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Examination of Recovery from Salinization of Agricultural Area in Tamil Nadu State, INDIA due to the December 2004 Tsunami  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined salinization and desalinization in an agricultural area of Nagapatttinam district, Tamil Nadu state, India due to the December 2004 tsunami. To examine the damage and recovery of agricultural environment from the tsunami, we observed and collected soil, groundwater and vegetation data. Soil electrical conductivity steeply increased after the tsunami and soil pH slightly increased, but returned to pre-tsunami levels in the following year. Groundwater salinity might return to pre-tsunami levels by 2006. MODIS EVI values measured before and after the tsunami showed that vegetation damaged by the tsunami recovered to its pre-tsunami state by the next rice cropping season, called samba, which continues from August to February. These rapid rates of recovery were due to leaching salt from the highly permeable soils in the area by the monsoon rainfall. From these results, we conclude that agricultural environment of the district has mostly recovered one year after the tsunami.

Kume, Takashi; Umetsu, Chieko; Palanisami, K.


An Orthopedic-, Surgical-, and Epidemiological-Based Investigation of Leprosy, in the Tamil Nadu State of India  

PubMed Central

No other research paper has ever been written about leprosy in this manner. The orthopedic and surgical implications, as well as the functional debility caused by the disease, have not been previously explained by past research as they have in such a comprehensive manner in this paper. The results of this study have regional and global implications as they pertain to disease pathology, risk factor recognition/disease prevention, and treatment. This paper is a unique, in that it also serves as a combination of a review of the current medical literature, as well as an epidemiological survey of the disease in a region of the world which has never been researched in the past. Clinical data points to the possibility of a new strain of the disease. This information is of significance because it effects prevention and improved treatment of the disease, which leads to devastating sequela. This was a cross-sectional study involving subjects diagnosed with leprosy in the Chengalpet region of the Kancheepuram District, of the Tamil Nadu state of India. The study was performed at the Tamil Nadu Medical College Teaching Hospital and Research Center. This study included various physical examinations, observation and survey of lesions, questionnaires in regard the debilitating orthopedic and medical effects of the disease, as well as treatment options. PMID:22666605

Samona, Jason; Samona, Scott; Samona, Cameron; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Shekhar, P.; Kubern, D.; Mohan Kumar, P. S.; Nassiri, Reza



Local Knowledge and Conservation of Seagrasses in the Tamil Nadu State of India  

PubMed Central

Local knowledge systems are not considered in the conservation of fragile seagrass marine ecosystems. In fact, little is known about the utility of seagrasses in local coastal communities. This is intriguing given that some local communities rely on seagrasses to sustain their livelihoods and have relocated their villages to areas with a rich diversity and abundance of seagrasses. The purpose of this study is to assist in conservation efforts regarding seagrasses through identifying Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) from local knowledge systems of seagrasses from 40 coastal communities along the eastern coast of India. We explore the assemblage of scientific and local traditional knowledge concerning the 1. classification of seagrasses (comparing scientific and traditional classification systems), 2. utility of seagrasses, 3. Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) of seagrasses, and 4. current conservation efforts for seagrass ecosystems. Our results indicate that local knowledge systems consist of a complex classification of seagrass diversity that considers the role of seagrasses in the marine ecosystem. This fine-scaled ethno-classification gives rise to five times the number of taxa (10 species = 50 local ethnotaxa), each with a unique role in the ecosystem and utility within coastal communities, including the use of seagrasses for medicine (e.g., treatment of heart conditions, seasickness, etc.), food (nutritious seeds), fertilizer (nutrient rich biomass) and livestock feed (goats and sheep). Local communities are concerned about the loss of seagrass diversity and have considerable local knowledge that is valuable for conservation and restoration plans. This study serves as a case study example of the depth and breadth of local knowledge systems for a particular ecosystem that is in peril. Key words: local health and nutrition, traditional ecological knowledge (TEK), conservation and natural resources management, consensus, ethnomedicine, ethnotaxa, cultural heritage PMID:22112297



Archaeomagnetic studies on some archaeological sites in Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new secular variation curve for the geomagnetic field intensity for the Tamil Nadu region, India, is obtained using bricks, potteries and tiles of known archaeological ages. The data were obtained with the aid of a large volume zero-field space and an improved version of the astatic magnetometer. The secular variation curve can be used with advantage for archaeological dating. The ages of the recent excavations in Tamil Nadu — Kodumanal, Darasuram, Erukkur and Auroville are established in this way.

Ramaswamy, K.; Duraiswamy, D.


Partners in Literacy. A Pilot Attitudinal Survey of Literacy Animators in Tamil Nadu, India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted of part-time instructors--called "animators"--who teach literacy in villages in Tamil Nadu, India. Three literacy programs were studied: a state-run program, a voluntary program, and a university-run program, all in rural areas. Structured interviews were conducted over several weeks with 52 animators to see how they saw…

Rogers, Alan, Ed.; And Others


Bureaucratic Activism and Radical School Change in Tamil Nadu, India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2007, Activity Based Learning (ABL), a child-centered, activity-based method of pedagogical practice, transformed classrooms in all of the over 37,000 primary-level government schools in Tamil Nadu, India. The large scale, rapid pace, and radical nature of educational change sets the ABL initiative apart from most school reform efforts.…

Niesz, Tricia; Krishnamurthy, Ramchandar



Innovations and Challenges in Reducing Maternal Mortality in Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Although India has made slow progress in reducing maternal mortality, progress in Tamil Nadu has been rapid. This case study documents how Tamil Nadu has taken initiatives to improve maternal health services leading to reduction in maternal morality from 380 in 1993 to 90 in 2007. Various initiatives include establishment of maternal death registration and audit, establishment and certification of comprehensive emergency obstetric and newborn-care centres, 24-hour x 7-day delivery services through posting of three staff nurses at the primary health centre level, and attracting medical officers to rural areas through incentives in terms of reserved seats in postgraduate studies and others. This is supported by the better management capacity at the state and district levels through dedicated public-health officers. Despite substantial progress, there is some scope for further improvement of quality of infrastructure and services. The paper draws out lessons for other states and countries in the region. PMID:19489416

Padmanaban, P.; Mavalankar, Dileep V.



Threat of heavy metal pollution in halophytic and mangrove plants of Tamil Nadu, India.  


Mangrove and halophytic plants occur along the coastal areas of Tamil Nadu, south India and these plants have been used in traditional medicine for centuries. Heavy metals are known to pose a potential threat to terrestrial and aquatic biota. However, little is known on the toxic levels of heavy metals found in mangrove and halophytic plants that are used in traditional medicine in India. To understand heavy metal toxicity, we investigated the bioconcentration factors (BCF) of heavy metals in leaves collected from eight mangroves and five halophytes in the protected Pichavaram mangrove forest reserve in Tamil Nadu State, south India. Data presented in this paper describe the impact of essential (Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and Zn) and non-essential/environmentally toxic trace metals (Hg, Pb and Sn) in mangrove and halophytic medicinal plants. The concentrations of Pb among 13 plant species were higher than the normal range of contamination reported for plants. The average concentration of Hg in the halophytic plants (0.43+/-0.37 microg/g) was seven times higher than mangrove plants (0.06+/-0.03 microg/g) and it indicated pollutants from industrial sources affecting halophytes more than mangroves. PMID:18086510

Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy; Chen, Fu-An; Hsu, Minna J



Suspended kinship and youth sociality in Tamil Nadu, India.  


This paper examines so-called fictive, or tropic, uses of cross-kin terms by college-going youth in Tamil Nadu, India. The paper shows how youth usages of cross-kin terms are motivated out of normative kinship practices, even as they decenter and suspend the semantic and pragmatic norms of such terms. Through such suspensions, forms of youth sociality and identity are performed. Such sociality and identity turn on the ability of tropes on cross-kin terms to distance their users from various hierarchies that youth associate with traditional adult respectability and propriety. At the same time, such practices inscribe new hierarchies of college year, region, class, and gender. The paper then turns to how such kinship appropriations and suspensions are linked to changing conceptions of kinship and practices of cross-kin marriage. The spread of such terms among college youth has gone along with a tendency among the upwardly mobile and urban to avoid using such terms within their kin groups and to avoid such marriages. The paper concludes with reflections on the interplay between normative and tropic kinship, arguing that focusing on the dialectics between kinship semantics and pragmatics, norm and trope, resolves certain impasses in the study of kinship. PMID:24991679

Nakassis, Constantine V



Antibacterial activity of some actinomycetes from Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Objective To isolate novel actinomycetes and to evaluate their antibacterial activity. Methods Three soil samples were collected from Vengodu (village) in Kanchipuram district, Tamil Nadu, India. Actinomycetes were isolated using serial dilution and plating method on actinomycetes isolation agar. Results Totally 35 isolates were obtained on the basis of colony characteristics on actinomycetes isolation agar. All the isolates were screened for antibacterial activity by cross streak method. Medium and optimization of day were done for the potent strains using Nathan's agar well diffusion method. Isolation of bioactive compounds from significant active isolates was done by using different media. The most active isolate VAS 10 was identified as Actinobacterium Loyola PBT VAS 10 (accession No. JF501398) using 16s rRNA sequence method. The hexane, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and butanol extracts of VAS 10 were tested against bacteria. The maximum antibacterial activity was observed in dichloromethane and ethyl acetate; maximum zones of inhibition were observed against Enterococcus durans. The rRNA secondary structure and the restriction sites of Actinobacterium Loyola VAS 10 were predicted using Genebee and NEBCutter online tools respectively. Conclusions The present study showed that among the isolated actinomycetes, Actinobacterium Loyola PBT VAS 10 (accession No. JF501398) showed good antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria. PMID:23593572

Kumar, Pachaiyappan Saravana; Raj, John Poonga Preetam; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu



Aquifer characteristics and its modeling around an industrial complex, Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu, India: A case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic pollution of shallow groundwater resources due to industrial activities is becoming a cause of concern in the east coastal belt of the state of Tamil Nadu, India. Integrated hydrogeological, geophysical and tracer studies were carried out in the coastal region encompassing an industrial complex. The objective has been to gain knowledge of aquifer characteristics, ascertaining groundwater movement and its flow direction, which would in turn reveal the possibility of contamination of groundwater regime and its better management. The results of multi-parameters and model study indicate that the velocity of groundwater flow ranges from 0.013 m/d to 0.22m/d in and around the industrial complex in upstream western part of the catchment and 0.026 m/d to 0.054m/d in the downstream eastern part, near the coast. These parameters are vital for the development of groundwater management scheme.

Mondal, N. C.; Singh, V. S.; Rangarajan, R.



Metal Contamination in Select Species of Birds in Nilgiris District, Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in metal contamination in six species of birds, namely the Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo), Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis), Little Egret (Egretta garzetta), Pond Heron (Ardeola grayii), Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) and Jungle Babbler (Turdoides striatus) in Nilgiris district, Tamil Nadu, India. The accumulation of heavy metals differed among the species studied. On an average,\\u000a Little Egret accumulated high concentrations of

R. Jayakumar; S. Muralidharan



Forest Dynamics in the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary deciduous forests in the Eastern Ghats (EG) of Tamil Nadu (TN) India have undergone many changes owing to various need-based forest managements, such as timber extraction for industry, railway sleepers, charcoal, and forest clearance for hydroelectric projects and agriculture, during preindependence and postindependence periods (i.e., from 1800 to 1980). The enactment of a forest conservation act during the 1980s changed the perception of forest managers from utilization to conservation. This study was taken up to assess the forests dynamics in the EG of TN spatially between 1990 and 2003 and nonspatially between 1900 and the 1980s. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Indian Remote Sensing satellite (IRS) 1D Linear Imaging and Self Scanning (LISS III) data were used to assess forests during 1990 and 2003, respectively. Field floristic survey and secondary data (such as published literature, floras, books, and forest working plans) were used to assess the forest dynamics in terms of forest type and species composition among the preindependence period, the postindependence period, and the present (i.e., before and after 1980). The satellite data analysis revealed a considerable amount of changes in all forest types during the 13 years. The comparison of species composition and forest types between the past and present revealed that need-based forest management along with anthropogenic activity have altered the primary deciduous forest in to secondary and postextraction secondary forests such as southern thorn and southern thorn scrub forests in the middle [400-900 m above mean sea level (MSL)] and lower slopes (<400 m MSL). However, the evergreen forests present at the upper slope (>900 m MSL) and plateau seemed not to be much affected by the forest management. The changes estimated by the satellite data processing in the major forest types such as evergreen, deciduous, southern thorn, and southern thorn scrub are really alarming because these changes have occurred after the implementation of a forest conservation act. The dependence of local people on forests for various purposes in this region is also considerably high, which might be a key factor for the changes in the forests. The results of this study not only provide an outlook on the present status of the forests and the change trends but also provide the basis for further studies on forests in the EG of TN.

Jayakumar, S.; Ramachandran, A.; Bhaskaran, G.; Heo, J.



Metamorphism of the Oddanchatram anorthosite, Tamil Nadu, South India  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Oddanchatram anorthosite is located in the Madurai District of Tamil Nadu, near the town of Palni. It is emplaced into a granulite facies terrain commonly presumed to have undergone its last regional metamorphism in the late Archean about 2600 m.y. The surrounding country rock consists of basic granulites, charnockites and metasedimentary rocks including quartzites, pelites and calc-silicates. The anorthosite is clearly intrusive into the country rock and contains many large inclusions of previously deformed basic granulite and quartzite within 100 meters of its contact. Both this intrusion and the nearby Kaduvar anorthosite show evidence of having been affected by later metamorphism and deformation.

Wiebe, R. A.; Janardhan, A. S.



Optimal pricing and investment in the electricity sector in Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Faulty pricing policies and inadequate investment in the power sector are responsible for the chronic power shortages that plague Tamil Nadu and the rest of India. Formulae for optimal pricing rules are derived for a social welfare maximizing Electricity Board which sells electricity that is used both as an intermediate, and as a final good. Because of distributional constraints, the optimal prices deviate systematically from marginal costs. Optimal relative price-marginal cost differentials are computed for Tamil Nadu, and are found to indicate a lower degree of subsidization than the prevailing prices. The rationalization of electricity tariffs would very likely increase the Board's revenues. The cost-effectiveness of nuclear power in India is examined by comparing actual data for the Madras Atomic Power Project and the Singrauli coal-fired thermal power station. The conventional (non-environmental) costs of power generation are compared at both market prices and shadow prices, calculated according to the UNIDO guidelines for project evaluation. Despite favorable assumptions for the costs of the nuclear plant, coal had a decided edge over nuclear in Tamil Nadu. Remarkably, the edge varied little when market prices are replaced by shadow prices in the computations. With regard to the environmental costs, far too much remains unknown. More research is therefore needed on the environmental impacts of both types of power generation before a final choice can be made.

Murthy, Ranganath Srinivas



Social Inclusion: Teachers as Facilitators in Peer Acceptance of Students with Disabilities in Regular Classrooms in Tamil Nadu, India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the impact of classroom teachers' attitudes towards inclusive education, teachers' self-efficacy and classroom practices on the social status of students with disabilities in inclusive classrooms in Tamil Nadu, India. Questionnaires, interviews and classroom observations were employed to gather data. The data analysis included…

David, Ruffina; Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa



Lead ingots from a shipwreck off Poompuhar, Tamil Nadu, East Coast of India: evidence for overseas trade and their significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various types of lead ingots have been reported from a number of shipwrecks from different parts of the world. In 1991 exploration of a wreck off Poompuhar, Tamil Nadu, East Coast of India, at a depth of 19m yielded a gun, rudder gudgeon, gunpowder boxes and a variety of lead ingots. The most significant ingots are those marked W: Blackett

Sila Tripati; G. Parthiban; K. H. Vora; Sundaresh; S. N. Bandodker



Costs Analysis of a Population Level Rabies Control Programme in Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

The study aimed to determine costs to the state government of implementing different interventions for controlling rabies among the entire human and animal populations of Tamil Nadu. This built upon an earlier assessment of Tamil Nadu's efforts to control rabies. Anti-rabies vaccines were made available at all health facilities. Costs were estimated for five different combinations of animal and human interventions using an activity-based costing approach from the provider perspective. Disease and population data were sourced from the state surveillance data, human census and livestock census. Program costs were extrapolated from official documents. All capital costs were depreciated to estimate annualized costs. All costs were inflated to 2012 Rupees. Sensitivity analysis was conducted across all major cost centres to assess their relative impact on program costs. It was found that the annual costs of providing Anti-rabies vaccine alone and in combination with Immunoglobulins was $0.7 million (Rs 36 million) and $2.2 million (Rs 119 million), respectively. For animal sector interventions, the annualised costs of rolling out surgical sterilisation-immunization, injectable immunization and oral immunizations were estimated to be $ 44 million (Rs 2,350 million), $23 million (Rs 1,230 million) and $ 11 million (Rs 590 million), respectively. Dog bite incidence, health systems coverage and cost of rabies biologicals were found to be important drivers of costs for human interventions. For the animal sector interventions, the size of dog catching team, dog population and vaccine costs were found to be driving the costs. Rabies control in Tamil Nadu seems a costly proposition the way it is currently structured. Policy makers in Tamil Nadu and other similar settings should consider the long-term financial sustainability before embarking upon a state or nation-wide rabies control programme. PMID:24587471

Abbas, Syed Shahid; Kakkar, Manish; Rogawski, Elizabeth Tacket



Costs analysis of a population level rabies control programme in Tamil Nadu, India.  


The study aimed to determine costs to the state government of implementing different interventions for controlling rabies among the entire human and animal populations of Tamil Nadu. This built upon an earlier assessment of Tamil Nadu's efforts to control rabies. Anti-rabies vaccines were made available at all health facilities. Costs were estimated for five different combinations of animal and human interventions using an activity-based costing approach from the provider perspective. Disease and population data were sourced from the state surveillance data, human census and livestock census. Program costs were extrapolated from official documents. All capital costs were depreciated to estimate annualized costs. All costs were inflated to 2012 Rupees. Sensitivity analysis was conducted across all major cost centres to assess their relative impact on program costs. It was found that the annual costs of providing Anti-rabies vaccine alone and in combination with Immunoglobulins was $0.7 million (Rs 36 million) and $2.2 million (Rs 119 million), respectively. For animal sector interventions, the annualised costs of rolling out surgical sterilisation-immunization, injectable immunization and oral immunizations were estimated to be $ 44 million (Rs 2,350 million), $23 million (Rs 1,230 million) and $ 11 million (Rs 590 million), respectively. Dog bite incidence, health systems coverage and cost of rabies biologicals were found to be important drivers of costs for human interventions. For the animal sector interventions, the size of dog catching team, dog population and vaccine costs were found to be driving the costs. Rabies control in Tamil Nadu seems a costly proposition the way it is currently structured. Policy makers in Tamil Nadu and other similar settings should consider the long-term financial sustainability before embarking upon a state or nation-wide rabies control programme. PMID:24587471

Abbas, Syed Shahid; Kakkar, Manish; Rogawski, Elizabeth Tacket



Physicochemical parameters and their sources in groundwater in the Thirupathur region, Tamil Nadu, South India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study reports physicochemical characteristics and their sources in groundwater in Thirupathur region in Tamil Nadu, India. For this purpose, groundwater samples were collected and analysed using standard methods. A wide seasonal variation was showed for the majority of the samples; higher concentration was observed in the pre-monsoon season. Concentration of fluoride was quite alarming in many locations. Groundwater is found to be dominated by Na+, Ca+, HCO3 and Cl-. Gibbs plot showed the dominance of rock-water interaction. Geology of the area in comparison with the results obtained in the chemical cross plots showed the dominance of silicate weathering, with a minor contribution from the cation exchange. Other processes such as evaporation dissolution of carbonate and gypsum were proved to be ineffective. However, dissolution of fluoride minerals present in the geological formation is the major source of fluoride in groundwater.

Sajil Kumar, P. J.; James, E. J.



Medico-botanical study of Yercaud hills in the eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India.  


The study reports medicinal plant survey was conceded in Yercaud hills ranges of Eastern Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. The study primarily based on field surveys conducted throughout the hills, where dwellers provided information on plant species used as medicine, plant parts used to prepare the remedies and ailments to which the remedies were prescribed. The study resulted about 48- plant species belonging to 45- genera and 29- families of medicinal plants related to folk medicine used by the local people. Among them the most common plants viz., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Cissus quadrangularis L., Gymnema sylvestre R. Br., Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br., Justisia adhatoda L., Ocimum sanctum L., Phyllanthes amarus Schum. & Thonn., Piper nigrum L., Solanum nigrum L., Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers, Tridax procumbens L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe which are used in their daily life to cure various ailments. PMID:22557438

Parthipan, M; Aravindhan, V; Rajendran, A



Metal contamination in select species of birds in Nilgiris district, Tamil Nadu, India.  


Variation in metal contamination in six species of birds, namely the Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo), Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis), Little Egret (Egretta garzetta), Pond Heron (Ardeola grayii), Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) and Jungle Babbler (Turdoides striatus) in Nilgiris district, Tamil Nadu, India. The accumulation of heavy metals differed among the species studied. On an average, Little Egret accumulated high concentrations of copper (53.31 ± 23.19 ppm) followed by Cattle Egret (16.27 ± 9.83 ppm) in liver. Of all the species, Jungle Babbler recorded the maximum concentrations (20.59 ± 9.07 ppm) in muscle. The Pond Heron recorded the maximum concentration (35.38 ± 11.14 ppm) in brain. On an average the maximum level was in the kidney of Common Myna (7.76 ± 1.80 ppm). PMID:21656294

Jayakumar, R; Muralidharan, S



Evolution of late Holocene coastal dunes in the Cauvery delta region of Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Widespread occurrences of coastal dunes are observed in the Cauvery delta region of Tamil Nadu in Vedaranniyam in the south east coast of India. These dunes were studied to establish the chronology of their formation and to understand their evolution using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating in combination with sedimentological studies (quartz grain surface morphology using scanning electron microscope, grain size and heavy mineral analysis). The study shows that on the south-east coast of India widespread periodic dune formation/reactivation has taken place during the late Holocene to very recent times due to a variety of reasons such as climatic variation and land use changes. The sand mobility index shows that the dunes in the area have been largely active during the past century in the southern part in Nagapattinam region and many of the crests were active in the northern Cauvery delta in Cuddalore region. The angularity and fresh appearance of sand in the inland dunes suggest a short distance of sand transport and a source proximal sand deposition was proposed for the dune formation. The study demonstrates the sensitivity of sand dunes on the south east coast of India to varying climatic conditions and changes in regional land use.

Alappat, L.; Frechen, M.; Ramesh, R.; Tsukamoto, S.; Srinivasalu, S.



The Emerging HIV Epidemic among Men Who have Sex with Men in Tamil Nadu, India: Geographic Diffusion and Bisexual Concurrency  

Microsoft Academic Search

In India, men who have sex with men (MSM) remain hidden because anal intercourse was criminalized and marriage socially required.\\u000a We characterize HIV\\/STI prevalence among MSM in Tamil Nadu. Eligible participants were recruited using respondent-driven sampling\\u000a in eight cities (n = 721). Median age was 28, 34% were married and 40% self-identified as homosexual. Median number of male partners in the\\u000a prior

Sunil Suhas Solomon; Aylur K. Srikrishnan; Frangiscos Sifakis; Shruti H. Mehta; Canjeevaram K. Vasudevan; Pachamuthu Balakrishnan; Kenneth H. Mayer; Suniti Solomon; David D. Celentano



Snakebite and Its Socio-Economic Impact on the Rural Population of Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Background Snakebite represents a significant health issue worldwide, affecting several million people each year with as many as 95,000 deaths. India is considered to be the country most affected, but much remains unknown about snakebite incidence in this country, its socio-economic impact and how snakebite management could be improved. Methods/Principal Findings We conducted a study within rural villages in Tamil Nadu, India, which combines a household survey (28,494 people) of snakebite incidence with a more detailed survey of victims in order to understand the health and socio-economic effects of the bite, the treatments obtained and their views about future improvements. Our survey suggests that snakebite incidence is higher than previously reported. 3.9% of those surveyed had suffered from snakebite and the number of deaths corresponds to 0.45% of the population. The socio-economic impact of this is very considerable in terms of the treatment costs and the long-term effects on the health and ability of survivors to work. To reduce this, the victims recommended improvements to the accessibility and affordability of antivenom treatment. Conclusions Snakebite has a considerable and disproportionate impact on rural populations, particularly in South Asia. This study provides an incentive for researchers and the public to work together to reduce the incidence and improve the outcomes for snake bite victims and their families. PMID:24278244

Vaiyapuri, Sakthivel; Vaiyapuri, Rajendran; Ashokan, Rajesh; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan; Nattamaisundar, Kameshwaran; Jeyaraj, Anburaj; Chandran, Viswanathan; Gajjeraman, Prabu; Baksh, M. Fazil; Gibbins, Jonathan M.; Hutchinson, E. Gail



Nocardiopsis sp. SD5: A potent feather degrading rare actinobacterium isolated from feather waste in Tamil Nadu, India.  


Feather waste, generated in large quantities as a byproduct of commercial poultry processing, is nearly pure keratin protein, and keratin in its native state is not degradable by common proteolytic enzymes. The aim of the study was to find a potent feather degrading actinobacteria from feather waste soil. Out of 91 actinobacterial isolates recorded from feather waste soil in Tiruchirappalli and Nammakkal District, Tamil Nadu, India, isolate SD5 was selected for characterization because it exhibited significant keratinolytic activity. On the basis of the phenotypic, biochemical characterization and 16S rRNA gene-sequencing studies, the isolate was identified as Nocardiopsis sp. SD5. Protease and keratinase activity of Nocardiopsis sp. SD5 were analyzed. The enzyme was more stable over the neutral pH and the temperature of 40 °C. The optimum temperature and pH for both proteolytic and keratinolytic activity was determined at 50 °C and pH 9, respectively. Enzyme inhibitors, detergents and chelator declined the enzyme activity with increasing concentration. Non denaturing poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis and zymogram elucidated the presence of 30 kda and 60 kda protease enzymes. These findings indicated that thermo alkaliphilic feather degrading strain Nocardiopsis sp. SD5 could be used to control the feather waste pollution and to convert keratin rich feather waste into useful feedstock for poultry industry. (© 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim). PMID:22914902

Saha, Subhasish; Dhanasekaran, D; Shanmugapriya, S; Latha, S



Services that Matter: An Overview of Childcare Services in Tamil Nadu. Monograph No. 7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph describes the strengths and weaknesses of child care services in the Tamil Nadu region of India and suggests directions for the future of child care. Section 1, "Introduction," discusses the role of the government in providing support for child development, highlighting achievements of the State of Tamil Nadu. Section 2,…

Shantha, E. V.


Insect resistance in tomato accessions and their hybrid derivatives in Tamil Nadu, India.  


Host plant resistance offers a viable alternative to the use of chemical insecticides for managing insects Infesting tomato. Hence, a study was carried out in Tamil Nadu, India during 1996 to 2004. An exhaustive germplasm comprising 321 tomato accessions including cultivars, wild lines, land races, tribal/native tomatoes was gathered from various sources and screened for resistance against the major pest namely fruit worm, Helicoverpa armigera Hubner (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera). In the field screening, larval population and fruit damage was evaluated while in the glasshouse, foliage and fruit damage was assessed and ten promising accessions were selected. Based on further laboratory studies on the various mechanisms and bases of resistance, four accessions namely, Varushanadu Local, Seijima Jeisei, Ac 238 and Roma were selected and subjected to intercrossing by conventional hybridization, which yielded three viable hybrids. The resistance potentials of these hybrids against the fruit worm, H. armigera, leaf caterpillar, Spodoptera litura Fab. Noctuldae: Lepidoptera), leaf miner, Liriomyza trifolii Blanchard (Agromyzidae: Diptera) and whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Aleyrodidae: Hemiptera) were probed both in the field and glasshouse along with their respective parents. The hybrids exerted lesser feeding and ovipositional preference and higher antibiotic effects on insect stages. The density of three types of non-glandular and two types of glandular trichomes and phenol content in the foliage, lycopene and ascorbic acid content in the fruits were the major factors of resistance. Based on these studies, Hybrid 3 (Ac 238 x Roma) and its derivatives were adjudged as potential accessions possessing insect tolerance. PMID:16628895

Selvanarayanan, V; Muthukumaran, N



Re-activating modern traditions of justice: mobilising around health in rural Tamil Nadu, South India.  


This paper uses empirical material from health activists in Tamil Nadu to show that the health discourses that enjoy the greatest continuity and reach in India are also those that presume a radical connection between the health of the individual body and mobilising for a more just social order. The forging of this tradition is traced back to early anti-colonial forms of mobilisation. The transmission of this tradition is then ethnographically traced through various organisations that relay a characteristic set of orientations of thought and action to new generations and groups. The freshness of the synthesis of the tradition effected by each activist is emphasised. Arguing along phenomenological lines, these capacities to synthesise and renew a tradition are located in the capacities of the body. By attending to the unique place of the body in human experience, we may be in a better position to also understand the way in which health discourses that are embedded within wider experiences of injustice are able to circulate with renewed affective force. PMID:24735236

Ram, Kalpana



Sedimentology of the December 26, 2004, Sumatra tsunami deposits in eastern India (Tamil Nadu) and Kenya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The December 26, 2004 Sumatra tsunami caused severe damage at the coasts of the Indian ocean. We report results of a sedimentological study of tsunami run-up parameters and the sediments laid down by the tsunami at the coast of Tamil Nadu, India, and between Malindi and Lamu, Kenya. In India, evidence of three tsunami waves is preserved on the beaches in the form of characteristic debris accumulations. We measured the maximum run-up distance at 580 m and the maximum run-up height at 4.85 m. Flow depth over land was at least 3.5 m. The tsunami deposited an up to 30 cm thick blanket of moderately well to well-sorted coarse and medium sand that overlies older beach deposits or soil with an erosional unconformity. The sand sheet thins inland without a decrease of grain-size. The deposits consist frequently of three layers. The lower one may be cross-bedded with foresets dipping landward and indicating deposition during run-up. The overlying two sand layers are graded or parallel-laminated without indicators of current directions. Thus, it remains undecided whether they formed during run-up or return flow. Thin dark laminae rich in heavy minerals frequently mark the contacts between successive layers. Benthic foraminifera indicate an entrainment of sediment by the tsunami from water depths less than ca. 30 m water depth. On the Indian shelf these depths are present at distances of up to 5 km from the coast. In Kenya only one wave is recorded, which attained a run-up height of 3 m at a run-up distance of ca. 35 m from the tidal water line at the time of the tsunami impact. Only one layer of fine sand was deposited by the tsunami. It consists predominantly of heavy minerals supplied to the sea by a nearby river. The sand layer thins landward with a minor decrease in grain-size. Benthic foraminifera indicate an entrainment of sediment by the tsunami from water depths less than ca. 30 m water depth, reaching down potentially to ca. 80 m. The presence of only one tsunami-related sediment layer in Kenya, but three in India, reflects the impact of only one wave at the coast of Kenya, as opposed to several in India. Grain-size distributions in the Indian and Kenyan deposits are mostly normal to slightly positively skewed and indicate that the detritus was entrained by the tsunami from well sorted pre-tsunami deposits in nearshore, swash zone and beach environments.

Bahlburg, Heinrich; Weiss, Robert



Regional Carbonate Alteration of the Crust by Mantle-Derived Magmatic Fluids, Tamil Nadu, South India'  

E-print Network

Regional Carbonate Alteration of the Crust by Mantle-Derived Magmatic Fluids, Tamil Nadu, South in northeastern Sudan. Such large-scale carbon- ated zones have also been recorded by Chadwick et al. (1985) along

Stern, Robert J.


Reproductive pattern, perinatal mortality, and sex preference in rural Tamil Nadu, south India: community based, cross sectional study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To study reproductive pattern and perinatal mortality in rural Tamil Nadu, South India. DESIGN: Community based, cross sectional questionnaire study of 30 randomly selected areas served by health subcentres. SETTING: Rural parts of Salem District, Tamil Nadu, South India. SUBJECTS: 1321 women and their offspring delivered in the 6 months before the interview. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of pregnancies, pregnancy outcome, spacing of pregnancies, sex of offspring, perinatal and neonatal mortality rates. RESULTS: 41% of the women (535) were primiparous; 7 women (0.5%) were grand multiparous (> 6 births). The women had a mean age of 22 years and a mean of 2.3 pregnancies and 1.8 live children. The sex ratio at birth of the index children was 107 boys per 100 girls. The stillbirth rate was 13.5/1000 births, the neonatal mortality rate was 35.3/1000, and the perinatal mortality rate was 42.0/1000. Girls had an excess neonatal mortality (rate ratio 3.42%; 95% confidence interval 1.68 to 6.98; this was most pronounced among girls born to multiparous women with no living sons (rate ratio 15.48 (2.04 to 177.73) v 1.87 (0.63 to 5.58) in multiparous women with at least one son alive). CONCLUSIONS: In this rural part of Tamil Nadu, women had a controlled reproductive pattern. The excess neonatal mortality among girls constitutes about one third of the perinatal mortality rate. It seems to be linked to a preference for sons and should therefore be addressed through a holistic societal approach rather than through specific healthcare measures. PMID:9169399

Nielsen, B. B.; Liljestrand, J.; Hedegaard, M.; Thilsted, S. H.; Joseph, A.



A weekly operational planning model for a run-off-the-river system: some simulation results from the Tambiraparani river, Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, a weekly operational planning model has been developed using a simulation technique for the Tambiraparani river system in Tamil Nadu, India. A planning model has been developed incorporating the important features of the existing operational policy. Paddy is the main crop cultivated in three seasons, although banana is cultivated to an appreciable extent, it has not

V. Jothiprakash; R. Mohandoss



Prevalence and Pattern of Alcohol Consumption using Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) in Rural Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Background: There is a paucity of information on prevalence and pattern of alcohol consumption in India. Aim: To assess the prevalence and pattern of alcohol consumption in a rural area of Tamil Nadu, India. Material and Methods: A community based, cross sectional study was conducted among 946 subjects who were aged 10 years and above, in rural Tamil Nadu, India. Data on alcohol use was collected by using ‘Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test‘ (AUDIT) scale. Data on pattern and associated factors like socio-demographic details, smoking, tobacco chewing and chronic diseases were collected by using a structured questionnaire. Statistical Analysis: Data was analysed by univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis and information was depicted in percentages or proportions. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Overall, the prevalence of alcohol use was found to be 9.4%. Prevalence was more among males (16.8%) as compared to that among females (1.3%). Mean age at initiation was 25.3 +9.0 years. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that middle age (15–44 years) (OR=3.56), male gender (OR=11.23), illiteracy (OR=6.16), lower education levels (OR=2.57) and smoking (OR=17.78) were independently associated with alcohol use. Among those who used alcohol, 29.2% (26) were possible hazardous drinkers, 33.7%(30) had a probable alcohol dependence and 56.2% (50) had experienced harmful effects, based on AUDIT item analysis. Conclusion: Prevalence of alcohol use is high, especially among males. Health educational interventions among those who are at a higher risk and management of alcohol dependent subjects, may help in reducing the burden of alcohol use in this area. PMID:24086861

Kumar S., Ganesh; K.C., Premarajan; L., Subitha; E., Suguna; Vinayagamoorthy; Kumar, Veera



Essentialism, Culture, and Beliefs About Gender Among the Aravanis of Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the gender beliefs of the Aravanis, a transgender community in Tamil Nadu. Gender transgression and gender transformation (attempts to change gender) tasks were used to examine the essentialist notions of the Aravanis' beliefs about gender. A total of 100 Aravanis participated in the study. In the gender transgression task the Aravanis endorsed

Ramaswami Mahalingam



Unpacking the psychiatric advance directive in low-resource settings: an exploratory qualitative study in Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Background Psychiatric advance directives, a tool to document preferences for care in advance of decisional incapacity, have been shown to benefit persons with mental illness in a number of countries through improving medication adherence, reducing symptoms from escalating in a crisis, accelerating recovery, and enhancing service user autonomy. While concepts such as autonomy are important in a number of high-income country settings, it remains unclear whether tools like psychiatric advance directives are suitable in a different context. The recent introduction of the psychiatric advance directive into draft legislation in India prompts the question as to how feasible psychiatric advance directives are in the Indian context. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility and utility of PADs in India, with a focus on the need for individual control over decision making and barriers to implementation, by exploring views of its central stakeholders, service users and carers. Methods Qualitative semi-structured interviews (n =?51) with clients (n =?39) and carers (n =?12) seeking mental health treatment at outpatient clinics in urban and rural settings provided by a non-profit organisation in Tamil Nadu, India. Results Clients engaged in a number of forms of decision-making (passive, active, and collaborative) depending on the situation and decision at hand, and had high levels of self-efficacy. Most clients and carers were unfamiliar with PADs, and while some clients felt it is important to have a say in treatment wishes, carers expressed concerns about service user capacity to make decisions. After completing PADs, clients reported an increase in self-efficacy and an increased desire to make decisions. Conclusions The introduction of psychiatric advance directives in India appears to be associated with positive outcomes for some service users, however, there is a need to better understand how this tool can be adapted to better suit the care context in India and hold meaning and value for service users to complete. PMID:24369909



Endoparasites in cattle nearby tribal areas of free-ranging protected areas of Tamil Nadu state.  


Fresh dung samples from cattle nearby and tribal areas of free-ranging regions, Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, Anamalai Tiger Reserve and forest divisions of Sathyamangalam-Erode of Tamil Nadu state were examined for identification of endoparasitic infection. A total of 50 dung samples were collected and examination of samples revealed the presence of eggs of Strongyle, Strongyloides sp., amphistomes, Toxocara sp. and oocysts of Eimeria sp. The risk of parasitic disease transmission from domestic livestock to wild populations was discussed. PMID:25320498

Vimalraj, P G; Jayathangaraj, M G; Sridhar, R; Senthilkumar, T M A; Latchumikanthan, A



Increasing condom use and declining STI prevalence in high-risk MSM and TGs: evaluation of a large-scale prevention program in Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Background This paper presents an evaluation of Avahan, a large scale HIV prevention program that was implemented using peer-mediated strategies, condom distribution and sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinical services among high-risk men who have sex with men (HR-MSM) and male to female transgender persons (TGs) in six high-prevalence state of Tamil Nadu, in southern India. Methods Two rounds of large scale cross-sectional bio-behavioural surveys among HR-MSM and TGs and routine program monitoring data were used to assess changes in program coverage, condom use and prevalence of STIs (including HIV) and their association to program exposure. Results The Avahan program for HR-MSM and TGs in Tamil Nadu was significantly scaled up and contacts by peer educators reached 77 percent of the estimated denominator by the end of the program’s fourth year. Exposure to the program increased between the two rounds of surveys for both HR-MSM (from 66 percent to 90 percent; AOR?=?4.6; p?Nadu achieved a high coverage, resulting in improved condom use by HR-MSM with their regular and commercial male partners. Declining STI prevalence and stable HIV prevalence reflect the positive effects of the prevention strategy. Outcomes from the program logic model indiacte the effectiveness of the program for HR-MSM and TGs in Tamil Nadu. PMID:24044766



Developing climate change scenarios for Tamil Nadu, India using MAGICC/SCENGEN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the projection of climate change scenarios under increased greenhouse gas emissions, using the results of atmospheric-ocean general circulation models in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 dataset. A score is given to every model based on global and regional performance. Four out of 20 general circulation models (GCMs) were selected based on skill in predicting observed annual temperature and precipitation conditions. The ensemble of these four models shows superiority over the individual model scores. These models were subjected to increases in future anthropogenic radiative forcings for constructing climate change scenarios. Future climate scenarios for Tamil Nadu were developed with MAGICC/SCENGEN software. Model results show both temperature and precipitation increases under increased greenhouse gas scenarios. Northeast and northwest parts of Tamil Nadu show a greater increase in temperature and precipitation. Seasonally, the maximum rise in temperature occurred during the MAM season, followed by DJF, JJA, and SON. Decreasing trends of precipitation were observed during DJF and MAM.

Jeganathan, Anushiya; Andimuthu, Ramachandran



A different type of medicine: women's experiences with ophthalmic diseases in rural and urban Tamil Nadu, India.  


I conducted a study to understand how urban and rural women conceptualized eye diseases in Tamil Nadu state(1). I chose to examine eye diseases because ailments such as cataracts, glaucoma, refractive error, and diabetic retinopathy rank among the most serious diseases of Indian women. I collected observational, survey, and interview data to compare women from rural and urban areas. In line with my expectations, rural women were more likely to rely upon non-medical means of treatment than their urban counterparts. Contrary to expectations, however, I found that urban and rural Tamil women's overall dependence on nonmedical means was not excessive. Based on the study's findings, it appears that both urban and rural women express a marked preference for both traditional and modern medical treatments - a phenomenon that is known as medical pluralism. Rural participants expressed a greater interest in medical pluralism than their urban counterparts. The results of the study lead me to believe that medical pluralism may be associated with the patient's geographic residence. I conclude this article with a discussion of the consequences of medical pluralism for women's health and overall societal development in Tamil Nadu. PMID:18389435

Subramanian, Keerthika Melissa



Origin of Cretaceous phosphorites from the onshore of Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cretaceous phosphorites from the onshore of Tamil Nadu have been investigated for their origin and compared with those in the offshore. Cretaceous phosphorites occur as light brown to yellowish brown or white nodules in Karai Shale of the Uttatur Group in the onshore Cauvery basin. Nodules exhibit phosphatic nucleus encrusted by a chalky shell of carbonate. The nucleus of the nodules consists of light and dark coloured laminae, phosphate peloids/coated grains and detrital particles interspersed between the laminae. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies reveal trapping and binding activity of microbial filaments. A mat structure with linearly arranged microbial filaments and hollow, cell-based coccoid cyanobacterial mat are present. Nodules contain abundant carbonate fluorapatite, followed by minor calcite, quartz and feldspar. The P2O5 content of the phosphorites ranges from 18 to 26%. The CaO/P2O5, Sr and F contents are higher than that of pure carbonate fluorapatite. Concentrations of Si, Al, K, Fe, and Ti are low. We suggest that the nuclei of the nodules represent phosphate clasts related to phosphate stromatolites formed at intertidal conditions. At high energy levels the microbial mats were disintegrated into phosphate clasts, coated with carbonate and then reworked into Karai Shale. On the other hand, Quaternary phosphorites occur as irregular to rounded, grey coloured phosphate clasts at water depths between 180 and 320m on the continental shelf of Tamil Nadu. They exhibit grain-supported texture. Despite Quaternary in age, they also resemble phosphate stromatolites of intertidal origin and reworked as phosphate clasts onto the shelf margin depressions. Benthic microbial mats probably supplied high phosphorus to the sediments. Availability of excess phosphorus seems to be a pre-requisite for the formation of phosphate stromatolites.

Purnachandra Rao, V.; Kessarkar, Pratima M.; Nagendra, R.; Babu, E. V. S. S. K.



Rb depletion in biotites and whole rocks across an amphibolite to granulite facies transition zone, Tamil Nadu, South India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relatively low concentrations of Rb and high K/Rb ratios are characteristic of many granulite facies terranes. This depletion in Rb has been attributed to both the removal of a partial melt and exchange with a metamorphic fluid phase. These models have been tested using Rb concentrations in biotites and whole rocks from intermediate and felsic gneisses collected along a traverse from just north of Krishnagiri to just north of Salem in Tamil Nadu State, South India. Along this traverse, the northern amphibolite-facies zone gives way to a clinopyroxene zone in which clinopyroxene appears in intermediate and felsic gneisses. Further south is the lowland charnockite zone characterised by the presence of orthopyroxene and the scarcity of clinopyroxene in intermediate to felsic gneisses. The abundance of orthopyroxene increases southwards and it is the dominant ferromagnesium silicate in the highland charnockite zone. There is a good correlation between Rb in biotite and whole-rock Rb in samples collected throughout the traverse. Intermediate and felsic gneisses in the northern portion of this traverse have relatively high modal abundances of biotite, low Ti concentrations in the biotites, high whole-rock Rb concentrations, low K/Rb ratios and high Rb concentrations within the biotites. Ti concentrations in the biotites increase southward into the clinopyroxene zone and then remain relatively constant. High K/Rb ratios first appear at the southern boundary of the clinopyroxene zone. In the lowland and highland charnockite zones, the majority of the rocks have relatively low Rb concentrations and high K/Rb ratios. Low Rb concentrations in biotites (at or near the detection limit of 65 ppm) first appear in the lowland charnockite zone and persist into the highland charnockite zone. A smaller group of rocks in the highland charnockite zone contain biotites with moderate Rb concentrations. Most of these rocks also contain anomalously high biotite concentrations and low K/Rb ratios. It is not possible to produce Rb-depleted rocks containing low-Rb biotites by simple, equilibrium, partial-melting models beginning with a rock with the average composition of the amphibolite-facies gneisses (70 ppm) and using distribution coefficients from the literature. It is possible to produce such Rb-depleted rocks if the melt is removed in batches; however, it requires large amounts of partial melting (>40%). Low-Rb biotites can be produced by both equilibrium and batch melting if the original rocks have low whole-rock concentrations of Rb (10-20 ppm) to begin with. Attempts to model Rb depletion by exchange with a metamorphic fluid phase are hampered by a general lack of experimentally determined mineral/fluid distribution coefficients. Recent, experimentally determined exchange coefficients between phlogopite and a (K,Rb)Cl-rich supercritical brine at high pressure and temperature indicate that it would require a fluid/rock mass ratio of approximately 0.125 to produce Rb-depleted rocks with low-Rb biotites by exchange with a KCl-rich fluid. Alternatively, biotites low in Rb may have formed shortly after the peak of metamorphism in the rocks after they were depleted in Rb but while they were still under relatively high-grade conditions.

Hansen, Edward; Ahmed, Khurram; Harlov, Daniel E.



Seasonal impact on beach morphology and the status of heavy mineral deposition - central Tamil Nadu coast, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the present research was to investigate the seasonal impact on nearshore beach dynamics and the status of heavy mineral distribution along central Tamil Nadu coast, India. Beach profile measurements were made in 10 profiling sites between Thirukadaiyur and Velankanni on monthly and seasonal basis from January 2011 to July 2012. Using beach profile data, variation in beach width, slope and volumetric changes have been calculated. Beach slope and nearshore wave parameters were used to quantify the longshore sediment transport rate. Beaches between Thirukadaiyur and Karaikkal attained predominant transport rate in northern direction whereas, the rest of the beaches are in southern direction. The seasonal action of wind and wave currents create nearshore bar during northeast (NE) monsoon and frequent berms at tidal zone during southwest (SW) monsoon. Surface sediment samples were collected in each location for quantifying the heavy mineral weight percentage during the period of pre- and post-Thane cyclone. Sediments were also studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to evaluate the changes and occurrence of heavy minerals in beach sands. The XRD results show that sediments in the study area have enriched heavy mineral distribution even after strong cyclonic event. It confirms the redistribution of heavy mineral deposits present in the coast. The results suggested that monsoonal action has influenced the seasonal changes in beach morphology and it does not affect the heavy mineral distribution.

Joevivek, V.; Chandrasekar, N.



Study on Entomological Surveillance and its Significance during a Dengue Outbreak in the District of Tirunelveli in Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Objectives To study the significance of entomological surveillance, the house index (HI), container index (CI), and Breteau index (BI) were determined to estimate the degree of a major dengue outbreak in Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu, India (Latitude: 8°42?N; Longitude: 77°42?E) in May 2012. Methods The HI, CI, and BI were determined in a primary health center (PHC) in the village of Maruthamputhur (Pappakudi taluk, Tirunelveli) by carrying out an antilarval (AL) work that involved door-to-door search for immature stages of Aedes spp. mosquitoes by trained field workers and volunteers. The work of field workers was evaluated by a junior and senior entomologist the following day. Results Before the AL work, the reported numbers of fever cases from Week 1 to 5 in Maruthamputhur were 211, 394, 244, 222, and 144 with two deaths. By contrast, after the AL work, these numbers were considerably reduced and there was no fever-related death (the HI was reduced from 48.2% to 1.6%, the CI from 28.6% to 0.4%, and the BI from 48.2 to 1.6). Conclusion Because no specific medicine and vaccines are available to treat dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever, entomological surveillance and its significance can be used to halt the outbreak of dengue as shown in this study. PMID:24159547

Basker, Parasuraman; Kannan, Pichai; Porkaipandian, Rajagopal Thirugnanasambandam; Saravanan, Sivsankaran; Sridharan, Subramaniam; Kadhiresan, Mahaligam



Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) of some tree species growing near rail roads of Madurai, Tamil Nadu (India).  


