABO blood group. Results: Prevalence of blood group O was more in South Kanara district, followed by blood groups B and A, and the least prevalent was AB. The percentage distribution of subjects with blood groups O and AB was more in healthy/mild gingivitis group (group I) and moderate/severe gingivitis group (group II), while subjects with blood groups B and A were more in periodontitis group III. There was increased prevalence of subjects with blood groups O and AB with healthy periodontium, while subjects with blood groups B and A showed inclination toward diseased periodontium. Conclusion: There is a correlation existing between periodontal disease and ABO blood group in this geographic location. This association can be due to various blood group antigens acting as receptors for infectious agents associated with periodontal disease. This broad correlation between periodontal disease and ABO blood group also points toward susceptibility ofthe subjects with certain blood groups to periodontal disease. PMID:23493096

Pai, Gurpur Prakash; Dayakar, Mundoor Manjunath; Shaila, Mulki; Dayakar, Anitha



India's security partnership with Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, India and Singapore have developed a strong bilateral security and economic partnership that has assumed a central position in India's strategic engagement in Southeast Asia. Having sought strategic engagement with India for many decades, Singapore has now successfully positioned itself as India's leading political partner and economic gateway to the region. At the same time, India and

David Brewster



Can India's ``literate'' read?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading Method (RM) which required the same individuals to actually read a simple text at grade 2 level. The findings revealed a substantial difference between the reading literacy rates obtained by CM and RM. CM over-reported RM by 16%. The overestimation was higher for males. Decoding skills were found to erode in most cases after completion of primary schooling, assuming no further education. A minimum grade 8-9 education was required for decoding skills to not deteriorate after schooling.

Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata



Impact of Rural Development Scheme on Availability of Agricultural Labour — A Study of Dairy Farmers in Thanjavur District of Tamil Nadu  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study conducted in the Thanjavur district of Tamil Nadu, has indentified the problems being faced by dairy farmers due to scarcity of farm labour for agricultural and livestock production. The study is based on the data collected from 40 selected respondents involved in crop production and dairying in the study area during the year 2008-09 through primary survey. The

M. Selva Maheshwari; L. S. Gangwar



Inter-Generational Differences in Individualism/Collectivism Orientations: Implications for Outlook towards HRD/HRM Practices in India and the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article proposes a conceptual model to explore the effects of intergenerational transition in individualism/collectivism orientations on the outlook towards different human resource development (HRD) and management practices. It contributes to the existing cross-cultural research in HRD by defining three prominent generations in India and by…

Ghosh, Rajashi; Chaudhuri, Sanghamitra



Black carbon aerosol mass concentrations over Ahmedabad, an urban location in western India: Comparison with urban sites in Asia, Europe, Canada, and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black carbon (BC) aerosol mass concentrations measured using an aethalometer at Ahmedabad, an urban location in western India, from September 2003 to June 2005 are analyzed. BC mass concentrations are found to show diurnal and seasonal variations. Diurnal evolution in BC is marked with two peaks, one in the morning hours, just after the sunrise, and the other in the

S. Ramachandran; T. A. Rajesh



Assessment of the status of municipal solid waste management in metro cities, state capitals, class I cities, and class II towns in India: An insight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid waste management is one of the most challenging issues in urban cities, which are facing a serious pollution problem due to the generation of huge quantities of solid waste. This paper presents an assessment of the existing situation of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in major cities in India. The quantity and composition of MSW vary from place to

Sunil Kumar; J. K. Bhattacharyya; A. N. Vaidya; Tapan Chakrabarti; Sukumar Devotta; A. B. Akolkar



Mutuality and competition: Female landless labour and wage rates in Tamil Nadu  

Microsoft Academic Search

The factors determining rural wage rates have remained problematic in writings on agrarian structure in rural India. First, a striking segmentation of the rural labour market has been widely noted so that different wage rates exist even for contiguous villages. Secondly, it has been argued that the ‘stickiness downwards’ of wage rates, particularly the rigidity downwards of daily money wages,

Karin Kapadia



Current telemedicine infrastructure, network, applications in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

India is a vast country of 1. 4 billion population occupying an area of 3,287,268 sq. km. It consists of 29 states and 6 Union Territories governed by a federal system. There is no national health insurance policy for the country. Government supported healthcare delivery follows a three tier system and is the primary responsibility of each state. It has

S. K. Mishra; Rajesh Basnet; Kartar Singh



ICT Usage by Distance Learners in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Open Universities across the world are embracing ICT based teaching and learning process to disseminate quality education to their learners spread across the globe. In India availability and access of ICT and learner characteristics are uneven and vary from state to state. Hence it is important to establish the facts about ICT access among…

Awadhiya, Ashish Kumar; Gowthaman, K.



Country Report on Building Energy Codes in India  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America. This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in India, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes in India, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial buildings in India.

Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Somasundaram, Sriram



Africa–India nuclear cooperation: Pragmatism, principle, post-colonialism and the Pelindaba Treaty  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States–India nuclear agreement, announced in 2005, was a first step in the process to normalise India's international nuclear relations despite the fact that India is not a party to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Africa is largely seen as a uranium supplier rather than nuclear power producer in the world nuclear order. The position that

Joelien Pretorius



Archaeological Survey of India  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Taj Mahal. Hawa Mahal. Mysore Palace. Sanchi Stupa. The historical monuments of India are some of the grandest and most beautiful in the world. The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), which oversees IndiaâÂÂs ancient monuments and archaeological sites, hosts a useful page for exploring IndiaâÂÂs methods of preserving its cultural heritage. After reading About Us, where you can learn about the organization itself, have a look at Monuments, Excavations, Conservation and Preservation, each of which provides important insights into the managing of essential subcontinental sites. Site visitors should also peruse the beautiful Photo Gallery, providing numerous images of both World Monuments and Excavations.


Do Criminally Accused Politicians Affect Economic Outcomes? Evidence from India  

E-print Network

Do Criminally Accused Politicians Affect Economic Outcomes? Evidence from India Nishith Prakash of criminally accused politicians elected to state assemblies has caused much furor in India. Despite, our results suggest that the cost of electing criminally accused politicians on measures of economic

Bandyopadhyay, Antar


Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) control in India  

PubMed Central

Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) constitute the single largest cause of preventable brain damage worldwide. Majority of consequences of IDD are invisible and irreversible but at the same time these are preventable. In India, the entire population is prone to IDD due to deficiency of iodine in the soil of the subcontinent and consequently the food derived from it. To combat the risk of IDD, salt is fortified with iodine. However, an estimated 350 million people do not consume adequately iodized salt and, therefore, are at risk for IDD. Of the 325 districts surveyed in India so far, 263 are IDD-endemic. The current household level iodized salt coverage in India is 91 per cent with 71 per cent households consuming adequately iodized salt. The IDD control goal in India was to reduce the prevalence of IDD below 10 per cent in the entire country by 2012. What is required is a “mission approach” with greater coordination amongst all stakeholders of IDD control efforts in India. Mainstreaming of IDD control in policy making, devising State specific action plans to control IDD, strict implementation of Food Safety and Standards (FSS) Act, 2006, addressing inequities in iodized salt coverage (rural-urban, socio-economic), providing iodized salt in Public Distribution System, strengthening monitoring and evaluation of IDD programme and ensuring sustainability of IDD control activities are essential to achieve sustainable elimination of IDD in India. PMID:24135192

Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Yadav, Kapil; Srivastava, Rahul; Pandav, Rijuta; Karmarkar, M.G.



Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future.

Mian, Zia [Program on Science and Global Security, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey (United States)



Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future.

Mian, Zia



Arsenic groundwater contamination and its health effects in the state of Uttar Pradesh (UP) in upper and middle Ganga plain, India: A severe danger  

Microsoft Academic Search

This communication presents results of our 2-year survey on groundwater arsenic contamination in three districts Ballia, Varanasi and Gazipur of Uttar Pradesh (UP) in the upper and middle Ganga plain, India. Analyses of 4780 tubewell water samples revealed that arsenic concentrations in 46.5% exceeded 10 ?g\\/L, in 26.7%, 50 ?g\\/L and in 10% 300 ?g\\/L limits. Arsenic concentrations up to 3192 ?g\\/\\/L were observed.

Sad Ahamed; Mrinal Kumar Sengupta; Amitava Mukherjee; M. Amir Hossain; Bhaskar Das; Bishwajit Nayak; Arup Pal; Subhas Chandra Mukherjee; Shyamapada Pati; Rathindra Nath Dutta; Garga Chatterjee; Adreesh Mukherjee; Rishiji Srivastava; Dipankar Chakraborti



NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 18: A comparison of the technical communication practices of aerospace engineers and scientists in India and the United States  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, two studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of India and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies have the same seven objectives: first, to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communications to their profession; second, to determine the use and production of technical communications by aerospace engineers and scientists; third, to seek their views about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications; fourth, to determine aerospace engineers' and scientists' use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line data bases; fifth, to determine the use and importance of computer and information technology to them; sixth, to determine their use of electronic networks; and seventh, to determine their use of foreign and domestically produced technical reports. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to aerospace engineers and scientists at the Indian Institute of Science and the NASA Langley Research Center. The completion rates for the India and U.S. surveys were 48 and 53 percent, respectively. Responses of the India and U.S. participants to selected questions are presented in this report.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.



76 FR 60450 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Pomegranate From India Into...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for the Importation of Pomegranate From India Into the Continental United States AGENCY...States of fresh pomegranate fruit from India. Based on that analysis, we believe that...importation of fresh pomegranate fruit from India. We are making the pest risk...



77 FR 7122 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Pomegranate From India Into the Continental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Authorize the Importation of Pomegranate From India Into the Continental United States AGENCY...States of fresh pomegranate fruit from India. Based on the findings of a pest risk...importation of fresh pomegranate fruit from India. DATES: Effective date: February...



As India's Plates Collide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This winning entry in the museum's Young Naturalist Awards 1999 by Rikesh, a 12 year old student from New York, reports on the causes of earthquakes, using India as a focal point. He discusses the earthquakes that have hit India from 1737 to 1991 and their effects, including tsunamis, and the work engineers are doing to reduce the damage from earthquakes.


Nuclear Tests in India  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Week's In the News discusses the recent nuclear tests in India and the world's reaction to those tests. The ten resources discussed offer analysis, commentary, and background information from a variety of perspectives. On May 11, 1998, India confirmed what the world already knew by conducting three underground nuclear tests in the Pokhran Mountain Range in the Rajasthan Province. On May 13 two more sub-kiloton devices were exploded and the government announced that the planned series of tests was complete. Although India has indicated it may now be ready to sign on to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), reaction from the world community has been extremely negative. In the vanguard of this chorus of dissaproval has been the US, which announced over $20 billion in economic sanctions against India on May 13. The strongest critic of the tests, however, has been India's neighbor and rival Pakistan, which has fought three wars with India since 1947. Domestic pressure on Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif to respond has been enormous and many commentators believe a Pakistani nuclear test is imminent. In India, however, the BJP-dominated government has been widely lauded. Many Indians have expressed pride and dismiss foreign criticism as a hypocritical holdover of colonial mentalities. While US sanctions are unlikely to have any large-scale effect on India, the end results of these tests on Indo-Pakistani relations and their ongoing missile race is yet to be seen.

De Nie, Michael W.



Energy Usage Attitudes of Urban India IBM Research India  

E-print Network

Energy Usage Attitudes of Urban India Mohit Jain IBM Research India Amarjeet Singh IIIT Delhi, India Abstract-- Though rapid increase in energy factors affecting energy consumption in urban India. However, the small numbers of participants in those

Toronto, University of


India's baseline plan for nuclear energy self-sufficiency.  

SciTech Connect

India's nuclear energy strategy has traditionally strived for energy self-sufficiency, driven largely by necessity following trade restrictions imposed by the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) following India's 'peaceful nuclear explosion' of 1974. On September 6, 2008, the NSG agreed to create an exception opening nuclear trade with India, which may create opportunities for India to modify its baseline strategy. The purpose of this document is to describe India's 'baseline plan,' which was developed under constrained trade conditions, as a basis for understanding changes in India's path as a result of the opening of nuclear commerce. Note that this treatise is based upon publicly available information. No attempt is made to judge whether India can meet specified goals either in scope or schedule. In fact, the reader is warned a priori that India's delivery of stated goals has often fallen short or taken a significantly longer period to accomplish. It has been evident since the early days of nuclear power that India's natural resources would determine the direction of its civil nuclear power program. It's modest uranium but vast thorium reserves dictated that the country's primary objective would be thorium utilization. Estimates of India's natural deposits vary appreciably, but its uranium reserves are known to be extremely limited, totaling approximately 80,000 tons, on the order of 1% of the world's deposits; and nominally one-third of this ore is of very low uranium concentration. However, India's roughly 300,000 tons of thorium reserves account for approximately 30% of the world's total. Confronted with this reality, the future of India's nuclear power industry is strongly dependent on the development of a thorium-based nuclear fuel cycle as the only way to insure a stable, sustainable, and autonomous program. The path to India's nuclear energy self-sufficiency was first outlined in a seminal paper by Drs. H. J. Bhabha and N. B. Prasad presented at the Second United Nations Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy in 1958. The paper described a three stage plan for a sustainable nuclear energy program consistent with India's limited uranium but abundant thorium natural resources. In the first stage, natural uranium would be used to fuel graphite or heavy water moderated reactors. Plutonium extracted from the spent fuel of these thermal reactors would drive fast reactors in the second stage that would contain thorium blankets for breeding uranium-233 (U-233). In the final stage, this U-233 would fuel thorium burning reactors that would breed and fission U-233 in situ. This three stage blueprint still reigns as the core of India's civil nuclear power program. India's progress in the development of nuclear power, however, has been impacted by its isolation from the international nuclear community for its development of nuclear weapons and consequent refusal to sign the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT). Initially, India was engaged in numerous cooperative research programs with foreign countries; for example, under the 'Atoms for Peace' program, India acquired the Cirus reactor, a 40 MWt research reactor from Canada moderated with heavy water from the United States. India was also actively engaged in negotiations for the NPT. But, on May 18, 1974, India conducted a 'peaceful nuclear explosion' at Pokharan using plutonium produced by the Cirus reactor, abruptly ending the era of international collaboration. India then refused to sign the NPT, which it viewed as discriminatory since it would be required to join as a non-nuclear weapons state. As a result of India's actions, the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) was created in 1975 to establish guidelines 'to apply to nuclear transfers for peaceful purposes to help ensure that such transfers would not be diverted to unsafeguarded nuclear fuel cycle or nuclear explosive activities. These nuclear export controls have forced India to be largely self-sufficient in all nuclear-related technologies.

Bucher, R .G.; Nuclear Engineering Division



76 FR 20954 - Certain Lined Paper Products From India: Amended Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-533-843] Certain Lined Paper Products From India: Amended Final...duty investigation on certain lined paper products (``CLPP'') from India. See Association of American School Paper Suppliers v. United States,...



End-of-life decision-making in India.  


The extraordinary circumstances and the tragic life of Aruna Shanbaug, together with the landmark Supreme Court of India decision in Shanbaug v Union of India (2011) 4 SCC 454, have provided a fillip and focus to debate within India about end-of-life decision-making. This extends to passive euthanasia, decision-making about withdrawal of nutrition, hydration and medical treatment from persons in a permanent vegetative or quasi-vegetative state, the role of the courts in such matters, the risks of corruption and misconduct, the criminal status of attempted suicide, and even the contentious issue of physician-assisted active euthanasia. The debates have been promoted further by important reports of the Law Commission of India. This editorial reviews the current state of the law and debate about such issues in India. PMID:25341315

Freckelton, Ian



Analysis of molecular genetic diversity in a representative collection of foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.] from different agro-ecological regions of India.  


Foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.], an important crop of East Asia is known for its drought tolerance and was once an indispensible crop of vast rainfed areas in semi-arid regions in India. In India it is cultivated in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and north eastern states. The grain finds use in several local recipes such as roti (bread), jaula, singal, sirol. Foxtail millet grain contains 12.3 % protein, 4.7 % fat, 60.6 % carbohydrates, and 3.2 % ash. The present study was conducted to analyse the genetic diversity among foxtail accessions from different states of India and a few exotic accessions using RAPD and ISSR techniques and identify diverse accessions for use in variety improvement programmes. A set of 125 foxtail millet accessions selected from 11 different agro-ecological regions of India were analyzed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) marker techniques. A total of 146 (115 RAPD and 31 ISSR) scoreable markers were generated with 16 RAPD and four ISSR primers. The dendrogram generated using Nei's genetic distances and principal component analyses revealed presence of two clusters and two subclusters in group I. The accessions from Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Uttarakhand were more diverse since they were distributed in both the clusters. There was no clear geographical differentiation observable. The bootstrap support for the major groups identified was strong (above 80 %) indicating good statistical support. The average value of Nei and Li's genetic distance was lowest (0.081) for accessions from West Bengal while the collections from Karnataka showed highest dissimilarity (average genetic distance = 0.239). The average genetic distance for all 125 accessions together was 0.177 indicating presence of only moderate genetic diversity in the collections. The analysis of molecular variance indicated that only 2.76 % variation was explained by variations among the groups and 11.55 % among populations within groups. However the percentage of variation observed within populations was high (85.68). The value of Fst was observed to be very low (0.028) indicating low differentiation of the accessions analysed. The population genetic analysis carried out indicates that highest number of alleles per locus (1.745?±?0.438) was observed for Andhra Pradesh with 35 accessions. When four eco-geographic regions were considered, the southern region comprising AP, Karnataka and TN showed the highest number of alleles per locus (1.787?±?0.411). The value of Gst was lowest for south (0.123) and highest for central west (0.455). This indicated that all the landraces from south share common alleles. The gene flow between the accessions from different regions was also observed to be high with the highest migration (3.557) recorded for south. PMID:23573030

Kumari, Ratna; Dikshit, N; Sharma, Deepali; Bhat, K V



A questionnaire study on the knowledge, attitude, and the practice of pharmacovigilance among the healthcare professionals in a teaching hospital in South India  

PubMed Central

Objective: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) of the healthcare professionals about pharmacovigilance in Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan Medical College and Hospital (DSMCH), Perambalur (Tamil Nadu), a tertiary care teaching hospital. The second primary objective was to assess the causation of underreporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) as it needs to be well-assessed in India. The secondary objective was to compare the findings of this study with the results of the published studies from India on evaluation of the KAP of pharmacovigilance among healthcare professional. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out using a pretested questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed to assess the KAP regarding pharmacovigilance. The healthcare professionals (doctors, nurses, and pharmacists) working in the DSMCH, Perambalur (Tamil Nadu) during the study period were included. Only those who gave their consent to participate were included in the study. The data was analyzed by using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) statistical software, version 16. Results: One hundred and fifty pretested questionnaires were distributed among the healthcare professionals and 101 responded. 62.4% healthcare workers gave correct response regarding the definition of pharmacovigilance. 75.2% of healthcare workers were aware regarding the existence of a National Pharmacovigilance Program of India. 69.3% healthcare professional agreed that ADR reporting is a professional obligation for them. Among the participants, 64.4% have experienced ADRs in patients, but only 22.8% have ever reported ADR to pharmacovigilance center. Unfortunately only 53.5% healthcare workers have been trained for reporting adverse reactions. But, 97% healthcare professionals agreed that reporting of ADR is necessary and 92.1% were of the view that pharmacovigilance should be taught in detail to healthcare professional. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that knowledge and attitude towards pharmacovigilance is gradually improving among healthcare professionals, but unfortunately the actual practice of ADR reporting is still deficient among them.

Gupta, Sandeep Kumar; Nayak, Roopa P.; Shivaranjani, R.; Vidyarthi, Surendra Kumar



Prevalence of hemoglobinopathies in rural Bengal, India.  


India is in the thalassemia belt of the world. Both ?- and ?-thalassemia (?- and ?-thal) are found in West Bengal, a state in the eastern part of India. There was no systematic large published study to investigate the prevalence rates of different hemoglobinopathies in West Bengal. This study was conducted in school and college students, newly married couples and pregnant women after proper counseling in the rural areas of five districts of West Bengal state in eastern India. Thalassemia testing was done using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A total of 35,413 individuals were screened for hemoglobinopathies. ?-Thalassemia trait was found in 10.38%, Hb E [?26(B8)Glu?Lys] trait in 4.30%, sickle cell trait in 1.12%, borderline Hb A(2) value 0.73%, low Hb A(2) 0.68% and Hb D trait 0.37%. This is the first study that addresses the prevalence of different hemoglobinopathies in rural areas of West Bengal. The prevalence of ?-thal trait is higher in West Bengal than other parts of India. This data is likely to be helpful in planning screening programs in rural areas of West Bengal, India. PMID:22004064

Dolai, Tuphan Kanti; Dutta, Shyamali; Bhattacharyya, Maitree; Ghosh, Malay Kumar



Physico-chemical parameters and Ichthyofauna diversity of Arasalar estuary in southeast coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physico-chemical changes may have the tendency to accumulate in the various organs of estuarine organisms, especially fish which may in turn enter into the human metabolism through consumption causing serious hazards. Hence, the present study was carried out to dete rmine the physico-chemical characteristics of water and Ichthyofauna in Arasalar estuary in southeast coast of India for the period of 1 year during September 2012-August 2013. The environmental parameters such as, temperature, pH, salinity, DO, silicate, nitrate and phosphate were observed from Department of Zoology, Rajah Serfoji Goverment College, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India. During the period of study, air temperature varied from 28.8 to 35 °C. The surface water temperature also varied from 25 to 31.5 °C. The monthly mean values of hydrogen ion concentration of water varied from 7.1 to 8.2. The salinity of water varied from 5.5 ‰ to 34. Dissolved oxygen in Arasalar estuary was varied from 3.5 to 7.2 mg/l. The total phosphorus varied from 0.29 to 2.15 µg/1. The nitrate varied from 0.47 to 3.75 µg/l. The silicate content varied from 28.25 to 98.74 µg/l. Totally 866 fishes were collected belonging to 4 orders and 5 families. Mystus gulio was found to be the dominant species (25.40 %) in the study area.

Raju, C.; Sridharan, G.; Mariappan, P.; Chelladurai, G.



Establishment of the MAL-ED birth cohort study site in Vellore, Southern India.  


The Indian Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) site is in Vellore, Tamil Nadu, in south India and is coordinated by the Christian Medical College, Vellore, which has many years of experience in establishing and following cohorts. India is a diverse country, and no single area can be representative with regard to many health and socioeconomic indicators. The site in Vellore is an urban semiorganized settlement or slum. In the study site, the average family size is 5.7, adults who are gainfully employed are mostly unskilled laborers, and 51% of the population uses the field as their toilet facility. Previous studies from Vellore slums have reported stunting in well over a third of children, comparable to national estimates. The infant mortality rate is 38 per 1000 live births, with deaths due mainly to perinatal and infectious causes. Rigorous staff training, monitoring, supervision and refinement of tools have been essential to maintaining the quality of the significantly large quantity of data collected. Establishing a field clinic within the site has minimized inconvenience to participants and researchers and enabled better rapport with the community and better follow-up. These factors contribute to the wealth of information that will be generated from the MAL-ED multisite cohort, which will improve our understanding of enteric infections and its interactions with malnutrition and development of young children. PMID:25305300

John, Sushil M; Thomas, Rahul J; Kaki, Shiny; Sharma, Srujan L; Ramanujam, Karthikeyan; Raghava, Mohan V; Koshy, Beena; Bose, Anuradha; Rose, Anuradha; Rose, Winsley; Ramachandran, Anup; Joseph, A J; Babji, Sudhir; Kang, Gagandeep



Combating Iron Deficiency Anemia among School Going Adolescent Girls in a Hilly State of North India: Effectiveness of Intermittent Versus Daily Administration of Iron Folic Acid Tablets  

PubMed Central

Background: National surveys in India have documented an increasing number of adolescent girls suffering from anemia. Efforts to build iron stores in adolescent girls will help them improve their prepregnancy hemoglobin level. To assess the effectiveness of school-based supervised weekly, bi–weekly, and daily regimen of iron folic tablets in the treatment of anemia among adolescent girls. Methods: This randomized clinical trial included 331 anemic school going adolescent girls of Shimla district of North India. Study subjects were randomized to once weekly, bi–weekly, and daily iron folic acid regimen group. An intent-to-treat approach was used to analyze the change in hemoglobin level and serum ferritin levels at the end of the trial period. Results: The rate of change of hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels from baseline to the end of the intervention was found to be similar in all the three groups (P = 0.64 and 0.98 for change in hemoglobin and serum ferritin). Bi-weekly treatment regimen results in comparatively more increase in hemoglobin levels (3.1 g/dl) as compared to once weekly (2.4 g/dl) and daily groups (2.3 g/dl) (ANOVA F statistics = 6.08, P = 0.003). Among the study subjects who reported side effects, more were from daily regimen group (55%) as compared to intermittent regimen group (25% in bi-weekly group; 18% in weekly group; P < 0.001). Conclusions: In Shimla hills of North India, school-based intermittent iron-folic acid therapy is a feasible and effective intervention for increasing hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels of anemic adolescent girls.

Gupta, Anmol; Parashar, Anupam; Thakur, Anita; Sharma, Deepak; Bhardwaj, Parveen; Jaswal, Saroj



K12 Inc. Scraps India Outsourcing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A company that runs one of the nation's largest networks of online schools recently decided to discontinue a program that arranged for high school teachers in the United States to send their students' English essays to India for evaluations by reviewers there. The existence of the program by Herndon, Virginia-based K12 Inc. is an example of the…

Trotter, Andrew



Arsenic in India's Groundwater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In "humanity's biggest mass poisoning," millions of residents of South Asia, including India's West Bengal, live with arsenic-contaminated water -- and the response to the problem has been a sluggish one.

Yudhijit Bhattacharjee (AAAS;); Dimascio Jen (AAAS;)



Television Training in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A general discussion of training programs which resulted from India's decision to expand television as a nationwide network and a vastly expanded use of educational technology within the educational system. (Author/HB)

Malik, Iqbal



Cognitive psychiatry in India  

PubMed Central

Cognitive deficits have been shown to exist in various psychiatric disorders. Though most Indian studies pertaining to cognition have been replication studies, well designed original studies have also been conducted. This article traces the evolution of cognitive psychiatry in India. Cognitive research has huge potential in India and can help us unravel mysteries of the human mind, identify etiopathogenesis and facilitate treatment of psychiatric disorders. PMID:21836668

Dalal, P. K.; Sivakumar, T.



Climate change and groundwater: India's opportunities for mitigation and adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For millennia, India used surface storage and gravity flow to water crops. During the last 40 years, however, India has witnessed a decline in gravity-flow irrigation and the rise of a booming 'water-scavenging' irrigation economy through millions of small, private tubewells. For India, groundwater has become at once critical and threatened. Climate change will act as a force multiplier; it will enhance groundwater's criticality for drought-proofing agriculture and simultaneously multiply the threat to the resource. Groundwater pumping with electricity and diesel also accounts for an estimated 16-25 million mt of carbon emissions, 4-6% of India's total. From a climate change point of view, India's groundwater hotspots are western and peninsular India. These are critical for climate change mitigation as well as adaptation. To achieve both, India needs to make a transition from surface storage to 'managed aquifer storage' as the center pin of its water strategy with proactive demand- and supply-side management components. In doing this, India needs to learn intelligently from the experience of countries like Australia and the United States that have long experience in managed aquifer recharge.

Shah, Tushaar



76 FR 38686 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India; Institution of a Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Review)] Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India; Institution of a Five-Year Review Concerning...Order on Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India AGENCY: United States International Trade...order on stainless steel wire rod from India would be likely to lead to...



Community Mobilization and Empowerment of Female Sex Workers in Karnataka State, South India: Associations With HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined the impact of community mobilization (CM) on the empowerment, risk behaviors, and prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infection in female sex workers (FSWs) in Karnataka, India. Methods. We conducted behavioral–biological surveys in 2008 and 2011 in 4 districts of Karnataka, India. We defined exposure to CM as low, medium (attended nongovernmental organization meeting or drop-in centre), or high (member of collective or peer group). We used regression analyses to explore whether exposure to CM was associated with the preceding outcomes. Pathway analyses explored the degree to which effects could be attributable to CM. Results. By the final survey, FSWs with high CM exposure were more likely to have been tested for HIV (adjusted odd ratio [AOR]?=?25.13; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?13.07, 48.34) and to have used a condom at last sex with occasional clients (AOR?=?4.74; 95% CI?=? 2.17, 10.37), repeat clients (AOR?=?4.29; 95% CI?=?2.24, 8.20), and regular partners (AOR?=?2.80; 95% CI?=?1.43, 5.45) than FSWs with low CM exposure. They were also less likely to be infected with gonorrhea or chlamydia (AOR?=?0.53; 95% CI?=?0.31, 0.87). Pathway analyses suggested CM acted above and beyond peer education; reduction in gonorrhea or chlamydia was attributable to CM. Conclusions. CM is a central part of HIV prevention programming among FSWs, empowering them to better negotiate condom use and access services, as well as address other concerns in their lives. PMID:24922143

Mohan, Harnalli L.; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Chandrashekar, Sudha; Isac, Shajy; Wheeler, Tisha; Prakash, Ravi; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M.; Blanchard, James F.; Heise, Lori; Vickerman, Peter; Moses, Stephen; Watts, Charlotte



Characterization of culturable vaginal Lactobacillus species among women with and without bacterial vaginosis from the United States and India: a cross-sectional study.  


Lactobacillus species play an integral part in the health of the vaginal microbiota. We compared vaginal Lactobacillus species in women from India and the USA with and without bacterial vaginosis (BV). Between July 2009 and November 2010, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 40 women attending a women's health clinic in Mysore, India, and a sexually transmitted diseases clinic in San Francisco, USA. Women were diagnosed with BV using Amsel's criteria and the Nugent score. Lactobacillus 16S rDNA was sequenced to speciate the cultured isolates. Ten Indian and 10 US women without BV were compared with an equal number of women with BV. Lactobacilli were isolated from all healthy women, but from only 10% of Indian and 50% of US women with BV. 16S rDNA from 164 Lactobacillus colonies was sequenced from healthy women (126 colonies) and women with BV (38 colonies). Seven cultivable Lactobacillus species were isolated from 11 Indian women and nine species from 15 US women. The majority of Lactobacillus species among Indian women were L. crispatus (25.0%), L. jensenii (25.0%) and L. reuteri (16.7%). Among US women, L. crispatus (32.0%), L. jensenii (20.0%) and L. coleohominis (12.0%) predominated. L. jensenii and L. crispatus dominated the vaginal flora of healthy Indian and US women. Indian women appeared to have a higher percentage of obligate heterofermentative species, suggesting the need for a larger degree of metabolic flexibility and a more challenging vaginal environment. PMID:24836413

Madhivanan, Purnima; Raphael, Eva; Rumphs, Alnecia; Krupp, Karl; Ravi, Kavitha; Srinivas, Vijaya; Arun, Anjali; Reingold, Arthur L; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Riley, Lee W




PubMed Central

Ethnobotanical Studies were carried out in some parts of Ahdhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu to identify orchids reported to have medicinal properties and to study their botanical distribution. This has resulted in the recording of 9 orchids used by the local population. PMID:22556814

Rajendran, A.; Rao, N. Rama; Kumar, K Ravi; Henry, A.N.



Perceptions of the use of complementary therapy and Siddha medicine among rural patients with HIV/AIDS: a case study from India.  


