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1

Examination of Recovery from Salinization of Agricultural Area in Tamil Nadu State, INDIA due to the December 2004 Tsunami  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined salinization and desalinization in an agricultural area of Nagapatttinam district, Tamil Nadu state, India due to the December 2004 tsunami. To examine the damage and recovery of agricultural environment from the tsunami, we observed and collected soil, groundwater and vegetation data. Soil electrical conductivity steeply increased after the tsunami and soil pH slightly increased, but returned to pre-tsunami levels in the following year. Groundwater salinity might return to pre-tsunami levels by 2006. MODIS EVI values measured before and after the tsunami showed that vegetation damaged by the tsunami recovered to its pre-tsunami state by the next rice cropping season, called samba, which continues from August to February. These rapid rates of recovery were due to leaching salt from the highly permeable soils in the area by the monsoon rainfall. From these results, we conclude that agricultural environment of the district has mostly recovered one year after the tsunami.

Kume, Takashi; Umetsu, Chieko; Palanisami, K.

2

An Orthopedic-, Surgical-, and Epidemiological-Based Investigation of Leprosy, in the Tamil Nadu State of India  

PubMed Central

No other research paper has ever been written about leprosy in this manner. The orthopedic and surgical implications, as well as the functional debility caused by the disease, have not been previously explained by past research as they have in such a comprehensive manner in this paper. The results of this study have regional and global implications as they pertain to disease pathology, risk factor recognition/disease prevention, and treatment. This paper is a unique, in that it also serves as a combination of a review of the current medical literature, as well as an epidemiological survey of the disease in a region of the world which has never been researched in the past. Clinical data points to the possibility of a new strain of the disease. This information is of significance because it effects prevention and improved treatment of the disease, which leads to devastating sequela. This was a cross-sectional study involving subjects diagnosed with leprosy in the Chengalpet region of the Kancheepuram District, of the Tamil Nadu state of India. The study was performed at the Tamil Nadu Medical College Teaching Hospital and Research Center. This study included various physical examinations, observation and survey of lesions, questionnaires in regard the debilitating orthopedic and medical effects of the disease, as well as treatment options.

Samona, Jason; Samona, Scott; Samona, Cameron; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Shekhar, P.; Kubern, D.; Mohan Kumar, P. S.; Nassiri, Reza

2012-01-01

3

Local Knowledge and Conservation of Seagrasses in the Tamil Nadu State of India  

PubMed Central

Local knowledge systems are not considered in the conservation of fragile seagrass marine ecosystems. In fact, little is known about the utility of seagrasses in local coastal communities. This is intriguing given that some local communities rely on seagrasses to sustain their livelihoods and have relocated their villages to areas with a rich diversity and abundance of seagrasses. The purpose of this study is to assist in conservation efforts regarding seagrasses through identifying Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) from local knowledge systems of seagrasses from 40 coastal communities along the eastern coast of India. We explore the assemblage of scientific and local traditional knowledge concerning the 1. classification of seagrasses (comparing scientific and traditional classification systems), 2. utility of seagrasses, 3. Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) of seagrasses, and 4. current conservation efforts for seagrass ecosystems. Our results indicate that local knowledge systems consist of a complex classification of seagrass diversity that considers the role of seagrasses in the marine ecosystem. This fine-scaled ethno-classification gives rise to five times the number of taxa (10 species = 50 local ethnotaxa), each with a unique role in the ecosystem and utility within coastal communities, including the use of seagrasses for medicine (e.g., treatment of heart conditions, seasickness, etc.), food (nutritious seeds), fertilizer (nutrient rich biomass) and livestock feed (goats and sheep). Local communities are concerned about the loss of seagrass diversity and have considerable local knowledge that is valuable for conservation and restoration plans. This study serves as a case study example of the depth and breadth of local knowledge systems for a particular ecosystem that is in peril. Key words: local health and nutrition, traditional ecological knowledge (TEK), conservation and natural resources management, consensus, ethnomedicine, ethnotaxa, cultural heritage

2011-01-01

4

Partners in Literacy. A Pilot Attitudinal Survey of Literacy Animators in Tamil Nadu, India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted of part-time instructors--called "animators"--who teach literacy in villages in Tamil Nadu, India. Three literacy programs were studied: a state-run program, a voluntary program, and a university-run program, all in rural areas. Structured interviews were conducted over several weeks with 52 animators to see how they saw…

Rogers, Alan, Ed.; And Others

5

Characteristics of 2004 tsunami deposits of the northern Tamil Nadu coast, southeastern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami left significant sand deposits along the coastal tract of southeast India (Tamil Nadu state). These deposits serve as a benchmark to understand the effects of present day tsunami on the coastline. Additionally, the geological signatures of tsunami in the coastal stratigraphy can assist in providing modern analogs for identification and interpretation of ancient tsunami. This

S. Srinivasalu; N. Rajeshwara Rao; N. Thangadurai; M. P. Jonathan; P. D. Roy; V. Ram Mohan; P. Saravanan

6

Bureaucratic Activism and Radical School Change in Tamil Nadu, India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2007, Activity Based Learning (ABL), a child-centered, activity-based method of pedagogical practice, transformed classrooms in all of the over 37,000 primary-level government schools in Tamil Nadu, India. The large scale, rapid pace, and radical nature of educational change sets the ABL initiative apart from most school reform efforts.…

Niesz, Tricia; Krishnamurthy, Ramchandar

2013-01-01

7

Bureaucratic Activism and Radical School Change in Tamil Nadu, India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 2007, Activity Based Learning (ABL), a child-centered, activity-based method of pedagogical practice, transformed classrooms in all of the over 37,000 primary-level government schools in Tamil Nadu, India. The large scale, rapid pace, and radical nature of educational change sets the ABL initiative apart from most school reform efforts.…

Niesz, Tricia; Krishnamurthy, Ramchandar

2013-01-01

8

Religion and intensity of inbreeding in Tamil Nadu, South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A representative random sample of 11,628 rural couples and 8,998 urban couples from North Arcot District of Tamil Nadu in South India are under follow up since 1969 in a study of inbreeding eflFects. This paper describes the level of inbreeding and its relationship to religion of the couples. Wright's F for autosomal genes in the rural and urban areas

P. S. S. Sundar Rao

1983-01-01

9

Molecular characterization of wild-type measles viruses in Tamil Nadu, India, during 2005-2006: relationship of genotype D8 strains from Tamil Nadu to global strains.  

PubMed

Molecular characterization of measles viruses is a valuable tool for measuring the effectiveness of measles control and elimination programmes. WHO recommends that virological surveillance be conducted during all phases of measles control to document circulation of indigenous strains and trace future importation. This report describes the genetic characterization of wild type measles viruses from Tamil Nadu, India isolated between January 2005 and January 2006. In the study, 304 suspected measles cases (292 from 56 outbreaks and 12 sporadic cases) were investigated. Blood samples were collected from suspected measles outbreaks and 11 suspected sporadic cases and tested for the presence of measles and rubella specific IgM. Based on serological results, 53 outbreaks were confirmed as measles, 2 as a combination of measles and rubella, and 1 negative for both. Eight sporadic cases were confirmed as measles and one as rubella. Throat swab and urine samples were collected for virus isolation and 28 isolates were obtained. Sequencing and analysis showed that 3 isolates belonged to genotype D4 and 25 to genotype D8. Comparison of the genotype D8 sequences from Tamil Nadu with previously reported genotype D8 sequences from India and abroad showed six distinct clusters with Tamil Nadu strains forming two clusters. This study has established baseline molecular data and is the first report that describes genetic diversity of circulating measles strains in Tamil Nadu, a state in India. D8 has multiple lineages and this has been linked with importation of measles into the USA and UK. PMID:22170558

Duraisamy, Raja; Rota, Paul A; Palani, Gunasekaran; Elango, Varalakshmi; Sambasivam, Mohana; Lowe, Luis; Lopareva, Elena; Ramamurty, Nalini

2012-02-01

10

The scope and limitations of insecticide spraying in rural vector control programmes in the states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu in India.  

PubMed

The resurgence of malaria in India began in 1966 and the states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu were no exception to this phenomenon. In both states the peak occurrence came in 1976. Malaria was largely confined to highly vulnerable and receptive areas. The problem of increased incidence was particularly associated with the development of several irrigation and hydro-electric schemes. Improperly maintained irrigation systems and reservoirs provided ideal breeding grounds. The present paper examines the scope and limitations of a major anti-malaria activity, namely residual insecticide spraying as adopted and practised in rural vector control programmes in irrigation development project areas. Past experiences (as during the National Malaria Eradication programme, 1958-1965) and current practices are reviewed on the basis of selected examples. Eradication programme, 1958-1965) and current practices are reviewed on the basis of selected examples. In view of the current re-emergence of the disease, the states are faced with new obstacles to residual insecticide spraying such as (a) the development of resistance of malaria vectors to DDT and other alternative compounds like BHC (benzene hexachloride), changing vector behaviour with avoidance of contact with indoor insecticide deposits on walls, (c) environmental contamination (risks of chemicals), (d) extensive use of insecticides and pesticides for crop protection under an expanding green revolution agricultural technology, particularly in irrigated areas and (e) the existence of outdoor resting populations of the major vector Anopheles culicifacies and their role in extra-domiciliary transmission, making residual insecticide spray less effective. Spraying operations are also hindered by the persistence of certain social and cultural factors. The custom of mud plastering, white-washing and rethatching rural houses, for example, results in the loss of insecticide-treated surfaces. Other outdoor rural activities persist as obstacles in attempts to break the transmission cycle; washing, bathing and sleeping outdoors; illegal fishing and woodcutting at night; poorly constructed make-shift structures;housing project labourers near water sources; cattle grazing in nearby forests and human population movements related to seasonal migrants. The chain and extent of the transmission is dependent upon the malaria parasite carriers in the community (both indigenous and imported types) and the degree of contact of the community with those sites where people carry on the above activities, and on the effectiveness of surveillance operations. PMID:6206995

Barai, D; Hyma, B; Ramesh, A

1982-01-01

11

Institutional dynamics and barriers in wind energy development. A case study of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh, India.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In India, there was a boom in 1995-96 when 282 MW windfarms were set up in Tamil Nadu and the capacity in Andhra Pradesh increased by 39 MW. Then there was a steady decline in the windfarm development in both states. The case study described in this repor...

A. Jagadeesh

1999-01-01

12

Innovations and Challenges in Reducing Maternal Mortality in Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Although India has made slow progress in reducing maternal mortality, progress in Tamil Nadu has been rapid. This case study documents how Tamil Nadu has taken initiatives to improve maternal health services leading to reduction in maternal morality from 380 in 1993 to 90 in 2007. Various initiatives include establishment of maternal death registration and audit, establishment and certification of comprehensive emergency obstetric and newborn-care centres, 24-hour x 7-day delivery services through posting of three staff nurses at the primary health centre level, and attracting medical officers to rural areas through incentives in terms of reserved seats in postgraduate studies and others. This is supported by the better management capacity at the state and district levels through dedicated public-health officers. Despite substantial progress, there is some scope for further improvement of quality of infrastructure and services. The paper draws out lessons for other states and countries in the region.

Padmanaban, P.; Mavalankar, Dileep V.

2009-01-01

13

Determinants of edible oil choice by households in Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

This study investigated the major determinants that influence the choice of edible oils by households across geographical zones in Tamil Nadu state, India. The primary data from 1,000 sample households were collected using a structured pre-tested questionnaire. Multinomial logit model was fitted for determining the factors. The results revealed that education, income, and households with a history of health problems were the important determinants that influenced the choice of low-saturated-fat oils, whereas the larger size households and weaker section households preferred low-priced palm oil. Income and education levels in Tamil Nadu state surged ahead in recent years. In consonance to these changes the nontraditional low-saturated fat containing sunflower oil demand will increase in many folds in coming years. Hence, besides traditional oils, sunflower oil production has to be stepped up on "mission mode" through appropriate production programs to meet the present and future edible oil demand domestically. PMID:24083516

Govindaraj, Gurrappa Naidu; Suryaprakash, Satrasala

2013-01-01

14

Aquifer characteristics and its modeling around an industrial complex, Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu, India: A case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic pollution of shallow groundwater resources due to industrial activities is becoming a cause of concern in the east coastal belt of the state of Tamil Nadu, India. Integrated hydrogeological, geophysical and tracer studies were carried out in the coastal region encompassing an industrial complex. The objective has been to gain knowledge of aquifer characteristics, ascertaining groundwater movement and its flow direction, which would in turn reveal the possibility of contamination of groundwater regime and its better management. The results of multi-parameters and model study indicate that the velocity of groundwater flow ranges from 0.013 m/d to 0.22m/d in and around the industrial complex in upstream western part of the catchment and 0.026 m/d to 0.054m/d in the downstream eastern part, near the coast. These parameters are vital for the development of groundwater management scheme.

Mondal, N. C.; Singh, V. S.; Rangarajan, R.

2009-06-01

15

Assessment of groundwater quality and hydrogeochemistry of Manimuktha River basin, Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

Groundwater quality assessment study was carried out around Manimuktha river basin, Tamil Nadu, India. Twenty six bore well samples were analyzed for geochemical variations and quality of groundwater. Four major hydrochemical facies (Ca-HCO(3), Na-Cl, Mixed CaNaHCO(3), and mixed CaMgCl) were identified using a Piper trilinear diagram. Comparison of geochemical results with World Health Organization, United States Environmental Protection Agency, and Indian Standard Institution drinking water standards shows that all groundwater samples except few are suitable for drinking and irrigation purposes. The major groundwater pollutions are nitrate and phosphate ions due to sewage effluents and fertilizer applications. The study reveals that the groundwater quality changed due to anthropogenic and natural influence such as agricultural, natural weathering process. PMID:19089596

Kumar, S Krishna; Rammohan, V; Sahayam, J Dajkumar; Jeevanandam, M

2008-12-17

16

A glimpse of lignicolous marine fungi occurring in coastal water bodies of Tamil Nadu (India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present investigation, a total of 51 marine fungi were obtained from wood samples collected from four locations of Tamil Nadu (Tuthukudi, Chennai, Kanyakumari and Pichavaram), India. Out of these 51, 28 were ascomycetes, one was basidiomycete and 22 were mitosporic fungi. Maximum fungal diversity was encountered from Tuthukudi, followed by Chennai, Kanyakumari, and the minimum from Pichavaram. Periconia

Gayatri R. Nambiar; Kalathil Raveendran; Zhao Changxing; Cheruth Abdul Jaleel

2008-01-01

17

Striga gesnerioides (Willd.) Vatke: A New Record for the Kalakad –Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve, Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Striga gesnerioides (Willd.) Vatke, a plant of the Scrophulariaceae that is often reported to be parasitic on the roots of crop plants, has been reported for the first time from the Kalakad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve forest, Tirunelveli District, Tamil Nadu, India. The specimen was collected from the Kakachi forest range.

Muthiah Maridass

2008-01-01

18

Forest Dynamics in the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary deciduous forests in the Eastern Ghats (EG) of Tamil Nadu (TN) India have undergone many changes owing to various need-based forest managements, such as timber extraction for industry, railway sleepers, charcoal, and forest clearance for hydroelectric projects and agriculture, during preindependence and postindependence periods (i.e., from 1800 to 1980). The enactment of a forest conservation act during the 1980s changed the perception of forest managers from utilization to conservation. This study was taken up to assess the forests dynamics in the EG of TN spatially between 1990 and 2003 and nonspatially between 1900 and the 1980s. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Indian Remote Sensing satellite (IRS) 1D Linear Imaging and Self Scanning (LISS III) data were used to assess forests during 1990 and 2003, respectively. Field floristic survey and secondary data (such as published literature, floras, books, and forest working plans) were used to assess the forest dynamics in terms of forest type and species composition among the preindependence period, the postindependence period, and the present (i.e., before and after 1980). The satellite data analysis revealed a considerable amount of changes in all forest types during the 13 years. The comparison of species composition and forest types between the past and present revealed that need-based forest management along with anthropogenic activity have altered the primary deciduous forest in to secondary and postextraction secondary forests such as southern thorn and southern thorn scrub forests in the middle [400-900 m above mean sea level (MSL)] and lower slopes (<400 m MSL). However, the evergreen forests present at the upper slope (>900 m MSL) and plateau seemed not to be much affected by the forest management. The changes estimated by the satellite data processing in the major forest types such as evergreen, deciduous, southern thorn, and southern thorn scrub are really alarming because these changes have occurred after the implementation of a forest conservation act. The dependence of local people on forests for various purposes in this region is also considerably high, which might be a key factor for the changes in the forests. The results of this study not only provide an outlook on the present status of the forests and the change trends but also provide the basis for further studies on forests in the EG of TN.

Jayakumar, S.; Ramachandran, A.; Bhaskaran, G.; Heo, J.

2009-02-01

19

Metamorphism of the Oddanchatram Anorthosite, Tamil Nadu, South India.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Oddanchatram anorthosite is located in the Madurai District of Tamil Nadu, near the town of Palni. It is emplaced into a granulite facies terrain commonly presumed to have undergone its last regional metamorphism in the late Archean about 2600 m.y. Th...

R. A. Wiebe A. S. Janardhan

1988-01-01

20

Spatial and temporal distribution of macrobenthos in different mangrove ecosystems of Tamil Nadu Coast, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the spatial distribution and diversity of macrobenthos and their relationships between physico-chemical\\u000a parameters of the water and sediment in different mangrove habitats of Tamil Nadu, India during different seasons (2008).\\u000a Among the different ecosystems of mangrove benthic faunal assemblages, macrofauna species number, density, richness, and Shannon–Wiener\\u000a index were the highest and the Simpson dominance index was

K. Samidurai; A. Saravanakumar; K. Kathiresan

21

Elastic properties of granulite facies rocks of Mahabalipuram, Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compressional and shear wave velocities and attenuation measurements have been carried out in some of the borehole samples\\u000a of acidic, basic and intermediate granulites of Mahabalipuram, Tamil Nadu, India. The results have been obtained at ambient\\u000a conditions using ‘time-of-flight’ pulse transmission technique at 1.0 MHz frequency. The results show linear relationships\\u000a between velocity and density, and velocity and attenuation properties

M. V. M. S. Rao; K. J. Prasanna Lakshmi; L. P. Sarma; K. B. Chary

2006-01-01

22

Optimal pricing and investment in the electricity sector in Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Faulty pricing policies and inadequate investment in the power sector are responsible for the chronic power shortages that plague Tamil Nadu and the rest of India. Formulae for optimal pricing rules are derived for a social welfare maximizing Electricity Board which sells electricity that is used both as an intermediate, and as a final good. Because of distributional constraints, the optimal prices deviate systematically from marginal costs. Optimal relative price-marginal cost differentials are computed for Tamil Nadu, and are found to indicate a lower degree of subsidization than the prevailing prices. The rationalization of electricity tariffs would very likely increase the Board's revenues. The cost-effectiveness of nuclear power in India is examined by comparing actual data for the Madras Atomic Power Project and the Singrauli coal-fired thermal power station. The conventional (non-environmental) costs of power generation are compared at both market prices and shadow prices, calculated according to the UNIDO guidelines for project evaluation. Despite favorable assumptions for the costs of the nuclear plant, coal had a decided edge over nuclear in Tamil Nadu. Remarkably, the edge varied little when market prices are replaced by shadow prices in the computations. With regard to the environmental costs, far too much remains unknown. More research is therefore needed on the environmental impacts of both types of power generation before a final choice can be made.

Murthy, Ranganath Srinivas

2001-07-01

23

Seasonal variation of persistent organochlorine insecticide residues in Vellar River waters in Tamil Nadu, South India.  

PubMed

Water samples collected from Vellar river and Pichavaran mangroves at Porto Novo (11 degrees 29' N, 79 degrees 46' E), Tamil Nadu State, South India, from December 1987 to January 1989 were analyzed to determine the seasonal variation of the levels of organochlorine insecticides such as HCH (BHC) and DDT. Both these insecticides showed higher levels from October to February, although this trend was more pronounced in HCH than DDT, reflecting the application of technical HCH largely and probably small quantities of DDT during the flowering season of rice. The alpha-HCH was detected as a dominant isomer for all seasons monitored followed by beta-HCH. Among DDT compounds, p,p'-DDT was the highest in river water except in the dry season when p,p'-DDD showed a higher percentage. On the other hand, in mangroves p,p'-DDE was highest during the wet season and p,p'-DDD during the dry season. Air-water partitioning data of HCH isomers and DDT compounds in Vellar river revealed that these chemicals tend to be in the water phase. These observations may aid in understanding the role of a tropical paddy area on the behavior and fate of man-made chemicals in view of worldwide contamination. PMID:15092202

Ramesh, A; Tanabe, S; Iwata, H; Tatsukawa, R; Subramanian, A N; Mohan, D; Venugopalan, V K

1990-01-01

24

Monitoring water quality of Coimbatore wetlands, Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

Signs of wetland-water quality degradation have been apparent for decades, especially in those wetlands situated in the vicinity of cities and human habitations. Investigation on four urban wetlands of Coimbatore have been undertaken to assess the water quality with reference to pollution from various sources. The pH and total dissolved solids (TDS) values of the lakes were found to be different from those reported almost a decade back. The concentrations of phosphate and sulphate were much lower than the earlier reported values. The present scenario states that though the biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand values were lower for the Ukkadam wetland, the values for Perur wetland have shown a gradual increase. Alkalinity and chloride concentrations were thrice higher than the previous findings. Electrical conductivity and TDS ranged from 303.67 to 4,456.7 muS/cm and from 169 to 2,079.3 mg/l, respectively, and were positively correlated with chloride and sulphate (P < 0.05). These changes are a reflection of the environmental changes happening in the cityscape of the Coimbatore, a fast-growing city in south India. PMID:19902369

Chandra, Rachna; Nishadh, K A; Azeez, P A

2009-11-10

25

Impacts of organic farming in a developing country: evidence from Tamil Nadu, India, from 1993 to 2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention to organic fertilizer has been increasing but opinions are mixed as to its impacts. This paper explores the potential and limitations of the use of farmyard manure (FYM) for paddy and upland cereals under different soil conditions in Tamil Nadu, India, using farming households’ three-year rotating panel data from 1993 to 2003. Estimated yield functions reveal that a direct

Kei Kajisa; N. Venkatesa Palanichamy

2009-01-01

26

Diagnostic analysis of conservation zones using remote sensing and GIS techniques in wet evergreen forests of the Western Ghats – An ecological hotspot, Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study highlights spatial characterization of evergreen forests of the Western Ghats – an ecological hotspot in Tamil Nadu, India – using remote sensing and GIS-based analysis in conjunction with ground-based phytosociological data. The evergreen forests of Tamil Nadu are distributed in four distinct hill ranges, Nilgiri, Anamalai, Palni and Tirunelveli, having different topographic, bioclimatic and disturbance levels. The evergreen

G. Amarnath; M. S. R. Murthy; S. J. Britto; G. Rajashekar; C. B. S. Dutt

2003-01-01

27

A Study on Sacral Index in Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh Population of Southern India  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Human sacral bones are of great interest to the anatomists, forensic experts and anthropologists as it is one of the important bones used for identification of sex in skeletal remains. Various parameters and indices are available based on which the sex can be determined using sacrum. One such important parameter is the SI. Studies shows that SI significantly varies among male and female gender and among different populations. The calculation of Demarcation Point (DP) of SI increases the accuracy of identification of sex. A review of literature showed that many studies are available in the North Indian population whereas there is a dearth of information about the normal SI and DP in South Indian population particularly in the Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh, Inida region. Therefore, the present study aims to create a database for the SI in the above mentioned population. Material and Methods: One hundred twenty three bones of known sex (63 males and 60 females) belonging to Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh, India region were studied. Bones with obvious pathology were excluded. The breadth and length of the sacra were measured using vernier calipers based on standard guidelines. The SI and DP were calculated. The statistical analysis was done using SPSS 15.0 package. Results: The mean SI for male and female sacra were found to be 96.32 + 5.40 and 102.92 +4.00 respectively. The Demarcating Point was found to be <90.29 in males and >112.43 in females. The mean length of male and female sacra was 97.8 mm and 90.6mm respectively. The mean width was 93.7mm and 92.91mm respectively for males and females. Conclusion: The average SI and DP identified in the present study would be of use to the anatomists, forensic experts and anthropologists of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh population.

Ravichandran, D.; Shanthi, K.C.; Shankar, K.; Chandra, Harinath

2013-01-01

28

Background radiation and individual dosimetry in the costal area of Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

South coast of India is known as the high-level background radiation area (HBRA) mainly due to beach sands that contain natural radionuclides as components of the mineral monazite. The rich deposit of monazite is unevenly distributed along the coastal belt of Tamil Nadu and Kerala. An HBRA site that laid in 2×7 m along the sea was found in the beach of Chinnavillai, Tamil Nadu, where the maximum ambient dose equivalent reached as high as 162.7 mSv y(-1). From the sands collected at the HBRA spot, the high-purity germanium semi-conductor detector identified six nuclides of thorium series, four nuclides of uranium series and two nuclides belonging to actinium series. The highest radioactivity observed was 43.7 Bq g(-1) of Th-228. The individual dose of five inhabitants in Chinnavillai, as measured by the radiophotoluminescence glass dosimetry system, demonstrated the average dose of 7.17 mSv y(-1) ranging from 2.79 to 14.17 mSv y(-1). PMID:21502300

Matsuda, Naoki; Brahmanandhan, G M; Yoshida, Masahiro; Takamura, Noboru; Suyama, Akihiko; Koguchi, Yasuhiro; Juto, Norimichi; Raj, Y Lenin; Winsley, Godwin; Selvasekarapandian, S

2011-04-18

29

Medico - botanical study of Yercaud hills in the eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

The study reports medicinal plant survey was conceded in Yercaud hills ranges of Eastern Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. The study primarily based on field surveys conducted throughout the hills, where dwellers provided information on plant species used as medicine, plant parts used to prepare the remedies and ailments to which the remedies were prescribed. The study resulted about 48- plant species belonging to 45- genera and 29- families of medicinal plants related to folk medicine used by the local people. Among them the most common plants viz., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Cissus quadrangularis L., Gymnema sylvestre R. Br., Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br., Justisia adhatoda L., Ocimum sanctum L., Phyllanthes amarus Schum. & Thonn., Piper nigrum L., Solanum nigrum L., Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers, Tridax procumbens L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe which are used in their daily life to cure various ailments.

Parthipan, M; Aravindhan, V; Rajendran, A

2011-01-01

30

Evolution of late Holocene coastal dunes in the Cauvery delta region of Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Widespread occurrences of coastal dunes are observed in the Cauvery delta region of Tamil Nadu in Vedaranniyam in the south east coast of India. These dunes were studied to establish the chronology of their formation and to understand their evolution using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating in combination with sedimentological studies (quartz grain surface morphology using scanning electron microscope, grain size and heavy mineral analysis). The study shows that on the south-east coast of India widespread periodic dune formation/reactivation has taken place during the late Holocene to very recent times due to a variety of reasons such as climatic variation and land use changes. The sand mobility index shows that the dunes in the area have been largely active during the past century in the southern part in Nagapattinam region and many of the crests were active in the northern Cauvery delta in Cuddalore region. The angularity and fresh appearance of sand in the inland dunes suggest a short distance of sand transport and a source proximal sand deposition was proposed for the dune formation. The study demonstrates the sensitivity of sand dunes on the south east coast of India to varying climatic conditions and changes in regional land use.

Alappat, L.; Frechen, M.; Ramesh, R.; Tsukamoto, S.; Srinivasalu, S.

2011-08-01

31

The Emerging HIV Epidemic among Men Who have Sex with Men in Tamil Nadu, India: Geographic Diffusion and Bisexual Concurrency  

Microsoft Academic Search

In India, men who have sex with men (MSM) remain hidden because anal intercourse was criminalized and marriage socially required.\\u000a We characterize HIV\\/STI prevalence among MSM in Tamil Nadu. Eligible participants were recruited using respondent-driven sampling\\u000a in eight cities (n = 721). Median age was 28, 34% were married and 40% self-identified as homosexual. Median number of male partners in the\\u000a prior

Sunil Suhas Solomon; Aylur K. Srikrishnan; Frangiscos Sifakis; Shruti H. Mehta; Canjeevaram K. Vasudevan; Pachamuthu Balakrishnan; Kenneth H. Mayer; Suniti Solomon; David D. Celentano

2010-01-01

32

Services that Matter: An Overview of Childcare Services in Tamil Nadu. Monograph No. 7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This monograph describes the strengths and weaknesses of child care services in the Tamil Nadu region of India and suggests directions for the future of child care. Section 1, "Introduction," discusses the role of the government in providing support for child development, highlighting achievements of the State of Tamil Nadu. Section 2,…

Shantha, E. V.

33

Nocardiopsis sp. SD5: a potent feather degrading rare actinobacterium isolated from feather waste in Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

Feather waste, generated in large quantities as a byproduct of commercial poultry processing, is nearly pure keratin protein, and keratin in its native state is not degradable by common proteolytic enzymes. The aim of the study was to find a potent feather degrading actinobacteria from feather waste soil. Out of 91 actinobacterial isolates recorded from feather waste soil in Tiruchirappalli and Nammakkal District, Tamil Nadu, India, isolate SD5 was selected for characterization because it exhibited significant keratinolytic activity. On the basis of the phenotypic, biochemical characterization and 16S rRNA gene-sequencing studies, the isolate was identified as Nocardiopsis sp. SD5. Protease and keratinase activity of Nocardiopsis sp. SD5 were analyzed. The enzyme was more stable over the neutral pH and the temperature of 40?°C. The optimum temperature and pH for both proteolytic and keratinolytic activity was determined at 50?°C and pH 9, respectively. Enzyme inhibitors, detergents and chelator declined the enzyme activity with increasing concentration. Nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and zymogram elucidated the presence of 30 and 60 kDa protease enzymes. These findings indicated that thermo alkaliphilic feather degrading strain Nocardiopsis sp. SD5 could be used to control the feather waste pollution and to convert keratin rich feather waste into useful feedstock for poultry industry. PMID:23864545

Saha, Subhasish; Dhanasekaran, D; Shanmugapriya, S; Latha, S

2013-07-01

34

Nocardiopsis sp. SD5: A potent feather degrading rare actinobacterium isolated from feather waste in Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

Feather waste, generated in large quantities as a byproduct of commercial poultry processing, is nearly pure keratin protein, and keratin in its native state is not degradable by common proteolytic enzymes. The aim of the study was to find a potent feather degrading actinobacteria from feather waste soil. Out of 91 actinobacterial isolates recorded from feather waste soil in Tiruchirappalli and Nammakkal District, Tamil Nadu, India, isolate SD5 was selected for characterization because it exhibited significant keratinolytic activity. On the basis of the phenotypic, biochemical characterization and 16S rRNA gene-sequencing studies, the isolate was identified as Nocardiopsis sp. SD5. Protease and keratinase activity of Nocardiopsis sp. SD5 were analyzed. The enzyme was more stable over the neutral pH and the temperature of 40 °C. The optimum temperature and pH for both proteolytic and keratinolytic activity was determined at 50 °C and pH 9, respectively. Enzyme inhibitors, detergents and chelator declined the enzyme activity with increasing concentration. Non denaturing poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis and zymogram elucidated the presence of 30 kda and 60 kda protease enzymes. These findings indicated that thermo alkaliphilic feather degrading strain Nocardiopsis sp. SD5 could be used to control the feather waste pollution and to convert keratin rich feather waste into useful feedstock for poultry industry. (© 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim). PMID:22914902

Saha, Subhasish; Dhanasekaran, D; Shanmugapriya, S; Latha, S

2012-08-23

35

Registration and monitoring of pregnant women in Tamil Nadu, India: a critique.  

PubMed

In 2008 a pregnancy registration system was introduced in rural Tamil Nadu, India, which is now being scaled up. It will collect data on antenatal, delivery and post-partum care in pregnant women and infant health. This is seen as an important public health intervention, justified for its potential to ensure efficiency in provision and use of maternity services. However, from another perspective, it can be seen as a form of control over women, reducing the experience of safe pregnancy and delivery to a few measurable variables. The burden of implementing this task falls on Village Health Nurses, who are also women, reducing their time for interacting with and educating people and visiting communities, which is their primary task and the basis on which they are evaluated. In addition, they face logistical constraints in rural settings that may affect the quality of data. In a health system with rigid internal hierarchies and power differentials, this system may become more of a supervisory and monitoring tool than a tool for a learning health system. It may also lead to a victim-blaming approach ("you missed two antenatal visits") rather than health system learning to improve maternal and infant health. The paper concludes by recommending ways to use the system and the data to tackle the broader social determinants of health, with women, health workers and communities as partners in the process. PMID:22789089

Gaitonde, Rakhal

2012-06-01

36

A Different Type of Medicine: Women's Experiences With Ophthalmic Diseases in Rural and Urban Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

I conducted a study to understand how urban and rural women conceptualized eye diseases in Tamil Nadu state. I chose to examine eye diseases because ailments such as cataracts, glaucoma, refractive error, and diabetic retinopathy rank among the most serious diseases of Indian women. I collected observational, survey, and interview data to compare women from rural and urban areas. In

Keerthika Melissa Subramanian

2008-01-01

37

Sedimentology of the December 26, 2004, Sumatra tsunami deposits in eastern India (Tamil Nadu) and Kenya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The December 26, 2004 Sumatra tsunami caused severe damage at the coasts of the Indian ocean. We report results of a sedimentological study of tsunami run-up parameters and the sediments laid down by the tsunami at the coast of Tamil Nadu, India, and between Malindi and Lamu, Kenya. In India, evidence of three tsunami waves is preserved on the beaches in the form of characteristic debris accumulations. We measured the maximum run-up distance at 580 m and the maximum run-up height at 4.85 m. Flow depth over land was at least 3.5 m. The tsunami deposited an up to 30 cm thick blanket of moderately well to well-sorted coarse and medium sand that overlies older beach deposits or soil with an erosional unconformity. The sand sheet thins inland without a decrease of grain-size. The deposits consist frequently of three layers. The lower one may be cross-bedded with foresets dipping landward and indicating deposition during run-up. The overlying two sand layers are graded or parallel-laminated without indicators of current directions. Thus, it remains undecided whether they formed during run-up or return flow. Thin dark laminae rich in heavy minerals frequently mark the contacts between successive layers. Benthic foraminifera indicate an entrainment of sediment by the tsunami from water depths less than ca. 30 m water depth. On the Indian shelf these depths are present at distances of up to 5 km from the coast. In Kenya only one wave is recorded, which attained a run-up height of 3 m at a run-up distance of ca. 35 m from the tidal water line at the time of the tsunami impact. Only one layer of fine sand was deposited by the tsunami. It consists predominantly of heavy minerals supplied to the sea by a nearby river. The sand layer thins landward with a minor decrease in grain-size. Benthic foraminifera indicate an entrainment of sediment by the tsunami from water depths less than ca. 30 m water depth, reaching down potentially to ca. 80 m. The presence of only one tsunami-related sediment layer in Kenya, but three in India, reflects the impact of only one wave at the coast of Kenya, as opposed to several in India. Grain-size distributions in the Indian and Kenyan deposits are mostly normal to slightly positively skewed and indicate that the detritus was entrained by the tsunami from well sorted pre-tsunami deposits in nearshore, swash zone and beach environments.

Bahlburg, Heinrich; Weiss, Robert

2007-11-01

38

Daughter Elimination in Tamil Nadu, India: A Tale of Two Ratios  

Microsoft Academic Search

A disturbing feature of demographic trends in India is the sharp decline in the proportion of girls to boys. Most existing analyses of the Indian child sex ratio present a country wide picture and focus on trends across states. Such state level analyses may hide intra state variation. This paper uses district and village data on sex ratio at birth

Sharada Srinivasan; Arjun Singh Bedi

2008-01-01

39

Polymorphism and overexpression of HER2/neu among ovarian carcinoma women from Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

PURPOSE: Alteration and overexpression of HER2 proto-oncogene have been implicated in the carcinogenesis and prognosis of ovarian cancer. We evaluated this hypothesis among women with ovarian carcinoma patients from Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu, India. METHODS: Genomic DNA was extracted from 72 case patients and 288 control subjects and was examined for I655V polymorphism by PCR-RFLP based assay. Immunohistochemistry analysis was carried out in order to study the overexpression of HER2 protein. The observed number of each genotype was compared with that expected for a population in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. In analysing the relation between genotype and overexpression of HER2 protein, Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel statistics was used. RESULTS: We found that 20.8 % of the case patients and 16.3 % of the control subjects were heterozygous for the Val allele and 10 case patients (13.8 %) and 3 control subjects (1.1 %) were homozygous for this allele (P < 0.001). Compared with women with Ile/Ile genotype, women with Val/Val genotype had an elevated risk of ovarian cancer. The genotype distributions were consistent with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The risk increased with the number of Val allele and women homozygous for the Val allele had 15-fold (OR = 15.3; 95 %CI = 4.09-57.31) increased risk of cancer. The patients homozygous for the Valine allele showed strong HER2 protein expression. CONCLUSION: The results showed that the valine allele may be an indicator of genetic susceptibility to ovarian carcinoma in the study population. PMID:23722284

Shanmughapriya, Santhanam; Senthilkumar, G; Arun, Seshachalam; Vinodhini, Krishnakumar; Sudhakar, Sivasubramanian; Natarajaseenivasan, Kalimuthusamy

2013-05-31

40

Studies on community knowledge and behavior following a dengue epidemic in Chennai city, Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

In 2001, a major dengue outbreak was recorded in Chennai city, with 737 cases (90%) out of a total of 861 cases recorded from Tamil Nadu state. A KAP survey was carried out to assess the community knowledge, attitude and practice on dengue fever (DF), following the major dengue outbreak in 2001. A pre- tested, structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The multistage cluster sampling method was employed and 640 households (HHs) were surveyed. Among the total HHs surveyed, 34.5% of HHs were aware of dengue and only 3.3% of HHs knew that virus is the causative agent for DF. Majority of the HHs (86.5%) practiced water storage and only 3% of them stored water more than 5 days. No control measures were followed to avoid mosquito breeding in the water holding containers by majority of HHs (65%). Sixty percent of HHs did not know the biting behaviour of dengue vector mosquitoes. The survey results indicate that the community knowledge was very poor on dengue, its transmission, vector breeding sources, biting behavior and preventive measures. The lack of basic knowledge of the community on dengue epidemiology and vector bionomics would be also a major cause of increasing trend of dengue in this highly populated urban environment. There is an inevitable need to organize health education programmes about dengue disease to increase community knowledge and also to sensitize the community to participate in integrated vector control programme to resolve the dengue problem. PMID:20962733

Ashok Kumar, V; Rajendran, R; Manavalan, R; Tewari, S C; Arunachalam, N; Ayanar, K; Krishnamoorthi, R; Tyagi, B K

2010-08-01

41

Prevalence and Pattern of Alcohol Consumption using Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) in Rural Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

Background: There is a paucity of information on prevalence and pattern of alcohol consumption in India. Aim: To assess the prevalence and pattern of alcohol consumption in a rural area of Tamil Nadu, India. Material and Methods: A community based, cross sectional study was conducted among 946 subjects who were aged 10 years and above, in rural Tamil Nadu, India. Data on alcohol use was collected by using 'Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test' (AUDIT) scale. Data on pattern and associated factors like socio-demographic details, smoking, tobacco chewing and chronic diseases were collected by using a structured questionnaire. Statistical Analysis: Data was analysed by univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis and information was depicted in percentages or proportions. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Overall, the prevalence of alcohol use was found to be 9.4%. Prevalence was more among males (16.8%) as compared to that among females (1.3%). Mean age at initiation was 25.3 +9.0 years. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that middle age (15-44 years) (OR=3.56), male gender (OR=11.23), illiteracy (OR=6.16), lower education levels (OR=2.57) and smoking (OR=17.78) were independently associated with alcohol use. Among those who used alcohol, 29.2% (26) were possible hazardous drinkers, 33.7%(30) had a probable alcohol dependence and 56.2% (50) had experienced harmful effects, based on AUDIT item analysis. Conclusion: Prevalence of alcohol use is high, especially among males. Health educational interventions among those who are at a higher risk and management of alcohol dependent subjects, may help in reducing the burden of alcohol use in this area. PMID:24086861

Kumar S, Ganesh; K C, Premarajan; L, Subitha; E, Suguna; Vinayagamoorthy; Kumar, Veera

2013-08-01

42

Prevalence and Pattern of Alcohol Consumption using Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) in Rural Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Background: There is a paucity of information on prevalence and pattern of alcohol consumption in India. Aim: To assess the prevalence and pattern of alcohol consumption in a rural area of Tamil Nadu, India. Material and Methods: A community based, cross sectional study was conducted among 946 subjects who were aged 10 years and above, in rural Tamil Nadu, India. Data on alcohol use was collected by using ‘Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test‘ (AUDIT) scale. Data on pattern and associated factors like socio-demographic details, smoking, tobacco chewing and chronic diseases were collected by using a structured questionnaire. Statistical Analysis: Data was analysed by univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis and information was depicted in percentages or proportions. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Overall, the prevalence of alcohol use was found to be 9.4%. Prevalence was more among males (16.8%) as compared to that among females (1.3%). Mean age at initiation was 25.3 +9.0 years. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that middle age (15–44 years) (OR=3.56), male gender (OR=11.23), illiteracy (OR=6.16), lower education levels (OR=2.57) and smoking (OR=17.78) were independently associated with alcohol use. Among those who used alcohol, 29.2% (26) were possible hazardous drinkers, 33.7%(30) had a probable alcohol dependence and 56.2% (50) had experienced harmful effects, based on AUDIT item analysis. Conclusion: Prevalence of alcohol use is high, especially among males. Health educational interventions among those who are at a higher risk and management of alcohol dependent subjects, may help in reducing the burden of alcohol use in this area.

Kumar S., Ganesh; K.C., Premarajan; L., Subitha; E., Suguna; Vinayagamoorthy; Kumar, Veera

2013-01-01

43

Medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Kancheepuram District of Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken to collect information from traditional healers on the use of medicinal plants in Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu during October 2003 to April 2004. The indigenous knowledge of local traditional healers and the native plants used for medicinal purposes were collected through questionnaire and personal interviews during field trips. The investigation revealed that, the traditional

Chellaiah Muthu; Muniappan Ayyanar; Nagappan Raja; Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu

2006-01-01

44

Folk-lore medicines for jaundice from Coimbatore and palghat districts of Tamil Nadu and kerala, India.  

PubMed

Ethno-botanical explorations with regard to the folk-lore medicine in Coimbatore district of Tamil Nadu and Palghat district of Kerala for jaundice was carried out. Out of twenty remedies thus gathered two are found to be new reports and a few others have got interesting combination. The specimens are identified at Botanical Survey of India, Coimbatore and deposited in the Herbarium of Ethnobiology department of International Institute of Ayurveda, Coimbatore. Two newly reported plants for Jaundice namely Alysicarpus vaginalis DC. and Justicia tranquebariensis L. f, have been taken for phytochemical screening and pharmacological studies. The botanical name of the plant, local name, Sanskrit name and the part of the plant employed are given in table I. PMID:22557611

Sankaranarayanan, A S

1988-01-01

45

Assessment of (210)Po and (210)Pb in marine biota of the Mallipattinam ecosystem of Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

To provide baseline data on background radiation levels for the future assessment of the impact of nuclear and thermal power stations, a systematic study was carried out in the Mallipattinam ecosystem of Tamil Nadu, India. Mallipattinam is located between the Kudankulam and Kalpakkam nuclear power plants and near to Tuticorin thermal power plant. Water, sediments, seaweeds, crustaceans, molluscs, and fish were collected to measure the concentrations of (210)Po and (210)Pb. The concentrations of (210)Po and (210)Pb in most samples are comparable to values reported worldwide. In fish, the concentrations of (210)Po and (210)Pb are in the range 16-190 Bq kg(-1) and 8-153 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The concentration factors of (210)Po and (210)Pb for the biotic components ranges from 10(3) to 10(6). PMID:20605061

Suriyanarayanan, S; Brahmanandhan, G M; Samivel, K; Ravikumar, S; Hameed, P Shahul

2010-11-01

46

Developing climate change scenarios for Tamil Nadu, India using MAGICC/SCENGEN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the projection of climate change scenarios under increased greenhouse gas emissions, using the results of atmospheric-ocean general circulation models in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 dataset. A score is given to every model based on global and regional performance. Four out of 20 general circulation models (GCMs) were selected based on skill in predicting observed annual temperature and precipitation conditions. The ensemble of these four models shows superiority over the individual model scores. These models were subjected to increases in future anthropogenic radiative forcings for constructing climate change scenarios. Future climate scenarios for Tamil Nadu were developed with MAGICC/SCENGEN software. Model results show both temperature and precipitation increases under increased greenhouse gas scenarios. Northeast and northwest parts of Tamil Nadu show a greater increase in temperature and precipitation. Seasonally, the maximum rise in temperature occurred during the MAM season, followed by DJF, JJA, and SON. Decreasing trends of precipitation were observed during DJF and MAM.

Jeganathan, Anushiya; Andimuthu, Ramachandran

2013-03-01

47

Origin of Cretaceous phosphorites from the onshore of Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cretaceous phosphorites from the onshore of Tamil Nadu have been investigated for their origin and compared with those in the offshore. Cretaceous phosphorites occur as light brown to yellowish brown or white nodules in Karai Shale of the Uttatur Group in the onshore Cauvery basin. Nodules exhibit phosphatic nucleus encrusted by a chalky shell of carbonate. The nucleus of the nodules consists of light and dark coloured laminae, phosphate peloids/coated grains and detrital particles interspersed between the laminae. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies reveal trapping and binding activity of microbial filaments. A mat structure with linearly arranged microbial filaments and hollow, cell-based coccoid cyanobacterial mat are present. Nodules contain abundant carbonate fluorapatite, followed by minor calcite, quartz and feldspar. The P2O5 content of the phosphorites ranges from 18 to 26%. The CaO/P2O5, Sr and F contents are higher than that of pure carbonate fluorapatite. Concentrations of Si, Al, K, Fe, and Ti are low. We suggest that the nuclei of the nodules represent phosphate clasts related to phosphate stromatolites formed at intertidal conditions. At high energy levels the microbial mats were disintegrated into phosphate clasts, coated with carbonate and then reworked into Karai Shale. On the other hand, Quaternary phosphorites occur as irregular to rounded, grey coloured phosphate clasts at water depths between 180 and 320m on the continental shelf of Tamil Nadu. They exhibit grain-supported texture. Despite Quaternary in age, they also resemble phosphate stromatolites of intertidal origin and reworked as phosphate clasts onto the shelf margin depressions. Benthic microbial mats probably supplied high phosphorus to the sediments. Availability of excess phosphorus seems to be a pre-requisite for the formation of phosphate stromatolites.