Biological monitoring and assessment studies due to urban--rail road pollutants were carried out using Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) of plants. Four plant (leaf) parameters--namely ascorbic acid, total chlorophyll, relative water content and leaf extract pH were combined together in a formulation signifying the APTI of plants. APTI was calculated for five different species such as Azadirachta indica, Delonix regia, Ficus religiosa, Pongamia pinnata and Polyalthia longifolia growing in two different areas, i.e. control area and along the railway track of Madurai, Tamil Nadu (India). The control site was selected in the college campus. None of the four plant parameters indicated a consistent response to pollutants. In the present study, Delonix regia and Pongamia pinnata lost the tolerance towards air pollutants and became more sensitive, but Azadirachta indica, Ficus religiosa, and Polyalthia longifolia indicated high APTI values over control area and hence considered as tolerant species. The APTI of plants showed a marked gradation as the pollutant load decreased from rail road to control area. The APTI can be used as a good indicator of impact of the air pollution on plants. PMID:22312796

Thambavani, D Sarala; Kamala, C



Medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Kancheepuram District of Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken to collect information from traditional healers on the use of medicinal plants in Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu during October 2003 to April 2004. The indigenous knowledge of local traditional healers and the native plants used for medicinal purposes were collected through questionnaire and personal interviews during field trips. The investigation revealed that, the traditional healers used 85 species of plants distributed in 76 genera belonging to 41 families to treat various diseases. The documented medicinal plants were mostly used to cure skin diseases, poison bites, stomachache and nervous disorders. In this study the most dominant family was Euphorbiaceae and leaves were most frequently used for the treatment of diseases. This study showed that many people in the studied parts of Kancheepuram district still continue to depend on medicinal plants at least for the treatment of primary healthcare. The traditional healers are dwindling in number and there is a grave danger of traditional knowledge disappearing soon since the younger generation is not interested to carry on this tradition. PMID:17026769

Muthu, Chellaiah; Ayyanar, Muniappan; Raja, Nagappan; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu



Evaluating influence of active tectonics on spatial distribution pattern of floods along eastern Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flooding is a naturally recurrent phenomenon that causes severe damage to lives and property. Predictions on flood-prone zones are made based on intensity-duration of rainfall, carrying capacity of drainage, and natural or man-made obstructions. Particularly, the lower part of the drainage system and its adjacent geomorphic landforms like floodplains and deltaic plains are considered for analysis, but stagnation in parts of basins that are far away from major riverine systems is less unveiled. Similarly, uncharacteristic flooding in the upper and middle parts of drainage, especially in zones of an anomalous drainage pattern, is also least understood. Even though topographic differences are attributed for such anomalous spatial occurrence of floods, its genetic cause has to be identified for effective management practice. Added to structural and lithological variations, tectonic movements too impart micro-scale terrain undulations. Because active tectonic movements are slow-occurring, long-term geological processes, its resultant topographical variations and drainage anomalies are least correlated with floods. The recent floods of Tamil Nadu also exhibit a unique distribution pattern emphasizing the role of tectonics over it. Hence a detailed geoinformatics-based analysis was carried out to envisage the relationship between spatial distribution of flood and active tectonic elements such as regional arches and deeps, block faults, and graben and drainage anomalies such as deflected drainage, compressed meander, and eyed drainages. The analysis reveals that micro-scale topographic highs and lows imparted by active tectonic movements and its further induced drainage anomalies have substantially controlled the distribution pattern of flood.

Selvakumar, R.; Ramasamy, SM.



Agency Perspectives on Transition to Participatory Forest Management: A Case Study From Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

India's Joint Forest Management (JFM) policy, in which government forest agencies and local communities jointly manage forests, has been touted as a successful strategy in helping both forests and people. Its efficacy in the field, however, is uneven. Although government forest departments are charged with implementing JFM, very little is known about their perspectives on this policy. Assessment of foresters'

Jagannadha Matta; Janaki Alavalapati; John Kerr; Evan Mercer



Geochemistry and petrogenesis of the Proterozoic dykes in Tamil nadu, southern India: another example of the Archaean lithospheric mantle source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Approximately 1650-Ma-old NW/SE and NE/SW-trending dolerite dykes in the Tiruvannamalai (TNM) area and approximately 1800-Ma-old NW/SE-trending dolerite dykes in the Dharmapuri (DP) area constitute major Proterozoic dyke swarms in the high-grade granulite region of Tamil nadu, southern India. The NW- and NE-trending TNM dykes are compositionally very similar and can be regarded as having been formed during a single magmatic episode. The DP dykes may relate to an earlier similar magmatic episode. The dolerites are Fe-rich tholeiites and most of the elemental variations can be explained in terms of fractional crystallisation. Clinopyroxene and olivine are the inferred ferromagnesian fractionation phases followed by plagioclase during the late fractionation stages. All the studied dykes have, similar to many continental flood basalts (CFB), large-ion lithophile element (LILE) and light rare-earth element (LREE) enrichment and Nb and Ta depletion. The incompatible element abundance patterns are comparable to the patterns of many other Proterozoic dykes in India and Antarctica, to the late Archaean ( 2.72 Ga) Dominion volcanics in South Africa and to the early Proterozoic ( 2.0 Ga) Scourie dykes of Scotland. The geochemical characteristics of the TNM and DP dykes cannot be explained by crustal contamination alone. Instead, they are consistent with derivation from an enriched lithospheric mantle source which appears to have been developed much earlier than the dyke intrusions during a major crustal building event in the Archaean. The dyke magmas may have been formed by dehydration melting induced by decompression and lithospheric attenuation or plume impingement at the base of the lithosphere. These magmas, compared with CFB, appear to be the minor partial melts from plume heads of smaller diameter and of shallow origin (650 km). Therefore, the Proterozoic thermal events could induce crustal attenuation and dyke intrusions in contrast to the extensive CFB volcanism and continental rifting generally associated with the Phanerozoic plumes of larger head diameter (>1000 km) and of deeper origin (at crust mantle boundary).

Radhakrishna, T.; Joseph, M.


The Effect of Community-Managed Palliative Care Program on Quality of Life in the Elderly in Rural Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Background: HelpAge India has been facilitating community-managed palliative care program in the villages of Tamil Nadu, India. Objective: To evaluate the effect of perceived quality of life in the elderly in the project villages in rural Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: It was a community-based evaluation study. Considering the mean difference of 0.6, design effect-2, precision-5%, power 80%, and 10% non-response, a sample size of 450 elderly persons (more than 60 years) was adequate. Sample was selected by two-stage cluster sampling. Tamil version of “WHO-Quality of Life-brief questionnaire” was used. Trained interviewers made house-to-house visits and obtained information by personally interviewing the subjects. Results: The mean score for perceived physical quality of life in the project area was (10.47 ± 1.80 SD) high than the mean score (10.17 ± 1.82 SD) in the control area (P = 0.013) and the mean score for psychological support (10.13 ± 2.25 SD) in project area was high than the mean score (9.8 ± 2.29 SD) in control area (P = 0.043). There was no effect on domain of social relationship and environment. Conclusions: In the project villages, the perceived physical quality of life and psychological support among elderly persons was significantly better than the control villages. PMID:23440252

Dongre, Amol R; Rajendran, Koonjangad P; Kumar, Suresh; Deshmukh, Pradeep R



Farmers’ markets in Tamil Nadu: increasing options for rural producers, improving access for urban consumers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the organization of farmers’ markets that the state government initiated in most of the towns and cities in Tamil Nadu, South India in 1999. Drawing on research conducted in three districts, it examines these markets’ impact on the most vulnerable stakeholder groups: on the production side, small and marginal farmers, with special attention to farming women; among

S Rengasamy; J Devavaram; T Marirajan; N Ramavel; K Rajadurai; M Karunanidhi; N Rajendra Prasad; A Erskine



Hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality assessment of Ranipet industrial area, Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the highly polluted areas in India located at Ranipet occupies around 200 tanneries and other small scale chemical industries. Partially treated industrial effluents combined with sewage and other wastes discharged on the surface cause severe groundwater pollution in the industrial belt. This poses a problem of supply of safe drinking water in the rural parts of the country. A study was carried out to assess the groundwater pollution and identify major variables affecting the groundwater quality in Ranipet industrial area. Twenty five wells were monitored during pre- and post-monsoon in 2008 and analyzed for the major physico-chemical variables. The water quality variables such as total dissolved solids (TDS), Iron (Fe2 + ), Hexavalent Chromium (Cr6 + ), at most of the sampling locations exceeded the ISI and WHO guideline levels for drinking water. Multivariate statistical techniques such as factor analysis were applied to identify the major factors (variables) corresponding to the different source of variation in groundwater quality. The water quality of groundwater is influenced by both anthropogenic and chemical weathering. The most serious pollution threat to groundwater is from TDS, Cr6 + and Fe2 + , which are associated with sewage and pollution of tannery waste. The study reveals that the groundwater quality changed due to anthropogenic and natural influences such as agricultural, natural weathering process.

Rao, G. Tamma; Rao, V. V. S. Gurunadha; Ranganathan, K.



Assessment of groundwater contamination from a hazardous dump site in Ranipet, Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tanneries located in an industrial development area of Ranipet (India) manufactured chromate chemicals during 1976-1996. A large quantity of associated hazardous solid wastes has been stacked about 5-m high above ground level, spread over 3.5 ha inside one of the factory premises. The study area receives an average annual rainfall of 1,100 mm. The granitic formation in the northern part of Palar River catchment has high infiltration rates and has resulted in fast migration of the contamination to the water table. Chromium levels in the groundwater were found up to 275 mg/l. The available hydrogeological, geophysical and groundwater quality data bases have been used to construct a groundwater flow and mass transport model for assessing the groundwater contamination and it has been calibrated for the next 30 years. The migration has been found to be very slow, with a groundwater velocity of 10 m/year. This is the first field-scale study of its kind in this industrial area. The findings are of relevance to addressing the groundwater pollution due to indiscriminate disposal practices of hazardous waste in areas located on the phreatic aquifer. Further, it has been reported that the untreated effluent discharge adjacent to the chromium dump site is most influential in the migration of contaminants.

Rao, G. Tamma; Rao, V. V. S. Gurunadha; Ranganathan, K.; Surinaidu, L.; Mahesh, J.; Ramesh, G.



FT-IR Spectroscopic Studies of Beach Rocks of South East Coast of Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mineral composition of a sedimentary rock is one of its most important attributes. The presence or absence of a given mineral may be a clue to the history of a rock. Beach rock is one of the types of sedimentary rock. Beach rock is a peculiar type of formation when compared to other types of rock formations. It is commonly found along the tropical and subtropical coasts. It needs intensive and extensive investigation on its formation. Beach rock samples were collected from a vast area extending from Rameswaram to Kanyakumari of South East coast of Tamilnadu, India and were subjected to i.r. studies. Qualitative analysis was carried out to determine the major and minor constituent minerals present in the samples, from the band positions or the locations of the different peaks. In addition to the band positions, the sharpness or diffuseness of bands is helpful in the identification of mineral components. The i.r. study on these beach rocks was found to be highly useful in identifying the various minerals in beach rocks.

Ravisankar, R.; Rajalakshmi, A.; Eswaran, P.; Thillaivelavan, K.; Anand, K. Vijay



Regional Disparities in Poverty and Education in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

India is a witness of regional disparities in many sphere of socio- economic development. On one side, world’s majority of new billionaires are in India and on the another side, India has majority of poor people. Like that, in development, the States like Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, and Gujrat are in the forefront and BIMURAO (Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh,

Marimuthu Sivakumar; M Vijay



Hydrogeochemical Modelling for Groundwater in Neyveli Aquifer, Tamil Nadu, India, Using PHREEQC: A Case Study  

SciTech Connect

Sophisticated geochemical models have been used to describe and predict the chemical behaviour of complex natural waters and also to protect the groundwater resources from future contamination. One such model is used to study the hydrogeochemical complexity in a mine area. Extraction of groundwater from the coastal aquifer has been in progress for decades to mine lignite in Neyveli. This extraction has developed a cone of depression around the mine site. This cone of depression is well established by the geochemical nature of groundwater in the region. 42 groundwater samples were collected in a definite pattern and they were analysed for major cations, anions and trace elements. The saturation index (SI) of the groundwater for carbonate, sulphate and silica minerals was studied and it has been correlated with the recharge and the discharge regions. The SI of alumino silicates has been used to decipher the stage of weathering. The SI{sub Gibbsite} - SI{sub K-feldspar} has been spatially distributed and the regions of discharge and recharge were identified. Then two flow paths A1 and A2 were identified and inverse modelling using PHREEQC were carried out to delineate the geochemical process that has taken place from recharge to discharge. The initial and final solutions in both the flow paths were correlated with the thermodynamic silicate stability diagrams of groundwater and it was found that the state of thermodynamic stability of the end solutions along the flow path were approaching similar states of equilibrium at the discharge.

Chidambaram, S.; Anandhan, P. [Annamalai University, Department of Earth Sciences (India); Prasanna, M. V., E-mail: [Curtin University, Department of Applied Geology, School of Engineering and Science (Malaysia); Ramanathan, AL. [Jawaharlal Nehru University, School of Environmental Sciences (India); Srinivasamoorthy, K. [Pondicherry University, Department of Earth Sciences, School of Physical, Chemical and Applied Sciences (India); Senthil Kumar, G. [HNB Garwhal University, Department of Geology (India)



Balancing Multiple Roles: Child Care Strategies of Women Working in the Unorganised Sector in Tamil Nadu. Research Report No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the fact that many women in the Tamil Nadu state of India were performing triple roles as mother, worker, and homemaker, this descriptive study attempted to provide information which would portray the real situation about the child care needs and strategies of women working in the state's unorganized sector. The objectives of the study…

Arulraj, M. R.; Samuel, S. Raja


Are learning strategies linked to academic performance among adolescents in two States in India? A tobit regression analysis.  


ABSTRACT. The results of the fourth cycle of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) revealed that an unacceptably large number of adolescent students in two states in India-Himachal Pradesh and Tamil Nadu-have failed to acquire basic skills in reading, mathematics, and science (Walker, 2011). Drawing on data from the PISA 2009 database and employing multivariate left-censored tobit regression as a data analytic strategy, the present study, therefore, examined whether or not the learning strategies-memorization, elaboration, and control strategies-of adolescent students in Himachal Pradesh (N = 1,616; Mean age = 15.81 years) and Tamil Nadu (N = 3,210; Mean age = 15.64 years) were linked to their performance on the PISA 2009 reading, mathematics, and science assessments. Tobit regression analyses, after accounting for student demographic characteristics, revealed that the self-reported use of control strategies was significantly positively associated with reading, mathematical, and scientific literacy of adolescents in Himachal Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. While the self-reported use of elaboration strategies was not significantly associated with reading literacy among adolescents in Himachal Pradesh and Tamil Nadu, it was significantly positively associated with mathematical literacy among adolescents in Himachal Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. Moreover, the self-reported use of elaboration strategies was significantly and positively linked to scientific literacy among adolescents in Himachal Pradesh alone. The self-reported use of memorization strategies was significantly negatively associated with reading, mathematical, and scientific literacy in Tamil Nadu, while it was significantly negatively associated with mathematical and scientific literacy alone in Himachal Pradesh. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25302590

Areepattamannil, Shaljan



Study on the Prevalence of Leptospirosis among Fever Cases Reported from Private Clinics in the Urban areas of Villupuram District, Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Objectives To know the prevalence of leptospirosis cases reported in private clinics among fever cases in Villupuram District, Tamil Nadu, India to know its real magnitude of the problem and to diagnose Leptospirosis among fever cases from differential diagnosis. Methods 1502 Blood serum samples collected from three urban towns namely Kallakurichi (Latitude: 11° 73? N; Longitude: 78° 97? E), Villupuram (Latitude: 11° 75? N; Longitude: 79° 92? E) and Thindivanam (Latitude: 12° 25? N; Longitude: 79° 65? E) in fifteen clinics based on case definition of leptospirosis delineated by the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP), Government of India. Samples were tested in the laboratory of the Zonal Entomological Team (ZET), Cuddalore with Macroscopic Slide Agglutination Test (MSAT) and Ig-M ELISA. Result There were 65 positive cases detected from 1502 blood serum samples in both MSAT and Ig-M ELISA. It could be known that there was 4% cases contributed from private clinics among fever cases. From this study, further it was known that all age groups of people affected irrespective of sexes based on their living condition associated with the environment prevailed of the disease. Conclusion From this study, it was quantified that 4% of cases reported in private clinics among fever cases and its findings ascertained both the importance of differential diagnosis as well as reports that should be included to the Government for knowing its real magnitude for planning. PMID:24955313

Basker, Parasuraman; Kannan, Pichai; Kolandaswamy, Karumana Gounder



Utilization of maternal health care services in South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we examine the patterns and determinants of maternal health care use across different social setting in south India: in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. We use data from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) carried out during 1992-93 across most states in India. The study focuses on most recent births to ever-married women

K. Navaneetham; A. Dharmalingam



Utilization of maternal health care services in Southern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the patterns and determinants of maternal health care utilization across different social settings in south India: in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Data from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) carried out during 1992–93 across most states in India are used. Results show that utilization of maternal health care services is highest

K. Navaneetham; A. Dharmalingam



Studies on radionuclides 228Ra, 238U, 228Th and 40K in selected seaweeds of coastal Tamil Nadu, India.  


Studies on natural and anthropogenic radioactivity assume greater importance in the context of human health and development. Hence two species of seaweeds viz: Gracilaria edulis and Ulva lactuca, from three high background radiation areas (Arockiapuram, Kadiapattinam and Kurumpanai) on the southwest coast of Tamil Nadu, and Mandapam as low background radiation area of the southeast coast of Tamil Nadu were studied for variations in activity concentration of 228Ra, 40K, 238U and 228Th. Among these radionuclides, 40K recorded significant inter-species variation while 238 U and 228Th showed significant association. The overall mean concentration of radionuclides was found high in G. edulis (5.31,57.49,36.05,356.55 Bq kg(-1) for 228Ra, 40K, 238U, 228Th respectively), while the mean concentrations for U. lactuca were 4.88, 42.35, 34.40,347.70 Bqkg(-1) for 228Ra, 40K, 238U, 228Th respectively. The mean concentration of radionuclides was uniformly found low during northeast monsoon season in both the seaweed species. PMID:23734458

Saroja, P Mary; Immanuel, G; Raj, G Allen Gnana; Selvan, K Esai



Distribution patterns of natural radioactivity and delineation of anomalous radioactive zones using in situ radiation observations in Southern Tamil Nadu, India.  


In situ radiation measurements in the beach sectors and adjacent hinterlands and along rivers in the interiors of southern peninsular India were carried out using a portable radiation survey meter. A very high intrinsic anomalous radioactivity >26microGy/h has been observed in the hinterlands within a fresh quarry and weathered boulders in the syenite rock body around Puttetti in the western Kanyakumari district of southern Tamil Nadu. Over the weathered hillocks in the hinterlands adjacent to the coast around Inayam, Kurumpanai and Midalam, the in situ radiation measurements have also exhibited high radioactivity ranging from 4 to 22microGy/h which is significantly higher than the radiation exposure rates (RER) observed along the beach sectors at various locations from Chavara to Tuticorin (1-14microGy/h). The observed radiation levels are presumably the highest concentration in southern India and it is the first time that such a high intrinsic radiogenic source in the hinterlands is reported in southwest coast of India. It is also observed based on the laboratory analysis of samples and in situ radiation data that the rivers/channels in this region contain insignificant level of radioactivity concentration and hence they do not contribute much to the placer deposits on the beaches. The placer deposits associated with significant RER (both in situ observations as well as laboratory estimates from samples) in the beach sectors from Kadiapattanam to Inayam are inferred to be derived through the country rocks/weathered hillocks in the immediate hinterlands. PMID:16904260

Singh, H N; Shanker, D; Neelakandan, V N; Singh, V P



Physico-chemical parameters of the SW and post NE monsoon (2009) seawater along the continental slope, Tamil Nadu, east coast of India, Bay of Bengal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations in sea water temperature, salinity, light intensity and availability of nutrients strongly influence the phytoplankton distribution that forms an important part of the coastal food chain. In this paper, we present the results of the physico-chemical parameters and nutrient concentrations in seawaters sampled during the 2009 South West (SW) and post North East (NE) monsoon periods along the continental shelf from Chennai to Nagapattinam, east coast, Tamil Nadu. This study was conducted to assess the status of the coastal biogeochemical environment and for this purpose, seawater samples were collected from the sea surface and also at varying depths (surface to 150 m depth) at six different locations. The nutrient analyses and the CTD data reveal a distinct variation with water depth along the continental slope and also the physico-chemical properties of seawater are not homogenous. The observed values of nutrients for the post NE monsoon period are low compared to the SW monsoon period. Contour plots indicate seasonal and spatial variations in physico-chemical parameters along the continental shelf of the east coast of India. The data suggests that during the 2009 SW monsoon period, a significant increase of freshwater input into the Bay of Bengal could have elevated nutrient concentration compared to that observed during the post 2009 NE monsoon.

Nisha, V.; Achyuthan, H.



Quality Matters! Understanding the Relationship between Quality of Early Childhood Education and Learning Competencies of Children: An Exploratory Study in Tamil Nadu. Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that few studies have examined the relationship between quality of early childhood education (ECE) programs in India and the impact of such programs on young children's learning competencies, this study explored the relationship between various components of programs in the southeastern Indian state of Tamil Nadu and other family and…

M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation, Madras (India).


Impact and Sustainability of E-Government Services in Developing Countries: Lessons Learned from Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

We find that the presence of village Internet facilities, offering government to citizen services, is positively associated with the rate at which the villagers obtain some of these services. In a study of a rural Internet project in India, we identify a positive correlation for two such Internet services: obtaining birth certificates for children and applications for old age pensions.

Rajendra Kumar; Michael L. Best



Time-zoning for the safe-guarding of capture fisheries: A closed season in Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A closed fishing season is arguably the most important fisheries regulation measure implemented by the government of India in the new millennium. Applied mainly to the inshore trawl fishing fleet, the planners’ intention was a safe-guarding of capture fisheries. This article, which is based on fieldwork in seven harbour locations, considers the socio-economic consequences of the closed fishing season for

M. Bavinck; L. de Klerk; D. van Dijk; J. V. Rothuizen; A. N. Blok; J. R. Bokhorst; E. K. van Haastrecht; T. J. C van de Loo; J. G. J. Quaedvlieg; J. Scholtens



Monsoon Harvests: Assessing the Impact of Rainwater Harvesting Ponds on Subsistence-Level Agriculture in the Gundar Basin, Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lack of consistent water availability for irrigated agriculture is recognized as one of the primary constraints to meeting the UN Millennium Development Goals to alleviate hunger, and in semi-arid landscapes such as those of southern India, which are characterized by high intra-annual variability in rainfall, provision of capabilities for seasonal storage is recognized to be one of the key strategies towards alleviating water scarcity problems and ensuring food security. Although the issue of increased storage can be addressed by centralized infrastructure projects such as large-scale irrigation systems and dams, an alternative is the "soft path" approach, in which existing large-scale projects are complemented by small-scale, decentralized solutions. Such a decentralized approach has been utilized in southern India for thousands of years in the form of village rainwater harvesting tanks or ponds, providing a local and inherently sustainable approach to providing sufficient water for rice cultivation. Over the last century, however, large-scale canal projects and groundwater pumping have replaced rainwater harvesting as the primary source of irrigation water. But with groundwater withdrawals now exceeding recharge in many areas and water tables continuing to drop, many NGOs and government agencies are advocating for a revival of the older rainwater harvesting systems. Questions remain, however, regarding the limits to which rainwater harvesting can provide a solution to decades of water overexploitation. In the present work, we have utilized secondary data sources to analyze the linkages between the tank irrigation systems and the village communities that depend on them within the Gundar Basin of southern Tamil Nadu. Combining socioeconomic data with information regarding climate, land use, groundwater depletion, and tank density, we have developed indicators of sustainability for these systems. Using these indicators, we have attempted to unravel the close coupling that exists between tanks, the village communities, and the natural landscape within which they are embedded. Preliminary results suggest that groundwater over-extraction is in many cases negatively impacting the ability of the rainwater harvesting ponds to provide a reliable water supply. In addition, while the social and economic benefits provided by these ponds reduce community vulnerability to variations in the region's yearly monsoons, there can be negative environmental impacts. Large-scale rainwater harvesting, similar to groundwater extraction, can change the overall water balance of a watershed, leading to a tradeoff of water availability between socioeconomic and ecosystem demands. Although traditional rainwater harvesting practices may appear to be more sustainable than the current high levels of groundwater pumping, the two practices carried out in tandem can increase water consumption even further, pushing the system closer to a threshold beyond which a profound crisis may loom.

Steiff, M.; Van Meter, K. J.; Basu, N. B.



Palaeomagnetic and rock magnetic study of charnockites from Tamil Nadu, India, and the ‘Ur’ protocontinent in Early Palaeoproterozoic times  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Palaeomagnetic and magnetomineralogical results are reported from charnockites in basement terrane at the eastern sector of the WSW-ENE granulite belt of South India. Magnetite is the dominant ferromagnet identified by rock magnetic and optical study; it is present in several phases including large homogeneous titanomagnetites and disseminated magnetite in microfractures linked to growth stages ranging from primary charnockite formation to uplift decompression and exhumation within the interval ˜2500-2100 Ma. Several components of magnetization are resolved by thermal demagnetization and summarized by four pole positions; in the northern (Pallavaram) sector these are P1 (33°N, 99°E, d p/d m = 8/9°) and P2 (79°N, 170°E, d p/d m = 3/6°), and in the southern (Vandallur) sector they are V1 (23°N, 116°E, d p/d m = 8/9°) and V2 (26°S, 136°E, d p/d m = 5/10°). These magnetizations are linked to uplift cooling of the basement and unblocking temperature spectra suggest acquisition sequences P1 ? P2 and V1 ? V2 in each case implying movement of the shield from higher to lower palaeolatitudes sometime between 2500 and 2100 Ma. Palaeomagnetic poles from the cratonic nuclei of Africa, Australia and India all identify motion from higher to lower palaeolatitudes in Early Palaeoproterozoic times, and this is dated ˜2400 and ˜2200 Ma in the former two shields. The corresponding apparent polar wander (APW) segments match the magnetization record within the charnockite basement terranes of southern India to yield a preliminary reconstruction of the 'Ur' protocontinent, the oldest surviving continental protolith with origins prior to 3000 Ma. Although subject to later relative movements these nuclei seem to have remained in proximity until the Mesozoic break-up of Gondwana.

Mondal, S.; Piper, J. D. A.; Hunt, L.; Bandyopadhyay, G.; Basu Mallik, S.



Macrobenthic communities of the Vellar Estuary in the Bay of Bengal in Tamil-Nadu in South India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The macrobenthic fauna and communities of the Vellar Estuary located at the southeast cost of India (11°30' N, 79°45' E) and the adjacent marine and river habitats are described on the basis of original data (70 samples over 10 transects). The fauna consists of 115 macrobenthic species and 79 species in estuarine habitats. We described 14 types of macrobenthic communities with different compositions of the dominant species. The leading ecological factors of the distribution of the communities are the salinity, depth, and bottom type. The Vellar estuary consists of two longitudinal zones of macrobenthos. The polyhalinic area is populated by the marine species, but it is related not to a salinity decrease but to the protection from waves and silt on the bottom in this area. The polyhalinic communities are most abundant in terms of the biomass and species richness. The mesohalinic area is inhabited by brackish water species and communities with low abundance. The sublittoral estuarine area is dominated by filter-feeders—the bivalves Crassostrea madrasensis, Meretrix casta, Modiolus metcalfei, and Scapharca inaequivalves—and the littoral zone is dominated by the gastropods Cerithidea cingulata, some crabs, and polychaetes. The ecosystem function of the Vellar estuary can be defined as a filter for the fine organic particles transported by the river.

Chertoprud, M. V.; Chertoprud, E. S.; Saravanakumar, A.; Thangaradjou, T.; Mazei, Yu. A.



Antibacterial activity of selected medicinal plants against multiple antibiotic resistant uropathogens: a study from Kolli Hills, Tamil Nadu, India.  


The increasing incidence of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens necessitates medicinal plants as an alternate therapy in restricting the resistant infectious organisms. In this primitive study, the antibiotic resistance of organisms isolated from urinary tract infected patients was evaluated using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) method and Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) index values, and the MAR values was also calculated for plant extracts. The 10 common medicinal plants collected from Kolli hills, Namakkal, south India were extracted using the chloroform, methanol, acetone, ethanol and saponification procedure. The efficacy of the extracts on the uropathogens was tested by agar disc diffusion method in order to analyse the inhibitory activity of plant extract on the organisms. Azadiracta indica A. Juss., Tinospora cordifolia (Wild.) and Euphorbia hirta Linn. exhibited high inhibitory activity against most of the 11 tested organisms followed by Cassia javanica Linn. and Phyllanthus niruri Linn. The maximum zone size of 46.3 mm was exhibited by methanol extract of P. niruri Linn. against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Asparagus racemosus Willd. and Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl had the least activity against resistant pathogens. Saponified lipids of most of the plants exhibited maximum antibacterial activity. Among the tested organisms, P. aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis were the most susceptible and Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter cloaceae, Citrobacter koseri, and Citrobacter freundii were the least inhibited by most of the extracts of medicinal plants. It is concluded that revised antibiotic policies and more importantly the development of herbal medicine as an alternative may be incorporated in urological practice. PMID:21986363

Narayanan, A S; Raja, S S S; Ponmurugan, K; Kandekar, S C; Natarajaseenivasan, K; Maripandi, A; Mandeel, Q A



Dem Assessment Derived from Close Range Photogrammetry: a Case Study from Kadavur Area, Karur District, Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Close-Range Photogrammetry is an accurate, cost effective technique of collecting measurements of real world objects and conditions, directly from photographs. Photogrammetry utilizes digital images to obtain accurate measurements and geometric data of the object or area of interest, in order to provide spatial information for Engineering design, spatial surveys or 3D modeling. The benefits of close-range Photogrammetry over other field procedures are purported to be: Increased accuracy; complete as-built information; reduced costs; reduced on-site time; and effective for small and large projects. The same basic principle of traditional Aerial Photogrammetry can be applied to stereoscopic pictures taken from lower altitudes or from the ground. Terrestrial, ground-based, and close-range are all descriptive terms that refer to photos taken with an object-to-camera distance less than 300m (1000 feet). (Matthews, N.A, 2008). Close range Photogrammetry is a technique for obtaining the geometric information (e.g. position, distance, size and shape) of any object in 3D space that was imaged on the two dimensional (2D) photos, (Wolf, P.R,, 2000) DEM Generation requires many processing and computation, such as camera calibration, stereo matching, editing, and interpolation. All the mentioned steps contribute to the quality of DEM. Image on close range Photogrammetry can be captured using three kind of camera: metric camera, semi-metric camera, and non-metric camera (Hanke, K.,, 2002). In this paper DEM quality assessed at Kadavur area, Karur district, Tamil Naudu, India using Close Range Photogrammetry technique, Commercial Digital Camera and Leica Photogrammetry Suite.

Anbarasan, S.; Sakthivel, R.



Zircon mineral trace element chemistry as a function of metamorphic grade along a traverse of lower Archean crust, Tamil Nadu, south India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trends in whole-rock and mineral chemistry are seen along a 95 km traverse of lower Archean granitic orthogneissic crust, in the Eastern Dharwar Craton, Tamil Nadu, south India (Hansen and Harlov 2007 J Petrol 48, 1641). Going from north (amphibolite facies) to south (granulite-facies) along the traverse, chemical trends include whole-rock depletion of Rb, Cs, Th, and U; enrichment in Ti and F with depletion in Fe and Mn in biotite and amphibole; increases in Al with decreases in Mn in orthopyroxene; and enrichment of fluorapatite in F coupled with depletion in Cl. In the northern most portion of the traverse the principal REE-bearing minerals are allanite and titanite. South of a clinopyroxene isograd, separating the granulite- and amphibolite-facies zones, monazite grains independent of fluorapatite are the major REE- and Th-bearing phase. Further south independent monazite is rare but Th-free monazite inclusions are common in fluorapatite. During prograde metamorphism, independent monazite was replaced by REE-rich fluorapatite in which the monazite inclusions later formed. The loss of independent monazite was accompanied by a loss of whole-rock Th and possibly a small depletion in LREE. Zircon grains along the traverse preserve domains of magmatic zoning with ages between ca. 2.70Ga and 2.55Ga, recording the emplacement of granitic protoliths. Magmatic zircon was modified during metamorphism in two distinct ways: (i) zircon along cracks, growth zones and margins is replaced by U-enriched zircon, commonly with abundant silicate inclusions; and (ii) grain margins are dissolved and overgrown by faceted rims of U and Th depleted zircon. Type (i) replacement textures are variably found in samples along the whole traverse, whereas type (ii) overgrowths appear near the clinopyroxene isograd and increase in proportion to the original protolith zircon southwards, such that most samples in the southern half of the traverse contain only minor remnants of protolith zircon relative to overgrowth zircon. Thorium and U contents of magmatic zircon do not have simple relationships to whole-rock Th-U-Zr contents, or to either type of metamorphic zircon. Instead, high U - low Th compositions of type (i) zircon may reflect equilibration with Th-bearing phases at amphibolite to lower granulite-facies conditions, whereas type (ii) low U - low Th overgrowths reflect whole-rock depletion in Th and U (but not Zr). Ages for type (ii) overgrowths cluster around 2.5Ga, similar to those obtained for identical zircon from the southern margin of the Eastern Dharwar Craton (Clark et al. 2009, Gondwana Res. 16, 27), whereas ages from type (i) zircon scatter towards protolith ages, consistent with partial resetting through recrystallisation of magmatic zircon. Whole-rock U-Th-Zr compositions are decoupled from magmatic zircon, and coupled with type (ii) overgrowths, demonstrating that chemical changes along the traverse were produced during metamorphism, rather than reflecting differences in the protoliths. Most mineralogical features along the traverse can be accounted for by progressive dehydration and oxidation reactions. Trace element depletion is best explained by the action of externally derived low-H2O activity brine migrating from a source at greater depth, possibly preceded or accompanied by partial melting.

Harlov, Daniel; Dunkley, Daniel; Hansen, Edward; Hokada, Tomokazu



Partners in Democracy: India and the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background on the historical connections between India and the United States and compares their political systems. Offers a number of learning activities designed to promote better understanding between India and the United States. (BSR)

Turkovich, Marilyn



Water governance in Gujarat state, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the groundwater and surface water situation in Gujarat State, India. Constant depletion of groundwater and rapid quality deterioration call for legislation to prevent over?exploitation, and adoption of a rational water pricing policy based on a volumetric system. In the case of surface water governance, enhancement of institutional capacity for managing resettlement and rehabilitation problems, a complementary role

Rajiv K. Gupta




Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT A complete and updated series on poverty measures for India is presented spanning the period 1951–1994. The series are presented at the all-India level as well as for 15 major states, and for rural and urban sectors separately. Key features of the evolution of poverty in India are described. CONTENTS

Gaurav Datt


Wind power technology diffusion analysis in selected states of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory of diffusion of innovation is used to study the growth of wind power technology in different states of India. Though the policies of the central government of India encouraged growth of the wind power sectors, individual states had varying policy measures which influenced the rates of diffusion in wind energy in different states. The state level data of

K. Usha Rao; V. V. N. Kishore



Consistent condom use with regular, paying, and casual male partners and associated factors among men who have sex with men in Tamil Nadu, India: findings from an assessment of a large-scale HIV prevention program  

PubMed Central

Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) are a marginalized population at high risk for HIV infection. Promoting consistent condom use (CCU) during anal sex is a key risk reduction strategy for HIV prevention among MSM. To inform effective HIV prevention interventions, we examined the factors associated with CCU among MSM with their regular, paying, and casual partners, as well as with all three types of partners combined. Methods Data for this analysis were from a large-scale bio-behavioural survey conducted during 2009–2010 in Tamil Nadu, India. MSM aged 18 years or older were recruited for the survey using time-location cluster sampling at cruising sites in four districts of Tamil Nadu. Binary logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association of CCU with selected socio-demographic characteristics and other contextual factors. Results Among 1618 MSM interviewed, CCU during anal sex with regular, paying, and a casual male partner was 45.3%, 50.8% and 57.9%, respectively. CCU with all three types of partners combined was 52.6%. Characteristics associated with increased odds for CCU with MSM having all three types of partners combined were frequent receptive anal sex acts with regular partners (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-4.65), fewer number of casual partners (AOR 3.41, 95% CI 1.50-7.73) and membership in a community-based organization (CBO) for MSM (AOR 3.54, 95% CI 1.62-7.74). CCU with regular partners was associated with membership in a CBO (AOR 1.96, 95% CI 1.23-3.11), whereas CCU with paying, and casual male partners was associated with perceived higher risk of acquiring HIV (AOR 1.92, 95% CI 1.22-3.01) and exposure to any HIV prevention intervention (AOR 3.62, 95% CI 1.31-10.0), respectively. Being aged 26 years or older, being in debt, and alcohol use were factors associated with inconsistent condom use across partner types. Conclusion HIV interventions among MSM need to promote CCU with all types (regular, paying, and causal) of male partners, and need to reach MSM across all age groups. In addition to enhancing interventions that focus on individual level risk reduction, it is important to undertake structural interventions that promote social acceptance of same-sex sexuality and address contextual barriers to condom use such as alcohol use. PMID:24020613



Rise of regions after reforms : late development strategies for the software industry in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, and Kerala in India  

E-print Network

Emergence of India as a major center in the world for software production since the early 1990s has been a remarkable success story of economic development. However, within the country, the growth in this industry has been ...

Kumar, Rajendra, 1967-



Pharmacy and self-report adherence measures to predict virological outcomes for patients on free antiretroviral therapy in Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Over 480,000 individuals receive free antiretroviral therapy (ART) in India yet data associating ART adherence with HIV viral load for populations exclusively receiving free ART are not available. Additionally estimates of adherence using pharmacy data on ART pick-up are not available for any population in India. After 12-months ART we found self-reported estimates of adherence were not associated with HIV viral load. Individuals with < 100% adherence using pharmacy data predicted HIV viral load, and estimates combining pharmacy data and self-report were also predictive. Pharmacy adherence measures proved a feasible method to estimate adherence in India and appear more predictive of virological outcomes than self-report. Predictive adherence measures identified in this study warrant further investigation in populations receiving free ART in India to allow for identification of individuals at risk of virological failure and in need of adherence support. PMID:23435750

McMahon, James H.; Manoharan, Anand; Wanke, Christine A.; Mammen, Shoba; Jose, Hepsibah; Malini, Thabeetha; Kadavanu, Tony; Jordan, Michael R.; Elliott, Julian H.; Lewin, Sharon R.; Mathai, Dilip



An environmental perspective of the post-tsunami scenario along the coast of Tamil Nadu, India: role of sand dunes and forests.  


An endeavor to feel the pulse of a coast devastated by a powerful oceanographic event is made. Results of field investigations along Tamil Nadu seaside revealed that the tsunami of December 2004 demolished dwellings within strips ranging from 6 to 132 m (average width, 41 m) from the dune, and flooded up to 862 m (average, 247 m) from the shore. The event damaged sand dunes, ripped dune vegetation, created new water bodies and shattered high value assets. Comparatively, casuarina forests performed remarkably. Uprooting of trees was exclusively restricted to a frontal strip ranging from 5 to 25 m (average width, 14 m) nearest to the shore where the maximum wave run-up was 6.5m above sea level. Sand dunes in general, and casuarina forests in particular, possess an innate capacity to dissipate powerful waves. This inference is supported by (a) negligible over wash along belts characterized by high dune complexes, (b) intact villages shielded by dense forests as well as sand dunes, and (c) maximum destruction of open beach front influenced by intense human activity. In this context, the coastal regulation zone (CRZ) Notification of 1991 offers sufficient scientific validity to be endorsed. However, post-tsunami ecosystem management initiatives lack a scientific basis. Therefore, a coastal hazards policy, that considers adaptation, dune restoration and forested buffer zones, is a sustainable long-term option for Indian coasts. PMID:17517466

Mascarenhas, Antonio; Jayakumar, Seelam



Analysis of Social Aspects of Migrant Labourers Living With HIV/AIDS Using Fuzzy Theory and Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps: With Special Reference to Rural Tamil Nadu in India  

E-print Network

This book has seven chapters. The first chapter is introductory in nature and it speaks about the migrant labourers. In chapter two we use Fuzzy Cognitive Maps to analyze the socio-economic problems of HIV/AIDS infected migrant labourers in rural areas of Tamil Nadu. In chapter three we analyze the role played by the government helping these migrant labourers with HIV/AIDS and factors of migration and their vulnerability in catching HIV/AIDS. For the first time Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps are used in the study of migrant labourers who have become HIV/AIDS victims. This study is done in Chapter IV. In chapter V we use Neutrosophic Relational Maps and we define some new neutrosophic tools like Combined Disjoint Block FRM, Combined Overlap NRM and linked NRM. We adopt these new techniques in the study and analysis of this problem. Chapter VI gives a very brief sketch of the life history of these 60 HIV/AIDS infected migrant labourers so that people from different social and cultural backgrounds follow our analysis. The last chapter gives suggestions and conclusions based on our study.

W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache



Sickle cell disease in Orissa State, India.  


A study of 131 patients with homozygous sickle cell (SS) disease in Orissa State, India, indicated that, compared with Jamaican patients, Indian patients have higher frequencies of alpha thalassaemia, higher fetal haemoglobin, total haemoglobin, and red cell counts, and lower mean cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin concentration, and reticulocyte counts. Indian patients have a greater frequency and later peak incidence of splenomegaly, and hypersplenism is common. Painful crises and dactylitis are not uncommon in Indian patients but chronic leg ulceration is rare. Homozygous sickle cell disease in Orissa is similar to that in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia and is very different from that in populations of West African origin. PMID:2430154

Kar, B C; Satapathy, R K; Kulozik, A E; Kulozik, M; Sirr, S; Serjeant, B E; Serjeant, G R





In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the exception of the 1977-79 period of Janta Party rule. Domestically, India has made much progress since independnece. A relatively sophisticated industrial base and a large pool of skilled labor have been created, but agriculture remains the crucial sector and supports 70% of the people. It contributes about 40% of gross national product (GNP). Only modest gains in per capita GNP have been achieved. Agricultural production has been increasing at an average annual rate of around 3%. Cotton and jute textile production continues to be the most important industry, but public sector firms in steel, heavy industry, and chemicals have become important since 1960. Supreme command of India's armed forces rests with the president but actual responsibility for national defense lies with the Cabinet Committee for Political Affairs. The US and India have aimed at cordial relations. The US is India's largest trading partner and has been an important source of foreign economic assistance. PMID:12178110



Selling Environmental Services - Challenges and Opportunities for Sustaining Local Resource Management: Lessons from Joint Forest Management Experience in Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community based forest resource management institutions, commonly known as Village Forest Committees (VFCs), are increasingly being established under Government of India's Joint Forest Management (JFM) policy all over the country to help restore the nation's degraded forests. The VFCs, besides having a direct and active role in protection and management of these forests, are entitled to various timber and other

Jagannadha Rao Matta; John Kerr


Study on quality of effluent discharge by the Tiruppur textile dyeing units and its impact on river Noyyal, Tamil Nadu (India).  


In Tiruppur, 729 textile dyeing units are under operation and these units generate 96.1 MLD of wastewater. The untreated effluent was discharged into the Noyyal River till 1997. After the issuance of directions by Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board (TNPCB) in 1997, these units have installed 8 common effluent treatment plants (CETP) consisting of physical, chemical and biological treatment units. Some of the units have installed individual ETP (IETP). The treated effluent was finally discharged into the river. The dyeing units use sodium chloride in the dyeing process for efficient fixing of dye in the fabric efficiently. This contributes high total dissolved solids (TDS) and chlorides in the effluent. CETPs and IETPs failed to meet discharge standards of TDS and chlorides and thereby significantly affected the river water quality. TDS level in the river water was in the range of 900 - 6600 mg/L, and chloride was in the range of 230 - 2700 mg/L. Orathupalayam dam is located across Noyyal river at 32 km down stream of Tiruppur. The pollutants carried by the river were accumulated in the dam. TDS in the dam water was in the range of 4250 - 7900 mg/L and chloride was in the range of 1600 - 2700 mg/L. The dam sediments contain heavy metals of chromium, copper, zinc and lead. In 2006, the High Court has directed the dyeing units to install zero liquid discharge (ZLD) plant and to stop discharging of effluent into the river. Accordingly, the industries have installed and commissioned the ZLD plant consisting of RO plant and reject management system in 2010. The effluent after secondary treatment from the CETP is further treated in RO plant. The RO permeate is reused by the member units. The RO reject is concentrated in multiple effect evaporator (MEE)/ mechanical vacuum re-compressor (MVR). The concentrate is crystallized and centrifuged to recover salt. The salt recovered is reused. The liquid separated from the centrifuge is sent to solar evaporation pan. The salt collected in the solar pan is bagged and stored in secure land fill facility. Thus, the discharge into the river is now stopped. However, the damage caused to the groundwater and soil contamination in the river basin is yet to be restored. PMID:22312804

Rajkumar, A Samuel; Nagan, S



The Downside of Patriarchal Benevolence: Ambivalence in Addressing Domestic Violence and SocioEconomic Considerations for Women of Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social values and status cause diverse obstacles for escaping abuse (e.g., belief in the sanctity of marriage vs. financial\\u000a necessity to stay for survival). India provides a unique opportunity to explore the interplay of status and corresponding\\u000a patriarchal values in relation to the incidence of domestic violence and how it is viewed, coped with, and psychologically\\u000a impacting native women. Sixty-four

Lauren L. Tichy; Judith V. Becker; Melissa M. Sisco



Genetic variation of coat protein gene among the isolates of Rice tungro spherical virus from tungro-endemic states of the India.  


Rice tungro disease, one of the major constraints to rice production in South and Southeast Asia, is caused by a combination of two viruses: Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV) and Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV). The present study was undertaken to determine the genetic variation of RTSV population present in tungro endemic states of Indian subcontinent. Phylogenetic analysis based on coat protein sequences showed distinct divergence of Indian RTSV isolates into two groups; one consisted isolates from Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh), Cuttack (Orissa), and Puducherry and another from West Bengal, Coimbatore (Tamil Nadu), and Kanyakumari (Tamil Nadu). The results obtained from phylogenetic study were further supported with the SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism), INDELs (insertion and deletion) and evolutionary distance analysis. In addition, sequence difference count matrix revealed 2-68 nucleotides differences among all the Indian RTSV isolates taken in this study. However, at the protein level these differences were not significant as revealed by Ka/Ks ratio calculation. Sequence identity at nucleotide and amino acid level was 92-100% and 97-100%, respectively, among Indian isolates of RTSV. Understanding of the population structure of RTSV from tungro endemic regions of India would potentially provide insights into the molecular diversification of this virus. PMID:22234819

Mangrauthia, Satendra K; Malathi, P; Agarwal, Surekha; Ramkumar, G; Krishnaveni, D; Neeraja, C N; Madhav, M Sheshu; Ladhalakshmi, D; Balachandran, S M; Viraktamath, B C



Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) studies of Campanian-Maastrichtian sediments of Ariyalur Group, Cauvery Basin, Tamil Nadu, India: An appraisal to Paleocurrent directions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oriented samples of sediments from Ariyalur Group, Cauvery Basin, south India, were studied for low field anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) measurements to unravel the magnetic fabrics and paleocurrent directions. The results of AMS parameters of the sediments indicate primary depositional fabrics for Sillakkudi, Ottakovil and Kallamedu sandstone formations and secondary fabric for Kallankurichchi limestone formation. The obtained low degree of anisotropy ( P j ), oblate shape AMS ellipsoid and distribution of maximum ( K 1) and minimum ( K 3) susceptibility axes on equal area projection confirm the primary sedimentary fabric for Sillakkudi, Ottakovil and Kallamedu Formations. In the case of ferruginous, lower arenaceous, Gryphaea limestone and upper arenaceous limestone beds of Kallankurichchi Formation have recorded more than one fabric. The observed AMS parameters like shape factor ( T) (prolate to oblate), q value and random distribution of minimum ( K 3) and maximum ( K 1) susceptibility axes are supported for secondary fabrics in Kallankurichchi Formation as a result of post-depositional processes. Based on petrographic studies, it can be established that K 1 AMS axis of biotite mineral could represent the flow direction. The established paleocurrent direction for Sillakkudi is NW-SE direction while Ottakovil and Kallamedu Formations recorded NE-SW direction. Overall the paleoflow directions observed for Ariyalur Group is NE-SW to NW-SE.

Papanna, G.; Venkateshwarlu, M.; Periasamy, V.; Nagendra, R.



Metabolic variations, antioxidant potential, and antiviral activity of different extracts of Eugenia singampattiana (an endangered medicinal plant used by Kani tribals, Tamil Nadu, India) leaf.  


Eugenia singampattiana is an endangered medicinal plant used by the Kani tribals of South India. The plant had been studied for its antioxidant, antitumor, antihyperlipidemic, and antidiabetic activity. But its primary and secondary metabolites profile and its antiviral properties were unknown, and so this study sought to identify this aspect in Eugenia singampattiana plant through different extraction methods along with their activities against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The GC-MS analysis revealed that 11 primary metabolites showed significant variations among the extracts. Except for fructose all other metabolites were high with water extract. Among 12 secondary metabolites showing variations, the levels of 4-hydroxy benzoic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, ferulic acid, coumaric acid, epigallocatechin gallate, quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol were high with methanol extract. Since the flavonoid content of methanol extracts was high, the antioxidant potential, such as ABTS, and phosphomolybdenum activity increased. The plants antiviral activity against PRRSV was for the first time confirmed and the results revealed that methanol 25?µg and 75 to 100?µg in case of water extracts revealed antiviral activity. PMID:25133179

John, K M Maria; Ayyanar, Muniappan; Jeeva, Subbiah; Suresh, Murugesan; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Kim, Doo Hwan



Chinese ELT students in India 59 Chinese ELT students in India  

E-print Network

Chinese ELT students in India 59 Chinese ELT students in India: Some reflections on the use of instructionist and learner-centred activities K. Meenakshi Vellore Institute of Technology, Tamil Nadu, India the language and hence many Chinese students opt to pursue their higher education in India or in any other

Chaudhuri, Sanjay


[India within World History.] Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997 (India).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents slide narration to accompany eight separate units on India to be used in World History classes or other areas across the curriculum. Units include: (1) "Religion: India's Diverse Temples and Sacred Places"; (2) "Styles of Dress: Shimla to Kerala"; (3) "Traditional Dance in India"; (4) "South India: Kerala & Tamil Nadu"; (5)…

Bragdon, Ann E.