Allopathic practitioners in India are outnumbered by practitioners of traditional Indian medicine, such as Ayurveda and Siddha. These forms of traditional medicine are currently used by up to two-thirds of its population to help meet primary healthcare needs, particularly in rural areas. Gandeepam is one of the pioneering Siddha clinics in rural Tamil Nadu that is specialized in providing palliative care to HIV/AIDS patients with effective treatment. This article examines and critically discusses the perceptions of patients regarding the efficacy of Siddha treatment and their motivation in using this form of treatment. The issues of gender equality in the access of HIV/AIDS treatment as well as the possible challenges in complementing allopathic and traditional/complementary health sectors in research and policy are also discussed. The article concludes by emphasizing the importance of complementing allopathic treatment with traditional medicine for short-term symptoms and some opportunistic diseases present among HIV/AIDS patients. PMID:22887471

Torri, Maria Costanza



The private sector: Cautiously interested in distribution in India  

SciTech Connect

As privatization and liberalization proceed in India--the world`s second largest growth market for electricity--sensible experimentation by the states on the rules of the game is vital. A new joint venture approach in Rajasthan may be a helpful model. This article provides an overview of the principal challenges confronting US utilities interested in investing in distribution in India as well as a summary of two mechanisms developed to facilitate private investment. These challenges also should be considered in view of the changing political conditions in India owing to the recent election of the coalition government led by the Bharatiya Janata Party.

Banks, J.P. [Stone and Webster Management Consultants, Washington, DC (United States)] [Stone and Webster Management Consultants, Washington, DC (United States); Bowman, C.D.; Guy, J. [International Resources Group, Washington, DC (United States)] [International Resources Group, Washington, DC (United States); Gross, T.P. [Morley Caskin, Washington, DC (United States)] [Morley Caskin, Washington, DC (United States)




PubMed Central

Venereology-the study of venereal diseases or more recently, the sexually transmitted infections (STI) includes a variety of pathogens namely viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa for which the common factor is the mode of transmission and acquisition: Sexual relations between human beings. Medical and other historians have often suggested that well-known diseases such as syphilis, gonorrhea, chancroid and lymphogranuloma venereum have existed since earliest times. However, it is difficult to identify modern disease entities based on written historical record. Studying the origin of STIs helps us to learn the political, economic and moral conditions that led to the disease. Effective management of STI rests on three pillars of diagnosis, prevention and treatment. For most of past 50 years in India, the diagnostic pillar has been the least well-supported. Until well into present century, diagnosis of STI in India was clinical. Treatment of STIs in India followed the methods used in England. Of course in the 19th century, in many parts of the world, only a few had access to modern methods of treatment; in India, there was extensive use of Ayurvedic treatment with traditional medicines. This article thus gives just an overview and evolution of venereology in India with regard to venereal diseases (now more often known as STIs/disease), control measures, academic, association and journal development and finally future perspective. PMID:21965840

Thappa, Devinder Mohan; Sivaranjini, Ramassamy



Two Blades of Grass: A Summary of Two Studies on Agricultural Innovation in India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Under contract with the United States Agency for International Development and Michigan State University, a study was made comparing diffusion of innovations in Brazil, Nigeria, and India. In India, the study was in two phases: a survey of 108 villages in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, and West Bengal; and a study of adoption behavior among 680…

Roy, Prodipto; And Others


India's nuclear power program : a study of India's unique approach to nuclear energy  

E-print Network

India is in the middle of the biggest expansion of nuclear power in its history, adding 20 GWe in the next 14 years in the form of pressure water reactors and fast breeder reactors. At the same time, the United States is ...

Murray, Caitlin Lenore



The paleoposition of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most of the plate tectonic models of paleocontinental assembly, the supercontinent Pangea has been disassociated into independent Laurasia and Gondwana, separated by a vast oceanic Tethys. The position of India remains problematical, but geological and geophysical data support a Pangea reconstruction. Traditionally India has always been regarded as a part of Gondwana as it shares two unique geologic features with other southern continents. These are the Upper Paleozoic glacial strata and the Glossopteris flora. However, neither line of evidence definitely proves continuity of land; together they indicate zonation of cold climates. The recent discovery of Upper Paleozoic glacial strata in the U.S.S.R., southern Tibet, Saudi Arabia, Oman, China, Malaya, Thailand, and Burma demonstrates that the Permo-Carboniferous glaciation was far more extensive beyond the Gondwana limit than is usually thought. Similarly the Glossopteris flora has been found farther north of the Indian Peninsula, in the Himalaya, Kashmir and Tibet. Moreover the floral similarities are explained easily by wind and insect dispersal. On the other hand, the distribution of large terrestrial tetrapods is strongly influenced by the distribution of continents. To terrestrial tetrapods, sea constitutes a barrier. In consequence, they are more reliable indicators of past land connections than are plants, invertebrates and fishes. The postulated separation of India from Antarctica, its northward journey, and its subsequent union with Asia, as suggested by the plate tectonic models, require that during some part of the Mesozoic or Early Tertiary India must have been an island continent. The lack of endemism in the Indian terrestrial tetrapods during this period is clearly inconsistent with the island continent hypothesis. On the contrary, Indian Mesozoic and Tertiary vertebrates show closest similarities to those of Laurasia, indicating that India was never far from Asia. The correlation of faunal similarity is extremly poor between India-Antarctica and India-Australia. This suggests that India cannot be placed alongside Antarctica or Australia in a pre-drift assembly. Moreover, the distribution of marine rocks indicates that India faced an open sea at its eastern margin during Proterozoic, Upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic. Before the drift, India probably occupied the position between Somalia and Asia, and the Tethys was narrow and intracontinental. With the spreading of the Carlsberg Ridge in the Upper Cretaceous, the Indian block rotated counter-clockwise in relation to Africa to converge to Asia, with the opening up of the Arabian Sea. The rotational movement of India is supported by hot spot trajectory and reversal of paleoslopes of the ancient Gondwana rivers. There is a possible genetic relation between the Arabian sphenochasm and the origin of the Himalaya. With continued convergence of India to Asia, limited subduction occured at the Indus Suture along the axis of the Tethys; the further compression led to the closure of the Tethys followed by foldings, faultings and large-scale intracratonic subductions to form the Himalaya. The Himalayan uplift probably began in the Miocene, but went more actively in the Quaternary.

Chatterjee, Sankar; Hotton, Nicholas


Critical care in India.  


India is a vast democracy of nearly one billion people. Before the British rule ended in 1947, the life span of an Indian was a mere 21 years. Within a short span of 50 years, it increased to an impressive 63 years, largely due to public health measures initiated by the government. This created a pool of more than 300 million middle class Indians who could afford the benefits of modern and specialized care when needed. Critical care medicine, as practiced in the West, is still confined to large Metropolitan areas. A large pool of expatriate Indian physicians from all over the world are helping bridge the resource gap between the West and India by transfer of technology and providing appropriate training to physicians and paramedical personnel. This article describes the history and current status of development of critical care medicine in India. PMID:9107510

Udwadia, F E; Guntupalli, K K; Vidyasagar, D



Urology in ancient India  

PubMed Central

The practice of medical and surgical measures in the management of urological ailments prevailed in ancient India from the Vedic era around 3000 BC. Subsequently in the Samhita period, the two stalwarts - Charaka in medicine and Susruta in surgery elevated the art of medicine in India to unprecedented heights. Their elaboration of the etiopathological hypothesis and the medical and surgical treatments of various urological disorders of unparalleled ingenuity still remain valid to some extent in our contemporary understanding. The new generation of accomplished Indian urologists should humbly venerate the legacy of the illustrious pioneers in urology of our motherland. PMID:19675749

Das, Sakti



India Through Literature: An Annotated Bibliography for Teaching India. Part I: India Through the Ancient Classics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The past and the present interweave in contemporary India. To understand India, one must know of the traditional stories. Two short pocket books make them accessible and acceptable to students: 1) The Dance of Shiva and Other Tales from India by Oroon Ghosh, published by the New American Library in New York; and, 2) Gods, Demons, and Others by R.…

Johnson, Donald; Johnson, Jean


MASTERS OF EDUCATION STEM OSU-INDIA DUAL-DEGREE PROGRAM 2014-2016 Pursuant to the successful proposal on the partnership between the Ohio State University (OSU) and Aligarh  

E-print Network

MASTERS OF EDUCATION ­ STEM OSU-INDIA DUAL-DEGREE PROGRAM 2014-2016 Pursuant to the successful) for the project entitled "Training the Next Generation of STEM Faculty at Higher Education Institutions in India-degree program will provide an OSU MEd-STEM degree. The proposed program composed largely of the existing MEd

Nahar, Sultana Nurun



SciTech Connect

Two US-India documents were signed in 2000 that provided new impetus for scientific and technical cooperation between the two countries. The first document is the US-India Science and Technology Agreement, which is aimed at 'promoting scientific and technological cooperation between the people of their two countries.' The second is the US-India Joint Statement on Energy and Environment, which states 'the United States and India believe that energy and environment could be one of the most important areas of cooperation between the two countries.' In addition to the work already underway as part of these two agreements, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has established a US-India Science and Technology Initiative to utilize the expertise of DOE national laboratories to conduct activities that support US policy objectives in South Asia. PNNL and LANL are working with US government agencies to identify appropriate non-sensitive, non-nuclear areas for US-Indian technical collaboration. The objectives of such collaboration are to address visible national and international problems, build trust between the United States and India, and contribute to regional stability in South Asia. This paper describes the approach for this engagement, the Indian scientific organization and infrastructure, potential areas for collaboration, and current status of the initiative.

Killinger, M. H. (Mark H.); Griggs, J. R. (James R.); Apt, Kenneth E.; Doyle, J. E. (James E.)



Impact of Education Campaign on Community-Based Vector Control in Hastening the Process of Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis in Tamil Nadu, South India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Globally mosquito-borne lymphatic filariasis (LF) is targeted for elimination by 2020. Towards this goal, the scope of community-based vector control as a supplementary strategy to mass drug administration (MDA) was assessed through an intensive education campaign and evaluated using pre- and post-educational surveys in an intervention and…

Nandha, B.; Krishnamoorthy, K.



Heavy Metal Pollution Assessment in Surface Water Bodies and its Suitability for Irrigation around the Neyevli Lignite Mines and Associated Industrial Complex, Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opencast lignite mines, pit-head thermal power plants, and other associated industries in the Neyveli mining and industrial complex generate huge quantities of solid and liquid wastes that are contaminated with heavy metals. Some of these are toxic or carcinogenic at sufficient concentrations. Copper, Zn, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cd, Cr, Co, Pb, and Hg concentrations in surface water in the study

R. Khan; S. H. Israili; H. Ahmad; A. Mohan



Rb-Sr Geochronology, Nd-Sr Isotopes and Whole Rock Geochemistry of Yelagiri and Sevattur Syenites, Tamil Nadu, South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkaline magmatism during the late Proterozoic is an important event in the northern part of the South Indian granulite terrain. A number of alkaline plutons comprising saturated syenite and ultramafic rocks often associated with carbonatite are found localized along NEHYPHEN;SW trending lineaments, which are considered as deep crustal fractures. Along one such lineament, the alkaline complexes of Yelagiri, Sevattur and

T. Miyazaki; H. Kagami; K. Shuto; T. Morikiyo; V. Ram Mohan; K. C. Rajasekaran



Protocol for a prospective, controlled study of assertive and timely reperfusion for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in Tamil Nadu: the TN-STEMI programme  

PubMed Central

Introduction Over the past two decades, India has witnessed a staggering increase in the incidence and mortality of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Indians have higher rates of STEMI and younger populations that suffer from it when compared with developed countries. Yet, the recommended reperfusion therapy with fibrinolysis and percutaneous coronary intervention is available only to a minority of patients. This gap in care is a result of financial barriers, limited healthcare infrastructure and poor knowledge and accessibility of acute medical services for a majority of its population. Methods and analysis This is a prospective, multicentre, ‘pretest/post-test’ quasi-experimental, community-based study. This programme will use a ‘hub-and-spoke’ model of an integrated healthcare network based on clusters of primary-care health clinics, small hospitals and large tertiary-care facilities. It is an ‘all-comers’ study which will enrol consecutive patients presenting with STEMI to the participating hospitals. The primary objectives of the study is to improve the use of reperfusion therapy and reduce the time from first medical contact to device or drug in STEMI patients; and to increase the rates of early invasive risk stratification with coronary angiography within 3–24?h of fibrinolytic therapy in eligible patients through changes in process of care. Outcomes will be measured with statistical comparison made before and after implementing the TN-STEMI programme. The estimated sample size is based on the Kovai Erode Pilot study, which provided an initial work on establishing this type of programme in South India. It will be adequately powered at 80% with a superiority margin of 10% if 36 patients are enrolled per cluster or 108 patients in three clusters. Thus, the enrolment period of 9?months will result in a sample size of 1500 patients. Ethics This study will be conducted in accordance with the ethical principles that have their origin in the current Declaration of Helsinki and ‘ethical guidelines for biomedical research on human participants’ as laid down by the Indian Council for Medical Research. All participating hospitals will still obtain local ethics committee approval of the study protocol and written informed consent will be obtained from all participants. Dissemination and results Our findings will be reported through scientific publications, research conferences and public policy venues aimed at state and local governments in India. If successful, this model can be extended to other areas of India as well as serve as a model of STEMI systems of care for low-income and middle-income countries across the world. Registration Trial is registered with Clinical trial registry of India, No: CTRI/2012/09/003002. PMID:24302505

Alexander, Thomas; Victor, Suma M; Mullasari, Ajit S; Veerasekar, Ganesh; Subramaniam, Kala; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K



Malaria in India: The Center for the Study of Complex Malaria in India  

PubMed Central

Malaria is a major public health problem in India and one which contributes significantly to the overall malaria burden in Southeast Asia. The National Vector Borne Disease Control Program of India reported ~1.6 million cases and ~1100 malaria deaths in 2009. Some experts argue that this is a serious underestimation and that the actual number of malaria cases per year is likely between 9 and 50 times greater, with an approximate 13-fold underestimation of malaria-related mortality. The difficulty in making these estimations is further exacerbated by (i) highly variable malaria eco-epidemiological profiles, (ii) the transmission and overlap of multiple Plasmodium species and Anopheles vectors, (iii) increasing antimalarial drug resistance and insecticide resistance, and (iv) the impact of climate change on each of these variables. Simply stated, the burden of malaria in India is complex. Here we describe plans for a Center for the Study of Complex Malaria in India (CSCMi), one of ten International Centers of Excellence in Malaria Research (ICEMRs) located in malarious regions of the world recently funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health. The CSCMi is a close partnership between Indian and United States scientists, and aims to address major gaps in our understanding of the complexity of malaria in India, including changing patterns of epidemiology, vector biology and control, drug resistance, and parasite genomics. We hope that such a multidisciplinary approach that integrates clinical and field studies with laboratory, molecular, and genomic methods will provide a powerful combination for malaria control and prevention in India. PMID:22142788

Das, Aparup; Anvikar, Anupkumar R.; Cator, Lauren J.; Dhiman, Ramesh C.; Eapen, Alex; Mishra, Neelima; Nagpal, Bhupinder N.; Nanda, Nutan; Raghavendra, Kamaraju; Read, Andrew F.; Sharma, Surya K.; Singh, Om P.; Singh, Vineeta; Sinnis, Photini; Srivastava, Harish C.; Sullivan, Steven A.; Sutton, Patrick L.; Thomas, Matthew B.; Carlton, Jane M.; Valecha, Neena



Practices of entomophagy and entomotherapy by members of the Nyishi and Galo tribes, two ethnic groups of the state of Arunachal Pradesh (North-East India).  