Purnachandra Rao, V.; Kessarkar, Pratima M.; Nagendra, R.; Babu, E. V. S. S. K.

2007-12-01

48

The emerging HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men in Tamil Nadu, India: geographic diffusion and bisexual concurrency.  

PubMed

In India, men who have sex with men (MSM) remain hidden because anal intercourse was criminalized and marriage socially required. We characterize HIV/STI prevalence among MSM in Tamil Nadu. Eligible participants were recruited using respondent-driven sampling in eight cities (n = 721). Median age was 28, 34% were married and 40% self-identified as homosexual. Median number of male partners in the prior year was 15; 45% reported any unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). HIV, herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2), chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and syphilis prevalence were 9, 26, 2 and 8%, respectively; among married men, all were higher: 14, 32, 3 and 11% (p < 0.01 for HIV and HSV-2). Less education, HSV-2, more male partners, UAI and not having a main male partner were associated with HIV prevalence. The high STI and UAI prevalence may lead to a burgeoning HIV epidemic among MSM, reinforcing the need for focused preventive measures incorporating complex circumstances. PMID:20467890

Solomon, Sunil Suhas; Srikrishnan, Aylur K; Sifakis, Frangiscos; Mehta, Shruti H; Vasudevan, Canjeevaram K; Balakrishnan, Pachamuthu; Mayer, Kenneth H; Solomon, Suniti; Celentano, David D

2010-10-01

49

Study on Entomological Surveillance and its Significance during a Dengue Outbreak in the District of Tirunelveli in Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Objectives To study the significance of entomological surveillance, the house index (HI), container index (CI), and Breteau index (BI) were determined to estimate the degree of a major dengue outbreak in Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu, India (Latitude: 8°42?N; Longitude: 77°42?E) in May 2012. Methods The HI, CI, and BI were determined in a primary health center (PHC) in the village of Maruthamputhur (Pappakudi taluk, Tirunelveli) by carrying out an antilarval (AL) work that involved door-to-door search for immature stages of Aedes spp. mosquitoes by trained field workers and volunteers. The work of field workers was evaluated by a junior and senior entomologist the following day. Results Before the AL work, the reported numbers of fever cases from Week 1 to 5 in Maruthamputhur were 211, 394, 244, 222, and 144 with two deaths. By contrast, after the AL work, these numbers were considerably reduced and there was no fever-related death (the HI was reduced from 48.2% to 1.6%, the CI from 28.6% to 0.4%, and the BI from 48.2 to 1.6). Conclusion Because no specific medicine and vaccines are available to treat dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever, entomological surveillance and its significance can be used to halt the outbreak of dengue as shown in this study.

Basker, Parasuraman; Kannan, Pichai; Porkaipandian, Rajagopal Thirugnanasambandam; Saravanan, Sivsankaran; Sridharan, Subramaniam; Kadhiresan, Mahaligam

2013-01-01

50

Seven years of the field epidemiology training programme (FETP) at Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India: an internal evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background During 2001–2007, the National Institute of Epidemiology (NIE), Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India admitted 80 trainees in its two-year Field Epidemiology Training Programme (FETP). We evaluated the first seven years of the programme to identify strengths and weaknesses. Methods We identified core components of the programme and broke them down into input, process, output and outcome. We developed critical indicators to reflect the logic model. We reviewed documents including fieldwork reports, abstracts listed in proceedings and papers published in Medline-indexed journals. We conducted an anonymous online survey of the graduates to collect information on self-perceived competencies, learning activities, field assignments, supervision, curriculum, relevance to career goals, strengths and weaknesses. Results Of the 80 students recruited during 2001–2007, 69 (86%) acquired seven core competencies (epidemiology, surveillance, outbreaks, research, human subjects protection, communication and management) and graduated through completion of at least six field assignments. The faculty-to-student ratio ranged between 0.4 and 0.12 (expected: 0.25). The curriculum was continuously adapted with all resources available on-line. Fieldwork led to the production of 158 scientific communications presented at international meetings and to 29 manuscripts accepted in indexed, peer-reviewed journals. The online survey showed that while most graduates acquired competencies, unmet needs persisted in laboratory sciences, data analysis tools and faculty-to-student ratio. Conclusions NIE adapted the international FETP model to India. However, further efforts are required to scale up the programme and to develop career tracks for field epidemiologists in the country.

2012-01-01

51

Medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Kancheepuram District of Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken to collect information from traditional healers on the use of medicinal plants in Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu during October 2003 to April 2004. The indigenous knowledge of local traditional healers and the native plants used for medicinal purposes were collected through questionnaire and personal interviews during field trips. The investigation revealed that, the traditional healers used 85 species of plants distributed in 76 genera belonging to 41 families to treat various diseases. The documented medicinal plants were mostly used to cure skin diseases, poison bites, stomachache and nervous disorders. In this study the most dominant family was Euphorbiaceae and leaves were most frequently used for the treatment of diseases. This study showed that many people in the studied parts of Kancheepuram district still continue to depend on medicinal plants at least for the treatment of primary healthcare. The traditional healers are dwindling in number and there is a grave danger of traditional knowledge disappearing soon since the younger generation is not interested to carry on this tradition.

Muthu, Chellaiah; Ayyanar, Muniappan; Raja, Nagappan; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

2006-01-01

52

Rural Organizations in South India: The Dynamics of Laborer and Tenant Unions and Farmer Associations in Kerala and Tamil Nadu.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rural organizations, prominent features in agrarian development, are capable of transforming political and socioeconomic relationships. This study examines the emergence of peasant organizations in the Indian districts of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. The report...

K. C. Alexander

1979-01-01

53

Rock magnetism and palaeomagnetism of the Oddanchatram anorthosite, Tamil Nadu, South India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rock magnetic and palaeomagnetic data are reported on the Proterozoic massif-type anorthosite body from Oddanchatram, on the northern slopes of the Kodaikanal (Palani) Ranges, Tamil Nadu. Alternating field demagnetization treatment indicated a very stable direction of magnetization. Progressive heating revealed a remanence that became unblocked at 580°C. The demagnetization analysis yields a characteristic component with a mean direction: Dm= 97.3° Im =- 28.8° (k= 51, ?95= 7.2° and N= 9 sites). In addition to this characteristic component, specimens from a few sites show the presence of a low coercivity component with a mean palaeomagnetic direction of D= 36.7° I=-29.4° (k= 63, ?95= 4.4° and N= 18). The isothermal remanent magnetization acquisition curves indicate magnetite as the main carrier of the stable remanence. The direction of the characteristic component corresponds to a pole position at 9.7°N, 1.7°E (dp= 4.4°, dm= 7.9°). The location of this pole is comparable to palaeomagnetic poles reported for the period of 1100-1000 Ma for a range of formations from the Indian shield. The pole for the secondary component (45°S, 23°E) fits well with poles for 550 Ma, associated with the Pan-African thermal event that extensively caused granulite grade metamorphism in the Southern Granulite Terrain. Despite the high temperature (>700 °C) that prevailed during the Pan-African event, the remanence magnetization of 1100-1000 Ma is preserved in the Oddanchatram anorthosite. It is inferred that the northern boundary of the terrain affected by the dominant 550 Ma granulitic metamorphism lies close to the southern margin of the Oddanchatram anorthosite body. Thus Oddanchatram anorthosite escaped the high temperatures metamorphism. The weak secondary magnetization found in a few specimens is attributed to hydrothermal activity associated with the intrusion of pink granites, immediately south of the Oddanchatram anorthosite body. A mid-Proterozoic magnetization age of the Oddanchatram anorthosite supports the view that this body was emplaced/remobilized during the Eastern Ghat Orogeny (~1000 Ma) and this body can be seen as a western extension of the string of massif-type anorthosites in the Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt.

Satyanarayana, K. V. V.; Arora, Baldev R.; Janardhan, A. S.

2003-12-01

54

The Effect of Community-Managed Palliative Care Program on Quality of Life in the Elderly in Rural Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Background: HelpAge India has been facilitating community-managed palliative care program in the villages of Tamil Nadu, India. Objective: To evaluate the effect of perceived quality of life in the elderly in the project villages in rural Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: It was a community-based evaluation study. Considering the mean difference of 0.6, design effect-2, precision-5%, power 80%, and 10% non-response, a sample size of 450 elderly persons (more than 60 years) was adequate. Sample was selected by two-stage cluster sampling. Tamil version of “WHO-Quality of Life-brief questionnaire” was used. Trained interviewers made house-to-house visits and obtained information by personally interviewing the subjects. Results: The mean score for perceived physical quality of life in the project area was (10.47 ± 1.80 SD) high than the mean score (10.17 ± 1.82 SD) in the control area (P = 0.013) and the mean score for psychological support (10.13 ± 2.25 SD) in project area was high than the mean score (9.8 ± 2.29 SD) in control area (P = 0.043). There was no effect on domain of social relationship and environment. Conclusions: In the project villages, the perceived physical quality of life and psychological support among elderly persons was significantly better than the control villages.

Dongre, Amol R; Rajendran, Koonjangad P; Kumar, Suresh; Deshmukh, Pradeep R

2012-01-01

55

Genetic variation of 15 autosomal microsatellite loci in a Tamil population from Tamil Nadu, Southern India.  

PubMed

The genetic profiles for 15 autosomal microsatellite loci were analyzed in a Tamil population from Southern India to study the genetic diversities and relatedness of this population with other national and global populations. Statistical analyses of the data revealed all loci were within Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) expectations with the exception of the locus D5S818 (p=0.011). A significantly greater inter-individual variation (Fst=99%) observed within the individuals among the four subgroups in this study and low population differentiation (Fst=1%) suggests relative genetic closeness of these four subgroups. This indicates that the populations in the southern region of India might have a common ancestry or probably experienced high gene flow during the period of their coexistence. The Neighbor Joining tree derived from genetic distances of samples from this study and other national and global populations show clustering of all the Indian populations in one branch of the tree while the African and Middle Eastern populations cluster in a separate branch. Principal Co-ordinate Analysis of the genetic distance data show clustering similar to the NJ tree. PMID:20813574

Balamurugan, Kuppareddi; Kanthimathi, S; Vijaya, M; Suhasini, G; Duncan, George; Tracey, Martin; Budowle, Bruce

2010-09-01

56

Chromites from meta-anorthosites, Sittampundi layered igneous complex, Tamil Nadu, southern India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chrome-spinels of anorthosite-hosted chromitite bodies from Sittampundi layered igneous complex, southern India, metamorphosed under eclogite-facies condition have been studied. Besides anorthosites as the dominant rock type discontinuous layers of peridotite, pyroxenite and lenses of gabbroic granulite/eclogite occur at the bottom of the complex. Chromite grains are deformed exhibiting features of intracrystalline deformation and exsolved needle shaped rutile inclusions. Chrome-spinels are of refractory grade with Cr2O3 and Al2O3 contents varying between 34-40 wt.% and 23-28 wt.% respectively. In the bivariate Cr# (=Cr/[Cr + Al]) vs. Mg# (=Mg/[Mg + Fe2+]) diagram, Sittampundi chromitites show close affinity with the Archean Fiskenaesset type deposit. The calculated Al2O3 values for the parental melt of Sittampundi chromitites are consistent with the Al2O3 content of mid-ocean ridge basalts whereas the values for FeO/MgO ratio are higher. It is suggested that an initial basic magma, similar to that of mafic granulite composition evolved in the magma chamber through fractionation of peridotite and pyroxenite to Fe,Al-rich basaltic melt, parental to the chromitite bands.

Ghosh, Biswajit; Konar, Ritam

2011-11-01

57

FT-IR Spectroscopic Studies of Beach Rocks of South East Coast of Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mineral composition of a sedimentary rock is one of its most important attributes. The presence or absence of a given mineral may be a clue to the history of a rock. Beach rock is one of the types of sedimentary rock. Beach rock is a peculiar type of formation when compared to other types of rock formations. It is commonly found along the tropical and subtropical coasts. It needs intensive and extensive investigation on its formation. Beach rock samples were collected from a vast area extending from Rameswaram to Kanyakumari of South East coast of Tamilnadu, India and were subjected to i.r. studies. Qualitative analysis was carried out to determine the major and minor constituent minerals present in the samples, from the band positions or the locations of the different peaks. In addition to the band positions, the sharpness or diffuseness of bands is helpful in the identification of mineral components. The i.r. study on these beach rocks was found to be highly useful in identifying the various minerals in beach rocks.

Ravisankar, R.; Rajalakshmi, A.; Eswaran, P.; Thillaivelavan, K.; Anand, K. Vijay

2008-11-01

58

Assessment of groundwater contamination from a hazardous dump site in Ranipet, Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tanneries located in an industrial development area of Ranipet (India) manufactured chromate chemicals during 1976-1996. A large quantity of associated hazardous solid wastes has been stacked about 5-m high above ground level, spread over 3.5 ha inside one of the factory premises. The study area receives an average annual rainfall of 1,100 mm. The granitic formation in the northern part of Palar River catchment has high infiltration rates and has resulted in fast migration of the contamination to the water table. Chromium levels in the groundwater were found up to 275 mg/l. The available hydrogeological, geophysical and groundwater quality data bases have been used to construct a groundwater flow and mass transport model for assessing the groundwater contamination and it has been calibrated for the next 30 years. The migration has been found to be very slow, with a groundwater velocity of 10 m/year. This is the first field-scale study of its kind in this industrial area. The findings are of relevance to addressing the groundwater pollution due to indiscriminate disposal practices of hazardous waste in areas located on the phreatic aquifer. Further, it has been reported that the untreated effluent discharge adjacent to the chromium dump site is most influential in the migration of contaminants.

Rao, G. Tamma; Rao, V. V. S. Gurunadha; Ranganathan, K.; Surinaidu, L.; Mahesh, J.; Ramesh, G.

2011-12-01

59

Traditional Herbal Medicines Used for the Treatment of Diabetes among Two Major Tribal Groups in South Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicinal plants used to treat diabetic conditions are of considerable interest and a number of plants have shown varying degrees of hypoglycaemic and antihyperglycaemic activity. An ethno-medico-botanical survey was carried out among the Kani and Paliyar tribals in southern Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu for the exploration of antidiabetic herbal medicines. They frequently use ten species of plants for the

M. Ayyanar; K. Sankarasivaraman; S. Ignacimuthu

2008-01-01

60

Assessment of Current Status of Fluorosis in North-Western Districts of Tamil Nadu Using Community Index for Dental Fluorosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

India is one of the countries where hydrofluorosis is a major public health problem, affecting 18 of the 33 constituent States of the Country. Tamil Nadu is one of the Southern states having 10 of the 29 districts affected with fluorosis. Fluorosis is caused by ingestion of excess fluoride mainly through drinking water contamination. A cross sectional study was undertaken

R. Hari Kumar; A. L. Khandare; G. N. V. Brahmam; K. Venkiah; Gal Reddy; B. Sivakumar

61

Hydrogeochemical Modelling for Groundwater in Neyveli Aquifer, Tamil Nadu, India, Using PHREEQC: A Case Study  

SciTech Connect

Sophisticated geochemical models have been used to describe and predict the chemical behaviour of complex natural waters and also to protect the groundwater resources from future contamination. One such model is used to study the hydrogeochemical complexity in a mine area. Extraction of groundwater from the coastal aquifer has been in progress for decades to mine lignite in Neyveli. This extraction has developed a cone of depression around the mine site. This cone of depression is well established by the geochemical nature of groundwater in the region. 42 groundwater samples were collected in a definite pattern and they were analysed for major cations, anions and trace elements. The saturation index (SI) of the groundwater for carbonate, sulphate and silica minerals was studied and it has been correlated with the recharge and the discharge regions. The SI of alumino silicates has been used to decipher the stage of weathering. The SI{sub Gibbsite} - SI{sub K-feldspar} has been spatially distributed and the regions of discharge and recharge were identified. Then two flow paths A1 and A2 were identified and inverse modelling using PHREEQC were carried out to delineate the geochemical process that has taken place from recharge to discharge. The initial and final solutions in both the flow paths were correlated with the thermodynamic silicate stability diagrams of groundwater and it was found that the state of thermodynamic stability of the end solutions along the flow path were approaching similar states of equilibrium at the discharge.

Chidambaram, S.; Anandhan, P. [Annamalai University, Department of Earth Sciences (India); Prasanna, M. V., E-mail: geoprasanna@gmail.com [Curtin University, Department of Applied Geology, School of Engineering and Science (Malaysia); Ramanathan, AL. [Jawaharlal Nehru University, School of Environmental Sciences (India); Srinivasamoorthy, K. [Pondicherry University, Department of Earth Sciences, School of Physical, Chemical and Applied Sciences (India); Senthil Kumar, G. [HNB Garwhal University, Department of Geology (India)

2012-09-15

62

Fragile X CGG Repeat Variation in Tamil Nadu, South India: A Comparison of Radioactive and Methylation-Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction in CGG Repeat Sizing  

PubMed Central

Fragile X syndrome is the most frequent hereditary cause of mental retardation after Down syndrome. Expansion of CGG repeats in the 5? UTR of the fragile X mental retardation gene 1 (FMR1) causes gene inactivation in most of the cases. The FMR1 gene is classified into normal 5–44; gray zone 45–54; premutation 55 to <200; and full mutation ?200 repeats. Precise sizing of FMR1 alleles is important to understand their variation, predisposition, and for genetic counseling. Meta-analysis reveals prevalence of premutation carriers as 1 in 259. No such reports are available in India. About 705 women from Tamil Nadu, South India, were screened for the FMR1 allelic variation by using radioactive polymerase chain reaction–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis. The women who were homozygous by radioactive polymerase chain reaction (rPCR) were reanalyzed by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (Ms-PCR) and GeneScan analysis. The techniques were validated and compared to arrive at a correction factor. Among 122 genotypes, 35 repeat variants ranging in size from 16 to 57 were observed. The most common repeat is 30 followed by 29. One in 353 women carried the premutation. No full mutations were observed. Screening populations with low frequency of premutations may not be applicable. Ms-PCR is more suitable for routine screening and clinical testing compared with rPCR-PAGE analysis.

Indhumathi, Nagarathinam; Singh, Deepika; Chong, Samuel S.; Thelma, B.K.; Arabandi, Ramesh

2012-01-01

63

Impact of leachate on groundwater pollution due to non-engineered municipal solid waste landfill sites of erode city, Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

Leachate and groundwater samples were collected from Vendipalayam, Semur and Vairapalayam landfill sites in Erode city, Tamil Nadu, India, to study the possible impact of leachate percolation on groundwater quality. Concentrations of various physicochemical parameters including heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Fe and Zn) were determined in leachate samples and are reported. The concentrations of Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, NH4+ were found to be in considerable levels in the groundwater samples particularly near to the landfill sites, likely indicating that groundwater quality is being significantly affected by leachate percolation. Further they were proved to be the tracers for groundwater contamination near Semur and Vendipalayam dumpyards. The presence of contaminants in groundwater particularly near the landfill sites warns its quality and thus renders the associated aquifer unreliable for domestic water supply and other uses. Although some remedial measures are suggested to reduce further groundwater contamination via leachate percolation, the present study demands for the proper management of waste in Erode city. PMID:23369323

Nagarajan, Rajkumar; Thirumalaisamy, Subramani; Lakshumanan, Elango

2012-12-27

64

Impact of leachate on groundwater pollution due to non-engineered municipal solid waste landfill sites of erode city, Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Leachate and groundwater samples were collected from Vendipalayam, Semur and Vairapalayam landfill sites in Erode city, Tamil Nadu, India, to study the possible impact of leachate percolation on groundwater quality. Concentrations of various physicochemical parameters including heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Fe and Zn) were determined in leachate samples and are reported. The concentrations of Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, NH4+ were found to be in considerable levels in the groundwater samples particularly near to the landfill sites, likely indicating that groundwater quality is being significantly affected by leachate percolation. Further they were proved to be the tracers for groundwater contamination near Semur and Vendipalayam dumpyards. The presence of contaminants in groundwater particularly near the landfill sites warns its quality and thus renders the associated aquifer unreliable for domestic water supply and other uses. Although some remedial measures are suggested to reduce further groundwater contamination via leachate percolation, the present study demands for the proper management of waste in Erode city.

2012-01-01

65

Psychological Morbidity Status Among the Rural Geriatric Population of Tamil Nadu, India: A Cross-sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Mental health problems like depression, cognitive impairment, anxiety, sleep disorders, and so on, arising out of senility, neurosis, and living conditions are common in the geriatric population. Aims: To study the psychiatric morbidity among the rural elderly. Settings and Design: A community-based, cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted on 800 rural elderly subjects, aged 60 years and more, living in ten randomly selected villages, served by the Rural Health Training Center (RHTC), Valadi, in Tamilnadu state, India. Cognitive functioning was assessed by the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE), and the depression by the Geriatric Depression Scale — Shorter version. Statistical Analysis: The data was analyzed with SPSS 16 version statistical software using proportions, and the chi-square. Results: A majority of the subjects were widows / widowers, illiterates, living with family, and showing economic dependency. The prevalence of cognitive impairment was 43.25%, with a mean MMSE score of 23.32±4.4, and the depression was 47.0% and 6.16±3.4. Cognitive impairment, depression, and a disturbed sleep pattern were associated with female sex, age, illiteracy, poverty, loneliness, and the low socioeconomic status of the family. Conclusions: The study showed a definite association between the sociodemographic factors and psychiatric morbidity. Encouraging the Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) working for the elderly, running of separate geriatric clinics, and effective implementation of schemes like old age pension are some of the measures to be taken.

Reddy, N. Bayapa; Pallavi, M.; Reddy, N. Nagarjuna; Reddy, C. Sainarasimha; Singh, Rajiv Kumar; Pirabu, R. A.

2012-01-01

66

Quality Matters! Understanding the Relationship between Quality of Early Childhood Education and Learning Competencies of Children: An Exploratory Study in Tamil Nadu. Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that few studies have examined the relationship between quality of early childhood education (ECE) programs in India and the impact of such programs on young children's learning competencies, this study explored the relationship between various components of programs in the southeastern Indian state of Tamil Nadu and other family and…

M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation, Madras (India).

67

Quality Matters! Understanding the Relationship between Quality of Early Childhood Education and Learning Competencies of Children: An Exploratory Study in Tamil Nadu. Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Noting that few studies have examined the relationship between quality of early childhood education (ECE) programs in India and the impact of such programs on young children's learning competencies, this study explored the relationship between various components of programs in the southeastern Indian state of Tamil Nadu and other family and…

M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation, Madras (India).

68

Magmatic and metamorphic imprints in 2.9 Ga chromitites from the Sittampundi layered complex, Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ca. 2.9Ga old Sittampundi layered complex (SLC) of South India belongs to a special group of deformed and metamorphosed Archaean rocks where chromitites are interlayered with anorthosite. Detailed field studies have revealed that the SLC comprises of a sequence of magmatic rocks consisting of clinopyroxenite, anorthosite and mafic rocks of tholeiitic composition. Minor BIF (Banded Iron Formations) intercalated with

Upama Dutta; Uttam K. Bhui; Pulak Sengupta; Sanjoy Sanyal; D. Mukhopadhyay

2011-01-01

69

Characterising rice-based farming systems to identify opportunities for adopting water efficient cultivation methods in Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient water use in rice cultivation is a prerequisite for sustaining food security for the rice consuming population of India. Novel rice production practices, including water-saving techniques, modifications in transplanting, spacing, weeding and nutrient management, have been developed and shown to be effective on farm, but adoption of these techniques by farmers has remained restricted. Potential constraints include technical difficulties

K. Senthilkumar; P. S. Bindraban; W. de Boer; N. de Ridder; T. M. Thiyagarajan; K. E. Giller

2009-01-01

70

PEST SUSCEPTIBILITY OF TECTONA GRANDIS UNDER INTENSIVE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN INDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

VARMA, R. V., SAJEEV, T. V. & SUDHEENDRAKUMAR, V. V. 2007. Pest susceptibility of Tectona grandis under intensive management practices in India. The pest complex associated with intensively managed teak plantations was studied in the states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh in India. Pests encountered in teak plantations in forest areas such as Hyblaea puera, Eutectona machaeralis and Sahyadrassus

R. V. Varma; T. V. Sajeev; V. V. Sudheendrakumar

71

Cancer pattern and survival in a rural district in South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cancer pattern data are rare and survival data are none from rural districts of India. Methods: The Dindigul Ambilikkai Cancer Registry (DACR) covering rural population of 2 millions in Dindigul district, Tamil Nadu state, South India, registered 4516 incident cancers during 2003–2006 by active case finding from 102 data sources for studying incidence pattern, of which, 1045 incident cancers

Rajaraman Swaminathan; Ramanujam Selvakumaran; Pulikattil Okkuru Esmy; P. Sampath; Jacques Ferlay; Vinoda Jissa; Viswanathan Shanta; Mary Cherian; Rengaswamy Sankaranarayanan

2009-01-01

72

PREVALENCE OF ERGOT OF SORGHUM IN INDIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

On-farm sorghum ergot surveys were conducted in India in 1999, 2000 and 2001. A seven state area was surveyed including 250 fields in Andhra Pradesh, 451 fields in Karnataka, 413 fields in Maharashtra, 127 fields in Tamil Nadu, 3 in Rajasthan, 10 in Uttar Pradesh, and 1 in Gujarat. Ergot incidence ...

73

Pathways of calcrete development on weathered silicate rocks in Tamil Nadu, India: Mineralogy, chemistry and paleoenvironmental implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poorly documented yet spectacularly thick and extensive outcrops of calcrete hardpan occur on gneiss in the semiarid region of Coimbatore, South India. The hardpan caps a series of residual plateaux forming the present-day continental divide and grades into large expanses of Vertisols. Characteristic calcrete and Vertisol profiles were logged along toposequences and sampled for macro- and micromorphological study, and for chemical and mineralogical composition. Strontium isotopic analyses revealed that the calcrete is derived from in situ weathering of Ca-bearing primary minerals of the saprolite, which is rich in ankerite, Ca-amphiboles and Ca-plagioclase. The macroscale analysis revealed a range of facies developed within the gneiss saprolite, but in terms of relative chronology the nodular hardpan has the longest history. Two evolutionary pathways leading to nodular hardpan formation have been established. The first occurs entirely within a vadose environment, whereas the second begins within a phreatic environment before continuing to develop in vadose conditions. The ability to identify and map these generic categories of calcrete constitutes a potential tool for reconstructing paleotopography and paleogroundwater levels. The bedrock-weathering-derived nodular hardpan is blanketed by a laminar facies that correlates with an eolian event with marine Sr signatures. This suggests influx of Ca dust from the Arabian Sea continental shelf during a Pleistocene sea-level low-stand. It defines an important benchmark in the chronology of the area and highlights the potential antiquity of the thick calcrete profiles.

Durand, N.; Gunnell, Y.; Curmi, P.; Ahmad, S. M.

2006-11-01

74

Macrobenthic communities of the Vellar Estuary in the Bay of Bengal in Tamil-Nadu in South India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The macrobenthic fauna and communities of the Vellar Estuary located at the southeast cost of India (11°30' N, 79°45' E) and the adjacent marine and river habitats are described on the basis of original data (70 samples over 10 transects). The fauna consists of 115 macrobenthic species and 79 species in estuarine habitats. We described 14 types of macrobenthic communities with different compositions of the dominant species. The leading ecological factors of the distribution of the communities are the salinity, depth, and bottom type. The Vellar estuary consists of two longitudinal zones of macrobenthos. The polyhalinic area is populated by the marine species, but it is related not to a salinity decrease but to the protection from waves and silt on the bottom in this area. The polyhalinic communities are most abundant in terms of the biomass and species richness. The mesohalinic area is inhabited by brackish water species and communities with low abundance. The sublittoral estuarine area is dominated by filter-feeders—the bivalves Crassostrea madrasensis, Meretrix casta, Modiolus metcalfei, and Scapharca inaequivalves—and the littoral zone is dominated by the gastropods Cerithidea cingulata, some crabs, and polychaetes. The ecosystem function of the Vellar estuary can be defined as a filter for the fine organic particles transported by the river.

Chertoprud, M. V.; Chertoprud, E. S.; Saravanakumar, A.; Thangaradjou, T.; Mazei, Yu. A.

2013-03-01

75

A Long-Lived Enriched Mantle Source for Two Proterozoic Carbonatite Complexes from Tamil Nadu, Southern India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report new neodymium and strontium isotopic data for two Proterozoic carbonatites and related alkalic rocks, at Hogenakal and Sevathur in southern India. These complexes were emplaced into the crust at 2.4 Ga (Hogenakal) and 0.77 Ga (Sevathur). Their initial strontium and neodymium isotopic compositions, together with oxygen isotope data, suggest the involvement of a single long-lived enriched mantle source in their origin. The isotopic evolution of this source indicates that it formed approximately contemporaneously with the accretion and metamorphism of the overlying crust at the southern margin of the Dharwar craton and survived convective disruption in the mantle from early Proterozoic until at least 770 Ma ago. The older of the two carbonatites was intruded into young crust that was not older than about 150 Ma at the time of emplacement. The isotopic data contrast with those from carbonatites of the Canadian Shield, for which isotopic evidence also suggests origin from a long-lived lithospheric source, but one with a depleted chemical signature. They, therefore, indicate that there is no geochemically unique lithospheric source for carbonatites.

Kumar, Anil; Charan, S. Nirmal; Gopalan, K.; Macdougall, J. D.

1998-02-01

76

Assessment of water contribution on total fluoride intake of various age groups of people in fluoride endemic and non-endemic areas of Dindigul District, Tamil Nadu, South India.  

PubMed

The prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the intake of large quantities of fluoride through water. It is necessary to determine the contribution of water used for drinking and food processing and other diet sources on daily fluoride intake for finding the ways to reduce the excess fluoride intake than the minimum safe level intake of 0.05 mg/kg/day. The main objectives of this study are to determine the quantitative impact of water through drinking and cooking of food and beverages on total fluoride intake as well as to estimate the contribution of commonly consumed diet sources on total fluoride intake. Contribution of water on daily fluoride intake and estimation of total fluoride intake through the diet sources were accomplished through analysis of fluoride in drinking water, solid and liquid food items, Infant formulae, tea and coffee infusions using fluoride ion selective electrode. Determination of incidence of fluorosis in different fluoride endemic areas in Dindigul District of Tamil Nadu, South India is achieved through clinical survey. The percentage of daily fluoride intake through water is significantly higher for infants than children, adults and old age groups of people. The percentile scores of fluoride intake through water from drinking and cooking increases with increase of water fluoride level. The rate of prevalence of fluorosis is higher in adolescent girls and females than adolescent boys and males residing in high fluoride endemic areas. More than 60% of the total fluoride intake per day derived from water used for drinking and food processing. Hence the people residing in the fluoride endemic areas in Dindigul District of Tamil Nadu, South India are advised to take serious concern about the fluoride level of water used for drinking and cooking to avoid further fluorosis risks. PMID:20728198

Viswanathan, Gopalan; Gopalakrishnan, S; Siva Ilango, S

2010-07-23

77

Zircon mineral trace element chemistry as a function of metamorphic grade along a traverse of lower Archean crust, Tamil Nadu, south India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trends in whole-rock and mineral chemistry are seen along a 95 km traverse of lower Archean granitic orthogneissic crust, in the Eastern Dharwar Craton, Tamil Nadu, south India (Hansen and Harlov 2007 J Petrol 48, 1641). Going from north (amphibolite facies) to south (granulite-facies) along the traverse, chemical trends include whole-rock depletion of Rb, Cs, Th, and U; enrichment in Ti and F with depletion in Fe and Mn in biotite and amphibole; increases in Al with decreases in Mn in orthopyroxene; and enrichment of fluorapatite in F coupled with depletion in Cl. In the northern most portion of the traverse the principal REE-bearing minerals are allanite and titanite. South of a clinopyroxene isograd, separating the granulite- and amphibolite-facies zones, monazite grains independent of fluorapatite are the major REE- and Th-bearing phase. Further south independent monazite is rare but Th-free monazite inclusions are common in fluorapatite. During prograde metamorphism, independent monazite was replaced by REE-rich fluorapatite in which the monazite inclusions later formed. The loss of independent monazite was accompanied by a loss of whole-rock Th and possibly a small depletion in LREE. Zircon grains along the traverse preserve domains of magmatic zoning with ages between ca. 2.70Ga and 2.55Ga, recording the emplacement of granitic protoliths. Magmatic zircon was modified during metamorphism in two distinct ways: (i) zircon along cracks, growth zones and margins is replaced by U-enriched zircon, commonly with abundant silicate inclusions; and (ii) grain margins are dissolved and overgrown by faceted rims of U and Th depleted zircon. Type (i) replacement textures are variably found in samples along the whole traverse, whereas type (ii) overgrowths appear near the clinopyroxene isograd and increase in proportion to the original protolith zircon southwards, such that most samples in the southern half of the traverse contain only minor remnants of protolith zircon relative to overgrowth zircon. Thorium and U contents of magmatic zircon do not have simple relationships to whole-rock Th-U-Zr contents, or to either type of metamorphic zircon. Instead, high U - low Th compositions of type (i) zircon may reflect equilibration with Th-bearing phases at amphibolite to lower granulite-facies conditions, whereas type (ii) low U - low Th overgrowths reflect whole-rock depletion in Th and U (but not Zr). Ages for type (ii) overgrowths cluster around 2.5Ga, similar to those obtained for identical zircon from the southern margin of the Eastern Dharwar Craton (Clark et al. 2009, Gondwana Res. 16, 27), whereas ages from type (i) zircon scatter towards protolith ages, consistent with partial resetting through recrystallisation of magmatic zircon. Whole-rock U-Th-Zr compositions are decoupled from magmatic zircon, and coupled with type (ii) overgrowths, demonstrating that chemical changes along the traverse were produced during metamorphism, rather than reflecting differences in the protoliths. Most mineralogical features along the traverse can be accounted for by progressive dehydration and oxidation reactions. Trace element depletion is best explained by the action of externally derived low-H2O activity brine migrating from a source at greater depth, possibly preceded or accompanied by partial melting.

Harlov, Daniel; Dunkley, Daniel; Hansen, Edward; Hokada, Tomokazu

2010-05-01

78

Partners in Democracy: India and the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background on the historical connections between India and the United States and compares their political systems. Offers a number of learning activities designed to promote better understanding between India and the United States. (BSR)

Turkovich, Marilyn

1987-01-01

79

Food Security of Small Holding Farmers: Comparing Organic and Conventional Systems in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared farm production, crop yield, input cost, and income in organic and conventional farming systems in three states of India: Uttarakhand, Madhya Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu. The results showed that organic farming reduced the input cost without affecting the net margin in all three states. Total food production was found to be comparable for the two systems in

P. Panneerselvam; John Erik Hermansen; Niels Halberg

2010-01-01

80

Understanding public drug procurement in India: a comparative qualitative study of five Indian states  

PubMed Central

Objective To perform an initial qualitative comparison of the different procurement models in India to frame questions for future research in this area; to capture the finer differences between the state models through 53 process and price parameters to determine their functional efficiencies. Design Qualitative analysis is performed for the study. Five states: Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Odisha, Punjab and Maharashtra were chosen to ensure heterogeneity in a number of factors such as procurement type (centralised, decentralised or mixed); autonomy of the procurement organisation; state of public health infrastructure; geography and availability of data through Right to Information Act (RTI). Data on procurement processes were collected through key informant analysis by way of semistructured interviews with leadership teams of procuring organisations. These process data were validated through interviews with field staff (stakeholders of district hospitals, taluk hospitals, community health centres and primary health centres) in each state. A total of 30 actors were interviewed in all five states. The data collected are analysed against 52 process and price parameters to determine the functional efficiency of the model. Results The analysis indicated that autonomous procurement organisations were more efficient in relation to payments to suppliers, had relatively lower drug procurement prices and managed their inventory more scientifically. Conclusions The authors highlight critical success factors that significantly influence the outcome of any procurement model. In a way, this study raises more questions and seeks the need for further research in this arena to aid policy makers.

Singh, Prabal Vikram; Tatambhotla, Anand; Kalvakuntla, Rohini; Chokshi, Maulik

2013-01-01

81

Cracker planned in India`s Karnataka State  

SciTech Connect

The Indian government has issued a letter of intent to Karnataka State Industrial Investment & Development Corp. for the manufacture of 300,000 m.t./year of ethylene, 150,000 m.t./year of propylene, 50,000 m.t./year of butadiene, and 65,000 m.t./year of benzene. The project is likely to cost $1 billion and to be built on the western coast of Karnataka. Engineers India Ltd. has been appointed consultant and will carry out the feasibility study. KSIIDC is inviting offers from Western companies to help with the cracker and downstream projects, which are also likely to include facilities to produce linear low- and high-density polyethylene, polypropylene, and polyvinyl chloride.

NONE

1995-11-15

82

Computerized database of salt affected soils for Peninsular India using GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computerized database of salt affected soils was prepared for five states – Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Orissa – based on the analogue maps of the National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA), Hyderabad, India. The salt affected soil maps at 1:250,000 scale were georeferenced and digitized to prepare the digital polygons of salt affected soils using ILWIS software.

A. K. Mandal; R. C. Sharma

2009-01-01

83

Wind power technology diffusion analysis in selected states of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory of diffusion of innovation is used to study the growth of wind power technology in different states of India. Though the policies of the central government of India encouraged growth of the wind power sectors, individual states had varying policy measures which influenced the rates of diffusion in wind energy in different states. The state level data of

K. Usha Rao; V. V. N. Kishore

2009-01-01

84

Assessing effect of climate on the incidence of dengue in Tamil Nadu.  

PubMed

Incidence of dengue is reported to be influenced by climatic factors. The objective of this study is to assess the association of local climate with dengue incidence, in two geographically distinct districts in Tamil Nadu. The study uses climate data, rainfall and mean maximum and minimum temperature to assess its association if any, with dengue incidence in two districts of Tamil Nadu, South India. According to this study while precipitation levels have an effect on dengue incidence in Tamil Nadu, non-climatic factors such as presence of breeding sites, vector control and surveillance are important issues that need to be addressed. PMID:23883717

Chandy, S; Ramanathan, K; Manoharan, A; Mathai, D; Baruah, K

85

Pharmacy and self-report adherence measures to predict virological outcomes for patients on free antiretroviral therapy in Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

Over 480,000 individuals receive free antiretroviral therapy (ART) in India yet data associating ART adherence with HIV viral load for populations exclusively receiving free ART are not available. Additionally estimates of adherence using pharmacy data on ART pick-up are not available for any population in India. After 12-months ART we found self-reported estimates of adherence were not associated with HIV viral load. Individuals with <100% adherence using pharmacy data predicted HIV viral load, and estimates combining pharmacy data and self-report were also predictive. Pharmacy adherence measures proved a feasible method to estimate adherence in India and appear more predictive of virological outcomes than self-report. Predictive adherence measures identified in this study warrant further investigation in populations receiving free ART in India to allow for identification of individuals at risk of virological failure and in need of adherence support. PMID:23435750

McMahon, James H; Manoharan, Anand; Wanke, Christine A; Mammen, Shoba; Jose, Hepsibah; Malini, Thabeetha; Kadavanu, Tony; Jordan, Michael R; Elliott, Julian H; Lewin, Sharon R; Mathai, Dilip

2013-07-01

86

Marital Status, Family Ties, and Self-rated Health Among Elders In South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the impact of familial social support ties (indicated by marital status, kin availability, sources of\\u000a economic support, and frequency and quality of emotional interaction) on subjective health perception among a sample of elderly\\u000a men and women aged 60 and older in South India. We used 1993 survey data from three states of South India: Kerala, Tamil Nadu,

S. Sudha; Chirayath Suchindran; Elizabeth J. Mutran; S. Irudaya Rajan; P. Sankara Sarma

2006-01-01

87

Empowerment of Fisher Women of Siluvaipatti Fishing Village of Tuticorin, Southeast Coast of India through Adult Education and ICT Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper focuses on adult education and information and communication technologies (ICT) training to fisherwomen of Siluvaipatti fishing village in Tuticorin district of Tamil Nadu State, southeastern India. The total families in this village are 209 with population 899 (Male: 442; Female: 457). The education level is generally good in…

Patterson, Jamila; Linden, Eva; Bierbrier, Christin; Lofgren, Inger; Wilhelmsson, Dan; Edward, J. K. Patterson

2008-01-01

88

ROLE OF 2,4-DIACETYLPHLOROGLUCINOL FOR PLANT DISEASE CONTROL: ITS IMPORTANCE TO RICE BACTERIAL BLIGHT SUPPRESSION IN INDIA.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We have used established methods for assembling and characterizing plant-associated bacteria from parts of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu states of India. This present investigation is on Pseudomonas strains as biocontrol agents of bacterial blight of rice but the emph...

89

Empowerment of Fisher Women of Siluvaipatti Fishing Village of Tuticorin, Southeast Coast of India through Adult Education and ICT Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on adult education and information and communication technologies (ICT) training to fisherwomen of Siluvaipatti fishing village in Tuticorin district of Tamil Nadu State, southeastern India. The total families in this village are 209 with population 899 (Male: 442; Female: 457). The education level is generally good in…

Patterson, Jamila; Linden, Eva; Bierbrier, Christin; Lofgren, Inger; Wilhelmsson, Dan; Edward, J. K. Patterson

2008-01-01

90

Book Review: The United States and India: A History through Archives The Later Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States and India: A History through Archives: The Later Years (Volume 1 and Volume 2) addresses a cycle of topics chronologically related to the identity and relationship between the United States and India during the Cold War. Multilevel issues and themes such as US economic assistance to the developing world, India’s leaders, the 1962 war, India’s food and

Daniel Baldino

2012-01-01

91

Nonsecessionist regionalism in India: the Uttarakhand separate State movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of regionalism in India have tended to concentrate on the secessionist struggles in Kashmir and Punjab, and on centre - State relations within the federal union. An issue which has received far less attention has been that of nonsecessionist regionalism -- the various demands for the creation of new smaller States within India. The persistent tendency of the centre

E Mawdsley

1997-01-01

92

Private Sector in the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme: A Study of the Implementation of Private-Public Partnership Strategy in Tamil Nadu and Kerala (India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past one decade, the concept of Public-Private Partnership (PPP) has gained much prominence in healthcare sector in India. The foremost objective of such partnerships has been to improve the accessibility and quality of health care at relatively low costs. To control the spread of Tuberculosis (TB), the World Health Organisation (WHO) has promoted the strategy of Directly Observed

Stephen Jan; Vangal R Muraleedharan; Sonia Andrews; Bhuvaneswari Rajaraman

2010-01-01

93

A study on hydrochemical characteristics of surface and sub-surface water in and around Perumal Lake, Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu, South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogeochemical investigations are carried out in and around Perumal Lake, Cuddalore district, South India in order to assess\\u000a its suitability in relation to domestic and agricultural uses. The water samples (surface water = 16; groundwater = 12) were\\u000a analyzed for various physicochemical attributes like pH, electrical conductivity (EC), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), chloride (Cl?), bicarbonate (HCO3\\u000a ?), sulfate (SO4\\u000a 2?),

M. V. Prasanna; S. Chidambaram; T. V. Gireesh; T. V. Jabir Ali

2011-01-01

94

India's Military Aviation Market: Opportunities for the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

What are India's future aviation requirements and what political, military, and economic opportunities do they present to the United States. Three factors are important in understanding these two phenomena: * Indian policy makers are beginning to think in...

A. Gupta

2009-01-01

95

Maxillofacial trauma in Tamil Nadu children and adolescents: A retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim of this retrospective study is to describe the incidence, aetiology, complexity and surgical indications of maxillofacial injuries in children and adolescents population of Tamil Nadu state of india during period of 4 years. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was conducted among 500 children and adolescents patients of age group 6 years to 16 years suffered or suffering with maxillofacial and skull fractures presenting to ten Level I trauma centers over a 4 year period.The data collected for this study included age, gender, etiology, associated maxillofacial trauma, anatomic site of fracture and treatment. Results and Conclusion: In our study the most common cause of trauma was traffic 35%, followed by falls 24% and sports 22%. Mandible was commenest bone prone to fracture, followed by maxilla and nasal bone. Mandible fractures accounted for 72% of all maxillofacial fractures.

Arvind, Ramraj Jayabalan; Narendar, Ramesh; Kumar, Palanisamy Dinesh; Venkataraman, Sivasubramaniam; Gokulanathan, Subramanium

2013-01-01

96

Burden of malaria in pregnancy in Jharkhand State, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Past studies in India included only symptomatic pregnant women and thus may have overestimated the proportion of women with malaria. Given the large population at risk, a cross sectional study was conducted in order to better define the burden of malaria in pregnancy in Jharkhand, a malaria-endemic state in central-east India. METHODS: Cross-sectional surveys at antenatal clinics and delivery

Davidson H Hamer; Mrigendra P Singh; Blair J Wylie; Kojo Yeboah-Antwi; Jordan Tuchman; Meghna Desai; Venkatachalam Udhayakumar; Priti Gupta; Mohamad I Brooks; Manmohan M Shukla; Kiran Awasthy; Lora Sabin; William B MacLeod; Aditya P Dash; Neeru Singh

2009-01-01

97

The Gendered Nature of Disasters: Women Survivors in Post-Tsunami Tamil Nadu  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impacts of disasters rarely reveal themselves equally across an affected population. Rather, the extent of impact is determined by social constructs, such as religion, caste, socioeconomic status and most notably, gender, which cuts across all of these spheres. This article focuses on the variable of gender and the role it played in post-tsunami Tamil Nadu, India. In particular, gender

Luke Juran

2012-01-01

98

Analysis of impacts of wind integration in the Tamil Nadu grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the share of wind in power systems increases, it is important to assess the impact on the grid. This paper combines analysis of load and generation characteristics, generation adequacy and base and peak load variations to assess the future role of wind generation. A simulation of Tamil Nadu in India, with a high penetration of wind power (27% by

Mel George; Rangan Banerjee

2009-01-01

99

[India within World History.] Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997 (India).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents slide narration to accompany eight separate units on India to be used in World History classes or other areas across the curriculum. Units include: (1) "Religion: India's Diverse Temples and Sacred Places"; (2) "Styles of Dress: Shimla to Kerala"; (3) "Traditional Dance in India"; (4) "South India: Kerala & Tamil Nadu"; (5)…

Bragdon, Ann E.