78 FR 65290 - Request for Applicants for the Appointment to the United States-India CEO Forum  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...between the United States and India. The Committee will continue...Appointment to the United States-India CEO Forum'' (FR Doc. 2012-3158...United States and is currently doing business in both India and the United States. Each...



77 FR 7132 - Request for Applicants for the Appointment to the United States-India CEO Forum  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 in the United States and India. Each government will appoint...between the United States and India. The Committee will continue...United States and is currently doing business in both India and the United States. Each...



Specific pattern of persistent organochlorine residues in human breast milk from South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human breast milk samples collected from four locations in Tamil Nadu state, South India, were analyzed for understanding the levels of persistent organochlorines such as 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH (BHC)) isomers, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) compounds, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). On the basis of the overall concentrations of these compounds, ΣHCH (sum of α, β, γ, and δ isomers) levels were higher than the

Shinsuke Tanabe; Futoshi Gondaira; A. Ramesh; Ryo Tatsukawa; A. Subramanian; D. Mohan; P. Kumaran; V. K. Venugopalan



Population exposure to airborne thorium at the high natural radiation areas in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

High natural radiation areas in the coastal and peninsular India were studied for airborne thorium and resultant population exposure due to inhalation. Four locations covering three states viz., Ayiramthengu and Neendakara in Kerala, Kudiraimozhi in Tamil Nadu and Bhimilipatnam in Andhra Pradesh were investigated. External gamma radiation fields 1m above the monazite ore bodies ranged from 200 to 3000nGyh-1. Soil

A. C. Paul; P. M. B. Pillai; P. P. Haridasan; Sujatha Radhakrishnan; S. Krishnamony



ADVANCE COPY FOR DISCUSSION The India State Hunger Index: Comparisons Of Hunger Across States  

E-print Network

India’s GHI 2008 score is 23.7, which ranks it 66 th out of 88 countries. This indicates continued poor performance at reducing hunger in India. The India State Hunger Index (ISHI) 2008 was constructed in a similar fashion as the GHI 2008 to enable comparisons of states within India, and to compare Indian states to GHI 2008 scores and ranks for other countries. The ISHI 2008 score was estimated for 17 major states in India, covering more than 95 percent of the population of India. ISHI 2008 scores for Indian states range from 13.6 for Punjab to 30.9 for Madhya Pradesh, indicating substantial variability among states in India. Punjab is ranked 34 th when compared to the GHI 2008 country rankings, while Madhya Pradesh is ranked 82 nd. All 17 states have ISHI scores that are well above the “low ” and “moderate” hunger categories. Twelve of the 17 states fall into the “alarming ” category, and one ? ? Madhya Pradesh – into the “extremely alarming ” category. ISHI scores are closely aligned with poverty, but there is little association with state

Purnima Menon; Anil Deolalikar; Anjor Bhaskar



Water Management To Meet Challenges In Food Production ­ An Example From South India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Demands for food and water have been increasing with fast increasing population in many developing countries. Availability of water and fertile land, the two basic requirements for food production do not meet together in certain regions. In such regions, cooperation and efficient management practices can solve the problem to a good extend. The southern states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu of India are divided by the mountain chains, the Western Ghats the orography of which makes Kerala one among the heaviest rainfall region in the World itself and Tamil Nadu a scanty rainfall region. Kerala receives more than 300cm average annual rainfall, giving birth to a number of perennial rivers and other water bodies whereas Tamil Nadu receives rainfall less than100cm. Most of the rivers of Tamil Nadu are seasonal and it depends on interstate water transfer to face the permanent water shortage. Owing to the high density of population, peculiar topography and soil types, agricultural production in Kerala is quite inadequate and the State depends on neighbouring States, especially Tamil Nadu for rice and vegetables, but not willing to share water. According to the Constitution of India, control of rivers is by individual states and this often leads to transboundary water disputes that retard development activities. Around 80% of the rainfall of Kerala wastefully flows into the Sea, when there is acute water shortage in Tamil Nadu. All the rivers in Kerala originate in the Ghats and its steep slopes makes more water storage difficult. Cooperation among the States become essential for meeting the increasing needs in water and food. If some of the water from the catchments in Kerala is diverted into Tamil Nadu, and the States can do joint agriculture, it can meet the challenges due to increase in population and environmental changes and minimize unemployment problems. Water diversion to Tamil Naduwill reduce flood damage and soil erosion in Kerala. The existing socio-economic conditions in these States can be effectively utilised for the overall development. The present research paper is an assessment of the water and food situation in this region, in view of increasing needs associated with rise in population and change in environment. Detailed analysis of the water surpluses and deficiencies has been made using water balance model and suggestions for the better management have been presented.

Shadananan, K.


Broken People: Caste Violence Against India's "Untouchables"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Even though "the imposition of social disabilities on persons by reason of their birth in certain castes" was legally abolished under India's constitution in 1950, "untouchability" is still practiced today in much of rural India. The "untouchable" caste -- or Dalits, which literally means "broken people" -- comprises over one-sixth of India's population, or 160 million people. This 310-page report, recently issued by Human Rights Watch (HRW), documents the discrimination and violence suffered by Dalits under the societal rule of higher-caste groups in the Indian states of Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Gujarat. The report also examines the government's role in preserving the status quo by thwarting peaceful social activism and failing to abolish exploitative labor practices through appropriate legislation.



Microsoft Academic Search

The 'discovery' of torture and its prevalence in the extraction of confessions produced a dilemma for the colonial state in India. Especially with the publication of the two-volume Report of the Commissioners for the Investigation of Alleged Cases of Torture in the Madras Presidency in 1855, colonial administrators became uncomfortably aware of the contrived nature of the 'truth' produced before

Anupama Rao




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This text examines India's rich and long history, then uses this perspective to focus on present day problems and aspirations. It forces students to reevaluate their stereotyped images of India by presenting a nation that has striven to recover from a past of colonial domination, is presently faced with regional ethnic discord and disparity, and…

Semaan, Leslie


Health Beliefs of College Students Born in the United States, China, and India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors surveyed 243 urban public university students who were born in the United States, China, and India to compare the health beliefs of the China-born, India-born, and US-born students. Although the China- and India-born students shared beliefs in many preventive and therapeutic practices of Western medicine with the US-born students, they…

Rothstein, William G.; Rajapaksa, Sushama



Growth and productivity performance of small manufacturing enterprises (SMEs) : Insights from major states in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the performance of small manufacturing enterprises (SMEs) in India during the pre-reforms (prior to 1991) and reforms period (1991 onwards) with focus on 15 major states from different levels of development. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In order to capture variation across different categories of states, 15 major states in India have been

S. N. Rajesh Raj; Mihir K. Mahapatra



Village Forest Councils: Emerging rural institutions in Tamilnadu state of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tamilnadu, a southern state of India, has embarked upon a community involvement process to restock its forests through an Indian version of community forestry called Joint Forest Management. Tamilnadu Forestry Project, funded for US$200 million by the Japan Bank for International Cooperation was launched in 1997-1998 in this state of India and has evolved into a comprehensive poverty alleviation programme

K. K. Kaushal



Rural women and irrigation: Patriarchy, class, and the modernizing state in South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irrigation is the major strategy used by ‘'modernizing'’ states in India and throughout the Third World to raise agricultural productivity and surpluses. This paper shows that irrigation is not gender?neutral, focusing on how canal irrigation affects women's work and lives in Andhra Pradesh, India. First, it delineates the particular consequences for women of state?sponsored irrigation. It then focuses on transformations

Priti Ramamurthy



India's archive of past massive erosional events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami event devastated a number of major coastal regions in South Asia, including the Tamil Nadu coast of India. In many areas on the east coast of India, distinct deposits of tsunami sands drape the landscape and overlie the muddy deposits of the coastal plain. Using erosional, as well as depositional features of the 2004 tsunami as proxy for past events, we present new subsurface evidence of past erosional events along the south-east coast of India.

Nair, R. R.



Cultural Variations in Sex Typing: A Comparison of Students in the United States, Germany, and India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a study of sex typing or adherence to defined sex roles in three different cultures: India, Germany, and the United States. Reports less sex typing in India than either Western "modern" society. Concludes that cultural traditionalism and rigidity in sex typing may not necessarily vary together. (DK)

Murphy-Berman, Virginia A.; And Others



Tourism and Forest Management in India: The Role of the State in Limiting Tourism Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the intersection of tourism and forest management in India. It is demonstrated that there are major conflicts between the Ministry of Tourism and Culture and the Ministry of Environment and Forests at both discursive and material levels. The network of power relations between and within tourism and forestry as distinct parts of the state apparatus in India

Kevin Hannam



Subsurface Images Shed Light on Past Tsunamis in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caused massive devastation and left a lasting impact along many of the major coastal regions in South Asia, including the coast of Tamil Nadu, a state in the southeastern tip of India. Following the event, sand deposits draped the low-lying areas and buried the muddy sediments of the coastal plain [Babu et al., 2007; Srinivasalu et al., 2007]. In addition, erosional features related to the tsunami, such as channels and scarps, have been observed along many parts of the coast (Figure 1a). This tsunami, along with a recorded history of intense monsoons, has highlighted the need for focused research on the role of extreme events in shaping the geological character of India's coastal plains.

Nair, Rajesh R.; Buynevich, Ilya; Goble, Ronald J.; Srinivasan, P.; Murthy, S. G. N.; Kandpal, S. C.; Lakshmi, C. S. Vijaya; Trivedi, D.



Jasminum sambac flower absolutes from India and China--geographic variations.  


Seven Jasminum sambac flower absolutes from different locations in the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu were analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Focus was placed on 41 key ingredients to investigate geographic variations in this species. These seven absolutes were compared with an Indian bud absolute and commercially available J. sambac flower absolutes from India and China. All absolutes showed broad variations for the 10 main ingredients between 8% and 96%. In addition, the odor of Indian and Chinese J. sambac flower absolutes were assessed. PMID:22799098

Braun, Norbert A; Sim, Sherina



Clinical characteristics of Mooren's ulcer in South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To describe the clinical characteristics at presentation of a large cohort of patients with Mooren's ulcer in South India. Methods: The medical records of patients with Mooren's ulcer examined in the cornea clinic at Aravind Eye Hospital Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India, over a 10-year period were reviewed in this retrospective observational case series. Results: The cohort contained 242 eyes

Muthaiah Srinivasan; Michael E Zegans; Joseph R Zelefsky; Arunava Kundu; Thomas Lietman; John P Whitcher; Emmett T Cunningham Jr


Scaling up Primary Education Services in Rural Tamil Nadu: Public Investment Requirements and Reform  

E-print Network

questions in this paper: 1) In terms of state-wide scaling up of rural services in the area of primary1 Scaling up Primary Education Services in Rural Tamil Nadu: Public Investment Requirements and Special Advisor to the United Nations Secretary General, Ban Ki Moon. Nirupam Bajpai presented this paper


Movement Actors in the Education Bureaucracy: The Figured World of Activity Based Learning in Tamil Nadu  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tamil Nadu has gained international recognition for reforming its government school classrooms into active, child-centered learning environments. Our exploration of the history of the Activity Based Learning movement suggests that this reform was achieved by social movement actors serving in and through the state's administration.…

Niesz, Tricia; Krishnamurthy, Ramchandar



Mending the seams of an Urban Patchwork Quilt : achieving an 'Ordered Chaos' in temple towns of Southern India  

E-print Network

Historically rich and culturally vibrant, the city of Mylapore (located in Tamil Nadu) is a prominent temple town of Southern India, in which the Kapaleeshwarar Temple is treasured. The analysis of this town, in relation ...

Rajaraman, Harini S



Issues and Challenges in Geomatics Education in Haryana State, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Haryana, the beginning of Geomatics may be traced back to the establishment of Haryana State Remote Sensing Application Centre (HARSAC) now renamed as Haryana Space Application Centre at Hisar under the aegis of Department of Science and Technology, Govt. of Haryana with the active support from Department of Space, Govt. of India in 1986. Though, Gurgaon has developed as Geomatics hub housing many national and international collaborators but mostly involved in RS& GIS applications and rarely as a training centre. Looking to the needs of the trained manpower in Geomatics, PG diploma course in remote sensing and GIS was started by MDU, Rohtak in 2005 followed by CRM, Jat College Hisar in 2007. GJU, Hisar came up with M. Tech. degree in Geoinformatics in collaboration with HARSAC, Hisar two years before i.e. in 2009. MDU, Rohtak has also come up the M. Tech. programme in Geoinformatics this year. The Geo-sciences disciplines including the department of Geophysics, Geology, Geography and Environmental Sciences in different universities in Haryana are also having a compulsory paper on RS, GIS and GPS emphasizing more on the fundamentals and applications specifically in their specific domains. The Department of Geophysics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra has also established Geoinformatics lab with funding from UGC to cater the training needs in this sector. The present paper discusses critical issues related to the present status, grey areas and future scenario of Geomatics education in Haryana.

Chaudhary, B. S.



Economic Policy and State Owned Enterprises: Evolution Towards Privatisation in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper endeavours to look into the evolution of the role of the state and move towards privatisation in India. It starts with a discussion on the role of State intervention in the economic development within the contours of socio-economic and political circumstances. It recognises the fact that different scholars have advocated various ways through which state can intervene in

Madhu Bala; State Intervention



Television Studies in India: The State of the Art.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents the history of television research in India and reviews related studies conducted during three different time-spans. Part one discusses research done prior to 1975, which concentrated primarily on the evaluation of the effectiveness of television as a medium of instruction both in elementary and secondary schools and for…

Agrawal, Binod C.


Hot springs and the geothermal energy potential of Jammu & Kashmir State, N.W. Himalaya, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

India has an estimated geothermal power potential of 10,600 MWe, but this potential is entirely undeveloped at present. The 'Geothermal Atlas of India' prepared by the Geological Survey of India (GSI) in 1991 describes some 340 hot spring sites and identifies more than 300 sites with geothermal potential in at least seven key geothermal provinces throughout India. There are more than 20 hot spring sites in Jammu & Kashmir State, mainly in the Chenab Valley in the Lesser/Central Himalaya, the Kashmir Valley and in the High Himalaya region of Ladakh. At least three localities in the Ladakh region - Chamuthang and Puga in the Indus valley and Panamik in the Nubra Valley - are considered to have geothermal power generation potential of between 3 and > 20 MWe.

Craig, J.; Absar, A.; Bhat, G.; Cadel, G.; Hafiz, M.; Hakhoo, N.; Kashkari, R.; Moore, J.; Ricchiuto, T. E.; Thurow, J.; Thusu, B.



Acceptance of HIV1 education & voluntary counselling\\/testing by & seroprevalence of HIV1 among, pregnant women in rural south India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & objectives: Since the first report of HIV-1 infection in Tamil Nadu, India, HIV-1 seroprevalence in India has increased steadily. Though interventions to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) are available, their implementation is a significant challenge. Therefore, among pregnant women in rural Tamil Nadu, the acceptance of education regarding HIV-1 infection and transmission and, among a systematic sample, knowledge, attitudes,

N. M. Samuel; P. Srijayanth; S. Dharmarajan; J. Bethel; H. Van Hook; M. Jacob; V. Junankar; J. Chamberlin; D. Collins; J. S. Read



Enabling Efficient, Responsive, and Resilient Buildings: Collaboration Between the United States and India  

SciTech Connect

The United States and India have among the largest economies in the world, and they continue to work together to address current and future challenges in reliable electricity supply. The acceleration to efficient, grid-responsive, resilient buildings represents a key energy security objective for federal and state agencies in both countries. The weaknesses in the Indian grid system were manifest in 2012, in the country’s worst blackout, which jeopardized the lives of half of India’s 1.2 billion people. While both countries are investing significantly in power sector reform, India, by virtue of its colossal growth rate in commercial energy intensity and commercial floor space, is better placed than the United States to integrate and test state-of-art Smart Grid technologies in its future grid-responsive commercial buildings. This paper presents a roadmap of technical collaboration between the research organizations, and public-private stakeholders in both countries to accelerate the building-to-grid integration through pilot studies in India.

Basu, Chandrayee; Ghatikar, Girish



Data Envelopment Analysis of State and District Cooperative Banks in India: Exploratory Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of 30 State Cooperative Banks (SCBs) and 20 District Central Cooperative Banks (DCCBs) in India are examined during the period 2002-06. By using direct empirical method, the performance of SCBs and DCCBs is discussed. The self-efficiency of each SCB and DCCB in each state is measured using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The SCBs and DCCBs are peered into

N Ganesan



Multiple personality in India: comparison with hysterical possession state.  


This article reports probably the first case of multiple personality from India and compares and contrasts it with the hysterical possession syndrome. Attention is drawn to the apparent rarity of multiple personality in contrast to the great prevalence of the possession syndrome in India (and other underdeveloped societies), while the reverse applies to Western Europe and North America. It is postulated that the disparity of frequency between the two manifestations of personal-identity disturbance derives from certain basic cultural differences. It is argued that polytheism and belief in reincarnation and spirits may be related to the possession syndrome, whereas high social approval of deliberate role-playing may foster the multiple personality syndrome. PMID:7258407

Varma, V K; Bouri, M; Wig, N N



State of offsite construction in India-Drivers and barriers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid growth of the construction industry in India has influenced key players in the industry to adopt alternative technologies addressing time, cost and quality. The rising demand in housing, infrastructure and other facilities have further highlighted the need for the construction industry to look at adopting alternate building technologies. Offsite construction has evolved as a panacea to dealing with the under-supply and poor quality in the current age construction industry. Several offsite techniques have been adopted by the construction sector. Although, different forms of offsite techniques have been around for a while but their uptake has been low in the Indian context. This paper presents the perceptions about offsite construction in India and highlights some of the barriers and drivers facing the Indian construction industry. The data was gathered through a survey of 17 high level managers from some of the largest stakeholder organizations of the construction sector in India. The influence of time and cost has been highlighted as a major factor fuelling the adoption of offsite construction. However, the influence of current planning systems and the need for a paradigm shift are some of the prominent barriers towards the adoption of offsite techniques.

Arif, M.; Bendi, D.; Sawhney, A.; Iyer, K. C.



Inconsistent condom use by male clients during anal intercourse with occasional and regular female sex workers (FSWs): survey findings from southern states of India  

PubMed Central

Objectives Self-reported anal intercourse by female sex workers (FSWs) documented in recent studies from India range between 11.9% and 22%. However, comparable data on anal intercourse and condom use from male clients of FSWs is lacking. Using data from a bio-behavioural survey (2009–2010), we examined prevalence of anal intercourse, male clients’ self-reported inconsistent condom use during anal intercourse with FSWs, and correlates of this behaviour in India's high HIV prevalence southern states (Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu combined). Methods Using two-stage time location cluster sampling, we recruited 4803 clients of FSWs, ages 18–60?years, who had purchased sex from an FSW in the past month. After obtaining informed consent, respondents were interviewed and tested for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (syphilis, gonorrhoea and chlamydia). Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with inconsistent condom use during anal intercourse (in the past 6?months) with FSWs. Results Overall, 12.3% clients reported anal intercourse in the past 6?months, of whom 48.4% used condoms inconsistently. Clients of FSWs who were ages 26?years or older (AOR 2.68, p=0.032); employed as manual labourers (AOR 2.43, p=0.013); consumed alcohol (AOR 2.63, p=0.001); reported five or more sex acts with FSWs in the past month (AOR 2.53, p=0.031); and perceived themselves to be at higher risk for HIV (AOR 4.82, p=0.001) were more likely to inconsistently use condoms during anal intercourse. Conclusions The results suggest that sex workers and their clients commonly practice anal intercourse, but a relatively high proportion of clients do not consistently use condoms, leading to a greater risk of acquiring HIV and its further transmission to other male and female sexual partners. Given the multidirectional risk, safer sex communication on heterosexual anal intercourse must be incorporated into HIV prevention programmes. PMID:25410604

Ramanathan, Shreena; Nagarajan, Karikalan; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmi; Mainkar, Mandar K; Goswami, Prabuddhagopal; Yadav, Diwakar; Sen, Shrabanti; George, Bitra; Rachakulla, Harikumar; Subramanian, Thilakavathi; Paranjape, Ramesh S



Pascale Hancart Petitet (CReCSS, Aix) & Vellore Pagathi (PILC, Pondichery) Ethnographical views on valaikppu. A pregnancy rite in Tamil Nadu In Indian Anthropologist. Special Issue on the Ethnography of Healing 37(1). 2007.  

E-print Network

, and to ensure the birth of a healthy child, preferably a boy. In Tamil Nadu, the end of the pregnancy is marked of maternity in this community.2 The imperative of procreation Procreation, in India, takes place most often in which the performance takes place. The valaikppu ceremony will thus be seen as a prism to study various

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Women's Autonomy in India and Pakistan: The Influence of Religion and Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article compares the lives of women and explores dimensions of their autonomy in different regions of South Asia-Punjab in Pakistan, and Uttar Pradesh in north India and Tamil Nadu in south India. It explores the contextual factors underlying observed differences and assesses the extent to which these differences could be attributed to religion, nationality, or north-south cultural distinctions. Findings

Shireen J. Jejeebhoy; Zeba A. Sathar



Emissions from India's transport sector: Statewise synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A decentralized emission inventories are prepared for road transport sector of India in order to design and implement suitable technologies and policies for appropriate mitigation measures. Globalization and liberalization policies of the government in 90's have increased the number of road vehicles nearly 92.6% from 1980-1981 to 2003-2004. These vehicles mainly consume non-renewable fossil fuels, and are a major contributor of green house gases, particularly CO 2 emission. This paper focuses on the statewise road transport emissions (CO 2, CH 4, CO, NO x, N 2O, SO 2, PM and HC), using region specific mass emission factors for each type of vehicles. The country level emissions (CO 2, CH 4, CO, NO x, N 2O, SO 2 and NMVOC) are calculated for railways, shipping and airway, based on fuel types. In India, transport sector emits an estimated 258.10 Tg of CO 2, of which 94.5% was contributed by road transport (2003-2004). Among all the states and Union Territories, Maharashtra's contribution is the largest, 28.85 Tg (11.8%) of CO 2, followed by Tamil Nadu 26.41 Tg (10.8%), Gujarat 23.31 Tg (9.6%), Uttar Pradesh 17.42 Tg (7.1%), Rajasthan 15.17 Tg (6.22%) and, Karnataka 15.09 Tg (6.19%). These six states account for 51.8% of the CO 2 emissions from road transport.

Ramachandra, T. V.; Shwetmala


Cost and utilisation of hospital based delivery care in Empowered Action Group (EAG) states of India.  


Large scale investment in the National Rural Health Mission is expected to increase the utilization and reduce the cost of maternal care in public health centres in India. The objective of this paper is to examine recent trends in the utilization and cost of hospital based delivery care in the Empowered Action Group (EAG) states of India. The unit data from the District Level Household Survey 3, 2007-2008 is used in the analyses. The coverage and the cost of hospital based delivery at constant price is analyzed for five consecutive years preceding the survey. Descriptive and multivariate analyses are used to understand the socio-economic differentials in cost and utilization of delivery care. During 2004-2008, the utilization of delivery care from public health centres has increased in all the eight EAG states. Adjusting for inflation, the household cost of delivery care has declined for the poor, less educated and in public health centres in the EAG states. The cost of delivery care in private health centres has not shown any significant changes across the states. Results of the multivariate analyses suggest that time, state, place of residence, economic status; educational attainment and delivery characteristics of mother are significant predictors of hospital based delivery care in India. The study demonstrates the utility of public spending on health care and provides a thrust to the ongoing debate on universal health coverage in India. PMID:23054455

Mohanty, Sanjay K; Srivastava, Akanksha



Factors associated with HIV among female sex workers in a high HIV prevalent state of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was carried out to assess the factors associated with HIV seropositivity among female sex workers (FSWs) in Dimapur, Nagaland, a high HIV prevalence state of India. A total of 426 FSWs were recruited into the study using respondent driven sampling (RDS). Data on demographic characteristics, sexual and injecting risk behaviours were collected from them and were tested for

Gajendra Kumar Medhi; Jagadish Mahanta; Ramesh S. Paranjape; Rajatashuvra Adhikary; Nabjyoti Laskar; P. Ngully



Factors associated with HIV among female sex workers in a high HIV prevalent state of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was carried out to assess the factors associated with HIV seropositivity among female sex workers (FSWs) in Dimapur, Nagaland, a high HIV prevalence state of India. A total of 426 FSWs were recruited into the study using respondent driven sampling (RDS). Data on demographic characteristics, sexual and injecting risk behaviours were collected from them and were tested for

Gajendra Kumar Medhi; Jagadish Mahanta; Ramesh S. Paranjape; Rajatashuvra Adhikary; Nabjyoti Laskar; P. Ngully




Microsoft Academic Search

Some opponents of extension of “reservations” in India have voiced a preference for what in the United States is called “Affirmative Action”. Historical differences in the two societies, one originating in slavery, the other in castes, explain some of the varied policy preferences. Americans tend to oppose quotas because they were used to exclude Jews in the past. Quotas are

Theodore P. Wright Jr.



LESSONS FROM THE CUBAN HEALTH SYSTEM: Comparative Mortality of Cuba, India, and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

In three countries as diverse as Cuba, India, and the United States, it is difficult to draw parallels relating to health, given that each of the three countries has such varied economies, social structures, and health indicators. However, comparing health indicators across these countries allows a unique perspective on the advantages and drawbacks of each of these countries' health systems.

Rahima Dosani


Cost-effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions in Andhra Pradesh state of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Information on cost-effectiveness of the range of HIV prevention interventions is a useful contributor to decisions on the best use of resources to prevent HIV. We conducted this assessment for the state of Andhra Pradesh that has the highest HIV burden in India. METHODS: Based on data from a representative sample of 128 public-funded HIV prevention programs of 14

Lalit Dandona; SG Prem Kumar; G Anil Kumar; Rakhi Dandona



Human Resource Practices in Hotels: A Study from the Tourist State of Uttrakhand, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human Resource Management, an integral part of an organization, often ensures the success of the shared relationship between employees and an organization by identifying and satisfying the needs of the employees beginning with recruitment and continuing throughout their career. This article aims to analyze the Human Resource practices in hotels in the mountainous state of Uttarakhand, India located in the

S. C. Bagri; Suresh Babu; Mohit Kukreti



Glocalization of Law: Environmental Justice, World Bank, NGOs and the Cunning State in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article delineates trajectories of the glocalization of law and maps the changing contours of legal pluralism using empirical material on World Bank financed infrastructure and biodiversity projects in India. The role of international institutions, social movements and NGOs, which challenge the monopoly of the state over the production of law and the definition of the common good, is analysed

Shalini Randeria



Analysis of vegetation of Rampara forest in Saurashtra region of Gujarat state of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rampara forest of Saurashtra region of Gujarat state of India was quantitatively ana- lyzed. The total tree basal cover ranged from 180 to 3326 cm2 100 m-2. The composition of tree and shrub layers was markedly similar among various sites. Site 1 supported the largest shrub population, while site 2 was the poorest in this regard. Site 1 on density



A Global Investigation of Child Labor: Case Studies from India, Uganda, and the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide was developed to help students gain a broader perspective about child labor and become more familiar with the issues, controversies, and debates that surround it. Three case studies are highlighted: (1) a street child in India; (2) child soldiers in Uganda; and (3) a migrant farm worker child in the United States. Each case…

Lai, Selena


Sex-role stereotypes in northern india and the united states  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volunteer college students in India (112 men and 113 women) rated the desirability of 104 traits for Indian men or for Indian women. Similar data for 60 of the traits in a United States sample were compared to Indian results, revealing some cross-cultural similarities in sex roles, but fewer sex-role distinctions in the Indian sample, especially for traits related to

Renuka R. Sethi; Mary J. Allen



Political Efficacy: A Comparative Study of the United States, the United Kingdom, and India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the levels of political efficacy reported by college students in the United States, England, and India. Discusses the factors that influence political efficacy in each culture including educational faculty, gender, age, religion, language, residence, economic status, student's characteristics, interest in politics and party…

Shrivastava, Rashmi



Suicide Notes from India and the United States: A Thematic Comparison  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suicide is a global concern, hence, cross-cultural research ought to be important; yet, there is a paucity of cross-cultural study in suicidology. This study sought to investigate suicide notes drawn from India and the United States, as these countries have similar suicide rates but markedly different cultures. A thematic or theoretical-conceptual…

Leenaars, Antoon A.; Girdhar, Shalina; Dogra, T. D.; Wenckstern, Susanne; Leenaars, Lindsey



Shoreline change analysis of Vedaranyam coast, Tamil Nadu, India.  


The coastal zone is one of the nation's greatest environmental and economic assets. The present research aims at studying the shoreline changes along Vedaranyam coast using conventional and modern techniques including field sampling, remote sensing, and geographical information system (GIS). The study area was divided into three zones. Dynamic Land/Sea polygon analysis was performed to obtain the shore line changes at different time periods between 1930 and 2005. From the multidate shoreline maps, the rate of shoreline change was computed using linear regression rate and end point rate. Further, the shoreline was classified into eroding, accreting, and stable regions through GIS analysis. The eroding, accreting, and stable coastal stretch along Vedaranyam is observed as 18 %, 80.5 %, and 1.5 %, respectively. Net shoreline movement is seaward, i.e., the coast is progressive with an average rate of 5 m/year. A maximum shoreline displacement of 1.3 km towards the sea is observed near Point Calimere. During the Asian Tsunami 2004, the eastern part of the study area showed high erosion. Sediment transport paths derived from the grain size analysis of beach sediments collected during different seasons help to identify the major sediment source and sinks. Point Calimere acts as the major sink for sediments whereas Agastiyampalli and Kodiakkarai are found to be the major sources for the sediment supply along the Vedaranyam coast. Shoreline change study from field and satellite data using GIS analysis confirms that Vedaranyam coast is accreting in nature. PMID:23054290

Natesan, Usha; Thulasiraman, N; Deepthi, K; Kathiravan, K



Determinants of fertility in Athoor block, Tamil Nadu, India.  


Data from at least 10 surveys of thousands of households over the period 1960-86 indicate a decline in crude birth rate (CBR) between 1959-85 from 43.1 to 25.6 in the Athoor community development block. The adjacent community development block of Batlagundu, with a higher literacy rate and level of socioeconomic development, was used as control while identifying the proximate determinants of fertility in the study areas. Socioeconomic, institutional, and programmatic factors influencing these proximate determinants were also considered. Declines in the marital fertility rate, due in large part to high age of marriage and a decline in the incidence of young widows, contributed more than other factors to the decline in overall fertility rate. Greater use of contraceptive methods from 0 to 34.2% by 1986, further stemmed fertility. These effects were tempered, however, by a shortened postpartum amenorrhea from 14 to 10 months. Beyond identifying principal proximate determinants, 2 phenomena were explored. While there was an overall decline in CBR over the period, 25.6 is not the lowers level achieved during 1959-85. CBR reached a low of 23.7 in 1980, then climbed over the next few years to its 1985 level. A strong contributing factor to this reversal in a declining trend is a decrease of family planning activities from the level experienced in the 1960s. The 2nd phenomenon is the higher fertility level, desire for larger families, and greater fertility level variation over socioeconomic groups seen in the higher socioeconomic level control block. The authors concluded that high program efficiency must be maintained in the early stages of demographic transition to stabilize against fluctuations in birth rates and contraception prevalence. Additionally, modernizing influences may also affect proximate determinants in opposing manners. Education on child spacing and motivational campaigns targeted especially to young couples should be developed to afford maximum declines in fertility. PMID:12283510

Dutt, P R; Rajaretnam, T; Sasty, K R; Ramanujam, C



Transitional relief housing for tsunami victims of Tamil Nadu, India  

E-print Network

In the wake of the recent tsunami that swept across Asia, there is a dire need to salvage and rebuild the lives and livelihoods that were swept away. The aim of this thesis project is to design and model a transitional ...

Jin, Shauna



Antibacterial activity of selected ethnomedicinal plants from South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo screen the antimicrobial potential of three ethnomedicinal plants Chassalia curviflora Thw. (C. curviflora), Cyclea peltata Hook. F. & Thomson (C. peltata) and Euphorbia hirta L (E. hirta) used in folk medicines in Aarukani hills Kani tribe, Tamil Nadu, India against human bacterial pathogens.

Rajendran Darling Anpin Raja; Solomon Jeeva; Juststella Wilfred Prakash; Johnson Marimuthu Antonisamy; Varaprasadham Irudayaraj



Sustainable Management of Dryland Alfisols (Red Soils) in South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A community based cooperative research project was implemented on farmers' fields on some dryland Alfisols in Tamil Nadu, India, to demonstrate and validate improved dry-farming technologies, such as: 1) soil and water conservation and water harvesting; 2) cropping systems, including intercropping and double cropping; 3) recycling of processed agricultural wastes and byproducts; and 4) low-cost drip irrigation. Disc plowing to

S. P. Palaniappan; R. Balasubramanian; T. Ramesh; A. Chandrasekaran; K. G. Mani; M. Velayutham; R. Lal



Palatoscopy: An adjunct to forensic odontology: A comparative study among five different populations of India  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study was conducted to analyze and identify differences in the palatal rugae patterns and to identify gender wise changes in the palatal rugae shapes in populations of five different states of India. Study Design: Study was conducted in five different Indian states. 500 sample subjects from Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra were included. Rugae patterns with predominant shapes were analyzed and categorized according to different states and both genders, data was statistically analyzed using SPSS software 15.0 and the results were obtained by Chi-square analysis. Results: “Wavy” type of palatal rugae pattern is the most predominant variant in five different study groups in both the genders. Conclusion: This study could identify variations in distribution of various palatal rugae pattern in five different states and confirmed the “wavy” type of palatal rugae patterns to be the most predominant variant in five different study groups. PMID:24678197

Byatnal, Amit; Byatnal, Aditi; Kiran, A. Ravi; Samata, Y.; Guruprasad, Yadavalli; Telagi, Neethu



Genetic counselling in tribals in India  

PubMed Central

Genetic counselling in tribals unlike general population residing in cities and near villages is a difficult task due of their lower literacy and poor socio-economic status. However, sustained effort is essential with a close interaction in the local language, certain misbeliefs need to be removed gradually taking into account their socio-cultural background. The present communication deals with our experience in counselling for haemoglobinopathies during Neonatal Screening Programme undertaken for sickle cell disease in Kalahandi district of Orissa and Community Screening Programmes in primitive tribes of India in four States viz. Orissa, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra. Counselling during neonatal screening programme was very well accepted demonstrating the benefit to the small babies as regards the morbidity. Premarital marriage counselling was also accepted by them. The success rate as followed up for 5 years is almost 50 per cent, the limitation being long follow up. Genetic counselling in these areas has to be continuous to achieve success and therefore the need for setting up of permanent centres in the tribal areas in India. PMID:22089621

Mohanty, Dipika; Das, Kishalaya



Girl prostitution in India.  


This article discusses the nature, magnitude, causes, and consequences of female child prostitution in India and offers measures for control and prevention of girl prostitution. Data are obtained from the 6-city study of prostitution and the author's own research. An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi entered the work at an early age. The numbers are rising. The promotion of tourism is linked with prostitution. Girl prostitutes are primarily located in low-middle income areas and business districts and are known by officials. Brothel keepers regularly recruit young girls. An estimated 33% of prostitutes are young girls. In Bangalore, Calcutta, Delhi, and Hyderabad, there are an estimated 10,000 girl prostitutes. UNICEF estimates about 300,000 child prostitutes. Girl prostitutes are grouped as common prostitutes, singers and dancers, call girls, religious prostitutes or devdasi, and caged brothel prostitutes. Religious prostitutes are mainly found in the South. Caged ones are found in Bombay. A little over 50% of prostitutes come from other countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The girls tend to come from urban slums and poor rural areas. High prostitute supply regions include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengel states. About 85% are Hindus, and about 66% are from scheduled castes and tribes. Bangalore and Bombay have a higher proportion of girl prostitutes. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution. Economic causes include poverty and economic distress. Psychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection. Most enter involuntarily. A brief profile is given of the life of a prostitute. PMID:12158002

Mukhopadhyay, K K



Folk Music in India Goes Digital School of Information  

E-print Network

purposes in the lives of villagers. Greene writes of village music in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu sing worksongs to take their minds off of their arduous labor. At the end of the day, men gather at tea

Parikh, Tapan S.


11-Year Warm Cloud Modification Experiment in Maharashtra State, India  

E-print Network

A warm cloud modification experiment was carried out in an area of 4800 Sq.Km in the Pune region,India, during the 11-summer monsoon (June-September) seasons (1973-74, 1976, 1979-86). A double-area cross-over design with area randomization was adopted and an instrumented aircraft was used for seeding and cloud physical measurements. Finely pulverised salt (sodium chloride) particles were released into the monsoon clouds (cumulus and stratocumulus) during aircraft penetrations into the clouds at a height of 200-300 m above the cloud-base. The warm cloud responses to salt seeding are found to be critically dependent on the cloud physical characteristics e.g., vertical thickness and liquid water content. Clouds with vertical thickness greater than 1 km, LWC greater than 0.5 gm/cubic m when seeded with salt particles (modal diameter 10 micro m, concentration 1 per litre of cloud air) produced increase in rainfall of 24 per cent significant at 4 per cent level. Shallow clouds (vertical thickness less than 1 km, LW...

Murty, A S R



Under-Five Mortality in High Focus States in India: A District Level Geospatial Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background This paper examines if, when controlling for biophysical and geographical variables (including rainfall, productivity of agricultural lands, topography/temperature, and market access through road networks), socioeconomic and health care indicators help to explain variations in the under-five mortality rate across districts from nine high focus states in India. The literature on this subject is inconclusive because the survey data, upon which most studies of child mortality rely, rarely include variables that measure these factors. This paper introduces these variables into an analysis of 284 districts from nine high focus states in India. Methodology/Principal Findings Information on the mortality indicator was accessed from the recently conducted Annual Health Survey of 2011 and other socioeconomic and geographic variables from Census 2011, District Level Household and Facility Survey (2007–08), Department of Economics and Statistics Divisions of the concerned states. Displaying high spatial dependence (spatial autocorrelation) in the mortality indicator (outcome variable) and its possible predictors used in the analysis, the paper uses the Spatial-Error Model in an effort to negate or reduce the spatial dependence in model parameters. The results evince that the coverage gap index (a mixed indicator of district wise coverage of reproductive and child health services), female literacy, urbanization, economic status, the number of newborn care provided in Primary Health Centers in the district transpired as significant correlates of under-five mortality in the nine high focus states in India. The study identifies three clusters with high under-five mortality rate including 30 districts, and advocates urgent attention. Conclusion Even after controlling the possible biophysical and geographical variables, the study reveals that the health program initiatives have a major role to play in reducing under-five mortality rate in the high focus states in India. PMID:22629412

Kumar, Chandan; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Rai, Rajesh Kumar



Ethnic Associations and Everyday State: A Case Study from India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper seeks to examine the everyday negotiations between the migrant community and the local state through the agency of ethnic associations of the migrants. Substantively, it focuses on the self-conscious involvement of agencies and actors in representing Malayalee migrants to the state in Goa. Towards this end, the empirical universe comprises four major Malayalee organisations\\/associations currently active in

Manish K. Thakur


Application of wheat yield model to United States and India. [Great Plains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The wheat yield model was applied to the major wheat-growing areas of the US and India. In the US Great Plains, estimates from the winter and spring wheat models agreed closely with USDA-SRS values in years with the lowest yields, but underestimated in years with the highest yields. Application to the Eastern Plains and Northwest indicated the importance of cultural factors, as well as meteorological ones in the model. It also demonstrated that the model could be used, in conjunction with USDA-SRRS estimates, to estimate yield losses due to factors not included in the model, particularly diseases and freezes. A fixed crop calendar for India was built from a limited amount of available plot data from that country. Application of the yield model gave measurable evidence that yield variation from state to state was due to different mixes of levels of meteorological and cultural factors.

Feyerherm, A. M. (principal investigator)



Crossbreeding Institutions, Breeding Struggle: Women's Employment, Neoliberal Governmentality, and State (Re)Formation in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the politics and practices of a state-initiated, feminist-conceived empowerment program for rural women in India through the lens of neoliberal governmentality. Structured as a government-organized nongovernmental organization (GONGO), the Mahila Samakhya (MS) program seeks to empower and mobilize marginalized women for self-development and social change. The program’s GONGO form and empowerment goals articulate with neoliberal logics of

Aradhana Sharma



Self-Concepts Across Two CulturesIndia and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the self-concepts of college students in India to those in the United States by administering the Twenty Statements Test. Self-statements were analyzed in terms of five categories (social identity, ideological beliefs, interests, ambitions, and self-evaluations) and a numberof subcategories (e.g., self-identity, group identity, gender role identity). Results indicated differential use of the categories and subcategories in the

Nisha Dhawan; Ira J. Roseman; R. K. Naidu; Komilla Thapa; S. Ilsa Rettek



Groundwater Pollution Around an Industrial Area in the Coastal Stretch of Maharashtra State, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this paper is to examine pollution threat, especially to the groundwater resources, around Tarapur industrial\\u000a area (also called the Tarapur MIDC area) located on the Arabian Sea Coast in Thane District of Maharashtra State, India and\\u000a suggest remedial measures that may also be relevant to other industrial areas on the Indian Sea Coast. One hundred and

Pradeep K. Naik; Biranchi N. Dehury; Arun N. Tiwari



State of roads : public works as research, India circa 1960  

E-print Network

That the road is a symbol of the prowess of the nation-state seems tautological, a uni"ed phenomenon of political symbolism that manifests as an infrastructural network. When subjected to a close historical examination, ...

Khorakiwala, Ateya A



Economic Developments in South Asia Eight states (India, Pakistan, Afghanistan,  

E-print Network

, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and the Maldives) belong to the geopolitical region of South Asia, which accommodates 20 % of the social structures, political ways and religion, these states have retained a number




Microsoft Academic Search

Among the several prospects for uranium minerals under investigation in ; the copper belt of Singhbhum in the state of Bihar, two large continuous deposits ; of the order of two million tons each bave already been indicated by bore holes ; and partly proved by development work. One of them at Jaduguda is discussed. ; The surface ore consists

K. L. Bhola; G. R. Udas; N. R. Mehta; G. H. Sahasrabudhe



Experiences of HIV Positive Mothers From Rural South India during Intra-Natal Period  

PubMed Central

Context: Tamil Nadu comes under group I high prevalence state, with less than 1% prevalence of HIV infection in antenatal women but above 5% prevalence in high risk group. One of the ways to control HIV/AIDS in India is through Prevention of Parent to Child Transmission (PPTCT), the success of which lies in identifying pregnant women with HIV infection. But due to the stigma against HIV/AIDS among health care providers, HIV positive patients face discrimination in the health sector. Aims: To explore the difficulties faced by rural HIV positive mothers during the intra-natal period. Methods: A descriptive qualitative study was conducted among HIV positive mothers, in Gingee block of Villupuram district, Tamil Nadu, India. All the mothers who tested positive between June 2006 and May 2010 were interviewed in-depth using an interview guide. Results: There were 21 HIV positive mothers during this period, 19 of whom gave consent. Majority of the mothers were <30 years of age from families belonging to lower socio-economic class. The discriminations faced from the health staff was avoidance of physical examination, rude behaviour like throwing of records on the face, discriminatory comments, unnecessary referrals and even refusal to provide intra-partum services. The negative attitude of the staff made a few mothers to deliver in some other institution without disclosing their HIV status. Conclusion: Stigma among health care providers towards HIV positive pregnant women acts as a barrier for improving access to PPTCT services in India and it poses high risk to the mothers, babies and also the health care providers. There is a pressing need to improve access to quality PPTCT services especially during the intranatal period. PMID:24298476

Subramaniyan, Anbarasi; Sarkar, Sonali; Roy, Gautam; Lakshminarayanan, Subitha



Study of Blood-transfusion Services in Maharashtra and Gujarat States, India  

PubMed Central

Blood-transfusion services are vital to maternal health because haemorrhage and anaemia are major causes of maternal death in South Asia. Unfortunately, due to continued governmental negligence, blood-transfusion services in India are a highly-fragmented mix of competing independent and hospital-based blood-banks, serving the needs of urban populations. This paper aims to understand the existing systems of blood-transfusion services in India focusing on Maharashtra and Gujarat states. A mix of methodologies, including literature review (including government documents), analysis of management information system data, and interviews with key officials was used. Results of analysis showed that there are many managerial challenges in blood-transfusion services, which calls for strengthening the planning and monitoring of these services. Maharashtra provides a good model for improvement. Unless this is done, access to blood in rural areas may remain poor. PMID:19489420

Ramani, K.V.; Govil, Dipti



Suicide notes from India and the United States: a thematic comparison.  


Suicide is a global concern, hence, cross-cultural research ought to be important; yet, there is a paucity of cross-cultural study in suicidology. This study sought to investigate suicide notes drawn from India and the United States, as these countries have similar suicide rates but markedly different cultures. A thematic or theoretical-conceptual analysis of 72 suicide notes drawn from these countries, matched for age and gender, was undertaken, based on Leenaars' (1996) multidimensional model of suicide. The results suggested that there were more commonalities than differences; yet, not consistent with previous cross-cultural studies of suicide notes, Indian notes expressed more indirect expression including veiled aggression, or aggression turned inward, and unconscious dynamics. It was concluded that the model may be applicable to suicide in both countries, but also much greater study in India is warranted on collectivism and dissembling as a suicide risk factor. PMID:24479185

Leenaars, Antoon A; Girdhar, Shalina; Dogra, T D; Wenckstern, Susanne; Leenaars, Lindsey



Modeling Vulnerability and Resilience to Climate Change: A Case Study of India and Indian States  

SciTech Connect

The vulnerability of India and Indian states to climate change was assessed using the Vulnerability-Resilience Indicator Prototype (VRIP). The model was adapted from the global/country version to account for Indian dietary practices and data availability with regard to freshwater resources. Results (scaled to world values) show nine Indian states to be moderately resilient to climate change, principally because of low sulfur emissions and a relatively large percentage of unmanaged land. Six states are more vulnerable than India as a whole, attributable largely to sensitivity to sea storm surges. Analyses of results at the state level (Orissa, and comparisons between Maharashtra and Kerala, and Andhra Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh) demonstrate the value of VRIP analyses used in conjunction with other socioeconomic information to address initial questions about the sources of vulnerability in particular places. The modeling framework allows analysts and stakeholders to systematically evaluate individual and sets of indicators and to indicate where the likely vulnerabilities are in the area being assessed.

Brenkert, Antoinette L.; Malone, Elizabeth L.



Infection control in delivery care units, Gujarat state, India: A needs assessment  

PubMed Central

Background Increasingly, women in India attend health facilities for childbirth, partly due to incentives paid under government programs. Increased use of health facilities can alleviate the risks of infections contracted in unhygienic home deliveries, but poor infection control practices in labour and delivery units also cause puerperal sepsis and other infections of childbirth. A needs assessment was conducted to provide information on procedures and practices related to infection control in labour and delivery units in Gujarat state, India. Methods Twenty health care facilities, including private and public primary health centres and referral hospitals, were sampled from two districts in Gujarat state, India. Three pre-tested tools for interviewing and for observation were used. Data collection was based on existing infection control guidelines for clean practices, clean equipment, clean environment and availability of diagnostics and treatment. The study was carried out from April to May 2009. Results Seventy percent of respondents said that standard infection control procedures were followed, but a written procedure was only available in 5% of facilities. Alcohol rubs were not used for hand cleaning and surgical gloves were reused in over 70% of facilities, especially for vaginal examinations in the labour room. Most types of equipment and supplies were available but a third of facilities did not have wash basins with "hands-free" taps. Only 15% of facilities reported that wiping of surfaces was done immediately after each delivery in labour rooms. Blood culture services were available in 25% of facilities and antibiotics are widely given to women after normal delivery. A few facilities had data on infections and reported rates of 3% to 5%. Conclusions This study of current infection control procedures and practices during labour and delivery in health facilities in Gujarat revealed a need for improved information systems, protocols and procedures, and for training and research. Simply incentivizing the behaviour of women to use health facilities for childbirth via government schemes may not guarantee safe delivery. PMID:21599924



Industrialization and the Processes of Stratification in Rural Societies: A Comparison of Rural India and Rural United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Status attainment processes of the experienced civilian labor force of rural India and rural United States were analyzed by using the Blau-Duncan model, for the first time employing that model to compare rural sectors of an agrarian society with those in an industrial society. United States data were obtained from the 1962 Occupational Changes in…

Sharda, Bam Dev; Elder, Joseph W.