We prepared a consolidated list of edible and therapeutic insects used in Arunachal Pradesh (N.E. India) by two tribal societies (i.e., the Nyishi of East Kameng and the Galo of West Siang). The list is based on thorough, semi-structured field-interviews with 20 informants of each tribal group. At least 81 species of local insects, belonging to 26 families and five orders of insects, namely Coleoptera (24 species), Orthoptera (17 species), Hemiptera (16 species), Hymenoptera (15 species) and Odonata (9 species), are being used as food among members of these two indigenous societies. However, Nyishi use overall more species of insects as food than Galo people do and consume mostly Coleoptera and Hemiptera; amongst the Galo, on the other hand, Odonata and Orthoptera dominate. The selection of the food insects amongst the Nyishi and Galo is dictated by traditional tribal beliefs as well as the taste and availability of the insects. Depending on the species, only particular or all developmental stages are consumed. Some food insects may be included in the local diet throughout the year, others only when seasonally available. Commonly specimens are being prepared for consumption by roasting, frying or boiling. Twelve species of insects are deemed therapeutically valuable by the locals and are being used by the tribes investigated to treat a variety of disorders in humans and domestic animals. Members of the Galo use a greater number of insect species for remedial purposes than the Nyishi. With the degradation of natural resources, rapid population growth, and increasing influence of 'westernization', the traditional wisdom of entomophagy and entomotherapy is at risk of being lost. There is thus an urgent need to record the role insects play as components of local diets and folk remedies and to assess insect biodiversity in the light of these uses. PMID:21235790

Chakravorty, Jharna; Ghosh, Sampat; Meyer-Rochow, Victor Benno



Status of groundwater arsenic contamination in all 17 blocks of Nadia district in the state of West Bengal, India: A 23-year study report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive study was conducted in Nadia, one of the nine arsenic (As) affected districts in West Bengal, India to determine the extent and severity of groundwater As contamination and its health effects in particular, dermatological effects and neurological complications. We collected 28,947 hand tube-well water samples from all 17 blocks of Nadia district and analyzed for As by the flow injection-hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometer (FI-HG-AAS). We found 51.4% and 17.3% of the tube-wells had As above 10 and 50 ?g/L, respectively and observed that groundwater of all 17 blocks contained As above 50 ?g/L with maximum observed level of 3200 ?g/L. We estimated that about 2.1 million and 0.6 million people could be drinking As contaminated water above 10 and 50 ?g/L, respectively, while 0.048 million could be at risk of drinking As-contaminated water above 300 ?g/L, the concentration predicted to cause overt arsenical skin lesions. We screened 15,153 villagers from 50 villages and registered 1077 with arsenical skin lesions resulting in a prevalence rate of 7.1%. Analyzing 2671 biological samples (hair, nail and urine), from people with and without arsenical skin symptoms we found 95% of the samples had As above the normal level, indicating many people in Nadia district are sub-clinically affected. Arsenical neuropathy was observed in 33% of 255 arsenicosis patients with 28.2% prevalence for predominant sensory neuropathy and 4.7% for sensorimotor. As groundwater is still the main source of drinking water, targeting low-As aquifers and switching tube-well from unsafe to nearby safe sources are two visible options to obtain safe drinking water.

Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Mondal, Debapriya; Das, Bhaskar; Sengupta, Mrinal Kumar; Ahamed, Sad; Hossain, M. Amir; Samal, Alok Chandra; Saha, Kshitish Chandra; Mukherjee, Subhash Chandra; Dutta, Rathindra Nath; Chakraborti, Dipankar



Practices of entomophagy and entomotherapy by members of the Nyishi and Galo tribes, two ethnic groups of the state of Arunachal Pradesh (North-East India)  

PubMed Central

We prepared a consolidated list of edible and therapeutic insects used in Arunachal Pradesh (N.E. India) by two tribal societies (i.e., the Nyishi of East Kameng and the Galo of West Siang). The list is based on thorough, semi-structured field-interviews with 20 informants of each tribal group. At least 81 species of local insects, belonging to 26 families and five orders of insects, namely Coleoptera (24 species), Orthoptera (17 species), Hemiptera (16 species), Hymenoptera (15 species) and Odonata (9 species), are being used as food among members of these two indigenous societies. However, Nyishi use overall more species of insects as food than Galo people do and consume mostly Coleoptera and Hemiptera; amongst the Galo, on the other hand, Odonata and Orthoptera dominate. The selection of the food insects amongst the Nyishi and Galo is dictated by traditional tribal beliefs as well as the taste and availability of the insects. Depending on the species, only particular or all developmental stages are consumed. Some food insects may be included in the local diet throughout the year, others only when seasonally available. Commonly specimens are being prepared for consumption by roasting, frying or boiling. Twelve species of insects are deemed therapeutically valuable by the locals and are being used by the tribes investigated to treat a variety of disorders in humans and domestic animals. Members of the Galo use a greater number of insect species for remedial purposes than the Nyishi. With the degradation of natural resources, rapid population growth, and increasing influence of 'westernization', the traditional wisdom of entomophagy and entomotherapy is at risk of being lost. There is thus an urgent need to record the role insects play as components of local diets and folk remedies and to assess insect biodiversity in the light of these uses. PMID:21235790



Managing India's environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much has been written about the accident at Bhopal and the inadequacies of the Indian legislation for protecting the public health and safety against industrial hazards. India, however, has problems that loom much larger than those of insufficient legislation. First, the institutional and technological infrastructures required to make legal instruments function more effectively are missing in many parts of this




Marine Archaeology in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine archaeology, also known as maritime, nautical or underwater archaeology deals with the 'scientific study of the material remains of man and his past activities on the sea'. Marine archaeol- ogy has made tremendous progress in India. Over the years, the National Institute of Oceanography, Goa, in collaboration with other Government agencies has undertaken the exploration and excava- tion of

Sila Tripati; A. S. Gaur


Electrifying rural India  

SciTech Connect

NREL personnel team with the Indian and US governments and an Indian NGO to bring photovoltaic electricity to rural residents of the Sundarbans in India. India is the world's second most populous country, quickly approaching one billion people. Although it has a well-developed electricity grid, many residents have little or no access to electricity and the benefits associated with it. Many rural areas, for example, are isolated from the grid and will not be connected for many years, if ever. One such area is the Sundarbans located in the delta region of the two great rivers, the Ganges and Brahmaputra. The region lies partially in India and partially in Bangladesh. It is estimated that 1.5 million people live in this area, crisscrossed by many islands and rivers, who have only marginal supplies of electricity generated primarily from diesel generators and batteries. Working with the regional non-governmental organization (NGO), the Ramakrishna Mission and the West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Agency, the governments of India and the US initiated a rural electrification initiative in Sundarbans. The initiative was designed to demonstrate the economic and technical feasibility of photovoltaics (PV) to provide limited supplies of electricity for applications such as solar home lighting systems (SHS), water pumping, vaccine refrigeration, communications and economic development activities.

Stone, J.L.; Ullal, H.S.



History of Nuclear India  

Microsoft Academic Search

India emerged as a free and democratic country in 1947, and entered into the nuclear age in 1948 by establishing the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), with Homi Bhabha as the chairman. Later on the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was created under the Office of the Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru. Initially the AEC and DAE received international cooperation, and

Ram Chaturvedi



The Ramayana: India's Odyssey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide demonstrates how the "Ramayana," one of India's epic literary treasures, can be used in a literature unit in English classes for ninth-grade students. The unit incorporates a useful comparison to the Greek epic, the "Odyssey." Included in this curriculum guide are the following sections: the text (an English version of the…

Fuchs, Gaynell M.; Lynn, Thomas J.


Asbestos problem in India.  


Primary exposure to asbestos in India can be encountered in the form of asbestos mining, asbestos cement industries, asbestos processing unit and during renovation and demolition of old asbestos cemented roof or other structures as well as modern electrical as well as mechanical appliances in which asbestos is still found. Ultimately construction workers, electricians, vehicle mechanics and other workers in the building trades who are exposed to asbestos inhale hundreds and thousands of amphiboles, which causes lung damage. It is being mined in India at places such as Andhra Pradesh (Pulivendla), Jharkand (Roro), Rajasthan (Ajmer, Bhilwara, Udaipur, Rajsamand) and the common problem faced by the locals are asbestosis through air and fluorosis through drinking water. The problem continues to be in India as well as other developing countries. Also, India import and re-export asbestos to other countries and workers at shipyard, transport of the hazardous material on road and roadside residents all are vulnerable to this uncommon disease. The signs and symptoms generally found with the workers are shortness of breath, persistent and productive cough due to pulmonary fibrosis can show up many years after the asbestos exposure. PMID:15950810

Subramanian, V; Madhavan, N



The Impact of India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the experiences of Maria Montessori and her son, Mario, during their internment in India during World War II. Discusses how their observations of communities of Buddhists, Christians, Hindus, Muslims, and Zoroastrians at the Theosophical Society contributed to ideas related to the absorbent mind, and enabled the extension of the…

Montessori, Mario M.



[Demographic trends in India].  


A summary of the first results of the 1981 census of India is presented. Consideration is given to the sex ratio and to the effect on fertility of various factors, including female education, religion, and age at marriage. The effectiveness of the national family planning program is also considered, and the role of natural family planning methods is assessed. PMID:12265737

Fonseca, A



Counterproliferation: India's New Imperatives and Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite its excellent record in the field of non-proliferation of technologies, know-how and equipment related to weapons of mass destruction (WMD) to other states, India has been essentially a passive actor in global non-proliferation initiatives. As a result, it does not as yet have a comprehensive framework or strategy within which it defines its anti-proliferation objectives. The Indo-US nuclear agreement

A. Vinod Kumar



Reducing out-of-pocket expenditures to reduce poverty: a disaggregated analysis at rural-urban and state level in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on Consumer Expenditure Survey (CES) data from the National Sample Survey (NSS), conducted in 1999-2000, the share of households' expenditure on health services and drugs was calculated. The number of individuals below the state-specific rural and urban poverty line in 17 major states, with and without netting out OOP expenditure, was determined. This also enabled the calculation of the

Charu C Garg; Anup K Karan



Adivasis (Original Dwellers) "in the Way of" State-Corporate Development: Development Dispossession and Learning in Social Action for Land and Forests in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper traces the kinds of learning engendered through Adivasi trans-local and local subaltern social movement (SSM) action addressing state-corporate developmental collusions, state-caste interests and the resulting dispossession of Adivasis from land, forest and their ways of life given the economic liberalization drive to exploit resources…

Kapoor, Dip



Anaemia among women and children of India.  


Anaemia is a major public health issue in India today. Anemia can be called our national disease and in fact it is a national calamity. The figures for anemia among women and children of India are truly staggering. It is estimated that more than half of all Indian women and ¾th of Indian children suffer from anemia. The paradox about anemia is that, in India the level of anemia does not seem to have any relationship with the ^material wealth of the state- measured in terms of Net State Domestic Product (NSDP). Nor does anemia seem to have any relationship to the nutritional intake in different states measured in terms of calories proteins and fat. Neither the nutritionists nor the economists and sociologists of our country are able to provide any insight into this paradox. The only explanation possible for this paradox is provided by an Ayurvedic perspective. Ayurveda understands and treats anemia effectively and can offer a solution for this national problem. PMID:22557295

Girija, P Lt



Partnership challenges fund in India.  


The Family Planning Association of India (FPAI) Small Family by Choice project is the first large program to be funded by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) Partnership Challenges Fund. This project endorses FPAI's integrated approach to family planning to address the family planning and reproductive health needs of the population in Northern India. The project will accelerate family planning acceptance in 3 districts in Madhya Pradesh State covering a population of some 3.6 million people. These strategies will include community participation, women's empowerment, literacy programs, male involvement, and youth mobilization. The project is the core of FPAI's Strategic Plan for 1992-2000, which strives to reach areas of greatest need, improve quality of care in family planning services, promote appropriate contraceptive choice, and provide supplies. Women will be helped through literacy, education, skills development and income generation. Particular emphasis will be placed on involving men in family planning and reproductive health choices within the family. The Small Families project will concentrate on the individual needs of people within the local community. The project will accelerate family planning acceptance through people's participation while improving their health and socioeconomic conditions. Service will be delivered through local NGOs and women's groups. Initially, this project will be carried out as operations research to identify the most effective combination of interventions. The project may be expanded to other states, incorporating findings from the initial project. The Partnership Challenges Fund has been established to support innovative projects that satisfy the expectations of the IPPF Vision 2000 Strategic Plan, and address priority reproductive health issues within FPAs strategic planning. The Fund intends to support projects that address the reproductive health needs of people within the community, and affect changes that will improve the health and social well-being of individuals in the developing world. PMID:12288551



Diurnal variations of (218)Po, (214)Pb, and (214)Po and their effect on atmospheric electrical conductivity in the lower atmosphere at Mysore city, Karnataka State, India.  


The short-lived radon daughters ((218)Po, (214)Pb, (214)Bi and (214)Po) are natural tracers in the troposphere, in particular near the ground surface. They are electrically charged particles and are chemically reactive. As soon as they are formed they get attached to the aerosol particles of the atmosphere. The behavior of radon daughters is similar to that of aerosols with respect to their growth, transport and removal processes in the atmosphere. The electrical conductivity of the atmosphere is mainly due to the presence of highly mobile ions. Galactic cosmic rays are the main source of ionization in the planetary boundary layer; however, near the surface of the earth, ions are produced mainly by decays of natural radioactive gases emanating from the soil surface and by radiations emitted directly from the surface. Hence the electrical conductivity of air near the surface of the earth is mainly due to radiations emitted by (222)Rn, (218)Po, (214)Pb, (214)Bi and (214)Po, and depends on aerosol concentrations and meteorological parameters. In the present work the diurnal and seasonal variations of radon and its progeny concentrations are studied using Low Level Radon Detection System and Airflow Meter respectively. Atmospheric electrical conductivity of both positive and negative polarities is measured using a Gerdien Condenser. All the measurements were carried out simultaneously at one location in Mysore city (12°N, 76°E), India. The diurnal variation of atmospheric electrical conductivity was found to be similar to that of ion pair production rate estimated from radon and its progeny concentrations with a maximum in the early morning hours and minimum during day time. The annual average concentrations of (222)Rn, (218)Po, (214)Pb, and (214)Po at the study location were found to be 21.46, 10.88, 1.78 and 1.80 Bq m(-3) respectively. The annual average values of positive and negative atmospheric electrical conductivity were found to be 18.1 and 16.6 f S m(-1) respectively. The radon and its progeny concentrations are higher in winter than in summer and rainy season. PMID:24787467

Pruthvi Rani, K S; Paramesh, L; Chandrashekara, M S



An integrated structural intervention to reduce vulnerability to HIV and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Karnataka state, south India  

PubMed Central

Background Structural factors are known to affect individual risk and vulnerability to HIV. In the context of an HIV prevention programme for over 60,000 female sex workers (FSWs) in south India, we developed structural interventions involving policy makers, secondary stakeholders (police, government officials, lawyers, media) and primary stakeholders (FSWs themselves). The purpose of the interventions was to address context-specific factors (social inequity, violence and harassment, and stigma and discrimination) contributing to HIV vulnerability. We advocated with government authorities for HIV/AIDS as an economic, social and developmental issue, and solicited political leadership to embed HIV/AIDS issues throughout governmental programmes. We mobilised FSWs and appraised them of their legal rights, and worked with FSWs and people with HIV/AIDS to implement sensitization and awareness training for more than 175 government officials, 13,500 police and 950 journalists. Methods Standardised, routine programme monitoring indicators on service provision, service uptake, and community activities were collected monthly from 18 districts in Karnataka between 2007 and 2009. Daily tracking of news articles concerning HIV/AIDS and FSWs was undertaken manually in selected districts between 2005 and 2008. Results The HIV prevention programme is now operating at scale, with over 60,000 FSWs regularly contacted by peer educators, and over 17,000 FSWs accessing project services for sexually transmitted infections monthly. FSW membership in community-based organisations has increased from 8,000 to 37,000, and over 46,000 FSWs have now been referred for government-sponsored social entitlements. FSWs were supported to redress > 90% of the 4,600 reported incidents of violence and harassment reported between 2007-2009, and monitoring of news stories has shown a 50% increase in the number of positive media reports on HIV/AIDS and FSWs. Conclusions Stigma, discrimination, violence, harassment and social equity issues are critical concerns of FSWs. This report demonstrates that it is possible to address these broader structural factors as part of large-scale HIV prevention programming. Although assessing the impact of the various components of a structural intervention on reducing HIV vulnerability is difficult, addressing the broader structural factors contributing to FSW vulnerability is critical to enable these vulnerable women to become sufficiently empowered to adopt the safer sexual behaviours which are required to respond effectively to the HIV epidemic. PMID:21962115



Groundwater geochemistry and identification of hydrogeochemical processes in a hard rock region, Southern India.  