100

[India within World History.] Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997 (India).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents slide narration to accompany eight separate units on India to be used in World History classes or other areas across the curriculum. Units include: (1) "Religion: India's Diverse Temples and Sacred Places"; (2) "Styles of Dress: Shimla to Kerala"; (3) "Traditional Dance in India"; (4) "South India: Kerala & Tamil Nadu"; (5)…

Bragdon, Ann E.

101

Land Cover Mapping in Parts of South Gujarat and Tamil Nadu States of India Using Bhaskara-I TV Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Various projects were formulated for the utilisation of the Bhaskara TV data by the user agencies in collaboration with the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). A number of application are as like land use, snow cover, geology, geomorphology etc., w...

A. R. Dasgupta I. C. Matieda S. D. Naik K. L. Majumdar J. S. Parihar

1982-01-01

102

Persistence of Azoxystrobin in\\/on Grapes and Soil in Different Grapes Growing Areas of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistence of azoxystrobin was studied in\\/on grapes when applied @ 150 g ai ha?1 (recommended dose) and 300 g ai ha?1 (double the recommended dose) in three grapes growing states of India, namely Karnataka, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu, in the\\u000a year 2006–2007. A total of five sprays were given at an interval of about 15 days. Grapes and soil samples were collected\\u000a after 5th spray,

Vijay Tularam Gajbhiye; Suman Gupta; Irani Mukherjee; Shashi Bala Singh; Neera Singh; Prem Dureja; Yogesh Kumar

2011-01-01

103

Water Management To Meet Challenges In Food Production ­ An Example From South India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Demands for food and water have been increasing with fast increasing population in many developing countries. Availability of water and fertile land, the two basic requirements for food production do not meet together in certain regions. In such regions, cooperation and efficient management practices can solve the problem to a good extend. The southern states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu of India are divided by the mountain chains, the Western Ghats the orography of which makes Kerala one among the heaviest rainfall region in the World itself and Tamil Nadu a scanty rainfall region. Kerala receives more than 300cm average annual rainfall, giving birth to a number of perennial rivers and other water bodies whereas Tamil Nadu receives rainfall less than100cm. Most of the rivers of Tamil Nadu are seasonal and it depends on interstate water transfer to face the permanent water shortage. Owing to the high density of population, peculiar topography and soil types, agricultural production in Kerala is quite inadequate and the State depends on neighbouring States, especially Tamil Nadu for rice and vegetables, but not willing to share water. According to the Constitution of India, control of rivers is by individual states and this often leads to transboundary water disputes that retard development activities. Around 80% of the rainfall of Kerala wastefully flows into the Sea, when there is acute water shortage in Tamil Nadu. All the rivers in Kerala originate in the Ghats and its steep slopes makes more water storage difficult. Cooperation among the States become essential for meeting the increasing needs in water and food. If some of the water from the catchments in Kerala is diverted into Tamil Nadu, and the States can do joint agriculture, it can meet the challenges due to increase in population and environmental changes and minimize unemployment problems. Water diversion to Tamil Naduwill reduce flood damage and soil erosion in Kerala. The existing socio-economic conditions in these States can be effectively utilised for the overall development. The present research paper is an assessment of the water and food situation in this region, in view of increasing needs associated with rise in population and change in environment. Detailed analysis of the water surpluses and deficiencies has been made using water balance model and suggestions for the better management have been presented.

Shadananan, K.

104

3 CFR - Certifications Pursuant to the United States-India Nuclear Cooperation Approval and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Certifications Pursuant to the United States-India Nuclear Cooperation Approval and Nonproliferation...Certifications Pursuant to the United States-India Nuclear Cooperation Approval and Nonproliferation...section 204(a) of the United States-India Nuclear Cooperation Approval and...

2009-01-01

105

78 FR 65290 - Request for Applicants for the Appointment to the United States-India CEO Forum  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Applicants for the Appointment to the United States- India CEO Forum AGENCY: Global Markets, International...2005, the Governments of the United States and India established the U.S.-India CEO Forum. On February 10, 2012, we...

2013-10-31

106

Molecular Characterization of Geographically Different Banana bunchy top virus Isolates in India.  

PubMed

Banana bunchy top disease (BBTD) caused by Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is one of the most devastating diseases of banana and poses a serious threat for cultivars like Hill Banana (Syn: Virupakshi) and Grand Naine in India. In this study, we have cloned and sequenced the complete genome comprised of six DNA components of BBTV infecting Hill Banana grown in lower Pulney hills, Tamil Nadu State, India. The complete genome sequence of this hill banana isolate showed high degree of similarity with the corresponding sequences of BBTV isolates originating from Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh State, India, and from Fiji, Egypt, Pakistan, and Australia. In addition, sixteen coat protein (CP) and thirteen replicase genes (Rep) sequences of BBTV isolates collected from different banana growing states of India were cloned and sequenced. The replicase sequences of 13 isolates showed high degree of similarity with that of South Pacific group of BBTV isolates. However, the CP gene of BBTV isolates from Shervroy and Kodaikanal hills of Tamil Nadu showed higher amino acid sequence variability compared to other isolates. Another hill banana isolate from Meghalaya state had 23 nucleotide substitutions in the CP gene but the amino acid sequence was conserved. This is the first report of the characterization of a complete genome of BBTV occurring in the high altitudes of India. Our study revealed that the Indian BBTV isolates with distinct geographical origins belongs to the South Pacific group, except Shervroy and Kodaikanal hill isolates which neither belong to the South Pacific nor the Asian group. PMID:23637489

Selvarajan, R; Mary Sheeba, M; Balasubramanian, V; Rajmohan, R; Dhevi, N Lakshmi; Sasireka, T

2011-01-06

107

Tamil Nadu Rainfall Behaviour: Chaotic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper considers the possibility of making a qualitative test on Tamil Nadu rainfall data for chaos from a simple nonlinearity test . we have employed the surrogate data method which gives information on the significance of amount of non linearity involved in a time series data. We have calculated the Lyapunov exponent for the surrogate data and the original data . The distinct results obtained from both the surrogate data and the original data implies that the time series under consideration is chaotic.

Joice, G. Helen Ruth

2012-06-01

108

Tanks of South India (A Potential for Future Expansion in Irrigation).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The potential for modernizing and improving tank (small reservoir) irrigation in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu is assessed. After reviewing tank irrigation in Tamil Nadu and the problems affecting its performance, the report examines irrigation in the dr...

K. Palanisami K. W. Easter

1983-01-01

109

Evidence for CO2-Rich Fluids in Rocks from the Type Charnockite Area Near Pallavaram, Tamil Nadu.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fluid inclusion and mineral chemistry data was presented for samples from the type charnockite area near Pallavaram (Tamil Nadu, India). The results indicate the presence of a dense CO2 fluid phase, but the data cannot distinguish between influx of this f...

E. Hansen W. Hunt S. C. Jacob K. Morden R. Reddi

1988-01-01

110

Health Beliefs of College Students Born in the United States, China, and India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors surveyed 243 urban public university students who were born in the United States, China, and India to compare the health beliefs of the China-born, India-born, and US-born students. Although the China- and India-born students shared beliefs in many preventive and therapeutic practices of Western medicine with the US-born students,…

Rothstein, William G.; Rajapaksa, Sushama

2003-01-01

111

India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This text examines India's rich and long history, then uses this perspective to focus on present day problems and aspirations. It forces students to reevaluate their stereotyped images of India by presenting a nation that has striven to recover from a past of colonial domination, is presently faced with regional ethnic discord and disparity, and…

Semaan, Leslie

112

A SET OF POPULATION PROJECTIONS OF INDIA AND THE LARGER STATES BASED ON 2001 CENSUS RESULTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This note gives the underlying assumptions and results derived from a population projection exercise undertaken at the Population Foundation of India to study the ranges of population sizes and their demographic characteristics facing India and the 15 larger states based on the recently announced results of 2001 census. These 15 larger states each with more than 20 million population in

K. Srinivasan; V. D. Shastri

113

Parenting Attitudes of Asian Indian Mothers Living in the United States and in India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Compared parenting attitudes of Asian Indian mothers living in the United States with those of mothers living in India. Found that the Asian Indian mothers in the United States had lower inappropriate expectations and tended not to reverse roles with their children. Asian Indian mothers living in India favored the use of corporal punishment more…

Jambunathan, Saigeetha; Counselman, Kenneth P.

2002-01-01

114

Village Forest Councils: Emerging rural institutions in Tamilnadu state of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tamilnadu, a southern state of India, has embarked upon a community involvement process to restock its forests through an Indian version of community forestry called Joint Forest Management. Tamilnadu Forestry Project, funded for US$200 million by the Japan Bank for International Cooperation was launched in 1997-1998 in this state of India and has evolved into a comprehensive poverty alleviation programme

K. K. Kaushal

2009-01-01

115

Design and implementation of telemedicine network in a sub Himalayan State of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geography of India is diverse in nature. The Himalayan mountain range separate Nepal, Bhutan and China from India. Out of 10 hill states 3 are in the North and 7 are in the North Eastern region. Uttaranchal state is one of them located in the northern sub-himalayan region bordering Nepal and China. Basic health services do not reach to

Kartar Singh; Lily Kapoor; Rajesh Basnet; Repu Daman Chand; Sandeep Singh; Pankaj Joshi; M. Semwal; Durgapal; K. S. Negi; R. Shah; S. K. Mishra

2006-01-01

116

India  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The fundamental ethical principles that govern the practice of genetic medicine are patient autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence,\\u000a and justice. In India and other developing countries the application of these principles is influenced by poverty and numerous\\u000a social factors. Table 1 compares the demographic indicators in India with those in Thailand, Japan, US, and UK (UNICEF, 1998). It emphasizes the huge population

I. C. Verma; Kusum Verma

117

Rural Infrastructure, the Settlement System, and Development of the Regional Economy in Southern India.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study couples economic theory on consumer behavior with geographic theory on spatial organization to provide insight on rural infrastructure policy in the North Arcot District of Tamil Nadu, India. It finds that available and accessible services help ...

S. Wanmali

1992-01-01

118

India's archive of past massive erosional events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami event devastated a number of major coastal regions in South Asia, including the Tamil Nadu coast of India. In many areas on the east coast of India, distinct deposits of tsunami sands drape the landscape and overlie the muddy deposits of the coastal plain. Using erosional, as well as depositional features of the 2004 tsunami as proxy for past events, we present new subsurface evidence of past erosional events along the south-east coast of India.

Nair, R. R.

2009-12-01

119

Status of women in India: a comparison by state.  

PubMed

Reformers in India have worked since the late 19th century to abolish practices such as the patriarchal joint-family system, the structure of property ownership, early marriage, and the self-immolation of widows which have been detrimental to the development of women. As a result, independent India has taken steps to protect the rights and equality of women. In order to analyze the objective status of women, secondary data were used to make 1) interstate comparisons, 2) intrastate comparisons with the status of men, and 3) comparisons in relation to overall development. Data from the early 1980s were analyzed from the 14 states which had a population of 10 million or more. 7 variables describe educational status, 3 are employment indicators, 2 are health indicators, 3 are demographic indicators, and 13 represent various aspects of development. The taxonomic method designed by Polish mathematicians in 1952 was used to rank states on the basis of each of the indicators. This method allows the determination of homogeneous units in an n-dimensional space without using such statistical tools as regression, variance, and correlation. It was found that the status indicators resulted in similar rankings for males and females in many states, but that in some states (Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, and Uttar Pradesh) the health, employment, and educational status of women is low. These states also show a low ranking in overall development status, thus highlighting the direct link between the status of women and the level of development. This study leads to the question of whether women's status can be studied at the macro level using macro-level data. If this is possible, then the lack of significant differences found in the present study either indicates that the indicators chosen did not reveal the differences or that, in fact, no differences exist. The observed direct link between ranks of development and status, however, indicates that what was read as status differences are simply differences in levels of development. In depth studies which focus on the self-perceptions of status of men and women as compared with macro-level analyses will be necessary to answer this question. PMID:12318843

Devi, D R

1993-12-01

120

Progress of School Education, Gender and Imbalances: The case of Uttaranchal state in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1990s described as Education For All or EFA decade in India witnessed unprecedented dynamism and policy determination in the spread of school education across rural India with attention to quality. Considering a state known for its historical lead in education as also its geographical constraints the paper finds considerable advance in infrastructure and access for rural population in Uttaranchal

Suresh Sharma; Nilabja Ghosh

121

Emotional Expression and Control in School-Age Children in India and the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study compared 6- to 9-year-old children's reports of their decisions to express anger, sadness, and physical pain; methods of controlling and communicating felt emotion; and reasons for doing so in response to hypothetical situations across three groups: old-city India (n = 60), suburban India (n = 60), and suburban United States (n…

Wilson, Stephanie L.; Raval, Vaishali V.; Salvina, Jennifer; Raval, Pratiksha H.; Panchal, Ila N.

2012-01-01

122

Globalization and Dalits: Changing Role and Nature of the India State  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of India gradually getting drawn into globalization is both on account of external global pressure and internal economic or social compulsions. It was true that in early 1980s when India went for external borrowing from the World Bank, it was partly due to the failure of the Indian state to cope with the claims and counter claims of

G. Haragopal

123

Burden of malaria in pregnancy in Jharkhand State, India  

PubMed Central

Background Past studies in India included only symptomatic pregnant women and thus may have overestimated the proportion of women with malaria. Given the large population at risk, a cross sectional study was conducted in order to better define the burden of malaria in pregnancy in Jharkhand, a malaria-endemic state in central-east India. Methods Cross-sectional surveys at antenatal clinics and delivery units were performed over a 12-month period at two district hospitals in urban and semi-urban areas, and a rural mission hospital. Malaria was diagnosed by Giemsa-stained blood smear and/or rapid diagnostic test using peripheral or placental blood. Results 2,386 pregnant women were enrolled at the antenatal clinics and 718 at the delivery units. 1.8% (43/2382) of the antenatal clinic cohort had a positive diagnostic test for malaria (53.5% Plasmodium falciparum, 37.2% Plasmodium vivax, and 9.3% mixed infections). Peripheral parasitaemia was more common in pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in rural sites (adjusted relative risk [aRR] 4.31, 95%CI 1.84-10.11) and in those who were younger than 20 years (aRR 2.68, 95%CI 1.03-6.98). Among delivery unit participants, 1.7% (12/717) had peripheral parasitaemia and 2.4% (17/712) had placental parasitaemia. Women attending delivery units were more likely to be parasitaemic if they were in their first or second pregnancy (aRR 3.17, 95%CI 1.32-7.61), had fever in the last week (aRR 5.34, 95%CI 2.89-9.90), or had rural residence (aRR 3.10, 95%CI 1.66-5.79). Malaria control measures including indoor residual spraying (IRS) and untreated bed nets were common, whereas insecticide-treated bed nets (ITN) and malaria chemoprophylaxis were rarely used. Conclusion The prevalence of malaria among pregnant women was relatively low. However, given the large at-risk population in this malaria-endemic region of India, there is a need to enhance ITN availability and use for prevention of malaria in pregnancy, and to improve case management of symptomatic pregnant women.

Hamer, Davidson H; Singh, Mrigendra P; Wylie, Blair J; Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo; Tuchman, Jordan; Desai, Meghna; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Gupta, Priti; Brooks, Mohamad I; Shukla, Manmohan M; Awasthy, Kiran; Sabin, Lora; MacLeod, William B; Dash, Aditya P; Singh, Neeru

2009-01-01

124

Enabling Housing Cooperatives: policy lessons from Sweden, India and the United States.  

PubMed

Housing cooperatives became active in urban areas in Sweden, India and the United States during the interwar period. Yet, after the second world war, while housing cooperatives grew phenomenally nationwide in Sweden and India, they did not do so in the United States. This article makes a comparative institutional analysis of the evolution of housing cooperatives in these three countries. The analysis reveals that housing cooperatives' relationship with the state and the consequent support structures explain the divergent evolution. Although the relationships between cooperatives and the state evolved over time, they can be characterized as embedded autonomy, overembeddedness and disembeddedness in Sweden, India and the United States respectively. Whereas the consequent support structures for housing cooperatives became well developed in Sweden and India, such structures have been weak in the United States. The article highlights the need for embedded autonomy and the need for supportive structures to enable the growth of housing cooperatives. PMID:20726147

Ganapati, Sukumar

2010-01-01

125

ACUTE NON-ORGANIC PSYCHOTIC STATE IN INDIA: SYMPTOMATOLOGY  

PubMed Central

Patients with acute onset, non-organic psychotic states are frequently reported from India and certain other developing countries. This paper relates to an investigation of such cases in terms of their clinical history and their symptomatology examining the extent to which these are similar /dissimilar to schizophrenia and affective psychosis. 109 cases of acute psychosis fulfilling specified screening criteria were assessed on the Schedule for Clinical Assessment Acute Psychotic States (SCAAPS) and Present Slate Examination (PSE). Vie findings revealed that about 34% of all patients experienced significant strees before the onset of psychosis. About 40% of all cases presented with Catego subtype which was not indicative clearly of a specific diagnostic category. This subgroup of patients differed from the remaining 60% of patient in having greater frequency of stress before the onset of psychosis. On the whole the delusions were more commonly seen in patients from upper socioeconomic status & urban background. Limitations of classificatory provisions in the ICD-9 and catego in dealing with acute psychotic state are highlighted.

Verma, Vijoy K.; Malhotra, Savita; Jiloha, Ram C.

1992-01-01

126

Impact of targeted interventions on heterosexual transmission of HIV in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Targeted interventions (TIs) have been a major strategy for HIV prevention in India. We evaluated the impact of TIs on HIV\\u000a prevalence in high HIV prevalence southern states (Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A quasi-experimental approach was used to retrospectively compare changes in HIV prevalence according to the intensity of\\u000a targeted intervention implementation. Condom gap (number of condoms

Rajesh Kumar; Sanjay M Mehendale; Samiran Panda; S Venkatesh; PVM Lakshmi; Manmeet Kaur; Shankar Prinja; Tarundeep Singh; Navkiran K Virdi; Pankaj Bahuguna; Arun K Sharma; Samiksha Singh; Sheela V Godbole; Arun Risbud; Boymkesh Manna; V Thirumugal; Tarun Roy; Ruchi Sogarwal; Nilesh D Pawar

2011-01-01

127

Application of Remote Sensing in the Study of the Soil Hazards of Haryana State, India.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Multispectral and multitemporal LANDSAT images of Haryana state (India) and of representative areas were interpreted to delineate the soil hazards and normal soils. The major soil hazards of different intensity levels identified are saline-alkali soils, w...

M. Singh V. P. Goyal

1986-01-01

128

IMPROVING BACKYARD POULTRY-KEEPING: A CASE STUDY FROM INDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A research project has been investigating the production problems facing backyard poultry-keepers in two locations in rural India, Udaipur District in Rajasthan and Trichy District in Tamil Nadu, and seeking to work with poultry- keepers to address some of them. Backyard poultry-keeping is a significant livelihood activity for many poor rural families in India, and for women in particular. A

Dinesh Shindey; L. R. Singh; A. Natarajan; K. Anitha

129

Soil Salinity in South India: Problems and Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil salinity is assuming menacing proportions for production of agricultural and horticultural crops in South India. South India comprises of Andhra Pradesh (AP), Tamil Nadu (TN), Karnataka, Kerala, Goa, and Islands in Bay of Bengal (Andaman and Nicobar) and Arabian Sea (Lakshadweep). It comprises central uplands, Deccan plateau (Karnataka plateau and Telangana plateau of AP), Nilgiri hills of TN, South

G. Swarajyalakshmi; P. Gurumurthy; G. V. Subbaiah

2003-01-01

130

Social capital as a product of class mobilization and state intervention: Industrial workers in Kerala, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that state intervention and class mobilization in the state of Kerala, India, have produced two forms of social capital. Kerala's high level of social development and successful; redistributive reforms are a direct result of mutually reinforcing interactions between a programmatic labor movement and a democratic state. This synergy between state and labor has also created the institutional

Patrick Heller

1996-01-01

131

India.  

PubMed

This discussion of India focuses on the following: the history of the country's demographic situation; the government's overall approach to population problems; population data systems and development planning; institutional arrangements for the integration of population with development planning; the government's view of the importance of population policy in achieving development objectives; population size, growth and natural increase; morbidity and mortality; fertility; international migration; and spatial distribution. India's government views the population problem in the country as extremely serious particularly in relation to the alleviation of poverty. It was the 1st country to introduce a family planning program at the national level. Development plans have consistently treated the population situation as a priority issue. A relatively comprehensive system of data collection for demographic purposes has existed in India for a long time. The 1st census was conducted in 1872. The government has continually worked to maintain the integration of population concerns within overall development planning. The government regards population growth as an impediment to development and views the slow growth in per capita income as being due largely to the rapid population increase which continues to outpace the increases in the gross national product. The government perceives the current rate of population growth as unsatisfactory because it is too high. Mortality levels have dropped considerably, but the government still considers the situation with regard to mortality as unacceptable. In 1980 the UN estimated the infant mortality rate was 128.9 infant deaths/1000 live births for the 1975-80 period. The total fertility rate, as estimated by the UN, is reported to have dropped from 6.3 births per woman in 1960 to 6.0 in 1970 and 5.0 in 1980. The government has continuously indicated concern with fertility levels, perceiving the situation as unsatisfactory because its levels are too high. The official policy of the government to reduce fertility levels has been in existence since 1951. Since independence the major flow of immigration has been from the neighboring countries of Pakistan and Bangladesh. The government considers the level and trend of immigration to be insignificant and satisfactory. There has continued to be a stream of emigration from the country since the 1950s, but this movement has not been large enough to be considered demographically significant. The government has expressed concern about the distribution of population within the national territory. It is particularly aware of the uneven development and the resultant economic disparities between and within regions. PMID:12264934

1982-10-01

132

CASSAVA AGRONOMY IN INDIA - LOW INPUT MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agronomic research on cassava in India during the past three decades was instrumental in the development of management practices that led to substantial increases in yield, mainly in Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Research efforts have recently focused on the development of low-input technologies with special emphasis on the identification of genotypes adapted to low-input conditions, the utilization of locally available

T. V. R. Nayar; G. Suja; K. Susan John; V. Ravi

133

Present status of renewable energy resources in Jammu and Kashmir State of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jammu and Kashmir State of India is one of the energy starved states despite of having tremendous potential for utilization of renewable energy. The natural energy sources like sunshine, wind, vegetation, water flow, biomass and other biological wastes are abundantly available in the state yet are not being potentially harnessed resulting in very low per capita energy availability forcing peoples

Shiv Kumar Lohan; Sushil Sharma

2012-01-01

134

Current knowledge on the distribution of arsenic in groundwater in five states of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Testing of groundwater used for drinking for arsenic has been undertaken more widely by state governments in several states of India in recent years with the support of UNICEF. Available data for five states are collated in this paper and this provides the most up-to-date picture of areas known to be affected by arsenic in groundwater in the Indian portion

R. Nickson; C. Sengupta; P. Mitra; S. N. Dave; A. K. Banerjee; A. Bhattacharya; S. Basu; N. Kakoti; N. S. Moorthy; M. Wasuja; M. Kumar; D. S. Mishra; A. Ghosh; D. P. Vaish; A. K. Srivastava; R. M. Tripathi; S. N. Singh; R. Prasad; S. Bhattacharya; P. Deverill

2007-01-01

135

Effects of State-level Public Spending on Health on the mortality Probability in India  

PubMed Central

This study uses the second National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2) of India to estimate the effect of state-level public health spending on mortality across all age groups, controlling for individual, household, and state-level covariates. We use a state’s gross fiscal deficit as an instrument for its health spending. Our study shows a 10 % increase in public spending on health in India decreases the average probability of death by about 2%, with effects mainly on the young, the elderly, and women. Other major factors affecting mortality are rural residence, household poverty, and access to toilet facilities.

Farahani, M; Subramanian, SV; Canning, D

2011-01-01

136

Prevalence and correlates of self-reported state of teeth among schoolchildren in Kerala, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Oral health status in India is traditionally evaluated using clinical indices. There is growing interest to know how subjective measures relate to outcomes of oral health. The aims of the study were to assess the prevalence and correlates of self-reported state of teeth in 12-year-old schoolchildren in Kerala, India. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey data were used. The sample consisted of

Jamil David; Anne N Åstrøm; Nina J Wang

2006-01-01

137

HBV prevalence, natural history, and treatment in India and Indian Americans in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

India is considered to be an intermediate area with respect to the prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (CHBV) infection.\\u000a Although CHBV prevalence in the United States is low, a growing incidence of this condition has been reported there, especially\\u000a in Asian Americans. Recent studies from India have highlighted the fact that a significant proportion of CHBV-infected patients\\u000a with normal

Shiv K. Sarin; Manoj Kumar

2009-01-01

138

Social justice and the demographic transition: lessons from India's Kerala State.  

PubMed

Kerala is a small, densely crowded state in South India. It is a poor state, even by Indian standards. Its per capita income of US$80 lies well below the all-India average of US$120, and it suffers from the lowest per capita caloric intake in India. Nevertheless, Kerala has managed to achieve the demographic transition from high (premodern) to low (modern) birth and death rates-something no other Indian state has been able to attain. Indeed, the magnitude of Kerala's fertility decline-the birth rate fell from 39 in 1961 to 26.5 in 1974-has never before been observed in a nation with comparable levels of income and undernutrition. Other indices of Kerala's soical development are equally surprising: levels of literacy, life expectancy, female education, and age at marriage are the highest in India, while mortality rates, including infant and child mortality, are the lowest among Indian states. But Kerala's anomalous and unexpected demographic trends and levels are not the result of the direct interventions designed to influence health and fertility levels elsewhere in India-conventional strategies of population control and health services delivery that thus far are notable for their failure to generate such positive results. Instead, Kerala's demographic levels evidently reflect a broad social response to structural reforms in its political economy. PMID:631960

Ratcliffe, J

1978-01-01

139

Multiple personality in India: comparison with hysterical possession state.  

PubMed

This article reports probably the first case of multiple personality from India and compares and contrasts it with the hysterical possession syndrome. Attention is drawn to the apparent rarity of multiple personality in contrast to the great prevalence of the possession syndrome in India (and other underdeveloped societies), while the reverse applies to Western Europe and North America. It is postulated that the disparity of frequency between the two manifestations of personal-identity disturbance derives from certain basic cultural differences. It is argued that polytheism and belief in reincarnation and spirits may be related to the possession syndrome, whereas high social approval of deliberate role-playing may foster the multiple personality syndrome. PMID:7258407

Varma, V K; Bouri, M; Wig, N N

1981-01-01

140

Rural Libraries A Comparative Study in Four States of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role information plays in socio-economic development can not be over-emphasized. People need different types of information in their day-to-day life and their information seeking behaviour also differs from person to person. In India, 70 percent of the population lives in rural areas. The access the rural population has to information sources is very limited. Libraries, in addition to other

Sri Anil Takalkar; T. Rama Devi

2002-01-01

141

State of offsite construction in India-Drivers and barriers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid growth of the construction industry in India has influenced key players in the industry to adopt alternative technologies addressing time, cost and quality. The rising demand in housing, infrastructure and other facilities have further highlighted the need for the construction industry to look at adopting alternate building technologies. Offsite construction has evolved as a panacea to dealing with the under-supply and poor quality in the current age construction industry. Several offsite techniques have been adopted by the construction sector. Although, different forms of offsite techniques have been around for a while but their uptake has been low in the Indian context. This paper presents the perceptions about offsite construction in India and highlights some of the barriers and drivers facing the Indian construction industry. The data was gathered through a survey of 17 high level managers from some of the largest stakeholder organizations of the construction sector in India. The influence of time and cost has been highlighted as a major factor fuelling the adoption of offsite construction. However, the influence of current planning systems and the need for a paradigm shift are some of the prominent barriers towards the adoption of offsite techniques.

Arif, M.; Bendi, D.; Sawhney, A.; Iyer, K. C.

2012-05-01

142

75 FR 23563 - Delegation of Certain Functions Under Section 104(g) of the United States-India Peaceful Atomic...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Under Section 104(g) of the United States-India Peaceful Atomic Energy Cooperation Act of 2006, as Amended by Public Law 110-369...President by section 104(g) of the United States-India Peaceful Atomic Energy Cooperation Act of 2006 (Public Law 109-401),...

2010-05-04

143

Indigenous Disseminated Penicillium marneffei Infection in the State of Manipur, India: Report of Four Autochthonous Cases  

PubMed Central

We describe four cases of disseminated infection caused by endemic Penicillium marneffei in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients from the Manipur state of India. The most common clinical features observed were fever, anorexia, weight loss, hepatosplenomegaly, and, more importantly, skin lesions resembling molluscum contagiosum. The diagnosis in each of the four cases was achieved by direct examination of smears, observance of intracellular yeast-like cells multiplying by fission in biopsied tissue from skin lesions, and isolation of the dimorphic P. marneffei in pure culture in each case. In one case, fluorescent antibody studies allowed specific diagnosis. This report documents a new area in which P. marneffei is endemic, located in eastern India, and describes the first occurrence in India of P. marneffei in HIV-infected patients as well as the extension of the areas of P. marneffei endemicity westward to the northeastern state of Manipur.

Singh, P. Narendra; Ranjana, K.; Singh, Y. Indiver; Singh, K. Priyokumar; Sharma, S. Surchandra; Kulachandra, M.; Nabakumar, Y.; Chakrabarti, A.; Padhye, A. A.; Kaufman, L.; Ajello, L.

1999-01-01

144

Hemoglobin disorders in South India.  

PubMed

Cation exchange-high performance liquid chromatography (CE-HPLC) is increasingly being used as a first line of investigation for hemoglobinopathies and thalassemias. Together with a complete blood count, the CE-HPLC is effective in categorizing hemoglobinopathies as traits, homozygous disorders and compound heterozygous disorders. We carried out a one year study in Apollo Hospitals, Chennai (Tamil Nadu, South India) during which 543 abnormal chromatogram patterns were seen. The commonest disorder we encountered was ?-thalassemia trait (37.9%), followed by HbE trait (23.2%), homozygous HbE disease (18.9%), HbS trait (5.3%), HbE ?-thalassemia (4.6%), HbS ?-thalassemia (2.5%), ?-thalassemia major (2.3%), HbH (1.6%), homozygous HbS (1.4%), HbD trait (0.7%). The average value of HbA2 in ?-thalassemia minor was 5.4%. ?-thalassemia major had an average HbF of 88% and in HbH the mean A2 was 1.4%. Among the HbE disorders the HbA2 + HbE was 30.1% in the heterozygous state, 90.8% in the homozygous state and 54.8% in HbE ?-thalassemia. In the sickle cell disorders, HbS varied from 30.9% in the trait to 79.9% in the homozygous state to 65.6% in HbS ?-thalassemia. PMID:22084704

Chandrashekar, Vani; Soni, Mamta

2011-06-28

145

Hemoglobin Disorders in South India  

PubMed Central

Cation exchange-high performance liquid chromatography (CE-HPLC) is increasingly being used as a first line of investigation for hemoglobinopathies and thalassemias. Together with a complete blood count, the CE-HPLC is effective in categorizing hemoglobinopathies as traits, homozygous disorders and compound heterozygous disorders. We carried out a one year study in Apollo Hospitals, Chennai (Tamil Nadu, South India) during which 543 abnormal chromatogram patterns were seen. The commonest disorder we encountered was ?-thalassemia trait (37.9%), followed by HbE trait (23.2%), homozygous HbE disease (18.9%), HbS trait (5.3%), HbE ?-thalassemia (4.6%), HbS ?-thalassemia (2.5%), ?-thalassemia major (2.3%), HbH (1.6%), homozygous HbS (1.4%), HbD trait (0.7%). The average value of HbA2 in ?-thalassemia minor was 5.4%. ?-thalassemia major had an average HbF of 88% and in HbH the mean A2 was 1.4%. Among the HbE disorders the HbA2 + HbE was 30.1% in the heterozygous state, 90.8% in the homozygous state and 54.8% in HbE ?-thalassemia. In the sickle cell disorders, HbS varied from 30.9% in the trait to 79.9% in the homozygous state to 65.6% in HbS ?-thalassemia.

Chandrashekar, Vani; Soni, Mamta

2011-01-01

146

India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the historical background of the 1985 protests in the Indian State Gujerat. Discusses the major issues in promoting the policy of "compensatory discrimination," directed toward the (1) Scheduled Castes, (2) Scheduled Tribes, and (3) Other Backward Classes. Compares casteism to racism and offers suggestions for dismantling compensatory…

Zachariah, Mathew

1986-01-01

147

Cost and Utilisation of Hospital Based Delivery Care in Empowered Action Group (EAG) States of India.  

PubMed

Large scale investment in the National Rural Health Mission is expected to increase the utilization and reduce the cost of maternal care in public health centres in India. The objective of this paper is to examine recent trends in the utilization and cost of hospital based delivery care in the Empowered Action Group (EAG) states of India. The unit data from the District Level Household Survey 3, 2007-2008 is used in the analyses. The coverage and the cost of hospital based delivery at constant price is analyzed for five consecutive years preceding the survey. Descriptive and multivariate analyses are used to understand the socio-economic differentials in cost and utilization of delivery care. During 2004-2008, the utilization of delivery care from public health centres has increased in all the eight EAG states. Adjusting for inflation, the household cost of delivery care has declined for the poor, less educated and in public health centres in the EAG states. The cost of delivery care in private health centres has not shown any significant changes across the states. Results of the multivariate analyses suggest that time, state, place of residence, economic status; educational attainment and delivery characteristics of mother are significant predictors of hospital based delivery care in India. The study demonstrates the utility of public spending on health care and provides a thrust to the ongoing debate on universal health coverage in India. PMID:23054455

Mohanty, Sanjay K; Srivastava, Akanksha

2013-10-01

148

Who killed Rambhor?: The state of emergency medical services in India.  

PubMed

In India, the healthcare delivery system starts up from the sub-center at the village level and reaches up to super specialty medical centers providing state of the art emergency medical services (EMS). These highest centers, located in big cities, are considered the last referral points for the patients from nearby cities and states. As the incidents of rail and road accidents have increased in recent years, the role of EMS becomes critical in saving precious lives. But when the facilities and management of these emergency centers succumbs before the patient, then the question arises regarding the adequate availability and quality of EMS. The death of an unknown common man, Rambhor, for want of EMS in three big hospitals in the national capital of India put a big question on the "health" of the emergency health services in India. The emergency services infrastructure seems inadequate and quality and timely provision of EMS to critical patients appears unsatisfactory. There is lack of emergency medicine (EM) specialists in India and also the postgraduation courses in EM have not gained foot in our medical education system. Creation of a Centralized Medical Emergency Body, implementation of management techniques, modification of medical curriculum, and fixing accountability are some of the few steps which are required to improve the EMS in India. PMID:22416155

Garg, Rajesh H

2012-01-01

149

Women's Autonomy in India and Pakistan: The Influence of Religion and Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article compares the lives of women and explores dimensions of their autonomy in different regions of South Asia-Punjab in Pakistan, and Uttar Pradesh in north India and Tamil Nadu in south India. It explores the contextual factors underlying observed differences and assesses the extent to which these differences could be attributed to religion, nationality, or north-south cultural distinctions. Findings

Shireen J. Jejeebhoy; Zeba A. Sathar

2001-01-01

150

Education and cancer incidence in a rural population in south India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Population-based studies describing the association between education and cancer incidence has not yet been reported from India. Methods: Information on the educational attainment of 4417 cancer cases aged 14 years and above, diagnosed during 2003–2006 in Dindigul district, Tamil Nadu, India, was obtained from the Dindigul Ambilikkai Cancer Registry, which registers invasive cancer cases by active methods from 102

Rajaraman Swaminathan; Ramanujam Selvakumaran; Jissa Vinodha; Jaques Ferlay; Catherine Sauvaget; Pulikattil Okkuru Esmy; Viswanathan Shanta; Rengaswamy Sankaranarayanan

2009-01-01

151

The state of political priority for safe motherhood in India.  

PubMed

Approximately one-quarter of all maternal deaths occur in India, far more than in any other nation on earth. Until 2005, maternal mortality reduction was not a priority in the country. In that year, the cause emerged on the national political agenda in a meaningful way for the first time. An unpredictable confluence of events concerning problem definition, policy alternative generation and politics led to this outcome. By 2005, evidence had accumulated that maternal mortality in India was stagnating and that existing initiatives were not addressing the problem effectively. Also in that year, national government officials and donors came to a consensus on a strategy to address the problem. In addition, a new government with social equity aims came to power in 2004, and in 2005, it began a national initiative to expand healthcare access to the poor in rural areas. The convergence of these developments pushed the issue on to the national agenda. This paper draws on public policy theory to analyse the Indian experience and to develop guidance for safe motherhood policy communities in other high maternal mortality countries seeking to make this cause a political priority. PMID:17567413

Shiffman, J; Ved, R R

2007-07-01

152

Human Resource Practices in Hotels: A Study from the Tourist State of Uttrakhand, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human Resource Management, an integral part of an organization, often ensures the success of the shared relationship between employees and an organization by identifying and satisfying the needs of the employees beginning with recruitment and continuing throughout their career. This article aims to analyze the Human Resource practices in hotels in the mountainous state of Uttarakhand, India located in the

S. C. Bagri; Suresh Babu; Mohit Kukreti

2010-01-01

153

Vulnerability and adaptation to climate variability and water stress in Uttarakhand State, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a participatory approach to investigate vulnerability and adaptive capacity to climate variability and water stress in the Lakhwar watershed in Uttarakhand State, India. Highly water stressed microwatersheds were identified by modelling surface runoff, soil moisture development, lateral runoff, and groundwater recharge. The modelling results were shared with communities in two villages, and timeline exercises were carried out

Ulka Kelkar; Kapil Kumar Narula; Ved Prakash Sharma; Usha Chandna

2008-01-01

154

United States-China-India Relationship: An Analysis of the Emergence of a Strategic Triangle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the post Cold War era, a unique situation is developing in the Asia Pacific region wherein the United States is the lone dominant power with global outreach and China and India are emerging as Asian powers with global influence. These three major power...

B. S. Negi

2007-01-01

155

The Correlates of Corruption in India: Analysis and Evidence from the States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several leading indicators of corruption point to a serious problem in India on the whole. Yet what can explain the substantial variance of corruption levels perceived and experienced by citizens across various Indian states? Surprisingly little research in the field has addressed this important question. This article elucidates several relevant and testable hypotheses from the growing literature on the determinants

Nicholas Charron

2010-01-01

156

Suicide Notes from India and the United States: A Thematic Comparison  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Suicide is a global concern, hence, cross-cultural research ought to be important; yet, there is a paucity of cross-cultural study in suicidology. This study sought to investigate suicide notes drawn from India and the United States, as these countries have similar suicide rates but markedly different cultures. A thematic or…

Leenaars, Antoon A.; Girdhar, Shalina; Dogra, T. D.; Wenckstern, Susanne; Leenaars, Lindsey

2010-01-01

157

COMPARISON OF MARITAL ATTITUDES BETWEEN COLLEGE STUDENTS FROM INDIA AND THE UNITED STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study compared the marital attitudes of college students from India and the United States. Of particular interest was the effect of student gender and type of family structure (nuclear, joint and extended) on the marital attitudes. The Inventory For Marriage Education (INFORMED), a 120 item scale with 12 content catagories was used to assess marital attitudes. The results suggest

RITA CHAUDHARY; DAVID G. FOURNIER

1990-01-01

158

Ethanoveterinary Studies Amoung Farmers in Dindigul District Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 Abstract: The codified medical systems include Ayurveda, Siddha, Sowa-rigpa and Unani systems of medicine, with their sophisticated theoretical foundations. The vast knowledge in the codified traditions has been documented in tens of thousands of medical manuscripts. It is not commonly known that these systems cover all basic aspects and branches of medicine, from general medicine to specialised fields like

V. Balakrishnan; J. Philip Robinson; A. Manickasamy; K. C. Ravindran

159

Monitoring water quality of Coimbatore wetlands, Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Signs of wetland-water quality degradation have been apparent for decades, especially in those wetlands situated in the vicinity\\u000a of cities and human habitations. Investigation on four urban wetlands of Coimbatore have been undertaken to assess the water\\u000a quality with reference to pollution from various sources. The pH and total dissolved solids (TDS) values of the lakes were\\u000a found to be

Rachna Chandra; K. A. Nishadh; P. A. Azeez

2010-01-01

160

Quality Characterization of Groundwater in Tirupur Region, Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improper design, faulty planning and mismanagement are the principal causes for the deterioration of groundwater quality in a large number of countries, in particular in semi arid and arid regions. Untreated textile industrial effluents discharged on the surface causes severe groundwater pollution in the industrial region of the country. The main impact of industrialization in Tirupur is the pollution of

Arumugam Karuppapillai; Elangovan Krishnan

161

Radiation safety concerns and diagnostic reference levels for computed tomography scanners in Tamil Nadu  

PubMed Central

Radiation safety in computed tomography (CT) scanners is of concern due its widespread use in the field of radiological imaging. This study intends to evaluate radiation doses imparted to patients undergoing thorax, abdomen and pelvic CT examinations and formulate regional diagnostic reference levels (DRL) in Tamil Nadu, South India. In-site CT dose measurement was performed in 127 CT scanners in Tamil Nadu for a period of 2 years as a part of the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB)-funded project. Out of the 127 CT scanners,13 were conventional; 53 single-slice helical scanners (SSHS); 44 multislice CT (MSCT) scanners; and 17 refurbished scanners. CT dose index (CTDI) was measured using a 32-cm polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-body phantom in each CT scanner. Dose length product (DLP) for different anatomical regions was generated using CTDI values. The regional DRLs for thorax, abdomen and pelvis examinations were 557, 521 and 294 mGy cm, respectively. The mean effective dose was estimated using the DLP values and was found to be 8.04, 6.69 and 4.79 mSv for thorax, abdomen and pelvic CT examinations, respectively. The establishment of DRLs in this study is the first step towards optimization of CT doses in the Indian context.

Livingstone, Roshan S.; Dinakaran, Paul M.

2011-01-01

162

Sustainable Management of Dryland Alfisols (Red Soils) in South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A community based cooperative research project was implemented on farmers' fields on some dryland Alfisols in Tamil Nadu, India, to demonstrate and validate improved dry-farming technologies, such as: 1) soil and water conservation and water harvesting; 2) cropping systems, including intercropping and double cropping; 3) recycling of processed agricultural wastes and byproducts; and 4) low-cost drip irrigation. Disc plowing to

S. P. Palaniappan; R. Balasubramanian; T. Ramesh; A. Chandrasekaran; K. G. Mani; M. Velayutham; R. Lal

2009-01-01

163

Historical Pollution Trends in Coastal Environments of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventeen sediment cores were collected from different coastalecosystems of Tamil Nadu, India that include coastal lagoon (Pulicat), polluted rivers in Chennai (Adyar and Cooum), Coral reef (Gulf of Mannar) and a perennial river (Tamiraparani).Radiometric dating has been used to determine the modern sedimentation rates in these ecosystems. The Pulicat Lake and thepolluted rivers (Adyar and Cooum) yield an average sediment

R. Ramesh; R. Purvaja; S. Ramesh; R. A. James

2002-01-01

164

TNAURice: Database on rice varieties released from Tamil Nadu Agricultural University  

PubMed Central

We developed, TNAURice: a database comprising of the rice varieties released from a public institution, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU), Coimbatore, India. Backed by MS-SQL, and ASP-Net at the front end, this database provide information on both quantitative and qualitative descriptors of the rice varities inclusive of their parental details. Enabled by an user friendly search utility, the database can be effectively searched by the varietal descriptors, and the entire contents are navigable as well. The database comes handy to the plant breeders involved in the varietal improvement programs to decide on the choice of parental lines. TNAURice is available for public access at http://www.btistnau.org/germdefault.aspx.

Ramalingam, Jegadeesan; Arul, Loganathan; Sathishkumar, Natarajan; Vignesh, Dhandapani; Thiyagarajan, Katiannan; Samiyappan, Ramasamy

2010-01-01

165

New insect pests of sugarcane in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five new insect pests were observed to infest sugarcane at Kannur in Kerala and at Coimbatore in Tamil Nadu, India. The leaf\\u000a minerAphanisticus aeneus Kerremans, was found to feed on all the species ofSaccharum exceptS. sinense. The laminar pubescence and colour did not appear to play any role in antixenosis.Chrysonolomyia sp. was found parasitising its pupae gregariously. Beetles of the

N. Mukunthan; R. Nirmala

2002-01-01

166

Study of Blood-transfusion Services in Maharashtra and Gujarat States, India  

PubMed Central

Blood-transfusion services are vital to maternal health because haemorrhage and anaemia are major causes of maternal death in South Asia. Unfortunately, due to continued governmental negligence, blood-transfusion services in India are a highly-fragmented mix of competing independent and hospital-based blood-banks, serving the needs of urban populations. This paper aims to understand the existing systems of blood-transfusion services in India focusing on Maharashtra and Gujarat states. A mix of methodologies, including literature review (including government documents), analysis of management information system data, and interviews with key officials was used. Results of analysis showed that there are many managerial challenges in blood-transfusion services, which calls for strengthening the planning and monitoring of these services. Maharashtra provides a good model for improvement. Unless this is done, access to blood in rural areas may remain poor.

Ramani, K.V.; Govil, Dipti

2009-01-01

167

A game of hide and seek: gendered ethnographies of the everyday state after communal violence in Ahmedabad, Western India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the gendered experience of the state for the Muslim survivors of violence in Gujarat in 2002. Most of the scholarship on the working of the state after communal violence in post-independence India concentrates on the anxiety to re-instate the ‘myth of the state’, through policies that establish its respectability after violence. The emphasis is on understanding the

Rubina Jasani

2011-01-01

168

Distribution and behaviour of persistent organochlorine insecticides in paddy soil and sediments in the tropical environment: a case study in South India.  

