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  1. Characterization and genotoxicity evaluation of particulate matter collected from industrial atmosphere in Tamil Nadu state, India.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, S; Manju, A; Muthuselvam, P; Shalini, D; Indhumathi, V; Kalaiselvi, K; Palanivel, M; Chandrasekar, P P; Rajaguru, P

    2014-06-15

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) collected in the vicinity of five industries (Cement, Chemical, Thermal power plant, Sponge-iron and Steel) in Tamil Nadu state, India was characterized for size distribution, metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content. Genotoxicity of PM and organic matter (OM) extracted from PM was measured in human lung cancer cell-line, A549 and in human liver carcinoma cell-line, HepG2, respectively, using the comet assay. PM values varied from 57.0 ?g/m(3) of air at Cement industry upstream to 561.0 ?g/m(3) of air at Sponge iron industry downstream samples. Their metal content varied from 5.758 ?g/m(3) of air at Chemical industry to 46.144 ?g/m(3) of air at Sponge iron industry and PAH concentration varied from 0.5 ng/m(3) air in upstream Thermal power plant to 3302.4 ng/m(3) air in downstream Sponge iron industry samples. While all PM samples induced DNA strand breaks at higher dose levels, downstream samples of Steel and Sponge iron industries which contained relatively higher concentrations of PAHs and metals and exhibited higher levels of pro-oxidant activity as measured by DTT activity induced significantly higher levels of DNA damage in HepG2 and A549 cells. Pretreatment of A549 cells with vitamin C or quercetin significantly reduced PM induced DNA strand breaks. PMID:24797908

  2. Local Knowledge and Conservation of Seagrasses in the Tamil Nadu State of India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Local knowledge systems are not considered in the conservation of fragile seagrass marine ecosystems. In fact, little is known about the utility of seagrasses in local coastal communities. This is intriguing given that some local communities rely on seagrasses to sustain their livelihoods and have relocated their villages to areas with a rich diversity and abundance of seagrasses. The purpose of this study is to assist in conservation efforts regarding seagrasses through identifying Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) from local knowledge systems of seagrasses from 40 coastal communities along the eastern coast of India. We explore the assemblage of scientific and local traditional knowledge concerning the 1. classification of seagrasses (comparing scientific and traditional classification systems), 2. utility of seagrasses, 3. Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) of seagrasses, and 4. current conservation efforts for seagrass ecosystems. Our results indicate that local knowledge systems consist of a complex classification of seagrass diversity that considers the role of seagrasses in the marine ecosystem. This fine-scaled ethno-classification gives rise to five times the number of taxa (10 species = 50 local ethnotaxa), each with a unique role in the ecosystem and utility within coastal communities, including the use of seagrasses for medicine (e.g., treatment of heart conditions, seasickness, etc.), food (nutritious seeds), fertilizer (nutrient rich biomass) and livestock feed (goats and sheep). Local communities are concerned about the loss of seagrass diversity and have considerable local knowledge that is valuable for conservation and restoration plans. This study serves as a case study example of the depth and breadth of local knowledge systems for a particular ecosystem that is in peril. Key words: local health and nutrition, traditional ecological knowledge (TEK), conservation and natural resources management, consensus, ethnomedicine, ethnotaxa, cultural heritage PMID:22112297

  3. POTENTIAL HYDROCARBON PRODUCING SPECIES OF WESTERN GHATS, TAMIL, NADU, INDIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The decline in the world supplies of hydrocarbons has lead to the search for alternate sources of fuel and chemicals. Plant species are potential sources of hydrocarbons. Large-scale screening of plants growing in the Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India was conducted to assess the hydrocarbon productio...

  4. Test Anxiety Levels of Board Exam Going Students in Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    Ann Mary, Revina; Marslin, Gregory; Franklin, Gregory; Sheeba, Caroline J.