Child Labour and Debt Bondage: A Case Study of Brick Kiln Workers in Southeast India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article highlights some of our findings from a study carried out in the brick kiln industry in Tamil Nadu, India. We have led both a qualitative and a quantitative survey. As child labour is a common factor in the brick kiln industry, we show that in the interlinked credit-labour market employers do not directly employ children, but they have

Augendra Bhukuth



Physiological characterisation of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, the incitant of anthracnose disease of noni in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten isolates of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides were collected from different noni growing areas of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Kerala in India and their pathogenicity was proved under glass house conditions. Effect of different pH levels, temperature, light intensity and media were tested against the growth of C. gloeosporioides under in vitro. The results indicated that the growth of C. gloeosporioides was

Manjunath Hubballi; Sevugapperumal Nakkeeran; Thiruvengadam Raguchander; Theerthagiri Anand; Perumal Renukadevi



Remote sensing of coastal geomorphology to understand river migration in the Thengapatnam area, southern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to study the geomorphic processes that control river migration in the Thengapatnam coastal tract bordering the Arabian Sea in the Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, southern India. Satellite image data were used to identify the geomorphic units. An attempt was made to interpret geological evidence indicative of migration of the Kuzhithura river channel. In addition,

Aparna S. Bhaskar; R. B. Binoj Kumar



Nasal rhinosporiodiosis from uttar pradesh (India). a non-endemic zone: first case report  

PubMed Central

Rhinosporiodiosis is a cosmopolitan disease of man and animals, endemic in India and Sri Lanka with main focus of infection in Southern Tamil Nadu. Uttar Pradesh (UP) is not known to be an endemic zone for this disease .We present here the first case of nasal Rhinosporiodiosis from this non-endemic zone. PMID:24031654

Malhotra, Shalini; Bobade, Om Prakash; Chauhan, Ankit; Vishnoi, Nripen; Hans, Charoo



Worlds apart 1: Tamil Nadu and Madhya Pradesh. Reaping rewards of social development.  


Tamil Nadu had a 1991 annual growth rate of 1.1% compared to a rate of over 2% in the northern states of Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh. The lower fertility and mortality in Tamil Nadu was achieved through a sustained, multifaceted social and economic effort and through promotion, reach, and quality of family planning in a short time period. Political leadership and media efforts since the 1960s have strengthened support for the small family norm, later marriage, and improved status of women. Infrastructure development includes roads and water supplies in every village, rural electrification, and a government center in every village. Tamil Nadu devotes over 33% of its total budget to health and education. Special emphasis was placed on a program initiated in 1982 to provide a nutritious midday meal in school to every child living in poverty. In 1994, this program cost Rs. 3350. The result has been increasing school enrollment, greater retention of female children, reductions in malnutrition, and opportunities for local part-time employment and increased social status in the community. In some locations, the meal program includes day care centers and meals for the aged. Another social program provides cash loans of Rs. 5000 to couples at first marriage who are over the age of 18 years with a completed high school degree. Rs. 300 are provided for nutritional support for the first two pregnancies. Rs. 10,000 are also given to girls whose family income is under Rs. 12,000 a year. Financial assistance is available for widows who remarry and for intercaste marriages. A new program provides a gold ring, educational expenses, and Rs. 20 for families with an only girl child or two girl children and which accept a permanent method of family planning. A negligible 20,000 couples joined the program, although about 15% of the total population was eligible. 50-55% of women receive state subsidies and loans. Collectives exist in 12,000 women's groups. Tamil Nadu's chief administrator prepared a 10-point program for the advancement of women. Some feminist groups have challenged the official presentation of government successes because of their concern that demographic successes would be achieved at the expense of care and respect for human aspects of population. PMID:12345833

Chhabra, R



Physical Domestic Violence and Subsequent Contraceptive Adoption Among Women in Rural India  

PubMed Central

This study examines the relationship between male to female physical domestic violence and contraceptive adoption among women in four economically and culturally distinct areas of India. Data from India’s 1998–1999 National Family Health Survey–2 and a follow-up survey in 2002–2003 for which the same women in four states were reinterviewed are analyzed. The focus of the analysis is on how baseline exposure to physical domestic violence is associated with the intersurvey adoption of contraception. Women who experience physical violence from their husbands are significantly less likely to adopt contraception in the intersurvey period, although this relationship varies by State. This study builds upon previous work by using an indicator of physical domestic violence exposure that is measured before contraceptive adoption, thus allowing the identification of how exposure to violence shapes the adoption of contraception. The results demonstrate that for women living in Bihar and Jharkhand there is a clear negative relationship between physical domestic violence and a woman’s adoption of contraception; this relationship was not found for women in Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. The results point to the need to include domestic violence screening and referral services into family planning services. PMID:23008052

Stephenson, Rob; Jadhav, Apoorva; Hindin, Michelle



Dengue Outbreak in a Hilly State of Arunachal Pradesh in Northeast India  

PubMed Central

Dengue has been reported from plains as well as hilly regions of India including some parts of Northeast India. In July-August 2012, outbreak of fever with unknown origin (FUO) indicative of Dengue was reported in Pasighat, East Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh (AP) state. Serum samples (n = 164) collected from patients from Health Training and Research Centre General Hospital, Pasighat, were tested for NS1 antigen and IgM antibodies. NS1-positive samples were analyzed by RT-PCR assay and entomological surveys were carried out. The majority of suspected cases reported NS1 antigen positivity. Females and young adults were mostly affected. The majority of the amplified NS1-positive samples showed Dengue serotype 3 infection. Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus, known as semiurban breeding mosquitoes, was the only potential vector species identified from the affected areas of Pasighat which single handedly contributed to the outbreak. Thus, the present work identifies Dengue as an emerging arboviral infection in hilly state of AP along with a looming risk of its spread to neighbouring areas. PMID:24587732

Khan, Siraj A.; Dutta, Prafulla; Topno, Rashmee; Soni, Monika; Mahanta, Jagadish



Globalisation of birth markets: a case study of assisted reproductive technologies in India.  


The escalation of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs) in India into a veritable fertility industry is the result of a multitude of reasons. This paper places the bio-genetic industry within the larger political economy framework of globalisation and privatisation, thus employing a framework that is often omitted from discussions on ARTs, but has direct and significant bearings on the ART industry in India. As markets for human organs, tissues and reproductive body parts experience unprecedented growth, the limits of what can or should be bought and sold continue to be pushed. As such, bodies have emerged as sale-worthy economic capital. Commercial flows of reproductive material create and deploy the division of the body into parts over which ownership is claimed, in the process following 'modern routes of capital' and raising issues of structural inequality.This paper presents a brief picture of India's fertility industry with specific focus on its ground-level operation, nature and growth. It aims to explore the industry dimensions of ARTs, by highlighting the macro picture of health care markets and medical tourism in India, the proliferation of the ART industry, market features such as the social imperative to mother, costs, promotion and marketing, unverified claims, inflated success rates, deals and offers, actors and collaborations in the field, and finally, the absence of standards. This paper presents findings from the research 'Constructing Conceptions: The Mapping of Assisted Reproductive Technologies in India', by Sama, a Delhi-based resource group working on gender, health and rights. This research was conducted from 2008 to 2010 in the three states of Uttar Pradesh, Orissa and Tamil Nadu in India, and is one of the first of its kind, highlighting unethical medical practices and making a case for the regulation of the ART industry. As such, it forms a significant part of Sama's ongoing work on women and technologies, particularly policy-level advocacy. PMID:21838866

Sarojini, Nadimpally; Marwah, Vrinda; Shenoi, Anjali



Breast-feeding initiation time and neonatal mortality risk among newborns in South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To examine the association between breast-feeding initiation time and neonatal mortality in India, where breast-feeding initiation varies widely from region to region.Study Design:Data were collected as part of a community-based, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the impact of vitamin A supplementation in rural villages of Tamil Nadu, India. Multivariate binomial regression analysis was used to estimate the association between neonatal mortality

C R Garcia; L C Mullany; L Rahmathullah; J Katz; R D Thulasiraj; S Sheeladevi; C Coles; J M Tielsch



Japanese encephalitis vaccine: need of the hour in endemic states of India.  


Japanese encephalitis (JE), a mosquito-borne arboviral infection, is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia. Most worldwide cases of JE are reported annually from the People's Republic of China (PRC), Korea, Japan, Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent, and parts of Oceania. JE virus is transmitted by Culex mosquitoes particularly of the Culex vishnui group (C. tritaeniorhynchus). Humans get infected following a bite by an infected mosquito. However, since humans cannot transmit infection, further spread does not take place between humans. Most human cases of JE are asymptomatic. Infection leads to overt encephalitis in only 1 of 20-1,000 cases. Encephalitis usually is severe, resulting in a fatal outcome in 25% of cases and residual neuropsychiatric sequelae in 30% of cases. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that there are at least 50,000 serious cases of the disease in Asia each year. Approximately 10,000 of those subjects die, mostly children. JE Outbreaks have been reported from most states and union territories in India through the years. In India, the risk is highest in the monsoon and post-monsoon period. The proposed immunization strategy for India is based on the regional experience and builds off of the three pillars of JE control, i.e., Surveillance for cases of encephalitis, Vector control and Vaccination. The Cell Culture Derived Live SA-14-14-2 Vaccine is based on a stable neuro-attenuated strain of JE virus (SA-14-14-2). It was first licensed for use in 1988 in People's Republic of China, and current usage is over 60 million doses per year. It is also licensed in India, South Korea and Nepal. JE vaccines are available in 5-dose vials as a lyophilized powder that looks like a milky-white crisp cake; this is rehydrated with 2.5 mL diluent. The dose is 0.5 mL administered subcutaneously for all ages and containing not less than 5.4 log PFU of live JE virus (JEV). PMID:22370517

Verma, Ramesh



Indigenous perspectives on depression in rural regions of India and the United States.  


Depression is a major health concern in India, yet indigenous Indian perspectives on depression have often been disregarded in favor of Western conceptualizations. The present study used quantitative and qualitative measures modeled on the Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC) to elicit beliefs about the symptoms, causes, treatments, and stigma associated with depression. Data were collected from 92 students at a university in the Himalayan region of Northern India and from 97 students at a university in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States. U.S. participants in this study were included primarily to approximate a "Western baseline" (in which professional conceptions of depression are predominantly rooted) from which to elucidate Indian perspectives. Compared to U.S. participants, Indian participants were more likely to view restive symptoms (e.g., irritation, anxiety, difficulty thinking) as common features of depression, to view depression as the result of personally controllable causes (e.g., failure), to endorse social support and spiritual reflection or relaxation (e.g., yoga, meditation) as useful means for dealing with depression, and to associate stigma with depression. Efforts aimed at reducing depression among Indians should focus more on implementing effective and culturally acceptable interventions, such as yoga, meditation, and increasing social support. PMID:22021105

Nieuwsma, Jason A; Pepper, Carolyn M; Maack, Danielle J; Birgenheir, Denis G



Geography of underweight and overweight among women in India: A multilevel analysis of 3204 neighborhoods in 26 states  

PubMed Central

We investigated the geographic distribution and the relationship with neighborhood wealth of underweight and overweight in India. Using multilevel modeling techniques, we calculated state-specific smoothed shrunken state residuals of overweight and underweight, neighborhood and state variation of nutritional status, and the relationships between neighborhood wealth and nutritional status of 76,681 women living in 3204 neighborhoods in 26 Indian states. We found a substantial variation in overweight and underweight at the neighborhood and state levels, net of what could be attributed to individual-level factors. Neighborhood wealth was associated with increased levels of overweight and decreased levels of underweight, and was found to modify the relationship between personal living standard and nutritional status. These findings suggest that interventions to address the double burden of undernutrition and overnutrition in India must take into account state and neighborhood characteristics in order to be successful. PMID:18602351

Ackerson, Leland K.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Barbeau, Elizabeth M.; Subramanian, S.V.



Challenging Ties between State and Tobacco Industry: Advocacy Lessons from India  

PubMed Central

Background: Globally, tobacco use is a major public health concern given its huge morbidity and mortality burden that is inequitably high in low- and middle-income countries. The World Health Organization has suggested banning the advertisement, promotion and sponsorship of tobacco. However, governments in some countries, including India, are either directly engaged in tobacco industry operations or have a mandate to promote tobacco industry development. This paper analyses a short-term advocacy campaign that challenged the state-tobacco industry ties to draw lessons for effective public health advocacy. Method: This paper uses a case study method to analyze advocacy efforts in India to thwart the state-tobacco industry partnership: the Indian government’s sponsorship and support to a global tobacco industry event. The paper explores multiple strategies employed in the five-month advocacy campaign (May to October 2010) to challenge this state-industry tie. In doing so, we describe the challenges faced and the lessons learnt for effective advocacy. Results: Government withdrew participation and financial sponsorship from the tobacco industry event. Use of multiple strategies including engaging all concerned government agencies from the beginning, strategic use of media, presence and mobilization of civil society, and use of legal tools to gain information and judicial action, were complementary in bringing desired outcomes. Conclusion: Use of multiple and complementary advocacy strategies could lead to positive outcomes in a short-time campaign. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control could form an important advocacy tool, especially in countries that have ratified it, to advocate for improvements in national tobacco control regulations. PMID:24688958

Bhojani, Upendra; Venkataraman, Vidya; Manganawar, Bheemaray



Perceptions of State Government stakeholders & researchers regarding public health research priorities in India: an exploratory survey.  


Public health research has several stakeholders that should be involved in identifying public health research agenda. A survey was conducted prior to a national consultation organized by the Department of Health Research with the objective to identify the key public health research priorities as perceived by the State health officials and public health researchers. A cross-sectional survey was done for the State health officials involved in public health programmes and public health researchers in various States of India. A self-administered semi-structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Overall, 35 State officials from 15 States and 17 public health researchers participated in the study. Five leading public health research priorities identified in the open ended query were maternal and child health (24%), non-communicable diseases (22%), vector borne diseases (6%), tuberculosis (6%) and HIV/AIDS/STI (5%). Maternal and child health research was the leading priority; however, researchers also gave emphasis on the need for research in the emerging public health challenges such as non-communicable diseases. Structured initiatives are needed to promote interactions between policymakers and researchers at all stages of research starting from defining problems to the use of research to achieve the health goals as envisaged in the 12th Plan over next five years. PMID:24718397

Kaur, Prabhdeep; Chitra, Grace A; Mehendale, Sanjay M; Katoch, Vishwa M



A Comparative Study of Consumers' Green Practice Orientation in India and the United States: A Study from the Restaurant Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

By considering differences in culture and economic conditions in two different countries, India and the United States, this study investigates the psychological factors (consumers' attitudes, behavioral intentions, and involvement) in relation to Green practices (GP) in the restaurant industry as measured by three concerns (health, social, and environmental). Next, the study examines how these factors affect consumers' willingness to pay

Kirti Dutta; Venkatesh Umashankar; Gunae Choi; H. G. Parsa



Diversity, Democracy, and Higher Education: A View from Three Nations--India, South Africa, the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication includes six essays that were presented at the first of three tri-national seminars on diversity issues in higher education. The seminars brought together representatives and observers of higher education from India, South Africa, and the United States to explore the role of higher education in promoting understanding of human…

Beckham, Edgar F., Ed.


Physical Punishment in Childhood and Current Attitudes: An Exploratory Comparison of College Students in the United States and India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College students in the United States and India provided information on their childhood punishment, personal evaluation of the punishment, and other data. The majority of both national groups reported having been physically punished as children. Physical punishment was condoned more by U.S. than by Indian students. More physical punishment in…

Graziano, Anthony M.; And Others




Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined cross-national differences in the usage of social networking websites (SNWs) between university students in India and the United States. A total of 245 Indian university students and 241 American university students completed a survey about privacy attitudes and behaviors as well as communication patterns on SNWs. Many of the traditional propositions about cross-cultural values and related notions

Bryan A. Marshall; Peter W. Cardon; Daniel T. Norris; Natalya Goreva


Claiming the state : citizen-state relations and service delivery in rural India  

E-print Network

Who makes claims on the state and how? This dissertation examines the processes through which citizens seek to secure public resources from the state and, by extension, the patterns of participation and citizen-state ...

Kruks-Wisner, Gabrielle K



Evaluation of state-run STI/RTI clinics in the state of Haryana, India through a supportive supervision approach  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are an important public health problem because of their adverse effects on reproductive health of men and women. About 5% of adult population in India suffers from STIs. To tackle this issue the government has set up reproductive tract infection (RTI) clinics across the country. Aims: To assess the effect of supportive supervision on the quality of services provided in STI/RTI clinics in the state of Haryana, India. Settings and Design: Selected state-run STI/RTI clinics, facility-based pre- and post evaluation study. Material and Methods: Sixteen STI/RTI clinics were selected for the study, including six from government facilities and 10 from targeted intervention sites across five districts of Haryana. From each of the selected sites one physician in-charge was interviewed twice with an interval of 2-3 months using pretested formats. Scores were given in selected domains of STI/RTI management for each visit and the improvement was assessed. Statistical Analysis: Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: A total of 16 physicians one from each site were interviewed. Improvement in mean score of the physicians for knowledge about STI/RTI was 3.6 points. Similarly for skills score, which measured the physicians’ skill in various domains of running STI/RTI clinics, the mean improvement was 3.1 points. Both the improvements were statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Supportive supervision proved to be a useful tool for monitoring and improving the quality of services provided by the STI/RTI clinics.

Rath, Rama S.; Singh, Mahender; Rizwan, S.A.; Lohiya, Ayush; Gopal, Giridara; Silan, Vijay



Disparities in child mortality trends in two new states of India  

PubMed Central

Background India has the world’s highest total number of under-five deaths of any nation. While progress towards Millennium Development Goal 4 has been documented at the state level, little information is available for greater disaggregation of child health markers within states. In 2000, new states were created within the country as a partial response to political pressures. State-level information on child health trends in the new states of Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand is scarce. To fill this gap, this article examines under-five and neonatal mortality across various equity markers within these two new states, pre-and post-split. Methods Both direct and indirect estimation using pooled data from five available sources were undertaken. Inter-population disparities were evaluated by mortality data stratification of rural–urban location, ethnicity, wealth and districts. Results Both states experienced an overall reduction in under-five and neonatal mortality, however, this has stagnated post-2001 and various disparities persist. In cases where disparities have declined, such as between urban–rural populations and low- and high-income groups, this has been driven by modest declines within the disadvantaged groups (i.e. low-income rural households) and stagnation or worsening of outcomes within the advantaged groups. Indeed, rising trends in mortality are most prevalent in urban middle-income households. Conclusions The results suggest that rural health improvements may have come at the expense of urban areas, where poor performance may be attributed to factors such as lack of access to quality private health facilities. In addition, the disparities may in part be associated with geographical access, traditional practices and district-level health resource allocation. PMID:23978236



Monitoring urbanization dynamics in India using DMSP/OLS night time lights and SPOT-VGT data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

India is a rapidly urbanizing country and has experienced profound changes in the spatial structure of urban areas. This study endeavours to illuminate the process of urbanization in India using Defence Meteorological Satellites Program - Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) night time lights (NTLs) and SPOT vegetation (VGT) dataset for the period 1998-2008. Satellite imagery of NTLs provides an efficient way to map urban areas at global and national scales. DMSP/OLS dataset however lacks continuity and comparability; hence the dataset was first intercalibrated using second order polynomial regression equation. The intercalibrated dataset along with SPOT-VGT dataset for the year 1998 and 2008 were subjected to a support vector machine (SVM) method to extract urban areas. SVM is semi-automated technique that overcomes the problems associated with the thresholding methods for NTLs data and hence enables for regional and national scale assessment of urbanization. The extracted urban areas were validated with Google Earth images and global urban extent maps. Spatial metrics were calculated and analyzed state-wise to understand the dynamism of urban areas in India. Significant changes in urban proportion were observed in Tamil Nadu, Punjab and Kerala while other states also showed a high degree of changes in area wise urban proportion.

Pandey, Bhartendu; Joshi, P. K.; Seto, Karen C.



Difference in the effect of Swadhyay due to differing cultural environments: a study of college age youth in Gujurat, India and Texas, United States  

E-print Network

This thesis is primarily concerned with the effect of a grassroots spiritual movement on the lives of youth in India and the United States. Swadhyay is a movement that began in India in the 1940s under the leadership of Shri Pandurang Shastri...

Brahmbhatt, Reshma Raj



Factors controlling January-April rainfall over southern India and Sri Lanka  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the annual rainfall over India occurs during the Southwest (June-September) and Northeast (October-December) monsoon periods. In March 2008, however, Southern peninsular India and Sri Lanka received the largest rainfall anomaly on record since 1979, with amplitude comparable to summer-monsoon interannual anomalies. This anomalous rainfall appeared to be modulated at intraseasonal timescale by the Madden Julian Oscillation, and was synchronous with a decaying La Niña event in the Pacific Ocean. Was this a coincidence or indicative of a teleconnection pattern? In this paper, we explore factors controlling rainfall over southern India and Sri Lanka between January and April, i.e. outside of the southwest and northeast monsoons. This period accounts for 20% of annual precipitation over Sri Lanka and 10% over the southern Indian states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Interannual variability is strong (about 40% of the January-April climatology). Intraseasonal rainfall anomalies over southern India and Sri Lanka are significantly associated with equatorial eastward propagation, characteristic of the Madden Julian Oscillation. At the interannual timescale, we find a clear connection with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO); with El Niños being associated with decreased rainfall (correlation of -0.46 significant at the 98% level). There is also a significant link with local SST anomalies over the Indian Ocean, and in particular with the inter-hemispheric sea surface temperature (SST) gradient over the Indian Ocean (with colder SST south of the equator being conducive to more rainfall, correlation of 0.55 significant at the 99% level). La Niñas/cold SSTs south of the equator tend to have a larger impact than El Niños. We discuss two possible mechanisms that could explain these statistical relationships: (1) subsidence over southern India remotely forced by Pacific SST anomalies; (2) impact of ENSO-forced regional Indian Ocean SST anomalies on convection. However, the length of the observational record does not allow distinguishing between these two mechanisms in a statistically significant manner.

Vialard, J.; Terray, P.; Duvel, J.-P.; Nanjundiah, R. S.; Shenoi, S. S. C.; Shankar, D.



Population-based seroprevalence of HSV-2 and syphilis in Andhra Pradesh state of India  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding the prevalence and risk factors for common causes of ulcerative genital disease in the general population would inform current STI syndromic management and HIV testing strategies in high HIV prevalence regions of India. Methods Persons 15-49 years old from 32 rural and 34 urban clusters were sampled using a stratified random method to represent adults in the high HIV prevalence Guntur district in Andhra Pradesh state. Interviews were conducted and dry blood spots were collected on 12,617 study participants. Testing for HSV-2 and syphilis was performed. Results Adjusted HSV-2 and syphilis seroprevalence rates were 4.70% and 2.08% for men and 7.07% and 1.42% for women. For men, tattooing, >3 lifetime sex partners, tobacco use, and sex with men in the past 6 months were associated with HSV-2 or syphilis (ORs, 1.66-2.95, p < 0.05). Male circumcision was positively associated with HSV-2 infection (OR, 1.37, p = 0.028) though this could be due to residual confounding. In women, greater than one lifetime partner remained significantly associated with HSV-2 in multivariate analysis (OR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.39-4.87). Among all behavioral risk factors and other covariates in women and men, HIV infection exhibited the strongest association with HSV-2 and syphilis (ORs, 8.2-14.2, p < 0.001). The proportion of individuals with HSV-2 who were HIV infected was less than the proportion with syphilis who were HIV infected (11.8% vs. 22.7%; p = 0.001). Conclusions Nearly one in four persons surveyed in this population-based study that were seroprevalent for syphilis, were also HIV infected. Common population risk factors for syphilis, HSV-2 and HIV and high rates of co-seroprevalence suggest that HIV testing, STI testing and service strategies for these would benefit from direct linkage in India. PMID:20214795



Lessons from smallpox eradication campaign in Bihar State and in India.  


Following several key breakthroughs during the mid-1960s under the global smallpox eradication programme namely, development of a thermo-stable vaccine, efficient and acceptable technique of it's delivery by bifurcated needle and evolution of a strategy (in lieu of mass vaccination) of active case search and containment, an intensified campaign of smallpox eradication from India was successfully implemented during 1973-1975. A formidable battle was fought, particularly in Bihar state leading to the occurrence of last indigenous case on 17 May 1975. The rapid achievement of eradication of the scourge from India in a record time was hailed as unprecedented in public health history. The single key factor in the achievement was the sustained efforts of a band of national and international epidemiologists, supported by young medical interns heading mobile containment teams, working under trying field conditions. Through the campaign several important lessons were learnt and innovations made. Important among these were: (i) need for refinement of tools, techniques, and strategies for attaining the objective; (ii) implementation of a time and target oriented campaign; (iii) support of adequate and dedicated short term personnel to supplement supervision and field activities; (iv) providing of flexible funding and a convenient disbursement procedure; (v) building private-public partnership; (vi) devising of simple innovations, based on feedback from field, to support activities; (vii) development of political commitment; (viii) improved communication from field to higher levels to enable action on recent information; (ix) regular periodic staff meetings at each administrative level to facilitate early recognition and correction of deficiencies; (x) mobilization of support from international community, whenever required. PMID:21232651

Dutta, Mahendra; Basu, R N



Spatial distribution and characteristics of injecting drug users (IDU) in five Northeastern states of India  

PubMed Central

Background Injecting drugs is the major driving force of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in Northeastern India. We have assessed the spatial distribution of locations where injecting drug users (IDU) congregate, as well as the risk behaviour and key characteristics of IDUs to develop new strategies strengthening intervention measures for HIV prevention in this region. Methods Locations of IDUs congregation for buying and injecting drugs were identified through Key Informants (KI). Verification of the location and its characteristics were confirmed through field visits. We also conducted semi-structured and structured interviews with IDUs to learn more about their injecting behaviour and other characteristics. Results Altogether, 2462 IDU locations were identified in 5 states. The number of IDU locations was found to be greater in the states bordering Myanmar. Private houses, parks, abandoned buildings, pharmacies, graveyards, and isolated places were the most frequently chosen place for injecting drugs. Many injecting locations were visited by IDUs of varying ages, of which about 10-20% of locations were for females. In some locations, female IDUs were also involved in sex work. Sharing of needle and syringes was reported in all the states by large proportion of IDUs, mainly with close friends. However, even sharing with strangers was not uncommon. Needle and syringes were mainly procured from pharmacies, drug peddlers and friends. Lack of access to free sterile needles and syringes, and inconsistent supplies from intervention programs, were often given as the cause of sharing or re-use of needles and syringes by IDUs. Most of the IDUs described a negative attitude of the community towards them. Conclusion We highlight the injection of drugs as a problem in 5 Northeastern India states where this is the major driving force of an HIV epidemic. Also highlighted are the large numbers of females that are unrecognized as IDUs and the association between drug use and sex work. Understanding of risk behaviours and other key charecteristics of IDUs in the region will help in strengthening harm reduction efforts that can prevent HIV transmission. PMID:21281465



Recreationists Willingness to Pay for Conservation of a Forest ecosystem: An Economic study of Basavana Betta State Forest, Karnataka state, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

An economic study on willingness to pay by general recreationists’ who visited Basavana Betta State Forest, Karnataka, India, for water recreation revealed that average WTP for conservation of the forest ecosystem, based on the double bounded dichotomous contingent valuation method, was Rs. 846 ($17.63) per visitor as onetime payment. On the contrary WTP of recreationists of a well developed recreation

Yashoda; B. V. Chinnappa Reddy



Childhood blindness in India: Causes in 1318 blind school students in nine states  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is estimated that at least 200 000 children in India have severe visual impairment or blindness and approximately 15 000 are in schools for the blind. Although this represents a small percentage of the estimated 5 million blind in India, it is significant in terms of ‘blind-years’ . Strategies to combat childhood blindness require accurate data on the causes

J S Rahi; S Sripathi; C E Gilbert; A Foster



Role of Community Group Exposure in Reducing Sexually Transmitted Infection-Related Risk among Female Sex Workers in India  

PubMed Central

Background Empowering female sex workers (FSWs) to address structural barriers and forming community groups (CGs) through community mobilization are seen as essential components of HIV prevention programs in India. Taking the membership of a CG as an exposure intervention, we hypothesized whether participation in a CG lead to reduced sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and increased treatment-seeking behavior among FSWs in three selected states of India — Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. Methods and Findings The propensity score matching (PSM) approach examined the effect of CG membership, as against no membership, on STI-related risk, described as selected outcome measures — presence of any STI, self-reported STI symptoms, and treatment-seeking behavior among FSWs. A cross sectional bio-behavioral survey was administered in 2009–2010 and covered 7,806 FSWs through two-stage probability-based conventional and time location cluster sampling in 23 administrative districts of Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. Only 2,939 FSWs were reported to be members of a CG and among them 4.5% had any STIs. A majority of FSWs were aged above 24 years (86.4%), had ever been married (73%), operated from a public place for solicitation (81.5%), and had ever received HIV test results (75.6%). The average effect of CG exposure was reduction in STI prevalence by 4%, while self-reported STI symptom treatment-seeking behavior increased by 13.7%. Conclusion FSWs who were exposed to a CG were at a substantially lower risk of STIs than those who were unexposed. The FSWs exposed to a CG had a higher chance of seeking STI treatment from public and private health facilities. Collectivization related challenges must be overcome to provide access to tailored STI prevention and care services. PMID:24205210

Yadav, Diwakar; Ramanathan, Shreena; Goswami, Prabuddhagopal; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmi; Saggurti, Niranjan; Sen, Shrabanti; George, Bitra; Paranjape, Ramesh



Survey of ticks (Acarina: Ixodidae) for Crimean haemorrhagic fever virus activity in Jammu & Kashmir state, India.  


A survey of ixodid ticks was carried on in 1977 to determine the crimean haemorrhagic fever (CHF) virus activity in Jammu & Kashmir state, India. In all, 412 immatures and 3258 adults belonging to 7 genera and 16 species of ticks were collected as ectoparasites of small and large mammals. These included one species each of the genera Boophilus, Dermacentor and Nosomma, 2 species of Rhipicephalus, 3 species of Ixodes and 4 species each of Haemaphysalis and Hyalomma. Haem. bispinosa was the predominant species followed by B. microplus, Haem. montgomeryi, R. haemaphysaloides and Hyal. m. isaaci. The four Hyalomma species viz., Hyal. a. anatolicum (incriminated as the vector of CHF virus), Hyal. detritum, Hyal. dromedarii and Hyal. m. isaaci were found parasitizing goat, sheep, camel and cattle and were collected in the districts of Jammu, Rajouri, Poonch and Udhampur. Four species viz., Haem. intermedia, Hyal. detritum, Hyal. dromedarii and Hyal. m. isaaci are new records for the state. A total of 138 pools comprising eight species under six genera of ticks were processed for isolating the virus. CHF virus was not isolated. The role of ixodid ticks, particularly those of the genus Hyalomma in the dissemination of CHF virus is highlighted. PMID:2111801

Kaul, H N; Shetty, P S; Ghalsasi, G R; Dhanda, V



Culture influences demographic behavior: evidence from India.  


Delhi migrants from low socioeconomic classes were compared based on their home origins in north or south India. The two groups differed in cultural beliefs, attitudes, and practices, but they lived in the same resettlement colony and had the same physical access to services and opportunities. Retrospective data was collected from a sample of ever-married women and household heads. Longitudinal data was collected on households with at least two living children younger than 12 in visits once every two weeks over a six-month period. Information was obtained on children's eating patterns, activities, illnesses, and the treatment of their illnesses. Households from Tamil Nadu in the south were more modern, had greater female autonomy, and were open to new ideas. Uttar Pradesh women from the north were more traditional, secluded, and restricted in economic activities. The results showed lower fertility, higher levels of contraceptive use, and earlier ends to childbearing among Tamil Nadu women, who had had more exposure to ideas about smaller family size, healthful childrearing practices, and positive attitudes about contraceptive use. For every 100 Tamil Nadu children who died, 111 Uttar Pradesh children died. Health care practices differed between groups; the urban slum environment was conducive to the spread of gastrointestinal infections among Uttar Pradesh girls discouraged from using the public water taps and toilet facilities. Among the Tamil Nadu migrants, girls actually had lower childhood mortality rates than boys. 115 girls died for every 100 boys among the Uttar Pradesh. The reason may be due to the avoidance or delay of outside medical attention until too late. The conclusion was that the status of women, and their exposure to and interaction with the outside world and control over decision making at home, explained the differences between the two groups. Policy implications are to make programs culturally sensitive for example, providing at-home care for women traditionally sheltered from contact with strangers. PMID:12345406

Greenspan, A



Genesis of wollastonite- and grandite-rich skarns in a suite of marble-calc-silicate rocks from Sittampundi, Tamil Nadu: constraints on the P–T–fluid regime in parts of the Pan-African mobile belt of South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pan-African tectonothermal activities in areas near Sittampundi, south India, are characterized by metamorphic changes\\u000a in an interlayered sequence of migmatitic metapelites, marble and calc-silicate rocks. This rock sequence underwent multiple\\u000a episodes of folding, and was intruded by granite batholiths during and subsequent to these folding events. The marble and\\u000a the calc-silicate rocks develop a variety of skarns, which on

P. Sengupta; U. Dutta; Uttam K. Bhui; D. Mukhopadhyay



Uncertainty in Resilience to Climate Change in India and Indian States  

SciTech Connect

This study builds on an earlier analysis of resilience of India and Indian states to climate change. The previous study (Brenkert and Malone 2005) assessed current resilience; this research uses the Vulnerability-Resilience Indicators Model (VRIM) to project resilience to 2095 and to perform an uncertainty analysis on the deterministic results. Projections utilized two SRES-based scenarios, one with fast-and-high growth, one with delayed growth. A detailed comparison of two states, the Punjab and Orissa, points to the kinds of insights that can be obtained using the VRIM. The scenarios differ most significantly in the timing of the uncertainty in economic prosperity (represented by GDP per capita) as a major factor in explaining the uncertainty in the resilience index. In the fast-and-high growth scenario the states differ most markedly regarding the role of ecosystem sensitivity, land use and water availability. The uncertainty analysis shows, for example, that resilience in the Punjab might be enhanced, especially in the delayed growth scenario, if early attention is paid to the impact of ecosystems sensitivity on environmental well-being of the state. By the same token, later in the century land-use pressures might be avoided if land is managed through intensification rather than extensification of agricultural land. Thus, this methodology illustrates how a policy maker can be informed about where to focus attention on specific issues, by understanding the potential changes at a specific location and time – and, thus, what might yield desired outcomes. Model results can point to further analyses of the potential for resilience-building.

Malone, Elizabeth L.; Brenkert, Antoinette L.



Scaling up Primary Health Services in Rural Tamil Nadu: Public Investment Requirements and Health Sector Reform  

E-print Network

Scaling up Primary Health Services in Rural Tamil Nadu: Public Investment Requirements and Health, District Collector, Tiruvannamalai. #12;2 Scaling up Primary Health Services in Rural Tamil Nadu: Public Rs. 18 billion to medical & public health, Rs.3.5 billion to family welfare, and Rs.0.482 billion


Primary Schooling in China and India: Understanding How Socio-Contextual Factors Moderate the Role of the State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper considers how state educational policy and other sociocontextual factors influence primary schooling in two large developing countries. In the late 1940s, national statistics for primary school enrolment and other human development indicators were comparable between China and India. Both countries then experienced major political transitions and embraced similar economic development priorities. Half a century later, reports prepared for the 2000 World Education Forum indicate that China had far outperformed India in terms of school enrolment ratios and on indices of the efficiency of primary education. This article considers the reasons for these differences. It discusses the role of the state, educational policy and its implementation, linkages among educational, economic and social policies, cultural belief systems that are relevant to education, classroom teaching and learning, teacher characteristics, and the physical conditions of schools.

Rao, Nirmala; Cheng, Kai-Ming; Narain, Kirti



Pre-harvest state level wheat acreage estimation using IRS-IA LISS-I data in Punjab (India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat acreage of the state of Punjab, India was estimated using single-acquisition Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS)-1A LISS-I digital data during the 1988–89 wheat season. The methodology consisted of stratified sample design, a 10 km by 10 km sample segments, a 10 per cent sample fraction and MXL-supervised classification. Data of February 1989 were used and results were available by




Bacterial species associated with traditional starter cultures used for fermented bamboo shoot production in Manipur state of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soidon is a non-salted acidic fermented food prepared from the succulent bamboo shoot tip of Schizostachyum capitatum Munro by using a traditional liquid starter called “soidon mahi” in Manipur state of India. In this study, 163 bacterial isolates associated with this starter samples were identified and their population distribution was investigated by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA), 16S rDNA

K. Jeyaram; W. Romi; Th. Anand Singh; A. Ranjita Devi; S. Soni Devi



Distribution of Recent Benthic Foraminifera and its Environmental Conditions of Karaikal, Central Coast of Tamil Nadu  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foraminifera have been successful inhabitants of every aquatic environment from deep oceans to brackish water lagoons, estuaries and even rarely in freshwater streams, lakes etc. offshore region of Karaikal the present study has been taken up to enhance the existing knowledge on foraminifera of central coast of Tamil Nadu, India. Totally 21 sediment and water samples were collected from the offshore region. The depth of sample collection in offshore area ranges from 1.5 m to 12 m. Standard procedures adopted for the evaluation of different environmental parameters are incorporated. A total of 33 foraminiferal taxa belonging to 17 genera, 12 subfamilies, 14 superfamilies, and 4 suborders have been identified. In Karaikal , the mean size of the sediments on the foreshore ranges from 1.51 to 2.95 ? indicating the predominance of fine sediments (80-85%) with an admixture of medium-grained sands. Calcium carbonate content is generally found to be directly proportional to the population size in both the estuary and shelf area. It clearly indicates that due to the erosional activities whatever sediments deposited near the Arasalar river in that region are transported to the marine region and were drifted towards northern direction by longshore current, hence the deposition of carbonate in the sediments shows negative correlation. Due to strong high energy environment the current action is more in this region the juvinile forms of A. beccarri, A.tepida, A. dendata, E. crispum, P. calar, and P. nipponica only withstand and the other species are absent. The Correlation between Living vs Dead, Dead Vs Calcium carbonate, Salinity Vs living, Organic matter Vs Living, Organic matter Vs Carbonate content shows positive correlation for all the samples like LT, HT, Beach, River, and Offshore. Even though, all the ecological parameters having good correlation with foraminifera, but the distribution are very less in the study area. M.RAJA Dept.of.Geology University of Madras Chennai,Tamilnadu, INDIA.

Murugan, R.; Gandhi, S.



Deviations from the O3-NO-NO2 photo-stationary state in Delhi, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A network of air quality and weather monitoring stations was set-up across Delhi, India, under the System of Air quality Forecasting And Research (SAFAR) project. The objective of this network was to enable better understanding of air quality in terms of atmospheric chemistry, emissions and forecasting in Delhi, one of the largest metropolises in the world. In this study, we focus on the O3-NO-NO2-triad Photo Stationary State (PSS), and investigate site-specific deviations in the Leighton Ratio (?) during a short period in 2012 (1-31 December). Large variations were observed in the NO (<1 ppbv to a peak of 295 ppbv), NO2 (<2 ppbv-47 ppbv) and O3 (4 ppbv-95 ppbv) mixing ratios, all of which showed strong diurnal variation. The ? values showed large deviations from unity over the measurement period, with mostly negative deviations (? < 1), showing that the air masses were dominated by local sources of NOx and that the PSS was not achieved. Positive deviations (? > 1) were also observed occasionally, and these data were used to estimate the total peroxy radical (PO2) mixing ratios. This is the first estimate of PO2 reported for the city of Delhi and compares well with the results in the literature.

Chate, Dilip M.; Ghude, Sachin D.; Beig, Gurfan; Mahajan, Anoop S.; Jena, Chinmay; Srinivas, Reka; Dahiya, Anita; Kumar, Nandini



Grass pea consumption & present scenario of neurolathyrism in Maharashtra State of India  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Neurolathyrism is a non progressive motor neuron disorder engendered by the prolonged over-consumption of Lathyrus sativus (grass pea) seeds which contain a neurotoxic amino acid, ?-N oxalyl- L-?, ?-diaminopropionic acid (?-ODAP). It is characterized by spastic paraparesis in the hind limbs. The present study was conducted in 105 households (HHs) of Gondia district in Maharashtra, India, where grass pea is cultivated and consumed to assess the health implication of its consumption. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 105 HHS in five villages and grass pea samples were collected for ?-ODAP estimation. Amino acid analysis was also done, neurolathyrism cases were identified by snowball sampling method and neurological examination was carried out. Results: The study revealed that 61 per cent of population was consuming this pulse as a part of diet. ?-ODAP concentration in grass pea was high in Bora village (1254.5 ± 528.21 mg %) and less in Malgaon village (413.6±415.79 mg %). The nutritional status of the people was within the normal range (BMI 18± 3.40 kg/m2) in the surveyed households. Consumption of grass pea was observed to be less than 25g. Conclusions: The cases of neurolathyrism declined in all the studied villages due to reduced ?-ODAP exposure through Lathyrus sativus consumption, however, the grass pea was cultivated and consumed in Gondia district of Maharashtra State. PMID:25222783

Khandare, Arjun L.; Babu, J.J; Ankulu, M.; Aparna, N.; Shirfule, Amol; Rao, G. Shankar



Aboriginal uses and management of ethnobotanical species in deciduous forests of Chhattisgarh state in India  

PubMed Central

A study on the native uses of ethnobotanical species was carried out in the south Surguja district of Chhattisgarh state in India with the major objective of identifying different food and medicinal plant species and also to understand their ongoing management and conservation. Through questionnaire and personal interviews, a total of 73 ethnobotanical species used by tribal and non-tribal communities were documented, of these 36 species were used in curing different types of diseases and 22 were used as edible food plants. This rich traditional knowledge of local people has an immense potential for pharmacological studies. The outside forces, at present, were mainly blamed to change the traditional system of harvesting and management of ethnobotanical species. The destructive harvesting practices have damaged the existing populations of many ethnobotanical species viz., Asparagus racemosus, Dioscorea bulbifera, Boswellia serrata, Buchnania lanzan, Sterculia urens and Anogeissus latifolia. The sustainable harvesting and management issues of ethnobotanical species are discussed in view of their conservation and management. PMID:19653889

Kala, Chandra Prakash



Molecular investigations of dengue virus during outbreaks in Orissa state, Eastern India from 2010 to 2011.  


Dengue is one of the most important arboviral diseases in India. Orissa state in Eastern India reported the first dengue outbreak in 2010, followed by extensive outbreaks in 2011, affecting large number of people. Detailed entomological, serological and phylogenetic investigations were performed in mosquitoes and patients serum collected from dengue virus (DENV) affected areas of Orissa. The combination of DENV specific IgM capture-ELISA and reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) detected high DENV positivity in serum samples. DENV was detected in mosquitoes reared from field caught pupae by RT-PCR, which confirmed the vertical transmission of DENV that may have an important role in the recurrence of dengue outbreaks. Phylogenetic analyses revealed the circulation of Indian lineage of DENV-2 (genotype-IV) and DENV-3 (genotype-III) in vectors and patients serum in Orissa from 2010 to 2011, DENV-2 being the prevailing serotype. Selection analyses within the C-prM region showed that the emergence of DENV-2 and DENV-3 in Orissa was constrained by purifying selection which suggested the role of ecological factors like mosquito density and behavior in the recurrent outbreaks. Aedes albopictus was found to be the most abundant vector in the areas surveyed, followed by Aedes aegypti. Indoor breeding spots (earthen pots) were most abundant, with high pupal productivity (38.50) and contributed maximum Aedes species in the affected areas. The DENV infection rate estimated by maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) was high for indoor breeding Aedes (4.87; 95% CI: 1.82, 10.78) in comparison to outdoor breeding Aedes (1.55; 95% CI: 0.09, 7.55). The high MLE in Ae. albopictus (4.72; 95% CI: 1.94, 9.80) in comparison to Ae. aegypti (1.55; 95% CI: 0.09, 7.54) indicated that Ae. albopictus was the main DENV vector responsible for the outbreaks. The results indicated the circulation of two virulent serotypes of DENV in Orissa, mainly by Ae. albopictus with the implication for implementation of intradomecile vector control measures to prevent the spread of dengue. PMID:23523598

Das, Biswadeep; Das, Mumani; Dwibedi, Bhagirathi; Kar, Santanu K; Hazra, Rupenangshu K



Selected Tree Seed Sources in Australia, India, Holland and the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The quality and orientation of a country's reforestation efforts depend on the availability and use of good plant material and seed. This compilation of seed sources, consisting of correspondence and catalogs from Australia, India, Holland, and the United...

M. D. Benge



Awareness, Attitude and Prevention of HIV among Pregnant Women in Maharashtra State, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Background: India’s one billion inhabitants has been brought up against the pandemic,of HIV. Knowledge,and awareness about HIV\\/AIDS is the important weapon that has to fight ignorance, illiteracy and poverty in this culture. Young women ,today are most at risk of HIV-infection because of their low status and their expected ignorance of sex ,and sexuality. Information about HIV will reduce

Maria Tillich; Anna Nilsson


Diversity among Clients of Female Sex Workers in India: Comparing Risk Profiles and Intervention Impact by Site of Solicitation. Implications for the Vulnerability of Less Visible Female Sex Workers  

PubMed Central

Background It seems generally accepted that targeted interventions in India have been successful in raising condom use between female sex workers (FSWs) and their clients. Data from clients of FSWs have been under-utilised to analyse the risk environments and vulnerability of both partners. Methods The 2009 Integrated Biological and Behavioural Assessment survey sampled clients of FSWs at hotspots in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu (n=5040). The risk profile of clients in terms of sexual networking and condom use are compared across usual pick-up place. We used propensity score matching (PSM) to estimate the average treatment effect on treated (ATT) of intervention messages on clients’ consistent condom use with FSW. Results Clients of the more hidden sex workers who solicit from home or via phone or agents had more extensive sexual networks, reporting casual female partners as well as anal intercourse with male partners and FSW. Clients of brothel-based sex workers, who were the least educated, reported the fewest number/categories of partners, least anal sex, and lowest condom use (41%). Consistent condom use varied widely by state: 65% in Andhra Pradesh, 36% in Maharashtra and 29% in Tamil Nadu. Exposure to intervention messages on sexually transmitted infections was lowest among men frequenting brothels (58%), and highest among men soliciting less visible sex workers (70%). Exposure had significant impact on consistent condom use, including among clients of home-based sex workers (ATT 21%; p=0.001) and among men soliciting other more hidden FSW (ATT 17%; p=0.001). In Tamil Nadu no impact could be demonstrated. Conclusion Commercial sex happens between two partners and both need to be, and can be, reached by intervention messages. Commercial sex is still largely unprotected and as the sex industry gets more diffuse a greater focus on reaching clients of sex workers seems important given their extensive sexual networks. PMID:24023877

Suryawanshi, Dipak; Bhatnagar, Tarun; Deshpande, Sucheta; Zhou, Weiwei; Singh, Pankaj; Collumbien, Martine



Using Third-Party Inspectors in Building Energy Codes Enforcement in India  

SciTech Connect

India is experiencing fast income growth and urbanization, and this leads to unprecedented increases in demand for building energy services and resulting energy consumption. In response to rapid growth in building energy use, the Government of India issued the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) in 2007, which is consistent with and based on the 2001 Energy Conservation Act. ECBC implementation has been voluntary since its enactment and a few states have started to make progress towards mandatory implementation. Rajasthan is the first state in India to adopt ECBC as a mandatory code. The State adopted ECBC with minor additions on March 28, 2011 through a stakeholder process; it became mandatory in Rajasthan on September 28, 2011. Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, and Andhra Pradesh have started to draft an implementation roadmap and build capacity for its implementation. The Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) plans to encourage more states to adopt ECBC in the near future, including Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, West Bengal, and Delhi. Since its inception, India has applied the code on a voluntary basis, but the Government of India is developing a strategy to mandate compliance. Implementing ECBC requires coordination between the Ministry of Power and the Ministry of Urban Development at the national level as well as interdepartmental coordination at the state level. One challenge is that the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs), the enforcement entities of building by-laws, lack capacity to implement ECBC effectively. For example, ULBs in some states might find the building permitting procedures to be too complex; in other cases, lack of awareness and technical knowledge on ECBC slows down the amendment of local building by-laws as well as ECBC implementation. The intent of this white paper is to share with Indian decision-makers code enforcement approaches: through code officials, third-party inspectors, or a hybrid approach. Given the limited capacity and human resources available in the state and local governments, involving third-party inspectors could rapidly expand the capacity for plan reviews and broad implementation. However, the procedures of involving third-parties need to be carefully designed in order to guarantee a fair process. For example, there should be multiple checks and certification requirements for third-party inspectors, and the government should have the final approval when third-party inspectors are used in a project. This paper discusses different approaches of involving third-parties in ECBC enforcement; the Indian states may choose the approaches that work best in their given circumstances.

Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Kumar, Pradeep; Van Wie, Laura; Bhatt, Vatsal



State of municipal solid waste management in Delhi, the capital of India.  