PubMed

Paddy soil and sediment samples collected from the Vellar River watershed, Tamil Nadu state, South India from December, 1987 to January, 1989 were analysed to understand the comprehensive behaviour of organochlorine insecticides (HCH and DDT) in the tropical environment. HCH (BHC) showed higher levels in soil during wet season, reflecting the application of technical HCH largely during the flowering season of rice. On the other hand, DDT residues were low and did not show a significant seasonal trend in soil or sediment, indicating small quantities of DDT utilized at present for agricultural purposes in India. When compared to soil, the residue levels in sediments are low and the seasonal variation is less pronounced. This indicates that in tropical watersheds, the relative flux of residues into the aquatic environment is smaller than the amount volatilized to the atmosphere. PMID:15092057

Ramesh, A; Tanabe, S; Murase, H; Subramanian, A N; Tatsukawa, R

1991-01-01

169

Re-emergence of glanders in India - Report of Maharashtra state.  

PubMed

Glanders, a notifiable highly contagious disease primarily of equids, is a disease of high zoonotic importance. Caused by gram-negative bacillus, Burkholderia mallei, the disease was restricted to certain pockets of India with sporadic cases. Recently, a major outbreak of glanders occurred in India starting from Maharashtra. Following clinical signs and symptoms and laboratory investigations on serum, nasal swab and pus swab samples, it was confirmed as glanders among equines in Pune and Panchgani areas of Maharashtra. One pus sample and three nasal swabs yielded B. mallei isolates while 23 serum samples were found positive for glanders by complement fixation test (CFT). The disease was successfully controlled in the state by following strategies for prevention of spread of the disease to other areas in accordance with Glanders and Farcy Act, 1899. Follow up of the occurrence in Maharashtra revealed negative status based on testing and physical surveillance on more than 3,500 equines thereafter. Investigations indicated that the nidus of infection may be present elsewhere in North India. PMID:23100851

Malik, Praveen; Khurana, S K; Dwivedi, S K

2010-03-16

170

Organizing for rural energy development: Improved cookstoves, local organizations, and the state in Gujarat, India  

SciTech Connect

Proponents of the sustainable development of Third World States frequently urge the integration of local non-government organizations (NGOs) into State-sponsored, centrally administered programs of rural-resource development. This study draws on literatures on energy use, biomass technologies, and organization theory, and on interviews, archival research, and organizational surveys of eight Gujarati NGOs conducted in India in 1986 and 1987. It concludes that the conventional wisdom guiding State-NGO collaboration is in important ways flawed. Though driven by political and fiscal imperatives to integrate local NGOs in State programs, national planners are ill-equipped to cope with the uncertainty and vulnerability such collaboration brings. Their understandable response is to structure collaboration in ways inimical to overarching goals of local participation and flexible administration. Simultaneously, at the local level, unmanaged systems of collaboration - organized around a view of local organizations as self-guiding and self-correcting - generates a degradation of capacity. Organizational assumptions driving the sustainable development of India's (and much of the Third World's) rural energy resources must be re-evaluated.

Maniates, M.F.

1990-01-01

171

Modeling Vulnerability and Resilience to Climate Change: A Case Study of India and Indian States  

SciTech Connect

The vulnerability of India and Indian states to climate change was assessed using the Vulnerability-Resilience Indicator Prototype (VRIP). The model was adapted from the global/country version to account for Indian dietary practices and data availability with regard to freshwater resources. Results (scaled to world values) show nine Indian states to be moderately resilient to climate change, principally because of low sulfur emissions and a relatively large percentage of unmanaged land. Six states are more vulnerable than India as a whole, attributable largely to sensitivity to sea storm surges. Analyses of results at the state level (Orissa, and comparisons between Maharashtra and Kerala, and Andhra Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh) demonstrate the value of VRIP analyses used in conjunction with other socioeconomic information to address initial questions about the sources of vulnerability in particular places. The modeling framework allows analysts and stakeholders to systematically evaluate individual and sets of indicators and to indicate where the likely vulnerabilities are in the area being assessed.

Brenkert, Antoinette L.; Malone, Elizabeth L.

2005-09-01

172

Toward a social justice theory of demographic transition: lessons from India's Kerala State.  

PubMed

Recent research evidence, which suggests that observed demographic trends and patterns are largely consequences of broad structural changes in society, has raised serious doubts about the validity of traditional demographic theory and the framework for action it has generated. This theoretical essay 1st recasts classical demographic transition theory in general systems terms in order to make it consistent with the evidence and to place the processes of fertility and mortality in a larger social context. The demographic transition experience of Kerala State, India is then recounted to provide a concrete example of the demographic response in society to structural reforms based primarily on equity considerations. PMID:12313396

Ratcliffe, J W

1983-06-01

173

In vitro assessment of drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum in five States of India  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: In vitro assays are an important tool to assess baseline sensitivity and monitor the drug response of Plasmodium falciparum over time and place and, therefore, can provide background information for the development and evaluation of drug policies. This study was aimed at determining the in vitro sensitivity of P. falciparum isolates to antimalarials. Methods: The in vitro activity of 108 P. falciparum isolates obtained from five States of India was evaluated using WHO microtest (Mark III) to chloroquine, monodesethylamodiaquine, dihydroartesunate and mefloquine. Samples were collected from the States of Orissa, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Goa and Chhattisgarh from September 2007 to August 2009. In addition, representative samples from different States of India cryopreserved and culture adapted in the Malaria Parasite Bank of National Institute of Malaria Research, New Delhi, were also evaluated. Results: The proportion of isolates resistant to chloroquine and monodesethylamodiaquine was 44.4 and 25 per cent, respectively. Of the 27 isolates resistant to monodesethylamodiaquine, 16 (59.3%) were cross-resistant to chloroquine. No isolate showed resistance to dihydroartesunate and mefloquine. Isolates from Orissa showed the highest degree of resistance to chloroquine and amodiaquine followed by Jharkhand. Forty two isolates were genotyped for pfcrt T76K chloroquine resistant mutation; mutations were seen in 38 (90.47%) isolates. Interpretation & conclusions: The Indian P. falciparum isolates showed a high degree of resistance to chloroquine followed by monodesethylamodiaquine. No resistance was recorded to mefloquine and dihydroartesunate.

Anvikar, Anupkumar R.; Sharma, Bhawna; Sharma, S.K.; Ghosh, S.K.; Bhatt, R.M.; Kumar, Ashwani; Mohanty, S.S.; Pillai, C.R.; Dash, A.P.; Valecha, Neena

2012-01-01

174

Economic analysis of risk of gastrointestinal parasitic infection in cattle in North Eastern States of India.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal parasitic infection is highly prevalent in the North Eastern States (NEH) of India and accounted for significant economic losses across various livestock species. Productivity of cattle in terms of milk yield was estimated to be considerably higher (3,715, 3,590, and 3,154 L) due to strategic anthelmintic treatment as compare to control group (2,928 L). Based on the probability of occurrence of parasitic infection as well as increase in value of milk production, the possible economic gain at state level has been estimated to be Rs. 46 million, Rs. 35 million, and Rs. 14 million, depending upon the different strategic treatment. The government may take up the program to educate the cattle farmers on strategic management against parasitic infection and simultaneously making available various anthelmintic medicines. This public responsibility of the government to minimize the risk and economic loss due to gastrointestinal parasite infection may reduce the private cost and thereby would increase the social benefits in North Eastern states of India. PMID:20411327

Bandyopadhyay, S; Mandal, S; Datta, K K; Devi, P; De, S; Bera, A K; Bhattacharya, D

2010-04-22

175

Persistence of azoxystrobin in/on grapes and soil in different grapes growing areas of India.  

PubMed

Persistence of azoxystrobin was studied in/on grapes when applied @ 150 g ai ha?¹ (recommended dose) and 300 g ai ha?¹ (double the recommended dose) in three grapes growing states of India, namely Karnataka, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu, in the year 2006-2007. A total of five sprays were given at an interval of about 15 days. Grapes and soil samples were collected after 5th spray, extracted and analysed by gas chromatography using electron capture detector. Half life of azoxystrobin on grapes varied from 5.4 to 11.2 days. Residues of azoxystrobin were much below the prescribed MRL (0.5 mg kg?¹) after 21 days. The dissipation of azoxystrobin in soil followed first order rate kinetics with an average half life of 8.1 days at the recommended dose of application. PMID:21153804

Gajbhiye, Vijay Tularam; Gupta, Suman; Mukherjee, Irani; Singh, Shashi Bala; Singh, Neera; Dureja, Prem; Kumar, Yogesh

2010-12-14

176

Industrialization and the Processes of Stratification in Rural Societies: A Comparison of Rural India and Rural United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Status attainment processes of the experienced civilian labor force of rural India and rural United States were analyzed by using the Blau-Duncan model, for the first time employing that model to compare rural sectors of an agrarian society with those in an industrial society. United States data were obtained from the 1962 Occupational Changes in…

Sharda, Bam Dev; Elder, Joseph W.

177

Infection control in delivery care units, Gujarat state, India: A needs assessment  

PubMed Central

Background Increasingly, women in India attend health facilities for childbirth, partly due to incentives paid under government programs. Increased use of health facilities can alleviate the risks of infections contracted in unhygienic home deliveries, but poor infection control practices in labour and delivery units also cause puerperal sepsis and other infections of childbirth. A needs assessment was conducted to provide information on procedures and practices related to infection control in labour and delivery units in Gujarat state, India. Methods Twenty health care facilities, including private and public primary health centres and referral hospitals, were sampled from two districts in Gujarat state, India. Three pre-tested tools for interviewing and for observation were used. Data collection was based on existing infection control guidelines for clean practices, clean equipment, clean environment and availability of diagnostics and treatment. The study was carried out from April to May 2009. Results Seventy percent of respondents said that standard infection control procedures were followed, but a written procedure was only available in 5% of facilities. Alcohol rubs were not used for hand cleaning and surgical gloves were reused in over 70% of facilities, especially for vaginal examinations in the labour room. Most types of equipment and supplies were available but a third of facilities did not have wash basins with "hands-free" taps. Only 15% of facilities reported that wiping of surfaces was done immediately after each delivery in labour rooms. Blood culture services were available in 25% of facilities and antibiotics are widely given to women after normal delivery. A few facilities had data on infections and reported rates of 3% to 5%. Conclusions This study of current infection control procedures and practices during labour and delivery in health facilities in Gujarat revealed a need for improved information systems, protocols and procedures, and for training and research. Simply incentivizing the behaviour of women to use health facilities for childbirth via government schemes may not guarantee safe delivery.

2011-01-01

178

Suicide in South India: A community-based study in Kerala  

PubMed Central

Background: Studies from Tamil Nadu, South India, have reported the world's highest suicide rates. As per official reports, Kerala, another South Indian state has the highest suicide rate among the major states in India. Objective: The purpose of this analysis is to estimate the rates and age-specific incidence of suicide in a rural community in Kerala, under continuous observation for the last five years. Settings and Design: The study setting comprised of seven contiguous panchayats constituting a development block in Kerala. A prospective cohort study design was used. Materials and Methods: Through regular home visits, every death that occurred in the community was captured by local resident health workers and the cause of death assigned. Statistical Analysis: Suicide rates by age and sex and relative share of suicide deaths to all-cause deaths in men and women were calculated. Results: During the five-year period from 2002 to 2007, 284 cases of suicide were reported. The suicide rates were 44.7/100,000 for males and 26.8/100,000 for females. Male to female suicide ratio was 1.7. Among females aged between 15 and 24, suicides constituted more than 50% of all deaths. Male to female ratio of suicide varied from 0.4 in children aged 14 years or less to 4.5 in the 45-54 year age group. Conclusion: Our analysis shows that the level of under-reporting of suicides in rural Kerala is much less than that reported in Tamil Nadu.

Soman, C. R.; Safraj, S.; Kutty, V. Raman; Vijayakumar, K.; Ajayan, K.

2009-01-01

179

Physical Domestic Violence and Subsequent Contraceptive Adoption Among Women in Rural India  

PubMed Central

This study examines the relationship between male to female physical domestic violence and contraceptive adoption among women in four economically and culturally distinct areas of India. Data from India’s 1998–1999 National Family Health Survey–2 and a follow-up survey in 2002–2003 for which the same women in four states were reinterviewed are analyzed. The focus of the analysis is on how baseline exposure to physical domestic violence is associated with the intersurvey adoption of contraception. Women who experience physical violence from their husbands are significantly less likely to adopt contraception in the intersurvey period, although this relationship varies by State. This study builds upon previous work by using an indicator of physical domestic violence exposure that is measured before contraceptive adoption, thus allowing the identification of how exposure to violence shapes the adoption of contraception. The results demonstrate that for women living in Bihar and Jharkhand there is a clear negative relationship between physical domestic violence and a woman’s adoption of contraception; this relationship was not found for women in Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. The results point to the need to include domestic violence screening and referral services into family planning services.

Stephenson, Rob; Jadhav, Apoorva; Hindin, Michelle

2012-01-01

180

A history of nets and bans: Restrictions on Technical Innovation along the Coromandel Coast of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the way in which fi shing communities along the Coromandel Coast of Tamil Nadu in India act to regulate the innovation of fi shing gears. It takes a historical perspective, focusing on the circumstance that the non- governmental fi sher councils in this region have strong authority to restrict or pro- hibit gear types which they consider

Maarten Bavinck; K. Karunaharan

2007-01-01

181

Is NPT Membership as a Nuclear Weapon State an Option for India?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, it is necessary for India to respond to the current crisis of the NPT and weigh its options vis-à-vis the Treaty. This paper is an attempt to explore answers to the question of what ought to be India's policy in the light of the new nuclear reality. It analyses three policy options that India could pursue and concludes that

Rajiv Nayan

2007-01-01

182

The Karnataka Late Cretaceous Dykes as products of the Marion Hot Spot at the Madagascar - India Breakup Event: Evidence from 40Ar-39Ar geochronology and geochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two late Cretaceous mafic dykes with an ENE strike that is orthogonal to the west coast of India and located nearly 200 km inland around Huliyardurga, Karnataka state, yield 40Ar-39Ar plateau ages of 90.0±1.0 and 87.5±0.9 Ma. These Fe-Ti-enriched tholeiites are essentially co-eval with at least four other igneous suites widely scattered in southern India, namely; the south and north Kerala dykes, the Agali-Anaikatti dykes of central Kerala-Tamil Nadu and lavas of St Mary islands off the west coast of India. The Karnataka Cretaceous dykes are also co-eval and compositionally very similar to the Fe-Ti-enriched tholeiitic lavas and dykes around Mananjary, a major phase of Late Cretaceous magmatism along the eastern rifted margin of Madagascar which are believed to be products of the Marion hot spot that extruded at ?88 Ma, synchronous with the India-Madagascar break up event. The age and compositional similarities between these Late Cretaceous magmatic rocks from India and Madagascar constitute a clear evidence for extension of the thermal manifestations deep into the Indian peninsula.

Kumar, Anil; Pande, K.; Venkatesan, T. R.; Rao, Y. J. Bhaskar

183

Globalisation of birth markets: a case study of assisted reproductive technologies in India  

PubMed Central

The escalation of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs) in India into a veritable fertility industry is the result of a multitude of reasons. This paper places the bio-genetic industry within the larger political economy framework of globalisation and privatisation, thus employing a framework that is often omitted from discussions on ARTs, but has direct and significant bearings on the ART industry in India. As markets for human organs, tissues and reproductive body parts experience unprecedented growth, the limits of what can or should be bought and sold continue to be pushed. As such, bodies have emerged as sale-worthy economic capital. Commercial flows of reproductive material create and deploy the division of the body into parts over which ownership is claimed, in the process following 'modern routes of capital' and raising issues of structural inequality. This paper presents a brief picture of India's fertility industry with specific focus on its ground-level operation, nature and growth. It aims to explore the industry dimensions of ARTs, by highlighting the macro picture of health care markets and medical tourism in India, the proliferation of the ART industry, market features such as the social imperative to mother, costs, promotion and marketing, unverified claims, inflated success rates, deals and offers, actors and collaborations in the field, and finally, the absence of standards. This paper presents findings from the research 'Constructing Conceptions: The Mapping of Assisted Reproductive Technologies in India', by Sama, a Delhi-based resource group working on gender, health and rights. This research was conducted from 2008 to 2010 in the three states of Uttar Pradesh, Orissa and Tamil Nadu in India, and is one of the first of its kind, highlighting unethical medical practices and making a case for the regulation of the ART industry. As such, it forms a significant part of Sama's ongoing work on women and technologies, particularly policy-level advocacy.

2011-01-01

184

Introducing the Concept of ‘User Education’ to the Central and State Training Institute Librarians of India, 1990–93  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Central and State Training Institutes of India constitute a discrete sector of vocational training for the central and local government personnel of the nation. As part of the Overseas Development Administration's upgrading programme for the institutes, their libraries and their librarians’ training needs were assessed. A prime training need identified was the Introduction of the ‘user education’ concept to

Mike Freeman

1994-01-01

185

Caste, land, and migration : a preliminary analysis of a village survey in an underdeveloped state in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores migration from Bihar, one of the most underdeveloped states in India, by paying particular attention to social class (caste) and landholdings. After describing details of individual migrants, we present our preliminary findings on the determinants of migration, based on our field survey of 200 households in four villages in 2011. In terms of social class, Muslims are

Yuko Tsujita; Hisaya Oda

2012-01-01

186

Use of e-services by faculty members of business schools in a state of India: a study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to assess and evaluate quantitative and qualitative use of electronic resources in the academic ambience of business schools in Orissa (India) with a view to examining the level of electronic information services (EIS) offered to the faculty members of the state with an opinion pool of the faculty members of the respective

Dillip K. Swain; K. C. Panda

2009-01-01

187

SOCIAL NETWORKING WEBSITES IN INDIA AND THE UNITED STATES: A CROSS-NATIONAL COMPARISON OF ONLINE PRIVACY AND COMMUNICATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined cross-national differences in the usage of social networking websites (SNWs) between university students in India and the United States. A total of 245 Indian university students and 241 American university students completed a survey about privacy attitudes and behaviors as well as communication patterns on SNWs. Many of the traditional propositions about cross-cultural values and related notions

Bryan A. Marshall; Peter W. Cardon; Daniel T. Norris; Natalya Goreva

188

Bachchan v. India Abroad Publication Inc.: The Clash Between Protection of Free Speech in the United States and Great Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Comment argues that, although the New York Supreme Court reached the correct opinion in Bachchan v. India Abroad Publ., but the scope of the court's decision must be limited limited in its application with respect to future enforcement proceedings involving non-U.S. libel judgments. Part I examines the contrasting defamation standards in the United States and Great Britain, and details

Gregory T. Walters

1992-01-01

189

A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Ethical Attitudes of Business Managers: India Korea and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Culture has been identified as a significant determinant of ethical attitudes of business managers. This research studies the impact of culture on the ethical attitudes of business managers in India, Korea and the United States using multivariate statistical analysis. Employing Geert Hofstede's cultural typology, this study examines the relationship between his five cultural dimensions (individualism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity,

P. Maria Joseph Christie; Ik-Whan G. Kwon; Philipp A. Stoeberl; Raymond Baumhart

2003-01-01

190

Aboriginal uses and management of ethnobotanical species in deciduous forests of Chhattisgarh state in India  

PubMed Central

A study on the native uses of ethnobotanical species was carried out in the south Surguja district of Chhattisgarh state in India with the major objective of identifying different food and medicinal plant species and also to understand their ongoing management and conservation. Through questionnaire and personal interviews, a total of 73 ethnobotanical species used by tribal and non-tribal communities were documented, of these 36 species were used in curing different types of diseases and 22 were used as edible food plants. This rich traditional knowledge of local people has an immense potential for pharmacological studies. The outside forces, at present, were mainly blamed to change the traditional system of harvesting and management of ethnobotanical species. The destructive harvesting practices have damaged the existing populations of many ethnobotanical species viz., Asparagus racemosus, Dioscorea bulbifera, Boswellia serrata, Buchnania lanzan, Sterculia urens and Anogeissus latifolia. The sustainable harvesting and management issues of ethnobotanical species are discussed in view of their conservation and management.

Kala, Chandra Prakash

2009-01-01

191

State health insurance and out-of-pocket health expenditures in Andhra Pradesh, India.  

PubMed

In 2007 the state of Andhra Pradesh in southern India began rolling out Aarogyasri health insurance to reduce catastrophic health expenditures in households 'below the poverty line'. We exploit variation in program roll-out over time and districts to evaluate the impacts of the scheme using difference-in-differences. Our results suggest that within the first nine months of implementation Phase I of Aarogyasri significantly reduced out-of-pocket inpatient expenditures and, to a lesser extent, outpatient expenditures. These results are robust to checks using quantile regression and matching methods. No clear effects on catastrophic health expenditures or medical impoverishment are seen. Aarogyasri is not benefiting scheduled caste and scheduled tribe households as much as the rest of the population. PMID:22767078

Fan, Victoria Y; Karan, Anup; Mahal, Ajay

2012-07-06

192

Characterization of minerals in air dust particles in the state of Tamilnadu, India through ftir spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abstract of this paper explains the presence of minerals in air which causes great concern regarding public health issues. The spectroscopic investigation of air dust particles of several samples in various locations in the state of Tamilnadu, India is reported. Qualitative analyses were carried out to determine the major and minor constituent minerals present in the samples based on the FTIR absorption peaks. This study also identified the minerals like quartz, asbestos, kaolinite, calcite, hematite, montmorillonite, nacrite and several other trace minerals in the air dust particles. The presents of quartz is mainly found in all the samples invariably. Hence the percentage of quartz and its crystalline nature were determined with the help of extinction co-efficient and crystallinity index respectively.

Senthil Kumar, R.; Rajkumar, P.

2013-08-01

193

Tamil market: a spoken dialog system for rural India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe the design process, results, and observations from a pilot user study for Tamil Market, a speech-driven agricultural query system, conducted in community centers in rural India. The primary users were rural villagers of varying degrees of literacy from three districts of Tamil Nadu. Preliminary findings from a Wizard-of-Oz field study show that rural villagers are

Madelaine Plauché; Madhu Prabaker

2006-01-01

194

Hot springs and the geothermal energy potential of Jammu & Kashmir State, N.W. Himalaya, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

India has an estimated geothermal power potential of 10,600 MWe, but this potential is entirely undeveloped at present. The 'Geothermal Atlas of India' prepared by the Geological Survey of India (GSI) in 1991 describes some 340 hot spring sites and identifies more than 300 sites with geothermal potential in at least seven key geothermal provinces throughout India. There are more than 20 hot spring sites in Jammu & Kashmir State, mainly in the Chenab Valley in the Lesser/Central Himalaya, the Kashmir Valley and in the High Himalaya region of Ladakh. At least three localities in the Ladakh region - Chamuthang and Puga in the Indus valley and Panamik in the Nubra Valley - are considered to have geothermal power generation potential of between 3 and > 20 MWe. The Puga hot spring area, located at the junction of the Indian and Tibetan plates along the Indus Suture Zone, has the greatest potential for the near term development of geothermal energy in the Indian subcontinent. The area exhibits vigorous geothermal activity in the form of hot springs, mud pools, sulphur and borax deposits covering an area of c.15 km2. The discharges are concentrated in an east-west elongated area of some 4 km2, near the mouth of the Puga Valley. The Puga geothermal field is bounded by faults and its reservoir rocks consist of granite, gneiss and schist. There is both direct and indirect evidence to support the existence of an active magmatic system at a depth of 5-7 km. Geophysical surveys have delineated a conspicuous low resistivity zone below the Puga field. Systematic and comprehensive evaluation of the geothermal potential of the Puga area began in 1973. Thirty-four wells have been drilled in the Puga geothermal field to date, at least 17 of which have resulted in mixed steam and water blow-outs. The discharges from some of the wells have temperatures of more than 120 °C. Thermal studies indicate temperatures of more than 220 °C at a depth of about 2.5 km below the Puga Valley, corresponding to the main reservoir level. Chemical thermometry also suggests a reservoir temperature of 250 °C, while reservoir modelling studies suggest temperatures of up to 160 °C at a depth of 450 m. The high concentration of lithium, rubidium and cesium in the geothermal water has been interpreted as indicating a magmatic source and young granitic intrusions and shallow crustal melting processes have been postulated as the most-likely heat source for the Puga geothermal field. It is estimated that more than 5000 MWh of geothermal energy is available at Puga, which could be used for heating, for greenhouse cultivation and, eventually, to generate electricity. Studies have indicated that there is a 90% probability that the Puga field could sustain a 20 MWe power plant. If the Puga geothermal field could be developed, it is very likely that it could be followed by the development of the Chamuthang and Panamik fields. Jammu & Kashmir State suffers from an acute shortage of power, particularly in the mountainous region of Ladakh. The development of geothermal potential would provide for baseload needs, especially in the winter months when the region's hydro-power stations are frequently either shut down or working at significantly reduced efficiency because of freezing of the Indus River. However, any development would need to be undertaken with great care to avoid damaging Ladakh's vulnerable high-altitude desert environment and its unique plant and animal life.

Craig, J.; Absar, A.; Bhat, G.; Cadel, G.; Hafiz, M.; Hakhoo, N.; Kashkari, R.; Moore, J.; Ricchiuto, T. E.; Thurow, J.; Thusu, B.

195

Pollution Status of South East Coast of India: A Baseline Review Based on Surface and Core Sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human and industrial activities are responsible for a major increase of the World's environmental pollution in many developing countries especially in water and sediments. Monitoring systems are essential to track long existing pollution processes, but the lack of them in many regions makes it very difficult to draw certain conclusions about the long term results of these anthropogenic activities. The main objective of the present review in the coastal region along South East Coast of India is 1) to generate a baseline data on the aquatic environment in the coastal region, 2) to monitor the status of level of pollution regularly and 3) to address the environmental problem due to industrial development and human impact. The case study is based on geochemical parameters in sediments and describes the first time baseline values of environmental quality of minor polluted river basins/mangroves (Ennore Creek, Chennai; Uppanar River, Cuddalore; Pichavaram Mangroves; Muthupet Mangroves; Tambiraparani River, Tuticorin) and coastal zone environment (North Chennai; Cuddalore Coast, Nagapattinam Coast; Tuticorin Coast) of South East coast of India (Tamil Nadu State). The study was initiated as a long term monitoring study during late 1995's and it also provides a basic platform for restoration of the original quality of the aquatic environment along the coastal region as well as minor river basins in Tamil State, South India.

Jonathan, M.; Srinivasalu, S.; Ram-Mohan, V.

2006-05-01

196

The India Connection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Even though lawmakers in India don't seem likely to pass any laws that would enable foreign universities to set up shop in India anytime soon, opportunities still abound for institutions of higher learning in the United States to collaborate with their Indian counterparts and to engage and recruit students in India as well. That's the consensus…

Abdul-Alim, Jamaal

2012-01-01

197

Genetic structure and affinities among tribal populations of southern India: a study of 24 autosomal DNA markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We describe the genetic structure and affinities of five Dravidian-speaking tribal populations inhabiting the Nilgiri hills of Tamil Nadu, in south India, using 24 autosomal DNA markers. Our goals were: (i) to examine what evolutionary forces have most significantly impacted south Indian tribal genetic variation, and (ii) to test whether the phenotypic similarities of some south Indian tribal groups

H. Vishwanathan; E. Deepa; R. Cordaux; M. Stoneking; M. V. Usha Rani; P. P. Majumder

2004-01-01

198

DHL invests USD10 Million in logistics infrastructure for fast growing supply and sourcing hub in India ? First global logistics company to set up a facility within the inaugural Free Trade Warehousing Zone in India ? DHL's facility will facilitate ease of trade in India for businesses across several industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chennai, May 27, 2010: DHL, the world's leading logistics company, today announced an investment of USD10 million by its freight forwarding division to strengthen its capabilities and infrastructure to provide world-class logistics and warehousing services in India. DHL Global Forwarding is setting up a logistics and warehousing facility in the upcoming Free Trade Warehousing Zone (FTWZ) in Tamil Nadu. With

Deutsche Post DHL; Lemuir Logistics

199

Factors controlling January-April rainfall over southern India and Sri Lanka  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the annual rainfall over India occurs during the Southwest (June-September) and Northeast (October-December) monsoon periods. In March 2008, however, Southern peninsular India and Sri Lanka received the largest rainfall anomaly on record since 1979, with amplitude comparable to summer-monsoon interannual anomalies. This anomalous rainfall appeared to be modulated at intraseasonal timescale by the Madden Julian Oscillation, and was synchronous with a decaying La Niña event in the Pacific Ocean. Was this a coincidence or indicative of a teleconnection pattern? In this paper, we explore factors controlling rainfall over southern India and Sri Lanka between January and April, i.e. outside of the southwest and northeast monsoons. This period accounts for 20% of annual precipitation over Sri Lanka and 10% over the southern Indian states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Interannual variability is strong (about 40% of the January-April climatology). Intraseasonal rainfall anomalies over southern India and Sri Lanka are significantly associated with equatorial eastward propagation, characteristic of the Madden Julian Oscillation. At the interannual timescale, we find a clear connection with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO); with El Niños being associated with decreased rainfall (correlation of -0.46 significant at the 98% level). There is also a significant link with local SST anomalies over the Indian Ocean, and in particular with the inter-hemispheric sea surface temperature (SST) gradient over the Indian Ocean (with colder SST south of the equator being conducive to more rainfall, correlation of 0.55 significant at the 99% level). La Niñas/cold SSTs south of the equator tend to have a larger impact than El Niños. We discuss two possible mechanisms that could explain these statistical relationships: (1) subsidence over southern India remotely forced by Pacific SST anomalies; (2) impact of ENSO-forced regional Indian Ocean SST anomalies on convection. However, the length of the observational record does not allow distinguishing between these two mechanisms in a statistically significant manner.

Vialard, J.; Terray, P.; Duvel, J.-P.; Nanjundiah, R. S.; Shenoi, S. S. C.; Shankar, D.

2011-08-01

200

Childhood blindness in India: Causes in 1318 blind school students in nine states  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is estimated that at least 200 000 children in India have severe visual impairment or blindness and approximately 15 000 are in schools for the blind. Although this represents a small percentage of the estimated 5 million blind in India, it is significant in terms of ‘blind-years’ . Strategies to combat childhood blindness require accurate data on the causes

J S Rahi; S Sripathi; C E Gilbert; A Foster

1995-01-01

201

India, China, and the United States in Space: Partners, Competitors, Combatants? A Perspective From the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

India's space program used to fall solely under the civil category, but recently it appears to be expanding its use of space for national security efforts and developing capabilities that could give it an anti-satellite (ASAT) weapon capacity. This shift by India could have long-term consequences for its relationship with China and Asia's overall regional stability; it also may provide

Victoria Samson

2011-01-01

202

Uncertainty in Resilience to Climate Change in India and Indian States  

SciTech Connect

This study builds on an earlier analysis of resilience of India and Indian states to climate change. The previous study (Brenkert and Malone 2005) assessed current resilience; this research uses the Vulnerability-Resilience Indicators Model (VRIM) to project resilience to 2095 and to perform an uncertainty analysis on the deterministic results. Projections utilized two SRES-based scenarios, one with fast-and-high growth, one with delayed growth. A detailed comparison of two states, the Punjab and Orissa, points to the kinds of insights that can be obtained using the VRIM. The scenarios differ most significantly in the timing of the uncertainty in economic prosperity (represented by GDP per capita) as a major factor in explaining the uncertainty in the resilience index. In the fast-and-high growth scenario the states differ most markedly regarding the role of ecosystem sensitivity, land use and water availability. The uncertainty analysis shows, for example, that resilience in the Punjab might be enhanced, especially in the delayed growth scenario, if early attention is paid to the impact of ecosystems sensitivity on environmental well-being of the state. By the same token, later in the century land-use pressures might be avoided if land is managed through intensification rather than extensification of agricultural land. Thus, this methodology illustrates how a policy maker can be informed about where to focus attention on specific issues, by understanding the potential changes at a specific location and time – and, thus, what might yield desired outcomes. Model results can point to further analyses of the potential for resilience-building.

Malone, Elizabeth L.; Brenkert, Antoinette L.

2008-10-03

203

Screening for the sickle cell gene in Chhattisgarh state, India: an approach to a major public health problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to determine the feasibility of large-scale population screening for the sickle cell gene in high\\u000a risk areas with limited resources. A programme designed to detect the sickle cell trait and sickle cell disease has screened\\u000a 359,823 subjects among 2,087 (99.7%) of the villages in Raipur District, Chhattisgarh State, India between October 2007 and\\u000a June

Pradeep K. Patra; Virander S. Chauhan; Prafulla K. Khodiar; Abdul R. Dalla; Graham R. Serjeant

2011-01-01

204

Emerging Capripoxvirus disease outbreaks in Himachal Pradesh, a northern state of India.  

PubMed

Both sheep and goat pox are contagious viral diseases and affect small ruminants and are caused by sheep pox virus and goat pox virus respectively that belong to genus Capripoxvirus of Poxviridae family. Huge economic losses emanating from the disease outbreaks are the results of the wool and hide damage, subsequent production losses and also the morbidities and mortalities associated with the disease. This communication highlights clinico-epidemiological observations from the two sheep pox and one goat pox outbreaks. Grossly, multisystemic nodular lesions, mucopurulent nasal discharges and respiratory symptoms were observed in the affected animals. The morbidity, mortality and case fatality rates were 5.18%, 2.45% and 32.37%, respectively. Histopathological, haematological, molecular and serological techniques and also isolation of virus in embryonated chicken eggs were used for the diagnosis of the diseases. The spatial distribution of the disease signifies the role of common pasturelands used for grazing the animals while temporally all three outbreaks occurred in winters and were probably associated with cold stress and fodder scarcity. This is the first recorded report of Capripoxvirus infection in recent times and it highlights the disease as one of the emerging diseases in the northern state of Himachal Pradesh in India. PMID:21214867

Verma, S; Verma, L K; Gupta, V K; Katoch, V C; Dogra, V; Pal, B; Sharma, M

2010-10-14

205

Gestational diabetes mellitus: advocating for policy change in India.  

PubMed

A multimedia awareness and advocacy campaign for mainstreaming gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the public health domain is described. The multimedia campaign has created awareness about the relevance of GDM to women's health and the health of future generations through direct contact, reaching out to over half a million people in 7 districts of 4 states in northern India. Using mass media, over 3.7 million people have received information on GDM. Through multistakeholder forums, more than 1000 key stakeholders have been encouraged to mainstream GDM into the existing health delivery system. The Indian Ministry of Health has introduced free screening for GDM among the 5 services offered to pregnant women below the poverty line in the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) program. In addition, several state governments, such as in Bihar, Delhi, Jharkhand, and Punjab, have pledged similar initiatives addressing GDM; the Government of Tamil Nadu is already implementing such a policy. Policy development is a complex process that requires action on many fronts. By showcasing evidence, raising awareness, creating public opinion through dialogue and discussion, media can help build a positive environment and momentum for effective policy creation as well as service utilization. PMID:22099441

Madhab, Anand; Prasad, Vishwa Mohan; Kapur, Anil

2011-11-01

206

Culture influences demographic behavior: evidence from India.  

PubMed

Delhi migrants from low socioeconomic classes were compared based on their home origins in north or south India. The two groups differed in cultural beliefs, attitudes, and practices, but they lived in the same resettlement colony and had the same physical access to services and opportunities. Retrospective data was collected from a sample of ever-married women and household heads. Longitudinal data was collected on households with at least two living children younger than 12 in visits once every two weeks over a six-month period. Information was obtained on children's eating patterns, activities, illnesses, and the treatment of their illnesses. Households from Tamil Nadu in the south were more modern, had greater female autonomy, and were open to new ideas. Uttar Pradesh women from the north were more traditional, secluded, and restricted in economic activities. The results showed lower fertility, higher levels of contraceptive use, and earlier ends to childbearing among Tamil Nadu women, who had had more exposure to ideas about smaller family size, healthful childrearing practices, and positive attitudes about contraceptive use. For every 100 Tamil Nadu children who died, 111 Uttar Pradesh children died. Health care practices differed between groups; the urban slum environment was conducive to the spread of gastrointestinal infections among Uttar Pradesh girls discouraged from using the public water taps and toilet facilities. Among the Tamil Nadu migrants, girls actually had lower childhood mortality rates than boys. 115 girls died for every 100 boys among the Uttar Pradesh. The reason may be due to the avoidance or delay of outside medical attention until too late. The conclusion was that the status of women, and their exposure to and interaction with the outside world and control over decision making at home, explained the differences between the two groups. Policy implications are to make programs culturally sensitive for example, providing at-home care for women traditionally sheltered from contact with strangers. PMID:12345406

Greenspan, A

1994-03-01

207

Re-emergence of glanders in India — Report of Maharashtra state  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glanders, a notifiable highly contagious disease primarily of equids, is a disease of high zoonotic importance. Caused by\\u000a gram-negative bacillus, Burkholderia mallei, the disease was restricted to certain pockets of India with sporadic cases. Recently, a major outbreak of glanders occurred\\u000a in India starting from Maharashtra. Following clinical signs and symptoms and laboratory investigations on serum, nasal swab\\u000a and pus

Praveen Malik; S. K. Khurana; S. K. Dwivedi

2010-01-01

208

The state of e-commerce laws in India: a review of Information Technology Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to critically examine the Indian IT Act 2000 and IT (Amendment) Act 2008 in the light of e-commerce perspective to identify the present status of e-commerce laws in India. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper presents a critical reflection on the current e-commerce laws in India. The paper is based on the Indian IT

2010-01-01

209

Hospital based epidemiology of HIV-1 in Bangalore, India.  

PubMed

Of more than 1 million people screened in serosurveillance centers across India, more than 6000 have been found to be infected with HIV. Bombay, Madras, and Manipur are the 3 epicenters of pandemic viral spread. The majority of infected individuals in southern India are in Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra states. HIV-1serology was, however, added to the center in Karnataka state amid reports of rising HIV seroprevalence. St. John's Medical College Hospital is in Bangalore, a rapidly growing city of the state. An ongoing study began screening high-risk groups and blood donors for seroprevalence to HIV in March, 1989. This report presents findings based upon the first 3 years of the study. In all, sera from 26,236 voluntary blood donors and 1364 high-risk group patients were screened with ELISA. 26 seropositives were identified, 17 of which were from Bangalore city and its suburbs; the others were from semi-urban environments. Quite a few were unaware of HIV infection and its implications. Most seropositives were males aged 20-40 years thought to have contracted HIV from heterosexual intercourse, although one admitted to homosexuality. Further, many are frequent travellers due to the nature of their jobs. Of the blood donors, none was seropositive in 1989, 1 in 1990, and 15 in 1992; a similar trend was observed among the high-risk group patients. These findings point to the as-yet modest, but growing, entry of HIV into populations in and around Bangalore. Continuous serosurveillance and vigorous health education of the population are required to stem further HIV infection. PMID:12286958

Muralidharan, S; Kudva, I; Raj, I S; Srinivasa, H; Ray, S; Jayanthi, A; Damodar, P

1992-06-01

210

The Cauvery river basin in southern India: major challenges and possible solutions in the 21st century.  

PubMed

India is facing major challenges in its water resources management (WRM) sector. Water shortages are attributed to issues such as an explosion in population, rapid urbanization and industrialization, environmental degradation and inefficient water use, all aggravated by changing climate and its impacts on demand, supply and water quality. This paper focuses on the contemporary and future situation in the Cauvery river basin in Southern India, shared by different states, predominantly Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. As water issues largely fall under the authority of the states, inter-state water disputes have a long tradition in the Cauvery river basin. Future changes in precipitation during the two monsoon seasons will only increase these tensions. Both states depend on the arrival of these monsoon rains to water their crops and to replenish the groundwater. The paper identifies the major challenges and general possible solutions for sustainable WRM within the river basin. It synthesises the relevant literature, describes practices that should be addressed in the scope of integrated WRM--including water availability increase and demand management--and stresses the need for further quantitative analyses. PMID:22053466

Vanham, D; Weingartner, R; Rauch, W

2011-01-01

211

Current knowledge on the distribution of arsenic in groundwater in five states of India.  

PubMed

Testing of groundwater used for drinking for arsenic has been undertaken more widely by state governments in several states of India in recent years with the support of UNICEF. Available data for five states are collated in this paper and this provides the most up-to-date picture of areas known to be affected by arsenic in groundwater in the Indian portion of the Ganges-Brahmaputra river basin. In West Bengal, water from 132,262 government installed handpumps in 8 districts has been tested and overall 25.5% of samples were found to contain arsenic at concentrations greater than 50 microgL(-1) and 57.9% at concentrations greater than 10 microgL(-1). On the banks of the Brahmaputra in Assam, to date, samples from 5,729 government handpump sources in 22 districts have been tested for arsenic. Overall, samples from 6.3% of sources were found to contain arsenic at concentrations greater than 50 microgL(-1) and 26.1% at concentrations greater than 10 microgL(-1). In Bihar, on the River Ganges upstream of West Bengal, 66,623 sources from 11 districts have been tested and water samples from 10.8% of sources were found to contain arsenic at concentrations greater than 50 microgL(-1) and 28.9% at concentrations greater than 10 microgL(-1). Upstream of Bihar in Uttar Pradesh, home of the Taj Mahal, to date water samples from 20,126 government-installed handpump sources have been tested. As a result 2.4% of the samples tested were found to contain arsenic at concentrations greater than 50 microgL(-1) and 21.5% at concentrations greater than 10 microgL(-1). Finally in one district of Jharkhand, lying on the Ganges alluvial plain between Bihar and West Bengal, 9,007 sources have been tested and water samples from 3.7% of sources were found to contain arsenic at concentrations greater than 50 microgL(-1) and 7.5% at concentrations greater than 10 microgL(-1). State governments have adopted different sampling strategies and these are described in this paper. Testing is ongoing in several states and the complete picture is yet to emerge in some areas. PMID:17952772

Nickson, R; Sengupta, C; Mitra, P; Dave, S N; Banerjee, A K; Bhattacharya, A; Basu, S; Kakoti, N; Moorthy, N S; Wasuja, M; Kumar, M; Mishra, D S; Ghosh, A; Vaish, D P; Srivastava, A K; Tripathi, R M; Singh, S N; Prasad, R; Bhattacharya, S; Deverill, P

2007-10-01

212

Diversity among Clients of Female Sex Workers in India: Comparing Risk Profiles and Intervention Impact by Site of Solicitation. Implications for the Vulnerability of Less Visible Female Sex Workers  

PubMed Central

Background It seems generally accepted that targeted interventions in India have been successful in raising condom use between female sex workers (FSWs) and their clients. Data from clients of FSWs have been under-utilised to analyse the risk environments and vulnerability of both partners. Methods The 2009 Integrated Biological and Behavioural Assessment survey sampled clients of FSWs at hotspots in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu (n=5040). The risk profile of clients in terms of sexual networking and condom use are compared across usual pick-up place. We used propensity score matching (PSM) to estimate the average treatment effect on treated (ATT) of intervention messages on clients’ consistent condom use with FSW. Results Clients of the more hidden sex workers who solicit from home or via phone or agents had more extensive sexual networks, reporting casual female partners as well as anal intercourse with male partners and FSW. Clients of brothel-based sex workers, who were the least educated, reported the fewest number/categories of partners, least anal sex, and lowest condom use (41%). Consistent condom use varied widely by state: 65% in Andhra Pradesh, 36% in Maharashtra and 29% in Tamil Nadu. Exposure to intervention messages on sexually transmitted infections was lowest among men frequenting brothels (58%), and highest among men soliciting less visible sex workers (70%). Exposure had significant impact on consistent condom use, including among clients of home-based sex workers (ATT 21%; p=0.001) and among men soliciting other more hidden FSW (ATT 17%; p=0.001). In Tamil Nadu no impact could be demonstrated. Conclusion Commercial sex happens between two partners and both need to be, and can be, reached by intervention messages. Commercial sex is still largely unprotected and as the sex industry gets more diffuse a greater focus on reaching clients of sex workers seems important given their extensive sexual networks.

Suryawanshi, Dipak; Bhatnagar, Tarun; Deshpande, Sucheta; Zhou, Weiwei; Singh, Pankaj; Collumbien, Martine

2013-01-01

213

Health inequalities among urban children in India: a comparative assessment of Empowered Action Group (EAG) and South Indian states.  

PubMed

As India rapidly urbanizes, within urban areas socioeconomic disparities are rising and health inequality among urban children is an emerging challenge. This paper assesses the relative contribution of socioeconomic factors to child health inequalities between the less developed Empowered Action Group (EAG) states and more developed South Indian states in urban India using data from the 2005-06 National Family Health Survey. Focusing on urban health from varying regional and developmental contexts, socioeconomic inequalities in child health are examined first using Concentration Indices (CIs) and then the contributions of socioeconomic factors to the CIs of health variables are derived. The results reveal, in order of importance, pronounced contributions of household economic status, parent's illiteracy and caste to urban child health inequalities in the South Indian states. In contrast, parent's illiteracy, poor economic status, being Muslim and child birth order 3 or more are major contributors to health inequalities among urban children in the EAG states. The results suggest the need to adopt different health policy interventions in accordance with the pattern of varying contributions of socioeconomic factors to child health inequalities between the more developed South Indian states and less developed EAG states. PMID:22643297

Arokiasamy, P; Jain, Kshipra; Goli, Srinivas; Pradhan, Jalandhar

2012-05-29

214

Sensitivity analysis of seismic hazard for the northwestern portion of the state of Gujarat, India  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We test the sensitivity of seismic hazard to three fault source models for the northwestern portion of Gujarat, India. The models incorporate different characteristic earthquake magnitudes on three faults with individual recurrence intervals of either 800 or 1600 years. These recurrence intervals imply that large earthquakes occur on one of these faults every 266-533 years, similar to the rate of historic large earthquakes in this region during the past two centuries and for earthquakes in intraplate environments like the New Madrid region in the central United States. If one assumes a recurrence interval of 800 years for large earthquakes on each of three local faults, the peak ground accelerations (PGA; horizontal) and 1-Hz spectral acceleration ground motions (5% damping) are greater than 1 g over a broad region for a 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years' hazard level. These probabilistic PGAs at this hazard level are similar to median deterministic ground motions. The PGAs for 10% in 50 years' hazard level are considerably lower, generally ranging between 0.2 g and 0.7 g across northwestern Gujarat. Ground motions calculated from our models that consider fault interevent times of 800 years are considerably higher than other published models even though they imply similar recurrence intervals. These higher ground motions are mainly caused by the application of intraplate attenuation relations, which account for less severe attenuation of seismic waves when compared to the crustal interplate relations used in these previous studies. For sites in Bhuj and Ahmedabad, magnitude (M) 7 3/4 earthquakes contribute most to the PGA and the 0.2- and 1-s spectral acceleration ground motion maps at the two considered hazard levels. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Petersen, M. D.; Rastogi, B. K.; Schweig, E. S.; Harmsen, S. C.; Gomberg, J. S.