Hydrogeochemical investigations were carried out in Chithar River basin, Tamil Nadu, India to identify the major geochemical processes that regulate groundwater chemistry. For this study, long-term (1991-1997) and recent water quality data (2001-2002) for 30 groundwater wells spread over the study area were used to understand the groundwater geochemistry and hydrogeochemical process regulating groundwater quality. Groundwater quality data obtained from more than 400 water samples were employed. Results of electrical conductivity and chloride express large variation between minimum and maximum values and high standard deviation, which suggests that the water chemistry in the study region is not homogeneous and influenced by complex contamination sources and geochemical process. Nitrate and depth to water table expose the influences of surface contamination sources, whereas dissolved silica, fluoride and alkalinity strongly suggest the effect of rock-water interaction. In the study region, weathering of carbonate and silicate minerals and ion exchange reactions predominantly regulate major ion chemistry. Besides, the concentrations of sulphate, chloride and nitrate firmly suggest the impact of agricultural activities such as irrigation return flow, fertiliser application, etc on water chemistry in the study region. PMID:19247793

Subramani, T; Rajmohan, N; Elango, L



Educational Research in North-East India: A Source Material.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Northeast region of India has a distinct geophysical structure and concomitant socio-economic development. New educational development initiatives for Northeastern states include bridging gaps in basic minimum services, enhancing teachers training facilities, and preparing state specific holistic plans. This annotated bibliography represents…

Malhotra, Nirmal; Mittal, Pratibha


Authority and Environment: Institutional Landscapes in Rajasthan, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, there have been few systematic assessments of the role of social institutions—rules, norms, and systems of authority and power—in creating and reconfiguring natural environments. In the desert grass and shrub lands of Rajasthan, India, where multiple, contending institutions govern village resources in a state of legal pluralism, the need for such research is pressing. Here, state political interventions

Paul Robbins



Gujarat, Western India  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extremely high sediment loads are delivered to the Arabian Sea along the coast of Pakistan (upper left) and western India. In the case of the Indus River (far upper left) this sedimentation, containing large quantities of desert sand, combines with wave action to create a large sand-bar like delta. In the arid environment, the delta lacks much vegetation, but contains numerous mangrove-lined channels. This true-color image from May 2001 shows the transition from India's arid northwest to the wetter regions farther south along the coast. The increase in vegetation along the coast is brought about by the moisture trapping effect of the Western Ghats Mountain Range that runs north-south along the coast. Heavy sediment is visible in the Gulf of Kachchh (north) and the Gulf of Khambhat(south), which surround the Gujarat Peninsula.



'Hellenistic India'1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whilst the influence of post-colonialism may be seen in many aspects of modern Classical studies, one area of study in which the issues raised by reassessment of Europe's colonial past is of particular resonance is that of Hellenistic-period (c. 323-31 BCE) Greek settlement in India and Central Asia. The history of these regions under Greek rule has often, consciously or

Rachel R. Mairs


Emerging microfinance issues in dairy development: a case study from Karnataka, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dairy enterprise is an established sector in rural India and is playing a vital role in generating additional income and employment. In Karnataka, dairy development is a positive and significant as state contributes towards milk production, marketing, and processing of various dairy products in India. The microfinance programmes extended in dairy sector are helpful to take up dairy as main

V. Ramakrishnappa; R. Jagannatha Rao



U.S. - India Collaboration on Air Quality and Climate Research and Education  

EPA Science Inventory

With partial support from the U.s. National Science Foundation and U.S. Department of Energy, a workshop held March 14 - 24,2011, in India, brought together experts from the United States and India (among other countries) with a common vision for identifying priority areas of res...


Teachers' Beliefs and Practices regarding Developmentally Appropriate Practices: A Study Conducted in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study assessed kindergarten teachers' beliefs, stated practices and actual practices regarding developmentally appropriate practices (DAP) in India. Forty kindergarten teachers from the urban city of Mumbai (India) participated in the study. Overall, the results indicated that teachers' beliefs were more developmentally appropriate than their…

Hegde, Archana V.; Cassidy, Deborah J.



Secondary School Education in Assam (India) with Special Reference to Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the prevailing academic scenarios of a representative group of secondary schools in Assam (India) with special references to students performance in general and mathematics performance in particular. The state of Assam is one of the economically backward regions of India and is witnessing socio-political disturbances mainly…

Das, N. R.; Baruah, Karuna



A Comparative Study of the Economic Reforms in China and India: What Can We Learn?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last quarter of the twentieth century was characterized by economic reforms in many formerly state-dominated economies. Among them, the reform attempts by China and India have attracted increasing attention in the popular media and academic research. This paper contribute to this research by using institutional theory to analyse the reforms in China and India and develop a framework to

Shaomin Li; Anil Nair



Spellings Joins Passage to India on Education: Trip Tied to Initiatives on Competitiveness Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Secretary of Education Margaret Spellings and several key senators traveled to India last week to examine how that country, whose schools generally have fewer resources than those in the United States, has managed to produce top-notch engineers and technology professionals. Secretary Spellings arrived in India early in the week and met with…

Klein, Alyson



Poverty measurement, spatial prices, and public goods provision Theory and evidence from rural India  

E-print Network

Poverty measurement, spatial prices, and public goods provision ­ Theory and evidence from rural India Anders Kjelsrud November, 2014 Abstract Official poverty estimates in India account for regional--meaning that a more simple poverty measurement regime that uses one common rural poverty line for every Indian state

Bandyopadhyay, Antar


The Galli Galli Sim Sim Story Pond: Inspiring Children as Storytellers in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children have long enjoyed a special status in the family and the community in India, where traditional teaching techniques include song, dance, play, and storytelling. In India, play-oriented, child-centered approaches to teaching and learning, which are common in the United States, Canada, Europe, and elsewhere, are the exception to the norm…

Batada, Ameena; Joshi, Ira; Sharma, Garima; Mehta, Swati



Portrait of a Science Teacher as a Bricoleur: A Case Study from India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a case study of science teaching in an eighth grade school classroom in India. It comes out of a larger ethnographic study done in 2005 that looked at how science was taught and learned in a rural government run middle school in the state of Madhya Pradesh in India. Subscribing to a sociocultural perspective, the paper presents…

Sharma, Ajay



Child maltreatment in India.  


Child maltreatment is a global problem but is more difficult to assess and manage in developing countries such as India where one-fifth of the world's total child population resides. Certain forms of maltreatment such as feticide, infanticide, abandonment, child labour, street-begging, corporal punishment and battered babies are particularly prevalent in India. Most physicians still need to be sensitized in order to suspect child abuse on the basis of unexplained trauma, multiple fractures, parental conflict and other corroborative evidence. This article summarizes the various aspects of this major problem in resource-poor settings in the hope that it will assist in the planning of services addressing child physical and sexual abuse and neglect in India and in other developing countries. A culture of non-violence towards children needs to be built into communities in order to provide an environment conducive to the overall development of the child. Rehabilitation of abused children and their families requires a multi-disciplinary service including paediatricians, child psychologists and social workers, and the training of police forces in how to tackle the problem. PMID:24070123

Singhi, Pratibha; Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Malhi, Prabhjot




PubMed Central

This review traces the history of the mental hospital movement, initially on the world stage, and later in India, in relation to advances in psychiatric care. Mental hospitals have played a significant role in the evolution of psychiatry to its present status The earliest hospital in India were established during the British colonial rule. They served as a means to isolate mentally ill persons from the societal mainstream and provide treatments that were in vogue at the time. Following India's independence, there has been a trend towards establishing general hospital psychiatry units and deinstitutionalization, while at the same time improving conditions in the existing mental hospitals. Since 1947, a series of workshops of superintendents was conducted to review the prevailing situations in mental hospitals and to propose recommendations to improve the same. Implementation of the Mental Health Act, 1987, and grovernmental focus upon mental hospital reform have paved way for a more specific and futuristic role for mental hospitals in planning psychiatric services for the new millenium, especially for severe mental illnesses. PMID:21407925

Krishnamurthy, K.; Venugopal, D.; Alimchandani, A.K.



Carbon taxes and India  

SciTech Connect

Using the Indian module of the Second Generation Model 9SGM, we explore a reference case and three scenarios in which greenhouse gas emissions were controlled. Two alternative policy instruments (carbon taxes and tradable permits) were analyzed to determine comparative costs of stabilizing emissions at (1) 1990 levels (the 1 X case), (2) two times the 1990 levels (the 2X case), and (3) three times the 1990 levels (the 3X case). The analysis takes into account India`s rapidly growing population and the abundance of coal and biomass relative to other fuels. We also explore the impacts of a global tradable permits market to stabilize global carbon emissions on the Indian economy under the following two emissions allowance allocation methods: (1) {open_quotes}Grandfathered emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on 1990 emissions. (2) {open_quotes}Equal per capita emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on share of global population. Tradable permits represent a lower cost method to stabilize Indian emissions than carbon taxes, i.e., global action would benefit India more than independent actions.

Fisher-Vanden, K.A.; Pitcher, H.M.; Edmonds, J.A.; Kim, S.H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Shukla, P.R. [Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad (India)



Wind Resource Assessment of Gujarat (India)  

SciTech Connect

India is one of the largest wind energy markets in the world. In 1986 Gujarat was the first Indian state to install a wind power project. In February 2013, the installed wind capacity in Gujarat was 3,093 MW. Due to the uncertainty around existing wind energy assessments in India, this analysis uses the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate the wind at current hub heights for one year to provide more precise estimates of wind resources in Gujarat. The WRF model allows for accurate simulations of winds near the surface and at heights important for wind energy purposes. While previous resource assessments published wind power density, we focus on average wind speeds, which can be converted to wind power densities by the user with methods of their choice. The wind resource estimates in this study show regions with average annual wind speeds of more than 8 m/s.

Draxl, C.; Purkayastha, A.; Parker, Z.



Changes in addressing inequalities in access to hospital care in Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra states of India: a difference-in-differences study using repeated cross-sectional surveys  

PubMed Central

Objectives To compare the effects of the Rajiv Aarogyasri Health Insurance Scheme of Andhra Pradesh (AP) with health financing innovations including the Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY) in Maharashtra (MH) over time on access to and out-of-pocket expenditure (OOPE) on hospital inpatient care. Study design A difference-in-differences (DID) study using repeated cross-sectional surveys with parallel control. Setting National Sample Survey Organisation of India (NSSO) urban and rural ‘first stratum units’, 863 in AP and 1008 in MH. Methods We used two cross-sectional surveys: as a baseline, the data from the NSSO 2004 survey collected before the Aarogyasri and RSBY schemes were launched; and as postintervention, a survey using the same methodology conducted in 2012. Participants 8623 households in AP and 10?073 in MH. Main outcome measures Average OOPE, large OOPE and large borrowing per household per year for inpatient care, hospitalisation rate per 1000 population per year. Results Average expenditure, large expenditures and large borrowings on inpatient care had increased in MH and AP, but the increase was smaller in AP across these three measures. DIDs for average expenditure and large borrowings were significant and in favour of AP for the rural and the poorest households. Hospitalisation rates also increased in both states but more so in AP, although the DID was not significant and the subgroup analysis presented a mixed picture. Conclusions Health innovations in AP had a greater beneficial effect on inpatient care-related expenditures than innovations in MH. The Aarogyasri scheme is likely to have contributed to these impacts in AP, at least in part. However, OOPE increased in both states over time. Schemes such as the Aarogyasri and RSBY may result in some positive outcomes, but additional interventions may be required to improve access to care for the most vulnerable sections of the population. PMID:24898084

Rao, Mala; Katyal, Anuradha; Singh, Prabal V; Samarth, Amit; Bergkvist, Sofi; Kancharla, Manjusha; Wagstaff, Adam; Netuveli, Gopalakrishnan; Renton, Adrian



The State-Led Large Scale Public Private Partnership ‘Chiranjeevi Program’ to Increase Access to Institutional Delivery among Poor Women in Gujarat, India: How Has It Done? What Can We Learn?  

PubMed Central

Background Many low-middle income countries have focused on improving access to and quality of obstetric care, as part of promoting a facility based intra-partum care strategy to reduce maternal mortality. The state of Gujarat in India, implements a facility based intra-partum care program through its large for-profit private obstetric sector, under a state-led public-private-partnership, the Chiranjeevi Yojana (CY), under which the state pays accredited private obstetricians to perform deliveries for poor/tribal women. We examine CY performance, its contribution to overall trends in institutional deliveries in Gujarat over the last decade and its effect on private and public sector deliveries there. Methods District level institutional delivery data (public, private, CY), national surveys, poverty estimates, census data were used. Institutional delivery trends in Gujarat 2000–2010 are presented; including contributions of different sectors and CY. Piece-wise regression was used to study the influence of the CY program on public and private sector institutional delivery. Results Institutional delivery rose from 40.7% (2001) to 89.3% (2010), driven by sharp increases in private sector deliveries. Public sector and CY contributed 25–29% and 13–16% respectively of all deliveries each year. In 2007, 860 of 2000 private obstetricians participated in CY. Since 2007, >600,000 CY deliveries occurred i.e. one-third of births in the target population. Caesareans under CY were 6%, higher than the 2% reported among poor women by the DLHS survey just before CY. CY did not influence the already rising proportion of private sector deliveries in Gujarat. Conclusion This paper reports a state-led, fully state-funded, large-scale public-private partnership to improve poor women’s access to institutional delivery - there have been >600,000 beneficiaries. While caesarean proportions are higher under CY than before, it is uncertain if all beneficiaries who require sections receive these. Other issues to explore include quality of care, provider attrition and the relatively low coverage. PMID:24787692

De Costa, Ayesha; Vora, Kranti S.; Ryan, Kayleigh; Sankara Raman, Parvathy; Santacatterina, Michele; Mavalankar, Dileep



Fracture healing in India: Available therapies, indications, and protocols  

PubMed Central

The availability of fracture healing therapies to the general public is limited in India. The infrastructure of the health system in India, involving both public and private sectors, does not provide adequate opportunity for rural and low-income inhabitants to access needed care. Also the lack of funding from the government and the overall lack of physicians place a large strain on the system. This paper will take an in-depth look at the state of the current health care system and how it affects bone stimulation therapy in India. The Indian Journal of Orthopaedics was used as a reference for the bone stimulation therapies currently utilized in India. A general search of the therapies and technologies was performed to determine protocols and indications. A table of fracture healing therapies and technologies was composed which provides a description of each therapy, as well as its specific indications and protocols. This information was then used by the authors to hypothesize the most feasible methods of fracture healing to meet the Indian demographic. Based on an assessment of the health system of India, the most practical methods of bone stimulation therapy were determined. It was also determined that nearly all forms of therapy could be made available if sufficient resources were set aside for it. Bone stimulation therapy in India remains a large void in the health care system. PMID:19838367

Saccone, Michel; Jain, Anil K



Indigenisation of Psychology in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Academic psychology which made a new beginning in India in the early part of 20th century was modelled on the Western scientific tradition. The teaching of psychology was very much on the British pattern since the colonial rule, whereas the research was mostly an extension of the Western work in India. Psychology went through massive expansion…

Dalal, Ajit K.



E-Learning in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an overview of the e-learning in India. It describes the historical developments of e-learning and identifies major stakeholders and institutions that have initiated e-learning programs after the creation of the National Task Force on Information Technology and Software Development constituted by the Prime Minister of India

Mishra, Sanjaya



A Tale of Two Indias  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The latest battle between India's increasingly successful haves and left-behind have-nots is playing out in the country's educational system. India's Supreme Court recently upheld a stay against a quota system for low-caste and historically oppressed Indians, who are officially called Other Backward Classes. The decision could halt quotas for…

Sidhu, Jonathan



Sickle Cell Disease in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

countered in which only one of the parents shows the sickle cell trait. In such instances the other parent usually shows the presence of a gene respon- sibbe for some other hematobogic abnormality.8 In India the presence of sickle cell trait in different foci ( the Veddian tribes of the South,' the tribes of \\\\Vestern India,#{176} and certain labor tribes




Environment and Culture in India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

India suffers from severe environmental problems with respect to deforestation, flooding, and pollution. These problems are associated with industrialization, lack of money to enforce anti-pollution practices, climatic and population pressures, and cultural factors. Half of India's forests have been cut in the last 40 years. Deforestation is the…

Leuthold, David


Renewable energy financing: India's experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

India's Renewable Energy Programme is the largest and the most extensive among the developing countries of the World. The increased use of renewable energy technologies has been facilitated by a variety of policy and support measures from the Government of India (GoI). The programme is administered by the Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources (MNES) - the nodal ministry of the

V. Bakthavatsalam



Making medicine indigenous: homeopathy in South India.  