Delhi is the most densely populated and urbanized city of India. The annual growth rate in population during the last decade (1991-2001) was 3.85%, almost double the national average. Delhi is also a commercial hub, providing employment opportunities and accelerating the pace of urbanization, resulting in a corresponding increase in municipal solid waste (MSW) generation. Presently the inhabitants of Delhi generate about 7000tonnes/day of MSW, which is projected to rise to 17,000-25,000tonnes/day by the year 2021. MSW management has remained one of the most neglected areas of the municipal system in Delhi. About 70-80% of generated MSW is collected and the rest remains unattended on streets or in small open dumps. Only 9% of the collected MSW is treated through composting, the only treatment option, and rest is disposed in uncontrolled open landfills at the outskirts of the city. The existing composting plants are unable to operate to their intended treatment capacity due to several operational problems. Therefore, along with residue from the composting process, the majority of MSW is disposed in landfills. In absence of leachate and landfill gas collection systems, these landfills are a major source of groundwater contamination and air pollution (including generation of greenhouse gases). This study describes and evaluates the present state of municipal solid waste management in Delhi. The paper also summarizes the proposed policies and initiatives of the Government of Delhi and the Municipal Corporation of Delhi to improve the existing MSW management system. PMID:17692510

Talyan, Vikash; Dahiya, R P; Sreekrishnan, T R



Detection and molecular characterization of Newcastle disease virus in peafowl (Pavo cristatus) in Haryana State, India.  


Present study was undertaken to investigate the cause of deaths of peafowls in Haryana State. In total, 145 birds were sick and 28 birds were reported dead during July to September 2012. Some of the sick birds were showing signs of shaking of heads, torticollis and paresis. Blood and cloacal swab samples from sick birds along with brain and intestinal tissues from dead birds were collected for further investigation. Although post-mortem examination showed no typical lesions of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) yet raised HI tires against NDV in some serum samples and clinical signs indicated the presence of NDV. One of the brain tissues (NDV/IND2012/01) from the field case was processed and adapted to Vero cell line for virus isolation. The fusion (F) gene based nested RT-PCR (RT-nPCR) confirmed the presence of NDV in all field samples and cell culture isolate. Sequencing of the partial F gene amplicons (216 bp) using the PCR primers as sequencing primers confirmed the PCR results. The deduced amino acid sequences of partial F gene were found to have the amino acid motif (111)GRRQKR/F(117) in the fusion protein cleavage site (FPCS). This amino acid motif is indicative of the velogenic nature of these NDVs. Phylogenetic studies have shown that the virus belonged to class II genotype VII very closely related to virus isolates originated from outbreaks in Western Europe, Israel, Indonesia, Taiwan and India. Phylogenetic grouping of the virus and sequence of FPCS is indicative of pathogenic potential of virus strain circulating in peacocks in Haryana. PMID:24426301

Kumar, Aman; Maan, Sushila; Mahajan, Nand Kishore; Rana, Virender Pratap; Jindal, Naresh; Batra, Kanisht; Ghosh, Arnab; Mishra, Shiv Kumar; Kapoor, Sanjay; Maan, Narender Singh



Social factors influencing the acquisition of antibiotics without prescription in Kerala State, south India.  


We investigated the magnitude of self-medication with antibiotics in a peri-urban area of Southern Kerala State, India and factors influencing this practice. First, a random sample of 400 households was surveyed in one primary health centre area near Trivandrum. We found 69.3% (95% CI = 64.8-73.8) of households had at least one person using a pharmaceutical product during the two-week recall period; antibiotics formed almost 11% of the medicines consumed. Next, pharmacy based interview and observation data were collected from 405 antibiotic purchasers sampled from 11 out of the 12 private pharmacies in the area. Seventy-three of these 405 customers purchased antibiotics without a prescription (18%; 95% CI = 14.3-21.7). By combining the household survey and pharmacy observations, we estimate that almost half of 1% (0.41%; 95% CI = 0.24-1.16) of the population, or four people per 1000, is engaged in self-medication using antibiotics in Kerala in any two-week period. Our data show that people least likely to follow this practice are from higher income families, having more education and higher status occupations and receiving the benefits of medical insurance. Conversely, logistic regression analysis indicated that risk of buying antibiotics without a script was associated with education at secondary level or below, the perception that it is expensive to consult a doctor and low satisfaction with medical practitioners. Keralites' self-medication patterns are interpreted broadly using social, cultural, historical and economic perspectives. Solutions to the problem of antibiotic misuse are suggested, proceeding on several fronts: among practitioners, suppliers and marketeers of medicines, and among the population of pharmaceutical consumers themselves. PMID:10695985

Saradamma, R D; Higginbotham, N; Nichter, M



Genetic diversity and population structure of rice landraces from Eastern and North Eastern States of India  

PubMed Central

Background Adaptations to different habitats across the globe and consequent genetic variation within rice have resulted in more than 120,000 diverse accessions including landraces, which are vital genetic resources for agronomic and quality traits. In India the rice landraces of the states West Bengal, Assam, Mizoram, Manipur and Nagaland are worthy candidates for genetic assessment. Keeping the above in view, the present study was conducted with the aim to (i) calculate the genetic distances among the accessions of 83 landraces collected from these states along with 8 check accessions (total 91 accessions) using 23 previously mapped SSR markers and (ii) examine the population structure among the accessions using model-based clustering approach. Results Among the 91 accessions, 182 alleles were identified which included 51 rare and 27 null alleles. The average PIC value was 0.7467/marker. The non-aromatic landraces from West Bengal was most diverse with 154 alleles and an average PIC value of 0.8005/marker, followed by the aromatic landraces from West Bengal with 118 alleles and an average PIC value of 0.6524/marker, while the landraces from North East ranked third with 113 alleles and an average PIC value of 0.5745/marker. In the dendrogram distinct clusters consisting of predominantly aromatic landraces and predominantly North East Indian landraces were observed. The non-aromatic landraces from West Bengal were interspersed within these two clusters. The accessions were moderately structured, showing four sub-populations (A-D) with an Fst value of 0.398, 0.364, 0.206 and 0.281, respectively. The assigned clustering of accessions was well in agreement in both distance-based and model-based approaches. Conclusions Each of the accessions could be identified unequivocally by the SSR profiles. Genetically the non aromatic landraces from West Bengal were most diverse followed by the aromatic landraces from the same state. The North Eastern accessions ranked third. Further, grouping of accessions based on their agronomic traits may serve as a resource for future studies, leading to the improvement of rice. Moreover in-situ preservation of the landraces is also a means of protection of biodiversity and cultural heritage. PMID:23945062



Constraints to scaling-up health programmes: a comparative study of two Indian states  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses constraints to scaling-up successful health interventions and opportunities for relaxing such constraints in Tamil Nadu and Karnataka states. The analytical framework used in the paper categorizes constraints by the level at which they operate. A comparison of the implementation of selected health programmes in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu is appropriate since there are good chances of replicating

Shreelata Rao Seshadri



Decentralized Natural Resource Management: From State to Co-management in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In India, as in many parts of the developing world, the dominant view has been that local people are causing natural resource degradation. New thinking in the natural resource management domain is gradually replacing the older views blaming local people for decline of natural resources. The new approach advocates decentralization of natural resource management. This is discussed in this paper

Nagothu Udaya Sekhar



Population-based seroprevalence of HSV2 and syphilis in Andhra Pradesh state of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Understanding the prevalence and risk factors for common causes of ulcerative genital disease in the general population would inform current STI syndromic management and HIV testing strategies in high HIV prevalence regions of India. METHODS: Persons 15-49 years old from 32 rural and 34 urban clusters were sampled using a stratified random method to represent adults in the high

John A Schneider; Vemu Lakshmi; Rakhi Dandona; G Anil Kumar; Talasila Sudha; Lalit Dandona




E-print Network

SOIL MOISTURE RETENTION CHARACTERISTICS AND HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY FOR DIFFERENT AREAS IN INDIA systems require knowledge of the relationships between soil moisture content (), soil water pressure (h the approximate soil moisture retention curve at the places where only saturated hydraulic conductivity data

Kumar, C.P.


State Initiatives for the Empowerment of Women of Rural Communities: Experiences from Eastern India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussions with women in rural areas of India analyzed government-initiated development programs regarding availability of information, suitability to women's needs, and perception of problems. Most programs were top down with little input form women; self-help approaches problematized the "self" and did not consider the realities of women's…

Lahiri-Dutt, Kuntala; Samanta, Gopa



India: Implications of Communication Infrastructure on the Production of Media in State Training Institutes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Description of training institutes developed by the government of India to improve the irrigation system focuses on the communication system infrastructure for the production and use of audiovisual materials for training. Highlights include local production of media; equipment and communication networks; cost effectiveness; and recommendations for…

Maughan, George R.



Role of Crop Diversification in Output Growth in India: A State-Level Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diversification, as one of the major tools of policy, drew widespread attention in India in the recent past in the face of stagnant growth, incomplete agricultural transformation and low productivity. There are four dimensions of diversification—number of crops, spread of cropping pattern, proportion of high value crop in the cropping pattern and shift in cropping pattern mix. This paper examines

Pradeep Kumar Mehta



The Externalities of Strong Social Capital: Post-Tsunami Recovery in Southeast India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much research has implied that social capital functions as an unqualified ‘public good’, enhancing governance, economic performance, and quality-of-life. Scholars of disaster have extended this concept to posit that social capital provides non-excludable benefits to whole communities after major crises. Using qualitative methods to analyse data from villages in Tamil Nadu, India following the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, this article

Daniel P. Aldrich



Rural infrastucture, the settlement system, and development of the regional economy in Southern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

North Arcot, a rural district of Tamil Nadu, India, has been the site of extensive research on whether economic growth induced by the introduction of the green revolution has widened inequities between the well-to-do and the poor. Data indicate that not only landless laborers and small-scale farmers in this area have benefited, but also small businesses and services. Using that

Sudhir Wanmali



The Myths of India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stating that superficial stereotypes hinder the understanding of people and places, Day presents several well-known over-generalizations about India. Attempts to update readers about recent changes within the country while dispelling some popular myths. Discusses India's large population, poverty, economic growth, women's roles, and culture, along…

Day, Frederick A.



State Policies and Women's Autonomy in China, the Republic of Korea, and India, 1950-2000: Lessons from Contrasting Experiences. Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper compares the influence of state policies on gender roles and women's empowerment in China, India, and South Korea. In 1950, these newly formed states were largely poor and agrarian, with common cultural factors that placed similar severe constraints on women's autonomy. The three countries followed very different paths of development,…

Das Gupta, Monica; Lee, Sunhwa; Uberoi, Patricia; Wang, Danning; Wang, Lihong; Zhang, Xiaodan


The state of health services in China and India: a larger context.  


In this paper the problems of health services in China and India are related to some structural features of the two economies. Some similarities and differences exist across these two countries in terms of political economy, with differential results. Both countries have experienced remarkable economic growth during the past quarter-century, but this has not always translated into improvements in health for the poor. Although China used to have an egalitarian basic public health service, the system has become quite inegalitarian during the past quarter-century, with the disintegration of the communes and adoption of fee-based services under a system of decentralized public finance. India's health system has remained inegalitarian throughout. PMID:18607025

Bardhan, Pranab



Modern India's Strategic Advantage to the United States: Her Twin Strengths in Himsa and Ahimsa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The notions of just war (jus-in-bello) and just peace (jus-in-pace), with himsa (the use of force) and ahimsa (nonviolence) are not new. They were conceptualized in Eastern Philosophy in early Hindu texts like the Vedas and the Bhagavad Gita. The theoretical concept of himsa and the Gandhian principle of ahimsa has been actualized in modern India. Both streams of thinking

Breena E. Coates



Social Sector Expenditure and Child Mortality in India: A State-Level Analysis from 1997 to 2009  

PubMed Central

Background India is unlikely to meet the Millennium Development Goal for child mortality. As public policy impacts child mortality, we assessed the association of social sector expenditure with child mortality in India. Methods and Findings Mixed-effects regression models were used to assess the relationship of state-level overall social sector expenditure and its major components (health, health-related, education, and other) with mortality by sex among infants and children aged 1–4 years from 1997 to 2009, adjusting for potential confounders. Counterfactual models were constructed to estimate deaths averted due to overall social sector increases since 1997. Increases in per capita overall social sector expenditure were slightly higher in less developed than in more developed states from 1997 to 2009 (2.4-fold versus 2-fold), but the level of expenditure remained 36% lower in the former in 2009. Increase in public expenditure on health was not significantly associated with mortality reduction in infants or at ages 1–4 years, but a 10% increase in health-related public expenditure was associated with a 3.6% mortality reduction (95% confidence interval 0.2–6.9%) in 1–4 years old boys. A 10% increase in overall social sector expenditure was associated with a mortality reduction in both boys (6.8%, 3.5–10.0%) and girls (4.1%, 0.8–7.5%) aged 1–4 years. We estimated 119,807 (95% uncertainty interval 53,409 – 214,662) averted deaths in boys aged 1–4 years and 94,037 (14,725 – 206,684) in girls in India in 2009 that could be attributed to increases in overall social sector expenditure since 1997. Conclusions Further reduction in child mortality in India would be facilitated if policymakers give high priority to the social sector as a whole for resource allocation in the country’s 5-year plan for 2012–2017, as public expenditure on health alone has not had major impact on reducing child mortality. PMID:23409166

Makela, Susanna M.; Dandona, Rakhi; Dilip, T. R.; Dandona, Lalit



Freshwater greenhouse gas emissions and their implications on landscape level carbon balances in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from global freshwaters are important sources of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. It has been estimated that about 0.65 Pg of C (CO2 equiv.) yr-1 in the form of CH4 and 1.4 Pg C yr -1 in the form of CO2 is being emitted from global freshwaters. Therefore, including freshwater emissions in the greenhouse gas budgets in the national or global levels could significantly reduce the estimated land carbon sink, but present estimates suffer from lack of data, in particular from tropical freshwaters. Hence, we attempted to test the validity of the land carbon sink estimate in India, a tropical country with a large number of natural and man-made water bodies. We measured the CH4 and CO2 fluxes and surface water concentrations from a wide variety of inland freshwaters like lakes, ponds, rivers, reservoirs, open wells, canals and springs in three South Indian states, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh. We observed that almost all of these freshwater systems emitted varied amounts of CH4 and a majority of them emitted CO2, similar to other tropical locations in South America. We extrapolated the measured fluxes for the whole of Indian inland waters by using the total area of different categories of inland waters in the national wetland atlas of India. By comparing our estimates of aquatic fluxes with the national greenhouse gas budget, we show that the land carbon sink of India is substantially overestimated. Thus, freshwater emissions are important components of greenhouse gas budgets on a landscape level and it is necessary to incorporate them in national and global greenhouse gas budgets to accurately quantify the land carbon sink.

Panneer Selvam, B.; Natchimuthu, S.; Arunachalam, L.; Bastviken, D.



Genesis of wollastonite- and grandite-rich skarns in a suite of marble-calc-silicate rocks from Sittampundi, Tamil Nadu: constraints on the P-T-fluid regime in parts of the Pan-African mobile belt of South India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pan-African tectonothermal activities in areas near Sittampundi, south India, are characterized by metamorphic changes in an interlayered sequence of migmatitic metapelites, marble and calc-silicate rocks. This rock sequence underwent multiple episodes of folding, and was intruded by granite batholiths during and subsequent to these folding events. The marble and the calc-silicate rocks develop a variety of skarns, which on the basis of mineralogy; can be divided into the following types: Type I: wollastonite + clinopyroxene (mg# = 71-73) + grandite (16-21 mol% Adr) + quartz ± calcite, Type II: grandite (25-29 mol% Adr ) + clinopyroxene (mg# = 70) + calcite + quartz, and Type III: grandite (36-38 mol% Adr) + clinopyroxene (mg# = 55-65) + epidote + scapolite + calcite + quartz. Type I skarn is 2-10 cm thick, and is dominated by wollastonite ( >70 vol%) and commonly occurs as boudinaged layers parallel to the regional foliation Sn1 related to the Fn1 folds. Locally, thin discontinuous lenses and stringers of this skarn develop along the axial planes of Fn2 folds. The Type II skarn, on the other hand, is devoid of wollastonite, rich in grandite garnet (40-70 vol%) and developed preferentially at the interface of clinopyroxene-rich calc-silicates layers and host marble during the later folding event. Reaction textures and the phase compositional data suggest the following reactions in the skarns: 1. calcite + SiO2 ? wollastonite + V, 2. calcite + clinopyroxene + O2 ? grandite + SiO2 + V, 3. scapolite + calcite + quartz + clinopyroxene + O2 ? grandite + V and 4. epidote + calcite + quartz + clinopyroxene + O2 ? grandite + V Textural relations and composition of phases demonstrate that (a) silica metasomatism of the host marble by infiltration of aqueous fluids (XCO2 < 0.15) led to production of large volumes of wollastonite in the wollastonite-rich skarn whereas mobility of FeO, SiO2 and CaO across the interface of marble and calc-silicate and infiltration of aqueous fluids (XCO2 < 0.35) were instrumental for the formation of grandite skarns. Composition of minerals in type II skarn indicates that Al2O3 was introduced in the host marble by the infiltrating fluid. Interpretation of mineral assemblages observed in the interlayered metapelites and the calcareous rocks in pseudosections, isothermal P-XCO2 and isobaric T-XCO2 diagrams tightly bracket the “peak” metamorphic conditions at c.9 ± 1 kbar and 750° ± 30°C. Subsequent to ‘peak’ metamorphic conditions, the rocks were exhumed on a steeply decompressive P-T path. The estimated ‘peak’ P-T estimates are inconsistent with the “extreme” metamorphic conditions (>11 kbar and >950°C) inferred for the Pan-African tectonothermal events from the neighboring areas. Field and petrological attributes of these skarn rocks are consistent with the infiltration of aqueous fluid predominantly during the Fn1 folding event at or close to the ‘peak’ metamorphic conditions. Petrological features indicate that the buffering capacity of the rocks was lost during the formation of type I and II skarns. However, the host rock could buffer the composition of the permeated fluids during the formation of type III skarn. Aqueous fluids derived from prograde metamorphism of the metapelites seem to be the likely source for the metasomatic fluids that led to the formation of the skarn rocks.

Sengupta, P.; Dutta, U.; Bhui, Uttam K.; Mukhopadhyay, D.



Relative Roles of Weather Variables and Change in Human Population in Malaria: Comparison over Different States of India  

PubMed Central

Background Pro-active and effective control as well as quantitative assessment of impact of climate change on malaria requires identification of the major drivers of the epidemic. Malaria depends on vector abundance which, in turn, depends on a combination of weather variables. However, there remain several gaps in our understanding and assessment of malaria in a changing climate. Most of the studies have considered weekly or even monthly mean values of weather variables, while the malaria vector is sensitive to daily variations. Secondly, rarely all the relevant meteorological variables have been considered together. An important question is the relative roles of weather variables (vector abundance) and change in host (human) population, in the change in disease load. Method We consider the 28 states of India, characterized by diverse climatic zones and changing population as well as complex variability in malaria, as a natural test bed. An annual vector load for each of the 28 states is defined based on the number of vector genesis days computed using daily values of temperature, rainfall and humidity from NCEP daily Reanalysis; a prediction of potential malaria load is defined by taking into consideration changes in the human population and compared with the reported number of malaria cases. Results For most states, the number of malaria cases is very well correlated with the vector load calculated with the combined conditions of daily values of temperature, rainfall and humidity; no single weather variable has any significant association with the observed disease prevalence. Conclusion The association between vector-load and daily values of weather variables is robust and holds for different climatic regions (states of India). Thus use of all the three weather variables provides a reliable means of pro-active and efficient vector sanitation and control as well as assessment of impact of climate change on malaria. PMID:24971510

Goswami, Prashant; Murty, Upadhayula Suryanarayana; Mutheneni, Srinivasa Rao; Krishnan, Swathi Trithala



Molecular Evidence for the Occurrence of Abutilon mosaic virus, A New World Begomovirus in India.  


During an investigation in the year 2010, on the weed reservoir of begomovirus, Abutilon pictum showing bright yellow mosaic symptoms was observed in Udhagamandalam, Tamil Nadu, India. The complete bipartite genome of a begomovirus was cloned and sequenced which revealed association of Abutilon mosaic virus (AbMV). Nicotiana benthamiana plants inoculated biolistically with the concatemers generated through rolling circle amplification of the cloned DNAs were asymptomatic; however three out of nine plants showed presence of viral DNA A. A recombination event in the ORF BC1 with ToLCNDV DNA B (HM989846) was detected. This is the first molecular evidence of AbMV in India. PMID:24426288

Jyothsna, P; Haq, Q M I; Jayaprakash, P; Malathi, V G



The relationship between physical intimate partner violence and sexually transmitted infection among women in India and the United States.  


To investigate the association between physical intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexually transmitted infection (STI) in two national samples. Data came from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions Wave 2 (n=34,653) and the National Family Health Survey-3 (n=124 385). Ever-married women between the ages of 20 and 49 were asked if they had experienced physical violence by their partner in the past year. Outcomes were presence of doctor confirmed HIV and self-reported STI. Age at first intercourse was examined as a mediator of the relationship between IPV and STI. Logistic regression examined associations between IPV, age at first intercourse and STI. Compared to individuals with no physical IPV, risk for STI was higher for individuals who experienced past year IPV living in the United States and India, however once controlling for age at first intercourse, age, education, household wealth/income and past year sexual violence, the relationship between IPV, and STI was significant in the American sample [(AOR)=1.65, 95% (CI)=1.21-2.26], however not for individuals living in India [(AOR)=1.75, 95% (CI)=0.84-3.65]. Individuals with exposure to physical IPV are at increased odds for STI. Age at first intercourse although a marker of risk, may not be an accurate marker of risky sexual behavior in both samples. PMID:23778315

Spiwak, Rae; Afifi, Tracie O; Halli, Shiva; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia; Sareen, Jitender



State of Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry in India: Current status and vision for future  

PubMed Central

Over the years Consultation-Liaison (C-L) psychiatry has contributed significantly to the growth of the psychiatry and has brought psychiatry very close to the advances in the medicine. It has also led to changes in the medical education and in the providing comprehensive management to the physically ill. In India, although the General Hospital Psychiatric units were established in 1930s, C-L Psychiatry has never been the main focus of training and research. Hence there is an urgent need to improve C-L Psychiatry services and training to provide best and optimal care to the patients and provide best education to the trainees. PMID:22135437

Grover, Sandeep



Developing a sustainable phytomanagement strategy for excessive selenium in western United States and India.  


Phytomanagement technology is recognized as an inexpensive and environmental friendly strategy for managing natural-occurring selenium (Se) in soils and in poor quality waters. Multi-year field and greenhouse studies were conducted with different plant species in California, USA and Punjab, India under high Se growing conditions. Some of the plant species included; canola (Brassica napus), mustard (B. juncea), broccoli (B. oleracea), spearmint (Mentha viridis), sugarcane (Saccharum officcinarum), guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and poplar (Populus deltoides). California soils had a sodium-sulfate-dominated salinity between 6-10 dS m(-1), while Indian soils had a calcium carbonate salinity less than 1 dS m(-1). Results demonstrated that high sulfate conditions reduced plant Se accumulation more than 100 x in Californian grown plants compared to Se accumulation in Indian grown plants. Tissue concentrations generally did not exceed 10 and 200 mg kg DM(-1) in leaves of plants grown in California and India, respectively. At these plant concentrations, Se phytomanagement is more effective in Indian soils than in California soils. Successful management of Se by plants requires selecting crops or crop rotations that are tolerant of the soil condition and identifying and creating new viable Se-enriched products. PMID:22046761

Bañuelos, G S; Dhillon, K S



Modernity as a “Rain of Words”: Tracing the Flows of “Rain” between Dalit Women and Intellectuals in Tamil Nadu  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I investigate the ways in which modernity in contemporary Tamil Nadu may be understood as something other than a purely exclusionary category. I enquire into the flow of language, imagery, music, resonant phrases and film dialogues that has allowed the values of the Self Respect movement in Tamil Nadu to move as a “Rain of Words” across

Kalpana Ram




Microsoft Academic Search

The December 26, 2004 Sumatra earthquake of Moment Magnitude Mw = 9.3, the largest earthquake in the world since the 1964 Prince William Sound, Alaska earthquake, generated a widespread tsunami. Soon after the earthquake, the authors visited Tamil Nadu and Pondicherry for a damage survey. This paper describes the structural aspects of damages caused on the coast of Tamil Nadu.

B. K. Maheshwari; M. L. Sharma; J. P. Narayan


Characterization of minerals in air dust particles in the state of Tamilnadu, India through FTIR, XRD and SEM analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abstract of this paper explains the presence of minerals in air which causes great concern regarding public health issues. The spectroscopic investigation of air dust particles of several samples in various locations in the state of Tamilnadu, India is reported. Qualitative analyses were carried out to determine the major and minor constituent minerals present in the samples based on the FTIR, XRD absorption peaks. This study also identified the minerals like quartz, asbestos, kaolinite, calcite, hematite, montmorillonite, nacrite and several other trace minerals in the air dust particles. The presents of quartz is mainly found in all the samples invariably. Hence the percentage of quartz and its crystalline nature were determined with the help of extinction co-efficient and crystallinity index respectively. The shape and size of the particulates are studied with SEM analysis.

Senthil Kumar, R.; Rajkumar, P.



Comparative Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistance in Community-Acquired Urinary Tract Infection Cases from Representative States of Northern and Southern India  

PubMed Central

Context: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are amongst the most common infections described in outpatient settings. Increased antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of urinary tract pathogens is a matter of global public health concern. Treatment of UTI depends on both prevalence and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of causative bacteria at any specific geographical location. Aim: This study was undertaken to compare the prevalence of uropathogens and their AMR profile in two different geographical parts of India. Materials and Methods: Clean-catch mid-stream urine samples were collected from adult patients, bacterial flora isolated from human urine was evaluated for antimicrobial susceptibility profile using Kirby Bauer’s disc diffusion method among patients from Hyderabad (Southern India), Rajasthan and Punjab (Northern India). The data were analysed using Chi-square (?2) test, confidence interval (CI), odds ratio (OR) analysis and p-value using SPSS 16 software. Results: Escherichia coli (55.1%) were the most prevalent isolates followed by Enterococcus faecalis (15.8%). Amikacin was the most active antimicrobial agents which showed low resistance rate of 14%. The present study revealed the geographical difference in prevalence of uropathogens with Klebsiella pneumoniae being the second most common uropathogen followed by E. faecalis in the states from northern India while no K. pneumoniae was seen in samples from southern India but E. faecalis was the second most prevalent organism. Conclusion: Therefore, development of regional surveillance programs is highly recommended for implementation of national CA-UTI guidelines in Indian settings. PMID:25386432

Gupta, Shivani; Padmavathi, DV



Climate variables as predictors for seasonal forecast of dengue occurrence in Chennai, Tamil Nadu  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background Dengue is a recently emerging vector borne diseases in Chennai. As per the WHO report in 2011 dengue is one of eight climate sensitive disease of this century. Objective Therefore an attempt has been made to explore the influence of climate parameters on dengue occurrence and use for forecasting. Methodology Time series analysis has been applied to predict the number of dengue cases in Chennai, a metropolitan city which is the capital of Tamil Nadu, India. Cross correlation of the climate variables with dengue cases revealed that the most influential parameters were monthly relative humidity, minimum temperature at 4 months lag and rainfall at one month lag (Table 1). However due to intercorrelation of relative humidity and rainfall was high and therefore for predictive purpose the rainfall at one month lag was used for the model development. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models have been applied to forecast the occurrence of dengue. Results and Discussion The best fit model was ARIMA (1,0,1). It was seen that the monthly minimum temperature at four months lag (?= 3.612, p = 0.02) and rainfall at one month lag (?= 0.032, p = 0.017) were associated with dengue occurrence and they had a very significant effect. Mean Relative Humidity had a directly significant positive correlation at 99% confidence level, but the lagged effect was not prominent. The model predicted dengue cases showed significantly high correlation of 0.814(Figure 1) with the observed cases. The RMSE of the model was 18.564 and MAE was 12.114. The model is limited by the scarcity of the dataset. Inclusion of socioeconomic conditions and population offset are further needed to be incorporated for effective results. Conclusion Thus it could be claimed that the change in climatic parameters is definitely influential in increasing the number of dengue occurrence in Chennai. The climate variables therefore can be used for seasonal forecasting of dengue with rise in minimum temperature and rainfall at a city level. Table 1. Cross correlation of climate variables with dengue cases in Chennai ** p<0.01,*p<0.05

Subash Kumar, D. D.; Andimuthu, R.



Impact of riparian land use on stream insects of Kudremukh National Park, Karnataka state, India  

PubMed Central

The impact of riparian land use on the stream insect communities was studied at Kudremukh National Park located within Western Ghats, a tropical biodiversity hotspot in India. The diversity and community composition of stream insects varied across streams with different riparian land use types. The rarefied family and generic richness was highest in streams with natural semi evergreen forests as riparian vegetation. However, when the streams had human habitations and areca nut plantations as riparian land use type, the rarefied richness was higher than that of streams with natural evergreen forests and grasslands. The streams with scrub lands and iron ore mining as the riparian land use had the lowest rarefied richness. Within a landscape, the streams with the natural riparian vegetation had similar community composition. However, streams with natural grasslands as the riparian vegetation, had low diversity and the community composition was similar to those of paddy fields. We discuss how stream insect assemblages differ due to varied riparian land use patterns, reflecting fundamental alterations in the functioning of stream ecosystems. This understanding is vital to conserve, manage and restore tropical riverine ecosystems. PMID:17119631

Subramanian, K.A.; Sivaramakrishnan, K.G.; Gadgil, Madhav



Alternative energy sources from plants of Western Ghats (Tamil Nadu, India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-two taxa of Western Ghats plants were screened as potential alternative crops for renewable energy, oil, hydrocarbon and phytochemicals. The highest hydrocarbon yields were observed in Carissa carandas (1.7%), and Jatropha gossypifolia (1.7%). The highest polyphenol fraction was observed in Dodonaea viscosa (17.1%), Carissa carandas (7.7%), Swietenia mahagoni (6.6%), and Jatropha glandulifera (6.2%). The highest oil content was observed in

G. D. P. S Augustus; M Jayabalan; G. J Seiler



Characterization and evaluation of the factors affecting the geochemistry of groundwater in Neyveli, Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to achieve a better understanding of the nature of the factors influencing ground water composition as well as to specify them quantitatively, multivariate statistical analysis (factor analysis) were performed on the hydrochemical data of this area. R-mode factor analysis was carried out on the geochemical results of the 79-groundwater samples and the factor scores were transferred to areal maps. Fundamental chemical parameters of the groundwater have been compounded together for characterizing and interpreting a few empirical hydrogeochemical factors controlling the chemical nature of water. R-mode factor analysis reveals that the groundwater chemistry of the study area reflects the influence of anthropogenic activities, silicate weathering reactions, precipitation, dissolution and subsequent percolation into the groundwater. The data have been put into few major factors and the seasonal variation in the chemistry of water has been clearly brought out by these factors. Factor scores were transferred to contour diagrams and the factor score analysis has been used successfully to delineate the stations under study with various factors and the seasonal effect on the sample stations.

Jayaprakash, M.; Giridharan, L.; Venugopal, T.; Krishna Kumar, S. P.; Periakali, P.



Hydrogeochemical analysis and evaluation of groundwater quality in the Gadilam river basin, Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water samples were collected from different formations of Gadilam river basin and analyzed to assess the major ion chemistry and suitability of water for domestic and drinking purposes. Chemical parameters of groundwater such as pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), Sodium (Na + ), Potassium (K + ), Calcium (Ca + ), Magnesium (Mg + ), Bicarbonate (HCO3^{ -}), Sulphate (SO4^{ -}), Phosphate (PO4^{ -}) and Silica (H4SiO4) were determined. The geochemical study of the aquatic systems of the Gadilam river basin show that the groundwater is near-acidic to alkaline and mostly oxidizing in nature. Higher concentration of Sodium and Chloride indicates leaching of secondary salts and anthropogenic impact by industry and salt water intrusion. Spatial distribution of EC indicates anthropogenic impact in the downstream side of the basin. The concentration levels of trace metals such as Iron (Fe), Lead (Pb), Nickel (Ni), Bromide (Br), Iodide (I) and Aluminium (Al) have been compared with the world standard. Interpretation of data shows that some trace metals such as Al, Ni and Pb exceed the acceptable limit of world standard. Geophysical study was carried out to identify the weathered zone in the hard rock and contaminated zone by anthropogenic impact in the downstream of river Gadilam. A few of the groundwater samples in the study area were found to be unsuitable for domestic and drinking purposes.

Prasanna, M. V.; Chidambaram, S.; Hameed, A. Shahul; Srinivasamoorthy, K.



GPR studies over the tsunami affected Karaikal beach, Tamil Nadu, south India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, results of GPR profiling related to mapping of subsurface sedimentary layers at tsunami affected Karaikal beach are presented . A 400 MHz antenna was used for profiling along 262 m stretch of transect from beach to backshore areas with penetration of about 2.0 m depth (50 ns two-way travel time). The velocity analysis was carried out to estimate the depth information along the GPR profile. Based on the significant changes in the reflection amplitude, three different zones are marked and the upper zone is noticed with less moisture compared to other two (saturated) zones. The water table is noticed to vary from 0.5 to 0.75 m depth (12-15 ns) as moving away from the coastline. Buried erosional surface is observed at 1.5 m depth (40-42 ns), which represents the limit up to which the extreme event acted upon. In other words, it is the depth to which the tsunami sediments have been piled up to about 1.5 m thickness. Three field test pits were made along the transect and sedimentary sequences were recorded. The sand layers, especially, heavy mineral layers, recorded in the test pits indicate a positive correlation with the amplitude and velocity changes in the GPR profile. Such interpretation seems to be difficult in the middle zone due to its water saturation condition. But it is fairly clear in the lower zone located just below the erosional surface where the strata is comparatively more compact. The inferences from the GPR profile thus provide a lucid insight to the subsurface sediment sequences of the tsunami sediments in the Karaikal beach.

Loveson, V. J.; Gujar, A. R.; Barnwal, R.; Khare, Richa; Rajamanickam, G. V.



Antimicrobial activity of some ethnomedicinal plants used by Paliyar tribe from Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial activity of 18 ethnomedicinal plant extracts were evaluated against nine bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Ervinia sp, Proteus vulgaris) and one fungal strain (Candida albicans). The collected ethnomedicinal plants were used in folk medicine in the treatment of skin diseases, venereal diseases, respiratory problems and nervous disorders.

Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan; Muniappan Ayyanar; Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu



Genetic Affinity Between Diverse Ethnoreligious Communities of Tamil Nadu, India: A Microsatellite Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, a number of local Hindu caste groups have converted to Islam and formed religious endogamous groups. Therefore the local caste groups and religious communities in a region are expected to show genetic relatedness. In this study we investigate the genetic relationship between Tamil-speaking (Dravidian language) Muslims (Sunni), six endogamous Hindu castes, and a tribal ethnic group (Irulars) using 13

M. Eaaswarkhanth; T. S. Vasulu; Ikramul Haque



United States and Rising Regional Powers a Case Study of India, 1991-2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States has a vested interest in defending its homeland, advancing its economy, developing a favorable world order, and advancing its values in the world. How can the United States, as a hegemonic power, effectively engage rising regional nuclea...

B. R. Dunmire




Microsoft Academic Search

Dry land farming in India accounts for 63% of the cultivated land of 144 million hectares. The crop production on these lands is dependent entirely on the natural precipitation, which is highly erratic in terms of spatial and temporal distribution during the crop-growing season. To address these problems, Government of India has accorded high priority to watershed approach for development

V. M. Chowdary; Saikat Paul; T. Srinivas Kumar; S. Sudhakar; S. Adiga; P. P. Nageswara Rao



Understanding consumption related values from advertising: A content analysis of television commercials from India and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study focuses on understanding consumption related values currently prevailing in India. In order to examine if the consumption related values of the people in India are similar to those found in developed economies, the U.S. was used as a benchmark. These values were examined by content analyzing television commercials from the two countries. The results suggest that materialism

Subir Sengupta



Isolation of viable but nonculturable Vibrio cholerae O1 from environmental water samples in Kolkata, India, in a culturable state.  


Previously, we reported that viable but nonculturable (VBNC) Vibrio cholerae was converted into a culturable state by coculture with several eukaryotic cell lines including HT-29 cells. In this study, we found that a factor converting VBNC V. cholerae into a culturable state (FCVC) existed in cell extracts of eukaryotic cells. FCVC was nondialyzable, proteinase K-sensitive, and stable to heating at <60°C for 5 min. We prepared thiosulfate citrate bile salts sucrose (TCBS) plates with FCVC (F-TCBS plates). After confirming that VBNC V. cholerae O1 and O139 formed typical yellow colonies on F-TCBS plates, we tried to isolate cholera toxin gene-positive VBNC V. cholerae from environmental water samples collected in urban slum areas of Kolkata, India and succeeded in isolating V. cholerae O1 El Tor variant strains harboring a gene for the cholera toxin. The possible importance of VBNC V. cholerae O1 as a source of cholera outbreaks is discussed. PMID:24574069

Senoh, Mitsutoshi; Ghosh-Banerjee, Jayeeta; Mizuno, Tamaki; Shinoda, Sumio; Miyoshi, Shin-Ichi; Hamabata, Takashi; Nair, G Balakrish; Takeda, Yoshifumi



Spatio-temporal analysis of rainfall trends over a maritime state (Kerala) of India during the last 100 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kerala, a maritime state of India is bestowed with abundant rainfall which is about three times the national average. This study is conducted to have a better understanding of rainfall variability and trend at regional level for this state during the last 100 years. It is found that the rainfall variation in northern and southern regions of Kerala is large and the deviation is on different timescales. There is a shifting of rainfall mean and variability during the seasons. The trend analysis on rainfall data over the last 100 years reveals that there is a significant (99%) decreasing trend in most of the regions of Kerala especially in the month of January, July and November. The annual and seasonal trends of rainfall in most regions of Kerala are also found to be decreasing significantly. This decreasing trend may be related to global anomalies as a result of anthropogenic green house gas (GHG) emissions due to increased fossil fuel use, land-use change due to urbanisation and deforestation, proliferation in transportation associated atmospheric pollutants. We have also conducted a study of the seasonality index (SI) and found that only one district in the northern region (Kasaragod) has seasonality index of more than 1 and that the distribution of monthly rainfall in this district is mostly attributed to 1 or 2 months. In rest of the districts, the rainfall is markedly seasonal. The trend in SI reveals that the rainfall distribution in these districts has become asymmetric with changes in rainfall distribution.

Nair, Archana; Ajith Joseph, K.; Nair, K. S.



Indoor concentration of radon, thoron and their progeny around granite regions in the state of Karnataka, India.  


An extensive studies on the indoor activity concentrations of thoron, radon and their progeny in the granite region in the state of Karnataka, India, has been carried out since, 2007 in the scope of a lung cancer epidemiological study using solid-state nuclear track detector-based double-chamber dosemeters (LR-115, type II plastic track detector). Seventy-four dwellings of different types were selected for the measurement. The dosemeters containing SSNTD detectors were fixed 2 m above the floor. After an exposure time of 3 months (90 d), films were etched to reveal tracks. From the track density, the concentrations of radon and thoron were evaluated. The value of the indoor concentration of thoron and radon in the study area varies from 16 to 170 Bq m(-3) and 18 to 300 Bq m(-3) with medians of 66 and 82.3 Bq m(-3), respectively, and that of their progeny varies from 1.8 to 24 mWL with a median of 3.6 mWL and 1.6 to 19.6 mWL, respectively. The concentrations of indoor thoron, radon and their progeny and their equivalent effective doses are discussed. PMID:24106330

Sannappa, J; Ningappa, C



Potential and prospects of solar energy in Uttara Kannada, District of Karnataka State, India  

SciTech Connect

Estimation of solar radiation for Uttara Kannada district is done on the basis of solar and other climatological data available at stations located at Karwar, Honnavar, Shirali, Mangalore, and Goa. The most commonly used empirical formula is the one that relates sunshine duration and global radiation, also referred to as Angstrom`s equation. The authors have used this relationship to estimate global radiation based on 20 years of data at Mangalore and 25 years of data at Goa provided by the India Meteorological Department. It is seen that computed and measured values (actual values) of global radiation (GR) agree within the range of 2--5% for most months. Data at Goa and Mangalore have been analyzed in order to improve accuracy and to establish the role of other climatological parameters, such as mean daily temperature, relative humidity, specific humidity, minimum and maximum temperature, and rainfall. The computed and estimated values are within the range {+-}5%. With this empirical relationship, GR is estimated (kWh/m{sup 2}) for Karwar (with 37 years of climatological data), Honnavar (with 50 years of climatological data), and Bhatkal (Shirali, with 15 years of climatological data). Karwar has a GR range of 5.5--6.5 for January--May and is in the range of 4--5 during the monsoon months, July--September, while at Honnovar the GR range during January--May is 5.47--6.5 and its minimum during the monsoon months. This study suggests that solar conversion technologies have considerable potential for application, provided that questions of storage and the monsoon season requirement can be adequately addressed through other options. The abundance of solar resources can be illustrated by comparing the land requirements of solar projects (thermal or photovoltaic) with those of hydro or energy plantation projects.

Ramachandra, T.V.; Subramanian, D.K. [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India). Centre for Ecological Sciences



Cost & efficiency evaluation of a publicly financed & publicly delivered referral transport service model in three districts of Haryana State, India  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Various models of referral transport services have been introduced in different States in India with an aim to reduce maternal and infant mortality. Most of the research on referral transport has focussed on coverage, quality and timeliness of the service with not much information on cost and efficiency. This study was undertaken to analyze the cost of a publicly financed and managed referral transport service model in three districts of Haryana State, and to assess its cost and technical efficiency. Methods: Data on all resources spent for delivering referral transport service, during 2010, were collected from three districts of Haryana State. Costs incurred at State level were apportioned using appropriate methods. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) technique was used to assess the technical efficiency of ambulances. To estimate the efficient scale of operation for ambulance service, the average cost was regressed on kilometres travelled for each ambulance station using a quadratic regression equation. Results: The cost of referral transport per year varied from ?5.2 million in Narnaul to ?9.8 million in Ambala. Salaries (36-50%) constituted the major cost. Referral transport was found to be operating at an average efficiency level of 76.8 per cent. Operating an ambulance with a patient load of 137 per month was found to reduce unit costs from an average ? 15.5 per km to ? 9.57 per km. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that the publicly delivered referral transport services in Haryana were operating at an efficient level. Increasing the demand for referral transport services among the target population represents an opportunity for further improving the efficiency of the underutilized ambulances. PMID:24521648

Prinja, Shankar; Manchanda, Neha; Aggarwal, Arun Kumar; Kaur, Manmeet; Jeet, Gursimer; Kumar, Rajesh



Use of contraceptives and unmet need for family planning among tribal women in India and selected hilly states.  


The paper provides a comprehensive picture of knowledge and use of contraceptives among scheduled tribes of India and selected central hilly states where tribal population contributes more than 30% of the total tribal population of the country. An attempt is also made to know how far scheduled tribes differ from non-tribes in the states, namely Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, and Chhattisgarh, using information collected in the third round of District-level Household Survey (DLHS-RCH III: 2007-2008). Bivariate analysis was used for understanding the level of knowledge, use of and unmet need for contraception among different tribal and non-tribal groups. Binary logistic regression was used for understanding the factors associated with the use of contraception and unmet need for family planning among tribal women. Knowledge and use of temporary contraceptive methods are considerably lower among tribal women compared to their non-tribal counterparts in the three states under study. Low acceptance due to phobia of adverse health consequences, accessibility to and lack of sound knowledge of contraception are the leading reasons for not using contraceptives. The unmet need for family planning among them was quite high, especially in the state of Jharkhand. Multivariate analysis substantiated the role of women and husbands' education, age of women, and number of surviving boys in the use of any modem method of contraception. Educating women and their respective husbands about proper use and benefits of modem contraceptives is important to solve the problem of high unmet need for family planning among these tribal women. A simultaneous attention to the health systems strengthening component is crucial for ensuring sustained delivery of good-quality family planning services. PMID:25076671

Prusty, Ranjan Kumar



Use of Contraceptives and Unmet Need for Family Planning among Tribal Women in India and Selected Hilly States  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The paper provides a comprehensive picture of knowledge and use of contraceptives among scheduled tribes of India and selected central hilly states where tribal population contributes more than 30% of the total tribal population of the country. An attempt is also made to know how far scheduled tribes differ from non-tribes in the states, namely Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, and Chhattisgarh, using information collected in the third round of District-level Household Survey (DLHS-RCH III: 2007-2008). Bivariate analysis was used for understanding the level of knowledge, use of and unmet need for contraception among different tribal and non-tribal groups. Binary logistic regression was used for understanding the factors associated with the use of contraception and unmet need for family planning among tribal women. Knowledge and use of temporary contraceptive methods are considerably lower among tribal women compared to their non-tribal counterparts in the three states under study. Low acceptance due to phobia of adverse health consequences, accessibility to and lack of sound knowledge of contraception are the leading reasons for not using contraceptives. The unmet need for family planning among them was quite high, especially in the state of Jharkhand. Multivariate analysis substantiated the role of women and husbands’ education, age of women, and number of surviving boys in the use of any modern method of contraception. Educating women and their respective husbands about proper use and benefits of modern contraceptives is important to solve the problem of high unmet need for family planning among these tribal women. A simultaneous attention to the health systems strengthening component is crucial for ensuring sustained delivery of good-quality family planning services. PMID:25076671



Palaeobotany of Gondwana basins of Orissa State, India: A bird's eye view  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gondwana basins of Orissa State constitute a major part of the Mahanadi Master Basin. These Gondwana sediments, ranging from Asselian to Albian in age, contain remnants of three basic floral assemblages i.e. Glossopteris Assemblage, Dicroidium Assemblage and Ptilophyllum Assemblage which can be recognized through the Permian, Triassic and Early Cretaceous, respectively. The megafloral assemblages of different basins of this state

Shreerup Goswami; Kamal Jeet Singh; Shaila Chandra



Private Schooling Industry in North East India: A Trend Analysis of Nagaland State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study is an attempt to examine the intricacies of the growth of Private School industry in the North-Eastern Indian State of Nagaland. The study was carried out in Kohima, the capital city of Nagaland State. Data were obtained from field studies as well as from published reports of the Government. The main objective of the study was to…

Mishra, Biswambhara; Suresh, P. Srinivasa; Rio, K.



Anger and reconciliation: relations between the United States and India, 1953-1956  

Microsoft Academic Search

When Dwight D. Eisenhower was elected President of the United States in 1952, America held its breath to see how a Republican administration would handle the Cold War. By 1952, due particularly to the costs of the Korean conflict, enthusiasm for President Harry Truman and Secretary of State Dean Acheson's policy of \\

Tom Donahue



Ecological analysis of the association between high-risk population parameters and HIV prevalence among pregnant women enrolled in sentinel surveillance in four southern India states  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe HIV epidemic is very heterogeneous at the district level in the four Southern states of India most affected by the epidemic and where transmission is mainly heterosexual. The authors carried out an ecological study of the relationship between high-risk population parameters and HIV prevalence among pregnant women (ANC HIV prevalence).MethodsThe data used in this study included: ANC HIV prevalence

Michel Alary; A A Jayachandran; Catherine M Lowndes; Jan Bradley; Eric Demers; Rajatashuvra Adhikary; Mandar K Mainkar



Molecular detection and identification of thirteen isolates of Sugarcane yellow leaf virus associated with sugarcane yellow leaf disease in nine sugarcane growing states of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty sugarcane leaf samples exhibiting midrib yellowing symptoms from nine sugarcane growing states of India were collected.\\u000a The total RNA was isolated from infected samples and RT-PCR assays were performed using Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) specific primers. The infection of SCYLV was detected in 27 out of 30 samples, which showed the expected size (~610 bp)\\u000a amplicon during RT-PCR. The

Deepti Singh; Govind Pratap Rao; S. K. Snehi; S. K. Raj; R. Karuppaiah; R. Viswanathan


Changes in risk behaviours and prevalence of sexually transmitted infections following HIV preventive interventions among female sex workers in five districts in Karnataka state, south India  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo examine the impact of a large-scale HIV prevention programme for female sex workers (FSW) in Karnataka state, south India, on the prevalence of HIV\\/sexually transmitted infections (STI), condom use and programme coverage.MethodsBaseline and follow-up integrated biological and behavioural surveys were conducted on random samples of FSW in five districts in Karnataka between 2004 and 2009.Results4712 FSW participated in the

B M Ramesh; Tara S H Beattie; Isac Shajy; Reynold Washington; Latta Jagannathan; Sushena Reza-Paul; James F Blanchard; Stephen Moses



Determinants of Work Animal Density in Tamil Nadu: An Econometric Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

From independence, size and composition of bovines in Tamil Nadu showed differential growth pattern. The total bovine population showed an increasing trend up to the early-Sixties and thereafter stagnant till the early Eighties. While the milch animal stock increased steadily, the work animals showed a declining trend from seventies. These trends not only indicate the growing importance of dairy animals

Albert Christopher Dhas



Adverse reactions following mass drug administration during the Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis in Orissa State, India.  