2004-01-01

215

State of municipal solid waste management in Delhi, the capital of India.  

PubMed

Delhi is the most densely populated and urbanized city of India. The annual growth rate in population during the last decade (1991-2001) was 3.85%, almost double the national average. Delhi is also a commercial hub, providing employment opportunities and accelerating the pace of urbanization, resulting in a corresponding increase in municipal solid waste (MSW) generation. Presently the inhabitants of Delhi generate about 7000tonnes/day of MSW, which is projected to rise to 17,000-25,000tonnes/day by the year 2021. MSW management has remained one of the most neglected areas of the municipal system in Delhi. About 70-80% of generated MSW is collected and the rest remains unattended on streets or in small open dumps. Only 9% of the collected MSW is treated through composting, the only treatment option, and rest is disposed in uncontrolled open landfills at the outskirts of the city. The existing composting plants are unable to operate to their intended treatment capacity due to several operational problems. Therefore, along with residue from the composting process, the majority of MSW is disposed in landfills. In absence of leachate and landfill gas collection systems, these landfills are a major source of groundwater contamination and air pollution (including generation of greenhouse gases). This study describes and evaluates the present state of municipal solid waste management in Delhi. The paper also summarizes the proposed policies and initiatives of the Government of Delhi and the Municipal Corporation of Delhi to improve the existing MSW management system. PMID:17692510

Talyan, Vikash; Dahiya, R P; Sreekrishnan, T R

2007-08-09

216

Genetic diversity and population structure of rice landraces from Eastern and North Eastern States of India  

PubMed Central

Background Adaptations to different habitats across the globe and consequent genetic variation within rice have resulted in more than 120,000 diverse accessions including landraces, which are vital genetic resources for agronomic and quality traits. In India the rice landraces of the states West Bengal, Assam, Mizoram, Manipur and Nagaland are worthy candidates for genetic assessment. Keeping the above in view, the present study was conducted with the aim to (i) calculate the genetic distances among the accessions of 83 landraces collected from these states along with 8 check accessions (total 91 accessions) using 23 previously mapped SSR markers and (ii) examine the population structure among the accessions using model-based clustering approach. Results Among the 91 accessions, 182 alleles were identified which included 51 rare and 27 null alleles. The average PIC value was 0.7467/marker. The non-aromatic landraces from West Bengal was most diverse with 154 alleles and an average PIC value of 0.8005/marker, followed by the aromatic landraces from West Bengal with 118 alleles and an average PIC value of 0.6524/marker, while the landraces from North East ranked third with 113 alleles and an average PIC value of 0.5745/marker. In the dendrogram distinct clusters consisting of predominantly aromatic landraces and predominantly North East Indian landraces were observed. The non-aromatic landraces from West Bengal were interspersed within these two clusters. The accessions were moderately structured, showing four sub-populations (A-D) with an Fst value of 0.398, 0.364, 0.206 and 0.281, respectively. The assigned clustering of accessions was well in agreement in both distance-based and model-based approaches. Conclusions Each of the accessions could be identified unequivocally by the SSR profiles. Genetically the non aromatic landraces from West Bengal were most diverse followed by the aromatic landraces from the same state. The North Eastern accessions ranked third. Further, grouping of accessions based on their agronomic traits may serve as a resource for future studies, leading to the improvement of rice. Moreover in-situ preservation of the landraces is also a means of protection of biodiversity and cultural heritage.

2013-01-01

217

Characteristics of nearshore marine tsunami sediments from SE coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geologic records of tsunami deposits on coastal lands have been studied along the southeast coast of India. The December, 2004 tsunami sediments deposited in marine environment of Tamil Nadu State on the southeast coast of India were sampled within 5 days after the tsunami event and the samples were compared with the samples collected from the same locations 30 days before tsunami. Two core samples and 10 surface sediment samples were collected along two transects. The change in the bathymetry along transects, between pre and post tsunami conditions indicate both erosion and deposition in the continental shelf. Overall, there were erosion at 20 m water depth and deposition at 5 to 10 m water depth. The core samples collected from 20 m water depth show an abrupt change in sediment characteristics at 25 cm depth. A sand sheet is observed up to 25 cm depth and it has been recognized as tsunami deposit. The deposits are also enriched in heavy minerals, low in organic carbon, broken foraminiferal species, abraded test species indicating large amount of backwash from the land area.

Jonathan, M.; Srinivasalu, S.; Thangadurai, N.; Ram-Mohan, V.

2007-05-01

218

Power to the People of India: U.S. Nuclear Cooperation with India.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This article argues that the proposed U.S.-India civilian nuclear cooperation has significant merit, promising tangible energy, economic, and security benefits to India, the United States and the wider international community. India's acute energy needs a...

M. Bucknam

2007-01-01

219

State Security and Elite Capture: The Implementation of Antiterrorist Legislation in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the wake of the terrorist attacks on Mumbai in November 2008, India enacted new and tougher anti-terrorism laws that took effect in 2009—the Unlawful Activities (Prevention Amendment Act of 2008 (UAPA), and the National Investigation Agency Act of 2008 (NIA). This paper examines the current challenges facing the Indian Government in the implementation of these laws, in light of

Manoj Mate; Adnan Naseemullah

2010-01-01

220

Developing a sustainable phytomanagement strategy for excessive selenium in Western United States and India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytomanagement technology is recognized as an inexpensive and environmental friendly strategy for managing natural-occurring selenium (Se) in soils and in poor quality waters. Multi-year field and greenhouse studies were conducted with different plant species in California, USA and Punjab, India under high Se growing conditions. Some of the plant species included; canola (Brassica napus), mustard (B. juncea), broccoli (B. oleracea),

G. S. Bañuelos; K. S. Dhillon

2011-01-01

221

Paths to the future for science and technology in China, India and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

China and India are frequently referred to as emerging superpowers. First, we present evidence that by virtue of their economic strength, their ability to absorb and adapt to repeated foreign intrusions, and their cultural reach, both countries should be more properly regarded as re-emerging superpowers. They qualified for that status even when the Roman Empire was at its peak, and

J. Thomas Ratchford; William A. Blanpied

2008-01-01

222

Communication Behavior of Village Level Workers in Surat and Mehsana Districts, Gujarat State, India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated communication patterns, procedures, and background characteristics associated with effectiveness in village level workers (VLWs) in two districts of Gujarat, India. Questionnaire interviews were held with 222 VLWs who had induced farmers to adopt one or more farm practices. An appraisal form was used to measure the…

Patel, Ishwarlal Chaturdas

223

Perceptions of drudgery in agricultural and animal husbandry operations: a gender analysis from Haryana State, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines the involvement and drudgery profile of rural women and men in agricultural and animal husbandry activities in India. The activities assigned to men were those which were considered to demand greater physical power, skill and performance. The activities assigned to women were considered to demand less physical power, lower skill and more time. They were also monotonous

Sonika Thakur; Shashi Kanta Varma; Patricia A. Goldey

2001-01-01

224

The State as Surrogate Parent: Legislating Nonmarital Sex in Colonial India, 1911“1929  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay reviews the raising of the age of consent for nonmarital sexual relations in early twentieth century India. Historians have exhaustively studied how child marriage came to be restricted, but have largely overlooked a parallel set of legal efforts to raise the age of consent for sex outside marriage. Reformists in the 1910s and 1920s steadily increased the minimum

Ashwini Tambe

2009-01-01

225

Population-based seroprevalence of HSV2 and syphilis in Andhra Pradesh state of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Understanding the prevalence and risk factors for common causes of ulcerative genital disease in the general population would inform current STI syndromic management and HIV testing strategies in high HIV prevalence regions of India. METHODS: Persons 15-49 years old from 32 rural and 34 urban clusters were sampled using a stratified random method to represent adults in the high

John A Schneider; Vemu Lakshmi; Rakhi Dandona; G Anil Kumar; Talasila Sudha; Lalit Dandona

2010-01-01

226

SOCIAL JUSTICE AND FISHERIES GOVERNANCE: THE VIEW FROM INDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indian fisheries are at a turning point. To date, Indian fisheries policies have emphasised production at the expense of allocation and, indeed, even effort restrictions. On the basis of original ethnographic data and secondary sources, we show how this has led to conflict between sectors and exacerbated pressures on marine living resources in the states of Tamil Nadu and Gujarat.

Derek Johnson; Maarten Bavinck

227

State Policies and Women's Autonomy in China, the Republic of Korea, and India, 1950-2000: Lessons from Contrasting Experiences. Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper compares the influence of state policies on gender roles and women's empowerment in China, India, and South Korea. In 1950, these newly formed states were largely poor and agrarian, with common cultural factors that placed similar severe constraints on women's autonomy. The three countries followed very different paths of development,…

Das Gupta, Monica; Lee, Sunhwa; Uberoi, Patricia; Wang, Danning; Wang, Lihong; Zhang, Xiaodan

228

The Externalities of Strong Social Capital: Post-Tsunami Recovery in Southeast India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much research has implied that social capital functions as an unqualified ‘public good’, enhancing governance, economic performance, and quality-of-life. Scholars of disaster have extended this concept to posit that social capital provides non-excludable benefits to whole communities after major crises. Using qualitative methods to analyse data from villages in Tamil Nadu, India following the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, this article

Daniel P. Aldrich

2011-01-01

229

Groundwater geochemistry and identification of hydrogeochemical processes in a hard rock region, Southern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogeochemical investigations were carried out in Chithar River basin, Tamil Nadu, India to identify the major geochemical\\u000a processes that regulate groundwater chemistry. For this study, long-term (1991–1997) and recent water quality data (2001–2002)\\u000a for 30 groundwater wells spread over the study area were used to understand the groundwater geochemistry and hydrogeochemical\\u000a process regulating groundwater quality. Groundwater quality data obtained from

T. Subramani; N. Rajmohan; L. Elango

2010-01-01

230

Preschool Quality and the Development of Children From Economically Disadvantaged Families in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research Findings: The influence of preschool quality on the development of 67 4-year-old children from poor and rural families in South India was examined. Children's developmental status was assessed using a modified version of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities and through physician ratings. Preschool quality was assessed through repeated systematic observations and using the Tamil Nadu Early Childhood Environment

Nirmala Rao

2010-01-01

231

The state of health services in China and India: a larger context.  

PubMed

In this paper the problems of health services in China and India are related to some structural features of the two economies. Some similarities and differences exist across these two countries in terms of political economy, with differential results. Both countries have experienced remarkable economic growth during the past quarter-century, but this has not always translated into improvements in health for the poor. Although China used to have an egalitarian basic public health service, the system has become quite inegalitarian during the past quarter-century, with the disintegration of the communes and adoption of fee-based services under a system of decentralized public finance. India's health system has remained inegalitarian throughout. PMID:18607025

Bardhan, Pranab

232

Modern India's Strategic Advantage to the United States: Her Twin Strengths in Himsa and Ahimsa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The notions of just war (jus-in-bello) and just peace (jus-in-pace), with himsa (the use of force) and ahimsa (nonviolence) are not new. They were conceptualized in Eastern Philosophy in early Hindu texts like the Vedas and the Bhagavad Gita. The theoretical concept of himsa and the Gandhian principle of ahimsa has been actualized in modern India. Both streams of thinking

Breena E. Coates

2008-01-01

233

The United States–India Nuclear Relations after 9\\/11: Alternative Discourses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, I go beyond the conventional realist arguments of anarchy, national interest, and nuclear security to offer alternative discourses of the same as applied in the context of US–India nuclear relations after 9\\/11. To this extent, I draw from feminist International Relations, that security is a gendered phenomenon, to explore how the post-9\\/11 climate of globalization has served

Runa Das

2012-01-01

234

Infection control in delivery care units, Gujarat state, India: A needs assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Increasingly, women in India attend health facilities for childbirth, partly due to incentives paid under government programs.\\u000a Increased use of health facilities can alleviate the risks of infections contracted in unhygienic home deliveries, but poor\\u000a infection control practices in labour and delivery units also cause puerperal sepsis and other infections of childbirth. A\\u000a needs assessment was conducted to provide information

Rajesh Mehta; Dileep V Mavalankar; KV Ramani; Sheetal Sharma; Julia Hussein

2011-01-01

235

Course and outcome of acute non-organic psychotic states in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of the diagnoses and short-term course of acute psychotic illnesses—affective as well as nonaffective—in a developing country setting. In the Chandigarh Acute Psychosis Study (CAPS) in Northern India, a cohort of 91 cases of acute psychotic illness were assessed for symptoms, diagnosis, and course ratings at multiple intervals over a 12 month period; cases were

Vijoy K. Varma; Savita Malhotra; Eun S. Yoo; Ram C. Jiloha; Molly T. Finnerty; Ezra Susser

1996-01-01

236

Postcards from India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews children and adults living in rural areas in the state of Uttar Pradesh in northern India regarding education, revealing individuals' hopes and dreams against a backdrop of severe class, caste, and gender stratification. Examines the promise of schooling and literacy in India, the relationship of schooling and literacy to work, and of…

Sahni, Urvashi

1999-01-01

237

Nutrition transition in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The primary objective of this review is to examine the demographic and nutrition transition in India in relation to its contribution to the emerging epidemic of chronic non-communicable diseases in this country. Setting: India, the country as a whole and its different states with a population exceeding 1 billion in 2001. Subjects: The review examines demographic changes in the

Prakash S Shetty

2002-01-01

238

ADULT EDUCATION IN INDIA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

AGAINST A BACKGROUND OF MASS ILLITERACY, POOR PAY AND STATUS OF TEACHERS, AND AN ALIEN EDUCATION PATTERN, THE STATE GOVERNMENTS OF INDIA HAVE PROVIDED SOCIAL EDUCATION FOR CITIZENSHIP AS WELL AS LITERACY. INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP METHODS HAVE BEEN USED, VIDYAPEETHS (RESIDENTIAL COLLEGES) AND EDUCATIONAL CENTERS HAVE BEEN SET UP, AND ALL INDIA RADIO…

STYLER, W.E.

239

Genesis of wollastonite- and grandite-rich skarns in a suite of marble-calc-silicate rocks from Sittampundi, Tamil Nadu: constraints on the P-T-fluid regime in parts of the Pan-African mobile belt of South India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pan-African tectonothermal activities in areas near Sittampundi, south India, are characterized by metamorphic changes in an interlayered sequence of migmatitic metapelites, marble and calc-silicate rocks. This rock sequence underwent multiple episodes of folding, and was intruded by granite batholiths during and subsequent to these folding events. The marble and the calc-silicate rocks develop a variety of skarns, which on the basis of mineralogy; can be divided into the following types: Type I: wollastonite + clinopyroxene (mg# = 71-73) + grandite (16-21 mol% Adr) + quartz ± calcite, Type II: grandite (25-29 mol% Adr ) + clinopyroxene (mg# = 70) + calcite + quartz, and Type III: grandite (36-38 mol% Adr) + clinopyroxene (mg# = 55-65) + epidote + scapolite + calcite + quartz. Type I skarn is 2-10 cm thick, and is dominated by wollastonite ( >70 vol%) and commonly occurs as boudinaged layers parallel to the regional foliation Sn1 related to the Fn1 folds. Locally, thin discontinuous lenses and stringers of this skarn develop along the axial planes of Fn2 folds. The Type II skarn, on the other hand, is devoid of wollastonite, rich in grandite garnet (40-70 vol%) and developed preferentially at the interface of clinopyroxene-rich calc-silicates layers and host marble during the later folding event. Reaction textures and the phase compositional data suggest the following reactions in the skarns: 1. calcite + SiO2 ? wollastonite + V, 2. calcite + clinopyroxene + O2 ? grandite + SiO2 + V, 3. scapolite + calcite + quartz + clinopyroxene + O2 ? grandite + V and 4. epidote + calcite + quartz + clinopyroxene + O2 ? grandite + V Textural relations and composition of phases demonstrate that (a) silica metasomatism of the host marble by infiltration of aqueous fluids (XCO2 < 0.15) led to production of large volumes of wollastonite in the wollastonite-rich skarn whereas mobility of FeO, SiO2 and CaO across the interface of marble and calc-silicate and infiltration of aqueous fluids (XCO2 < 0.35) were instrumental for the formation of grandite skarns. Composition of minerals in type II skarn indicates that Al2O3 was introduced in the host marble by the infiltrating fluid. Interpretation of mineral assemblages observed in the interlayered metapelites and the calcareous rocks in pseudosections, isothermal P-XCO2 and isobaric T-XCO2 diagrams tightly bracket the “peak” metamorphic conditions at c.9 ± 1 kbar and 750° ± 30°C. Subsequent to ‘peak’ metamorphic conditions, the rocks were exhumed on a steeply decompressive P-T path. The estimated ‘peak’ P-T estimates are inconsistent with the “extreme” metamorphic conditions (>11 kbar and >950°C) inferred for the Pan-African tectonothermal events from the neighboring areas. Field and petrological attributes of these skarn rocks are consistent with the infiltration of aqueous fluid predominantly during the Fn1 folding event at or close to the ‘peak’ metamorphic conditions. Petrological features indicate that the buffering capacity of the rocks was lost during the formation of type I and II skarns. However, the host rock could buffer the composition of the permeated fluids during the formation of type III skarn. Aqueous fluids derived from prograde metamorphism of the metapelites seem to be the likely source for the metasomatic fluids that led to the formation of the skarn rocks.

Sengupta, P.; Dutta, U.; Bhui, Uttam K.; Mukhopadhyay, D.

2009-03-01

240

The relationship between physical intimate partner violence and sexually transmitted infection among women in India and the United States.  

PubMed

To investigate the association between physical intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexually transmitted infection (STI) in two national samples. Data came from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions Wave 2 (n = 34,653) and the National Family Health Survey-3 (n = 124 385). Ever-married women between the ages of 20 and 49 were asked if they had experienced physical violence by their partner in the past year. Outcomes were presence of doctor confirmed HIV and self-reported STI. Age at first intercourse was examined as a mediator of the relationship between IPV and STI. Logistic regression examined associations between IPV, age at first intercourse and STI. Compared to individuals with no physical IPV, risk for STI was higher for individuals who experienced past year IPV living in the United States and India, however once controlling for age at first intercourse, age, education, household wealth/income and past year sexual violence, the relationship between IPV, and STI was significant in the American sample [(AOR) = 1.65, 95% (CI) = 1.21-2.26], however not for individuals living in India [(AOR) = 1.75, 95% (CI) = 0.84-3.65]. Individuals with exposure to physical IPV are at increased odds for STI. Age at first intercourse although a marker of risk, may not be an accurate marker of risky sexual behavior in both samples. PMID:23778315

Spiwak, Rae; Afifi, Tracie O; Halli, Shiva; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia; Sareen, Jitender

2013-06-17

241

Complex Behaviour of Glaciers in Ladakh Mountains (J & K State, India) : Case Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ladakh Mountains house approximately 4500 glaciers in its two major basins, namely Indus (1800 glaciers) and Shyok (2700 glaciers).Glaciers in Indian Himalaya have been under monitor for past about five decades. Monitoring of scores of glaciers have been both in terms of documentary record and field studies of the glaciers in northwest Himalaya. The studies suggest that glaciers of Ladakh mountains show an extremely different behavior as compared to the glaciers of rest of northwest Himalaya. Four glaciers, namely Durung Drung, Kangriz, Machoi and Siachen, representing the Indus and Shyok basin are dealt herein. Sufficient documentary and field evidences of these four glaciers support the view that glaciers housed in Ladakh mountains contradict the commonly accepted concept of fast melting glaciers in Himalaya (Ganjoo and Koul 2009; Ganjoo et al. 2010). The studies further suggest that the secular movement of glaciers in Ladakh mountains is a complex phenomena of several micro and macro-climatic factors, terrain morphology, and tectonics (Ganjoo 2009, Koul and Ganjoo 2010). The change in the morphology of glaciers is not necessarily related with the change in climate as commonly believed and hyped. Ganjoo, R.K. (2009) Holocene Tectonics and Climate of Durung Drung Glacier Basin, Zanskar Himalaya, India (Abstract). The 5th International Symposium on Tibetan Plateau and 24th Himalaya- Karakorum-Tibet Workshop, Aug. 11-14, Beijing, China. Ganjoo, R.K. and Koul, M.N. (2009) Is the Siachen glacier melting? Current Science, 97(3), 309-310. Ganjoo, RK; Koul, MN; Ajai; Bahuguna, IM (2010) Glaciers of Nubra valley, Karakorum mountains, Ladakh (India) vis-à-vis climate change (abstract). 7th Annual Meeting of Asia Oceania Geosciences Society, Hyderabad. Koul, M.N. and Ganjoo, R.K. (2010) Impact of inter- and intra-annual variation in weather parameters on mass balance and equilibrium line altitude of Naradu glacier (Himachal Pradesh), NW Himalaya, India. Climatic Change, 99, 119-139.

Ganjoo, R. K.

2011-12-01

242

Freshwater greenhouse gas emissions and their implications on landscape level carbon balances in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from global freshwaters are important sources of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. It has been estimated that about 0.65 Pg of C (CO2 equiv.) yr-1 in the form of CH4 and 1.4 Pg C yr -1 in the form of CO2 is being emitted from global freshwaters. Therefore, including freshwater emissions in the greenhouse gas budgets in the national or global levels could significantly reduce the estimated land carbon sink, but present estimates suffer from lack of data, in particular from tropical freshwaters. Hence, we attempted to test the validity of the land carbon sink estimate in India, a tropical country with a large number of natural and man-made water bodies. We measured the CH4 and CO2 fluxes and surface water concentrations from a wide variety of inland freshwaters like lakes, ponds, rivers, reservoirs, open wells, canals and springs in three South Indian states, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh. We observed that almost all of these freshwater systems emitted varied amounts of CH4 and a majority of them emitted CO2, similar to other tropical locations in South America. We extrapolated the measured fluxes for the whole of Indian inland waters by using the total area of different categories of inland waters in the national wetland atlas of India. By comparing our estimates of aquatic fluxes with the national greenhouse gas budget, we show that the land carbon sink of India is substantially overestimated. Thus, freshwater emissions are important components of greenhouse gas budgets on a landscape level and it is necessary to incorporate them in national and global greenhouse gas budgets to accurately quantify the land carbon sink.

Panneer Selvam, B.; Natchimuthu, S.; Arunachalam, L.; Bastviken, D.

2012-04-01

243

STRUCTURAL DAMAGES ON THE COAST OF TAMIL NADU DUE TO TSUNAMI CAUSED BY DECEMBER 26, 2004 SUMATRA EARTHQUAKE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The December 26, 2004 Sumatra earthquake of Moment Magnitude Mw = 9.3, the largest earthquake in the world since the 1964 Prince William Sound, Alaska earthquake, generated a widespread tsunami. Soon after the earthquake, the authors visited Tamil Nadu and Pondicherry for a damage survey. This paper describes the structural aspects of damages caused on the coast of Tamil Nadu.

B. K. Maheshwari; M. L. Sharma; J. P. Narayan

244

The Screening India's Twin Epidemic: Study design and methodology (SITE-1)  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The recent years have seen a surge in the prevalence of both diabetes and hypertension. Significant demographic variations reported on the prevalence patterns of diabetes and hypertension in India establish a clear need for a nation-wide surveillance study. The Screening India's Twin Epidemic (SITE) study aimed at collecting information on the prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes and hypertension cases in outpatient settings in major Indian states to better understand disease management, as well as to estimate the extent of underlying risk factors. Materials and Methods: During 2009–2010, SITE was conducted in eight states, in waves – one state at a time. It was planned to recruit about 2000 patients from 100 centers per wave. Each center enrolled the first 10 eligible patients (?18 years of age, not pregnant, signed data release consent form, and ready to undergo screening tests) per day on two consecutive days. Patient demographics, medical history, and laboratory investigation results were collected and statistically interpreted. The protocol defined diabetes and hypertension as per the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7) recommendations, respectively. Results: After the first two pilot phases in Maharashtra and Delhi, the protocol was refined and the laboratory investigations were simplified to be further employed for all other states, namely, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, and Gujarat. Conclusion: SITE's nation-wide approach will provide a real-world perspective on diabetes and hypertension and its contributing risk factors. Results from the study will raise awareness on the need for early diagnosis and management of these diseases to reduce complications.

Joshi, Shashank R.; Vadivale, Muruga; Dalal, Jamshed J.; Das, Ashok Kumar

2011-01-01

245

Groundwater arsenic contamination in Manipur, one of the seven North-Eastern Hill states of India: a future danger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manipur State, with a population of 2.29 million, is one of the seven North-Eastern Hill states in India, and is severely affected by groundwater arsenic contamination. Manipur has nine districts out of which four are in Manipur Valley where 59% of the people live on 10% of the land. These four districts are all arsenic contaminated. We analysed water samples from 628 tubewells for arsenic out of an expected total 2,014 tubewells in the Manipur Valley. Analyzed samples, 63.3%, contained >10 ?g/l of arsenic, 23.2% between 10 and 50 ?g/l, and 40% >50 ?g/l. The percentages of contaminated wells above 10 and 50 ?g/l are higher than in other arsenic affected states and countries of the Ganga-Meghna-Brahmaputra (GMB) Plain. Unlike on the GMB plains, in Manipur there is no systematic relation between arsenic concentration and the depth of tubewells. The source of arsenic in GMB Plain is sediments derived from the Himalaya and surrounding mountains. North-Eastern Hill states were formed at late phase of Himalaya orogeny, and so it will be found in the future that groundwater arsenic contamination in the valleys of other North-Eastern Hill states. Arsenic contaminated aquifers in Manipur Valley are mainly located within the Newer Alluvium. In Manipur, the high rainfall and abundant surface water resources can be exploited to avoid repeating the mass arsenic poisoning that has occurred on the GMB plains.

Chakraborti, Dipankar; Singh, E. Jayantakumar; Das, Bhaskar; Shah, Babar Ali; Hossain, M. Amir; Nayak, Bishwajit; Ahamed, Sad; Singh, N. Rajmuhon

2008-11-01

246

India’s middlemen: connecting by corrupting?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of India’s corruption involves middlemen: go-betweens who bring citizens’ cases to the attention of state officials,\\u000a producing results – for a price. Citizens pay bribes, often for benefits for which they already qualify, and much (but not\\u000a all) of that money is passed on to officials by the middleman. On its face such arrangements would seem to benefit no

Jyoti Khanna; Michael Johnston

2007-01-01

247

Can India’s “literate” read?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper takes a close look at India’s literacy rate by exploring whether the officially “literate” can read and at what\\u000a level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was\\u000a the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading Method (RM) which

Brij Kothari; Tathagata Bandyopadhyay

2010-01-01

248

WOMEN'S MOVEMENTS AND STATE POLICY REFORM AIMED AT DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN:A Comparison of the Consequences of Movement Mobilization in the U.S. and India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article compares the social movement mobilization that led to reforms in police and judicial handling of battering in the United States to the movement ideology, organization, and tactics that resulted in analogous policy reform in the processing of dowry burnings and beatings in India. Using field notes and secondary sources from both countries, the article examines how both movements

DIANE MITSCH BUSH

1992-01-01

249

Cultural Conditioning: Understanding Interpersonal Accommodation in India and the United States in Terms of the Modal Characteristics of Interpersonal Influence Situations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We argue that differences between the landscapes of influence situations in Indian and American societies induce Indians to accommodate to others more often than Americans. To investigate cultural differences in situation-scapes, we sampled interpersonal influence situations occurring in India and the United States from both the influencee's (Study 1) and the influencer's (Study 2) perspectives. We found that Indian influence

Krishna Savani; Michael W. Morris; N. V. R. Naidu; Satishchandra Kumar; Neha V. Berlia

2011-01-01

250

Factoring social and cultural dimensions into food and livelihood security issues of marine fisheries: A case study of Kerala state, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the social and cultural aspects of marine fishing communities, as they emerge in the course of the pursuit for food and livelihood, are the subjects of this paper. The focus is on the marine fishery of Kerala State, India and attempts to show how these dimensions evolved in the context of very specific resource and ecological determinants. Social

John Kurien

2000-01-01

251

A Population-Based Assessment of Presbyopia in the State of Andhra Pradesh, South India: The Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. To determine the prevalence of presbyopia in the state of Andhra Pradesh in south India. METHODS. Comprehensive ocular examinations including log- MAR (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution) distance and near (presenting and best corrected) visual acuity, slit lamp biomicroscopy of the anterior segment, and dilated posterior segment examinations were performed using a standardized protocol for subjects identified

Praveen K. Nirmalan; Sannapaneni Krishnaiah; Bindiganavale R. Shamanna; Gullapalli N. Rao; Ravi Thomas

252

Factors associated with history of drug use among female sex workers (FSW) in a high HIV prevalence state of India  

PubMed Central

Background The intersection between illicit drug use and female commercial sex work has been identified as an important factor responsible for rising HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSW) in several northeastern states of India. But, little is know about the factors associated with the use of drugs among FSWs in this region. The objective of the paper was to describe the factors associated with history of drug use among FSWs in Dimapur, an important commercial hub of Nagaland, which is a high HIV prevalence state of India. Methods FSWs were recruited using respondent driven sampling (RDS), and were interviewed to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics and HIV risk behaviours. Biological samples were tested for HIV, syphilis gonorrhea and Chlamydia. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with drug use. Results Among the 426 FSWs in the study, about 25% (n?=?107) reported having ever used illicit drugs. Among 107 illicit drug users, 83 (77.6%) were non-injecting and 24 (22.4%) were injecting drug users. Drug-using FSWs were significantly more likely to test positive for one or more STIs (59% vs. 33.5%), active syphilis (27.1% vs. 11.4%) and Chlamydia infection (30% vs. 19.9%) compared to their non-drug using peers. Drug-using FSWs were also significantly more likely to be currently married, widowed or separated compared with non-drug-using FSWs. In multiple logistic regression analysis, being an alcohol user, being married, having a larger volume of clients, and having sexual partners who have ever used or shared injecting drugs were found to be independently associated with illicit drug use. Conclusions Drug-using FSWs were more vulnerable to STIs including HIV compared to their non-drug using peers. Several important factors associated with being an FSW who uses drugs were identified in this study and this knowledge can be used to plan more effectively targeted harm reduction strategies and programs.

2012-01-01

253

Comparison of some sediment-hosted, stratiform barite deposits in China, the United States, and India  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Shifts in world barite production since the 1980s have resulted in China becoming the world's largest barite-producing country followed by the US and India. Most barite produced for use in drilling fluids is derived from black shale- and chert-hosted, stratiform marine deposits. In China, Late Proterozoic to Early Cambrian marine barite deposits occur on the oceanic margins of the Yangtze platform, in the Qinling region in the north and the Jiangnan region in the south. Most US ore-grade deposits are in the Nevada barite belt; most commercial deposits occur in Ordovician and Devonian marine rocks along the western margin of the early Paleozoic North American continent. Production in India is predominantly from a single Middle Proterozoic deposit in a sedimentary basin located on Archean basement in Andrah Pradesh.The geologic and geochemical characteristics of the deposits are consistent with origins from a variety of sedimentary-exhalative processes, with biogenic processes contributing to the concentration of some seafloor barite. Linear distributions of clusters of lenticular deposits suggest a geographic relationship to syndepositional seafloor fault zones. Sulfur isotope data of the barite deposits range from values that are similar to coeval seawater sulfate to significantly higher ??34S values. Strontium isotope values of continental-margin-type deposits in Nevada and China are less radiogenic than those of cratonic-rift deposits (e.g. Meggen and Rammelsberg). Comparison of Lan/ Cen ratios of barite in the Qinling region of China with marine chert ratios suggests a relationship to hydrothermal fluids, whereas ratios from the Jiangnan region and Nevada can be interpreted as reflecting a biogenic influence.The California Borderland provides a potential modern analog where hydrothermal barium is being deposited on the seafloor in fault-block-bounded basins. Anoxic to dysaerobic conditions on some marine basin floors result from upwelling, nutrient-rich currents and high productivity in surface waters. In this setting, biogenic processes could contribute to the concentration of barium from hydrothermal sources. ?? 2003 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Clark, S. H. B.; Poole, F. G.; Wang, Z.

2004-01-01

254

Impact of riparian land use on stream insects of Kudremukh National Park, Karnataka state, India.  

PubMed

The impact of riparian land use on the stream insect communities was studied at Kudremukh National Park located within Western Ghats, a tropical biodiversity hotspot in India. The diversity and community composition of stream insects varied across streams with different riparian land use types. The rarefied family and generic richness was highest in streams with natural semi evergreen forests as riparian vegetation. However, when the streams had human habitations and areca nut plantations as riparian land use type, the rarefied richness was higher than that of streams with natural evergreen forests and grasslands. The streams with scrub lands and iron ore mining as the riparian land use had the lowest rarefied richness. Within a landscape, the streams with the natural riparian vegetation had similar community composition. However, streams with natural grasslands as the riparian vegetation, had low diversity and the community composition was similar to those of paddy fields. We discuss how stream insect assemblages differ due to varied riparian land use patterns, reflecting fundamental alterations in the functioning of stream ecosystems. This understanding is vital to conserve, manage and restore tropical riverine ecosystems. PMID:17119631

Subramanian, K A; Sivaramakrishnan, K G; Gadgil, Madhav

2005-12-31

255

Report: Hospital waste management--awareness and practices: a study of three states in India.  

PubMed

The study was conducted in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh in India. Hospitals/nursing homes and private medical practitioners in urban as well as rural areas and those from the private as well as the government sector were covered. Information on (a) awareness of bio-medical waste management rules, (b) training undertaken and (c) practices with respect to segregation, use of colour coding, sharps management, access to common waste management facilities and disposal was collected. Awareness of Bio-medical Waste Management Rules was better among hospital staff in comparison with private medical practitioners and awareness was marginally higher among those in urban areas in comparison with those in rural areas. Training gained momentum only after the dead-line for compliance was over. Segregation and use of colour codes revealed gaps, which need correction. About 70% of the healthcare facilities used a needle cutter/destroyer for sharps management. Access to Common Waste Management facilities was low at about 35%. Dumping biomedical waste on the roads outside the hospital is still prevalent and access to Common Waste facilities is still limited. Surveillance, monitoring and penal machinery was found to be deficient and these require strengthening to improve compliance with the Bio-medical Waste Management Rules and to safeguard the health of employees, patients and communities. PMID:18649579

Rao, P Hanumantha

2008-06-01

256

Malaria epidemiology along Indo-Bangladesh border in Tripura State, India.  

PubMed

Malaria epidemiological surveys were conducted in 16 villages along the Indo-Bangladesh border in Tripura, northeastern India. Insecticide resistance among malaria vectors and chloroquine resistance in the parasite were also studied along with monitoring of vector density using light traps. The epidemiological data indicated that malaria incidence was highest during June-July and lowest during November. Examination of blood smears collected through door to door surveys indicated slide positivity rate (SPR) of 25.2% and that Plasmodium falciparum was the predominant parasite (slide falciparum rate of 22.3%). The incidence rates of falciparum malaria varied significantly among the age groups (p<0.001) and 2-4 year olds were the most affected. Major malaria vectors recorded in light trap collections were An. dirus, An. minimus and An. philippinensis/nivipes. Chloroquine resistance studies indicated that treatment failure occurred in 35% of the cases and hence the use of artesunate combination therapy (ACT) was recommended for treatment of malaria in the area. PMID:21329299

Dhiman, Sunil; Goswami, Diganta; Rabha, Bipul; Gopalakrishnan, Reji; Baruah, Indra; Singh, Lokendra

2010-11-01

257

Cluster randomized trial to compare spectacle delivery systems at outreach eye camps in South India.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose: To study the optimal method for delivery of spectacles at eye camps to maximize procurement and use. Methods: A cluster randomized controlled trial, undertaken in the catchment districts of Aravind Eye Hospital - Theni, in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. Community eye camps (n = 21) were allocated to offer one of three types of service for purchase of spectacles to correct refractive error: (1) Issuance of a prescription only; (2) booking orders for spectacles with subsequent delivery; (3) on-the-spot fitting and dispensing of spectacles. Follow-up questionnaires were administered 6 weeks after interventions to assess patient outcomes. The primary outcome measured was spectacle procurement at follow-up 6 weeks post-screening. Secondary outcomes included use of and satisfaction with spectacles. Reasons for purchase/non-purchase were also assessed. Results: Compared to those who were issued only a prescription and adjusting for distance from base hospital, spectacle procurement was significantly higher for those allowed to book spectacles for subsequent delivery (odds ratio, OR, 8.79, 95% confidence interval, CI, 4.61-16.78) and for those receiving spectacles on the spot (OR 13.97, 95% CI 8.12-24.05). Among those with spectacles at 6 weeks, spectacle use was nearly universal and satisfaction with spectacles varied between 92 and 94% among the three different dispensing modalities. Conclusion: Making spectacles available on the spot is important to ensure procurement in a context where availability and access to dispensing opticians is poor. PMID:24070102

Ramasamy, Dhivya; Joseph, Sanil; Valaguru, Vijayakumar; Mitta, Vinod P; Ravilla, Thulasiraj D; Cotch, Mary Frances

2013-10-01

258

Perchlorate contamination of groundwater from fireworks manufacturing area in South India.  

PubMed

Perchlorate contamination was investigated in groundwater and surface water from Sivakasi and Madurai in the Tamil Nadu State of South India. Sensitive determination of perchlorate (LOQ?=?0.005 ?g/L) was achieved by large-volume (500 ?L) injection ion chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Concentrations of perchlorate were <0.005-7,690 ?g/L in groundwater (n?=?60), <0.005-30.2 ?g/L in surface water (n?=?11), and 0.063-0.393 ?g/L in tap water (n?=?3). Levels in groundwater were significantly higher in the fireworks factory area than in the other locations, indicating that the fireworks and safety match industries are principal sources of perchlorate pollution. This is the first study that reports the contamination status of perchlorate in this area and reveals firework manufacture to be the pollution source. Since perchlorate levels in 17 out of 57 groundwater samples from Sivakasi, and none from Madurai, exceeded the drinking water guideline level proposed by USEPA (15 ?g/L), further investigation on human health is warranted. PMID:23108714

Isobe, Tomohiko; Ogawa, Shohei P; Sugimoto, Rina; Ramu, Karri; Sudaryanto, Agus; Malarvannan, Govindan; Devanathan, Gnanasekaran; Ramaswamy, Babu Rajendran; Munuswamy, Natesan; Ganesh, Deavaraj Sankar; Sivakumar, Jeyaraj; Sethuraman, A; Parthasarathy, V; Subramanian, Annamalai; Field, Jennifer; Tanabe, Shinsuke

2012-10-30

259

Genetic affinity between diverse ethnoreligious communities of Tamil Nadu, India: a microsatellite study.  

PubMed

Historically, a number of local Hindu caste groups have converted to Islam and formed religious endogamous groups. Therefore the local caste groups and religious communities in a region are expected to show genetic relatedness. In this study we investigate the genetic relationship between Tamil-speaking (Dravidian language) Muslims (Sunni), six endogamous Hindu castes, and a tribal ethnic group (Irulars) using 13 CODIS (Combined DNA Index System) autosomal microsatellite markers. Muslims show the highest average heterozygosity (0.405) compared to the other groups. The neighbor-joining tree and the multidimensional-scaling plot show clustering of Tamil-speaking Muslims with three caste groups (Gounder, Paraiyar, and Vanniyar), whereas the Irular tribe is separated out of the cluster. PMID:19728538

Eaaswarkhanth, M; Vasulu, T S; Haque, Ikramul

2008-12-01

260

The transformation of amphibolite facies gneiss to charnockite in southern Karnataka and northern Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amphibolite facies metamorphic grade gives way southward to the granulite grade in southern Karnataka, as acid gneisses develop charnockite patches and streaks and basic enclaves develop pyroxenes. Petrologic investigations in the transitional zone south of Mysore have established the following points: 1) The transition is prograde. Amphibole-bearing gneisses intimately associated with charnockite at Kabbal and several similar localities are not

A. S. Janardhan; R. C. Newton; E. C. Hansen

1982-01-01

261

Origin and Evolution of Gneiss-Charnockite Rocks of Dharmapuri District, Tamil Nadu, India.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A low- to high-grade transition area in Dharmapuri district was investigated petrologically and geochemically. The investigation confirmed the presence of a continuous section through a former lower crust, with felsic charnockites predominating the lower ...

D. R. Rao B. L. Narayana

1988-01-01

262

Hydrochemical characteristics and groundwater quality assessment in Tirupur Region, Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater samples from 62 locations have been collected from Tirupur region viz. Avinashi, Tirupur and Palladam taluks of Coimbatore District. The extensive agricultural industrial activities and urbanization resulted in the contamination of the aquifer. To study the contamination of groundwater, water samples were collected in an area of 180 km2 and analysed for major cations and anions. Most of the locations are contaminated by higher concentration of EC, TDS, K and NO3. Major hydro chemical facies were identified using Piper trilinear diagram. Based on US salinity diagram, most of the samples fall in the field of C3S1, indicating high salinity and low sodium water, which can be used for almost all types of soil with little danger of exchangeable sodium. Majority of the samples are not suitable for domestic purposes and far from drinking water standards. However, PI values indicates that groundwater is suitable for irrigation.

Arumugam, K.; Elangovan, K.

2009-10-01

263

Characterization and evaluation of the factors affecting the geochemistry of groundwater in Neyveli, Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to achieve a better understanding of the nature of the factors influencing ground water composition as well as to specify them quantitatively, multivariate statistical analysis (factor analysis) were performed on the hydrochemical data of this area. R-mode factor analysis was carried out on the geochemical results of the 79-groundwater samples and the factor scores were transferred to areal maps. Fundamental chemical parameters of the groundwater have been compounded together for characterizing and interpreting a few empirical hydrogeochemical factors controlling the chemical nature of water. R-mode factor analysis reveals that the groundwater chemistry of the study area reflects the influence of anthropogenic activities, silicate weathering reactions, precipitation, dissolution and subsequent percolation into the groundwater. The data have been put into few major factors and the seasonal variation in the chemistry of water has been clearly brought out by these factors. Factor scores were transferred to contour diagrams and the factor score analysis has been used successfully to delineate the stations under study with various factors and the seasonal effect on the sample stations.

Jayaprakash, M.; Giridharan, L.; Venugopal, T.; Krishna Kumar, S. P.; Periakali, P.

2008-04-01

264

Hydrogeochemical analysis and evaluation of groundwater quality in the Gadilam river basin, Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water samples were collected from different formations of Gadilam river basin and analyzed to assess the major ion chemistry and suitability of water for domestic and drinking purposes. Chemical parameters of groundwater such as pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), Sodium (Na + ), Potassium (K + ), Calcium (Ca + ), Magnesium (Mg + ), Bicarbonate (HCO3^{ -}), Sulphate (SO4^{ -}), Phosphate (PO4^{ -}) and Silica (H4SiO4) were determined. The geochemical study of the aquatic systems of the Gadilam river basin show that the groundwater is near-acidic to alkaline and mostly oxidizing in nature. Higher concentration of Sodium and Chloride indicates leaching of secondary salts and anthropogenic impact by industry and salt water intrusion. Spatial distribution of EC indicates anthropogenic impact in the downstream side of the basin. The concentration levels of trace metals such as Iron (Fe), Lead (Pb), Nickel (Ni), Bromide (Br), Iodide (I) and Aluminium (Al) have been compared with the world standard. Interpretation of data shows that some trace metals such as Al, Ni and Pb exceed the acceptable limit of world standard. Geophysical study was carried out to identify the weathered zone in the hard rock and contaminated zone by anthropogenic impact in the downstream of river Gadilam. A few of the groundwater samples in the study area were found to be unsuitable for domestic and drinking purposes.

Prasanna, M. V.; Chidambaram, S.; Hameed, A. Shahul; Srinivasamoorthy, K.

2011-02-01

265

Spatial assessment of groundwater quality in Mamundiyar basin, Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

Understanding the groundwater quality is important as it is the main factor determining its suitability for drinking, domestic, agricultural, and industrial purposes. In order to assess the groundwater quality, 30 groundwater samples have been collected in year 2008. The water samples collected in the field were analyzed for electrical conductivity, pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), major cations like calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and anions like bicarbonate, carbonate, chloride, nitrate, and sulfate, in the laboratory using the standard methods given by the American Public Health Association. The groundwater locations were selected to cover the entire study area and attention was been given to the area where contamination is expected. The expected groundwater contaminants were chloride, nitrate, TDS, etc. The results were evaluated in accordance with the drinking water quality standards given by the World Health Organization (WHO 1993). To know the distribution pattern of the concentration of different elements and to demarcate the higher concentration zones, the contour maps for various elements were also generated, discussed, and presented. PMID:20878466

Dar, Imran Ahmad; Sankar, K; Dar, Mithas Ahmad

2010-09-30

266

Natural radioactivity in soil samples of Yelagiri Hills, Tamil Nadu, India and the associated radiation hazards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The natural radioactivity of soils at Yelagiri hills has been studied in this paper. The radioactivities of 25 samples have been measured with a NaI(Tl) detector. The radioactivity concentrations of 238U, 232Th and 40K ranged from ?2.17 to 53.23, 13.54 to 89.89 and from 625.09 to 2207.3 Bq kg-1, respectively. The measured activity concentrations for these radionuclides were compared with world average activity of soil. The average activity concentration of 232Th in the present study is 1.19 times higher than world median value while the activity of 238U and 40K is found to be lower. In order to evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity Raeq, the absorbed dose rate DR, the annual effective dose rate and the external hazard index (Hex) have been calculated and compared with the internationally approved values. The study provides background radioactivity concentrations in Yelagiri hills.

Ravisankar, R.; Chandrasekaran, A.; Vijayagopal, P.; Venkatraman, B.; Senthilkumar, G.; Eswaran, P.; Rajalakshmi, A.