Historical studies of homeopathy in Europe and the USA have focused on practitioners' attempts to emphasize 'modern' and 'scientific' approaches. Studies of homeopathy in India have focused on a process of Indianization. Arguing against such unilineal trajectories, this paper situates homeopathy in South India within the context of shifting relations between 'scientific' and 'indigenous' systems of medicine. Three time periods are considered. From 1924 through 1934, homeopathy was singled out by Government of Madras officials as 'scientific', as contrasted with the 'indigenous' Ayurvedic, Siddha, and Unani systems of medicine. From 1947 through 1960, both 'indigenous' and 'scientific' interpretations of homeopathy were put forward by different factions. An honorary director of homeopathy proposed the Indianization of homeopathy, and its reconciliation with Ayurveda; this view conflicted with the Madras government's policy of expanding the 'scientific' medical curriculum of the Government College of Indigenous Medicine. It was not until the early 1970s that homeopathy was officially recognized in Tamilnadu State. By then, both homeopathy and Ayurveda had become conceptualized as non-Tamil, in contrast with promotion of the Tamil Siddha system of 'indigenous' medicine. Thus, constructs of 'indigenous' and 'scientific' systems of medicine are quite malleable with respect to homeopathy in South India. PMID:12638553

Hausman, Gary J



Earth - India and Australia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This color image of the Earth was obtained by the Galileo spacecraft on Dec. 11, 1990, when the spacecraft was about 1.5 million miles from the Earth. The color composite used images taken through the red, green and violet filters. India is near the top of the picture, and Australia is to the right of center. The white, sunlit continent of Antarctica is below. Picturesque weather fronts are visible in the South Pacific, lower right. This is a frame of the Galileo Earth spin movie, a 500-frame time-lapse motion picture showing a 25-hour period of Earth's rotation and atmospheric dynamics.



Astronomical Instruments in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The earliest astronomical instruments used in India were the gnomon and the water clock. In the early seventh century, Brahmagupta described ten types of instruments, which were adopted by all subsequent writers with minor modifications. Contact with Islamic astronomy in the second millennium AD led to a radical change. Sanskrit texts began to lay emphasis on the importance of observational instruments. Exclusive texts on instruments were composed. Islamic instruments like the astrolabe were adopted and some new types of instruments were developed. Production and use of these traditional instruments continued, along with the cultivation of traditional astronomy, up to the end of the nineteenth century.

Sarma, Sreeramula Rajeswara


The landless poor--India's growing problem.  


The bulk of poverty in India is found among those with no land or insufficient land with which to feed themselves. This predicament is a result of both population growth and the failure of the government to create sufficient employment opportunities in rural areas. India's inheritance custom, which calls for a sharing of property among a deceased's heirs, has fragmented farms into ever smaller holdings. The sharecropping system has created obstacles against participation of the rural masses in the development effort. The failure of agrarian reform efforts in India is attributed to the resistance of the powerful land-owning interests, supported by small landowners. Industrialization has not provided employment for the many rural unemployed who drift to the cities. It is not the lack of agricultural investment per se that is the source of the problem of the landless poor. Rather, social and political issues are involved. Large farms tend to obtain whatever aid is available for rural development. The increased use of electrification and mechanization has reduced the amount of employment available for landless workers. Half of India's arable land remains in the hands of 7% of the big land-holders. Thus, the gap between the haves and the have-nots has actually increased as a result of agricultural development. Food production has increased, but the ability of the poor masses to purchase food has decreased. As long as they are weak economically, the poor are likely to remain weak politically. Thus, there is a need for both economic and political reform. Resources must be massively diverted for the benefit of the rural sector, and power must be developed within democratic organizations at the rural level. The consequences of such change may be unacceptable to the elite classes who control the state apparatus and have the power to eradicate poverty and reduce inequality, however. PMID:12266988

Baidya, K N



Lumping and splitting: the health policy agenda in India.  


India's health system was designed in a different era, when expectations of the public and private sectors were quite different. India's population is also undergoing transitions in the demographic, epidemiologic and social aspects of health. Disparities in life expectancy, disease, access to health care and protection from financial risks have increased. These factors are challenging the health system to respond in new ways. The old approach to national health policies and programmes is increasingly inappropriate. By analyzing inter- and intra-state differences in contexts and processes, we argue that the content of national health policy needs to be more diverse and accommodating to specific states and districts. More 'splitting' of India's health policy at the state level would better address their health problems, and would open the way to innovation and local accountability. States further along the health transition would be able to develop policies to deal with the emerging epidemic of non-communicable diseases and more appropriate health financing systems. States early in the transition would need to focus on improving the quality and access of essential public health services, and empowering communities to take more ownership. Better 'lumping' of policy issues at the central level is also needed, but not in ways that have been done in the past. The central government needs to focus on overcoming the large inequalities in health outcomes across India, tackle growing challenges to health such as the HIV epidemic, and provide the much needed leadership on systemic issues such as the development of systems for quality assurance and regulation of the private sector. It also needs to support and facilitate states and districts to develop critical capacities rather than directly manage programmes. As India develops a more diverse set of state health policies, there will be more opportunities to learn what works in different policy environments. PMID:12917266

Peters, David H; Rao, K Sujatha; Fryatt, Robert



India`s low-tech energy success  

SciTech Connect

This article describes a program by the Indian government which develops a inexpensive, readily available resource into electricity. A very simple method for converting cow dung into a flammable gase, biogas, has been used to improve the lives of over 10 million rural inhabitants of India. The dung provides cooking fuel, electric power, and as a by product an even better fertilizer than manure. Topics covered include the following: why biogas works in India; the economics of self-sufficiency in rural India; finding a strategy that works; tapping into the potential in the rural areas.

Sampat, P.



India Habitat Centre  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The India Habitat Centre(IHC) was created in New Delhi, India, to "provide a physical environment [to] serve as a catalyst for a synergetic relationship between individuals and institutions working in diverse habitat related areas." Their website gives visitors a generous glimpse into what it is like to enjoy such features as the "Habitat Film Club", "Habitat Learning Centre", and the "IHC Visual Arts Gallery". Like a multi-faceted community center, the IHC houses a "Habitat Library & Resource Centre" and offers a monthly "Habitat Walk", among other activities. The "Habitat Walk" gives community members the opportunity to visit various natural and historical sites, and provides several pages of background on the sites that visitors can download or print from the "Habitat Walk" link on the website. The center also reaches out and empowers the community by encouraging students and non-students to participate in their annual contest for the Habitat Young Visionary Award, a photography fellowship, and in the recent past, internships in a non-governmental organization.


Cancer notification in India  

PubMed Central

In many developed countries, notification of cancer cases is compulsory. Developing countries including India accounts for more than half of new cancer cases in the world, however notification of cancer is not yet mandatory. The primary purpose of notification is to effect prevention and control and better utilization of resources. It is also a valuable source for incidence, prevalence, mortality and morbidity of the disease. Notification of cancer will lead to improved awareness of common etiologic agents, better understanding of common preventable causes and better utilization of health resources with better monitoring and evaluation of the effectiveness of health programs such as cancer screening and cancer treatment programs, which ultimately might improve survival. Notification of cancer can be done by the doctor or the hospital. Akin to the integrated disease surveillance project where more than 90% of the districts report weekly data through E-mail/portal, notification of cancer can be implemented if it is incorporated into the National Program for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular diseases and Stroke scheme. The need of the hour is cancer notification in India. PMID:24665453

Lakshmaiah, K. C.; Guruprasad, B.; Lokesh, K. N.; Veena, V. S.



Holocene aridification of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spanning a latitudinal range typical for deserts, the Indian peninsula is fertile instead and sustains over a billion people through monsoonal rains. Despite the strong link between climate and society, our knowledge of the long-term monsoon variability is incomplete over the Indian subcontinent. Here we reconstruct the Holocene paleoclimate in the core monsoon zone (CMZ) of the Indian peninsula using a sediment core recovered offshore from the mouth of Godavari River. Carbon isotopes of sedimentary leaf waxes provide an integrated and regionally extensive record of the flora in the CMZ and document a gradual increase in aridity-adapted vegetation from ˜4,000 until 1,700 years ago followed by the persistence of aridity-adapted plants after that. The oxygen isotopic composition of planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber detects unprecedented high salinity events in the Bay of Bengal over the last 3,000 years, and especially after 1,700 years ago, which suggest that the CMZ aridification intensified in the late Holocene through a series of sub-millennial dry episodes. Cultural changes occurred across the Indian subcontinent as the climate became more arid after ˜4,000 years. Sedentary agriculture took hold in the drying central and south India, while the urban Harappan civilization collapsed in the already arid Indus basin. The establishment of a more variable hydroclimate over the last ca. 1,700 years may have led to the rapid proliferation of water-conservation technology in south India.

Ponton, Camilo; Giosan, Liviu; Eglinton, Tim I.; Fuller, Dorian Q.; Johnson, Joel E.; Kumar, Pushpendra; Collett, Tim S.



The genus Ctenothrips from India (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)
with description of one new species and one new record.


Ctenothrips barapatharensis sp.n. is described from specimens collected on ferns from Himachal Pradesh state of India. This is the only species in this genus having dark thickenings attached to fore ocellus. Ctenothrips niger Kudô is newly recorded from India, and the brachypterous form is described for the first time. A key to the three species of Ctenothrips from India is provided. PMID:24989741

Tyagi, Kaomud; Ghosh, Biswatosh; Kumar, Vikas



75 FR 8111 - Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 731-TA-776-779 (Second Review)] Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject...



Violence against female sex workers in Karnataka state, south India: impact on health, and reductions in violence following an intervention program  

PubMed Central

Background Violence against female sex workers (FSWs) can impede HIV prevention efforts and contravenes their human rights. We developed a multi-layered violence intervention targeting policy makers, secondary stakeholders (police, lawyers, media), and primary stakeholders (FSWs), as part of wider HIV prevention programming involving >60,000 FSWs in Karnataka state. This study examined if violence against FSWs is associated with reduced condom use and increased STI/HIV risk, and if addressing violence against FSWs within a large-scale HIV prevention program can reduce levels of violence against them. Methods FSWs were randomly selected to participate in polling booth surveys (PBS 2006-2008; short behavioural questionnaires administered anonymously) and integrated behavioural-biological assessments (IBBAs 2005-2009; administered face-to-face). Results 3,852 FSWs participated in the IBBAs and 7,638 FSWs participated in the PBS. Overall, 11.0% of FSWs in the IBBAs and 26.4% of FSWs in the PBS reported being beaten or raped in the past year. FSWs who reported violence in the past year were significantly less likely to report condom use with clients (zero unprotected sex acts in previous month, 55.4% vs. 75.5%, adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.3 to 0.5, p < 0.001); to have accessed the HIV intervention program (ever contacted by peer educator, 84.9% vs. 89.6%, AOR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4 to 1.0, p = 0.04); or to have ever visited the project sexual health clinic (59.0% vs. 68.1%, AOR 0.7, 95% CI 0.6 to 1.0, p = 0.02); and were significantly more likely to be infected with gonorrhea (5.0% vs. 2.6%, AOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.3, p = 0.02). By the follow-up surveys, significant reductions were seen in the proportions of FSWs reporting violence compared with baseline (IBBA 13.0% vs. 9.0%, AOR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.9 p = 0.01; PBS 27.3% vs. 18.9%, crude OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.4 to 0.5, p < 0.001). Conclusions This program demonstrates that a structural approach to addressing violence can be effectively delivered at scale. Addressing violence against FSWs is important for the success of HIV prevention programs, and for protecting their basic human rights. PMID:20701791



Brand architecture in tourism branding: the way forward for India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to arrive at a brand architecture model for promoting India as a tourism destination brand, carrying with it a diversity of tourism products and states\\/regions. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The principal methodology adopted is discursive analysis and argument. Relevant examples from other countries have been drawn upon. Brand architecture concepts are used in the

R. Harish



The rise of India and the Indian Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past few years, India has placed itself on a path to potentially achieve the regional influence in the Indian Ocean to which it aspires. To this end, New Delhi has raised its profile and strengthened its position in a variety of states on the Indian Ocean littoral, especially Iran, Sri Lanka, Burma, Singapore, Thailand and most of the

Don Berlin



Technology-Supported Learning Environments in Science Classrooms in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The adoption of technology has created a major impact in the field of education at all levels. Technology-supported classroom learning environments, involving modern information and communication technologies, are also entering the Indian educational system in general and the schools in Jammu region (Jammu & Kashmir State, India) in particular.…

Gupta, Adit; Fisher, Darrell



Gender Impact of HIV and AIDS in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the estimates of NACO for the year 2005, in India, women account for around two million of the approximately 5.2 million estimated cases of people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA), constituting 39 percent of all HIV infections. The surveillance data indicates that, in high prevalence states, the epidemic is spreading gradually from urban to rural areas and

Basanta K. Pradhan; Ramamani Sundar



The Charge of Neoliberal Brigade and Higher Education in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper looks at the state of higher education in India--in terms of policies and the trajectory that it has taken in the aftermath of neoliberalisation of the economy. Through studying the discourses that construct the edifice of the educational complex in the country, it unravels the dynamics of how economy, politics and education interact.…

Kumar, Ravi



Teacher Education in Northeast India--Status, Weaknesses and Alternatives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Northeast India comprises of a cluster of eight states--Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura. The region is usually stereotyped as underdeveloped. Geographically, the region is surrounded by international border with part of Nepal, Bhutan, China, Myanmar and Bangladesh. Prevalence of insurgency and…

Bhattacharjee, D. S.



he Government of India visualized the importance of electronics and  

E-print Network

of the Department were to review the field of electronics with regards to research, development and industrial to develop electronics industry in the states. Various policy announcements like the Import Policy (1983T he Government of India visualized the importance of electronics and information technology (IT

Srinivasan, N.


Tibetan Studies in Modern India  

E-print Network

',in, the plains of India knowledge about Tibet W,as ,rather m~agre~'Md: ~ '; - mystic except for the trader families or scholarly pilgrims to Kailas Mansarovar. Tibet was know,l1 in India as 'the land of Lamas' a,nd the land from where came the ,sacred fly... inside Tibet. These two Bengalis were the pioneers in modern India's quest about religion and culture of Tibet. Shortly after came a Hungarian scholar named Alexander Csoma de Kores, who made Calcutta and Darjeeling his seats for Tibetan studies...

Sinha, Nirmal Chandra



India's demographic change: opportunities and challenges.  