The frequency and severity of adverse reactions are the main reasons for low compliance of mass drug administration (MDA) under the Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (PELF). This paper reports the frequency and types of adverse reactions during two MDAs during January 2002 and September 2004 in the State of Orissa, India. Of the people who consumed the drugs, 15.5% in the 2002 MDA and 16.5% in the 2004 MDA reported one or more adverse reactions. This rate is higher (49.7%) in a group of individuals who were monitored for 6 days from the day of consumption of drugs during the 2002 MDA. However, many of these reactions were mild. No significant difference was found in the frequency of adverse reactions between MDA with diethylcarbamazine (DEC) alone and with DEC and albendazole. Significant gender differences were found in the 2004 MDA but no such differences were found in the 2002 MDA; however, the frequency of adverse reactions increased with age. Of all the adverse reactions, systemic adverse reactions typically associated with microfilarial death were more frequent. The frequency of adverse reactions was higher in microfilaraemics compared with amicrofilaraemic controls. The present study warrants developing an active adverse reaction surveillance system to minimise the impact of adverse reactions on MDA compliance. PMID:16288792

Babu, B V; Rath, K; Kerketta, A S; Swain, B K; Mishra, S; Kar, S K



The numbers game: a demographic profile of free India.  


India's population has grown since independence from 350 million in 1947 to 950 million in 1997 and will probably reach 1 billion by the year 2000. Projections made from the most recent census indicate that India will be the world's most populous country by 2040. According to World Bank projections, India's population will surpass 1.7 billion by 2097. India's leaders, allocating funds to industrialization, but not enough to health care and education, failed to understand the nature and consequences of high population growth. Rapid population growth in India has led to considerable unemployment among the working-age population, considerable population pressure upon renewable and nonrenewable resources, and a demand for basic facilities which surpasses their supply. The quality of life and the environment have been adversely affected. This paper considers how investments in social development led to the achievement of replacement level fertility in Kerala, Goa, and Tamil Nadu; the sex ratio; child survival; neglect of girls; the politics of population control; and the future. PMID:12321221

Siddiqui, N



WTERT-India Observations from India's Crisis Ranjith Annepu Observations from India's Crisis  

E-print Network

, Mumbai, MH 400018, India In 2012, for the first time in the history of India, the country has seen nationwide public protests against improper waste management - from the northernmost state Jammu and Kashmir. Since July 2000, Thiruvananthapuram has been transporting about 80% of the 310 tonnes per day of waste


Assessment of engineering colleges through application of the Six Sigma metrics in a State of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of the study is to measure the current or baseline institutional performance level of the Government and private engineering colleges in the state of West Bengal. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study has been conducted on the basis of a survey. The feedback for this survey questionnaire has been considered independently for service providers such as administrators, faculties,

Debaprayag Chaudhuri; Arup Ranjan Mukhopadhyay; Sadhan Kumar Ghosh



HIV in India: the Jogini culture.  


Jogini is the name for a female sexually exploited temple attendant and is used interchangeably with Devadasi in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. Jogini are twice more likely than other women who are used for sexual intercourse in India to be HIV positive, and their rate of mortality from HIV is 10 times the total mortality rate for all women in India. The four states in India with the most Jogini also have the highest prevalence of HIV. The following case is unfortunately typical of the Jogini and sheds light on a potentially disastrous public health problem in rural South India. PMID:25015167

Borick, Joseph



Evaluation of trace-metal enrichments from the 26 December 2004 tsunami sediments along the Southeast coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tsunami sediments deposited after the December 2004 tsunami were sampled immediately in the coastal environment of Tamil Nadu State on the southeast coast of India. Fifty-four sediment samples were collected and 14 representative samples were selected to identify the level of metal contamination in tsunami sediments. The results indicate that the sediments are mainly of fine to medium-grained sand and contain significantly high contents of dissolved salts in sediments (Na+, K+, Ca+2, Mg+2, Cl-) in water-soluble fraction due to seawater deposition and evaporation. Correlation of acid leachable trace metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, Zn) indicate that Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides might play an important role in controlling their association between them. Enrichment of trace metals is observed in all the locations with reference to the background samples. High values of trace metals in the southern part of the study area are due to the large-scale industries along the coast, and they are probably anthropogenic in nature and of marine origin, which could cause serious environmental problems.

Srinivasalu, S.; Thangadurai, N.; Jonathan, M. P.; Armstrong-Altrin, J. S.; Ayyamperumal, T.; Ram-Mohan, V.



Socio-economic factors & longevity in a cohort of Kerala State, India  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives Even though Kerala State is well-known for its egalitarian policies in terms of healthcare, redistributive actions and social reforms, and its health indicators close to those of high-resource countries despite a poor per-capita income, it is not clear whether socio-economic disparities in terms of life expectancy are observed. This study was therefore carried out to study the impact of socio-economic level on life expectancy in individuals living in Kerala. Methods A cohort of 1,67,331 participants aged 34 years and above in Thiruvananthapuram district, having completed a lifestyle questionnaire at baseline in 1995, was followed up for mortality and cause of death until 2005. Survival estimates were based on the participants’ vital status and death rates were calculated separately for men and women and for several socio-economic factors, stratified by age. Results At 40 years, men and women were expected to live another 34 and 37 years, respectively. Life expectancy varied across the participants’ different socio-economic categories: those from high income households with good housing conditions, materially privileged households and small households, had a 2-3 years longer life expectancy as compared to the deprived persons. Also, those who went to college lived longer than the illiterates. The gaps between categories were wider in men than in women. Interpretation & conclusions Socio-economic disparity in longevity was observed: wealthy people from Kerala State presented a longer life expectancy. PMID:21623031

Sauvaget, Catherine; Ramadas, Kunnambath; Fayette, Jean-Marie; Thomas, Gigi; Thara, Somanathan; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy



Status of iodine deficiency disorder in district Udham Singh Nagar, Uttarakhand state India  

PubMed Central

Background: Iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) is a public health problem in Uttarakhand state. Objective: The present study was conducted in district Udham Singh Nagar, Uttarakhand state with an objective to assess the status of iodine deficiency amongst school age children (6-12 years). Materials and Methods: Thirty clusters were selected by utilizing the population proportionate to size (PPS) cluster sampling methodology. A total of 1807 children in the age group of 6-12 years were included. The clinical examination of the thyroid of each child was conducted. Urine and Salt samples were collected from children. Results: The Total Goiter Rate (TGR) was found to be 13.2%. The proportion of children with Urinary Iodine Excretion (UIE) level <20, 20-49, 50-99, 100-199 and ?200 ?g/l was found to be nil, 6.0, 21.2, 34.2 and 38.5 percent, respectively. The median UIE level was 150 ?g/l. Only 46.7% of the salt samples had stipulated level of iodine of 15 ppm and more. Conclusion: The study population had mild degree of public health problem of iodine deficiency. PMID:24944942

Kapil, Umesh; Pandey, R. M.; Jain, Vandana; Kabra, Madhulika; Sareen, Neha; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh



High degree of multi-drug resistance and hetero-resistance in pulmonary TB patients from Punjab state of India.  


Line Probe Assays (LPAs) have been recommended for rapid screening of MDR-TB. Aims of this study were (1) to compare the performance of LPA with standard Bactec MGIT 960 system and (2) to ascertain the pattern of genetic mutations in the resistance isolates. In phase I, a total of 141 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from our routine laboratory were tested by LPA and Bactec MGIT 960 for DST. In phase II, 578 sputum specimens of suspected DR-TB patients were received from the Punjab state of India. Of them 438 specimens or their cultures were subjected to LPA. The presence of mutant bands with their corresponding wild type band was identified as "hetero-resistance". In phase I, LPA showed high concordance with 96.4% positive agreement and 97.6% negative agreement with Bactec MGIT 960-DST. In phase II, 12 (2.7%) specimens were detected as invalid by LPA. Of the remaining 426 specimens, 184 (43.1%) had resistance to RIF and 142 (33.3%) to INH while 103 (24.1%) specimens showed resistance to both INH and RIF (MDR-TB) by LPA. Of the 142 INH resistant, 113 (79.5%) showed mutations in katG and 29 (20.4%) in inhA. A high rate of hetero-resistance pattern was observed in rpoB gene (28.8%) and katG gene (9.8%). The most frequent mutation was S531L (81.1%) in rpoB region and S315T1 (100%) in katG gene. PMID:24184256

Kumar, Parveen; Balooni, Veena; Sharma, Brijesh Kumar; Kapil, Virender; Sachdeva, K S; Singh, Sarman



Residue dynamics of fenamidone and mancozeb on gherkin under two agro climatic zones in the state of Karnataka, India.  


Residue dynamics of fenamidone and mancozeb on gherkin was evaluated at two different agro climatic zones i.e. at Bangalore (Zone-1) and Dharwad (Zone-2) in the state of Karnataka, India. Two treatments of the combination formulation (fenamidone 10% + mancozeb 50%) were given at the standard dose 150 + 750 g a.i. ha(-1) and double dose 300 + 1,500 g a.i. ha(-1). Initial residue deposits of fenamidone were 0.467 and 0.474 mg kg(-1) at Zone-1 and 2, respectively from standard dose treatment. From double dose treatment they were 0.964 and 0.856 mg kg(-1), respectively. Fenamidone residues persisted for 15 and 10 days and dissipated with the half-life of 4 and 3 days at Zone-1 and 2, respectively. Mancozeb residue deposits on gherkin were 0.383 and 0.428 mg kg(-1) from standard dose and 0.727 and 0.626 mg kg(-1) from double dose treatment at Zone-1 and 2, respectively. Mancozeb residues dissipated with the half-life of 2 and 1 day, respectively. Residues of both fenamidone and mancozeb dissipated faster at Zone-2 compared to Zone-1. The limit of quantification of fenamidone and mancozeb were 0.02 and 0.1 mg kg(-1), respectively in both gherkin and soil. Residues of fenamidone and mancozeb in soil collected on the 20th day from the 2 locations were found to be below quantifiable limit of both fungicides. PMID:22349284

Mohapatra, Soudamini; Deepa, M



Surface deformation monitored on the south eastern part of Uttarakhand State of India by the Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) is a useful tool in gathering the first basic information about the surface deformation, despite of different natural terrains, forested or mountainous region. This technique has been applied successfully by various worker in different field in extracting surface information in variety of terranes. The advantage of this techniques is that it has the ability of taking into account of only those return radar signal which are the brightest or the strongest in the surrounding background signal. Moreover, PS algorithms operate on a time series of interferograms all formed with respect to a single master SAR image that the noise terms of displacement for each PS pixel are much reduced. Keeping all these points in mind, we applied this technique in the Himalayan mountain, covering the south eastern part of the Uttarakhand state of India. So far lots of different work has been carried out in the Himalayan region, but less work has been done in regards to its surface deformation. The Himalayan mountain are well know for its segmented nature, different region undergoing different tectonic activity. In the similar manner, our PSI result in our study area also reveal two different set of deformation, with its eastern part revealing subsidence and the western part undergoing uplift, these two set of deformation is separated by a right later strike slip fault called, the Garampani-Kathgodam fault (G-KF). Apart from this obvious deformation, the western part also reveal differential deformation. Based on our result we have also tried to create a deformation model, to understand and to get better knowledge of the tectonic deformation setting.

Yhokha, A.; Chang, C.; Yen, J.; Goswami, P. K.; Ching, K.



Temple desecration in pre-modern India When, where, and why were Hindu temples desecrated in pre-modern history, and how was this connected with the rise of Indo-Muslim states? HISTORICAL ANAL Y SIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The historical experience of temple desecration in pre-modern India - and, at a more general level, contested his- tory revolving round Indo-Muslim rulers and states - has become a sensitive mass political issue in contemporary India. The demolition of the Babri Masjid, on December 6, 1992, by storm-troopers of the Sangh Parivar, and the train of communal violence and 'ill-fare'




Can India's "Literate" Read?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading Method…

Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata



Response of malaria vectors to conventional insecticides in the southern districts of Odisha State, India  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Updating information on response (susceptible / resistant status) of vectors to the insecticides in use is essential to formulate and introduce appropriate resistance management strategy. Therefore, a study was undertaken in the 10 southern districts of Odisha State, which are endemic for Plasmodium falciparum malaria, to determine the insecticide susceptibility/ resistance status of Anopheles fluviatilis and An. culicifacies, the vectors of malaria. Methods: Mosquitoes were collected during September 2010 - February 2012 from 60 randomly selected villages in the 10 districts and blood-fed females were exposed to the diagnostic dosage of DDT (4.0%), malathion (5.0%) and deltamethrin (0.05%) for one hour. Mortality was recorded at 24 h after the exposure. The test mortality was corrected to the control mortality. Results: An. fluviatilis was susceptible to the three insecticides tested while, An. culicifacies was resistant to DDT and malathion in all the 10 districts except in two, where its response against malathion was under ‘verification required’ category. Against deltamethrin, An. culicifacies was susceptible in two districts; while in the other eight districts its response was under ‘verification required’ category. Interpretation & conclusions: Since An. fluviatilis the vector species primarily associated with transmission of malaria, was still susceptible to DDT, indoor residual spraying with DDT could be continued in the 10 districts. Also, in view of the large scale implementation of long lasting insecticidal nets and the signs of development of resistance in An. culicifacies to deltamethrin, response of the vectors to synthetic pyrethroids needs to be periodically monitored. PMID:24718406

Sahu, S.S.; Gunasekaran, K.; Raju, H.K.; Vanamail, P.; Pradhan, M.M.; Jambulingam, P.



Hydrochemical Analysis and Evaluation of Groundwater Quality in Tumkur Taluk, Karnataka State, India  

PubMed Central

Tumkur Taluk is located in the southeastern corner of Karnataka state between 13° 06?30? to 13° 31? 00? North latitude and 76° 59? 00? to 77° 19? 00? East Longitude. The Taluk spreads over an area of 1043 falling within the semiarid region and frequently facing water scarcity as well as quality problems. The major sources of employment are agriculture, horticulture and animal husbandry, engaging almost 80% of the workforce. Water samples are collected from 269 stations during pre-monsoon and 279 locations during post-monsoon of the year 2006, and were subjected to analysis for chemical characteristics. The type of water that predominates in the study area is Ca-Mg-HCO3 type during both preand post-monsoon seasons of the year 2006, based on hydro-chemical facies. Besides, suitability of water for irrigation is evaluated based on sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate, sodium percent, salinity hazard and USSL diagram. PMID:19139534

Sadashivaiah, C.; Ramakrishnaiah, C. R.; Ranganna, G.



Health system capacity: maternal health policy implementation in the state of Gujarat, India  

PubMed Central

Introduction The Government of Gujarat has for the past couple of decades continuously initiated several interventions to improve access to care for pregnant and delivering women within the state. Data from the last District Family Heath survey in Gujarat in 2007–2008 show that 56.4% of women had institutional deliveries and 71.5% had at least one antenatal check-up, indicating that challenges remain in increasing use of and access to maternal health care services. Objective To explore the perceptions of high-level stakeholders on the process of implementing maternal health interventions in Gujarat. Method Using the policy triangle framework developed by Walt and Gilson, the process of implementation was approached using in-depth interviews and qualitative content analysis. Result Based on the analysis, three themes were developed: lack of continuity; the complexity of coordination; and lack of confidence and underutilization of the monitoring system. The findings suggest that decisions made and actions advocated and taken are more dependent on individual actors than on sustainable structures. The findings also indicate that the context in which interventions are implemented is challenged in terms of weak coordination and monitoring systems that are not used to evaluate and develop interventions on maternal health. Conclusions The implementation of interventions on maternal health is dependent on the capacity of the health system to implement evidence-based policies. The capacity of the health system in Gujarat to facilitate implementation of maternal health interventions needs to be improved, both in terms of the role of actors and in terms of structures and processes. PMID:23522352

Sanneving, Linda; Kulane, Asli; Iyer, Aditi; Ahgren, Bengt



Factors associated with high-risk behaviour among migrants in the state of maharashtra, India.  


Studies among migrants show that they are more susceptible to HIV infection than the general population and thereby spread the epidemic from high prevalence to low prevalence areas. It is therefore critical to enhance the body of knowledge on factors associated with condom use among migrants. This study, conducted in 2009 in the State of Maharashtra, covers 4595 single in-migrants aged 15-49 years and aims at understanding the factors associated with non-use of condoms consistently. Information was collected using a Structured Interview Schedule covering demographic, socioeconomic profile, sexual history, knowledge, behaviour and stigma and discrimination indicators. Logistic regression analysis was used to understand the association between unprotected sex and various socio-demographic and environmental factors. The models were run using the Enter method. The goodness-of-fit of the model was assessed using Hosmer and Lemeshow chi-squared statistics. A significant association is observed between sex with sex workers and older migrants (>24 years), the literate, those who are mobile, unmarried, employed in the textile, quarry and construction industries, who often consume alcohol and who watch pornographic films. The factors associated with unprotected sex are age between 30 and 34 years and no literacy. Migrants who are mobile and consume alcohol show a significant association with unprotected sex. The findings suggest a need for a comprehensive HIV prevention programme including strategies to address the stressful work conditions. The prevention programmes should focus not only on skills for safer sex practices, but also on alcohol use reduction. PMID:23458913

Rao, Neeta; Jeyaseelan, L; Joy, Anna; Kumar, V Sampath; Thenmozhi, M; Acharya, Smriti



Managing India's environment  

SciTech Connect

Much has been written about the accident at Bhopal and the inadequacies of the Indian legislation for protecting the public health and safety against industrial hazards. India, however, has problems that loom much larger than those of insufficient legislation. First, the institutional and technological infrastructures required to make legal instruments function more effectively are missing in many parts of this country. Second, the government has neither the funds nor the legal and political authority to remedy serious enforcement gaps in the states. However, at the same time, India's distinctive cultural and political context could offer creative economic, administrative, and judicial strategies for environmental protection. This paper discusses these different factors that are involved in managing India's environment. 34 references, 1 table.

Jasanoff, S.



Comparative study of economics of different models of family size biogas plants for state of Punjab, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogas, the end product of anaerobic digestion of cattle dung, can successfully supplement the cooking fuels in the countryside areas of India, where the raw material needed for its production is plentifully available. Because of the lack of awareness regarding selection of a suitable model and size of biogas plant, the full potential of the biogas producing material is not

K. Jatinder Singh; Sarbjit Singh Sooch



Role of Information Sources and Communication Channels in Adoption of Improved Practices by Farmers in M. P. State, India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was made of information sources and channels whereby new ideas about improved farming methods are communicated to farmers. Questionnaire interviews were held with 200 farmers in Madhya Pradesh, India. Of the five information sources studied, neighbors were named by all respondents, village level workers by 72%, chairmen of village…

Sharma, Devendra Kumar


Disparities in child mortality trends: what is the evidence from disadvantaged states in India? the case of Orissa and Madhya Pradesh  

PubMed Central

Introduction The Millennium Development Goals prompted renewed international efforts to reduce under-five mortality and measure national progress. However, scant evidence exists about the distribution of child mortality at low sub-national levels, which in diverse and decentralized countries like India are required to inform policy-making. This study estimates changes in child mortality across a range of markers of inequalities in Orissa and Madhya Pradesh, two of India’s largest, poorest, and most disadvantaged states. Methods Estimates of under-five and neonatal mortality rates were computed using seven datasets from three available sources – sample registration system, summary birth histories in surveys, and complete birth histories. Inequalities were gauged by comparison of mortality rates within four sub-state populations defined by the following characteristics: rural–urban location, ethnicity, wealth, and district. Results Trend estimates suggest that progress has been made in mortality rates at the state levels. However, reduction rates have been modest, particularly for neonatal mortality. Different mortality rates are observed across all the equity markers, although there is a pattern of convergence between rural and urban areas, largely due to inadequate progress in urban settings. Inter-district disparities and differences between socioeconomic groups are also evident. Conclusions Although child mortality rates continue to decline at the national level, our evidence shows that considerable disparities persist. While progress in reducing under-five and neonatal mortality rates in urban areas appears to be levelling off, polices targeting rural populations and scheduled caste and tribe groups appear to have achieved some success in reducing mortality differentials. The results of this study thus add weight to recent government initiatives targeting these groups. Equitable progress, particularly for neonatal mortality, requires continuing efforts to strengthen health systems and overcome barriers to identify and reach vulnerable groups. PMID:23802752



MURDER IN TAMIL NADU(A Study of Murder Trials of 1968)1  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The murder trials of 1968 in Tamil Nadu totalling 526 are studied and assessed on the pattern of the U. K. Home Office study. The results showed that there were six psychotic murderers, 16 murderers who attempted suicide, 483 ‘normal’ male murderers, 20 female murderers and 6 youthful murderers. Age, sex, method of killing and motives of the murderers are discussed. The implications of the study with reference to the penal institutions and prevention of crime are dealt with. PMID:22058483

Somasundaram, O.



Data envelopment analysis—an application to turmeric production in North Western Region of Tamil Nadu  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this research is to identify and analyze the sources of technical inefficiency in turmeric crop farming\\u000a system in north western region of Tamil Nadu from a sample of 180 turmeric growing farmers. A non-parametric approach, Data\\u000a Envelopment Analysis (DEA) has been used to estimate Technical Efficiency Scores (TES). Results indicate the presence of technical\\u000a inefficiency in

L. Mary Louis; A. John Joel



The biological sciences in India  

PubMed Central

India is gearing up to become an international player in the life sciences, powered by its recent economic growth and a desire to add biotechnology to its portfolio. In this article, we present the history, current state, and projected future growth of biological research in India. To fulfill its aspirations, India's greatest challenge will be in educating, recruiting, and supporting its next generation of scientists. Such challenges are faced by the US/Europe, but are particularly acute in developing countries that are racing to achieve scientific excellence, perhaps faster than their present educational and faculty support systems will allow. PMID:19204144

Dell, Karen



Cultural conditioning: understanding interpersonal accommodation in India and the United States in terms of the modal characteristics of interpersonal influence situations.  


We argue that differences between the landscapes of influence situations in Indian and American societies induce Indians to accommodate to others more often than Americans. To investigate cultural differences in situation-scapes, we sampled interpersonal influence situations occurring in India and the United States from both the influencee's (Study 1) and the influencer's (Study 2) perspectives. We found that Indian influence situations were dramatically more likely than U.S. situations to feature other-serving motives and to result in positive consequences for the relationship. Yet Study 3 found that targets of influence felt no less free to decide whether to accommodate in India than the United States, but felt more concerned about the influencer. To investigate the effects of situation-scapes on people's expectations and decisions, we exposed Indian and American participants to descriptions of situations from both societies (with their origins obscured). Study 4 found that both groups of participants expected more positive consequences from accommodation in Indian situations than in American situations. Finally, Study 5 found that both groups decided to accommodate more often in Indian situations than in American situations. At the same time, Indian participants were more likely than Americans to accommodate across all situations, but both groups converged over 100 trials as they were exposed to more and more situations drawn from each other's cultures. We interpret these effects in terms of the default decisions or biases conditioned by people's recently encountered situations. PMID:20954782

Savani, Krishna; Morris, Michael W; Naidu, N V R; Kumar, Satishchandra; Berlia, Neha V



Understanding Regional Economic Growth in India  

E-print Network

to physical geography, culture, and economic conditions. Some states have achieved rapid economic growth of the differential economic performance of India's states, especially under the forces of globalization in the 1990s important policy questions within India. To what extent are the differences a manifestation of global


Sustainable Design Standards in India: The Excluded Issues  

E-print Network

. In 2005, the Indian Green Building Council (IGBC) adopted the original US rating system without substantive modifications in response to the significant contextual differences between the United States and India. In 2007, the IGBC published the LEED INDIA...

Gupta, K.; Haider, J.


Are We Asking the Right Questions? Moving beyond the State vs Non-State Providers Debate: Reflections and a Case Study from India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides an overview of recent trends in basic education provision in India: charting an impressive expansion of enrolment in public schools but a growing concern with the quality of learning. Concerns around quality are seen as a driving factor in the migration of students from the public sector to low fee private schools. While there…

Bangay, Colin; Latham, Michael



Knowledge and awareness of diabetes in urban and rural India: The Indian Council of Medical Research India Diabetes Study (Phase I): Indian Council of Medical Research India Diabetes 4  

PubMed Central

Background: Representative data on knowledge and awareness about diabetes is scarce in India and is extremely important to plan public health policies aimed at preventing and controlling diabetes. Aim: The aim of the following study is to assess awareness and knowledge about diabetes in the general population, as well as in individuals with diabetes in four selected regions of India. Materials and Methods: The study subjects were drawn from a representative sample of four geographical regions of India, Chandigarh, Tamil Nadu, Jharkhand and Maharashtra representing North, South, East and West and covering a population of 213 million. A total of 16,607 individuals (5112 urban and 11,495 rural) aged ?20 years were selected from 188 urban and 175 rural areas. Awareness of diabetes and knowledge of causative factors and complications of diabetes were assessed using an interviewer administered structured questionnaire in 14,274 individuals (response rate, 86.0%), which included 480 self-reported diabetic subjects. Results: Only 43.2% (6160/14,274) of the overall study population had heard about a condition called diabetes. Overall urban residents had higher awareness rates (58.4%) compared to rural residents (36.8%) (P < 0.001). About 46.7% of males and 39.6% of females reported that they knew about a condition called diabetes (P < 0.001). Of the general population, 41.5% (5726/13,794) knew about a condition called diabetes. Among them, 80.7% (4620/5726) knew that the prevalence of diabetes was increasing, whereas among diabetic subjects, it was 93.0% (448/480). Among the general and diabetic population, 56.3% and 63.4% respectively, were aware that diabetes could be prevented. Regarding complications, 51.5% of the general population and 72.7% diabetic population knew that diabetes could affect other organs. Based on a composite knowledge score to assess knowledge among the general population, Tamil Nadu had the highest (31.7) and Jharkhand the lowest score (16.3). However among self-reported diabetic subjects, Maharashtra had the highest (70.1) and Tamil Nadu, the lowest score (56.5). Conclusion: Knowledge and awareness about diabetes in India, particularly in rural areas, is poor. This underscores the need for conducting large scale diabetes awareness and education programs. PMID:24944935

Deepa, M.; Bhansali, A.; Anjana, R. M.; Pradeepa, R.; Joshi, S. R.; Joshi, P. P.; Dhandhania, V. K.; Rao, P. V.; Subashini, R.; Unnikrishnan, R.; Shukla, D. K.; Madhu, S. V.; Das, A. K.; Mohan, V.; Kaur, T.



Impact of the December 2004 tsunami on soil, groundwater and vegetation in the Nagapattinam District, India.  


The tsunami of 26 December 2004 struck the Nagapattinam District, Tamil Nadu, India. Sea water inundation from the tsunami caused salinization problems for soil and groundwater in coastal areas of the district, and also induced salt injuries in crops. To document the recovery of the agricultural environment from the tsunami, we conducted observations of the soil, groundwater, and vegetation. Soil electrical conductivity increased sharply after the tsunami, but returned to pre-tsunami levels the following year. Groundwater salinity returned to pre-tsunami levels by 2006. These rapid rates of recovery were due to the monsoon rainfall leaching salt from the highly permeable soils in the area. MODIS NDVI values measured before and after the tsunami showed that vegetation damaged by the tsunami recovered to its pre-tsunami state by the next rice cropping season, called samba, which starts from August to February. From these results, we conclude that the agricultural environment of the district has now fully recovered from the tsunami. Based on the results, we have also identified important management implications for soil, groundwater, and vegetation as follows: 1) due to the heavy monsoon rainfall and the high permeability of soils in this region, anthropogenic inputs like fertilizers should be applied carefully to minimize pollution, and the use of green manure is recommended; 2) areas that were contaminated by sea water extended up to 1000 m from the sea shore and over pumping of groundwater should be carefully avoided to prevent inducing sea water intrusion; and 3) data from a moderate resolution sensor of 250 m, such as MODIS, can be applied to impact assessment in widespread paddy field areas like the Nagapattinam District. PMID:19540650

Kume, Takashi; Umetsu, Chieko; Palanisami, K



Operational aspects of remote sensing and gis for water resources conservation and management: few examples from Haryana state, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote Sensing as the term signifies is the technique of gathering information about an object or surface phenomenon without being in physical contact with it and essentially by using electromagnetic radiation. The principle of remote sensing is based on the solar radiation reflected or emitted from the surface of the earth. As different objects behave differently for the incoming solar radiation and have different thermal properties, the amount of solar radiation reflected, absorbed or emitted is also different. GIS is defined as an information system that is used to input, store, retrieve, manipulate, analyze and output geographically referenced data or geospatial data in order to support decision making for planning and management of natural resources. It has four essential components - hardware, software, geospatial data and the users. GIS is needed because of some inherent demerits in the manual methods. The conventional methods of surveying and mapping are time consuming, labour intensive and tedious. The techniques of Remote Sensing (RS) and GIS are effective in timely and efficient generation of database of various resources. The synoptic view and multi resolution satellite data is helpful in generating information at various scales. The mapping and monitoring of dynamic phenomenon such as floods, water logging, deforestation can be done very effectively with the aid of RS and GIS. The effective planning for water resources conservation and management at district level can be made if the data is generated on 1:50,000 scale. Hydrogeomorphological maps on 1:50,000 scale showing different ground water prospect zones have been prepared for different districts in Haryana State, India. This information has been supplemented with the available inputs from existing sources about the depth to water level and ground water quality. The other maps prepared under National (Natural) Resources Information System (NRIS) such as land use/ land cover, geomorphology, drainage/ canal network and soils etc have also been consulted for preparing water resources action plan. The maps thus prepared depict different units for further ground water prospecting. It is to mention here that some of the Palaeo-channels have been picked up first time. Various sites has been suggested for site specific water resources conservation measures such check dams/ gully plugging, earthen dams etc for recharging the ground water. The information thus developed has been submitted to PWD (Public Health) Department, Govt. of Haryana as well as other district agencies involved in the planning and management of natural resources, for further implementation of the activities suggested in different areas. During visit to different areas, it was found that the water resources action plans suggested are being implemented in the field to its maximum possibility both in the direction of fresh ground water areas exploration as well as water resources conservation. The ground water in the areas suggested is being recharged and the people are taking good crops.

Chaudhary, B. S.


Rapid Assessment for Coexistence of Vitamin B12 and Iron Deficiency Anemia among Adolescent Males and Females in Northern Himalayan State of India  

PubMed Central

Coexistence of folic acid and vitamin B12 deficiency has been observed among adolescents with iron deficiency anemia, but limited evidence is available from India. So, a rapid assessment was done to study the prevalence of iron, folic acid, and vitamin B12 deficiency among adolescent males and females in northern Himalayan state in India. Methods. Total 885 (female: 60.9%) adolescents (11 to 19 completed years) were surveyed from 30-cluster village from two community development blocks of Himachal Pradesh. Serum ferritin, folic acid, and vitamin B12 were estimated among randomly selected 100 male and 100 female adolescents. Results. Under-nutrition (BMI < 18.5?kg/m2) was observed among 68.9% of adolescents (male: 67.1%; female: 70.7; P = 0.29). Anemia was observed to be prevalent among 87.2% males and 96.7% females (P = 0.00). Mild form of anemia was observed to be the most common (53.9%) form followed by moderate (29.7%) anemia. Strikingly, it was found that all the adolescents were deficient in vitamin B12 and none of the adolescents was observed to be deficient in folic acid. Conclusion. Among both male and female adolescents anemia with vitamin B12 deficiency was observed to be a significant public health problem. Folic acid deficiency was not observed as a problem among surveyed adolescents. PMID:23970962

Bhardwaj, Ashok; Kumar, Dinesh; Raina, Sunil Kumar; Bansal, Pardeep; Bhushan, Satya; Chander, Vishav



78 FR 42505 - U.S. Healthcare Education Mission to New Delhi, Hyderabad, and Ahmedabad, India, January 27...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...growing and most business-friendly states in India and has some of the...has a 42% share of India's pharmaceutical/healthcare business. Mission Scenario...Applicant's potential for doing business in India, including...



Energy conservation in India`s commercial air conditioned buildings  

SciTech Connect

The Indian economy is among the fastest growing economies in the world. In the 1980s, India`s GDP grew at a rate of 5.3 percent annually. As the economy grows and incomes rise, the demands for more air conditioned buildings is expected to place greater stress on already precarious energy supplies. The average annual rate of growth of electricity consumption in the commercial sector in the 1989 to 1992 period was close to nine percent as compared to 5.5 percent in the industrial sector - a fact that makes today`s energy use planning decisions even more important. India is already experiencing an energy shortage, and these commercial and industrial growth rates are accelerating the demand for energy. With these facts in mind, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) began it`s Energy Management Consultation and Training (EMCAT) project in India. The EMCAT project began in 1991 as a six-year project to improve India`s technological and management capabilities both for the supply of energy and for its efficient end-use. A specific task under the end-use component was to look a high energy-use sectors, such as the air conditioned (AC) buildings in the commercial sector, and to identify investment opportunities that can improve energy utilization. This paper presents results from pre-investment surveys in this sector which were conducted at four facilities in 1995.

Singh, G.; Presny, D.; Fafard, C.



Understanding Regional Economic Growth in IndiaUnderstanding Regional Economic Growth in India Understanding Regional Economic  

E-print Network Nirupam Bajpai Senior Development Advisor & Director, India Program Center for Globalization states and 7 union territories. The variation in physical geography, culture, and economic conditions India's states, especially under the forces of globalization in the 1990s. The paper may be read most


Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Kanpur 208016(India)  

E-print Network

Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Kanpur 208016(India) SCHOLARSHIP DONATION FORM 1. Roll No Cheque/Demand Draft to: For donors in India and outside United States: Draft/Cheque payable to "IIT Registrar, Resources and Alumni Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Kanpur - 208016 (UP), INDIA Phone: +91

Srivastava, Kumar Vaibhav


Indian Railways Backbone of Information Transport in India  

E-print Network

1 Indian Railways ­ Backbone of Information Transport in India Santosh Kumar, Ohio State University: Indian Railways is the backbone of public transport in India. With ever- increasing number of people to be the backbone of any country's economy. Indian Railways undoubtedly is the backbone of public transport in India

Kumar, Santosh


China and India: economic performance, competition and cooperation: an update  

Microsoft Academic Search

China and India chose similar economic development strategies in 1950 of near autarky, industrialization, and the dominance of the state in the economy. China came out of insulation and began reforming its economy in 1978. India’s hesitant and piecemeal reforms, initiated in the 1980s, became systemic and broader in 1991. Since 1980, China has grown at an average rate of

T. N. Srinivasan



Reimbursement for critical care services in India  

PubMed Central

There are significant variations in critical care practices, costs, and reimbursements in various countries. Of note, there is a paucity of reliable information on remuneration and reimbursement models for intensivists in India. This review article aims to analyze the existing reimbursement models in United States and United Kingdom and propose a frame-work model that may be applicable in India. PMID:23833469

Jayaram, Raja; Ramakrishnan, Nagarajan



Geomorphic Environments of Tsunami Deposits, Southeastern India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As paleotsunami research progresses around the Indian Ocean, it is increasingly evident that tsunamis have occurred in this region in the past. The largest of these could have traversed the ocean and reached the southeastern coast of India, which highlights the importance of identifying key preservation sites in this potential repository of catastrophic basin-wide events. However, geologically enduring sites where tsunami deposits dependably survive are not yet well defined in India and other tropical environments. The purpose of this project was to identify the settings conducive to long-term preservation of tsunami deposits in tropical India and develop criteria for distinguishing them in the stratigraphic record. We documented the post- depositional fate of the tsunami deposits from the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake in various geomorphic environments along the southeastern coast of Tamil Nadu, India from 10.5-13° N. Latitude. Deposits from the 2004 tsunami were mapped, described and surveyed at locations where they had been described immediately after the event, as well as at previously unstudied sites. At many sites, the tsunami deposits were recognizable in the stratigraphic column by characteristic fine mafic laminations, debris and an organic layer at the lower boundary. Field observations and initial grain-size analysis indicated a distinct difference between tsunami deposits and underlying sedimentary layers. For example, at Mamallapuram (12.5° N. Lat.) the mean grain size of the tsunami deposits was 0.25 phi finer than that of the underlying layers. However, only three years after the event, deposits in some locations had already been altered significantly by erosion, bioturbation and incipient weathering and were not readily recognizable in the stratigraphy. Although the 2004 tsunami deposits were thicker and more extensive in the hard-hit southern half of the study area, the degree of bioturbation and weathering was greater there than in the drier northern portion, where some thin tsunami sand layers behind coastal dunes remained unaltered since the original post- tsunami surveys. To date, no conclusive evidence of paleotsunami deposits has been found at the sites included in this study, but the results will guide the search for key settings that best satisfy the balance between sediment volume and preservation.

Johnston, P.; Ely, L.; Achyuthan, H.; Srinivasalu, S.



Race and bicultural socialization in the Netherlands, Norway, and the United States of America in the adoptions of children from India.  


A cross-national sample of 622 internationally adopted children from India with White parents in The Netherlands (n = 409), Norway (n = 146), and the United States (n = 67) was used to contrast country-specific bicultural socialization (BCS) practices among families of transracial intercountry adoption. The 3 countries vary in their degrees of minority (US > Netherlands > Norway) and Indian populations (US > Norway > Netherlands). The current study examined parental survey trends among BCS practices, children's negative encounters about adoption, racial and positive discrimination, and parental worry about these issues. Country-specific differences were revealed: The United States and Norway (greatest Indian populations) reported the greatest similarity in BCS practices, classmates being a source of negative reactions/racial discrimination, and parental worry. The American sample encountered greater negative reactions to adoption from others; Dutch children experienced the least negative reactions from others overall, yet as in the United States (samples with the greatest minority heterogeneity) they still noted significant experiences of racial discrimination. Country-specific sociopolitical perceptions about adoption, ethnicity/race, and immigration are considered as factors that may have been used to inform parenting practices that facilitate children's biculturalism into family life (i.e., adoptive family stigma, percentages of Indian/minority populations, immigration policy trends). Concluding, cross-national research such as the current study may help intercountry adoption policymakers and practitioners to better understand and inform BCS practices in adoptive families. PMID:24773007

Riley-Behringer, Maureen; Groza, Victor; Tieman, Wendy; Juffer, Femmie



US-India Education Foundation (USIEF): "Obama-Singh 21st Century Knowledge Initiative"  

E-print Network

US-India Education Foundation (USIEF): "Obama-Singh 21st Century Knowledge Initiative" Award Institutions in India" U.S.-India Collaboration and Pilot Project: Opportunity to Participate in STEM Faculty Training at Higher Education Institutions in India. The Ohio State University has been awarded a highly

Nahar, Sultana Nurun


Research fellowships in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twelve long-term (6 to 10 months) and nine short-term (2 to 3 months) research awards are being offered for 1983-84 by the Indo-U.S. Subcommission on Education and Culture. The fellowship program seeks to open new channels of communication between academic and professional groups in the United States and India and to encourage a wider range of research activity between the two countries. Scholars and professionals with limited or no experience in India are encouraged to apply.The fellowship, without restriction to field, is for $1200 to $1500 per month, depending on academic/professional achievement and seniority; $350 per month is payable in dollars, with the balance paid in rupees. There is also an allowance for books and study/travel in India and for international travel. In addition, long-term fellows receive international travel allowances for dependents; a dependent allowance of $100-$250 per month in rupees; and a supplementary research allowance up to 34,000 rupees.


Tobacco control in India.  

PubMed Central

Legislation to control tobacco use in developing countries has lagged behind the dramatic rise in tobacco consumption. India, the third largest grower of tobacco in the world, amassed 1.7 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 1990 due to disease and injury attributable to tobacco use in a population where 65% of the men and 38% of the women consume tobacco. India's anti-tobacco legislation, first passed at the national level in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and proved to be insufficient. In the last decade state legislation has increasingly been used but has lacked uniformity and the multipronged strategies necessary to control demand. A new piece of national legislation, proposed in 2001, represents an advance. It includes the following key demand reduction measures: outlawing smoking in public places; forbidding sale of tobacco to minors; requiring more prominent health warning labels; and banning advertising at sports and cultural events. Despite these measures, the new legislation will not be enough to control the demand for tobacco products in India. The Indian Government must also introduce policies to raise taxes, control smuggling, close advertising loopholes, and create adequate provisions for the enforcement of tobacco control laws. PMID:12640476

Shimkhada, Riti; Peabody, John W.



Paragonimus & paragonimiasis in India  

PubMed Central

Ever since the discovery of the first indigenous case in 1981, paragonimiasis has gained recognition as a significant food borne parasitic zoonosis in India. The data available on the occurrence of paragonimiasis, until today, may be just the tip of an iceberg as the study areas covered were restricted to Northeast Indian States. Nevertheless, the results of research on paragonimiasis in India have revealed valuable information in epidemiology, life cycle, pathobiology and speciation of Indian Paragonimus. Potamiscus manipurensis, Alcomon superciliosum and Maydelliathelphusa lugubris were identified as the crab hosts of Paragonimus. Paragonimus miyazakii manipurinus n. sub sp., P. hueit’ungensis, P. skrjabini, P. heterotremus, P. compactus, and P. westermani have been described from India. P. heterotremus was found as the causative agent of human paragonimiasis. Ingestion of undercooked crabs and raw crab extract was the major mode of infection. Pulmonary paragonimiasis was the commonest clinical manifestation while pleural effusion and subcutaneous nodules were the common extra-pulmonary forms. Clinico-radiological features of pulmonary paragonimiasis simulated pulmonary tuberculosis. Intradermal test, ELISA and Dot-immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) were used for diagnosis and epidemiological survey of paragonimiasis. Phylogenitically, Indian Paragonimus species, although nested within the respective clade were distantly related to others within the clade. PMID:22960885

Singh, T. Shantikumar; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Rangsiruji, Achariya




Microsoft Academic Search

In 1991, India's closed economy opened up and attracted investments from several multinational companies (MNCs) around the world. As a result, people began to seek information about doing business in India, giving rise to a plethora of literature aimed at assisting them. Generally there are two prominent views of India. One is that India is a poor, under-developed country, lacking




India's Worsening Uranium Shortage  

SciTech Connect

As a result of NSG restrictions, India cannot import the natural uranium required to fuel its Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs); consequently, it is forced to rely on the expediency of domestic uranium production. However, domestic production from mines and byproduct sources has not kept pace with demand from commercial reactors. This shortage has been officially confirmed by the Indian Planning Commission’s Mid-Term Appraisal of the country’s current Five Year Plan. The report stresses that as a result of the uranium shortage, Indian PHWR load factors have been continually decreasing. The Uranium Corporation of India Ltd (UCIL) operates a number of underground mines in the Singhbhum Shear Zone of Jharkhand, and it is all processed at a single mill in Jaduguda. UCIL is attempting to aggrandize operations by establishing new mines and mills in other states, but the requisite permit-gathering and development time will defer production until at least 2009. A significant portion of India’s uranium comes from byproduct sources, but a number of these are derived from accumulated stores that are nearing exhaustion. A current maximum estimate of indigenous uranium production is 430t/yr (230t from mines and 200t from byproduct sources); whereas, the current uranium requirement for Indian PHWRs is 455t/yr (depending on plant capacity factor). This deficit is exacerbated by the additional requirements of the Indian weapons program. Present power generation capacity of Indian nuclear plants is 4350 MWe. The power generation target set by the Indian Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) is 20,000 MWe by the year 2020. It is expected that around half of this total will be provided by PHWRs using indigenously supplied uranium with the bulk of the remainder provided by breeder reactors or pressurized water reactors using imported low-enriched uranium.

Curtis, Michael M.



FT-IR spectral studies on polluted soils from industrial area at Karaikal, Puducherry State, South India.  


Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) has been carried out to analyze the chemical composition of soil samples. The soil samples were collected from an industrial environment at Karaikal, Union Territory of Pondicherry, South India. The FT-IR results indicate that soils have different composition, i.e., namely kaolinite, quartz, montmorillonite, aragonite, hematite, feldspar and calcite, respectively. From the spectral pattern, the chemical compositions of soil samples were identified. The quantitative estimations of kaolinite (1032 cm(-1) and 1634 cm(-1)), quartz (779 cm(-1), 692 cm(-1) and 464 cm(-1)), montmorillonite (3421 cm(-1)), organic material (2922 cm(-1)) and hematite (532 cm(-1)) were calculated using particular peaks of FT-IR studies spectrum. From the XRD pattern, the chemical compositions of soil samples were confirmed. In the study reveals that kaolinite and quartz minerals were predominant whereas montmorillonite and hematite are in moderate level, and organic materials are found in trace. Quantitative analyses of soils show that quartz (36%), kaolinite (34%), hematite (13%), montmorillonite (12%), illite (3%) and organic material (2%) are present in all the soil samples at various sites. PMID:23562739

Oumabady Alias Cannane, N; Rajendran, M; Selvaraju, R



Socioeconomic, demographic study on substance abuse among students of professional college in a southern town, Berhampur of Odisha state (India).  


Currently there is an increasing trend of substance abuse in developing countries like India. This study attempted to identify the different predisposing factors, associated psycho-social and medical problems, prevalence and types of substance abuse in students. The study covered a cross-section of 720 students with an overall male to female ratio of 4.1:1. The majority of the sufferers were from middle socioeconomic class, aged between 15 and 19 years. Common substances of abuse were chewable tobacco and cannabis. The risk of abuse was more in hostellers hailing from broken families (62.5%). Friends had the highest influence (59%). Most of them (49.4%) tried multiple times to give up, but peer pressure (53%) compelled them to restart. In 60.8% cases the parents were completely unaware about this behavior. The commonly associated problems were psychological (34.3%) and medical (29.5%). Our study at the end points out major risk factors and their remedial measures to curb substance abuse. PMID:24237819

Mohanty, Sachidananda; Tripathy, Radhamadhab; Palo, Subrat Kumar; Jena, Dhaneswari



The expanding host tree species spectrum of Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans and their isolations from surrounding soil in India.  


This study reports the widespread prevalence of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii in decayed wood inside trunk hollows of 14 species representing 12 families of trees and from soil near the base of various host trees from Delhi and several places in the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Tamil Nadu and Chandigarh Union Territory. Of the 311 trees from which samples were obtained, 64 (20.5%) were found to contain strains of the C. neoformans species complex. The number of trees positive for C. neoformans var grubii (serotypeA) was 51 (16.3%), for C. gattii (serotype B) 24 (7.7%) and for both C. neoformans and C. gattii 11 (3.5%). The overall prevalence of C. neoformans species complex in decayed wood samples was 19.9% (111/556). There was no obvious correlation between the prevalence of these two yeast species and the species of host trees. The data on prevalence of C. gattii (24%) and C. neoformans (26%) in soil around the base of some host trees indicated that soil is another important ecologic niche for these two Cryptococcus species in India. Among our sampled tree species, eight and six were recorded for the first time as hosts for C. neoformans var grubii and C. gattii, respectively. A longitudinal surveillance of 8 host tree species over 0.7 to 2.5 years indicated long term colonization of Polyalthia longifolia, Mimusops elengi and Manilkara hexandra trees by C. gattii and/or C. neoformans. The mating type was determined for 153 of the isolates, including 98 strains of serotype A and 55 of serotype B and all proved to be mating type alpha (MAT alpha). Our observations document the rapidly expanding spectrum of host tree species for C. gattii and C. neoformans and indicate that decayed woods of many tree species are potentially suitable ecological niches for both pathogens. PMID:18608895

Randhawa, H S; Kowshik, T; Chowdhary, Anuradha; Preeti Sinha, K; Khan, Z U; Sun, Sheng; Xu, Jianping



Dhaksha, the Unmanned Aircraft System in its New Avatar-Automated Aerial Inspection of INDIA'S Tallest Tower  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DHAKSHA, the unmanned aircraft system (UAS), developed after several years of research by Division of Avionics, Department of Aerospace Engineering, MIT Campus of Anna University has recently proved its capabilities during May 2012 Technology demonstration called UAVforge organised by Defence Research Project Agency, Department of Defence, USA. Team Dhaksha with its most stable design outperformed all the other contestants competing against some of the best engineers from prestigi ous institutions across the globe like Middlesex University from UK, NTU and NUS from Singapore, Tudelft Technical University, Netherlands and other UAV industry participants in the world's toughest UAV challenge. This has opened up an opportunity for Indian UAVs making a presence in the international scenario as well. In furtherance to the above effort at Fort Stewart military base at Georgia,USA, with suitable payloads, the Dhaksha team deployed the UAV in a religious temple festival during November 2012 at Thiruvannamalai District for Tamil Nadu Police to avail the instant aerial imagery services over the crowd of 10 lakhs pilgrims and also about the investigation of the structural strength of the India's tallest structure, the 300 m RCC tower during January 2013. The developed system consists of a custom-built Rotary Wing model with on-board navigation, guidance and control systems (NGC) and ground control station (GCS), for mission planning, remote access, manual overrides and imagery related computations. The mission is to fulfill the competition requirements by using an UAS capable of providing complete solution for the stated problem. In this work the effort to produce multirotor unmanned aerial systems (UAS) for civilian applications at the MIT, Avionics Laboratory is presented

Kumar, K. S.; Rasheed, A. Mohamed; Krishna Kumar, R.; Giridharan, M.; Ganesh



The political economy of farmers' suicides in India: indebted cash-crop farmers with marginal landholdings explain state-level variation in suicide rates  

PubMed Central

Background A recent Lancet article reported the first reliable estimates of suicide rates in India. National-level suicide rates are among the highest in the world, but suicide rates vary sharply between states and the causes of these differences are disputed. We test whether differences in the structure of agricultural production explain inter-state variation in suicides rates. This hypothesis is supported by a large number of qualitative studies, which argue that the liberalization of the agricultural sector in the early-1990s led to an agrarian crisis and that consequently farmers with certain socioeconomic characteristics–cash crops cultivators, with marginal landholdings, and debts–are at particular risk of committing suicide. The recent Lancet study, however, contends that there is no evidence to support this hypothesis. Methods We report scatter diagrams and linear regression models that combine the new state-level suicide rate estimates and the proportion of marginal farmers, cash crop cultivation, and indebted farmers. Results When we include all variables in the regression equation there is a significant positive relationship between the percentage of marginal farmers, cash crop production, and indebted farmers, and suicide rates. This model accounts for almost 75% of inter-state variation in suicide rates. If the proportion of marginal farmers, cash crops, or indebted farmers were reduced by 1%, the suicide rate–suicides per 100,000 per year–would fall by 0?·?437, 0?·?518 or 0?·?549 respectively, when all other variables are held constant. Conclusions Even if the Indian state is unable to enact land reforms due to the power of local elites, interventions to stabilize the price of cash crops and relieve indebted farmers may be effective at reducing suicide rates. PMID:24669945



Quantifying aquifer properties and freshwater resource in coastal barriers: a hydrogeophysical approach applied at Sasihithlu (Karnataka state, India)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many human communities living in coastal areas in Africa and Asia rely on thin freshwater lenses for their domestic supply. Population growth together with change in rainfall patterns and sea level will probably impact these vulnerable groundwater resources. Spatial knowledge of the aquifer properties and creation of a groundwater model are required for achieving a sustainable management of the resource. This paper presents a ready-to-use methodology for estimating the key aquifer properties and the freshwater resource based on the joint use of two non-invasive geophysical tools together with common hydrological measurements. We applied the proposed methodology in an unconfined aquifer of a coastal sandy barrier in South-Western India. We jointly used magnetic resonance and transient electromagnetic soundings and we monitored rainfall, groundwater level and groundwater electrical conductivity. The combined interpretation of geophysical and hydrological results allowed estimating the aquifer properties and mapping the freshwater lens. Depending on the location and season, we estimate the freshwater reserve to range between 400 and 700 L m-2 of surface area (± 50%). We also estimate the recharge using time lapse geophysical measurements with hydrological monitoring. After a rainy event close to 100% of the rain is reaching the water table, but the net recharge at the end of the monsoon is less than 10% of the rain. Thus, we conclude that a change in rainfall patterns will probably not impact the groundwater resource since most of the rain water recharging the aquifer is flowing towards the sea and the river. However, a change in sea level will impact both the groundwater reserve and net recharge.