2012-12-01

267

Alternative energy sources from plants of Western Ghats (Tamil Nadu, India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-two taxa of Western Ghats plants were screened as potential alternative crops for renewable energy, oil, hydrocarbon and phytochemicals. The highest hydrocarbon yields were observed in Carissa carandas (1.7%), and Jatropha gossypifolia (1.7%). The highest polyphenol fraction was observed in Dodonaea viscosa (17.1%), Carissa carandas (7.7%), Swietenia mahagoni (6.6%), and Jatropha glandulifera (6.2%). The highest oil content was observed in

G. D. P. S Augustus; M Jayabalan; G. J Seiler

2003-01-01

268

Evaluation and analysis of the noise quality of Ambur, Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

The noise levels of Ambur town were studied in silence, residential, commercial and industrial zones. Noise levels were assessed in 22 locations in a typical peak and non-peak hours of a day. In non-peak hours, a gradual decrease in noise levels is detected. The results show that the noise pollution in the city is widespread throughout most of its area. The noise in these areas is composite in nature and generated from many sources near and far with no particular sound predominance. Based on the results, some remedial measures were suggested. Public participation, education, traffic management, structural designing play a major role in noise management. PMID:16669328

Thangadurai, N; Venkateswaran, P; Jeevanraj, S

2005-01-01

269

Antimicrobial activity of some ethnomedicinal plants used by Paliyar tribe from Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial activity of 18 ethnomedicinal plant extracts were evaluated against nine bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Ervinia sp, Proteus vulgaris) and one fungal strain (Candida albicans). The collected ethnomedicinal plants were used in folk medicine in the treatment of skin diseases, venereal diseases, respiratory problems and nervous disorders.

Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan; Muniappan Ayyanar; Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu

2006-01-01

270

From "Time Pass" to Transformative Force: School-Based Human Rights Education in Tamil Nadu, India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents data collected at the level of practice to highlight one non-governmental organization's approach to human rights education and how household-, school-, and community-level factors mediated student impact. Findings suggest that a variety of factors at the three levels contribute to the program's successful implementation in…

Bajaj, Monisha

2012-01-01

271

An investigation on the pollution status of holy aquifers of Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

The Study area is the sacred Ramanathasamy temple and selected for the characterization of physico-chemical parameters viz., pH, EC, TDS, Salinity, TA, TH, Ca( + 2), Mg( + 2), Chloride and Fluoride for 22 groundwater samples and the impact of pre- and post-monsoon on the groundwater quality was also studied. The study area is well known for the chronic fresh water shortage and the locals depend mostly on springs for their fresh water needs. The Water Quality Index (WQI) computed shows the transfer of samples under unacceptable quality to acceptable quality. The Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) reflected that majority of the samples have the tendency to form scale. The Karl Pearson correlation matrix has approved the maximum relationship of calcium and chloride with respect to the total dissolved solids (TDS). It is interesting to conclude that the groundwater in the study area has very hard nature, especially of non-carbonate type. PMID:18716889

Sivasankar, V; Ramachandramoorthy, T

2008-08-21

272

75 FR 7337 - Certifications Pursuant to Section 104 of the United States-India Nuclear Cooperation Approval...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agreement Between India and the International Atomic Energy Agency Memorandum for the Secretary...Government of India and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards...Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency on August 1, 2008...

2010-02-19

273

Understanding consumption related values from advertising: A content analysis of television commercials from India and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study focuses on understanding consumption related values currently prevailing in India. In order to examine if the consumption related values of the people in India are similar to those found in developed economies, the U.S. was used as a benchmark. These values were examined by content analyzing television commercials from the two countries. The results suggest that materialism

Subir Sengupta

1996-01-01

274

Personality and national culture : Predictors of compensation strategy preferences in the United States of America and India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships between individual personality and compensation package preferences and whether cross-cultural differences exist in these preferences in the USA and India. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A survey methodology was used and subjects included 175 MBA students of two universities, one in the USA and one in India. Measurement instruments included a

James W. Westerman; Rafik I. Beekun; Joseph Daly; Sita Vanka

2009-01-01

275

Universal Health Coverage for India by 2022: A Utopia or Reality?  

PubMed Central

It is the obligation of the state to provide free and universal access to quality health-care services to its citizens. India continues to be among the countries of the world that have a high burden of diseases. The various health program and policies in the past have not been able to achieve the desired goals and objectives. 65th World Health Assembly in Geneva identified universal health coverage (UHC) as the key imperative for all countries to consolidate the public health advances. Accordingly, Planning Commission of India constituted a high level expert group (HLEG) on UHC in October 2010. HLEG submitted its report in Nov 2011 to Planning Commission on UHC for India by 2022. The recommendations for the provision of UHC pertain to the critical areas such as health financing, health infrastructure, health services norms, skilled human resources, access to medicines and vaccines, management and institutional reforms, and community participation. India faces enormous challenges to achieve UHC by 2022 such as high disease prevalence, issues of gender equality, unregulated and fragmented health-care delivery system, non-availability of adequate skilled human resource, vast social determinants of health, inadequate finances, lack of inter-sectoral co-ordination and various political pull and push of different forces, and interests. These challenges can be met by a paradigm shift in health policies and programs in favor of vulnerable population groups, restructuring of public health cadres, reorientation of undergraduate medical education, more emphasis on public health research, and extensive education campaigns. There are still areas of concern in fulfilling the objectives of achieving UHC by 2022 regarding financing model for health-care delivery, entitlement package, cost of health-care interventions and declining state budgets. However, the Government's commitment to provide adequate finances, recent bold social policy initiatives and enactments such as food security bill, enhanced participation by civil society in all health matters, major initiative by some states such as Tamil Nadu to improve health, water, and sanitation services are good enough reasons for hope that UHC can be achieved by 2022. However, in the absence of sustained financial support, strong political will and leadership, dedicated involvement of all stakeholders and community participation, attainment of UHC by 2022 will remain a Utopia.

Singh, Zile

2013-01-01

276

Advancing vaccinology in India.  

PubMed

India's inaugural Advanced Vaccinology Course, hosted by the Child Health Foundation and the International Clinical Epidemiology Network, attracted approximately 55 EPI managers and privately-practicing physicians from across the country. The comprehensive course provided training in epidemiology, disease surveillance, and vaccine safety and regulation. Core lectures highlighted vaccination trends, challenges, and innovations specific to India; 'Breakout Sessions' and the 'State-of-the-Art Lecture Series' complemented core course material. Overall, the course aimed to provide an advanced education in classic and topical areas of vaccinology to ensure that India has the tools and skills required to safely manage and grow its national immunization program. PMID:22149704

O'Brien, Jennifer

2012-01-01

277

Power Sector Reforms in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power sector reforms in India were initiated in the face of mounting commercial losses due to poor fiscal health of State Utilities, endemic capacity and energy shortages and increasing subsidy burden on the states. Investment in the sector was falling far short of demand in power supply. The Government of India, in 1991 embarked upon an ambitious program for reforming

Harbans L. Bajaj; D. Sharma

2006-01-01

278

Pattern of seizure cases in tertiary care hospitals in Karnataka state of India  

PubMed Central

Background: The prevalence and incidence of epilepsy is higher in developing countries than in developed countries. Understanding pattern and risk factors of seizure cases will help in suggesting appropriate preventive measures. Objectives: This study was carried out to assess the pattern of seizure, its management and compliance with treatment. Materials and Methods: Data from medical records of seizure cases in three tertiary care hospitals of Mangalore city in south India admitted from January 2006 to December 2011 were collected and analyzed. Results: Nearly half (44.4%) of the 196 cases belonged to productive age group (15-45 years) and 2/3rd (60.7%) were males. Majority (>80% cases) were unskilled workers and of low socio-economic status groups. Family history of seizures was present in 8.4% cases. Mean age of onset of seizure was found to be 19.9 years. Proportion of generalized tonic clonic seizure cases was 78.1%. Secondary seizures were seen in 66 (33.7%) cases with the most common cause being trauma to the head (24.2%). Refractory seizures were present in 2.7% cases. Monotherapy was the most commonly followed treatment regimen and phenytoin was the most popular anti-epileptic drug (AED) used. Non-compliance with AEDs was seen in 18.1% cases and was more among patients on polytherapy (P = 0.032). Conclusion: Seizure manifestations and treatment compliance vary widely in the studied population. In depth analysis of each seizure type will give more information about the factors associated with it.

Joseph, Nitin; Kumar, Ganesh S.; Nelliyanil, Maria

2013-01-01

279

KIR diversity in three ethnic populations of Assam state, Northeast India.  

PubMed

Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) exhibit extensive diversity and it has been observed that populations with different ethno-history, linguistic, geographic and genetic backgrounds can differ in KIR profile. In this context, we have investigated the KIR complex in three ethnic populations-Kachari (n?=?108), Ahom (n?=?104) and Adivasi (n?=?101) of Assam, Northeast India. The three populations had 145 distinct KIR genotypes in 313 individuals typed. The two Mongoloid populations--Kachari and Ahom had close genetic affinities with their parental East Asian groups where the Kachari clustered with Chinese populations and the Ahom in another clade clustered with Thailand Bangkok and Polynesian populations. The Adivasi differed markedly from these Mongoloid populations in having higher KIR 2DL2, 2DS2, 2DS3 and 2DS5, but lower 2DL3 (P value <0.0001). Like the other native Indian populations, the Adivasi had higher share of Bx-haplogroup and C4Tx genotype (37/101). However, unlike other Indian populations, KIR 3DS1 gene frequency was lower in Adivasi (21%) and was comparable to the African populations. The neighbor-joining dendogram generated on the basis of KIR gene frequencies of our study populations with 43 world populations also placed the Adivasi with African populations. Interestingly, the three populations in the dendogram are consistent with their migration histories. In summary, our data suggest that KIR profile of the three ethnic populations displayed ethnic diversity and was consistent with their migration history thereby supporting the concept that KIR diversity may be used to understand genetic affinity and migration history of populations. PMID:23678948

Dutta, A; Lourembam, S D; Pradhan, S; Baruah, S

2013-05-17

280

Potential and prospects of solar energy in Uttara Kannada, District of Karnataka State, India  

SciTech Connect

Estimation of solar radiation for Uttara Kannada district is done on the basis of solar and other climatological data available at stations located at Karwar, Honnavar, Shirali, Mangalore, and Goa. The most commonly used empirical formula is the one that relates sunshine duration and global radiation, also referred to as Angstrom`s equation. The authors have used this relationship to estimate global radiation based on 20 years of data at Mangalore and 25 years of data at Goa provided by the India Meteorological Department. It is seen that computed and measured values (actual values) of global radiation (GR) agree within the range of 2--5% for most months. Data at Goa and Mangalore have been analyzed in order to improve accuracy and to establish the role of other climatological parameters, such as mean daily temperature, relative humidity, specific humidity, minimum and maximum temperature, and rainfall. The computed and estimated values are within the range {+-}5%. With this empirical relationship, GR is estimated (kWh/m{sup 2}) for Karwar (with 37 years of climatological data), Honnavar (with 50 years of climatological data), and Bhatkal (Shirali, with 15 years of climatological data). Karwar has a GR range of 5.5--6.5 for January--May and is in the range of 4--5 during the monsoon months, July--September, while at Honnovar the GR range during January--May is 5.47--6.5 and its minimum during the monsoon months. This study suggests that solar conversion technologies have considerable potential for application, provided that questions of storage and the monsoon season requirement can be adequately addressed through other options. The abundance of solar resources can be illustrated by comparing the land requirements of solar projects (thermal or photovoltaic) with those of hydro or energy plantation projects.

Ramachandra, T.V.; Subramanian, D.K. [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India). Centre for Ecological Sciences

1997-11-01

281

A Comparative Study of Patients with Chronic Pain in India and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pain is the most frequently reported symptom in the health care industry today. Chronic pain in the United States costs millions of dollars annually, and its financial impact is mounting. For individuals living in the United States, chronic pain affects nearly all normal activities and often leaves the person feeling helpless and hopeless. Literature supports the idea that chronic pain

Mary F. Kodiath; Alex Kodiath

1992-01-01

282

Private Schooling Industry in North East India: A Trend Analysis of Nagaland State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study is an attempt to examine the intricacies of the growth of Private School industry in the North-Eastern Indian State of Nagaland. The study was carried out in Kohima, the capital city of Nagaland State. Data were obtained from field studies as well as from published reports of the Government. The main objective of the study was to…

Mishra, Biswambhara; Suresh, P. Srinivasa; Rio, K.

2006-01-01

283

Livestock Production and the Rural Poor in Andhra Pradesh and Orissa States, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the political economy of the livestock sector in two Indian states, Andhra Pradesh and Orissa. The aim is to identify politically feasible interventions that could have broad positive effects on poor rural livestock producers in these states. To that end, the paper assesses the relationship between land, livestock, and poverty, describes the organization of the sector, and

Robin L. Turner

2004-01-01

284

Historical pollution trends in coastal environments of India.  

PubMed

Seventeen sediment cores were collected from different coastal ecosystems of Tamil Nadu, India that include coastal lagoon (Pulicat), polluted rivers in Chennai (Adyar and Cooum), Coral reef (Gulf of Mannar) and a perennial river (Tamiraparani). Radiometric dating has been used to determine the modern sedimentation rates in these ecosystems. The Pulicat Lake and the polluted rivers (Adyar and Cooum) yield an average sediment accumulation rate of 12.34 and 7.85 mm yr(-1), respectively. In the Gulf of Mannar coral reef, the sedimentation rate averages 17.37 mm yr(-1), while the rate in Tamiraparani River is 11.00 mm yr(-1). In the Tamiraparani River basin, the deposition rates were an order of magnitude higher when compared to the erosion rates, which may be due to bank erosion and the intense human activity. In general high rates of sedimentation observed in the coastal ecosystems not only reflect the capacity of the coastal regions as sinks for trace metals but also denote increased input of pollutants into the coastal environments in the recent past. The deposition rates of heavy metals--Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cr and Ni in the depth profiles have been computed using sedimentation rates and their distribution is discussed. It can be seen that the mean deposition rates of all the measured elements in the Tamil Nadu coastal ecosystems are high compared with rates determined for the sediments of the deltaic regions of India and the Bay of Bengal. PMID:12413301

Ramesh, R; Purvaja, R; Ramesh, S; James, R A

2002-10-01

285

Ecological analysis of the association between high-risk population parameters and HIV prevalence among pregnant women enrolled in sentinel surveillance in four southern India states  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe HIV epidemic is very heterogeneous at the district level in the four Southern states of India most affected by the epidemic and where transmission is mainly heterosexual. The authors carried out an ecological study of the relationship between high-risk population parameters and HIV prevalence among pregnant women (ANC HIV prevalence).MethodsThe data used in this study included: ANC HIV prevalence

Michel Alary; A A Jayachandran; Catherine M Lowndes; Jan Bradley; Eric Demers; Rajatashuvra Adhikary; Mandar K Mainkar

2010-01-01

286

State Policies and Women?s Autonomy in China, India, and the Republic of Korea, 1950?2000: Lessons from Contrasting Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

November 2000State policies can enormously influence gender equity. They can mitigate cultural constraints on women?s autonomy (as in China and India) or slow the pace of change in gender equity (as in the Republic of Korea). Policies to provide opportunities for women?s empowerment should be accompanied by communication efforts to alter cultural values that limit women?s access to those opportunities.Das

Monica Das Gupta; Sunhwa Lee; Patricia Uberoi; Danning Wang; Lihong Wang; Xiaodan Zhang

1999-01-01

287

Changes in risk behaviours and prevalence of sexually transmitted infections following HIV preventive interventions among female sex workers in five districts in Karnataka state, south India  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo examine the impact of a large-scale HIV prevention programme for female sex workers (FSW) in Karnataka state, south India, on the prevalence of HIV\\/sexually transmitted infections (STI), condom use and programme coverage.MethodsBaseline and follow-up integrated biological and behavioural surveys were conducted on random samples of FSW in five districts in Karnataka between 2004 and 2009.Results4712 FSW participated in the

B M Ramesh; Tara S H Beattie; Isac Shajy; Reynold Washington; Latta Jagannathan; Sushena Reza-Paul; James F Blanchard; Stephen Moses

2010-01-01

288

Temporal variation in density and diversity of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins in lakes at Nagpur (Maharashtra State), India.  

PubMed

Toxic cyanobacteria (TCB) are known worldwide for the adverse impacts on humans and animals. Species composition and the seasonal variation of TCB in water bodies depend on interactions between physical and chemical factors. The present investigation delineates temporal variations in physico-chemical water quality parameters, viz. nutrients and density, diversity, and distribution of toxic cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins in Lake Ambazari (21 degrees 7'52''N, 79 degrees 2'22''E) and Lake Phutala (21 degrees 9'18''N, 79 degrees 2'37''E) at Nagpur (Maharashtra State), India. These lakes are important sources of recreational activities and fisheries. Toxic cyanobacterial diversity comprised Anabaena, Oscillatoria, Lyngbya, Phormidium, and Microcystis, a well-known toxic cyanobacterial genus, as dominant. Chlorophyll-a concentrations in the lakes ranged from 1.44 to 71.74 mg/m(3). A positive correlation of Microcystis biomass existed with orthophosphate-P (p < 0.05) and nitrate-N (p > 0.05). Identification and quantification of microcystin variants were carried out by high performance liquid chromatography equipped with photodiode array detector. Among all the tested toxin variants, microcystin-RR (arginine-arginine) was consistently recorded and exhibited a positive correlation (p < 0.05) with Microcystis in both the water bodies. Microcystis bloom formation was remarkable between post-monsoon and summer. Besides nutrient concentrations governing bloom formation, the allelopathic role of microcystins needs to be established. PMID:19757108

Maske, Sarika S; Sangolkar, Lalita Narendra; Chakrabarti, Tapan

2009-09-16

289

A new thrust and dynamism. India.  

PubMed

The 1991 census indicated that India's population was 844.3 million, increasing from the 342 million of 1947 and 683.6 million of 1981. The annual rate of increase is 16 million. The Family Welfare Program was launched in 1951 and the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act was passed in 1971. The National Health policy of 1983 set demographic goals for 2000: infant mortality rate of 60, population growth rate of 1.2% (with a birth rate of 21/1000 and death rate of 9), and a contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) of 60%. Owing to the decline in mortality, the rate of population growth increased from 1.3 in 1931-41 to 2.2 in 1971-81; infant mortality rate decreased from 114 in 1980 to 80 in 1990; CPR reached 44.1%; and total fertility declined from 5.9 in 1960 to 4 in 1988. An extensive infrastructure was also proposed in 1985 in order to establish 1 subcenter for every 5000 population in normal areas and 3000 population in tribal areas; primary health centers for 30,000 in normal areas and 20,000 in hilly and tribal areas; and community health centers for 120,000 in normal areas and 80,000 in hilly and tribal areas. The universal immunization program was launched in 1985 with the aim of immunizing all pregnant women and all children. In 1985-86 coverage levels ranged between 29% for BCG and 41% for DPT. By the end of March 1991 it is estimated that 98% of infants were immunized with DPT3 and OPV3; 97% of infants with BCG and 89% of infants with measles vaccine. 78% of pregnant women were immunized with tetanus toxoid. The total number of poliomyelitis cases was only about 4000 in 1991 decreasing from 32,000 cases in 1981. In states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu population growth rated declined to 1.31% and 1.39%, respectively. However, the growth rates have stayed at 2.37% in Madhya Pradesh, 2.47% in Rajasthan, and 2.26% in Uttar Pradesh. PMID:12343894

Mukherjee, S

1992-08-01

290

Indian Women and Television. A Study on the Women Viewers of Madras, India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study was conducted to determine how women in the Indian State of Tamil Nadu--where both regional and national network television are available for viewing--perceive the role of television in helping the cause of women. A television content analysis was done for two subsequent weeks, focusing on the portrayal of women in the programs, and…

Krishnaswamy, Chitra

291

Persistent foci of falciparum malaria among tribes over two decades in Koraput district of Odisha State, India  

PubMed Central

Background Koraput, a predominantly tribe-inhabited and one of the highly endemic districts of Odisha State that contributes a substantial number of malaria cases to the India’s total. Control of malaria in such districts would contribute to change the national scenario on malaria situation. Hence, a study was carried out to measure the magnitude of malaria prevalence in the district to strengthen the malaria control activities. Methods Prevalence of malaria was assessed through a sample blood survey (SBS) in seven randomly selected community health centres (CHCs). Individuals of all age groups in the villages selected (one in each subcentre) were screened for malaria infection. Both thick and thin smears were prepared from blood samples collected by finger prick, stained and examined for malaria parasites searching 100 fields in each smear. The results of a blood survey (n?=?10,733) carried out, as a part of another study, during 1986–87 covering a population of 17,722 spread in 37 villages of Koraput district were compared with the current survey results. Software SPSS version 16.0 was used for data analysis. Result During the current study, blood survey was done in 135 villages screening 12,045 individuals (16.1% of the total population) and among them, 1,983 (16.5%) were found positive for malaria parasites. Plasmodium falciparum was the major malaria parasite species accounted for 89.1% (1,767) of the total positives; Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium malariae accounted for 9.3% (184) and 0.2% (5), respectively. Gametocytes were found in 7.7% (n?=?152) of the positive cases. The majority of parasite carriers (78.9%) were afebrile. The 1986–87 blood survey showed that of 10,733 people screened, 833 (7.8%) were positive for malaria parasites, 714 (85.7%) with P. falciparum, 86 (10.3%) with P. vivax, 12 (1.4%) with P. malariae and 21 (2.5%) with mixed infections. Conclusion The results of the current study indicated a rising trend in transmission of malaria in Koraput district compared to the situation during 1986–87 and indicated the necessity for a focused and reinforced approach for the control of the disease by improving people’s access to diagnosis and treatment and ensuring implementation of the intervention measures with adequate coverage and compliance.

2013-01-01

292

Stage at Diagnosis and Relative Differences in Breast and Prostate Cancer Incidence in India: Comparison with the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To examine and reconcile differences in incidence rates and stage-at-initial-presentation of prostate and breast cancers in India, a country in epidemiologic transition. Methods: Age-adjusted prostate and female breast cancer incidence rates and proportion of cases by stage-at-diagnosis were compared. Data were derived from the National Cancer Registry Program of India, other Indian registries, the International Agency for Research on

James R Hebert; Santosh S Ghumare; Prakash C Gupta

2006-01-01

293

Stability Analysis of Harmony Landslide in Garhwal Himalaya, Uttarakhand State, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landslides are one of the important natural hazards of Himalaya . Due to landslides, the Himalayan region often faces geoenvironmental problems posing threats to, both, life and properties. In this context, a major landslide that occurred in 1986 near Harmony village on left bank of Pinder river along Karnaprayag - Gwaldam road in Chamoli district of Uttarakhand state, caused traffic

R. Anbalagan; Atul Kohli; D. Chakraborty

294

A statistical exposition of the state of empowerment at older ages in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Well-being is desired and drives all ages and all societies. Empowerment is a means to well-being. The issue of empowerment endures at older ages also. Addressing this issue is central as the Indian population continues to age. The present work examines the state of autonomy in financial matters namely, the management of owned assets and the management of owned property,

Sanjeev Bakshi; Prasanta Pathak

2009-01-01

295

Distribution, use pattern and prospects for conservation of medicinal shrubs in Uttaranchal State, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper gives an insight into the distribution and use pattern of medicinal shrubs in Uttaranchal State. A total\\u000a of 222 medicinal and aromatic shrub species have been appended based on secondary information. Euphorbiaceae, Rosaceae, Verbenaceae,\\u000a and Fabaceae have the highest representatives of medicinal shrubs. Twenty one families had one species each in medicinal use.\\u000a Verbenaceae and Euphorbiaceae in

Bhupendra S. Adhikari; Mani M. Babu; Prem L. Saklani; Gopal S. Rawat

2007-01-01

296

The Civil Services in India: Oxford India Short Introductions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Oxford India Short Introductions are concise, stimulating, and accessible guides to different aspects of India. Combining authoritative analysis, new ideas, and diverse perspectives, they discuss subjects which are topical yet enduring, as also emerging areas of study and debate. An efficient and competent bureaucracy is indispensable to any modern state. This short introduction identifies the importance of civil services

297

U.S.-India tensions  

SciTech Connect

Relations between India and the United States have improved considerably since the end of the Cold War, but they are still punctuated by controversies over nuclear nonproliferation. To a significant extent, these conflicts seem to be the result of persisting American beliefs that India is obstinate about the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, that India is vulnerable to technology-denying efforts, and that it can be equated with its neighbor, Pakistan. These perceptions take on added import because of the assumption by American policymakers that South Asia is the most most dangerous nuclear hot spot. Implicitly, India`s image also continues to be that of a revisionist state destined to be at odds with the United States, a status quo global power. These are misperceptions that deserve attention, as only four months remain for constructive dialogue before the NPT conference convenes to review the expiring 30-year-old treaty.

Ramanna, R. [National Institute of Advanced Studies, Bangalore (India); Ollapally, D.

1995-01-01

298

Bacterial species associated with traditional starter cultures used for fermented bamboo shoot production in Manipur state of India.  

PubMed

Soidon is a non-salted acidic fermented food prepared from the succulent bamboo shoot tip of Schizostachyum capitatum Munro by using a traditional liquid starter called "soidon mahi" in Manipur state of India. In this study, 163 bacterial isolates associated with this starter samples were identified and their population distribution was investigated by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA), 16S rDNA sequencing and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. This acidic starter (pH 4.5+/-0.15) was dominated by a characteristic association of Bacillus and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) together. The population distribution of dominant species were Bacillus subtilis 29.3%, Bacillus cereus 35.7%, Bacillus pumilus 2.6%, Lactobacillus brevis 9.6%, Lactobacillus plantarum 5.1%, Carnobacterium sp. 11.9%, Enterococcus faecium 1.2% and Pseudomonas fluorescens 4.6%. Alarming population load (10(6)-10(7)cfu/ml) of B. cereus in 87% of starter samples studied should raise concern regarding biosafety of soidon consumption. PCR amplification of 16S-23S rDNA intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) region and ITS-RFLP profiles revealed a high diversity with eight subgroups in B. subtilis, five subgroups in B. cereus and three subgroups in L. brevis isolates. The most abundant B. subtilis subgroup IB.1 distributed in most of the samples showed very less clonal variability during RAPD analysis. The molecular methods used in this study identified the dominant strains of Bacillus and LAB distributed in most of the starter samples. These dominant strains of B. subtilis, L. brevis and L. plantarum would allow for developing a defined starter culture for the production of quality soidon. PMID:20696489

Jeyaram, K; Romi, W; Singh, Th Anand; Devi, A Ranjita; Devi, S Soni

2010-07-15

299

Residue dynamics of fenamidone and mancozeb on gherkin under two agro climatic zones in the state of Karnataka, India.  

PubMed

Residue dynamics of fenamidone and mancozeb on gherkin was evaluated at two different agro climatic zones i.e. at Bangalore (Zone-1) and Dharwad (Zone-2) in the state of Karnataka, India. Two treatments of the combination formulation (fenamidone 10% + mancozeb 50%) were given at the standard dose 150 + 750 g a.i. ha(-1) and double dose 300 + 1,500 g a.i. ha(-1). Initial residue deposits of fenamidone were 0.467 and 0.474 mg kg(-1) at Zone-1 and 2, respectively from standard dose treatment. From double dose treatment they were 0.964 and 0.856 mg kg(-1), respectively. Fenamidone residues persisted for 15 and 10 days and dissipated with the half-life of 4 and 3 days at Zone-1 and 2, respectively. Mancozeb residue deposits on gherkin were 0.383 and 0.428 mg kg(-1) from standard dose and 0.727 and 0.626 mg kg(-1) from double dose treatment at Zone-1 and 2, respectively. Mancozeb residues dissipated with the half-life of 2 and 1 day, respectively. Residues of both fenamidone and mancozeb dissipated faster at Zone-2 compared to Zone-1. The limit of quantification of fenamidone and mancozeb were 0.02 and 0.1 mg kg(-1), respectively in both gherkin and soil. Residues of fenamidone and mancozeb in soil collected on the 20th day from the 2 locations were found to be below quantifiable limit of both fungicides. PMID:22349284

Mohapatra, Soudamini; Deepa, M

2012-02-16

300

Evaluation of trace-metal enrichments from the 26 December 2004 tsunami sediments along the Southeast coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tsunami sediments deposited after the December 2004 tsunami were sampled immediately in the coastal environment of Tamil Nadu State on the southeast coast of India. Fifty-four sediment samples were collected and 14 representative samples were selected to identify the level of metal contamination in tsunami sediments. The results indicate that the sediments are mainly of fine to medium-grained sand and contain significantly high contents of dissolved salts in sediments (Na+, K+, Ca+2, Mg+2, Cl-) in water-soluble fraction due to seawater deposition and evaporation. Correlation of acid leachable trace metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, Zn) indicate that Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides might play an important role in controlling their association between them. Enrichment of trace metals is observed in all the locations with reference to the background samples. High values of trace metals in the southern part of the study area are due to the large-scale industries along the coast, and they are probably anthropogenic in nature and of marine origin, which could cause serious environmental problems.

Srinivasalu, S.; Thangadurai, N.; Jonathan, M. P.; Armstrong-Altrin, J. S.; Ayyamperumal, T.; Ram-Mohan, V.

2008-02-01

301

Leveraging human capital to reduce maternal mortality in India: enhanced public health system or public-private partnership?  

PubMed Central

Developing countries are currently struggling to achieve the Millennium Development Goal Five of reducing maternal mortality by three quarters between 1990 and 2015. Many health systems are facing acute shortages of health workers needed to provide improved prenatal care, skilled birth attendance and emergency obstetric services – interventions crucial to reducing maternal death. The World Health Organization estimates a current deficit of almost 2.4 million doctors, nurses and midwives. Complicating matters further, health workforces are typically concentrated in large cities, while maternal mortality is generally higher in rural areas. Additionally, health care systems are faced with shortages of specialists such as anaesthesiologists, surgeons and obstetricians; a maldistribution of health care infrastructure; and imbalances between the public and private health care sectors. Increasingly, policy-makers have been turning to human resource strategies to cope with staff shortages. These include enhancement of existing work roles; substitution of one type of worker for another; delegation of functions up or down the traditional role ladder; innovation in designing new jobs;transfer or relocation of particular roles or services from one health care sector to another. Innovations have been funded through state investment, public-private partnerships and collaborations with nongovernmental organizations and quasi-governmental organizations such as the World Bank. This paper focuses on how two large health systems in India – Gujarat and Tamil Nadu – have successfully applied human resources strategies in uniquely different contexts to the challenges of achieving Millennium Development Goal Five.

Krupp, Karl; Madhivanan, Purnima

2009-01-01

302

Hydrochemical Analysis and Evaluation of Groundwater Quality in Tumkur Taluk, Karnataka State, India  

PubMed Central

Tumkur Taluk is located in the southeastern corner of Karnataka state between 13° 06?30? to 13° 31? 00? North latitude and 76° 59? 00? to 77° 19? 00? East Longitude. The Taluk spreads over an area of 1043 sq.km falling within the semiarid region and frequently facing water scarcity as well as quality problems. The major sources of employment are agriculture, horticulture and animal husbandry, engaging almost 80% of the workforce. Water samples are collected from 269 stations during pre-monsoon and 279 locations during post-monsoon of the year 2006, and were subjected to analysis for chemical characteristics. The type of water that predominates in the study area is Ca-Mg-HCO3 type during both preand post-monsoon seasons of the year 2006, based on hydro-chemical facies. Besides, suitability of water for irrigation is evaluated based on sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate, sodium percent, salinity hazard and USSL diagram.

Sadashivaiah, C.; Ramakrishnaiah, C. R.; Ranganna, G.

2008-01-01

303

An Economic Analysis of Modern Rice Production Technology and its Adoption Behaviour in Tamil Nadu  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice is the staple food in Tamil Nadu and is grown in an area of 2.6 Mha with a production of 8.19 Mt and productivity of 3.2 t\\/ha. In the context of high water demand by rice farmers, any strategy that would produce higher rice yield with less water is the need of the day. One such system is “System

K. Sita Devi; T. Ponnarasi

2009-01-01

304

Correlations in Party Performance in State Legislative Assembly and Subsequent National Parliamentary Elections in India, 1980–2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a panel data estimation technique, this article examines correlations in party performance in India for political parties that contested legislative assembly and federal parliamentary elections held within the following eighteen months during the period between 1980 and 2009. The results are analysed according to a range of variables, including type of party and voter turnout. The study's finding that,

Matthew J. Webb; Albert Wijeweera

2012-01-01

305

The labour of loveSeasonal migration from Jharkhand to the brick kilns of other states in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal casual labour migration in India has conventionally been understood as the result of extreme poverty whereby villagers are forced to become migrants for the dry six months to subsist or merely survive. This article draws on fieldwork in a village in Jharkhand and a brick kiln in West Bengal to argue that migrants do not understand their movement in

2006-01-01

306

Role of Information Sources and Communication Channels in Adoption of Improved Practices by Farmers in M. P. State, India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study was made of information sources and channels whereby new ideas about improved farming methods are communicated to farmers. Questionnaire interviews were held with 200 farmers in Madhya Pradesh, India. Of the five information sources studied, neighbors were named by all respondents, village level workers by 72%, chairmen of village…

Sharma, Devendra Kumar

307

Comparative study of economics of different models of family size biogas plants for state of Punjab, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogas, the end product of anaerobic digestion of cattle dung, can successfully supplement the cooking fuels in the countryside areas of India, where the raw material needed for its production is plentifully available. Because of the lack of awareness regarding selection of a suitable model and size of biogas plant, the full potential of the biogas producing material is not

K. Jatinder Singh; Sarbjit Singh Sooch

2004-01-01

308

POTA: Lessons Learned From India’s Anti-Terror Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shortly after the September 11 terrorist attacks in the United States, India passed its own anti-terrorism ordinance, the Prevention of Terrorism Act (POTA), following a terrorist attack on India’s Parliament building in December 2001. As with the USA PATRIOT Act, Indian legislators acted quickly, declaring the Act to be a necessary weapon against terrorism. But POTA, like the USA PATRIOT

Christopher Gagné

2005-01-01

309

Planting Trees in India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reforestation is desperately needed in India. Three-fourths of the country's ground surface is experiencing desertification, and primitive forests are being destroyed. Reforestation would help moderate temperatures, increase ground water levels, improve soil fertility, and alleviate a wood shortage. In the past, people from the United States, such…

Oswald, James M.

310

'Civil' nuclear programme -- serving the dual objectives of retaining the state's hegemony on citizens' basic energy needs and assuring supply of weapon grade ingredients: a case study on India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Political leaders of ambitious emerging economies of India and China, where the state has not yet reached the maturity stage, prefer nuclear power to other alternative energy sources, as it serves the dual purpose of retaining the state's hegemony on citizens' basic energy needs and assures supply of weapon grade ingredients. In contrast to North America and most of Western

Dipankar Dey

2010-01-01

311

Going against the flow: A critical analysis of inter-state virtual water trade in the context of India’s National River Linking Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual water trade has been promoted as a tool to address national and regional water scarcity. In the context of international (food) trade, this concept has been applied with a view to optimize the flow of commodities considering the water endowments of nations. The concept states that water rich countries should produce and export water intensive commodities (which indirectly carry

Shilp Verma; Doeke A. Kampman; Pieter van der Zaag; Arjen Y. Hoekstra

2009-01-01

312

Factors affecting the use of maternal health services in Madhya Pradesh state of India: a multilevel analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Improving maternal health is one of the eight Millennium Development Goals. It is widely accepted that the use of maternal health services helps in reducing maternal morbidity and mortality. The utilization of maternal health services is a complex phenomenon and it is influenced by several factors. Therefore, the factors at different levels affecting the use of these services need to be clearly understood. The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of individual, community and district level characteristics on the utilisation of maternal health services with special reference to antenatal care (ANC), skilled attendance at delivery and postnatal care (PNC). Methods This study was designed as a cross sectional study. Data from 15,782 ever married women aged 15-49 years residing in Madhya Pradesh state of India who participated in the District Level Household and Facility Survey (DLHS-3) 2007-08 were used for this study. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed accounting for individual, community and district level factors associated with the use of maternal health care services. Type of residence at community level and ratio of primary health center to population and percent of tribal population in the district were included as district level variables in this study. Results The results of this study showed that 61.7% of the respondents used ANC at least once during their most recent pregnancy whereas only 37.4% women received PNC within two weeks of delivery. In the last delivery, 49.8% mothers were assisted by skilled personnel. There was considerable amount of variation in the use of maternal health services at community and district levels. About 40% and 14% of the total variance in the use of ANC, 29% and 8% of the total variance in the use of skilled attendance at delivery and 28% and 8.5% of the total variance in the use of PNC was attributable to differences across communities and districts, respectively. When controlled for individual, community and district level factors, the variances in the use of skilled attendance at delivery attributed to the differences across communities and districts were reduced to 15% and 4.3% respectively. There were only marginal reductions observed in the variance at community and district level for ANC and PNC use. The household socio-economic status and mother's education were the most important factors associated with the use of ANC and skilled attendance at delivery. The community level variable was only significant for ANC and skilled attendance at delivery but not for PNC. None of the district level variables used in this study were found to be influential factors for the use of maternal health services. Conclusions We found sufficient amount of variations at community and district of residence on each of the three indicators of the use of maternal health services. For increasing the utilisation of these services in the state, in addition to individual-level, there is a strong need to identify and focus on community and district-level interventions.

2011-01-01

313

Profiling ?-thalassaemia mutations in India at state and regional levels: implications for genetic education, screening and counselling programmes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thalassaemia and sickle cell disease have been recognized by the World Health Organization as important inherited disorders\\u000a principally impacting on the populations of low income countries. To create a national and regional profile of ?-thalassaemia\\u000a mutations in the population of India, a meta-analysis was conducted on 17 selected studies comprising 8,505 alleles and offering\\u000a near-national coverage for the disease. At

S. Sinha; M. L. Black; S. Agarwal; R. Colah; R. Das; K. Ryan; M. Bellgard; A. H. Bittles

2009-01-01

314

Are We Asking the Right Questions? Moving beyond the State vs Non-State Providers Debate: Reflections and a Case Study from India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper provides an overview of recent trends in basic education provision in India: charting an impressive expansion of enrolment in public schools but a growing concern with the quality of learning. Concerns around quality are seen as a driving factor in the migration of students from the public sector to low fee private schools. While there…

Bangay, Colin; Latham, Michael

2013-01-01

315

Reluctant India  

Microsoft Academic Search

What role will human rights and democracy play in India’s foreign policy? On the level of principle and ideology, at least, there is a potential for India to become a beacon for democracy, but to what extent will democracy and human rights actually become high-level items on India’s foreign-policy agenda? The likelihood is that India will continue to display a

Pratap Bhanu Mehta

2011-01-01

316

Reluctant India  

Microsoft Academic Search

: What role will human rights and democracy play in India’s foreign policy? On the level of principle and ideology, at least, there is a potential for India to become a beacon for democracy, but to what extent will democracy and human rights actually become high-level items on India’s foreign-policy agenda? The likelihood is that India will continue to display

Pratap Bhanu Mehta

2011-01-01

317

Greater India  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Greater India” is an 80-yr-old concept that has been used by geoscientists in plate tectonic models of the India–Asia collision system. Numerous authors working on the orogen and\\/or plate models of the broader region have added various sized chunks of continental lithosphere to the now northern edge of their reconstructed Indian plate. Prior to plate tectonic theory, Emile Argand (1924)

Jason R. Ali; Jonathan C. Aitchison

2005-01-01

318

India's Multiple Revolutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Against the backdrop of the September 11 terrorist attacks on the United States and the war in Afghanistan, world attention in the final months of 2001 focused with unprecedented intensity on the politics of South Asia. The region’s two principal states, India and Pakistan, despite their professed support for the U.S. actions against Osama bin Laden, his alQaeda terrorist network,

Sumit Ganguly

2002-01-01

319

Operational aspects of remote sensing and gis for water resources conservation and management: few examples from Haryana state, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote Sensing as the term signifies is the technique of gathering information about an object or surface phenomenon without being in physical contact with it and essentially by using electromagnetic radiation. The principle of remote sensing is based on the solar radiation reflected or emitted from the surface of the earth. As different objects behave differently for the incoming solar radiation and have different thermal properties, the amount of solar radiation reflected, absorbed or emitted is also different. GIS is defined as an information system that is used to input, store, retrieve, manipulate, analyze and output geographically referenced data or geospatial data in order to support decision making for planning and management of natural resources. It has four essential components - hardware, software, geospatial data and the users. GIS is needed because of some inherent demerits in the manual methods. The conventional methods of surveying and mapping are time consuming, labour intensive and tedious. The techniques of Remote Sensing (RS) and GIS are effective in timely and efficient generation of database of various resources. The synoptic view and multi resolution satellite data is helpful in generating information at various scales. The mapping and monitoring of dynamic phenomenon such as floods, water logging, deforestation can be done very effectively with the aid of RS and GIS. The effective planning for water resources conservation and management at district level can be made if the data is generated on 1:50,000 scale. Hydrogeomorphological maps on 1:50,000 scale showing different ground water prospect zones have been prepared for different districts in Haryana State, India. This information has been supplemented with the available inputs from existing sources about the depth to water level and ground water quality. The other maps prepared under National (Natural) Resources Information System (NRIS) such as land use/ land cover, geomorphology, drainage/ canal network and soils etc have also been consulted for preparing water resources action plan. The maps thus prepared depict different units for further ground water prospecting. It is to mention here that some of the Palaeo-channels have been picked up first time. Various sites has been suggested for site specific water resources conservation measures such check dams/ gully plugging, earthen dams etc for recharging the ground water. The information thus developed has been submitted to PWD (Public Health) Department, Govt. of Haryana as well as other district agencies involved in the planning and management of natural resources, for further implementation of the activities suggested in different areas. During visit to different areas, it was found that the water resources action plans suggested are being implemented in the field to its maximum possibility both in the direction of fresh ground water areas exploration as well as water resources conservation. The ground water in the areas suggested is being recharged and the people are taking good crops.

Chaudhary, B. S.

320

India Today for August 18, 1997  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1997 India elebrated its 50th anniversary of independence from Britain, and to honor the occasion, this well known weekly magazine devoted a special issue to the subject. This issue presents a state of the nation India Today-ORG-MARG poll of over 12,000 that discussed nine topics, including morality, India and Pakistan, and the economy. There is also a feature on three famous protest walks led by Ghandi, views of the New Delhi based Center for Policy Research on the shape of India in the year 2047, views of 35 people on what it means to be Indian, essays by Salman Rushdie, Shahid Amin, and Upamanyu Chatterjee, and a photo section. The India Today home page contains a connection to India Today, as well as six other Living Media India Limited publications.

1997-01-01

321

Understanding Regional Economic Growth in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to explain the growth experiences of 14 major states of India between 1980 and 1998. Using two measures of convergence, s-convergence and û -convergence, we examine whether per capita incomes in the states have been converging or diverging. By both standards of convergence, India demonstrated overall divergence during 1980- 98, as well as during both the pre-

Jeffrey D. Sachs; Nirupam Bajpai

322

US.India.ChinaAssessing Tripolarity  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rise of India and China to potential great power status, there is now talk of the United States, India and China being the three poles in the international system of 2050. This article argues that the three countries are on different power trajectories and that two of these trajectories—those of the United States and China—will lead to a

Amit Gupta

2006-01-01

323

Rapid Assessment for Coexistence of Vitamin B12 and Iron Deficiency Anemia among Adolescent Males and Females in Northern Himalayan State of India.  

PubMed

Coexistence of folic acid and vitamin B12 deficiency has been observed among adolescents with iron deficiency anemia, but limited evidence is available from India. So, a rapid assessment was done to study the prevalence of iron, folic acid, and vitamin B12 deficiency among adolescent males and females in northern Himalayan state in India. Methods. Total 885 (female: 60.9%) adolescents (11 to 19 completed years) were surveyed from 30-cluster village from two community development blocks of Himachal Pradesh. Serum ferritin, folic acid, and vitamin B12 were estimated among randomly selected 100 male and 100 female adolescents. Results. Under-nutrition (BMI < 18.5?kg/m(2)) was observed among 68.9% of adolescents (male: 67.1%; female: 70.7; P = 0.29). Anemia was observed to be prevalent among 87.2% males and 96.7% females (P = 0.00). Mild form of anemia was observed to be the most common (53.9%) form followed by moderate (29.7%) anemia. Strikingly, it was found that all the adolescents were deficient in vitamin B12 and none of the adolescents was observed to be deficient in folic acid. Conclusion. Among both male and female adolescents anemia with vitamin B12 deficiency was observed to be a significant public health problem. Folic acid deficiency was not observed as a problem among surveyed adolescents. PMID:23970962

Bhardwaj, Ashok; Kumar, Dinesh; Raina, Sunil Kumar; Bansal, Pardeep; Bhushan, Satya; Chander, Vishav

2013-07-22

324

U.S. Nuclear Cooperation With India: Issues for Congress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1974, India exploded a 'peaceful' nuclear device and demonstrated that nuclear technology transferred for peaceful purposes could be used to produce nuclear weapons. As a result, the United States has refused nuclear cooperation with India for twenty-f...

S. Squassoni

2005-01-01

325

7 CFR 319.56-46 - Mangoes from India.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-46 Mangoes from India. Mangoes (Mangifera indica ) may be imported into the continental United States from India only under the following conditions:...

2010-01-01

326

7 CFR 319.56-46 - Mangoes from India.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-46 Mangoes from India. Mangoes (Mangifera indica ) may be imported into the continental United States from India only under the following conditions:...

2009-01-01

327

The profile of injection drug users in Chennai, India: identification of risk behaviours and implications for interventions.  

PubMed

We characterize the demographics, injection practices and risk behaviours of 1,158 injection drug users (IDUs) in Chennai, the capital of Tamil Nadu in southern India, who were recruited during 2005-2006 by community outreach. The median age was 35 years; the majority of IDUs were male, of Tamil ethnicity and married, and earning less than US$75 per month. Most (76%) had injected in the prior month. The median age at first injection was 25 years; the most common drug injected was heroin (80%) followed by buprenorphine. High risk behaviours were common and included needle-sharing, unsafe disposal, and inappropriate cleaning of needles as well as limited condom use. IDUs in India need to be educated on harm reduction and safe-injection practices; Pharmacies could serve as potential venues for HIV prevention interventions among IDUs in India, as most IDUs obtain their needles from pharmacies without prescription. PMID:20141452

Solomon, Sunil S; Desai, Monica; Srikrishnan, A K; Thamburaj, Easter; Vasudevan, C K; Kumar, M Suresh; Solomon, Suniti; Celentano, David D; Mehta, Shruti H

2010-02-01

328

Neurosurgery in India: an overview.  