This paper discusses emerging demographic patterns and its opportunities and challenges for India. It investigates the specificities in the demographic transition in terms of various demographic parameters and the lack of homogeneity in the transition across states in the country. It presents some opportunities that can arise from having demographic changes, particularly the demographic dividend and interstate migration to overcome labor shortage in some parts. At the same time, there are serious challenges in the form of enhancing human capital development, addressing the issue of skewed sex ratio, and the possible rise in social and political unrest and conflict. PMID:21798938

James, K S



Sociodemographic patterning of non-communicable disease risk factors in rural India: a cross sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To investigate the sociodemographic patterning of non-communicable disease risk factors in rural India.Design Cross sectional study.Setting About 1600 villages from 18 states in India. Most were from four large states due to a convenience sampling strategy.Participants 1983 (31% women) people aged 20–69 years (49% response rate).Main outcome measures Prevalence of tobacco use, alcohol use, low fruit and vegetable intake,

Sanjay Kinra; Liza J Bowen; Tanica Lyngdoh; Dorairaj Prabhakaran; Kolli Srinath Reddy; Lakshmy Ramakrishnan; Ruby Gupta; Ankalmadagu V Bharathi; Mario Vaz; Anura V Kurpad; George Davey Smith; Yoav Ben-Shlomo; Shah Ebrahim



Advancing Cervical Cancer Prevention in India: Implementation Science Priorities  

PubMed Central

Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in India, accounting for 17% of all cancer deaths among women aged 30 to 69 years. At current incidence rates, the annual burden of new cases in India is projected to increase to 225,000 by 2025, but there are few large-scale, organized cervical cancer prevention programs in the country. We conducted a review of the cervical cancer prevention research literature and programmatic experiences in India to summarize the current state of knowledge and practices and recommend research priorities to address the gap in services. We found that research and programs in India have demonstrated the feasibility and acceptability of cervical cancer prevention efforts and that screening strategies requiring minimal additional human resources and laboratory infrastructure can reduce morbidity and mortality. However, additional evidence generated through implementation science research is needed to ensure that cervical cancer prevention efforts have the desired impact and are cost-effective. Specifically, implementation science research is needed to understand individual- and community-level barriers to screening and diagnostic and treatment services; to improve health care worker performance; to strengthen links among screening, diagnosis, and treatment; and to determine optimal program design, outcomes, and costs. With a quarter of the global burden of cervical cancer in India, there is no better time than now to translate research findings to practice. Implementation science can help ensure that investments in cervical cancer prevention and control result in the greatest impact. PMID:24217555

Madsen, Emily; Porterfield, Deborah; Varghese, Beena



Current perspectives on the spread of dengue in India  

PubMed Central

Dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are important arthropod-borne viral diseases. Each year, there are ~50 million dengue infections and ~500,000 individuals are hospitalized with DHF, mainly in Southeast Asia. Dengue in India has dramatically expanded over the last few decades, with rapidly changing epidemiology. The first major DHF outbreak in the entire nation occurred in 1996 by dengue virus serotype 2, and after a gap of almost a decade, the country faced yet another DF outbreak in the year 2003 by dengue virus serotype 3. A dramatic increase in the number and frequency of outbreaks followed, and, at present, in most of the states of India, dengue is almost endemic. At present, all the four serotypes are seen in circulation, but the predominant serotype keeps changing. Despite this trend, surveillance, reporting, and diagnosis of dengue remain largely passive in India. More active community-based epidemiological studies with intensive vector control and initiatives for dengue vaccine development should be geared up to control the spread of dengue in India. We review here the factors that may have contributed to the changing epidemiology of dengue in India. PMID:25525374

Gupta, Ekta; Ballani, Neha



Fortification of Foods with Vitamin D in India  

PubMed Central

Vitamin D deficiency is widely prevalent in India, despite abundant sunshine. Fortification of staple foods with vitamin D is a viable strategy to target an entire population. Vitamin D fortification programs implemented in the United States and Canada have improved the vitamin D status in these countries, but a significant proportion of the population is still vitamin D deficient. Before fortification programs are designed and implemented in India, it is necessary to study the efficacy of the American and Canadian vitamin D fortification programs and then improve upon them to suit the Indian scenario. This review explores potential strategies that could be used for the fortification of foods in the Indian context. These strategies have been proposed considering the diverse dietary practices necessitated by social, economic, cultural and religious practices and the diverse climatic conditions in India. Fortification of staple foods, such as chapati flour, maida, rice flour and rice, may be more viable strategies. Targeted fortification strategies to meet the special nutritional needs of children in India are discussed separately in a review entitled, “Fortification of foods with vitamin D in India: Strategies targeted at children”. PMID:25221975

G, Ritu; Gupta, Ajay



Elections in India  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News discusses the general elections in India. The seven resources discussed offer poll results, analysis, and commentary. More than 600 million voters in the world's largest democracy went to the polls recently to choose candidates from 622 political parties. The election produced a temporarily deadlocked parliament, with the Hindu nationalist party, Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and an alliance of the Congress and United Front parties hotly pursuing representatives from smaller regional parties to reach the magic number of 272 -- a majority. On March 10, President KR Narayanan formally asked the leader of the BJP, Atal Bihari Vajpayee, whether or not he is able to form the next government. It is now up to the BJP to decide whether or not it can put together a working coalition.

De Nie, Michael W.



Comets in ancient India  

E-print Network

The Indo-aryans of ancient India observed stars and constellations for ascertaining auspicious times for sacrificial rites ordained by vedas. It is but natural that they would have recounted in the vedic texts about comets. In Rigveda ($\\sim $ 1700 - 1500 BC) and Atharvaveda ($\\sim $ 1150 BC), there are references to dhumaketus and ketus, which stand for comets in Sanskrit. Varahamihira in 550 AD and Ballala Sena ($\\sim $ 1100 - 1200 AD) have described a large number of comets recorded by ancient seers such as Parashara, Vriddha Garga, Narada, Garga, etc. In this article, I conjecture that an episode narrated in Mahabharata of a radiant king, Nahusha, ruling the heavens, and later turning into a serpent after he had kicked the seer Agastya (also the star Canopus), is a mythological retelling of a cometary event.

Gupta, Patrick Das



Detection of Nipah virus RNA in fruit bat (Pteropus giganteus) from India.  


The study deals with the survey of different bat populations (Pteropus giganteus, Cynopterus sphinx, and Megaderma lyra) in India for highly pathogenic Nipah virus (NiV), Reston Ebola virus, and Marburg virus. Bats (n = 140) from two states in India (Maharashtra and West Bengal) were tested for IgG (serum samples) against these viruses and for virus RNAs. Only NiV RNA was detected in a liver homogenate of P. giganteus captured in Myanaguri, West Bengal. Partial sequence analysis of nucleocapsid, glycoprotein, fusion, and phosphoprotein genes showed similarity with the NiV sequences from earlier outbreaks in India. A serum sample of this bat was also positive by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for NiV-specific IgG. This is the first report on confirmation of Nipah viral RNA in Pteropus bat from India and suggests the possible role of this species in transmission of NiV in India. PMID:22802440

Yadav, Pragya D; Raut, Chandrashekhar G; Shete, Anita M; Mishra, Akhilesh C; Towner, Jonathan S; Nichol, Stuart T; Mourya, Devendra T



Detailed feasibility report for Central India Refinery Project, Bina, Madhya Pradesh, India. Volume 3. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The study, conducted by the M. W. Kellogg Company, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of the Bharat Oman Refineries Ltd. The report shows the results of a detailed study of the feasibility of a Central India Refinery Project to be located near Bina, Madhya Pradesh State, India. It consists of an evaluation of the current and future petroleum products market, a description of the refinery and related facilities necessary for implementation of the project, and an environmental and energy conservation plan. This is the third of four volumes.

Not Available



Detailed feasibility report for Central India Refinery Project, Bina, Madhya Pradesh, India. Volume 2. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The study, conducted by the M. W. Kellogg Company, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of the Bharat Oman Refineries Ltd. The report shows the results of a detailed study of the feasibility of a Central India Refinery Project to be located near Bina, Madhya Pradesh State, India. It consists of an evaluation of the current and future petroleum products market, a description of the refinery and related facilities necessary for implementation of the project, and an environmental and energy conservation plan. This is the second of four volumes and it includes Section 6, Refinery - Process Units.

Not Available



India's demographic snapshot, 1991.  


Having presented the provisional results of the 1991 Census of India in tabular form, the author discusses the policy implication of the data. During the 1981-91 decade, India witnesses a 160.99 net increase in population, which brought the country's total population to an estimated 844.32 million. The annual growth rated during the decade was 2.1%. The author explains that these alarming population figures reflect the failure of the government's population program. The author warns that unless the Planning Commission develops new strategies, the upcoming 5-year plans. The author explains that the failure of family planning is due primarily to the low literacy rate -- especially the female literacy rate is 29% (and 25% among rural women). The author also discusses the problems of urbanization and the work force. During the past decade, cities grew at a somewhat slower rate than in previous decades, meaning that the absorptive capacity of the cities has gone down. Nonetheless, the urban population grew by 58 million during 10-year period. The urban infrastructure is virtually collapsing, with 30-50% of the urban population living in slums. The data also reveals the structural stagnation of the economy. The agricultural sector, which accounts for about 2/3 of the work force, registered only slight decreases during the decade, signifying a marginal shift from agriculture to nonagricultural activity. Furthermore, population growth has aggravated the unemployment problem. Finally, the author addresses the issue of the sex ratio (females/1000 males), which declined from 934 in 1981 to 929 in 1991, which indicates a continued prejudice against women. PMID:12317108

Bose, A



Caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda) from India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The caprellid fauna of India is investigated. A total of 538 samples (including algae, seagrasses, sponges, hydroids, ascidians,\\u000a bryozoans, encrusted dead corals, coral rubble, fine and coarse sediments) were collected from 39 stations along the coast\\u000a of India, covering a wide diversity of habitats from intertidal to 12 m water depth. A new species (Jigurru longimanus n.sp.) is described, and figures

J. M. Guerra-García; T. Ganesh; M. Jaikumar; A. V. Raman



Urban Rural Comparisons of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Burden among Adolescent Girls in a Hospital Setting in India  

PubMed Central

Background. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a multifaceted disorder characterized by varying clinical presentations. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine urban and rural differences in the burden of polycystic ovarian syndrome among Indian adolescent females aged 12 to 19 years. Methods. A pilot cross-sectional study was conducted for a period of one month (August-September 2013) at Balaji Hospital, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India. The final sample included 126 study participants located in various urban (50%, n = 63) and rural (50%, n = 63) settings. Information was gathered on sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics, clinical history, occurrence of acne and hirsutism, serum testosterone levels, obstetric history, family history of chronic diseases, menstrual history, physical activity, and dietary intake. Results. Eighteen percent of the participants were confirmed of having PCOS by recent guidelines of Rotterdam Consensus for adolescent diagnosis of PCOS (presence of all three elements). Majority of the individuals with PCOS had an average age of 16 (SD = 2) (P = .02) years with an average age of menarche 12 years (SD = 1). Conclusion. The proportion of participants diagnosed with PCOS was higher among urban participants in comparison to rural participants.

Balaji, Swetha; Prasad, Satish; Bala Kasav, Jyoti; Upadhyay, Vandana; Singh, Awnish K.; Joshi, Ashish



Quality of Life of a Patient with Type 2 Diabetes: A Cross-Sectional Study in Rural South India  

PubMed Central

Background: With a high prevalence of diabetes in India, there is a need to study the impact of this disease on the quality of life (QoL) of the patients. Materials and Methods: This facility-based cross-sectional study assessed the QoL of patients attending the diabetic clinic using the World Health Organization (WHO) QoL BREF instrument in Tamil Nadu. The QoL was analyzed domain-wise and various socio-demographic factors affecting the QoL were studied. Results: The mean total score of the QoL scale was 58.05 (95% CI, 22.18–93.88). Domain-wise, 63% had good physical, 69% had good psychological, 27% had good social and 85% had good environmental QoL scores. Males, currently married and those with BMI more than 25 had a statistically significantly better QoL compared to their counterparts. Conclusions: Diabetes does impair the QoL of patients but not to a great extent. There is a need to specifically target and improve the QoL of women, widowed and separated, and non-obese diabetics who are at risk of a poor QoL. QoL assessment should be routinely practiced in diabetic clinics.

Manjunath, K; Christopher, Prince; Gopichandran, Vijayaprasad; Rakesh, P. S; George, Kuryan; Prasad, Jasmin Helan



Chemometric evaluation of nitrate contamination in the groundwater of a hard rock area in Dharapuram, south India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of investigations on groundwater nitrate contamination in the Dharapuram area of Tamil Nadu in south India as a primary step to initiate denitrification. Groundwater samples were collected from 26 selected locations during the pre-monsoon season in July 2010 and analysed for nitrate and other water quality parameters. Two important water types were identified, viz. Ca-Na-HCO3 and mixed Ca-Mg-Cl. It is found that the majority of samples possess high nitrate concentration; 57 % of samples exceeded the permissible limit of Indian (45 mg/L) and WHO (50 mg/L) drinking water standard. Spatial distribution map of NO3 suggested that major contamination was observed in the SW and NW parts of the study area. This result was in agreement with the corresponding land-use pattern in this study area. Denitrification process at greater depths was evident from the negative correlation between NO3 and well depth. The sources and controlling factors of high nitrate were investigated using cross plots of NO3 with other selected hydrochemical parameters. Positive correlation for NO3 was observed with EC, K, Cl and SO4. This analysis was capable of differentiating the various sources of nitrate in groundwater. The major sources of nitrate contamination are identified as areas of high fertilizer application, sewages and animal waste dumping yards. Regulation of these pollutant sources with appropriate and cost-effective denitrification process can restore the water quality in this area.

Sajil Kumar, P. J.; Jegathambal, P.; James, E. J.



WTERT-India Observations from India's Crisis Ranjith Annepu Observations from India's Crisis  

E-print Network

to public demonstrations all across India, after corruption, fuel prices and a young woman's gang rape,500 police personnel had to accompany trucks to the waste treatment plant as they were being blocked by local


Nuclear fuel cycle assessment of India: A technical study for U.S.-India cooperation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent civil nuclear cooperation proposed by the Bush Administration and the Government of India has heightened the necessity of assessing India's nuclear fuel cycle inclusive of nuclear materials and facilities. This agreement proposes to change the long-standing U.S. policy of preventing the spread of nuclear weapons by denying nuclear technology transfer to non-NPT signatory states. The nuclear tests in 1998 have convinced the world community that India would never relinquish its nuclear arsenal. This has driven the desire to engage India through civilian nuclear cooperation. The cornerstone of any civilian nuclear technological support necessitates the separation of military and civilian facilities. A complete nuclear fuel cycle assessment of India emphasizes the entwinment of the military and civilian facilities and would aid in moving forward with the separation plan. To estimate the existing uranium reserves in India, a complete historical assessment of ore production, conversion, and processing capabilities was performed using open source information and compared to independent reports. Nuclear energy and plutonium production (reactor- and weapons-grade) was simulated using declared capacity factors and modern simulation tools. The three-stage nuclear power program entities and all the components of civilian and military significance were assembled into a flowsheet to allow for a macroscopic vision of the Indian fuel cycle. A detailed view of the nuclear fuel cycle opens avenues for technological collaboration. The fuel cycle that grows from this study exploits domestic thorium reserves with advanced international technology and optimized for the existing system. To utilize any appreciable fraction of the world's supply of thorium, nuclear breeding is necessary. The two known possibilities for production of more fissionable material in the reactor than is consumed as fuel are fast breeders or thermal breeders. This dissertation analyzes a thermal breeder core concept involving the CANDU core design. The end-of-life fuel characteristics evolved from the designed fuel composition is proliferation resistant and economical in integrating this technology into the Indian nuclear fuel cycle. Furthermore, it is shown that the separation of the military and civilian components of the Indian fuel cycle can be facilitated through the implementation of such a system.

Krishna, Taraknath Woddi Venkat


Smuggling India: Deconstructing Western India’s Illicit Export Trade, 1818-1870  

E-print Network

textiles, and timber. As the physical Portuguese presence in India diminished, ultimately replaced in many respects by the English East India Company, the mercantile communities with which they traded continued their operations relatively unabated. Despite... , indigo and salt.14 Moreover, their business also included shipment of legal commodities such as silk textiles, chintzes, and various other piece goods. In both cases, firms were built on foundations of kinship and developed from long-standing regional...

Boehme, Kate



Association between Early Marriage and Intimate Partner Violence in India: A Focus on Youth from Bihar and Rajasthan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and early marriage is explored using the 2005-2006 India National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3). The NFHS-3 collected data from a representative sample of women and men in India with a large enough sample size to have a representative sample at the state level. The focus is on youth from…

Speizer, Ilene S.; Pearson, Erin



Local health information systems, e-Governance and ICT policy in Andhra Pradesh, India: Approaches, Challenges and Opportunities  

E-print Network

1 Local health information systems, e-Governance and ICT policy in Andhra Pradesh, India of Oslo, Norway 1. Introduction In this article, we discuss two ongoing health information system projects going in two rural districts in the same state in India. Local level Information and Communication

Sahay, Sundeep


Gender, region, religion and reproductive behaviour in India and Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demographic profile of South Asia is one of high levels of fertility, low ages at marriage and relatively low contraceptive prevalence. This generalisation, however, obscures considerable variations in reproductive behaviour and there exist such notable exceptions from this standard pattern as Sri Lanka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, which pioneered the fertility transition in South Asia (Dyson and Crook 1984).