Vouillamoz, J.-M.; Hoareau, J.; Grammare, M.; Caron, D.; Nandagiri, L.; Legchenko, A.



Distribution of Foraminifera in the Core Samples of Kollidam and Marakanam Mangrove Locations, Tamil Nadu, Southeast Coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to study the distribution of Foraminifera in the subsurface sediments of mangrove environment, two core samples have been collected i) near boating house, Pitchavaram, from Kollidam estuary (C2) and ii) backwaters of Marakanam (C2)with the help of PVC corer. The length of the core varies from a total of 25 samples from both cores were obtained and they were subjected to standard micropaleontological and sedimentological analyses for the evaluation of different sediment characteristics. The core sample No.C1 (Pitchavaram) yielded only foraminifera whereas the other one core no.C2 (Marakanam) has yielded discussed only the down core distribution of foraminifera. The widely utilized classification proposed by Loeblich and Tappan (1987) has been followed in the present study for Foraminiferal taxonomy and accordingly 23 foraminiferal species belonging to 18 genera, 10 families, 8 superfamilies and 4 suborders have been reported and illustrated. The foraminiferal species recorded are characteristic of shallow innershelf to marginal marine and tropical in nature. Sedimentological parameters such as CaCO3, Organic matter and sand-silt-clay ratio was estimated and their down core distribution is discussed. An attempt has been made to evaluate the favourable substrate for the Foraminifera population abundance in the present area of study. From the overall distribution of foraminifera in different samples of Kollidam estuary (Pitchavaram area), and Marakanam estuary it is observed that siltysand and sandysilt are more accommodative substrate for the population of foraminifera, respectively. The distribution of foraminifera in the core samples indicate that the sediments were deposited under normal oxygenated environment conditions.;

Nowshath, M.



Major ion chemistry and hydrochemical studies of groundwater of parts of Palar river basin, Tamil Nadu, India.  


Groundwater is almost globally important for human consumption as well as for the support of habitat and for maintaining the quality of base flow to rivers, while its quality assessment is essential to ensure sustainable safe use of the resources for drinking, agricultural, and industrial purposes. In the current study, 50 groundwater samples were collected from parts of Palar river basin to assess water quality and investigate hydrochemical nature by analyzing the major cations (Ca, Mg, Na, K) and anions (HCO(3), Cl, F,SO(4), NO(3), PO(4),CO(3), HCO(3), and F) besides some physical and chemical parameters (pH, electrical conductivity, alkalinity, and total hardness). Also, geographic information system-based groundwater quality mapping in the form of visually communicating contour maps was developed using ArcGIS-9.2 to delineate spatial variation in physicochemical characteristics of groundwater samples. Wilcox classification and US Salinity Laboratory hazard diagram suggests that 52% of the groundwater fall in the field of C2-S1, indicating water of medium salinity and low sodium, which can be used for irrigation in almost all types of soil with little danger of exchangeable sodium. Remaining 48% is falling under C1-SI, indicating water of low salinity and low sodium. PMID:20886289

Dar, Mithas Ahmad; Sankar, K; Dar, Imran Ahmad



Coastal Sedimentation And Risks Of Tsunami Associated With 26Th December 2004 In The Kanyakumari Coast Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tsunami signatures were formulated from the field evidence from 26th December 2004 tsunami surge in the Kanyakumari coast. The impact of Tsunami can be identified form the preservation of geomorphic signatures and sedimentary deposits. The more common signature of Tsunami in the deposition of sand with thickness of 20cm towards landward and are sandwiched between finer material and debris

N. Chandrasekar



Geomatics Based Analysis of Predicted Sea Level Rise and its Impacts in Parts of Tamil Nadu Coast, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coastal zones around the world are very densely populated and hence heavily packed with related infrastructures. So, the\\u000a territorial nations have obvious apprehensions against the IPCC SRES (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Special Report\\u000a on Emission Scenario) predicted sea level rise, as it would cause flooding of the low lying coasts and also other related\\u000a chains of environmental endangers.

S. M. Ramasamy; C. J. Kumanan; J. Saravanavel; A. S. Rajawat; V. Tamilarasan; Ajay



Land use planning in India.  


India was the first country to provide for the protection and improvement of environment in its constitution. Land use planning (LUP) or siting of industries has been taken up at the State and Central (Federal) levels over the last few decades. LUP is critical for all types of industries and new residential colonies, but is especially so for the chemical industries. With the experience gained, more coherence in LUP policies is emerging. A few prominent cases of siting of industry, some mixed with public outcry, that have affected the policies are noted in the text. Various factors which affect LUP in India are: population density, infrastructure (roads, power, communication, etc.), level of industrialization in different parts, need for creation of jobs, eco-sensitive regions, tribal regions, historical monuments, etc. This paper discusses the current scene in India and the near future aspects. PMID:16111811

Gupta, J P



State Support for Private Schooling in India: What Do the Evaluations of the British Assisted Places Schemes Suggest?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Section 12 of the Indian Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009 (the RTE Act) states that 25% of the entry-level places in all private schools should be free and reserved for students from economically and socially disadvantaged families. The Indian State governments will pay schools a per-child fee based on costs in the…

Walford, Geoffrey



Babesia infection in naturally exposed pet dogs from a north-eastern state (Assam) of India: detection by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction.  


The objective of the study was to detect Babesia infections in pet dogs of a north-eastern state of India. The diagnostic efficacy of Babesia infection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique has been compared with microscopy examination. For this, a total of 111 blood samples of pet dogs presented at clinical complex of the College of Veterinary Science, Guwahati, Assam with clinical signs suspected for Babesia infection subjected to the study. A total of 44 (39.63 %) dogs were diagnosed as positive for Babesia infections after microscopic examination. Among these, Babesia canis infection was diagnosed in 5 dogs (4.50 %) and B. gibsoni infection in 39 (35.13 %) dogs microscopically in Giemsa stained blood smears. Molecular diagnosis using PCR detected 63 (56.75 %) dogs positive for Babesia infection. Single infection with B. canis was found in 9 (8.10 %) dogs while B. gibsoni alone was detected in 3 (2.70 %) dogs. Mixed infections by both these species were detected in 51 (45.94 %) dogs. Overall, PCR detected 54 (48.64 %) dogs as B. gibsoni and 60 (54.05 %) dogs as B. canis positive. PMID:25320489

Laha, R; Bhattacharjee, K; Sarmah, P C; Das, M; Goswami, A; Sarma, D; Sen, A



Soil gas radon-thoron monitoring in Dharamsala area of north-west Himalayas, India using solid state nuclear track detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study described here is based on the measurements of soil gas radon-thoron concentrations performed at Dharamsala region of north-west (NW) Himalayas, India. The study area is tectonically and environmentally significant and shows the features of ductile shear zone due to the presence of distinct thrust planes. Solid state nuclear track detectors (LR-115 films) have been used for the soil gas radon-thoron monitoring. Twenty five radon-thoron discriminators with LR-115 films were installed in the borehole of about 50 cm in the study areas. The recorded radon concentration varies from 1593 to 13570 Bq/m3 with an average value of 5292 Bq/m3. The recorded thoron concentration varies from 223 to 2920 Bq/m3 with an average value of 901 Bq/m3. The anomalous value of radon-thoron has been observed near to the faults like main boundary thrust (MBT and MBT2) as well as neotectonic lineaments in the region.

Kumar, Gulshan; Kumar, Arvind; Walia, Vivek; Kumar, Jitender; Gupta, Vikash; Yang, Tsanyao Frank; Singh, Surinder; Bajwa, Bikramjit Singh



A rapid assessment and response approach to review and enhance Advocacy, Communication and Social Mobilisation for Tuberculosis control in Odisha state, India  

PubMed Central

Background Tuberculosis remains a major public health problem in India with the country accounting for 1 in 5 of all TB cases reported globally. An advocacy, communication and social mobilisation project for Tuberculosis control was implemented and evaluated in Odisha state of India. The purpose of the study was to identify the impact of project interventions including the use of 'Interface NGOs' and involvement of community groups such as women's self-help groups, local government bodies, village health sanitation committees, and general health staff in promoting TB control efforts. Methods The study utilized a rapid assessment and response (RAR) methodology. The approach combined both qualitative field work approaches, including semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with empirical data collection and desk research. Results Results revealed that a combination of factors including the involvement of Interface NGOs, coupled with increased training and engagement of front line health workers and community groups, and dissemination of community based resources, contributed to improved awareness and knowledge about TB in the targeted districts. Project activities also contributed towards improving health worker and community effectiveness to raise the TB agenda, and improved TB literacy and treatment adherence. Engagement of successfully treated patients also assisted in reducing community stigma and discrimination. Conclusion The expanded use of advocacy, communication and social mobilisation activities in TB control has resulted in a number of benefits. These include bridging pre-existing gaps between the health system and the community through support and coordination of general health services stakeholders, NGOs and the community. The strategic use of 'tailored messages' to address specific TB problems in low performing areas also led to more positive behavioural outcomes and improved efficiencies in service delivery. Implications for future studies are that a comprehensive and well planned range of ACSM activities can enhance TB knowledge, attitudes and behaviours while also mobilising specific community groups to build community efficacy to combat TB. The use of rapid assessments combined with other complementary evaluation approaches can be effective when reviewing the impact of TB advocacy, communication and social mobilisation activities. PMID:21663623



Non-paying partnerships and its association with HIV risk behavior, program exposure and service utilization among female sex workers in India  

PubMed Central

Background In India, HIV prevention programs have focused on female sex workers’ (FSWs’) sexual practices vis-à-vis commercial partners leading to important gains in HIV prevention. However, it has become apparent that further progress is contingent on a better understanding of FSWs’ sexual risks in the context of their relationships with non-paying partners. In this paper, we explored the association between FSWs’ non-paying partner status, including cohabitation and HIV risk behaviors, program exposure and utilization of program services. Methods We used data from the cross-sectional Integrated Behavioral and Biological Assessment (IBBA) survey (2009–2010) conducted among 8,107 FSWs in three high priority states of India- Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine the association between non-paying partner and cohabitation status of FSWs with HIV risk behaviors, program exposure and utilization of program services. Results FSWs reporting a non-paying partner were more likely to be exposed to and utilize HIV prevention resources than those who did not have a non-paying partner. Analyses revealed that FSWs reporting a non-cohabiting non-paying partner were more likely to be exposed to HIV prevention programs (adjusted OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.3 – 2.1), attend meetings (adjusted OR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2 – 1.8), and visit a sexually transmitted infections clinic at least twice in the last six months (adjusted OR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.3 – 1.9) as compared to those reporting no non-paying partner. That said, FSWs with a non-paying partner rarely used condoms consistently and were more vulnerable to HIV infection because of being street-based (p?India should focus on addressing relationship factors like risk communication and condom negotiation, including specific vulnerabilities like indebtedness and street based solicitation among women in sex work. PMID:24621082



global warming's six indias  

E-print Network

global warming's six indias: An Audience Segmentation Analysis #12;Global Warming's Six Indias 1............................................................................................................................................20 2. Global Warming Beliefs and Attitudes................................................................................ 21 Knowledge about global warming varies widely by group

Haller, Gary L.


Utilization of a State Run Public Private Emergency Transportation Service Exclusively for Childbirth: The Janani (Maternal) Express Program in Madhya Pradesh, India  

PubMed Central

Background In 2009 the state government of Madhya Pradesh, India launched an emergency obstetric transportation service, Janani Express Yojana (JEY), to support the cash transfer program that promotes institutional delivery. JEY, a large scale public private partnership, lowers geographical access barriers to facility based care. The state contracts and pays private agencies to provide emergency transportation at no cost to the user. The objective was to study (a) the utilization of JEY among women delivering in health facilities, (b) factors associated with usage, (c) the timeliness of the service. Methods A cross sectional facility based study was conducted in facilities that carried out > ten deliveries a month. Researchers who spent five days in each facility administered a questionnaire to all women who gave birth there to elicit socio-demographic characteristics and transport related details. Results 35% of women utilised JEY to reach a facility, however utilization varied between study districts. Uptake was highest among women from rural areas (44%), scheduled tribes (55%), and poorly educated women (40%). Living in rural areas and belonging to scheduled tribes were significant predictors for JEY usage. Almost 1/3 of JEY users (n?=?104) experienced a transport related delay. Discussion The JEY service model complements the cash transfer program by providing transport to a facility to give birth. A study of the distribution of utilization in population subgroups suggests the intervention was successful in reaching the most vulnerable population, promoting equity in access. While 1/3 of women utilized the service and it saved them money; 30% experienced significant transport related delays in reaching a facility, which is comparable to women using public transportation. Further research is needed to understand why utilization is low, to explore if there is a need for service expansion at the community level and to improve the overall time efficiency of JEY. PMID:24828520

Sidney, Kristi; Ryan, Kayleigh; Diwan, Vishal; De Costa, Ayesha



EPR and optical absorption characteristics of sodic plagioclase from granite pegmatite in Kadavur, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of sodic plagioclase from dykes of granitic pegmatite occurring in the Kadavur area, Tamil Nadu, India, were examined at room temperature to identify paramagnetic impurities in a "low plagioclase" using EPR and optical techniques. The EPR spectra showed the presence of Fe(III) and Mn(II) impurities. After heating the plagioclase samples for various durations at 600 °C, it has been observed that the concentration of Mn(II) remained as such in one sample but completely disappeared in another sample, while there was no change in Fe(III) ion concentration after the heat treatment in either sample. Optical absorption spectra also showed Fe(II) and Fe(III) in addition to Ti(III) impurities in sodic plagioclase before heating, while after heating the relative concentration of Fe(II) and Fe(III) changed, accompanied by the disappearance of Ti(III).

Anand, S. Vijay; Pandian, M. S.; Mithira, S.; Ravikumar, R. V. S. S. N.; Sambasiva Rao, P.


Usage pattern and exposure assessment of food colours in different age groups of consumers in the State of Uttar Pradesh, India.  


The present study aims to investigate the nature and levels of colours in food items and to undertake risk assessment vis-a-vis intake among different age groups of consumers in the State of Uttar Pradesh, India. A total of 478 edible foodstuffs were analysed, and of six permitted colours, Sunset Yellow FCF (SSYFCF) and Tartrazine were most popular, and two non-permitted colours, namely Metanil Yellow and Rhodamine B, were encountered. The study showed a marked improvement in the trend of use of non-permitted colours over previous surveys, with 90% foods now resorting to approved food colours. However, 59% of foods employing permitted colours exceeded the maximum allowable limit, with average quantities crossing the threshold of 100 mg kg(-1) in most food commodities. The intake of SSYFCF exceeded the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for children and adolescents by 88% and 39%, respectively, and was statistically significant when analysed by error bars and distribution curves. In adults, SSYFCF saturated 59% of the ADI. For Carmoisine, Tartrazine and Ponceau 4R, saturation of ADI ranged from 27.4% to 90.3% in children and adolescents and from 10.8% to 47.6% in adult subjects. These results indicate that children and adolescents are more vulnerable to higher intakes of food colours compared with the adult population. Allowing a uniform level of all colours in foods under Indian rules, notwithstanding wide variations of 250-fold in their allocated ADIs, could be one reason for the higher intake and hence only technological need-based levels of individual colours are desired to be prescribed. PMID:19890754

Dixit, S; Purshottam, S K; Gupta, S K; Khanna, S K; Das, M



Spatial and temporal trends of mean and extreme rainfall and temperature for the 33 urban centers of the arid and semi-arid state of Rajasthan, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trend analysis of the mean (monsoon season, non-monsoon season and annual) and extreme annual daily rainfall and temperature at the spatial and temporal scales was carried out for all the 33 urban centers of the arid and semi-arid state of Rajasthan, India. Statistical trend analysis techniques, namely the Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope estimator, were used to examine trends (1971-2005) at the 10% level of significance. Both positive and negative trends were observed in mean and extreme events of rainfall and temperature in the urban centers of Rajasthan State. The magnitude of the significant trend of monsoon rainfall varied from (-) 6.00 mm/hydrologic year at Nagaur to (-) 8.56 mm/hydrologic year at Tonk. However, the magnitude of the significant negative trends of non-monsoon rainfall varied from (-) 0.66 mm/hydrologic year at Dungarpur to (-) 1.27 mm/hydrologic year at Chittorgarh. The magnitude of positive trends of non-monsoon rainfall varied from 0.93 mm/hydrologic year at Churu to 1.70 mm/hydrologic year at Hanumangarh. The magnitude of the significant negative trends of annual rainfall varied from (-) 6.47 mm/year at Nagaur to (-) 10.0 mm/year at Tonk. The minimum, average and maximum temperature showed significant increasing warming trends on an annual and seasonal scale in most of the urban centers in Rajasthan State. The magnitude of statistically significant annual extreme daily rainfall varied from 2.00 mm at Jhalawar to (-) 1.64 mm at Tonk, while the magnitude of statistically significant extreme annual daily minimum and maximum temperature varied from 0.03 °C at Ganganagar to 0.05 °C at Jhalawar, respectively. The spatial variations of the trends in mean (monsoon season, non-monsoon season and annual) and extreme annual daily rainfall and temperature were also determined using the inverse-distance-weighted (IDW) interpolation technique. IDW results are helpful to identify trends and variability in mean and extreme rainfall and temperature in space and time for the study locations where the data is not available and the quality of data is not good. These spatial maps of temperature and rainfall can help local stakeholders and water managers to understand the risks and vulnerabilities related to climate change in terms of mean and extreme events in the region.

Pingale, Santosh M.; Khare, Deepak; Jat, Mahesh K.; Adamowski, Jan



Evidence for the presence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and monodon baculovirus (MBV) in wild Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) broodstock, in the southeast coast of India.  


A survey on the presence of the viruses of two economically significant diseases, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and monodon baculovirus (MBV) in wild-collected Penaeus monodon broodstock, was conducted during different seasons of the year in two major coastal areas of southeast India. The broodstock were collected along the coast of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh during summer, premonsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons for three consecutive years. A total of 7905 samples were collected and subjected to MBV screening, and 6709 samples that were screened as MBV negative were diagnosed for WSSV. MBV was detected using rapid malachite green staining and WSSV by nested polymerase chain reaction. Prevalence data of the viruses were analysed using the EpiCalc 2000 program at 95% confidence interval. Samples collected from the Andhra Pradesh coast displayed a slightly higher prevalence of WSSV and MBV infection than those collected from Tamil Nadu, although this difference was not statistically significant (P > 005). In addition, it was found that the prevalence of both WSSV and MBV infections fluctuated according to season. Data on prevalence of these viruses in broodstock would be useful to develop strategies for shrimp health management along the southeast coast of India. PMID:22924635

Remany, M C; Daly, C; Nagaraj, S; Panda, A K; Jaideep, K; Samraj, Y C T



Free as in Swatantra: Free Software and Nationhood in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article interrogates the cross-cultural production of the software of the United States and India, and the articulation of nationhood through Free and Open Source Software (FOSS), specifically with what in India is known as Swatantra Software, a label that epitomizes the counter-he- gemonic sentiment of the FOSS movement, and the counter-imperialist sentiments of its adoption in India, by utilizing

Michael Truscello



Effectiveness of Medicinal Plant Conservation Areas in Western Ghats, India  

E-print Network

Effectiveness of Medicinal Plant Conservation Areas in Western Ghats, India Narayani Barve Medicinal Plant Conservation Areas (MPCA) ? Designated by State Forest Department ? Established early 1990s ? Network of 200 sites all over India... ? Selection based on Plant diversity and known medicinal plant hotspots The Western Ghats (Sahyadri) Biodiversity Hotspot ? Less than 6% of the land area of India, but contains more than 30% of all plant, bird, and mammal species found in the country...

Barve, Narayani



(Coal utilization in India)  

SciTech Connect

Under the Phase II, Alternative Energy Resources Development (AERD) project of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Government of India (GOI), five collaborative coal projects have been initiated in the areas of: (1) NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} control from coal-fired power plants, (2) slagging combustor development for high-ash Indian coals, (3) characterization of Indian coals for combustion and gasification, (4) diagnostic studies for prediction of power plant life expectancy, and (5) environmental and natural resource analysis of coal cycle. The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) has the implementation responsibility for these projects. The Indian collaborative institutions identified for these projects are the Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. (BHEL), Trichy, (Projects 1--4), and the Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI) for Project 5. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is providing cross-cut technical coordination and support for these five projects.

Krishnan, R.P.



Can India's ``literate'' read?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading Method (RM) which required the same individuals to actually read a simple text at grade 2 level. The findings revealed a substantial difference between the reading literacy rates obtained by CM and RM. CM over-reported RM by 16%. The overestimation was higher for males. Decoding skills were found to erode in most cases after completion of primary schooling, assuming no further education. A minimum grade 8-9 education was required for decoding skills to not deteriorate after schooling.

Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata



The burden of headache disorders in India: methodology and questionnaire validation for a community-based survey in Karnataka State.  


Primary headache disorders are a major public-health problem globally and, possibly more so, in low- and middle-income countries. No methodologically sound studies of prevalence and burden of headache in the adult Indian population have been published previously. The present study was a door-to-door cold-calling survey in urban and rural areas in and around Bangalore, Karnataka State. From 2,714 households contacted, 2,514 biologically unrelated individuals were eligible for the survey and 2,329 (92.9 %) participated (1,103 [48 %] rural; 1,226 [52 %] urban; 1,141 [49 %] male; 1,188 [51 %] female; mean age 38.0 years). The focus was on primary headache (migraine and tension-type headache [TTH]) and medication-overuse headache. A structured questionnaire administered by trained lay interviewers was the instrument both for diagnosis (algorithmically determined from responses) and burden estimation. The screening question enquired into headache in the last year. The validation study compared questionnaire-based diagnoses with those obtained soon after through personal interview by a neurologist in a random sub-sample of participants (n = 381; 16 %). It showed high values (> 80 %) for sensitivity, specificity and predictive values for any headache, and for specificity and negative predictive value for migraine and TTH. Kappa values for diagnostic agreement were good for any headache (0.69 [95 % CI 0.61-0.76]), moderate (0.46 [0.35-0.56]) for migraine and fair (0.39 [0.29-0.49]) for TTH. The survey methodology, including identification of and access to participants, proved feasible. The questionnaire proved effective in the survey population. The study will give reliable estimates of the prevalence and burden of headache, and of migraine and TTH specifically, in urban and rural Karnataka. PMID:22911168

Rao, Girish N; Kulkarni, Girish B; Gururaj, Gopalkrishna; Rajesh, Kavita; Subbakrishna, D Kumaraswamy; Steiner, Timothy J; Stovner, Lars J



Dynamic Site Characterization and Correlation of Shear Wave Velocity with Standard Penetration Test ` N' Values for the City of Agartala, Tripura State, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic site characterization is the basic requirement for seismic microzonation and site response studies of an area. Site characterization helps to gauge the average dynamic properties of soil deposits and thus helps to evaluate the surface level response. This paper presents a seismic site characterization of Agartala city, the capital of Tripura state, in the northeast of India. Seismically, Agartala city is situated in the Bengal Basin zone which is classified as a highly active seismic zone, assigned by Indian seismic code BIS-1893, Indian Standard Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures, Part-1 General Provisions and Buildings. According to the Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi (2002), it is the highest seismic level (zone-V) in the country. The city is very close to the Sylhet fault (Bangladesh) where two major earthquakes ( M w > 7) have occurred in the past and affected severely this city and the whole of northeast India. In order to perform site response evaluation, a series of geophysical tests at 27 locations were conducted using the multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) technique, which is an advanced method for obtaining shear wave velocity ( V s) profiles from in situ measurements. Similarly, standard penetration test (SPT-N) bore log data sets have been obtained from the Urban Development Department, Govt. of Tripura. In the collected data sets, out of 50 bore logs, 27 were selected which are close to the MASW test locations and used for further study. Both the data sets ( V s profiles with depth and SPT-N bore log profiles) have been used to calculate the average shear wave velocity ( V s30) and average SPT-N values for the upper 30 m depth of the subsurface soil profiles. These were used for site classification of the study area recommended by the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP) manual. The average V s30 and SPT-N classified the study area as seismic site class D and E categories, indicating that the city is susceptible to site effects and liquefaction. Further, the different data set combinations between V s and SPT-N (corrected and uncorrected) values have been used to develop site-specific correlation equations by statistical regression, as ` V s' is a function of SPT- N value (corrected and uncorrected), considered with or without depth. However, after considering the data set pairs, a probabilistic approach has also been presented to develop a correlation using a quantile-quantile (Q-Q) plot. A comparison has also been made with the well known published correlations (for all soils) available in the literature. The present correlations closely agree with the other equations, but, comparatively, the correlation of shear wave velocity with the variation of depth and uncorrected SPT-N values provides a more suitable predicting model. Also the Q-Q plot agrees with all the other equations. In the absence of in situ measurements, the present correlations could be used to measure V s profiles of the study area for site response studies.

Sil, Arjun; Sitharam, T. G.



Enhancing innovation between scientific and indigenous knowledge: pioneer NGOs in India  

PubMed Central

Background Until recently, little attention has been paid to local innovation capacity as well as management practices and institutions developed by communities and other local actors based on their traditional knowledge. This paper doesn't focus on the results of scientific research into innovation systems, but rather on how local communities, in a network of supportive partnerships, draw knowledge for others, combine it with their own knowledge and then innovate in their local practices. Innovation, as discussed in this article, is the capacity of local stakeholders to play an active role in innovative knowledge creation in order to enhance local health practices and further environmental conservation. In this article, the innovative processes through which this capacity is created and reinforced will be defined as a process of "ethnomedicine capacity". Methods The field study undertaken by the first author took place in India, in the State of Tamil Nadu, over a period of four months in 2007. The data was collected through individual interviews and focus groups and was complemented by participant observations. Results The research highlights the innovation capacity related to ethnomedical knowledge. As seen, the integration of local and scientific knowledge is crucial to ensure the practices anchor themselves in daily practices. The networks created are clearly instrumental to enhancing the innovation capacity that allows the creation, dissemination and utilization of 'traditional' knowledge. However, these networks have evolved in very different forms and have become entities that can fit into global networks. The ways in which the social capital is enhanced at the village and network levels are thus important to understand how traditional knowledge can be used as an instrument for development and innovation. Conclusion The case study analyzed highlights examples of innovation systems in a developmental context. They demonstrate that networks comprised of several actors from different levels can synergistically forge linkages between local knowledge and formal sciences and generate positive and negative impacts. The positive impact is the revitalization of perceived traditions while the negative impacts pertain to the transformation of these traditions into health commodities controlled by new elites, due to unequal power relations. PMID:19849851

Torri, Maria-Costanza; Laplante, Julie



From brain drain to brain gain: reverse migration to Bangalore and Hyderabad, India’s globalizing high tech cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses the mutual impact of returning Indian-origin skilled workers on the cities of Bangalore (Bengaluru) and\\u000a Hyderabad, which have emerged as India’s leading “tech cities”. During the 1970s and 1980s, there was concern that India was\\u000a losing its educated workforce to the West, particularly to the United States through a phenomenon known as “brain drain”.\\u000a More recently, there

Elizabeth Chacko



Study on variability in certain meteorological parameters in Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu State  

Microsoft Academic Search

The earth climate is generally defined as the average weather over a long period of time. A place or region's climate is determined by both natural and anthropogenic factors. The natural elements include the atmosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere, while the human factors include land and resource uses. Changes in any of these factors can cause local, regional, or even

S. Sivaprakasam; A. Murugappan



Serodiagnosis of bovine fasciolosis by Dot-enzyme immuno assay in Chennai, Tamil Nadu.  


Excretory/secretory (E/S) antigen of adult Fasciola gigantica was used for diagnosis of fasciolosis in cattle and buffaloes sera from slaughter houses and different places in and around Chennai, Tamil Nadu. A total of 6.4 mg of E/S antigen was obtained from the 60 flukes collected from slaughter houses. Coprological examination was done to detect endoparasitic infection in 321 fecal samples. Dot-enzyme immuno assay (Dot-EIA) was standardized with optimum working dilution of E/S antigen, serum, and conjugate by the checker board titration as 1 in 10 (50 ng/ml), 1 in 20, and 1 in 1,000, respectively. A total of 321 sera samples consisting of 168 cattle and 153 buffaloes were tested by Dot-EIA. A total of 25 cattle (14.88 %) and 38 buffaloes (24.83 %) showed positive results in Dot-EIA. Sensitivity of Dot-EIA for cattle and buffaloes sera was 100 %. Specificity of Dot-EIA for cattle and buffaloes was 95.28 and 92.10 %, respectively in comparison to fecal examination by sedimentation method. Dot-EIA can be easily adapted in the field to detect fasciolosis in cattle and buffaloes. PMID:24505174

Latchumikanthan, A; Soundararajan, C; Basith, S Abdul; Raj, G Dhinarkar



State-wise Dynamics of the Double Burden of Malnutrition among 15-49 Year-old Women in India: How Much Does the Scenario Change Considering Asian Population-specific BMI Cut-off Values?  


This article assesses the gravity of the "double burden of malnutrition" across 21 states of India, through a comparative analysis of traditional and Asian population-specific BMI categorizations for overweight and obesity. This study analyzes data on ever-married women (15-49 years) from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2, 1998-1999; NFHS-3, 2005-2006). Findings depict that Indian women tilt toward high BMI resulting in a co-existence of under- and overweight populations, which portray a regional pattern. With Asian population-specific cut-offs, 11 states can be classified as "double burden states"; however, following traditional categorization, only 4 states face such dual pressure. PMID:25357268

Sengupta, Angan; Angeli, Federica; Syamala, Thelakkat Sankaranarayanan; Van Schayck, C P; Dagnelie, Pieter



Black carbon aerosol mass concentrations over Ahmedabad, an urban location in western India: Comparison with urban sites in Asia, Europe, Canada, and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black carbon (BC) aerosol mass concentrations measured using an aethalometer at Ahmedabad, an urban location in western India, from September 2003 to June 2005 are analyzed. BC mass concentrations are found to show diurnal and seasonal variations. Diurnal evolution in BC is marked with two peaks, one in the morning hours, just after the sunrise, and the other in the

S. Ramachandran; T. A. Rajesh



A Study of the Effects of a University Education upon the Ministerial Behaviors of Indian Pentecostal Church of God Pastors in the State of Kerala, India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main research question of this study was, "What effects does a university education have on the ministerial behaviors of Indian Pentecostal Church of God (IPCG) pastors in Kerala, India?" Three data collection methods were used: interview, questionnaire, and participant observation. There were 10 university-educated (UE) pastors interviewed,…

Mathew, John K.



By AMY WALDMAN MIRDHA, India -Along fields  

E-print Network

years in the United States and is now its citizen. He is a professor at George Mason University in the eastern reaches of India's most populous state, Uttar Pradesh, a region with a reputation for poverty for the education of his siblings' children here, their marriages, their home improve- ments, their mother's funeral

Straus, David M.


ICT Usage by Distance Learners in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Open Universities across the world are embracing ICT based teaching and learning process to disseminate quality education to their learners spread across the globe. In India availability and access of ICT and learner characteristics are uneven and vary from state to state. Hence it is important to establish the facts about ICT access among…

Awadhiya, Ashish Kumar; Gowthaman, K.



Terrorist victimization: A case study from India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of terrorist victimization is largely upon the people hurt by terrorist groups or by state agencies acting in retaliation. However, victimization also comes from the policies and actions of the state that gives rise to the terrorism in the first place. This paper examines the nature of terrorist victimization in India. It focuses upon left?wing terrorism in the

Arvind Verma



Japan & S. Korea India China North America  

E-print Network

in United States. Human population data is also used to evaluate the anthropogenic effects on air pollutions concentration, and this linear coefficient varies in different parts of the world. In United States, amongJapan & S. Korea India China North America Europe S. Hemisphere 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 Asian Mega

Wang, Jun


Country Report on Building Energy Codes in India  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America. This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in India, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes in India, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial buildings in India.

Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Somasundaram, Sriram



Archaeological Survey of India  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Taj Mahal. Hawa Mahal. Mysore Palace. Sanchi Stupa. The historical monuments of India are some of the grandest and most beautiful in the world. The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), which oversees IndiaâÂÂs ancient monuments and archaeological sites, hosts a useful page for exploring IndiaâÂÂs methods of preserving its cultural heritage. After reading About Us, where you can learn about the organization itself, have a look at Monuments, Excavations, Conservation and Preservation, each of which provides important insights into the managing of essential subcontinental sites. Site visitors should also peruse the beautiful Photo Gallery, providing numerous images of both World Monuments and Excavations.


Predictors of HIV prevalence among street-based female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh state of India: a district-level analysis  

PubMed Central

Background A decline in HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs) has been reported from the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh between the two rounds of integrated biological and behavioural assessment (IBBA) surveys in 2005–06 and 2009, the first of these around the time of start of the Avahan HIV prevention intervention. In order to facilitate further planning of FSW interventions, we report the factors associated with HIV prevalence among street-based FSWs. Methods Behavioural data from the two rounds of IBBA surveys, district-level FSW HIV prevention program data, and urbanisation data from the Census of India were utilized. A multilevel logistic model was used to investigate factors associated with inter-district variations in HIV positivity among street-based FSWs in the districts by fitting a two-level model. Results The estimated HIV prevalence among street-based FSWs changed from 16% (95% confidence interval [CI] 14.2 – 17.7%) to 12.9% (95% CI 11.5 – 14.2%) from 2005–06 to 2009. HIV positivity was significantly higher in districts with a high proportion of FSWs registered with targeted interventions (odds ratio [OR] 2.02; 95% CI 1.18-3.45), and in districts with medium (OR 2.54; 95% CI 1.58-4.08) or high (OR 1.55; 95% CI 1.05-2.29) proportion of urban population. Districts which had met the condom requirement targets for FSWs had significantly lower HIV positivity (OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.26-0.97). In round 2 survey, the districts with medium level urbanisation had significantly higher proportion of FSWs registered with HIV intervention programmes and also reported higher consistent condom use with regular partner (p?



Attitudes and perceptions of private pediatricians regarding polio immunization in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIndia has faced considerable challenges in eradicating polio. Uttar Pradesh (UP) and Bihar are the two states in India where transmission of polio has never been interrupted. Private pediatricians are important stakeholders for vaccine delivery and maintaining public confidence in vaccines. The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes and perceptions of pediatricians in India regarding polio immunization

Panna Choudhury; Naveen Thacker; Lisa M. Gargano; Paul S. Weiss; Vipin M. Vashishtha; Tanmay Amladi; Karen Pazol; Walter A. Orenstein; Saad B. Omer; James M. Hughes



School of Art & Design Traditions and development of handloom weaving in India.  

E-print Network

School of Art & Design Traditions and development of handloom weaving in India. Lead: Dr Eiluned Edwards Handlooms have been at the core of the national psyche in India; Sanskrit texts compare with weavers in India as well as enquiries with organisations in both the state sector and non

Evans, Paul


Fiscal Decentralization in China and India: Competitive, Cooperative or Market Preserving Federalism?  

E-print Network

village enterprises have been very active, is contrasted with that of India,village enterprises have been very active, is contrasted with that of India,India Type State+national capital territory+union territory District+municipal corporation Block+municipality Village

Singh, Nirvikar



Postcolonial environmental justice: Government and governance in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate the context within which struggles for environmental justice are taking place in India. We explore the ways in which postcolonial patterns of government and governance in India affect the ends, the means and the representation of these struggles, focusing on three particular areas: state reform, the judiciary and public interest litigation, and environmental social movements.

Glyn Williams; Emma Mawdsley



Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in India: Vulnerability and Scope for Remedy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic contamination in groundwater in the Ganga- Brahmaputra fluvial plains in India and Padma-Meghna fluvial plains in Bangladesh and its consequences to the human health have been reported as one of the world's biggest natural groundwater calamities to the mankind. In India, seven states namely- West Bengal, Jharkhand, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh in the flood plain of the Ganga River; Assam

N. C. Ghosh; R. D. Singh


Forest education and research in India: Country report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The critical review of existing system of forestry education in India reveals that: (a) inadequacy of funds and staff with suitable educational background\\/qualifications remains as a major constraint to forestry development in India both in the context of new plantation establishment and resource management. Secondly, due to the fact that major part of forests has state ownership, education and training

K. M. Bhat



India's Doctor Shortage Reflects Problems in Medical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports that India's medical profession is in a crisis. For every 10,000 people in India there are only six doctors, compared with nearly 55 in the United States and nearly 21 in Canada. The problem is likely to get worse before it gets better. Professors are leaving medical schools for better-paying jobs in private hospitals and in…

Neelakantan, Shailaja



Nuclear fuel cycle assessment of India: A technical study for U.S.India cooperation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent civil nuclear cooperation proposed by the Bush Administration and the Government of India has heightened the necessity of assessing India's nuclear fuel cycle inclusive of nuclear materials and facilities. This agreement proposes to change the long-standing U.S. policy of preventing the spread of nuclear weapons by denying nuclear technology transfer to non-NPT signatory states. The nuclear tests in

Taraknath Woddi Venkat Krishna



Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) control in India  

PubMed Central

Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) constitute the single largest cause of preventable brain damage worldwide. Majority of consequences of IDD are invisible and irreversible but at the same time these are preventable. In India, the entire population is prone to IDD due to deficiency of iodine in the soil of the subcontinent and consequently the food derived from it. To combat the risk of IDD, salt is fortified with iodine. However, an estimated 350 million people do not consume adequately iodized salt and, therefore, are at risk for IDD. Of the 325 districts surveyed in India so far, 263 are IDD-endemic. The current household level iodized salt coverage in India is 91 per cent with 71 per cent households consuming adequately iodized salt. The IDD control goal in India was to reduce the prevalence of IDD below 10 per cent in the entire country by 2012. What is required is a “mission approach” with greater coordination amongst all stakeholders of IDD control efforts in India. Mainstreaming of IDD control in policy making, devising State specific action plans to control IDD, strict implementation of Food Safety and Standards (FSS) Act, 2006, addressing inequities in iodized salt coverage (rural-urban, socio-economic), providing iodized salt in Public Distribution System, strengthening monitoring and evaluation of IDD programme and ensuring sustainability of IDD control activities are essential to achieve sustainable elimination of IDD in India. PMID:24135192

Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Yadav, Kapil; Srivastava, Rahul; Pandav, Rijuta; Karmarkar, M.G.



Victoria India Doctoral Scholarships  

E-print Network

the opportunity to work with top researchers and supervisors, use cutting- edge research The Australia India Institute is managing theVictoria India Doctoral Scholarships with funding from the, medicine, the social sciences and humanities, business studies, education and the arts. Victoria

Liley, David


Competitiveness and trade potential of India’s dairy industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

India has become the world’s largest milk producer but its dairy industry lacks market access. This paper determines how world dairy policy reforms would affect dairy production and trade in India and the competitiveness of its dairy industry. We measure nominal protection coefficient for India’s dairy products to determine level and change in competitiveness between 1975 and 2001. We estimate

Manitra Rakotoarisoa; Ashok Gulati



NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 18: A comparison of the technical communication practices of aerospace engineers and scientists in India and the United States  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, two studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of India and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies have the same seven objectives: first, to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communications to their profession; second, to determine the use and production of technical communications by aerospace engineers and scientists; third, to seek their views about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications; fourth, to determine aerospace engineers' and scientists' use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line data bases; fifth, to determine the use and importance of computer and information technology to them; sixth, to determine their use of electronic networks; and seventh, to determine their use of foreign and domestically produced technical reports. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to aerospace engineers and scientists at the Indian Institute of Science and the NASA Langley Research Center. The completion rates for the India and U.S. surveys were 48 and 53 percent, respectively. Responses of the India and U.S. participants to selected questions are presented in this report.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.



India's baseline plan for nuclear energy self-sufficiency.  

SciTech Connect

India's nuclear energy strategy has traditionally strived for energy self-sufficiency, driven largely by necessity following trade restrictions imposed by the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) following India's 'peaceful nuclear explosion' of 1974. On September 6, 2008, the NSG agreed to create an exception opening nuclear trade with India, which may create opportunities for India to modify its baseline strategy. The purpose of this document is to describe India's 'baseline plan,' which was developed under constrained trade conditions, as a basis for understanding changes in India's path as a result of the opening of nuclear commerce. Note that this treatise is based upon publicly available information. No attempt is made to judge whether India can meet specified goals either in scope or schedule. In fact, the reader is warned a priori that India's delivery of stated goals has often fallen short or taken a significantly longer period to accomplish. It has been evident since the early days of nuclear power that India's natural resources would determine the direction of its civil nuclear power program. It's modest uranium but vast thorium reserves dictated that the country's primary objective would be thorium utilization. Estimates of India's natural deposits vary appreciably, but its uranium reserves are known to be extremely limited, totaling approximately 80,000 tons, on the order of 1% of the world's deposits; and nominally one-third of this ore is of very low uranium concentration. However, India's roughly 300,000 tons of thorium reserves account for approximately 30% of the world's total. Confronted with this reality, the future of India's nuclear power industry is strongly dependent on the development of a thorium-based nuclear fuel cycle as the only way to insure a stable, sustainable, and autonomous program. The path to India's nuclear energy self-sufficiency was first outlined in a seminal paper by Drs. H. J. Bhabha and N. B. Prasad presented at the Second United Nations Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy in 1958. The paper described a three stage plan for a sustainable nuclear energy program consistent with India's limited uranium but abundant thorium natural resources. In the first stage, natural uranium would be used to fuel graphite or heavy water moderated reactors. Plutonium extracted from the spent fuel of these thermal reactors would drive fast reactors in the second stage that would contain thorium blankets for breeding uranium-233 (U-233). In the final stage, this U-233 would fuel thorium burning reactors that would breed and fission U-233 in situ. This three stage blueprint still reigns as the core of India's civil nuclear power program. India's progress in the development of nuclear power, however, has been impacted by its isolation from the international nuclear community for its development of nuclear weapons and consequent refusal to sign the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT). Initially, India was engaged in numerous cooperative research programs with foreign countries; for example, under the 'Atoms for Peace' program, India acquired the Cirus reactor, a 40 MWt research reactor from Canada moderated with heavy water from the United States. India was also actively engaged in negotiations for the NPT. But, on May 18, 1974, India conducted a 'peaceful nuclear explosion' at Pokharan using plutonium produced by the Cirus reactor, abruptly ending the era of international collaboration. India then refused to sign the NPT, which it viewed as discriminatory since it would be required to join as a non-nuclear weapons state. As a result of India's actions, the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) was created in 1975 to establish guidelines 'to apply to nuclear transfers for peaceful purposes to help ensure that such transfers would not be diverted to unsafeguarded nuclear fuel cycle or nuclear explosive activities. These nuclear export controls have forced India to be largely self-sufficient in all nuclear-related technologies.

Bucher, R .G.; Nuclear Engineering Division



End-of-life decision-making in India.  


The extraordinary circumstances and the tragic life of Aruna Shanbaug, together with the landmark Supreme Court of India decision in Shanbaug v Union of India (2011) 4 SCC 454, have provided a fillip and focus to debate within India about end-of-life decision-making. This extends to passive euthanasia, decision-making about withdrawal of nutrition, hydration and medical treatment from persons in a permanent vegetative or quasi-vegetative state, the role of the courts in such matters, the risks of corruption and misconduct, the criminal status of attempted suicide, and even the contentious issue of physician-assisted active euthanasia. The debates have been promoted further by important reports of the Law Commission of India. This editorial reviews the current state of the law and debate about such issues in India. PMID:25341315

Freckelton, Ian



Color-Coded Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interviews (C-ACASI) for Poorly Educated Men and Women in a Semi-rural Area of South India: "Good, Scary and Thrilling"  

PubMed Central

It is challenging to collect accurate and complete data on sensitive issues such as sexual behaviors. Our objective was to explore experience and perceptions regarding the use of a locally programmed color-coded audio computer-assisted self interview (C-ACASI) system among men and women in a semi-rural setting in south India. We conducted a mixed-methods cross-sectional survey using semi-structured interviews among 89 truck drivers and 101 truck driver wives who had participated earlier in the C-ACASI survey across a predominantly rural district in Tamil Nadu. To assess the color-coded format used, descriptive quantitative analysis was coupled with thematic content analysis of qualitative data. Only 10 % of participants had ever used a computer before. Nearly 75 % did not report any problem in using C-ACASI. The length of the C-ACASI survey was acceptable to 98 % of participants. Overall, 87 % of wives and 73 % of truck drivers stated that C-ACASI was user-friendly and felt comfortable in responding to the sensitive questions. Nearly all (97 %) participants reported that using C-ACASI encouraged them to respond honestly compared to face-to-face personal interviews. Both the drivers and wives expressed that C-ACASI provided confidentiality, privacy, anonymity, and an easy mechanism for responding truthfully to potentially embarrassing questions about their personal sexual relationships. It is feasible and acceptable to use C-ACASI for collecting sensitive data from poorly computer-literate, non-English-speaking, predominantly rural populations of women and men. Our findings support the implementation of effective and culturally sensitive C-ACASI for data collection, albeit with additional validation. PMID:23361948

Bhatnagar, Tarun; Brown, Joelle; Saravanamurthy, P. Sakthivel; Kumar, Raju Mohan; Detels, Roger



Color-coded audio computer-assisted self-interviews (C-ACASI) for poorly educated men and women in a semi-rural area of South India: "good, scary and thrilling".  


It is challenging to collect accurate and complete data on sensitive issues such as sexual behaviors. Our objective was to explore experience and perceptions regarding the use of a locally programmed color-coded audio computer-assisted self interview (C-ACASI) system among men and women in a semi-rural setting in south India. We conducted a mixed-methods cross-sectional survey using semi-structured interviews among 89 truck drivers and 101 truck driver wives who had participated earlier in the C-ACASI survey across a predominantly rural district in Tamil Nadu. To assess the color-coded format used, descriptive quantitative analysis was coupled with thematic content analysis of qualitative data. Only 10% of participants had ever used a computer before. Nearly 75% did not report any problem in using C-ACASI. The length of the C-ACASI survey was acceptable to 98% of participants. Overall, 87% of wives and 73% of truck drivers stated that C-ACASI was user-friendly and felt comfortable in responding to the sensitive questions. Nearly all (97%) participants reported that using C-ACASI encouraged them to respond honestly compared to face-to-face personal interviews. Both the drivers and wives expressed that C-ACASI provided confidentiality, privacy, anonymity, and an easy mechanism for responding truthfully to potentially embarrassing questions about their personal sexual relationships. It is feasible and acceptable to use C-ACASI for collecting sensitive data from poorly computer-literate, non-English-speaking, predominantly rural populations of women and men. Our findings support the implementation of effective and culturally sensitive C-ACASI for data collection, albeit with additional validation. PMID:23361948

Bhatnagar, Tarun; Brown, Joelle; Saravanamurthy, P Sakthivel; Kumar, Raju Mohan; Detels, Roger



The Impact of Isoniazid Resistance on the Treatment Outcomes of Smear Positive Re-Treatment Tuberculosis Patients in the State of Andhra Pradesh, India  

PubMed Central

Background Multi drug resistant and rifampicin resistant TB patients in India are treated with the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended standardized treatment regimens but no guidelines are available for the management of isoniazid (INH) resistant TB patients. There have been concerns that the standard eight-month retreatment regimen being used in India (2H3R3Z3E3S3/1H3R3Z3E3/5H3R3E3; H-Isoniazid; R-Rifampicin; Z-Pyrazinamide; E-Ethambutol; S-Streptomycin) may be inadequate to treat INH resistant TB cases and leads to poor treatment outcomes. We aimed to assess if INH resistance is associated with unfavorable treatment outcomes (death, default, failure and transferred out) among a cohort of smear positive retreatment TB patients registered in three districts of Andhra Pradesh, India. Methods We conducted a retrospective record review of all smear positive retreatment TB patients without rifampicin resistance registered during April–December 2011. Results Of 1,947 TB patients, 1,127 (58%) were tested with LPA—50 (4%) were rifampicin resistant, 933 (84%) were sensitive to INH and rifampicin and 144 (12%) were INH resistant. Of 144 INH resistant cases, 64 (44%) had poor treatment outcomes (25 (17%) default, 22 (15%) death, 12 (8%) failure and 5 (3%) transfer out) as compared to 287 (31%) among INH sensitive cases [aRR 1.46; 95%CI (1.19–1.78)]. Conclusion Our study confirms that INH resistance is independently associated with unfavorable treatment outcomes among smear positive retreatment TB patients, indicating that the current treatment regimen may be inadequate. These findings call for an urgent need for randomized controlled trials to discover the most effective treatment regimen for managing INH resistant TB. PMID:24146839

Deepa, Dorai; Achanta, Shanta; Jaju, Jyoti; Rao, Koteswara; Samyukta, Rani; Claassens, Mareli; Kumar, Ajay M. V.; PH, Vishnu



Children's Books on India and the Indian-American Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists recommended books that focus on Indians and the Indian-American experience in the United States. Includes folktales, myths, legends, nonfiction, fiction and titles published in India. Suggests how to select titles for classroom or library. (MMU)

Singleton Taylor, Gail; Sreenivasan, Jyotsna; Toke, Arun N.