PubMed

This overview of neurosurgery in India during the last six decades gives a holistic perspective of the phenomenal advances made. Neurosurgical education, the change in clinical spectrum of diseases and their presentation, evolution of various subspecialties and societies, the state of research, the issues peculiar to India, including the urban-rural health divide, the increasing role of information and communication technology in neurosurgery, and the gradual but definite global recognition of Indian neurosurgery will be addressed. PMID:23454398

Ganapathy, Krishnan

2013-02-27

329

Renewable energy programmes in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

With a strong industrial base and successful commercialisation of technologies in renewable energy, India is in a position today to offer state-of-the-art technology to other developing countries and is poised to play a leading role in the global movement towards sustainable energy development. India has a separate ministry to promote renewable energy sources, which has been named Ministry of Non-Conventional

S. Jebaraj; S. Iniyan

2006-01-01

330

Malnutrition in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The writer of this paper has made an inquiry into the determinants of the spatial differences in the distribution of malnutrition is six states of India, examined its consequences, and has suggested some measures.\\u000aIn Chapter I, the writer has defined the term malnutrition, recognized the problem and formulated the argument to study this phenomenon.\\u000aIn Chapter II, he has

Gurbhag Singh

1968-01-01

331

Pathogenic bacteria related to respiratory diseases in poultry with reference to Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale isolated in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria, with special reference to Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale associated with respiratory diseases, were performed from a total of 253 biomaterials collected from 125 layers of 35 commercially reared layer farms in Namakkal of Tamil Nadu state. In total, 27 (51.9%), 18 (34.6%), 5 (9.6%) and 2 (3.8%), isolates were identified as escherichia coli , Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale

Ramasamy Gopala; Krishna Murthy; Natarajan Dorairajan; Kulandaivelu Saravanabava

332

Challenges in India and Bhutan.  

PubMed

While India is making overall progress in maternal and child health and reproductive health (MCH/RH), all states are not moving ahead. In fact, it is the states with the larger populations which are lagging behind. Primary education, women's status, and literacy remain problematic. UNFPA has worked in India for a long time, helping to realize the decline in total fertility rate from 6 to 3.5 over the past 20-30 years. India's population, however, is still growing at the annual rate of 1.8%. UNFPA's program in India for the period 1997-2001 will stress women's health as a matter of overall reproductive health, a new approach in India which has long relied upon sterilization. Attention must be given to meeting the needs of the poor in India as the country continues to grow in size and wealth. While Bhutan's estimated population is just over 1 million, the annual population growth rate of 3.1% threatens development over the long term. With a mountainous terrain and a low resource base, Bhutan cannot sustain a high population growth rate. Significant improvements have been made and women's status is good, the infant mortality rate has been reduced, and the health infrastructure is not bad. UNFPA's 5-year program beginning in 1998 will mainly address RH, especially adolescent RH. PMID:12348248

Zaman, W

1997-12-01

333

India's population in transition.  

PubMed

This demographic profile of India addresses fertility, family planning, and economic issues. India is described as a country shifting from economic policies of self-reliance to active involvement in international trade. Wealth has increased, particularly at higher educational levels, yet 25% still live below the official poverty line and almost 66% of Indian women are illiterate. The government program in family planning, which was instituted during the early 1950s, did not change the rate of natural increase, which remained stable at 2.2% over the past 30 years. 1993 marked the first time the growth rate decline to under 2%. The growth rate in 1995 was 1.9%. The total population is expected double in 36 years. Only Nigeria, Pakistan, and Bangladesh had a higher growth rate and higher fertility in 1995. India is geographically diverse (with the northern Himalayan mountain zone, the central alluvial plains, the western desert region, and the southern peninsula with forest, mountains, and plains). There are regional differences in the fertility rates, which range from replacement level in Kerala and Goa to 5.5 children in Uttar Pradesh. Fertility is expected to decline throughout India due to the slower pace of childbearing among women over the age of 35 years, the increase in contraceptive use, and increases in marriage age. Increased educational levels in India and its state variations are related to lower fertility. Literacy campaigns are considered to be effective means of increasing the educational levels of women. Urbanization is not expected to markedly affect fertility levels. Urban population, which is concentrated in a few large cities, remains a small proportion of total population. Greater shifts are evident in the transition from agriculture to other wage labor. Fertility is expected to decline as women's share of labor force activity increases. The major determinant of fertility decline in India is use of family planning, which has improved in access and use during the 1980s. If India is to keep a stable population under 1.6 billion in the future, Indians may have to accept only one child per family. PMID:12290691

Visaria, L; Visaria, P

1995-10-01

334

U.S.–India Nuclear Cooperation and NonProliferation  

Microsoft Academic Search

he “Agreement for Cooperation Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of India Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy”1 (hereinafter referred to as “U.S.-India Nuclear Cooperation Agreement” or “123 agreement”) acknowledges a shift in international strategies and relations in both countries. As to India, it marks the end of nuclear isolation resulting from constraints, embargoes

Yash Thomas Mannully

2008-01-01

335

Chance for India to stop the Pakistani bomb  

Microsoft Academic Search

India would be far better off it, by adopting cautious restraints on its own nuclear activities, it could obtain firm limits on Pakistan's. Moreover, since the US has been long seeking such restraints from India, New Delhi might be able to strike a bargain under which the United States, in return for India's gesture, would withhold the sale of certain

1987-01-01

336

Privacy in India: Attitudes and Awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, numerous surveys have been conducted to assess at- titudes about privacy in the United States, Australia, Canada, and the European Union. Very little information has been published about privacy attitudes in In- dia. As India is becoming a leader in business process outsourcing, increasing amounts of personal information from other countries is flowing into India. Questions have

Ponnurangam Kumaraguru; Lorrie Faith Cranor

2005-01-01

337

Inflation targeting in India: issues and prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the case for inflation targeting (IT) in India. It states the objectives of monetary policy in India and argues that, with widespread poverty still present, inflation control cannot be an exclusive concern of monetary policy. The rationale for IT is spelt out and found to be incomplete. The paper provides some evidence on the effects of IT

Raghbendra Jha

2008-01-01

338

FT-IR spectral studies on polluted soils from industrial area at Karaikal, Puducherry State, South India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) has been carried out to analyze the chemical composition of soil samples. The soil samples were collected from an industrial environment at Karaikal, Union Territory of Pondicherry, South India. The FT-IR results indicate that soils have different composition, i.e., namely kaolinite, quartz, montmorillonite, aragonite, hematite, feldspar and calcite, respectively. From the spectral pattern, the chemical compositions of soil samples were identified. The quantitative estimations of kaolinite (1032 cm-1 and 1634 cm-1), quartz (779 cm-1, 692 cm-1 and 464 cm-1), montmorillonite (3421 cm-1), organic material (2922 cm-1) and hematite (532 cm-1) were calculated using particular peaks of FT-IR studies spectrum. From the XRD pattern, the chemical compositions of soil samples were confirmed. In the study reveals that kaolinite and quartz minerals were predominant whereas montmorillonite and hematite are in moderate level, and organic materials are found in trace. Quantitative analyses of soils show that quartz (36%), kaolinite (34%), hematite (13%), montmorillonite (12%), illite (3%) and organic material (2%) are present in all the soil samples at various sites.

Oumabady Alias Cannane, N.; Rajendran, M.; Selvaraju, R.

2013-06-01

339

Muse India  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started and run by a group of writers, Muse India is an online bimonthly journal which seeks to showcase Indian writings in both English and in English translation. Begun in early 2005, the journal has produced a number of thematic issues over the past several years, including those that have focused on Punjabi literature, modern Tamil poetry, and Indian aesthetics. Each issue contains a blend of literary commentaries, fiction pieces, book reviews, and poems. Visitors can read these pieces, and also search through the archive via a search engine. For those that are so inspired, they can also contact the editor about the possibility of having their own work included in a forthcoming issue of Muse India.

340

THE MODE OF PRODUCTION, SOCIAL CLASSES AND THE STATE IN COLONIAL INDIA, 1757-1947: A CASE STUDY OF THE PROCESS OF DEPENDENT CAPITALIST DEVELOPMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sociological studies of Indian social change are hard to come by. Only a few concerned sociologists have justly studied social change in India, and they have done so from the traditional methodological and theoretical standpoint of the Sociology of Modernization. None of them, however, focussed on social change in colonial India per se; neither did they adequately point out and

BIPUL KUMAR BHADRA

1984-01-01

341

The Mode of Production, Social Classes and the State in Colonial India, 1757-1947: A Case of the Process of Dependent Capitalist Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sociological studies of Indian social change are hard to come by. Only a few concerned sociologists have justly studied social change in India, and they have done so from the traditional methodological and theoretical standpoint of the Sociology of Modernization. None of them, however, focussed on social change in colonial India per se; neither did they adequately point out and

Bipul Kumar Bhadra

1984-01-01

342

Plant diseases in India and their control.  

PubMed

The concept of development is reviewed in terms of sustainability. Food production in India driven by pressure from an increasing human population uses 90,000 t per year of technical-grade pesticide: 12% of this is fungicide and a good part is insecticide for the control of vectors of plant viruses. A change in the cropping pattern and irrigation have provided a summer 'green bridge' along Tamil Nadu/Andhra Pradesh border areas for the tungro virus that affects rice and its vector. Epidemics occur along the coramandal coast, if the weather is suitable. Red rot disease of sugarcane is promoted by poor drainage, river widening, ratooning, contaminated planting material and variation in the pathogen throughout the Indo-Gangetic plain. Apple production uses large amounts of fungicide. For every 1000 t of apples produced 1t of fungicide is sprayed 8-10 times sequentially. Systemic application of fungicides has led to pesticide resistance and resurgence of other diseases. 70-80% of the Nagpur Mandrin produce reaches the market by trucks that have to traverse 1000 km. 10.6% of fruits are lost to post-harvest diseases; culling, sunburn and injuries account for another 11.6%. In the control of leaf rust of wheat in North India, the use of varietal mosaics, resistance genes and extra-late wheat sowings that do not coincide with favourable weather have all collectively contributed to loss reduction. The drop in the production of exportable crops such as peppers and coconuts because of diseases needs attention. The traditional wisdom on crop mixtures, organic manuring, shifting sowings, etc, needs scientific re-evaluation. PMID:8149823

Nagarajan, S

1993-01-01

343

Macro Landslide Hazard Zonation Mapping - Case Study from Bodi – Bodimettu Ghats Section, Theni District, Tamil Nadu - India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landslide is a common natural hazard that usually occurs in mountainous areas. Rapid urban development and high traffic intensity\\u000a movements have been hampered to a great extent by phenomenon of landslides. In Ghat section, vertical cuttings and steep slopes\\u000a are induced slope failures. An assessment of landslide hazards is therefore a prerequisite for sustainable development of\\u000a the hilly region. In

M. Kannan; E. Saranathan; R. Anbalagan

344

Coastal Sedimentation And Risks Of Tsunami Associated With 26Th December 2004 In The Kanyakumari Coast Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tsunami signatures were formulated from the field evidence from 26th December 2004 tsunami surge in the Kanyakumari coast. The impact of Tsunami can be identified form the preservation of geomorphic signatures and sedimentary deposits. The more common signature of Tsunami in the deposition of sand with thickness of 20cm towards landward and are sandwiched between finer material and debris on flat coastal plains. Black sands were transported by the strong Tsunami wave flow across the coastal vegetation and could be seen as deposits discontinuous pencil thin lenses in the landward. Thicker units were characterized by a series of lighter minerals fining upwards stacked one upon each other. Each unit indicates the single wave in the Tsunami wave train. Further the relative size of sediment in each site gives and indication of the magnitude of each Tsunami wave. Coarse marine sand mixed with pebbles in landward. tapering sheets was noticed. The Tsunami characteristics were heavily dependent upon the configuration of the coastline. Run up heights In the many locations were three times greater than the initial height of the wave at shore. The damage of concrete roof and Manakudi Bridge indicates the flow velocities and force of tsunami. The Tsunami deposited 15 to 20 can thick sand splays behind sand dunes of chothavilai, pallam and Azhikal coast were seen. The dump deposits were observed around obstacles and road erosion also occurred with formation of turbulent vortices around obstacles and in channelised backwash. Flow velocities were interpreted form these sediment features with those of structural and building damages. A careful observation in the fields indicate that the coast of Kanyakamari is more susceptible to tsunami run up, flooding and inundation. The type of offshore bathymetry and coastal setting are prone to tsunami. The tsunami flood across river inlet and offshore bathymetry is steep. The river mouth surfaces lying only a few metters above sea level have allowed tsunami to penetrate long distances inland. Tsunami wave approached the shore rapidly and with most of their energy intact in manakudi and colachel. The wave at shallow depth of river inlet / creek has traveled less whereas the deep area experienced the more flood. The residents living along the river banks were affected by the tsunami. The risk is very high. Tsunami has an affinity for head lands. They are not blocked by cliffs. The wave energy is concentrated here by wave refraction. Amplitude of wave on headlands is two to three folds relative to an adjacent embayed beach.

Chandrasekar, N.

2007-05-01

345

Significance of saturation index of certain clay minerals in shallow coastal groundwater, in and around Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The saturation index of clay minerals like Gibbsite, Kaolinite, Illite, Montmorillonite and Chlorite in groundwater were studied in detail by collecting 29 groundwater samples from the shallow coastal aquifers in and around Kalpakkam. The samples collected were analysed for major cations, anions and trace elements by using standard procedures. The study reveals that pH has a significant role in the saturation index (SI) of minerals. It also shows that the relationship of electrical conductivity to the SI of these minerals is not significant than that of the ionic strength, log pCO2 values, and alumina silica ratio have significant relation to the SI of these clay minerals. The SI of these clay minerals was spatially distributed to identify the areas of higher SI. Silica has good correlation to SI of Kaolinite, Gibbsite and Montmorillonite and Al has good correlation to SI of all the minerals except to that of Chlorite.

Chidambaram, S.; Karmegam, U.; Sasidhar, P.; Prasanna, M. V.; Manivannan, R.; Arunachalam, S.; Manikandan, S.; Anandhan, P.

2011-10-01

346

Knowledge, Stigma, and Behavioral Outcomes among Antiretroviral Therapy Patients Exposed to Nalamdana's Radio and Theater Program in Tamil Nadu, India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Arts-based programs have improved HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and behavior in general and at-risk populations. With HIV transformed into a chronic condition, this study compares patients at consecutive stages of receiving antiretroviral treatment, coinciding with exposure to a radio-and-theater-based educational program (unexposed [N =…

Nambiar, Devaki; Ramakrishnan, Vimala; Kumar, Paresh; Varma, Rajeev; Balaji, Nithya; Rajendran, Jeeva; Jhona, Loretta; Chandrasekar, Chokkalingam; Gere, David

2011-01-01

347

Monitoring the quality of groundwater on the bank of Uyyakondan channel of river Cauvery at Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu—India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The groundwater quality on the banks of Uyyakondan channel of Cauvery at Tiruchirappalli was studied. Two groundwater samples\\u000a were taken near the bank of the channel on both sides and the other two samples were taken nearly 0.5 km away from the channel\\u000a at ten stations. The study was carried out every year over a period of 3 years from December 2001–December

A. Abdul Jameel; A. Zahir Hussain

348

Risk factors of post-traumatic stress disorder in tsunami survivors of Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Context: In this study, we assessed the relation of possible risk factors with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the survivors of December 2004 tsunami in Kanyakumari district. Materials and Methods: We identified cases (n=158) and controls (n=141) by screening a random sample of 485 tsunami survivors from June 2005 to October 2005 using a validated tool, “Impact of events scale-revised (IES-R),” for symptoms suggestive of PTSD. Subjects whose score was equal to or above the 70th percentile (total score 48) were cases and those who had score below or equal to 30th percentile (total score 33) were controls. Analysis was done using statistical package for the social sciences to find the risk factors of PTSD among various pre-disaster, within-disaster and post-disaster factors. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that PTSD was related to female gender [odds ratio (OR) 6.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.26-12.39], age 40 years and above (OR 2.38, 95% CI 1.23-4.63), injury to self (OR 2.97, 95% CI 1.55-5.67), injury to family members (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.05-4.15), residence in urban area (area of maximum destruction) (OR 3.37, 95% CI 1.35-8.41) and death of close relatives (OR 3.83, 95% CI 1.91-7.68). Absence of fear of recurrence of tsunami (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.17-0.60), satisfaction of services received (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.36-0.92) and counseling services received more than three times (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.26-0.78) had protective effect against PTSD. Conclusions: There is an association of pre-disaster, within-disaster and post-disaster factors with PTSD, which demands specific interventions at all phases of disaster, with a special focus on vulnerable groups.

Pyari, T. T.; Kutty, Raman V.; Sarma, P. S.

2012-01-01

349

Isolation and characterization of oil degrading bacteria from oil contaminated soils of Vellore district, Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

Oil contaminated soils were collected from oil grinding mill, automobile service stations, and restaurant waste dumping sites of Vellore district for the isolation of oil degrading bacteria. Out of 78 Colony Forming Units, only 16 were found to be potent bacteria. 8 biggest clear zone forming bacteria on trybutyrin plates were studied for their colony morphology and the most potential oil degrader bacteria was then chosen for microbial and biochemical assay. The study showed the most prospective bacteria were Bacillus subtilis with the dimension of 3.45 microm x 0.2 microm. This "microbial oil-destroyer" produces extracellular lipase which utilizes oil, and hence it can be used for the self remediation of lipid contaminated soils and water bodies. PMID:21114118

Rajan, Anand Prem

2010-04-01

350

Geomatics Based Analysis of Predicted Sea Level Rise and its Impacts in Parts of Tamil Nadu Coast, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coastal zones around the world are very densely populated and hence heavily packed with related infrastructures. So, the\\u000a territorial nations have obvious apprehensions against the IPCC SRES (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Special Report\\u000a on Emission Scenario) predicted sea level rise, as it would cause flooding of the low lying coasts and also other related\\u000a chains of environmental endangers.

S. M. Ramasamy; C. J. Kumanan; J. Saravanavel; A. S. Rajawat; V. Tamilarasan; Ajay

2010-01-01

351

Tobacco control in India.  

PubMed Central

Legislation to control tobacco use in developing countries has lagged behind the dramatic rise in tobacco consumption. India, the third largest grower of tobacco in the world, amassed 1.7 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 1990 due to disease and injury attributable to tobacco use in a population where 65% of the men and 38% of the women consume tobacco. India's anti-tobacco legislation, first passed at the national level in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and proved to be insufficient. In the last decade state legislation has increasingly been used but has lacked uniformity and the multipronged strategies necessary to control demand. A new piece of national legislation, proposed in 2001, represents an advance. It includes the following key demand reduction measures: outlawing smoking in public places; forbidding sale of tobacco to minors; requiring more prominent health warning labels; and banning advertising at sports and cultural events. Despite these measures, the new legislation will not be enough to control the demand for tobacco products in India. The Indian Government must also introduce policies to raise taxes, control smuggling, close advertising loopholes, and create adequate provisions for the enforcement of tobacco control laws.

Shimkhada, Riti; Peabody, John W.

2003-01-01

352

Paragonimus & paragonimiasis in India  

PubMed Central

Ever since the discovery of the first indigenous case in 1981, paragonimiasis has gained recognition as a significant food borne parasitic zoonosis in India. The data available on the occurrence of paragonimiasis, until today, may be just the tip of an iceberg as the study areas covered were restricted to Northeast Indian States. Nevertheless, the results of research on paragonimiasis in India have revealed valuable information in epidemiology, life cycle, pathobiology and speciation of Indian Paragonimus. Potamiscus manipurensis, Alcomon superciliosum and Maydelliathelphusa lugubris were identified as the crab hosts of Paragonimus. Paragonimus miyazakii manipurinus n. sub sp., P. hueit’ungensis, P. skrjabini, P. heterotremus, P. compactus, and P. westermani have been described from India. P. heterotremus was found as the causative agent of human paragonimiasis. Ingestion of undercooked crabs and raw crab extract was the major mode of infection. Pulmonary paragonimiasis was the commonest clinical manifestation while pleural effusion and subcutaneous nodules were the common extra-pulmonary forms. Clinico-radiological features of pulmonary paragonimiasis simulated pulmonary tuberculosis. Intradermal test, ELISA and Dot-immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) were used for diagnosis and epidemiological survey of paragonimiasis. Phylogenitically, Indian Paragonimus species, although nested within the respective clade were distantly related to others within the clade.

Singh, T. Shantikumar; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Rangsiruji, Achariya

2012-01-01

353

Paragonimus & paragonimiasis in India.  

PubMed

Ever since the discovery of the first indigenous case in 1981, paragonimiasis has gained recognition as a significant food borne parasitic zoonosis in India. The data available on the occurrence of paragonimiasis, until today, may be just the tip of an iceberg as the study areas covered were restricted to Northeast Indian States. Nevertheless, the results of research on paragonimiasis in India have revealed valuable information in epidemiology, life cycle, pathobiology and speciation of Indian Paragonimus. Potamiscus manipurensis, Alcomon superciliosum and Maydelliathelphusa lugubris were identified as the crab hosts of Paragonimus. Paragonimus miyazakii manipurinus n. sub sp., P. hueit'ungensis, P. skrjabini, P. heterotremus, P. compactus, and P. westermani have been described from India. P. heterotremus was found as the causative agent of human paragonimiasis. Ingestion of undercooked crabs and raw crab extract was the major mode of infection. Pulmonary paragonimiasis was the commonest clinical manifestation while pleural effusion and subcutaneous nodules were the common extra-pulmonary forms. Clinico-radiological features of pulmonary paragonimiasis simulated pulmonary tuberculosis. Intradermal test, ELISA and Dot-immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) were used for diagnosis and epidemiological survey of paragonimiasis. Phylogenitically, Indian Paragonimus species, although nested within the respective clade were distantly related to others within the clade. PMID:22960885

Singh, T Shantikumar; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Rangsiruji, Achariya

2012-08-01

354

CYP2B6 G516T Polymorphism but Not Rifampin Coadministration Influences Steady-State Pharmacokinetics of Efavirenz in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients in South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dose of efavirenz during concomitant rifampin (RMP) administration is a matter of debate. We studied the influence of RMP coadministration on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of efavirenz in human immuno- deficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients in South India. Fifty-seven HIV-tuberculosis (TB)-coinfected and 15 HIV-1-infected patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (CART) with an efavirenz (600 mg once daily)-containing regimen were

Geetha Ramachandran; A. K. Hemanth Kumar; Sikhamani Rajasekaran; P. Kumar; K. Ramesh; S. Anitha; G. Narendran; Pradeep Menon; C. Gomathi; Soumya Swaminathan

2009-01-01

355

Impact of targeted interventions on heterosexual transmission of HIV in India  

PubMed Central

Background Targeted interventions (TIs) have been a major strategy for HIV prevention in India. We evaluated the impact of TIs on HIV prevalence in high HIV prevalence southern states (Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra). Methods A quasi-experimental approach was used to retrospectively compare changes in HIV prevalence according to the intensity of targeted intervention implementation. Condom gap (number of condoms required minus condoms supplied by TIs) was used as an indicator of TI intensity. Annual average number of commercial sex acts per female sex worker (FSW) reported in Behavioral Surveillance Survey was multiplied by the estimated number of FSWs in each district to calculate annual requirement of condoms in the district. Data of condoms supplied by TIs from 1995 to 2008 was obtained from program records. Districts in each state were ranked into quartiles based on the TI intensity. Primary data of HIV Sentinel Surveillance was analyzed to calculate HIV prevalence reductions in each successive year taking 2001 as reference year according to the quartiles of TI intensity districts using generalized linear model with logit link and binomial distribution after adjusting for age, education, and place of residence (urban or rural). Results In the high HIV prevalence southern states, the number of TI projects for FSWs increased from 5 to 310 between 1995 and 2008. In high TI intensity quartile districts (n = 30), 186 condoms per FSW/year were distributed through TIs as compared to 45 condoms/FSW/year in the low TI intensity districts (n = 29). Behavioral surveillance indicated significant rise in condom use from 2001 to 2009. Among FSWs consistent condom use with last paying clients increased from 58.6% to 83.7% (p < 0.001), and among men of reproductive age, the condom use during sex with non-regular partner increased from 51.7% to 68.6% (p < 0.001). A significant decline in HIV and syphilis prevalence has occurred in high prevalence southern states among FSWs and young antenatal women. Among young (15-24 years) antenatal clinic attendees significant decline was observed in HIV prevalence from 2001 to 2008 (OR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.28-0.62) in high TI intensity districts whereas in low TI intensity districts the change was not significant (OR = 1.01, 95% CI 0.67-1.5). Conclusion Targeted interventions are associated with HIV prevalence decline.

2011-01-01

356

Light Engineering Project for the Adult Blind.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To encourage blind persons to become more independent from traditional charity and to enable them to participate in the rapid industrial development occurring in the Madras area of Tamil Nadu State, India, a 6-month rehabilitation program trained a total ...

1965-01-01

357

India: Global Ambitions Limited by Regional Reach.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

India has the political traditions, economic capabilities, resource availability and developmental potential to become a powerful partner in helping the United States achieve its national strategy goals in South Asia and in the Pacific Rim area. However, ...

A. K. FraserDarling

1998-01-01

358

Large-scale STI services in Avahan improve utilization and treatment seeking behaviour amongst high-risk groups in India: an analysis of clinical records from six states  

PubMed Central

Background Avahan, the India AIDS Initiative, implemented a large HIV prevention programme across six high HIV prevalence states amongst high risk groups consisting of female sex workers, high risk men who have sex with men, transgenders and injecting drug users in India. Utilization of the clinical services, health seeking behaviour and trends in syndromic diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections amongst these populations were measured using the individual tracking data. Methods The Avahan clinical monitoring system included individual tracking data pertaining to clinical services amongst high risk groups. All clinic visits were recorded in the routine clinical monitoring system using unique identification numbers at the NGO-level. Visits by individual clinic attendees were tracked from January 2005 to December 2009. An analysis examining the limited variables over time, stratified by risk group, was performed. Results A total of 431,434 individuals including 331,533 female sex workers, 10,280 injecting drug users, 82,293 men who have sex with men, and 7,328 transgenders visited the clinics with a total of 2,700,192 visits. Individuals made an average of 6.2 visits to the clinics during the study period. The number of visits per person increased annually from 1.2 in 2005 to 8.3 in 2009. The proportion of attendees visiting clinics more than four times a year increased from 4% in 2005 to 26% in 2009 (p<0.001). The proportion of STI syndromes diagnosed amongst female sex workers decreased from 39% in 2005 to 11% in 2009 (p<0.001) while the proportion of STI syndromes diagnosed amongst high risk men who have sex with men decreased from 12% to 3 % (p<0.001). The proportion of attendees seeking regular STI check-ups increased from 12% to 48% (p<0.001). The proportion of high risk groups accessing clinics within two days of onset of STI-related symptoms and acceptability of speculum and proctoscope examination increased significantly during the programme implementation period. Conclusions The programme demonstrated that acceptable and accessible services with marginalised and often difficult–to-reach populations can be brought to a very large scale using standardized approaches. Utilization of these services can dramatically improve health seeking behaviour and reduce STI prevalence.

2011-01-01

359

Education and Caste in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyses the policy of reservation for lower castes in India. This policy is similar to that of affirmative action in the United States. The paper provides a brief overview of the caste system and discusses the types of groups that are eligible for reservation, based on data from government reports. The stance of this paper is that…

Chauhan, Chandra Pal Singh

2008-01-01

360

Education and caste in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the policy of reservation for lower castes in India. This policy is similar to that of affirmative action in the United States. The paper provides a brief overview of the caste system and discusses the types of groups that are eligible for reservation, based on data from government reports. The stance of this paper is that affirmative

Chandra Pal Singh Chauhan

2008-01-01

361

Elementary Education in Rural India: A Grassroots View. Strategies for Human Development in India, Volume 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There are wide variations in educational attainment and literacy rates across the regions and social classes of India. A national project examined participation in and the quality of elementary education in nine states of India, focusing on rural areas and the situation of disadvantaged persons, especially girls and the scheduled castes and…

Vaidyanathan, A., Ed.; Nair, P. R. Gopinathan, Ed.

362

Rural–Urban Differences in India’s School Sanitation Programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

The background to this article is the concern about Health Inequities (HI), recently voiced by the World Health Organization. This short article concerns HI in the context of India’s school sanitation programme. Lack of proper sanitation is a major environmental health risk for children, leading to illness and deaths. Analysis of school sanitation coverage in Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan states

Homi Katrak

2010-01-01

363

Understanding Regional Economic Growth in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to explain the growth experiences of 14 major states of India between 1980 and 1998. Using two measures of convergence, ?-convergence and ß-convergence, we examine whether per capita incomes in the states have been converging or diverging. By both standards of convergence, India demonstrated overall divergence during 1980-;98, as well as during both the pre-reform and post-reform

Jeffrey D. Sachs; Nirupam Bajpai; Ananthi Ramiah

2002-01-01

364

In what way, and to what degree, did the Mughal state inhibit Smithian growth in India in the seventeenth century?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of the seventeenth-century Mughal state and its land revenue taxation system has become a matter of controversy in recent years. Irfan Habib and his followers dominated thinking on this subject from the sixties onwards. They saw the regime as highly centralized and essentially extractive in nature. The land revenue system was designed to extract the whole surplus, leaving

Frank W. Ellis

2005-01-01

365

If the State provided free computer literacy, would it find takers? Evidence and propositions from the Akshaya project in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Akshaya project from Kerala has been a much discussed case for the community of practitioners and scholars working on\\u000a technology and development. A unique feature of the project is its state-wide e-literacy goal in which one member of every\\u000a household was trained in the telecenters set up under Akshaya at public expense. Using a survey of 1,750 households in

Joyojeet Pal

2009-01-01

366

iGEON-India: International GEON Activities in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of its international activities, the Geosciences Network project (GEON, http://www.geongrid.org) has initiated collaborations with the University of Hyderabad, India. This effort called, iGEON-India, is funded by the Indo-US Science and Technology Forum. The goal of the project is to promote the use of cyberinfrastructure at participating institutions in India to facilitate the sharing of geosciences data via GEON. The lead institution in India, which is the University of Hyderabad, has deployed a GEON portal at their site in Hyderabad to enable local scientists to register their data sets. The iGEON-India grid is a distributed grid composed of dedicated hardware resources physically located at partner sites spread across India. Currently, this includes the University of Hyderabad, University of Pune, and a newly established university in a rural area in southern India, in Rajamundry. Each partner site hosts a minimum of one PoP (Point of Presence) node, which is a server-class machine: a dual-processor Linux-based server that runs the standard GEON Software Stack. Some sites may have additional hardware resources while other sites have additional resources that are accessible to GEON users, but not dedicated to GEON. The iGEON PoP node provides capabilities to (i) develop and deploy services and serve datasets for the users at their site and for the broader iGEON community, (ii) help the partner site integrate local department or campus resources, and (iii) provide resources for system-level components, e.g. for data caching, monitoring, etc. Users at the University of Hyderabad have already started registering some data sets, including GIS data and geochemistry data. In addition, some GIS services have been registered, and other services related to image processing are in the process of being developed. As part of the collaboration, the GEON project has already conducted two cyberinfrastructure workshops at the University of Hyderabad in October 2005 and August 2007. iGEON-India is a collaboration between GEON in the US (represented by the San Diego Supercomputer Center, University of Oklahoma, and Penn State University) and the University of Hyderabad, University of Pune, and the University of Jammu in India.

Subbarao, K.; Baru, C.; Agarwal, A.; Chandra, S.

2007-12-01

367

Factors associated with maternal healthcare services utilization in nine high focus states in India: a multilevel analysis based on 14 385 communities in 292 districts.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND Studies have often ignored examining the role of community- and district-level factors in the utilization of maternity healthcare services, particularly in Indian contexts. The Social Determinants of Health framework emphasizes the role of governance and government policies, the measures for which are rarely incorporated in single-level individual analysis. This study examines factors associated with maternal healthcare utilization in nine high focus states in India, which shares more than half of the total maternal deaths in the country; accounting for individual-, household-, community- and district-level characteristics. METHODS The required data are extracted from the third round of the nationally representative District Level Household and Facility Survey conducted during 2007-08. Multilevel analyses were applied to three maternity outcomes, namely, four or more antenatal care visits, skilled birth attendance and post-natal care after birth.Findings Results show that along with individual-/household-level factors, community and district-level factors influence the pattern of utilization of maternal healthcare services significantly. At the community level, the odds of maternal healthcare utilization were lower in rural areas and in communities with a high concentration of poor and illiterate women. Moreover, the average population coverage of primary health centres (PHCs), availability of labour room in PHC and percentage of registered pregnancies were significant factors at the district level that influenced the use of maternity care services. The study also found a strong association between the extent of previous use of maternal healthcare and its effect on subsequent usage patterns. CONCLUSION This study highlights the role of strengthening public health infrastructure at district level in the study area, and promoting awareness about available healthcare services and subsidized schemes in the community. To reach out to rural and underprivileged communities and to apply a participatory approach from the programme officials are issues to delve into. PMID:23783832

Singh, Prashant Kumar; Kumar, Chandan; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Singh, Lucky

2013-06-18

368

Focus on New Trends in Supply and Training of Elementary School Teachers in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demand for teachers has increased in India after Jomtien meet of Education for all drive i.e.1990 .due to bad financial position many states in India it was unable to recruit regular teachers according to the demand. Added to the problem, from one side India stated introducing Globalization process, the other side international pressure on introduction of education for all

Josephine YAZALI

369

Silicosis in Coimbatore district of Tamil Nadu: A passive surveillance study  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Silicosis in Coimbatore district of Tamil Nadu: A passive surveillance study. Aim: This study was done to describe the level of preventive measures and level of awareness among the patients diagnosed with silicosis during a one-year period. Settings and Design: Coimbatore Medical College Hospital. Materials and Methods: This is a passive surveillance study based on patients diagnosed with silicosis in our outpatient facility for a one-year period between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2012. Results: Seventeen cases of silicosis were diagnosed based on history of exposure to silica and radiological features. The mean age was 55 years with 16 males and one female. The average duration of exposure was 22 years. A protective mask was used by 29% of the patients and one patient had awareness about the risks of exposure to silica. Active tuberculosis was found in 12% and old tuberculosis in 47% of patients; 59% of the patients were smokers. Spirometry showed a restrictive pattern in 59% of the patients. Radiologically nodular opacities with upper-zone predominance was found in majority of the cases. Conclusion: Most patients are exposed to silica in unorganized industries. Majority of the patients lack awareness about the disease and there is a low implementation of preventive and control measures. As this study was a passive surveillance, it represents only the tip of iceberg and an active field-level surveillance could reveal the true prevalence of this disease.

Sivanmani, Keerthivasan; Rajathinakar, Vani

2013-01-01

370

EPR and optical absorption characteristics of sodic plagioclase from granite pegmatite in Kadavur, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of sodic plagioclase from dykes of granitic pegmatite occurring in the Kadavur area, Tamil Nadu, India, were examined at room temperature to identify paramagnetic impurities in a "low plagioclase" using EPR and optical techniques. The EPR spectra showed the presence of Fe(III) and Mn(II) impurities. After heating the plagioclase samples for various durations at 600 °C, it has been observed that the concentration of Mn(II) remained as such in one sample but completely disappeared in another sample, while there was no change in Fe(III) ion concentration after the heat treatment in either sample. Optical absorption spectra also showed Fe(II) and Fe(III) in addition to Ti(III) impurities in sodic plagioclase before heating, while after heating the relative concentration of Fe(II) and Fe(III) changed, accompanied by the disappearance of Ti(III).

Anand, S. Vijay; Pandian, M. S.; Mithira, S.; Ravikumar, R. V. S. S. N.; Sambasiva Rao, P.

371

Assessment of groundwater quality in Virudhunagar district (India): a statistical approach.  

PubMed

The present work was undertaken to analyze the various water quality parameters, viz. pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total alkalinity, total hardness, Cl-, SO4(2-), Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+ and study the WQI in bore well and dug well water samples. 30 water samples were collected from different localities of Virudhunagar district, Tamil Nadu (India). The results were compared with the values stipulated by World Health Organization (WHO), Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) and European Economic Community (EEC) for drinking water quality. The present study showed the overall water quality of Virudhunagar district is poor and unsuitable for drinking purpose which recommends the use of indigenous technologies, to make water fit for drinking purpose. PMID:21391396

Muthulakshmi, L; Ramu, A; Kannan, N

2010-07-01

372

FERTILITY TRANSITION: THE CASE OF RURAL COMMUNITIES IN KARNATAKA, INDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most developing societies are now experiencing demographic transition at varying levels. In a vast country like India with high demographic diversity and heterogeneity, the levels and stages of fertility decline differ significantly from state to state. Given this situation, it is interesting to have a look at demographic transition in South India ( a population of 220 million in 2001),

T. V. Sekher

373

AUSTRALIA, INDIA AND THE US: TERMS OF ALLIANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines from media and online records in India and Australia, their different relationships with the United States. These relationships are explored within the context of regional security and perceptions of the benefits accruing to both countries as a result of their connection with America. The terms of alliance between India and the United States and Australia and the

Auriol Weigold

374

Disaster Response in India.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

India is prone to natural and man-made disasters. The number has been increasing every year because of the mixture of various factors such as adverse weather, population growth, urbanization, and industrialization. How the Republic of India organizes for ...

J. G. Turbiville P. Singh W. W. Mendel

2000-01-01

375

Attempted Suicides in India: A Comprehensive Look  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suicide continues to be one of the biggest killers in the world, with suicide rates varying between 8.1 and 58.3\\/100,000 population for different parts of India. Andhra Pradesh, the fourth largest state in India, is responsible for more than 11% of these. Unfortunately, most suicides are under-reported and there is scant data on attempted suicides. This study aimed to comprehensively

Sahoo Saddichha; M. N. V. Prasad; Mukul Kumar Saxena

2010-01-01

376

Malaria in India: Challenges and opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

India contributes about 70% of malaria in the South East Asian Region of WHO. Although annually India reports about two million\\u000a cases and 1000 deaths attributable to malaria, there is an increasing trend in the proportion of Plasmodium falciparum as the agent. There exists heterogeneity and variability in the risk of malaria transmission between and within the states\\u000a of the

A. P. Dash; Neena Valecha; A. R. Anvikar; A. Kumar

2008-01-01

377

Meet India's Urban Teenagers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to be a culminating activity after seventh grade social studies students have studied India, this week-long lesson features autobiographical sketches of six teenagers from India. The lesson has three objectives: (1) to provide actual life stories of teenagers as a springboard for further research about the customs and culture of India;…

Scott, Gail

378

Evidence for the presence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and monodon baculovirus (MBV) in wild Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) broodstock, in the southeast coast of India.  

PubMed

A survey on the presence of the viruses of two economically significant diseases, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and monodon baculovirus (MBV) in wild-collected Penaeus monodon broodstock, was conducted during different seasons of the year in two major coastal areas of southeast India. The broodstock were collected along the coast of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh during summer, premonsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons for three consecutive years. A total of 7905 samples were collected and subjected to MBV screening, and 6709 samples that were screened as MBV negative were diagnosed for WSSV. MBV was detected using rapid malachite green staining and WSSV by nested polymerase chain reaction. Prevalence data of the viruses were analysed using the EpiCalc 2000 program at 95% confidence interval. Samples collected from the Andhra Pradesh coast displayed a slightly higher prevalence of WSSV and MBV infection than those collected from Tamil Nadu, although this difference was not statistically significant (P > 005). In addition, it was found that the prevalence of both WSSV and MBV infections fluctuated according to season. Data on prevalence of these viruses in broodstock would be useful to develop strategies for shrimp health management along the southeast coast of India. PMID:22924635

Remany, M C; Daly, C; Nagaraj, S; Panda, A K; Jaideep, K; Samraj, Y C T

2012-08-23

379

India transformed: parsing India's “new” foreign policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the end of the Cold War, the dissolution of the Soviet Union, and the collapse of the old economic order in India a dozen years ago, the outmoded methods New Delhi had employed for four decades to engage the world were no longer tenable. C. Raja Mohan, one of India's leading strategic thinkers, has traced the remarkable transformation in

Robert Hathaway

2003-01-01

380

A comparison of institutional systems affecting software advancement in China and India: The role of outsourcing from Japan and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of new innovation depends on co-evolution with institutional systems. Innovations will stagnate if they cannot adapt to institutions, as illustrated by the rise and subsequent fall of some Japanese innovations in the 1980s and 1990s. Similarly, conspicuous software advancements in China and India can be attributed to their unique institutional systems. While both countries share certain similarities that

Weilin Zhao; Chihiro Watanabe

2008-01-01

381

The impact of 1995--1996 health sector reforms in the effectiveness of malaria control program in the state of Orissa, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malaria poses a significant public health problem worldwide. The World Health Organization indicates that approximately 40% of the world's population and almost 85% of the population from the South–East Asian region is at risk of contracting malaria. India being the most populous country in the region, contributes the highest number of malaria cases and deaths attributed to malaria. Orissa is

Alakananda Mohanty

2008-01-01

382

NEOLIBERALISM AND CONTESTED POLICIES OF THE POWER INDUSTRY IN INDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper, adopting a political-economy approach, examines the evolution of electric-power policy in India by drawing linkages between global and local\\/national discourses, of development. The study focuses on the objectives and goals of the post-colonial developmental state of India, and examines the transition of India's electricity policy regime from Keynesianism to neoliberalism. I argue that the historically dynamic nature of

Waquar Ahmed

2007-01-01

383

From brain drain to brain gain: reverse migration to Bangalore and Hyderabad, India’s globalizing high tech cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses the mutual impact of returning Indian-origin skilled workers on the cities of Bangalore (Bengaluru) and\\u000a Hyderabad, which have emerged as India’s leading “tech cities”. During the 1970s and 1980s, there was concern that India was\\u000a losing its educated workforce to the West, particularly to the United States through a phenomenon known as “brain drain”.\\u000a More recently, there

Elizabeth Chacko

2007-01-01

384

India's security partnership with Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, India and Singapore have developed a strong bilateral security and economic partnership that has assumed a central position in India's strategic engagement in Southeast Asia. Having sought strategic engagement with India for many decades, Singapore has now successfully positioned itself as India's leading political partner and economic gateway to the region. At the same time, India and

David Brewster

2009-01-01

385

Sporotrichosis in Himachal Pradesh (North India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sporotrichosis is being increasingly reported from a particular area of Himachal Pradesh, a state in northwest India. A skin-test survey was conducted using sporotrichin and peptido-rhamnomannan antigen among the population in the villages where 2 or more cases of sporotrichosis had been reported and results were compared with those for villages of the same state where no case of sporotrichosis

A. Ghosh; A Chakrabarti; V. K. Sharma; K. Singh; A. Singh

1999-01-01

386

Coercion and Control: Explaining India's Victory at Kargil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues that most analyses of the Kargil conflict concede the important role played by the United States in understanding how India regained control of the Kargil heights, but fail to explain how India's intra-war compellent threat forced Washington to bring irresistible pressure to bear on Islamabad. The Indian decision to threaten asymmetrical escalation was the result of domestic

Kartik Bommakanti

2011-01-01

387

Demographic Complementarities and Outsourcing : Implications and Challenges for India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the implications of differing global demographic trends for Indias competitiveness in outsourcing and offshoring. It also briefly notes the implications of differing demographic trends among the Indian states. The paper argues that demographic complementarities with high-income countries provide India with one-time opportunity to sustain its growth rate and occupy all segments of global outsourcing and offshoring activities.