Zeba Sathar; Christine Callum; Shireen Jejeebhoy


India Culture Trunk. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997 (India).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit is intended to provide students with a general knowledge of the history and culture of India. Activities include: (1) "What Do You Know about India?"; (2) "What Is All This Stuff For?"; (3) "Name That Spice and Why It's Nice"; (4) "Where and How Are These Elephants Marching?"; (5) "Why Is India What It Is?"; (6) "Why is India the Cover…

Doeksen, Peggy


Mycetoma caused by Aspergillus nidulans in India.  


The first case of mycetoma caused by Aspergillus nidulans has been described from India in a young farmer of Jaisalmer situated in the Thar desert of Western Rajasthan, India. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological and mycological studies. PMID:3894683

Joshi, K R; Mathur, D R; Sharma, J C; Vyas, M C; Sanghvi, A



Government of India Department of Science & Technology  

E-print Network

Government of India Department of Science & Technology Department of Biotechnology Australian for bilateral collaboration in science Jointly managed by Australian and Indian governments Supports & Technology (DST), Government of India & Department of Industry, Innovation, Science, Research and Tertiary

Kumar, M. Jagadesh


Delivery of affordable and equitable cancer care in India.  


The delivery of affordable and equitable cancer care is one of India's greatest public health challenges. Public expenditure on cancer in India remains below US$10 per person (compared with more than US$100 per person in high-income countries), and overall public expenditure on health care is still only slightly above 1% of gross domestic product. Out-of-pocket payments, which account for more than three-quarters of cancer expenditures in India, are one of the greatest threats to patients and families, and a cancer diagnosis is increasingly responsible for catastrophic expenditures that negatively affect not only the patient but also the welfare and education of several generations of their family. We explore the complex nature of cancer care systems across India, from state to government levels, and address the crucial issues of infrastructure, manpower shortages, and the pressing need to develop cross-state solutions to prevention and early detection of cancer, in addition to governance of the largely unregulated private sector and the cost of new technologies and drugs. We discuss the role of public insurance schemes, the need to develop new political mandates and authority to set priorities, the necessity to greatly improve the quality of care, and the drive to understand and deliver cost-effective cancer care programmes. PMID:24731888

Pramesh, C S; Badwe, Rajendra A; Borthakur, Bibhuti B; Chandra, Madhu; Raj, Elluswami Hemanth; Kannan, T; Kalwar, Ashok; Kapoor, Sanjay; Malhotra, Hemant; Nayak, Sukdev; Rath, Goura K; Sagar, T G; Sebastian, Paul; Sarin, Rajiv; Shanta, V; Sharma, Suresh C; Shukla, Shilin; Vijayakumar, Manavalan; Vijaykumar, D K; Aggarwal, Ajay; Purushotham, Arnie; Sullivan, Richard



Profile of Vitiligo in Kumaun Region of Uttarakhand, India  

PubMed Central

Background: Vitiligo is a common, acquired, pigmentary disorder characterized by loss of melanocytes resulting in white spots. This disease carries a lot of social stigma in India. Objective: To study the clinico-epidemiological profile of vitiligo patients in Kumaun region of Uttarakhand state in India. Materials and Methods: The clinical presentation of vitiligo was examined and analyzed in 762 vitiligo patients attending the Dermatology outdoor of Government Medical College, Haldwani, which is a referral centre for Kumaun region of Uttarakhand state in India. Results: Male and female patients were found to be affected almost equally. It was observed that onset of vitiligo was most common in 0-10 years age group, as evidenced by 336 cases out of 762 cases. Acrofacial type of vitiligo (339 cases out of 762) was most commonly observed, followed by vitiligo vulgaris, focal, segmental, mucosal, mixed, and universal vitiligo. The most common site of onset was the lower limbs followed by head and neck, upper limbs, trunk, genitalia, and mucasae. Leucotrichia was observed in 33.5%, Koebner's phenomenon in 26.3%, and a positive family history in 19% of the vitiligo patients. The other common conditions associated were thyroid disorders (8.9%), diabetes (5.3%), and atopic dermatitis (4.9%). Conclusion: The study indicates that acrofacial vitiligo is the most common clinical type observed in Kumaun region of Uttarakhand in India. Onset of vitiligo is most common in first decade of life. PMID:24700953

Agarwal, Saurabh; Ojha, Amit; Gupta, Shalini



Country watch: India.  


An acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) education program sponsored by World Vision of India was effective in reaching low-income adolescent girls in Bombay. During the preparatory phase, household surveys, interviews, and focus group discussions were conducted to gain insight into the daily lives, interests, sexual activities, and health problems of female adolescents. These activities identified a need for support and cooperation of the parents of these girls and the broader community, services such as child care for younger siblings to facilitate attendance, promotion of self-confidence and self-expression, and discussion of AIDS within the broader context of women's status and rights. The curriculum covered topics such as being a woman, puberty, sexuality, sexual exploitation and harassment, the human immune system, and protection against AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. These messages were communicated through lectures, videos, plays, puppet shows, quizzes, story telling, role plays, and group discussions. The course was supplemented by a community awareness program involving community leaders, mothers of adolescent females, young men, and adolescent boys. A total of 76 girls (average age, 14 years) attended the 7-session course. A follow-up survey indicated that knowledge about AIDS, menstruation, and reproduction increased significantly over baseline; 62% of participants reported they had talked to others about AIDS since the course. World Vision has since expanded its Women and AIDS project to male and female adolescents and adults in 21 slums and two industrial complexes in Bombay. PMID:12291989

Bhende, A A



Delhi: India's urban example.  


Demography, migration, economy, employment, education, planning, housing and transportation in the Delhi Union Territory are described. The Territory is an administrative district that includes Old Delhi, the site of the ancient walled city, the New Delhi Municipal Corporation, the center of government, the Delhi Cantonment, a military center, and 27 smaller towns, many of which are rural in character. The Delhi Territory is notable for its relatively high per capita income ($321), high sex ratio (124), high proportion of recent migrants (over half), but also high employment rate and educational status of these migrants. Much of the economy is based on government service, retail trade and services. School enrollment is high, nearly 100% of primary school age children, 77% of middle school, and 50% of secondary school. Rapid growth has stressed the public health, sanitation, housing, electric power systems. Transportation is coping relatively well, considering that 20% of all motor vehicles in India are in Delhi. 50% of daily trips are made by bus, 22% by bicycle, 10% by motorcycles, and 4% by cars. Accommodations for tourists in Delhi's old center are good in both expensive and inexpensive hotels. PMID:12342348

Cutler, B



India: 'brain drain' or the migration of talent?  


2 views on "brain drain" exist: 1) LDCs lose their enormous investments on higher education when skilled people migrate to other countries and 2) LDCs are exaggerating the problem and only a few skilled people migrate at 1 time. India does not completely lose its investment in education when professionals migrate, since the migrants still contribute to knowledge and also send remittances to relatives in India. Unemployed educated people would cause a greater drain on India's resources than educated migrants. The author prefers the phrase migration of talent to brain drain, since the former indicates a 2-way movement. Most migrants from LDCs are students. About 11,000 university graduates leave India every year for advanced study and/or work. A conservative estimate is that 2500 will remain abroad permanently. Most professionals who migrate go to the US and Canada. Factors promoting migration include 1) unemployment, 2) immigration rules, 3) colonial links, 4) financial incentives and material benefits, 5) pursuit of higher education, 6) improvement of working conditions and facilities, 7) avoidance of excessive bureaucratic procedures, and 8) compensation for the mismatch between Indian education and employment. Reasons for returning to India include 1) deference to wives who were unable to adjust to a foreign way of life, 2) contributing to Indian development, and 3) racial discrimination. It will probably not be possible to lure back migrants who left for material reasons. Attractive job offers could entice back those who left for advanced training. To encourage the return of those who left to pursue high quality research, India must 1) increase expenditure on research and development, possibly through the private industrial sector, 2) promote travel to other countries for professional enrichment, and 3) improve conditions of research work. The article concludes with an analysis of migration of talent from 3 perspectives: 1) the individual, 2) the nation-state, and 3) the world as a whole. PMID:12282407

Oommen, T K



India Solar Resource Data: Enhanced Data for Accelerated Deployment (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Identifying potential locations for solar photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) projects requires an understanding of the underlying solar resource. Under a bilateral partnership between the United States and India - the U.S.-India Energy Dialogue - the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has updated Indian solar data and maps using data provided by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) and the National Institute for Solar Energy (NISE). This fact sheet overviews the updated maps and data, which help identify high-quality solar energy projects. This can help accelerate the deployment of solar energy in India.

Not Available



iGEON-India: An International Collaborative Activity of the GEON Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

iGEON-India is an e-science collaboration between the GEON project in the United States and the University Center for Earth and Space Sciences (UCESS) and the Center for Modeling, Simulation, and Design (CMSD) at the University of Hyderabad, India. The project is supported by the Indo-US Science and Technology Forum, India. The goal of iGEON-India is to introduce and promote the field of geoinformatics in India, including establishment of a portal for sharing data and tools at the University of Hyderabad (UofHyd), by replicating the GEON portal infrastructure developed in the US. The GEON portals in the US and India form the basis for an international network of geoscience nodes. As part of this collaborative activity, three GEON workshops have been held at the University of Hyderabad, with the most recent one held on Jan 5-11, 2009. The workshops are targeted towards geoscientists and introduce the features and capabilities of GEON and present the technical architecture from a programmer as well as user perspective, followed by hands-on experience. Topics covered included concepts and details of cyberinfrastructure and service-oriented architectures, geoscience applications based on LiDAR and topographic data; geospatial/GIS data; web services, and the GEON Open Earth Framework. The iGEON-India collaboration includes exchange of students and researchers between participating institutions in the US and India, student projects for computer science and geoscience students in the US and India, and the establishment of a federated network of online geoscience resources. This talk will present the collaborative activities undertaken by iGEON-India and plans for the next year.

Agarwal, A.; Baru, C.; Crosby, C.; Keller, R.; Subbarao, K. V.; Nandigam, V.



Prevalence and clustering of soil-transmitted helminth infections in a tribal area in southern India  

PubMed Central

Objectives To estimate the prevalence, spatial patterns and clustering in the distribution of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections, and factors associated with hookworm infections in a tribal population in Tamil Nadu, India. Methods Cross-sectional study with one-stage cluster sampling of 22 clusters. Demographic and risk factor data and stool samples for microscopic ova/cysts examination were collected from 1237 participants. Geographical information systems mapping assessed spatial patterns of infection. Results The overall prevalence of STH was 39% (95% CI 36%–42%), with hookworm 38% (95% CI 35–41%) and Ascaris lumbricoides 1.5% (95% CI 0.8–2.2%). No Trichuris trichiura infection was detected. People involved in farming had higher odds of hookworm infection (1.68, 95% CI 1.31–2.17, P < 0.001). In the multiple logistic regression, adults (2.31, 95% CI 1.80–2.96, P < 0.001), people with pet cats (1.55, 95% CI 1.10–2.18, P = 0.011) and people who did not wash their hands with soap after defecation (1.84, 95% CI 1.27–2.67, P = 0.001) had higher odds of hookworm infection, but gender and poor usage of foot wear did not significantly increase risk. Cluster analysis, based on design effect calculation, did not show any clustering of cases among the study population; however, spatial scan statistic detected a significant cluster for hookworm infections in one village. Conclusion Multiple approaches including health education, improving the existing sanitary practices and regular preventive chemotherapy are needed to control the burden of STH in similar endemic areas. PMID:24237860

Kaliappan, Saravanakumar Puthupalayam; George, Santosh; Francis, Mark Rohit; Kattula, Deepthi; Sarkar, Rajiv; Minz, Shantidani; Mohan, Venkata Raghava; George, Kuryan; Roy, Sheela; Ajjampur, Sitara Swarna Rao; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Kang, Gagandeep



India Politics by Other Means: Attacks Against Christians in India  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Human Rights Watch study examines a recent upsurge in inter-religious violence directed at Christians in India, largely by right-wing Hindu organizations, collectively known as the sangh parivar. According to Human Rights Watch, such actions are designed "to promote and exploit communal tensions to stay in power," a strategy "supported at the local level by militant groups who operate with impunity." The report provides a cultural and political context for the violence, reports on the violence itself and its areas of concentration, recommendations to the government of India as well as to the international community, and a discussion of relevant international law.

Narula, Smita.


Cholera outbreaks in India.  


Cholera is a global health problem as several thousands of cases and deaths occur each year. The unique epidemiologic attribute of the disease is its propensity to occur as outbreaks that may flare-up into epidemics, if not controlled. The causative bacterial pathogen Vibrio cholerae prevails in the environment and infects humans whenever there is a breakdown in the public health component. The Indian subcontinent is vulnerable to this disease due its vast coastlines with areas of poor sanitation, unsafe drinking water, and overcrowding. Recently, it was shown that climatic conditions also play a major role in the persistence and spread of cholera. Constant change in the biotypes and serotypes of V. cholerae are also important aspects that changes virulence and survival of the pathogen. Such continuous changes increase the infection ability of the pathogen affecting the susceptible population including the children. The short-term carrier status of V. cholerae has been studied well at community level and this facet significantly contributes to the recurrence of cholera. Several molecular tools recognized altering clonality of V. cholerae in relation with the advent of a serogroup or serotype. Rapid identification systems were formulated for the timely detection of the pathogen so as to identify and control the outbreak and institute proper treatment of the patients. The antimicrobials used in the past are no longer useful in the treatment of cholera as V. cholerae has acquired several mechanisms for multiple antimicrobial resistance. This upsurge in antimicrobial resistance directly influences the management of the disease. This chapter provides an overview of cholera prevalence in India, possible sources of infection, and molecular epidemiology along with antimicrobial resistance of V. cholerae. PMID:24831345

Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Sharma, Naresh C



Lead content in household paints in India.  


Lead and its compounds are used in paints not only to impart colour but also to make it durable, corrosion resistant and to improve drying. Adverse health impacts of lead especially on children have led countries to restrict or ban its use in paints. While U.S. and other developed countries instituted measures to limit the use of lead in paints, some developing countries including India have failed to regulate their lead content. The present study was undertaken to determine the levels of lead in new latex (water-based) and enamel paints (oil-based) intended for residential use in India. A total of 69 paint samples (38 latex and 31 enamel samples) from six of the most popular brands were analysed for lead concentrations. While all latex paint samples contained low levels of lead, (i.e., well below 600 ppm as regulated by United States' Consumer Products Safety Commission) the enamel paint samples of all but one brand contained significant concentrations of lead, ranging up to 140,000 ppm. In fact 84% of the enamel paints tested exceeded 600 ppm whereas only 38 % of all samples (including latex and enamel types) exceeded this regulatory level. PMID:18950834

Kumar, Abhay; Gottesfeld, Perry



Challenges in Achieving Food Security in India  

PubMed Central

First Millennium Development Goal states the target of “Halving hunger by 2015”. Sadly, the recent statistics for India present a very gloomy picture. India currently has the largest number of undernourished people in the world and this is in spite of the fact that it has made substantial progress in health determinants over the past decades and ranks second worldwide in farm output. The causes of existing food insecurity can be better viewed under three concepts namely the: ‘traditional concept’ which includes factors such as unavailability of food and poor purchasing capacity; ‘socio-demographic concept’ which includes illiteracy, unemployment, overcrowding, poor environmental conditions and gender bias; ‘politico-developmental concept’ comprising of factors such as lack of intersectoral coordination and political will, poorly monitored nutritional programmes and inadequate public food distribution system. If the Millennium Development Goal is to be achieved by 2015, efforts to improve food and nutrition security have to increase considerably. Priority has to be assigned to agriculture and rural development along with promoting women empowerment, ensuring sustainable employment and improving environmental condit