Erosion and sedimentation problems in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of soil erosion is prevalent over about 53 % of the total land area of India (Narayana & Ram Babu, 1983). The regions of high erosion include the severely eroded gullied land along the banks of the rivers Yamuna, Chambal and Mahi and other west flowing rivers in western Indian states. In addition the Himalayan and lower Himalayan




India in the Era of Economic  

E-print Network

in the years ahead. As China's experience demonstrates, trade liberalization in a low-wage, surplus-labor numbers of workers to provide goods for the world market. India's insertion into the world economy has extent they reflect differ- ences in economic policies at the state and union levels. The market reforms


Visceral Leishmaniasis in Rural Bihar, India  

PubMed Central

To identify factors associated with incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), we surveyed 13,416 households in Bihar State, India. VL was associated with socioeconomic status, type of housing, and belonging to the Musahar caste. Annual coverage of indoor residual insecticide spraying was 12%. Increasing such spraying can greatly contribute to VL control. PMID:23017164

Singh, Shri Prakash; Malaviya, Paritosh; Picado, Albert; Gidwani, Kamlesh; Singh, Rudra Pratap; Menten, Joris; Boelaert, Marleen; Sundar, Shyam



Hunger in India - Facts and Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

A very large data set on the incidence of children with an anthropometric status below standard norms in India has recently been made available to the international research community. This paper is a preliminary attempt to provide a “map” of the anthropometric status of children in the region (developments over time, by state, and the urban\\/rural divide). Of special interest

Peter Svedberg



K12 Inc. Scraps India Outsourcing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A company that runs one of the nation's largest networks of online schools recently decided to discontinue a program that arranged for high school teachers in the United States to send their students' English essays to India for evaluations by reviewers there. The existence of the program by Herndon, Virginia-based K12 Inc. is an example of the…

Trotter, Andrew



Social life of captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Southern India: implications for elephant welfare.  


Asian elephants in the wild live in complex social societies; in captivity, however, management often occurs in solitary conditions, especially at the temples and private places of India. To investigate the effect of social isolation, this study assessed the social group sizes and the presence of stereotypies among 140 captive Asian elephants managed in 3 captive systems (private, temple, and forest department) in Tamil Nadu, India, between 2003 and 2005. The majority of the facilities in the private (82%) and temple (95%) systems held a single elephant without opportunity for social interaction. The forest department managed the elephants in significantly larger groups than the private and temple systems. Among the 3 systems, the proportion of elephants with stereotypies was the highest in temple (49%) followed by private system (26%) and the forest department facility (6%); this correlates with the social isolation trend observed in the 3 systems and suggests a possible link between social isolation and abnormal elephant behavior separate from other environmental factors. The results of this study indicate it would be of greater benefit to elephant well being to keep the patchily distributed solitary temple and private elephants who are socially compatible and free from contagious diseases in small social groups at "common elephant houses" for socialization. PMID:21191847

Vanitha, Varadharajan; Thiyagesan, Krishnamoorthy; Baskaran, Nagarajan



Establishment of the MAL-ED Birth Cohort Study Site in Vellore, Southern India.  


The Indian Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) site is in Vellore, Tamil Nadu, in south India and is coordinated by the Christian Medical College, Vellore, which has many years of experience in establishing and following cohorts. India is a diverse country, and no single area can be representative with regard to many health and socioeconomic indicators. The site in Vellore is an urban semiorganized settlement or slum. In the study site, the average family size is 5.7, adults who are gainfully employed are mostly unskilled laborers, and 51% of the population uses the field as their toilet facility. Previous studies from Vellore slums have reported stunting in well over a third of children, comparable to national estimates. The infant mortality rate is 38 per 1000 live births, with deaths due mainly to perinatal and infectious causes. Rigorous staff training, monitoring, supervision and refinement of tools have been essential to maintaining the quality of the significantly large quantity of data collected. Establishing a field clinic within the site has minimized inconvenience to participants and researchers and enabled better rapport with the community and better follow-up. These factors contribute to the wealth of information that will be generated from the MAL-ED multisite cohort, which will improve our understanding of enteric infections and its interactions with malnutrition and development of young children. PMID:25305300

John, Sushil M; Thomas, Rahul J; Kaki, Shiny; Sharma, Srujan L; Ramanujam, Karthikeyan; Raghava, Mohan V; Koshy, Beena; Bose, Anuradha; Rose, Anuradha; Rose, Winsley; Ramachandran, Anup; Joseph, A J; Babji, Sudhir; Kang, Gagandeep



Arsenic in India's Groundwater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In "humanity's biggest mass poisoning," millions of residents of South Asia, including India's West Bengal, live with arsenic-contaminated water -- and the response to the problem has been a sluggish one.

Yudhijit Bhattacharjee (AAAS;); Dimascio Jen (AAAS;)



Looking ahead in India.  


India and China contain more than 40% of the world's population, yet in India it is painfully clear that the political commitment necessary to tackle India's greatest problem is not there in full measure. India's present per capita income is less than $300, and nearly 65% of the people live below the poverty line. The average Indian woman produces 5 children; even if the Indian government's efforts to reduce family size to 2 children is successful by the year 2040, India will have a population of 2.5 billion. The possibility that India will succeed in reducing average family size to 2 children appears remote. 30 years ago, India became the 1st developing country to formally make family planning a matter of national policy. In the early years of the national family planning programs, practitioners had access mostly to sterilization and condoms. Over the years, theIndian government persuaded the US and other western donors to give $2 billion to population control programs. Still, the population continues to grow annually at the rate of 2.1%. Government statistics reflect the ups and downs of national population control policies; thenumber of new family planning users increased from 4.3 million in 1974-1975 to 12.5 million in 1976-1977, due largely to a dramatic increase in vasectomies. Tge number of new contraceptive users fell to 4.5 million after the "emergency" was lifted in 1977. The present Indian generation is far more receptive culturally as well as sociologically to the concept of population control than most other developing countries. What is needed now is renewed political committment by the Gandhi adminiostration. India cannot afford to replicate the Chinese way of tackling overpopulation without inflicting human abuses and without undermining its painstakingly cultivated democratic system. PMID:12340887

Gupte, P



Translating Terror in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

India's ambiguous position in relation to U.S. hegemony is reflected in the Indian media's response to the 9-11 attacks and the U.S. bombing of Afghanistan. Historically, not only has India been one of the most vocal third world critics of U.S. economic and political influence, it has also played a strategic military and economic role among the world's democra- cies.

Paula Chakravartty



Cognitive psychiatry in India  

PubMed Central

Cognitive deficits have been shown to exist in various psychiatric disorders. Though most Indian studies pertaining to cognition have been replication studies, well designed original studies have also been conducted. This article traces the evolution of cognitive psychiatry in India. Cognitive research has huge potential in India and can help us unravel mysteries of the human mind, identify etiopathogenesis and facilitate treatment of psychiatric disorders. PMID:21836668

Dalal, P. K.; Sivakumar, T.



Clinical characteristics of Mooren's ulcer in South India  

PubMed Central

Aim To describe the clinical characteristics at presentation of a large cohort of patients with Mooren's ulcer in South India. Methods The medical records of patients with Mooren's ulcer examined in the cornea clinic at Aravind Eye Hospital Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India, over a 10?year period were reviewed in this retrospective observational case series. Results The cohort contained 242 eyes of 166 patients. All patients were from South India, and men outnumbered women by a ratio of 4.7:1. The median and mean ages at presentation were 65 and 61?years, respectively, with a range of 13–95?years. One eye was affected in 90 of 166 (54%) patients. Visual acuity in the affected eye at presentation ranged from 6/6 to light perception, and was 6/12 or better in 34 of 242 (14%) eyes, between 6/12 and 3/60 in 168 (69%) eyes, and worse than 3/60 in 40 (17%) eyes. Partial peripheral corneal ulceration was observed in 222 (92%) eyes, complete peripheral corneal ulceration was observed in 15 (6%) eyes and total corneal ulceration was observed in 5 (2%) eyes. For those 222 eyes with partial peripheral ulceration, 152 (68%) showed temporal involvement, 129 (58%) showed nasal involvement, 116 (52%) showed inferior involvement and 30 (14%) showed superior involvement. Perforation was observed in 26 (11%) eyes, and was more common in eyes with peripheral as compared with total ulceration (p<0.001). Identified risk factors in the cohort included evidence of prior corneal surgery (22%), corneal trauma (17%) and corneal infection (2%). Conclusions Mooren's ulcer is a rare and potentially blinding eye condition observed not infrequently in the cornea clinic at Aravind Eye Hospital. Men are affected more often than women and may present with either unilateral or bilateral disease. Perforation is observed in approximately 1 in 10 affected eyes at presentation and occurs most often in the setting of peripheral ulceration. The occurrence of prior corneal surgery, trauma or infection in nearly one third of patients supports theories of exposure to corneal antigen in the pathogenesis of this disorder. PMID:17035269

Srinivasan, Muthaiah; Zegans, Michael E; Zelefsky, Joseph R; Kundu, Arunava; Lietman, Thomas; Whitcher, John P



Determination of environmental radioactivity (238U, 232Th and 40K) and indoor natural background radiation level in Chennai city (Tamilnadu State), India.  


An extensive study on the determination of the natural radioactivity ((238)U, (232)Th and (40)K) levels in soil samples of Chennai city, India has been undertaken and the results of the same are compared with the levels reported in other Indian cities as well as other parts of the world. The radioactivity content in the soil samples, the absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose equivalent, radium equivalent activity, internal and external hazard indices were calculated and compared with UNSCEAR 2000 recommended values. In addition to the above, mapping of indoor natural background gamma radiation levels has been made using thermo luminescent dosemeters throughout Chennai city and the same are reported. PMID:22847868

Babai, K S; Poongothai, S; Punniyakotti, J



English in India and the role of the elite in the national project the elite in the national project1  

E-print Network

1 English in India and the role of the elite in the national project the elite in the national by a minority of the educated population of 8 to 11% according to current estimations. A chance for India of the consequences of its historical infiltration in the whole system of the State. English in India and the role

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Role of trust in the relationship between branch managers and loan officers of bank branches in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Banks in India operate in a very different lending environment as compared to western banks because there is considerable state intervention in bank lending in India. Conventional instruments based methods of risk evaluation have limited use for banks in India because many additional variables required cannot be quantified easily for Indian banks. This thesis uses a social risk evaluation process

Shyam Singh Bhati



Characterization of culturable vaginal Lactobacillus species among women with and without bacterial vaginosis from the United States and India: a cross-sectional study.  


Lactobacillus species play an integral part in the health of the vaginal microbiota. We compared vaginal Lactobacillus species in women from India and the USA with and without bacterial vaginosis (BV). Between July 2009 and November 2010, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 40 women attending a women's health clinic in Mysore, India, and a sexually transmitted diseases clinic in San Francisco, USA. Women were diagnosed with BV using Amsel's criteria and the Nugent score. Lactobacillus 16S rDNA was sequenced to speciate the cultured isolates. Ten Indian and 10 US women without BV were compared with an equal number of women with BV. Lactobacilli were isolated from all healthy women, but from only 10% of Indian and 50% of US women with BV. 16S rDNA from 164 Lactobacillus colonies was sequenced from healthy women (126 colonies) and women with BV (38 colonies). Seven cultivable Lactobacillus species were isolated from 11 Indian women and nine species from 15 US women. The majority of Lactobacillus species among Indian women were L. crispatus (25.0%), L. jensenii (25.0%) and L. reuteri (16.7%). Among US women, L. crispatus (32.0%), L. jensenii (20.0%) and L. coleohominis (12.0%) predominated. L. jensenii and L. crispatus dominated the vaginal flora of healthy Indian and US women. Indian women appeared to have a higher percentage of obligate heterofermentative species, suggesting the need for a larger degree of metabolic flexibility and a more challenging vaginal environment. PMID:24836413

Madhivanan, Purnima; Raphael, Eva; Rumphs, Alnecia; Krupp, Karl; Ravi, Kavitha; Srinivas, Vijaya; Arun, Anjali; Reingold, Arthur L; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Riley, Lee W



Community Mobilization and Empowerment of Female Sex Workers in Karnataka State, South India: Associations With HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined the impact of community mobilization (CM) on the empowerment, risk behaviors, and prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infection in female sex workers (FSWs) in Karnataka, India. Methods. We conducted behavioral–biological surveys in 2008 and 2011 in 4 districts of Karnataka, India. We defined exposure to CM as low, medium (attended nongovernmental organization meeting or drop-in centre), or high (member of collective or peer group). We used regression analyses to explore whether exposure to CM was associated with the preceding outcomes. Pathway analyses explored the degree to which effects could be attributable to CM. Results. By the final survey, FSWs with high CM exposure were more likely to have been tested for HIV (adjusted odd ratio [AOR]?=?25.13; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?13.07, 48.34) and to have used a condom at last sex with occasional clients (AOR?=?4.74; 95% CI?=? 2.17, 10.37), repeat clients (AOR?=?4.29; 95% CI?=?2.24, 8.20), and regular partners (AOR?=?2.80; 95% CI?=?1.43, 5.45) than FSWs with low CM exposure. They were also less likely to be infected with gonorrhea or chlamydia (AOR?=?0.53; 95% CI?=?0.31, 0.87). Pathway analyses suggested CM acted above and beyond peer education; reduction in gonorrhea or chlamydia was attributable to CM. Conclusions. CM is a central part of HIV prevention programming among FSWs, empowering them to better negotiate condom use and access services, as well as address other concerns in their lives. PMID:24922143

Mohan, Harnalli L.; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Chandrashekar, Sudha; Isac, Shajy; Wheeler, Tisha; Prakash, Ravi; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M.; Blanchard, James F.; Heise, Lori; Vickerman, Peter; Moses, Stephen; Watts, Charlotte




Microsoft Academic Search

Energy security is one of the key challenges confronting the nation. Even though India is the eleventh largest producer of energy in the world, the gap between production and consumption is huge and growing. Most of the deficit in the energy front is due to the fact that India is a net importer of oil. India continues to depend heavily

Dhandapani Alagiri



India: Why Fiscal Adjustment Now  

Microsoft Academic Search

India?s growth performance has been impressive over the past two decades. But its sustainability has been in question, first with the 1991 fiscal balance-of-payments crisis, and then again after 1997?98, when fiscal deficits returned to the 10 percent of GDP range and government debt grew further. Pinto and Zahir analyze the deterioration in India?s public finances and present evidence suggesting

Brian Pinto; Farah Zahir



Predominance of modern Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in North India.  


Although India accounts for the highest tuberculosis (TB) burden in the world, the diversity in prevalent Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains is very poorly documented. Tuberculosis specific deletion 1 (TbD1) is a marker that has been used to differentiate ancient from modern strains. We report for the first time TbD1-based diversity in clinical M. tuberculosis isolates circulating in the North Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab. The present study documents a very high prevalence of modern strains in North India, which is in contrast to earlier studies that emphasised the predominance of ancestral strains for the majority of TB cases in India. PMID:24429312

Prakash, O; Sharma, R; Sehajpal, P K



Establishment of diagnostic reference levels in computed tomography for select procedures in Pudhuchery, India.  


Computed tomography (CT) scanner under operating conditions has become a major source of human exposure to diagnostic X-rays. In this context, weighed CT dose index (CTDIw), volumetric CT dose index (CTDIv), and dose length product (DLP) are important parameter to assess procedures in CT imaging as surrogate dose quantities for patient dose optimization. The current work aims to estimate the existing dose level of CT scanner for head, chest, and abdomen procedures in Pudhuchery in south India and establish dose reference level (DRL) for the region. The study was carried out for six CT scanners in six different radiology departments using 100 mm long pencil ionization chamber and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantom. From each CT scanner, data pertaining to patient and machine details were collected for 50 head, 50 chest, and 50 abdomen procedures performed over a period of 1 year. The experimental work was carried out using the machine operating parameters used during the procedures. Initially, dose received in the phantom at the center and periphery was measured by five point method. Using these values CTDIw, CTDIv, and DLP were calculated. The DRL is established based on the third quartile value of CTDIv and DLP which is 32 mGy and 925 for head, 12 mGy and 456 for chest, and 16 mGy and 482 for abdomen procedures. These values are well below European Commission Dose Reference Level (EC DRL) and comparable with the third quartile value reported for Tamil Nadu region in India. The present study is the first of its kind to determine the DRL for scanners operating in the Pudhuchery region. Similar studies in other regions of India are necessary in order to establish a National Dose Reference Level. PMID:24600173

Saravanakumar, A; Vaideki, K; Govindarajan, K N; Jayakumar, S



Two Blades of Grass: A Summary of Two Studies on Agricultural Innovation in India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Under contract with the United States Agency for International Development and Michigan State University, a study was made comparing diffusion of innovations in Brazil, Nigeria, and India. In India, the study was in two phases: a survey of 108 villages in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, and West Bengal; and a study of adoption behavior among 680…

Roy, Prodipto; And Others


Differentiation of palaeomarine and modern seawater intruded salinities in coastal groundwaters (of Karaikal and Tanjavur, India) based on inorganic chemistry, organic biomarker fingerprints and radiocarbon dating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrosalinity evolution is examined in the Karaikal and Tanjavur coastal aquifers situated about 300 km south of Madras, Tamil Nadu, India. Ancient and modern sources of solutes in groundwaters have been differentiated using hydro-geochemical data, environmental radioisotope dates and organic biomarkers. Results from different techniques show consistently that the Pliocene aquifer possesses characteristic palmitoleic and oleic acid biomarkers, apparent 14C ages of more than 20 000 years and high I/Cl ratio; the modern marine-estuarine intruded groundwaters in the alluvial aquifer display relatively younger apparent 14C ages (modern to 3000 years), enriched potassium ion, low I/Cl ratio and contain vaccenic and hopanoic acid biomarkers, and they also tend to display transient changes in chemical characteristics. These results have practical importance with regard to identifying and controlling seawater intrusion in coastal areas.

Sukhija, B. S.; Varma, V. N.; Nagabhushanam, P.; Reddy, D. V.



India's nuclear power program : a study of India's unique approach to nuclear energy  

E-print Network

India is in the middle of the biggest expansion of nuclear power in its history, adding 20 GWe in the next 14 years in the form of pressure water reactors and fast breeder reactors. At the same time, the United States is ...

Murray, Caitlin Lenore



PV opportunities in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growing middle class in India, coupled with a need for electricity to provide basic services to the masses, provides an opportunity to deploy photovoltaic systems in cost-effective applications ranging from grid-connected to isolated location requirements. This need is being satisfied by aggressive government programs, the availability of funds from agencies such as the World Bank, and the desire of Indian industries to form joint ventures for in-country manufacturing. The relaxed restrictions on doing business in India makes today's opportunities timely indeed.

Stone, Jack L.; Ullal, Harin S.



Original Research Article A Test of Three Hypotheses of Pica and Amylophagy Among Pregnant Women  

E-print Network

Original Research Article A Test of Three Hypotheses of Pica and Amylophagy Among Pregnant Women In Tamil Nadu, India CAITLYN D. PLACEK,* AND EDWARD H. HAGEN Department of Anthropology, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington Objectives: Pica has been studied in India and elsewhere for more than 100


Women Police Stations as a Dispute Processing System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1992, the Tamil Nadu State government in India began to introduce all-women police stations whose primary role is to deal with crimes against women, including family violence and dowry disputes. Dowry giving is a customary practice in India, which often results in disputes between young wives and their new families. As a result, the young women may be subjected

Mangai Natarajan



Capital flows to India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper elaborates on various aspects of capital flows to India and their policy implications. The sections have been arranged as follows: Section I provides a historical backdrop to the evolution of capital inflows. Section II analyses their trend, magnitude and composition. Section III examines the management of capital inflows and their implications for the conduct of monetary and exchange

Rakesh Mohan


Marine Archaeology in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine archaeology, also known as maritime, nautical or underwater archaeology deals with the 'scientific study of the material remains of man and his past activities on the sea'. Marine archaeol- ogy has made tremendous progress in India. Over the years, the National Institute of Oceanography, Goa, in collaboration with other Government agencies has undertaken the exploration and excava- tion of

Sila Tripati; A. S. Gaur


Vocationalising Education in India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since India gained its independence in 1947, three important commissions have examined the issue of educational reform. The first (in 1948) recommended a vocational emphasis in the intermediate (predegree) courses without sacrificing emphasis on preparation for university education. In 1954, the Secondary Education Commission resulted in the…

Sacheti, A. K.; Ray, S.


Women's Work in India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proportion of women in paid employment in India is very low, and working women tend to be concentrated in low-wage, low-status, unskilled jobs, especially in agriculture. Even for the few women working in the modern sector, discrimination is pervasive, and change seems unlikely to occur soon. (IS)

Devi, D. Radha; Ravindran, M.



Landslide Studies in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

STATUS OF NATURAL HAZARDS India is vulnerable to different natural hazards due to its proximity to geodynamically active locales and unique climatic pattern. Both these factors in different combinations lead to the occurrence of disasters resulting from natural hazards like floods, earthquakes, draught, cyclones and landslides in different parts of the country at frequent intervals. It is estimated that about



India and Intercultural Aesthetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In combination with the intercultural philosophical orientation developed in India, the concept of an intercultural aesthetics\\u000a prepares the way for well-founded comparison and a new dialogue among different aesthetic traditions of the world. And it\\u000a unmasks the myth of the total purity of a culture.

Ram Adhar Mall


The Impact of India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the experiences of Maria Montessori and her son, Mario, during their internment in India during World War II. Discusses how their observations of communities of Buddhists, Christians, Hindus, Muslims, and Zoroastrians at the Theosophical Society contributed to ideas related to the absorbent mind, and enabled the extension of the…

Montessori, Mario M.



Clinical Psychology in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific Psychology in India has seen steady development since its inception in the early 1900s. With clinical psychology developing as an independent profession, clinical psychologists have been functioning in various roles, offering a wide range of services in consultation, training, research, and private practice on multidisciplinary teams as well as in independent practice. This paper focuses on the historical roots

P. S. D. V. Prasadarao; Paulomi Matam Sudhir



Malaria in India: the center for the study of complex malaria in India.  


Malaria is a major public health problem in India and one which contributes significantly to the overall malaria burden in Southeast Asia. The National Vector Borne Disease Control Program of India reported ?1.6 million cases and ?1100 malaria deaths in 2009. Some experts argue that this is a serious underestimation and that the actual number of malaria cases per year is likely between 9 and 50 times greater, with an approximate 13-fold underestimation of malaria-related mortality. The difficulty in making these estimations is further exacerbated by (i) highly variable malaria eco-epidemiological profiles, (ii) the transmission and overlap of multiple Plasmodium species and Anopheles vectors, (iii) increasing antimalarial drug resistance and insecticide resistance, and (iv) the impact of climate change on each of these variables. Simply stated, the burden of malaria in India is complex. Here we describe plans for a Center for the Study of Complex Malaria in India (CSCMi), one of ten International Centers of Excellence in Malaria Research (ICEMRs) located in malarious regions of the world recently funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health. The CSCMi is a close partnership between Indian and United States scientists, and aims to address major gaps in our understanding of the complexity of malaria in India, including changing patterns of epidemiology, vector biology and control, drug resistance, and parasite genomics. We hope that such a multidisciplinary approach that integrates clinical and field studies with laboratory, molecular, and genomic methods will provide a powerful combination for malaria control and prevention in India. PMID:22142788

Das, Aparup; Anvikar, Anupkumar R; Cator, Lauren J; Dhiman, Ramesh C; Eapen, Alex; Mishra, Neelima; Nagpal, Bhupinder N; Nanda, Nutan; Raghavendra, Kamaraju; Read, Andrew F; Sharma, Surya K; Singh, Om P; Singh, Vineeta; Sinnis, Photini; Srivastava, Harish C; Sullivan, Steven A; Sutton, Patrick L; Thomas, Matthew B; Carlton, Jane M; Valecha, Neena



78 FR 54677 - Trade, Investment, and Industrial Policies in India: Effects on the U.S. Economy; Institution of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-543] Trade, Investment, and Industrial Policies in India...Hearing AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of...



RCUK India timeline Since 2008 RCUK India has facilitated over 80 million of UK-India research funding, with 7 different research funders in India.  

E-print Network

RCUK India timeline Since 2008 RCUK India has facilitated over £80 million of UK-India research funding, with 7 different research funders in India. 2008/09 2009/10 2010/11 2011/12 Upcoming themes, innovation focused UK-India funded projects with significant industry involvement in the areas of: bioenergy

Berzins, M.


Factors associated with fertility moderation in India.  


The authors analyze intermediate variables associated with fertility decline in India from the 1960s to 1988. The focus is on comparisons among states as revealed primarily by data on couples protected from unwanted pregnancies by family planning methods. Variables considered include female age at marriage, female literacy, infant mortality, poverty, expenditure on health and family welfare, and income. Data are from official sources. PMID:12287168

Sharma, S; Singhal, D S; Sharma, B B; Gupta, Y P



Potential for Riverbank filtration in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Riverbank filtration (RBF) has been used for many decades in Europe and the United States to provide drinking water to communities\\u000a located on riverbanks. In India, the development of RBF has the potential to provide drinking water to many cities located\\u000a on the Ganga Plains currently using surface water as a source for their public water supply. Water diversion for

Cornelius Sandhu; Thomas Grischek; Pradeep Kumar; Chittaranjan Ray



Challenges Facing Media Education in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a India is now experiencing a media boom, but the state of media education is not very promising. It finds no mention in school\\u000a and college programmes in general. Media education is normally imparted in the form of workshops, seminars, or as one subject\\u000a in the school\\/college curriculum. The older day media educators are not able to comprehend the present day

Arul Aram; Suresh Paul


KT transition in Deccan Traps of central India marks major marine Seaway across India  

E-print Network

K­T transition in Deccan Traps of central India marks major marine Seaway across India G. Keller a (Uttarakhand), India d Geological Survey of India, Central Region, Seminary Hills, Nagpur 440 006, India e, Panjab University, Sector-14, Chandigarh-160014, India g Department of Geology, Mohanlal Sukhadia

Keller, Gerta


Petrology and mineral equilibrium modeling of incipient charnockite from the Trivandrum Granulite Block, southern India: implications for granulite formation in a Gondwana fragment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern Granulite Terrane (SGT) in India is known for its classic exposures of regionally metamorphosed granulite-facies rocks formed during the collisional orogeny related to the amalgamation of Gondwana supercontinent. The SGT is composed of a collage of Proterozoic crustal blocks dissected by large Late Neoproterozoic shear/suture zones. The Trivandrum Granulite Block (TGB) is comprises dominantly metasedimentary sequence with khondalites, leptynites and charnockites with subordinate quartzite, mafic granulite, calc-silicate rocks, and meta-ultramafic rocks. The TGB is known as one of the classic examples for the spectacular development of 'incipient charnockites' within orthopyroxene-free felsic gneisses as exposed in several quarry sections in the states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. The charnockite-forming process in the TGB is considered to have been triggered by the infiltration of CO2-rich anhydrous fluids along structural pathways within upper amphibolite facies gneisses, resulting in the lowering of water activity and stabilization of orthopyroxene through the breakdown of biotite. However, no quantitative study on the stability of charnockitic mineral assemblage using mineral equilibrium modeling approach has been done so far. In this study, we report a new occurrence of incipient charnockite from Mavadi in the TGB and discuss the petrogenesis of granulite formation in an arrested stage on the basis of petrography, geothermobarometry, and mineral equilibrium modeling. In Mavadi, patches and lenses of charnockite (Kfs + Qtz + Pl + Bt + Grt + Opx + Ilm + Mag) of about 30 to 120 cm in length occur within Opx-free Grt-Bt gneiss (Kfs + Qtz + Pl + Bt + Grt + Ilm) host rocks. The application of mineral equilibrium modeling on charnockite assemblage in NCKFMASHTO system to constrain the conditions of charnockitization defines a P - T range of 800° C at 4.5 kbar to 850° C at 8.5 kbar, which is broadly consistent with the results from the conventional geothermobarometry (810-880° C at 7.7-8.0 kbar) on these rocks. The P - T conditions are lower than the inferred peak metamorphic conditions from the ultrahigh-temperature granulites of the study area (T >900° C), which might suggest heterogeneity in peak P - T conditions within this crustal block in relation to local buffering of metamorphic temperature by Opx-Bt-Kfs-Qtz assemblage. The result of T versus mole H2O (M(H2O)) modeling demonstrated that Opx-free assemblage in Grt-Bt gneiss is stable at M(H2O) = 0.3 to 1.5 mol.%, and orthopyroxene occurs as a stable mineral at M(H2O)

Endo, T.; Tsunogae, T.; Santosh, M.




Microsoft Academic Search

Aflatoxins, a group of mycotoxins mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, have adverse health effects on humans and livestock that ingest aflatoxin- contaminated food products and feeds. To secure the safety of food and feed, regular monitoring of aflatoxin levels is necessary. In order to understand the magnitude of aflatoxin contamination, a survey was conducted in different agro-ecological

Munusamy Mohankumar; Muthusamy Karthikeyan; Rethinasamy Velazhahan


Assessment of groundwater potential based on aquifer properties of hard rock terrain in the Chittar-Uppodai watershed, Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aquifer performance was tested in 24 locations to assess the groundwater potential of the hard rock terrain in the Chittar-Uppodai watershed of the Tambaraparani River basin. Geologically, the area consists of biotite gneiss, charnockite, and quartzite. The aquifer characteristics, such as transmissivity (T), the storage coefficient, specific capacity, optimum yield, and the recovery rate were calculated. The drawdown transmissivity was determined using Jacob's straight-line method, while the recovery transmissivity was determined by the Theis method. The drawdown transmissivity was low in the western areas, particularly at Kadayanallur, and was higher in the other areas. The recovery transmissivity was high in the western area, and, with the exception of Gangaikondan, was low at other locations. The assessment indicates that there is groundwater potential in the western part of the study area because of favorable results for recovery drawdown, aquifer thickness, and specific capacity.

Kumar, T. Jeyavel Raja; Balasubramanian, A.; Kumar, R. S.; Dushiyanthan, C.; Thiruneelakandan, B.; Suresh, R.; Karthikeyan, K.; Davidraju, D.



Impact of Education Campaign on Community-Based Vector Control in Hastening the Process of Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis in Tamil Nadu, South India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Globally mosquito-borne lymphatic filariasis (LF) is targeted for elimination by 2020. Towards this goal, the scope of community-based vector control as a supplementary strategy to mass drug administration (MDA) was assessed through an intensive education campaign and evaluated using pre- and post-educational surveys in an intervention and…

Nandha, B.; Krishnamoorthy, K.



Is There a Quantity-Quality Trade-Off as Enrollments Increase? Evidence from Tamil Nadu, India. Policy Research Working Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developing countries have been expanding educational enrollments, especially at the lower levels. But for any given level of efficiency, increased enrollments require increased resources to maintain quality. This paper explores the negative impact of enrollment expansion on school conditions and learning, using a cross-district time series…

Duraisamy, P.; James, Estelle; Lane, Julia; Tan, Jee-Peng


A Study on Celebrity Based Advertisements on the Purchase Attitude of Consumers towards Durable Products in Coimbatore city, Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aims to investigate celebrity based advertisements on the purchase attitude of consumers towards durable products in reference to the city of Coimbatore. In the present era of information explosion and media influence, these advertisements play a major role in changing the settled perception or thinking, which is otherwise called attitude, of the consumer and also the consumption pattern

A. Pughazhendi; R. Thirunavukkarasu; S. Susendiran



INDIA (IBUS) APPLICATION Application Instructions for  

E-print Network

INDIA (IBUS) APPLICATION #12;Application Instructions for Doing Business in Emerging Markets: India this course and visiting India. 3. Complete one SUNY Academic Reference Request Forms and have the form

Suzuki, Masatsugu


Protocol for a prospective, controlled study of assertive and timely reperfusion for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in Tamil Nadu: the TN-STEMI programme  

PubMed Central

Introduction Over the past two decades, India has witnessed a staggering increase in the incidence and mortality of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Indians have higher rates of STEMI and younger populations that suffer from it when compared with developed countries. Yet, the recommended reperfusion therapy with fibrinolysis and percutaneous coronary intervention is available only to a minority of patients. This gap in care is a result of financial barriers, limited healthcare infrastructure and poor knowledge and accessibility of acute medical services for a majority of its population. Methods and analysis This is a prospective, multicentre, ‘pretest/post-test’ quasi-experimental, community-based study. This programme will use a ‘hub-and-spoke’ model of an integrated healthcare network based on clusters of primary-care health clinics, small hospitals and large tertiary-care facilities. It is an ‘all-comers’ study which will enrol consecutive patients presenting with STEMI to the participating hospitals. The primary objectives of the study is to improve the use of reperfusion therapy and reduce the time from first medical contact to device or drug in STEMI patients; and to increase the rates of early invasive risk stratification with coronary angiography within 3–24?h of fibrinolytic therapy in eligible patients through changes in process of care. Outcomes will be measured with statistical comparison made before and after implementing the TN-STEMI programme. The estimated sample size is based on the Kovai Erode Pilot study, which provided an initial work on establishing this type of programme in South India. It will be adequately powered at 80% with a superiority margin of 10% if 36 patients are enrolled per cluster or 108 patients in three clusters. Thus, the enrolment period of 9?months will result in a sample size of 1500 patients. Ethics This study will be conducted in accordance with the ethical principles that have their origin in the current Declaration of Helsinki and ‘ethical guidelines for biomedical research on human participants’ as laid down by the Indian Council for Medical Research. All participating hospitals will still obtain local ethics committee approval of the study protocol and written informed consent will be obtained from all participants. Dissemination and results Our findings will be reported through scientific publications, research conferences and public policy venues aimed at state and local governments in India. If successful, this model can be extended to other areas of India as well as serve as a model of STEMI systems of care for low-income and middle-income countries across the world. Registration Trial is registered with Clinical trial registry of India, No: CTRI/2012/09/003002. PMID:24302505

Alexander, Thomas; Victor, Suma M; Mullasari, Ajit S; Veerasekar, Ganesh; Subramaniam, Kala; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K



Gujarat, Western India  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extremely high sediment loads are delivered to the Arabian Sea along the coast of Pakistan (upper left) and western India. In the case of the Indus River (far upper left) this sedimentation, containing large quantities of desert sand, combines with wave action to create a large sand-bar like delta. In the arid environment, the delta lacks much vegetation, but contains numerous mangrove-lined channels. This true-color image from May 2001 shows the transition from India's arid northwest to the wetter regions farther south along the coast. The increase in vegetation along the coast is brought about by the moisture trapping effect of the Western Ghats Mountain Range that runs north-south along the coast. Heavy sediment is visible in the Gulf of Kachchh (north) and the Gulf of Khambhat(south), which surround the Gujarat Peninsula.



Severe Flooding in India  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Floods devestated parts of eastern India along the Brahmaputra River in June 2000. In some tributaries of the Brahmaputra, the water reached more than 5 meters (16.5 feet) above flood stage. At least 40 residents died, and the flood waters destroyed a bridge linking the region to the rest of India. High water also threatened endangered Rhinos in Kaziranga National Park. Flooded areas are shown in red in the above image. The map was derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data taken on June 15, 2000. For more information on observing floods with satellites, see: Using Satellites to Keep our Head above Water and the Dartmouth Flood Observatory Image by the Dartmouth Flood Observatory



Telemedicine diffusion in a developing country: The case of India (March 2004)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Telemedicine (health-care delivery where physicians examine distant patients using telecommunications technologies) has been heralded as one of several possible solutions to some of the medical dilemmas that face many developing countries. In this study, we examine the current state of telemedicine in a developing country, India. Telemedicine has brought a plethora of benefits to the populace of India, especially those living in rural and remote areas (constituting about 70% of India's population). We discuss three Indian telemedicine implementation cases, consolidate lessons learned from the cases, and culminate with potential researchable critical success factors that account for the growth and modest successes of telemedicine in India. ?? 2005 IEEE.

Pal, A.; Mbarika, V. W. A.; Cobb-Payton, F.; Datta, P.; McCoy, S.



Medicine in South India.  


A three-month sabbatical allowed a superficial overview of Indian medical history and practice. As in Western nations, cost is a major determinant of health care delivery in India; poverty and fiscal shortages, however, deny care to many. The education of Indian physicians is similar to that in Western nations and a high level of clinical competence is seen. However, physician compensation is woefully low by Western standards. India possesses its own indigenous medical systems, purported to be the oldest in the world and predating Hippocrates by several millenia. Most Indians are cared for by native practitioners whose medical techniques are intricately related to the Hindu and Islamic religions. Many of their herbal medicines have been assimilated into contemporary Western practice. Diseases unknown to us except by textbooks are commonly seen and effectively treated. On the other hand, Western diseases such as coronary arteriosclerosis are not uncommon in a land of massive overpopulation and malnutrition. The humbling aspect of this experience is the realization that medical practice dating back several millenia can be made more modern and carried out competently by contemporary physicians. A Western physician working in India finds an unparalleled variety of disease in a totally different medical-religious environment allowing him to reorganize his priorities and to rediscover himself in the world within which he lives. PMID:716392

McHenry, M M



Child maltreatment in India.  


Child maltreatment is a global problem but is more difficult to assess and manage in developing countries such as India where one-fifth of the world's total child population resides. Certain forms of maltreatment such as feticide, infanticide, abandonment, child labour, street-begging, corporal punishment and battered babies are particularly prevalent in India. Most physicians still need to be sensitized in order to suspect child abuse on the basis of unexplained trauma, multiple fractures, parental conflict and other corroborative evidence. This article summarizes the various aspects of this major problem in resource-poor settings in the hope that it will assist in the planning of services addressing child physical and sexual abuse and neglect in India and in other developing countries. A culture of non-violence towards children needs to be built into communities in order to provide an environment conducive to the overall development of the child. Rehabilitation of abused children and their families requires a multi-disciplinary service including paediatricians, child psychologists and social workers, and the training of police forces in how to tackle the problem. PMID:24070123

Singhi, Pratibha; Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Malhi, Prabhjot



Occupational health in India.  


The population of India has crossed the billion mark; only one other country (China) shares this distinction. A declining female population and low literacy are negatives in an otherwise vibrant country. The empowerment of females and their role in society has become a point of debate, and radical economic changes are likely, to allow India to join the global economy. Problems in occupational health and safety (OHS) include: OHS legislation that covers only a minority of the working population; child labour; a physician-driven OHS model; little attention to industrial hygiene; poor surveillance of occupational diseases (making it impossible to gauge the burden of illness due to occupational exposures); and a fragile OHS academic base. A silver lining comprises the inclusion of OHS in national health policy and the decision by the Indian Medical Association to educate its members in occupational health. India urgently requires modern OHS legislation with adequate enforcement machinery, and establishment of centres of excellence in occupational medicine, to catch up with the rest of the world. PMID:12028949

Joshi, Tushar Kant; Smith, Kirk R



Carbon taxes and India  

SciTech Connect

Using the Indian module of the Second Generation Model 9SGM, we explore a reference case and three scenarios in which greenhouse gas emissions were controlled. Two alternative policy instruments (carbon taxes and tradable permits) were analyzed to determine comparative costs of stabilizing emissions at (1) 1990 levels (the 1 X case), (2) two times the 1990 levels (the 2X case), and (3) three times the 1990 levels (the 3X case). The analysis takes into account India`s rapidly growing population and the abundance of coal and biomass relative to other fuels. We also explore the impacts of a global tradable permits market to stabilize global carbon emissions on the Indian economy under the following two emissions allowance allocation methods: (1) {open_quotes}Grandfathered emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on 1990 emissions. (2) {open_quotes}Equal per capita emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on share of global population. Tradable permits represent a lower cost method to stabilize Indian emissions than carbon taxes, i.e., global action would benefit India more than independent actions.

Fisher-Vanden, K.A.; Pitcher, H.M.; Edmonds, J.A.; Kim, S.H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Shukla, P.R. [Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad (India)



Magnetic measurements and pollutants of sediments from Cauvery and Palaru River, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rock-magnetic techniques have become a useful tool in environmental issues; in particular, magnetic studies constitute an alternative way to study pollution in different media. The present contribution focuses on magnetic parameters as pollution indicators, especially from their relationship with contents of heavy metals. The work was carried out in two Indian rivers located in Tamil Nadu, southern India. Several sediment samples were collected and studied in the laboratory using magnetic techniques, magnetic susceptibility, anhysteric remanent magnetization, isothermal remanent magnetization, and chemical techniques to determine contents of heavy metals. Magnetic mineralogy indicates the predominance of ferrimagnetic minerals; although magnetite-like minerals are the main magnetic carriers, antiferromagnetic minerals can be present as subordinate carriers. Concentration-dependent magnetic parameters revealed noticeable differences between both rivers, e.g. magnetic susceptibility is four times higher in Cauvery than in Palaru River. Moreover, such increase can be interpreted as “magnetic enhancement” and therefore related to the pollution status. This magnetic enhancement indicated a different pollutant contribution in both rivers, and also, a different spatial distribution along these rivers, where critical (or more polluted) sites were identified. On the other hand, univariate and multivariate statistical analyses—e.g. PCoordA, Multifactorial Analysis of distance, PCA and RDA—were examined, revealing a link between magnetic and chemical variables. Among magnetic parameters, the concentration-dependent magnetic parameters (e.g. magnetic susceptibility) seem to be the most relevant for this study.

Chaparro, Marcos A. E.; Sinito, Ana M.; Ramasamy, V.; Marinelli, Claudia; Chaparro, Mauro A. E.; Mullainathan, S.; Murugesan, S.



Effects of organic and inorganic fertilisers on mosquito populations in rice fields of southern India.  


The effects of nitrogenous (inorganic) fertilisers, organic manures and blue-green algae (BGA) biofertiliser on mosquito populations (Diptera: Culicidae) were studied in rice fields of Madurai, Tamil Nadu, south India, with particular attention to Culex vishnui Theobald, Cx. pseudovishnui Colless and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus Giles, the vectors of Japanese encephalitis (JE). The application of urea, a nitrogenous fertiliser, in rice fields significantly increased the grain yield and the population densities of mosquito larvae and pupae (anophelines as well as culicines) in a dose-related manner. Fields treated with inorganic fertilisers (N, P, K) had significantly higher population densities of mosquito immatures than fields treated with organic manures (farmyard manure and green manure). Without nitrogenous fertiliser, BGA increased paddy yield without enhancing mosquito production. Therefore, the use of BGA with less nitrogenous fertiliser is recommended, which is beneficial economically and agronomically to the farming community and also significantly reduces mosquito production in rice fields. Increased use of nitrogenous fertiliser over the past two decades may have contributed to the increased severity of Japanese encephalitis epidemics, vectors of which breed in rice fields. PMID:11129699

Victor, T J; Reuben, R



Geochemical signatures of groundwater in the coastal aquifers of Thiruvallur district, south India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An attempt has been made to identify the chemical processes that control the hydrochemistry of groundwater in the coastal aquifers of Thiruvallur coastal village of Thiruvallur district, Tamil Nadu, south India. The parameters such as pH, EC, TDS and major ion concentrations of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, HCO3, SO4 and NO3 of the groundwater were analyzed. Abundances of these ions are in the following order Na > Ca > Mg > K and HCO3 > Cl > SO4 > NO3. The dominant water types are in the order of NaCl> mixed CaMgCl > CaHCO3 > CaNaHCO3. Water types (mixed CaHCO3, mixed CaMgCl and NaCl) suggest that the mixing of high salinity water caused from surface contamination sources such as irrigation return flow, domestic wastewater and septic tank effluents with existing water followed by ion exchange reaction processes, silicate weathering and evaporation are responsible for the groundwater chemistry of the study area. The above statement is further supported by Gibbs plot where most of the samples fall within the evaporation zone.

Senthilkumar, S.; Balasubramanian, N.; Gowtham, B.; Lawrence, J. F.



Temporal distribution of dissolved trace metal in the coastal waters of Southwestern Bay of Bengal, India.  


The objective of the present study was to characterize the concentrations of selected dissolved trace metals in the coastal waters (500 m from shore) of Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu, India. The order of dissolved concentration of these metals was found to be as follows: Co (cobalt) < Cd (cadmium) < Cr (chromium) < Mn (manganese) < Cu (copper) < Ni (nickel) < Pb (lead) < Zn (zinc). The levels of these trace metals were found to be relatively low as compared to the reported values for other Indian coastal waters, which indicates negligible pollution at this location. Cadmium was the only metal found to increase its concentration during the monsoon period, suggesting its allochthonous input. Factor analysis indicated that chromium, nickel, zinc, cobalt, copper, manganese, and lead were of common origin, and external inputs through land runoff had nominal or little impact, typifying in-situ regeneration and remineralization linkage with their temporal variation. However, levels of zinc, cobalt, and copper remained relatively high during the summer period, and abrupt increases in their concentration during December (monsoon season) may be due to their dual (autochthonous as well as allochthonous) input. PMID:24003595

Padhi, R K; Biswas, S; Mohanty, A K; Prabhu, R K; Satpathy, K K; Nayak, L



Characterization of betasatellite associated with the yellow mosaic disease of grain legumes in Southern India.  


Yellow mosaic disease caused by mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) belonging to the genus Begomovirus (the family Geminiviridae) is a major constraint in cultivation of grain legumes in India. The urdbean (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) and mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek) samples affected with yellow mosaic disease exhibits yellow mosaic symptoms along with leaf puckering and leaf distortion in Tamil Nadu. Hence the study was performed to find out if there was any association and influence of betasatellite DNA on the symptom expression of MYMV. Full length viral clones of DNA A and DNA B were obtained through rolling circle amplification from YMD infected samples and identified as mungbean yellow mosaic virus. Interestingly, betasatellite was found to associate with MYMV, and its nucleotide sequence analysis showed its 95% identity with papaya leaf curl betasatellite (DQ118862) from cowpea. The present study represents the first report about the association of papaya leaf curl betasatellite with MYMV and represents a new member of the emerging group of bipartite begomovirus associated with betasatellite DNA. PMID:24294953

Satya, V K; Malathi, V G; Velazhahan, R; Rabindran, R; Jayamani, P; Alice, D



The US-India Nuclear Deal: The End of Universal NonProliferation Efforts?  

Microsoft Academic Search

he us government's plan to lift the nuclear embargo on India runs counter to global efforts against the proliferation of nuclear weapons. The acceptance of India into the circle of recognized nuclear weapon states would prove that universal and generally binding principles no longer form the basis of global non-proliferation efforts but rather that Western countries are increasingly deciding between



`PHYSIOLOGICAL PATRIOTS'?The Politics of Physical Culture and Hindu Nationalism in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decade, there has been a resurgence of Hindu nationalism in India. The most influential protagonist in this movement is the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), a uniformed male voluntary organization committed to the creation of a strong Hindu state. From primary research conducted on training programmes of the RSS in India during 1998, it was found that a

Ian McDonald



Portrait of a Science Teacher as a Bricoleur: A Case Study from India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a case study of science teaching in an eighth grade school classroom in India. It comes out of a larger ethnographic study done in 2005 that looked at how science was taught and learned in a rural government run middle school in the state of Madhya Pradesh in India. Subscribing to a sociocultural perspective, the paper presents…

Sharma, Ajay



Lessons from Two Local Extinctions: Sariska and Kailadevi (Ranthambhore) in Rajasthan, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The local extinction of the tiger (Panthera tigris) from the Sariska National Park (NP) in India triggered a series of reactions, actions and policy prescriptions. The Tiger Task Force of the Government of India considered this to be a failure of the state machinery in controlling poaching. The Government of Rajast- han adopted the viewpoint that people living within the

G. Viswanatha Reddy