Mukul G. Asher; Amarendu Nandy

2006-01-01

388

Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in India: Vulnerability and Scope for Remedy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic contamination in groundwater in the Ganga- Brahmaputra fluvial plains in India and Padma-Meghna fluvial plains in Bangladesh and its consequences to the human health have been reported as one of the world's biggest natural groundwater calamities to the mankind. In India, seven states namely- West Bengal, Jharkhand, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh in the flood plain of the Ganga River; Assam

N. C. Ghosh; R. D. Singh

389

Case Studies on Biological Treatment of Tannery Effluents in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a comparative assessment of the cost and quality of treatment of tannery wastewater in India by two common effluent treatment plants (CETPs) constructed for two tannery clusters, at Jajmau (Kanpur) and at Unnao in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. The Jajmau plant is upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) process-based, while the Unnao plant is activated sludge

Vinod Tare; Sandeep Gupta; Purnendu Bose

2003-01-01

390

Organ Donation and Transplantation in India: An Inquiry in Kerala  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until recently, financial incentive was the prime motivation in transplantation of kidneys from nonrelated living donors in India. Prior to the Human Organ Transplantation Act of 1994, it was legal in all states of India to purchase and merchandise organs, eliminating the opportunity for black markets currently created by the enormous demand for organs. Eight years later, the question remains

Karen Kennedy

2002-01-01

391

India's Doctor Shortage Reflects Problems in Medical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reports that India's medical profession is in a crisis. For every 10,000 people in India there are only six doctors, compared with nearly 55 in the United States and nearly 21 in Canada. The problem is likely to get worse before it gets better. Professors are leaving medical schools for better-paying jobs in private hospitals and in…

Neelakantan, Shailaja

2008-01-01

392

A Rising India's Search for a Foreign Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

As India seeks to become a major player on the international political stage, it will face two major internal constraints. First, India will have to recognize the need to exploit the extant structure of international system to its advantage more effectively. Structural constraints are the most formidable ones a state encounters in its drive towards the status of a major

Harsh V. Pant

2009-01-01

393

Emerging Economies: Operational Issues in China and India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the current state of the infrastructure and other factors within China and India to consider in making operation expansion decisions. We compare the logistics, telecommunication, and energy infrastructure of these two nations followed by a discussion of their labor productivity, economic growth, and political and cultural stability. We find that China is ahead of India in terms

Edmund Prater; Patricia M. Swafford; Srikanth Yellepeddi

2009-01-01

394

Whither the look east policy: India and Southeast Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

India's policy with Southeast Asia, which took a distinctive shape since the early 1990s in the form of the Look East policy, has been a multi?pronged approach encompassing political, strategic and economic aspects. Apart from establishing institutional linkages with ASEAN and strengthening bilateral relations with its member states, especially in the field of defence, India has been an enthusiastic participant

G. V. C. Naidu

2004-01-01

395

Shattered Dreams: The Longing for “Post Independent India  

Microsoft Academic Search

For Dalits in rural India, Nehru's vision of an Indian nation-state devoid of caste prejudice stimulated dreams and hopes of a better future. As a people who regularly experienced social and economic marginalisation by the upper castes over the centuries, they saw independent India as a transformed space, one that would accommodate the needs and aspirations of all its citizens,

Badri Narayan

2009-01-01

396

iGEON-India: An International Collaborative Activity of the GEON Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

iGEON-India is an e-science collaboration between the GEON project in the United States and the University Center for Earth and Space Sciences (UCESS) and the Center for Modeling, Simulation, and Design (CMSD) at the University of Hyderabad, India. The project is supported by the Indo-US Science and Technology Forum, India. The goal of iGEON-India is to introduce and promote the

A. Agarwal; C. Baru; C. Crosby; R. Keller; K. V. Subbarao; V. Nandigam

2009-01-01

397

Policing terrorism in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policing terrorism in India is fraught with difficulty. India is a large, heterogeneous democracy that is surrounded by countries\\u000a experiencing their own intense problems with terrorism. The legal structure, inherited from the colonial past, is struggling\\u000a to cope with the demands placed upon it by a country of 1.1 billion. India is a federation and this also complicates the structures

Sandy Gordon

2008-01-01

398

Flood Management in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, flood problems in India, regional variabilityof the problem, present status of the ongoing management measures, their effectiveness and futureneeds in flood management are covered. Flood problems in India are presented by four zonesof flooding, viz. (a) Brahmaputra River Basin, (b) Ganga River Basin, (c) North-WestRivers Basin, and (d) Central India and Deccan Rivers Basin. Some special problems,related

P. K. Mohapatra; R. D. Singh

2003-01-01

399

Understanding India's Climate Agenda  

Microsoft Academic Search

India's total GHG emissions was 1,866 MtCO2e compared with China's total emissions at 7,234 MtCO2e; India's per-capita GHG emissions was 1.7 MtCO2e compared with China's per-capita emissions at 5.5 MtCO2e. 3 Furthermore, India has declared that its per capita emissions will never exceed those of the developed countries. 4 This paper discusses four key factors that help explain India's current

Noriko Fujiwara; Christian Egenhofer

2010-01-01

400

The Impact of Isoniazid Resistance on the Treatment Outcomes of Smear Positive Re-Treatment Tuberculosis Patients in the State of Andhra Pradesh, India  

PubMed Central

Background Multi drug resistant and rifampicin resistant TB patients in India are treated with the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended standardized treatment regimens but no guidelines are available for the management of isoniazid (INH) resistant TB patients. There have been concerns that the standard eight-month retreatment regimen being used in India (2H3R3Z3E3S3/1H3R3Z3E3/5H3R3E3; H-Isoniazid; R-Rifampicin; Z-Pyrazinamide; E-Ethambutol; S-Streptomycin) may be inadequate to treat INH resistant TB cases and leads to poor treatment outcomes. We aimed to assess if INH resistance is associated with unfavorable treatment outcomes (death, default, failure and transferred out) among a cohort of smear positive retreatment TB patients registered in three districts of Andhra Pradesh, India. Methods We conducted a retrospective record review of all smear positive retreatment TB patients without rifampicin resistance registered during April–December 2011. Results Of 1,947 TB patients, 1,127 (58%) were tested with LPA—50 (4%) were rifampicin resistant, 933 (84%) were sensitive to INH and rifampicin and 144 (12%) were INH resistant. Of 144 INH resistant cases, 64 (44%) had poor treatment outcomes (25 (17%) default, 22 (15%) death, 12 (8%) failure and 5 (3%) transfer out) as compared to 287 (31%) among INH sensitive cases [aRR 1.46; 95%CI (1.19–1.78)]. Conclusion Our study confirms that INH resistance is independently associated with unfavorable treatment outcomes among smear positive retreatment TB patients, indicating that the current treatment regimen may be inadequate. These findings call for an urgent need for randomized controlled trials to discover the most effective treatment regimen for managing INH resistant TB.

Deepa, Dorai; Achanta, Shanta; Jaju, Jyoti; Rao, Koteswara; Samyukta, Rani; Claassens, Mareli; Kumar, Ajay M. V.; PH, Vishnu

2013-01-01

401

Color-Coded Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interviews (C-ACASI) for Poorly Educated Men and Women in a Semi-rural Area of South India: "Good, Scary and Thrilling"  

PubMed Central

It is challenging to collect accurate and complete data on sensitive issues such as sexual behaviors. Our objective was to explore experience and perceptions regarding the use of a locally programmed color-coded audio computer-assisted self interview (C-ACASI) system among men and women in a semi-rural setting in south India. We conducted a mixed-methods cross-sectional survey using semi-structured interviews among 89 truck drivers and 101 truck driver wives who had participated earlier in the C-ACASI survey across a predominantly rural district in Tamil Nadu. To assess the color-coded format used, descriptive quantitative analysis was coupled with thematic content analysis of qualitative data. Only 10 % of participants had ever used a computer before. Nearly 75 % did not report any problem in using C-ACASI. The length of the C-ACASI survey was acceptable to 98 % of participants. Overall, 87 % of wives and 73 % of truck drivers stated that C-ACASI was user-friendly and felt comfortable in responding to the sensitive questions. Nearly all (97 %) participants reported that using C-ACASI encouraged them to respond honestly compared to face-to-face personal interviews. Both the drivers and wives expressed that C-ACASI provided confidentiality, privacy, anonymity, and an easy mechanism for responding truthfully to potentially embarrassing questions about their personal sexual relationships. It is feasible and acceptable to use C-ACASI for collecting sensitive data from poorly computer-literate, non-English-speaking, predominantly rural populations of women and men. Our findings support the implementation of effective and culturally sensitive C-ACASI for data collection, albeit with additional validation.

Bhatnagar, Tarun; Brown, Joelle; Saravanamurthy, P. Sakthivel; Kumar, Raju Mohan; Detels, Roger

2013-01-01

402

Color-coded audio computer-assisted self-interviews (C-ACASI) for poorly educated men and women in a semi-rural area of South India: "good, scary and thrilling".  

PubMed

It is challenging to collect accurate and complete data on sensitive issues such as sexual behaviors. Our objective was to explore experience and perceptions regarding the use of a locally programmed color-coded audio computer-assisted self interview (C-ACASI) system among men and women in a semi-rural setting in south India. We conducted a mixed-methods cross-sectional survey using semi-structured interviews among 89 truck drivers and 101 truck driver wives who had participated earlier in the C-ACASI survey across a predominantly rural district in Tamil Nadu. To assess the color-coded format used, descriptive quantitative analysis was coupled with thematic content analysis of qualitative data. Only 10% of participants had ever used a computer before. Nearly 75% did not report any problem in using C-ACASI. The length of the C-ACASI survey was acceptable to 98% of participants. Overall, 87% of wives and 73% of truck drivers stated that C-ACASI was user-friendly and felt comfortable in responding to the sensitive questions. Nearly all (97%) participants reported that using C-ACASI encouraged them to respond honestly compared to face-to-face personal interviews. Both the drivers and wives expressed that C-ACASI provided confidentiality, privacy, anonymity, and an easy mechanism for responding truthfully to potentially embarrassing questions about their personal sexual relationships. It is feasible and acceptable to use C-ACASI for collecting sensitive data from poorly computer-literate, non-English-speaking, predominantly rural populations of women and men. Our findings support the implementation of effective and culturally sensitive C-ACASI for data collection, albeit with additional validation. PMID:23361948

Bhatnagar, Tarun; Brown, Joelle; Saravanamurthy, P Sakthivel; Kumar, Raju Mohan; Detels, Roger

2013-07-01

403

Energy for rural India  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 72 million households in rural India do not have access to electricity and rely primarily on traditional biofuels. This research investigates how rural electrification could be achieved in India using different energy sources and what the effects for climate change mitigation could be. We use the Regional Energy Model (REM) to develop scenarios for rural electrification for the period

Frauke Urban; René M. J. Benders; Henri C. Moll

2009-01-01

404

India and Asean  

Microsoft Academic Search

After 29 years of operation, the Association of South?east Asian Nations is the most successful experiment in Third World regionalism. Yet it was only in December 1995 that India became a full dialogue partner of the grouping. Initially ambivalent, India's enthusiasm grew from 1971 onwards but its political stance in the region, particularly over Cambodia, delivered a set?back to the

Kripa Sridharan

1996-01-01

405

Scientific ballooning in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary of the scientific ballooning activities in India is presented in this paper. The capabilities of the National Balloon Facility (NBF) at Hyderabad in India which designs, fabricates and launches balloons as well as provides tracking and data acquisition facilities, are described. A summary of the successful balloon flights carried out in last four years for scientific experiments, is

P. C. Agrawal; S. Sreenivasan; J. V. Subba Rao

2002-01-01

406

GREEN REVOLUTION IN INDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of hybrid seeds in India has doubled the yield of foodgrains. The High Yielding Variety Seed Program (H.V.P.) has contributed to serious interregional disparities in agriculture. Surplus production of foodgrains is not the true measure of success of the Green Revolution; many areas in India remain unaffected by this program, and are still vulnerable to famines.

A. K. CHAKRAVARTI

1973-01-01

407

Epidemic dropsy in India  

PubMed Central

Epidemic dropsy is a clinical state resulting from use of edible oils adulterated with Argemone mexicana oil. Sanguinarine and dehydrosanguinarine are two major toxic alkaloids of Argemone oil, which cause widespread capillary dilatation, proliferation and increased capillary permeability. Leakage of the protein-rich plasma component into the extracellular compartment leads to the formation of oedema. The haemodynamic consequences of this vascular dilatation and permeability lead to a state of relative hypovolemia with a constant stimulus for fluid and salt conservation by the kidneys. Illness begins with gastroenteric symptoms followed by cutaneous erythema and pigmentation. Respiratory symptoms such as cough, shortness of breath and orthopnoea progressing to frank right-sided congestive cardiac failure are seen. Mild to moderate anaemia, hypoproteinaemia, mild to moderate renal azotemia, retinal haemorrhages, and glaucoma are common manifestations. There is no specific therapy. Removal of the adulterated oil and symptomatic treatment of congestive cardiac failure and respiratory symptoms, along with administration of antioxidants and multivitamins, remain the mainstay of treatment. Selective cultivation of yellow mustard, strict enforcement of the Indian Food Adulteration Act, and exemplary punishment to unscrupulous traders are the main preventive measures.???Keywords: epidemic dropsy; Argemone mexicana; sanguinarine; India

Sharma, B; Malhotra, S.; Bhatia, V.; Rathee, M.

1999-01-01

408

Analysis of wind power generation and prediction using ANN: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many developing nations, such as India have embarked upon wind energy programs for areas experiencing high average wind speeds throughout the year. One of the states in India that is actively pursuing wind power generation programs is Tamil Nadu. Within this state, Muppandal area is one of the identified regions where wind farm concentration is high. Wind energy engineers are

M. Carolin Mabel; E. Fernandez

2008-01-01

409

75 FR 8111 - Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 731-TA-776-779 (Second Review)] Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised...

2010-02-23

410

India’s Interactions with East Asia: Opportunities and Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

India’s relations with countries of East Asia reveal its growing profile in the region in economic, technological, diplomatic, political and military spheres. India’s Look East policy, initiated in 1992, is bearing fruit now, as seen in the region becoming the largest trading partner of India, enhanced bilateral and multilateral diplomatic interactions, and long-term commitments in the security (maritime, cyber and

Srikanth Kondapalli

2010-01-01

411

Experience of violence and adverse reproductive health outcomes, HIV risks among mobile female sex workers in India  

PubMed Central

Background Female sex workers (FSWs) are a population sub-group most affected by the HIV epidemic in India and elsewhere. Despite research and programmatic attention to FSWs, little is known regarding sex workers' reproductive health and HIV risk in relation to their experiences of violence. This paper therefore aims to understand the linkages between violence and the reproductive health and HIV risks among a group of mobile FSWs in India. Methods Data are drawn from a cross-sectional behavioural survey conducted in 22 districts from four high HIV prevalence states (Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu) in India between September 2007 and July 2008. The survey sample included 5,498 FSWs who had moved to at least two different places for sex work in the past two years, and are classified as mobile FSWs in the current study. Analyses calculated the prevalence of past year experiences of violence; and adjusted logistic regression models examined the association between violence and reproductive health and HIV risks after controlling for background characteristics and program exposure. Results Approximately one-third of the total mobile FSWs (30.5%, n = 1,676) reported experiencing violence at least once in the past year; 11% reported experiencing physical violence, and 19.5% reported experiencing sexual violence. Results indicate that FSWs who had experienced any violence (physical or sexual) were significantly more likely to be vulnerable to both reproductive health and HIV risks. For example, FSWs who experienced violence were more likely than those who did not experience violence to have experienced a higher number of pregnancies (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-1.6), ever experienced pregnancy loss (adjusted OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.2-1.6), ever experienced forced termination of pregnancy (adjusted OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 2.0-2.7), experienced multiple forced termination of pregnancies (adjusted OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.7-2.8), and practice inconsistent condom use currently (adjusted OR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.4-2.0). Among FSWs who experienced violence, those who experienced sexual violence were more likely than those who had experienced physical violence to report inconsistent condom use (adjusted OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.4-2.3), and experience STI symptoms (adjusted OR = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1-1.7). Conclusion The pervasiveness of violence and its association with reproductive health and HIV risk highlights that the abuse in general is an important determinant for reproductive health risks; and sexual violence is significantly associated with HIV risks among those who experienced violence. Existing community mobilization programs that have primarily focused on empowering FSWs should broaden their efforts to promote reproductive health in addition to the prevention of HIV among all FSWs, with particular emphasis on FSWs who experienced violence.

2011-01-01

412

Children's Books on India and the Indian-American Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists recommended books that focus on Indians and the Indian-American experience in the United States. Includes folktales, myths, legends, nonfiction, fiction and titles published in India. Suggests how to select titles for classroom or library. (MMU)

Singleton Taylor, Gail; Sreenivasan, Jyotsna; Toke, Arun N.

1998-01-01

413

Reducing child mortality in India in the new millennium.  

PubMed Central

Globally, child mortality rates have been halved over the last few decades, a developmental success story. Nevertheless, progress has been uneven and in recent years mortality rates have increased in some countries. The present study documents the slowing decline in infant mortality rates in india; a departure from the longer-term trends. The major causes of childhood mortality are also reviewed and strategic options for the different states of India are proposed that take into account current mortality rates and the level of progress in individual states. The slowing decline in childhood mortality rates in India calls for new approaches that go beyond disease-, programme- and sector-specific approaches.

Claeson, M.; Bos, E. R.; Mawji, T.; Pathmanathan, I.

2000-01-01

414

Survival analysis of women with breast cancer under adjuvant therapy in South India.  

PubMed

While there has been much research in identifying risk factors and prognostic factor for breast cancer for breast cancer survival, the research specific to South Indian population is limited: Most of the association studies between breast cancer and risk factor have been widely studied in developed countries. This study attempts to explore the survival experience of breast cancer patients treated under adjuvant and neo-adjuvant therapy. The data were obtained from a Government Cancer Hospital, Tamil Nadu, South India and included 522 women diagnosed and treated with adjuvant and neo-adjuvant therapy between January 2000 to December 2008 and follow up to May 2010. The survival experiences under two treatments are presented using Kaplan-Meier survival curves. The important prognostic variables for response to treatment survival were identified using Cox regression with and without time-dependent covariates. Of the 522 cases, 248(47.5%) were of stage 2 (A and B), 249 (47.7%) were of stage 3 (A and B). About 90% received neo-adjuvant therapy. About 94% of the patients had response to treatment. The Cox model showed that apart from the chemotherapy, number of children, child birth status and stage 3B and 4 turn out to be significant predictors for response to treatment survival. This is the first study to evaluate adjuvant therapy effects under hospital setup in South India. The results show that response to treatment survival is related poor in advanced stage patients under treatment. PMID:22126494

Venkatesan, P; Raman, T T; Ponnuraja, C

2011-01-01

415

Determinants of utilization of services under MMJSSA scheme in Jharkhand 'Client Perspective': a qualitative study in a low performing state of India.  

PubMed

Preventing maternal death associated with pregnancy and child birth is one of the greatest challenges for India. Approximately 55,000 women die in India due to pregnancy- and childbirth- related conditions each year. Increasing the coverage of maternal and newborn interventions is essential if Millennium Development Goals (MDG) 4 and 5 are to be reached. With a view to accelerate the reduction in maternal and neonatal mortality through institutional deliveries, Government of India initiated a scheme in 2005 called Janani Suraksha Yojna (JSY) under its National Rural Health Mission (NRHM). In Jharkhand the scheme is called the Mukhya Mantri Janani Shishu Swasthya Abhiyan (MMJSSA). This paper focuses on community perspectives, for indentifying key areas that require improvement for proper implementation of the MMJSSA in Jharkhand. Qualitative research method was used to collect data through in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs) in six districts of Jharkhand- Gumla, West Singhbhum, Koderma, Deoghar, Garhwa, and Ranchi. Total 300 IDIs (24 IDIs each from mother given birth at home and institution respectively; two IDIs each with members of Village Health and Sanitation Committees (VHSC) / Rogi Kalyan Samitis (RKS) from each district) and 24 FGDs (four FGDs were conducted from pools of husbands, mothers-in-law and fathers-in-law in each district) were conducted. Although people indicated willingness for institutional deliveries (generally perceived to be safe deliveries), several barriers emerged as critical obstacles. These included poor infrastructure, lack of quality of care, difficulties while availing incentives, corruption in disbursement of incentives, behavior of the healthcare personnel and lack of information about MMJSSA. Poor (and expensive) transport facilities and difficult terrain made geographical access difficult. The level of utilization of maternal healthcare among women in Jharkhand is low. There was an overwhelming demand for energizing sub-centers (including for deliveries) in order to increase access to maternal and child health services. Having second ANMs will go a long way in achieving this end. The MMJSSA scheme will thus have to re-invent itself within the overall framework of the NRHM. PMID:22298133

Rai, Sanjay K; Dasgupta, Rajib; Das, M K; Singh, Sarita; Devi, Reema; Arora, N K

416

Primary Education in India. Development in Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Having steadily raised primary enrollment rates over the past 4 decades, India now has 67 million children aged 6-10 who are attending primary school, but 28-32 million who are not. This book draws on a wide range of sources, including original analytical work by Indian researchers and others, to describe the current state of primary education in…

World Bank, Washington, DC.

417

Idikki gives economic boost to South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Idikki project, now half completed is a complex of three gigantic dams, impounding a single reservoir, a head tunnel almost 2 km long, and an underground power house. The project is 120 km inland from the old sea port of Cochin and is located in South Western Ghats in Kerala State in South India. The project comprises three dams

Ghaswala

1976-01-01

418

Understanding farmers' pesticide use in Jharkhand India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Vegetable Center (AVRDC) identified that indiscriminate pesticide use was common amongst vegetable farmers in Jharkhand State, India. Subsequently, an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) research and development project was initiated to promote safe vegetable production. This study employed the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to gauge farmers' attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control towards pesticides in combination with

JL Bond; SK Kriesemer; JE Emborg; ML Chadha

419

India's Demographic Change: Opportunities and Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses emerging demographic patterns and its opportunities and challenges for India. It investigates the specificities in the demographic transition in terms of various demographic parameters and the lack of homogeneity in the transition across states in the country. It presents some opportunities that can arise from having demographic changes, particularly the demographic dividend and interstate migration to overcome

K. S. James

2011-01-01

420

Religion and Nationhood in Late Colonial India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay examines the relationship between religion and the concept of nationhood in late colonial India. Religion was a crucial element in the formation of modern states in the early 20th century in South Asia. Different religious groups had different opinions about nation: Hindus and Muslims had different ideas of nationhood; even within the Hindu tradition, the Hindus themselves had

Chao Ren

2011-01-01

421

Foreign Area Studies: India. A Syllabus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Developed for a one-semester college credit course, this syllabus encourages a cross-cultural approach to the study of Indian society. The objective is to provide students with not only a balanced view of India but also with an idea of dynamics of change. Emphasis is upon paralleling social and political issues in the United States with those of…

Brown, Emily C., Ed.

422

The Folk Music of Rajasthan, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

India is one of the most diverse nations in the world. Comprised of 28 states, the country is home to a large number of ethnic groups residing in various parts of the nation. The wealth of cultural traditions and folk arts in the country are astounding. Proposed is a project to make a documentary film on the folk music of

Salil Sachdev

2010-01-01

423

Determination of environmental radioactivity (238U, 232Th and 40K) and indoor natural background radiation level in Chennai city (Tamilnadu State), India.  

PubMed

An extensive study on the determination of the natural radioactivity ((238)U, (232)Th and (40)K) levels in soil samples of Chennai city, India has been undertaken and the results of the same are compared with the levels reported in other Indian cities as well as other parts of the world. The radioactivity content in the soil samples, the absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose equivalent, radium equivalent activity, internal and external hazard indices were calculated and compared with UNSCEAR 2000 recommended values. In addition to the above, mapping of indoor natural background gamma radiation levels has been made using thermo luminescent dosemeters throughout Chennai city and the same are reported. PMID:22847868

Babai, K S; Poongothai, S; Punniyakotti, J

2012-07-29

424

Prevention in translation: tobacco use prevention in India.  

PubMed

Mobilising Youth for Tobacco-Related Initiatives in India (Project MYTRI) is a randomized community trial to prevent tobacco use among students in Grades 6 through 9 in 32 private and government schools in Delhi and Chennai, India (N=12,484). The project is a partnership between researchers and practitioners in the United States and India. This article describes the steps that were carried out to ensure that prior effective programs are appropriate and applicable to India. These steps involve (a) developing a conceptual behavioral intervention model, (b) ensuring the appropriateness of the model for urban India, (c) developing intervention strategies that modify factors in the model, (d) implementing the MYTRI program with more than 5,000 students, and (e) evaluating the process and outcomes of the intervention. Data to date suggest that this process has been successful, including high participation rates, teacher perceptions of appropriateness, and agreements for further implementation. PMID:16861597

Perry, Cheryl L; Stigler, Melissa H; Arora, Monika; Reddy, K Srinath

2006-07-21

425

Viral hepatitis in India.  

PubMed

Viral hepatitis is a major public health problem in India, which is hyperendemic for HAV and HEV. Seroprevalence studies reveal that 90%-100% of the population acquires anti-HAV antibody and becomes immune by adolescence. Many epidemics of HEV have been reported from India. HAV related liver disease is uncommon in India and occurs mainly in children. HEV is also the major cause of sporadic adult acute viral hepatitis and ALF. Pregnant women and patients with CLD constitute the high risk groups to contract HEV infection, and HEV-induced mortality among them is substantial, which underlines the need for preventive measures for such groups. Children with HAV and HEV coinfection are prone to develop ALF. India has intermediate HBV endemicity, with a carrier frequency of 2%-4%. HBV is the major cause of CLD and HCC. Chronic HBV infection in India is acquired in childhood, presumably before 5 years of age, through horizontal transmission. Vertical transmission of HBV in India is considered to be infrequent. Inclusion of HBV vaccination in the expanded programme of immunization is essential to reduce the HBV carrier frequency and disease burden. HBV genotypes A and D are prevalent in India, which are similar to the HBV genotypes in the West. HCV infection in India has a population prevalence of around 1%, and occurs predominantly through transfusion and the use of unsterile glass syringes. HCV genotypes 3 and 2 are prevalent in 60%-80% of the population and they respond well to a combination of interferon and ribavirin. About 10%-15% of CLD and HCC are associated with HCV infection in India. HCV infection is also a major cause of post-transfusion hepatitis. HDV infection is infrequent in India and is present about 5%-10% of patients with HBV-related liver disease. HCC appears to be less common in India than would be expected from the prevalence rates of HBV and HCV. The high disease burden of viral hepatitis and related CLD in India, calls for the setting up of a hepatitis registry and formulation of government-supported prevention and control strategies. PMID:17100109

Acharya, S K; Madan, Kaushal; Dattagupta, S; Panda, S K

426

Cervical cancer: is vaccination necessary in India?  

PubMed

In India, cervical cancer is the most common woman-related cancer, followed by breast cancer. The rate of cervical cancer in India is fourth worldwide. Two vaccines, Gardasil and Cervarix, both targeting HPV-16 and 18 which account for 70% of invasive cervical carcinomas, are licensed in the United States and numerous countries worldwide. Both vaccine formulations have shown excellent efficacy with minimal toxicity in active female population but numerous questions arise in vaccinating like cost effectiveness, lack of proven efficacy against other HPV strains, social acceptance of HPV vaccination and other ethical issues. The main objective of this study is to emphasis the advantages and disadvantages of the vaccination in India. PMID:23725195

Farhath, Seema; Vijaya, P P; Mumtaj, P

2013-01-01

427

Emergency care in India: the building blocks  

PubMed Central

Background The Republic of India, the world’s most populous democracy, has struggled with establishing Emergency Medical Care. However, with the recent recognition of Emergency Medicine as a formal specialty in medical training, there has been renewed vigor in the developments in the field. Method and Results We outline here the building blocks of the health care system in India, and the contribution each has made and is capable of making to the growth of emergency medical services. We also provide an account of the current situation of emergency medicine education in the country. Conclusions As we trace the development and status of emergency medicine in India, we offer insight into the current state of the field, what the future holds for the emergency medical community, and how we can get there.

Subhan, Imron

2010-01-01

428

Economic Inequalities in Maternal Health Care: Prenatal Care and Skilled Birth Attendance in India, 1992-2006  

PubMed Central

Background The use of maternal health care is limited in India despite several programmatic efforts for its improvement since the late 1980's. The use of maternal health care is typically patterned on socioeconomic and cultural contours. However, there is no clear perspective about how socioeconomic differences over time have contributed towards the use of maternal health care in India. Methodology/Principal Findings Using data from three rounds of National Family Health Survey (NFHS) conducted during 1992–2006, we analyse the trends and patterns in utilization of prenatal care (PNC) in first trimester with four or more antenatal care visits and skilled birth attendance (SBA) among poor and nonpoor mothers, disaggregated by area of residence in India and three contrasting provinces, namely, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. In addition, we investigate the relative contribution of public and private health facilities in meeting the demand for SBA, especially among poor mothers. We also examine the role of salient socioeconomic, demographic and cultural factors in influencing aforementioned outcomes. Bivariate analyses, concentration curve and concentration index, logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression models are used to understand the trends, patterns and predictors of the two outcome variables. Results indicate sluggish progress in utilization of PNC and SBA in India and selected provinces during 1992–2006. Enormous inequalities in utilization of PNC and SBA were observed largely to the disadvantage of the poor. Multivariate analysis suggests growing inequalities in utilization of the two outcomes across different economic groups. Conclusions The use of PNC and SBA remains disproportionately lower among poor mothers in India irrespective of area of residence and province. Despite several governmental efforts to increase access and coverage of delivery services to poor, it is clear that the poor (a) do not use SBA and (b) even if they had SBA, they were more likely to use the private providers.

Pathak, Praveen Kumar; Singh, Abhishek; Subramanian, S. V.

2010-01-01

429

Climate change and groundwater: India's opportunities for mitigation and adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For millennia, India used surface storage and gravity flow to water crops. During the last 40 years, however, India has witnessed a decline in gravity-flow irrigation and the rise of a booming 'water-scavenging' irrigation economy through millions of small, private tubewells. For India, groundwater has become at once critical and threatened. Climate change will act as a force multiplier; it will enhance groundwater's criticality for drought-proofing agriculture and simultaneously multiply the threat to the resource. Groundwater pumping with electricity and diesel also accounts for an estimated 16-25 million mt of carbon emissions, 4-6% of India's total. From a climate change point of view, India's groundwater hotspots are western and peninsular India. These are critical for climate change mitigation as well as adaptation. To achieve both, India needs to make a transition from surface storage to 'managed aquifer storage' as the center pin of its water strategy with proactive demand- and supply-side management components. In doing this, India needs to learn intelligently from the experience of countries like Australia and the United States that have long experience in managed aquifer recharge.

Shah, Tushaar

2009-07-01

430

Role of trust in the relationship between branch managers and loan officers of bank branches in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Banks in India operate in a very different lending environment as compared to western banks because there is considerable state intervention in bank lending in India. Conventional instruments based methods of risk evaluation have limited use for banks in India because many additional variables required cannot be quantified easily for Indian banks. This thesis uses a social risk evaluation process

Shyam Singh Bhati

2009-01-01

431

India: Demographics for Publishers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential demographic data and related information for India is provided specifically for the publishing industry. The\\u000a focus has been placed on the economics, education and computer industry in relation to the complex cultural factors of different\\u000a languages and religions. The role of India in relation to the other three BRIC countries or Brazil, China and Russia is explored.

Robert E. Baensch

2007-01-01

432

Cognitive psychiatry in India  

PubMed Central

Cognitive deficits have been shown to exist in various psychiatric disorders. Though most Indian studies pertaining to cognition have been replication studies, well designed original studies have also been conducted. This article traces the evolution of cognitive psychiatry in India. Cognitive research has huge potential in India and can help us unravel mysteries of the human mind, identify etiopathogenesis and facilitate treatment of psychiatric disorders.

Dalal, P. K.; Sivakumar, T.

2010-01-01

433

Electrochemical pretreatment of textile effluents and effect of electrode materials on the removal of organics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aquatic environment around the textile industries in India was severely affected due to continuous discharge of effluents. In order to avoid further deterioration, the pollution control board of Tamil Nadu, India has enforced zero discharge concepts throughout the state. Consequently, most of the industries have opted membrane technology to recover water. The present study was aimed to find out

G. Bhaskar Raju; M. Thalamadai Karuppiah; S. S. Latha; D. Latha Priya; S. Parvathy; S. Prabhakar

2009-01-01

434

To what extent are the indigenous women of Jharkhand, India living in disadvantageous conditions: findings from India's National Family Health Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indigenous populations are the most marginalized and vulnerable communities in India, constituting 8.2% of India's total population, four times larger than the total population of Australia. The state of Jharkhand accounts for 27.7% of the total indigenous population of India. This paper compares the health and socio-economic and demographic indicators among indigenous and non-indigenous women in Jharkhand in terms of

Praween K. Agrawal; Sutapa Agrawal

2010-01-01

435

Bringing up TV: Popular culture and the developmental modern in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essay suggests that the ideologies of the privatized satellite television in India remain largely inconceivable unless one takes into account the complex relationship between the Indian state and realms of ‘popular’ down from the 1960s. It takes a close look at the way India's state?controlled television tried to frame a certain aesthetics of ‘development communication’ involving issues of pedagogy,

Abhijit Roy

2008-01-01

436

Two Blades of Grass: A Summary of Two Studies on Agricultural Innovation in India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Under contract with the United States Agency for International Development and Michigan State University, a study was made comparing diffusion of innovations in Brazil, Nigeria, and India. In India, the study was in two phases: a survey of 108 villages in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, and West Bengal; and a study of adoption behavior among 680…

Roy, Prodipto; And Others

437

Open Educational Resources in India’s national development  

Microsoft Academic Search

As India marches rapidly towards an ambitious agenda of economic and social advancement, one of the greatest challenges it faces is to provide extensive access to quality higher education opportunities. An evident and expanding Open Education Resources movement offers great promise for meeting this challenge through initiatives that make quality tools, content and practice widely available. Accordingly, India’s National Knowledge

M. S. Vijay Kumar

2009-01-01

438

INDIA’S ENERGY SECURITY AND THE NUCLEAR OPTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy security is one of the key challenges confronting the nation. Even though India is the eleventh largest producer of energy in the world, the gap between production and consumption is huge and growing. Most of the deficit in the energy front is due to the fact that India is a net importer of oil. India continues to depend heavily

Dhandapani Alagiri

2007-01-01

439

Hydrochemistry and evaluation of groundwater suitability for irrigation and drinking purposes in the Markandeya River basin, Belgaum District, Karnataka State, India.  

PubMed

Markandeya River basin stretches geographically from 15°56' to 16°08' N latitude and 74°37' to 74°58' E longitude, positioned in the midst of Belgaum district, in the northern part of Karnataka. Since the quantity and quality of water available for irrigation in India is variable from place to place, groundwater quality in the Markandeya River basin was evaluated for its suitability for drinking and irrigation purposes by collecting 47 open and bore-well samples during the post-monsoon period of 2008. The quality assessment was made by estimating pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, hardness, and alkalinity besides major cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+) and anions (HCO3-, Cl-, SO4(2-), PO4(3-), F-, and NO3-). Based on these analyses, irrigation quality parameters like, sodium absorption ratio, %Na, residual sodium carbonate, residual sodium bicarbonate, chlorinity index, soluble sodium percentage, non-carbonate hardness, potential salinity, permeability index, Kelley's ratio, magnesium hazard/ratio, index of base exchange, and exchangeable sodium ratio were calculated. According to Gibbs' ratio, majority of water samples fall in the rock dominance field. The groundwater samples were categorized as normal chloride (95.75%), normal sulfate (95.75%), and normal bicarbonate (61.70%) water types based on Cl, SO4, and HCO3 concentrations. Based on the permeability index, majority of the samples belongs to classes 1 and 2, suggesting the suitability of groundwater for irrigation. The negative index of base exchange indicates the existence of chloro-alkaline disequilibrium (indirect base exchange reaction) existing in majority of the samples (68.08%) from the study area. PMID:20237840

Ravikumar, P; Somashekar, R K; Angami, Mhasizonuo

2010-03-17

440

Practices of entomophagy and entomotherapy by members of the Nyishi and Galo tribes, two ethnic groups of the state of Arunachal Pradesh (North-East India).  

PubMed

We prepared a consolidated list of edible and therapeutic insects used in Arunachal Pradesh (N.E. India) by two tribal societies (i.e., the Nyishi of East Kameng and the Galo of West Siang). The list is based on thorough, semi-structured field-interviews with 20 informants of each tribal group. At least 81 species of local insects, belonging to 26 families and five orders of insects, namely Coleoptera (24 species), Orthoptera (17 species), Hemiptera (16 species), Hymenoptera (15 species) and Odonata (9 species), are being used as food among members of these two indigenous societies. However, Nyishi use overall more species of insects as food than Galo people do and consume mostly Coleoptera and Hemiptera; amongst the Galo, on the other hand, Odonata and Orthoptera dominate. The selection of the food insects amongst the Nyishi and Galo is dictated by traditional tribal beliefs as well as the taste and availability of the insects. Depending on the species, only particular or all developmental stages are consumed. Some food insects may be included in the local diet throughout the year, others only when seasonally available. Commonly specimens are being prepared for consumption by roasting, frying or boiling. Twelve species of insects are deemed therapeutically valuable by the locals and are being used by the tribes investigated to treat a variety of disorders in humans and domestic animals. Members of the Galo use a greater number of insect species for remedial purposes than the Nyishi. With the degradation of natural resources, rapid population growth, and increasing influence of 'westernization', the traditional wisdom of entomophagy and entomotherapy is at risk of being lost. There is thus an urgent need to record the role insects play as components of local diets and folk remedies and to assess insect biodiversity in the light of these uses. PMID:21235790

Chakravorty, Jharna; Ghosh, Sampat; Meyer-Rochow, Victor Benno

2011-01-14

441

India's future: it's about jobs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Projections of sustained strong growth in India depend importantly on the utilization of the huge increase in India's working-age population projected over the next two decades. To date, however, India's economic growth has been concentrated in high-skill and capital-intensive sectors, and has not generated strong employment growth. In this paper, we highlight the tension between India's performance in output and

Geoffrey N. Keim; Beth Anne Wilson

2007-01-01

442

Russia's Relations With India & Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

post-Soviet period. In the latter half of the 1990s, Moscow suggested a Russia-China-India strategic triangle as a counterweight to the USA. India had no interest in this idea. India and Russia probably did see each other as useful partners in verbally opposing US dominance, although India's relationship with the USA improved after the end of the Cold War. * Russo-Indian

Mark A Smith

443

Adivasis (Original Dwellers) "in the Way of" State-Corporate Development: Development Dispossession and Learning in Social Action for Land and Forests in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper traces the kinds of learning engendered through Adivasi trans-local and local subaltern social movement (SSM) action addressing state-corporate developmental collusions, state-caste interests and the resulting dispossession of Adivasis from land, forest and their ways of life given the economic liberalization drive to exploit resources…

Kapoor, Dip

2009-01-01

444

Geopolitics and the Cold War Developmental State in Asia: From the Culture of National Development to the Development of National Culture in Independent India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrary to the view of some observers who insist that the Cold War was of limited or no relevance to the transition from colonies to nation-states after 1945 we argue that the geopolitics of the Cold War played a crucial role in shaping the character and direction of the trajectories of nation-states in Asia, if not the erstwhile Third World

Mark T. Berger; Devleena Ghosh

2010-01-01

445

Development policies, state interventions and struggles for livelihood rights in coastal communities in Kerala, India: A case study of the Cochin clam fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major dilemmas of using rural commons for industrial uses in developing countries relates to the failure of the state to evolve consensus on allocating property rights to local communities and modern enterprises in a manner that sustains livelihoods and ecosystems. While traditional coastal communities enforce customary rights for fishing and mineral mining, the state sometimes reallocates traditional

Kaleekal Thomson

2009-01-01

446

US-INDIA TECHNICAL COLLABORATION TO PROMOTE REGIONAL STABILITY.  

SciTech Connect

Two US-India documents were signed in 2000 that provided new impetus for scientific and technical cooperation between the two countries. The first document is the US-India Science and Technology Agreement, which is aimed at 'promoting scientific and technological cooperation between the people of their two countries.' The second is the US-India Joint Statement on Energy and Environment, which states 'the United States and India believe that energy and environment could be one of the most important areas of cooperation between the two countries.' In addition to the work already underway as part of these two agreements, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has established a US-India Science and Technology Initiative to utilize the expertise of DOE national laboratories to conduct activities that support US policy objectives in South Asia. PNNL and LANL are working with US government agencies to identify appropriate non-sensitive, non-nuclear areas for US-Indian technical collaboration. The objectives of such collaboration are to address visible national and international problems, build trust between the United States and India, and contribute to regional stability in South Asia. This paper describes the approach for this engagement, the Indian scientific organization and infrastructure, potential areas for collaboration, and current status of the initiative.

Killinger, M. H. (Mark H.); Griggs, J. R. (James R.); Apt, Kenneth E.; Doyle, J. E. (James E.)

2001-01-01

447

Origin and development of forensic medicine in India.  

PubMed

CONTEXT:: The medical profession is one of great antiquity in India. However, the history of medicine and, in particular, the role of medicine in the administration of justice in India has not been discussed very much. The present paper attempts to fill in this lacuna and traces the medicolegal practice from ancient times to British India. SOURCE:: This paper is based on archival materials collected from the Tamilnadu State Archives, Chennai, and Madras Medical College Library, Chennai, and University of Madras Library, Chennai. MAIN OBSERVATIONS:: The medical men in ancient India were considered as men of wisdom, and one of the ancient Tamil hymns equates the doctor-patient relationship to that of the dedicated love of a devotee to God. Kautilya's Arthashastra gives a list forensic evidence for establishing the cause of death and describes the necessity of autopsy in establishing the cause of death. In British India, the early incidence of custodial death and its certification by medical practitioners, issuance of medical certificate and wound certificate, and medicolegal autopsy are documented. The most outstanding contribution of India to legal medicine during this period is modern dactylography. It is recorded that there was a high ratio of homicidal poisonings in India. PMID:16121082

Mathiharan, Karunakaran

2005-09-01

448

An integrated structural intervention to reduce vulnerability to HIV and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Karnataka state, south India  

PubMed Central

Background Structural factors are known to affect individual risk and vulnerability to HIV. In the context of an HIV prevention programme for over 60,000 female sex workers (FSWs) in south India, we developed structural interventions involving policy makers, secondary stakeholders (police, government officials, lawyers, media) and primary stakeholders (FSWs themselves). The purpose of the interventions was to address context-specific factors (social inequity, violence and harassment, and stigma and discrimination) contributing to HIV vulnerability. We advocated with government authorities for HIV/AIDS as an economic, social and developmental issue, and solicited political leadership to embed HIV/AIDS issues throughout governmental programmes. We mobilised FSWs and appraised them of their legal rights, and worked with FSWs and people with HIV/AIDS to implement sensitization and awareness training for more than 175 government officials, 13,500 police and 950 journalists. Methods Standardised, routine programme monitoring indicators on service provision, service uptake, and community activities were collected monthly from 18 districts in Karnataka between 2007 and 2009. Daily tracking of news articles concerning HIV/AIDS and FSWs was undertaken manually in selected districts between 2005 and 2008. Results The HIV prevention programme is now operating at scale, with over 60,000 FSWs regularly contacted by peer educators, and over 17,000 FSWs accessing project services for sexually transmitted infections monthly. FSW membership in community-based organisations has increased from 8,000 to 37,000, and over 46,000 FSWs have now been referred for government-sponsored social entitlements. FSWs were supported to redress > 90% of the 4,600 reported incidents of violence and harassment reported between 2007-2009, and monitoring of news stories has shown a 50% increase in the number of positive media reports on HIV/AIDS and FSWs. Conclusions Stigma, discrimination, violence, harassment and social equity issues are critical concerns of FSWs. This report demonstrates that it is possible to address these broader structural factors as part of large-scale HIV prevention programming. Although assessing the impact of the various components of a structural intervention on reducing HIV vulnerability is difficult, addressing the broader structural factors contributing to FSW vulnerability is critical to enable these vulnerable women to become sufficiently empowered to adopt the safer sexual behaviours which are required to respond effectively to the HIV epidemic.

2011-01-01

449

India Through Literature: An Annotated Bibliography for Teaching India. Part I: India Through the Ancient Classics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The past and the present interweave in contemporary India. To understand India, one must know of the traditional stories. Two short pocket books make them accessible and acceptable to students: 1) The Dance of Shiva and Other Tales from India by Oroon Ghosh, published by the New American Library in New York; and, 2) Gods, Demons, and Others by R.…

Johnson, Donald; Johnson, Jean

450

Petrology and mineral equilibrium modeling of incipient charnockite from the Trivandrum Granulite Block, southern India: implications for granulite formation in a Gondwana fragment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern Granulite Terrane (SGT) in India is known for its classic exposures of regionally metamorphosed granulite-facies rocks formed during the collisional orogeny related to the amalgamation of Gondwana supercontinent. The SGT is composed of a collage of Proterozoic crustal blocks dissected by large Late Neoproterozoic shear/suture zones. The Trivandrum Granulite Block (TGB) is comprises dominantly metasedimentary sequence with khondalites, leptynites and charnockites with subordinate quartzite, mafic granulite, calc-silicate rocks, and meta-ultramafic rocks. The TGB is known as one of the classic examples for the spectacular development of 'incipient charnockites' within orthopyroxene-free felsic gneisses as exposed in several quarry sections in the states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. The charnockite-forming process in the TGB is considered to have been triggered by the infiltration of CO2-rich anhydrous fluids along structural pathways within upper amphibolite facies gneisses, resulting in the lowering of water activity and stabilization of orthopyroxene through the breakdown of biotite. However, no quantitative study on the stability of charnockitic mineral assemblage using mineral equilibrium modeling approach has been done so far. In this study, we report a new occurrence of incipient charnockite from Mavadi in the TGB and discuss the petrogenesis of granulite formation in an arrested stage on the basis of petrography, geothermobarometry, and mineral equilibrium modeling. In Mavadi, patches and lenses of charnockite (Kfs + Qtz + Pl + Bt + Grt + Opx + Ilm + Mag) of about 30 to 120 cm in length occur within Opx-free Grt-Bt gneiss (Kfs + Qtz + Pl + Bt + Grt + Ilm) host rocks. The application of mineral equilibrium modeling on charnockite assemblage in NCKFMASHTO system to constrain the conditions of charnockitization defines a P - T range of 800° C at 4.5 kbar to 850° C at 8.5 kbar, which is broadly consistent with the results from the conventional geothermobarometry (810-880° C at 7.7-8.0 kbar) on these rocks. The P - T conditions are lower than the inferred peak metamorphic conditions from the ultrahigh-temperature granulites of the study area (T >900° C), which might suggest heterogeneity in peak P - T conditions within this crustal block in relation to local buffering of metamorphic temperature by Opx-Bt-Kfs-Qtz assemblage. The result of T versus mole H2O (M(H2O)) modeling demonstrated that Opx-free assemblage in Grt-Bt gneiss is stable at M(H2O) = 0.3 to 1.5 mol.%, and orthopyroxene occurs as a stable mineral at M(H2O)

Endo, T.; Tsunogae, T.; Santosh, M.

2012-04-01

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Identification of major sources controlling groundwater chemistry from a hard rock terrain — A case study from Mettur taluk, Salem district, Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study area Mettur forms an important industrial town situated NW of Salem district. The geology of the area is mainly composed of Archean crystalline metamorphic complexes. To identify the major process activated for controlling the groundwater chemistry an attempt has been made by collecting a total of 46 groundwater samples for two different seasons, viz., pre-monsoon and post-monsoon. The groundwater chemistry is dominated by silicate weathering and (Na + Mg) and (Cl + SO4) accounts of about 90% of cations and anions. The contribution of (Ca + Mg) and (Na + K) to total cations and HCO3 indicates the domination of silicate weathering as major sources for cations. The plot for Na to Cl indicates higher Cl in both seasons, derived from Anthropogenic (human) sources from fertilizer, road salt, human and animal waste, and industrial applications, minor representations of Na also indicates source from weathering of silicate-bearing minerals. The plot for Na/Cl to EC indicates Na released from silicate weathering process which is also supported by higher HCO3 values in both the seasons. Ion exchange process is also activated in the study area which is indicated by shifting to right in plot for Ca + Mg to SO4 + HCO3. The plot of Na-Cl to Ca + Mg-HCO3-SO4 confirms that Ca, Mg and Na concentrations in groundwater are derived from aquifer materials. Thermodynamic plot indicates that groundwater is in equilibrium with kaolinite, muscovite and chlorite minerals. Saturation index of silicate and carbonate minerals indicate oversaturation during pre-monsoon and undersaturation during post-monsoon, conforming dissolution and dilution process. In general, water chemistry is guided by complex weathering process, ion exchange along with influence of Cl ions from anthropogenic impact.

Srinivasamoorthy, K.; Chidambaram, S.; Prasanna, M. V.; Vasanthavihar, M.; Peter, John; Anandhan, P.