    2014-01-01

    The latest report by the National Crime Records Bureau has positioned Tamil Nadu as the Indian state with highest suicide rate. At least in part, this is happening due to exam pressure among adolescents, emphasizing the imperative need to understand the pattern of anxiety and various factors contributing to it among students. The present study was conducted to analyze the level of state anxiety among board exam attending school students in Tamil Nadu, India. A group of 100 students containing 50 boys and 50 girls from 10th and 12th grades participated in the study and their state anxiety before board exams was measured by Westside Test Anxiety Scale. We found that all board exam going students had increased level of anxiety, which was particularly higher among boys and 12th standard board exam going students. Analysis of various demographic variables showed that students from nuclear families presented higher anxiety levels compared to their desired competitive group. Overall, our results showing the prevalence of state anxiety among board exam going students in Tamil Nadu, India, support the recent attempt taken by Tamil Nadu government to improve student's academic performance in a healthier manner by appointing psychologists in all government schools. PMID:25143938

  5. Test anxiety levels of board exam going students in Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Mary, Revina Ann; Marslin, Gregory; Franklin, Gregory; Sheeba, Caroline J

    2014-01-01

    The latest report by the National Crime Records Bureau has positioned Tamil Nadu as the Indian state with highest suicide rate. At least in part, this is happening due to exam pressure among adolescents, emphasizing the imperative need to understand the pattern of anxiety and various factors contributing to it among students. The present study was conducted to analyze the level of state anxiety among board exam attending school students in Tamil Nadu, India. A group of 100 students containing 50 boys and 50 girls from 10th and 12th grades participated in the study and their state anxiety before board exams was measured by Westside Test Anxiety Scale. We found that all board exam going students had increased level of anxiety, which was particularly higher among boys and 12th standard board exam going students. Analysis of various demographic variables showed that students from nuclear families presented higher anxiety levels compared to their desired competitive group. Overall, our results showing the prevalence of state anxiety among board exam going students in Tamil Nadu, India, support the recent attempt taken by Tamil Nadu government to improve student's academic performance in a healthier manner by appointing psychologists in all government schools. PMID:25143938

  6. Village Level Tsunami Threat Maps for Tamil Nadu, SE Coast of India: Numerical Modeling Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MP, J.; Kulangara Madham Subrahmanian, D.; V, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Indian Ocean tsunami (IOT) devastated several countries of North Indian Ocean. India is one of the worst affected countries after Indonesia and Sri Lanka. In India, Tamil Nadu suffered maximum with fatalities exceeding 8,000 people. Historical records show that tsunami has invaded the shores of Tamil Nadu in the past and has made people realize that the tsunami threat looms over Tamil Nadu and it is necessary to evolve strategies for tsunami threat management. The IOT has brought to light that tsunami inundation and runup varied within short distances and for the disaster management for tsunami, large scale maps showing areas that are likely to be affected by future tsunami are identified. Therefore threat assessment for six villages including Mamallapuram (also called Mahabalipuram) which is famous for its rock-cut temples, from the northern part of Tamil Nadu state of India has been carried out and threat maps categorizing the coast into areas of different degree of threat are prepared. The threat was assessed by numerical modeling using TUNAMI N2 code considering different tsunamigenic sources along the Andaman - Sumatra trench. While GEBCO and C-Map data was used for bathymetry and for land elevation data was generated by RTK - GPS survey for a distance of 1 km from shore and SRTM for the inland areas. The model results show that in addition to the Sumatra source which generated the IOT in 2004, earthquakes originating in Car Nicobar and North Andaman can inflict more damage. The North Andaman source can generate a massive tsunami and an earthquake of magnitude more than Mw 9 can not only affect Tamil Nadu but also entire south east coast of India. The runup water level is used to demarcate the tsunami threat zones in the villages using GIS.

  7. Innovations and Challenges in Reducing Maternal Mortality in Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    Padmanaban, P.; Mavalankar, Dileep V.

    2009-01-01

    Although India has made slow progress in reducing maternal mortality, progress in Tamil Nadu has been rapid. This case study documents how Tamil Nadu has taken initiatives to improve maternal health services leading to reduction in maternal morality from 380 in 1993 to 90 in 2007. Various initiatives include establishment of maternal death registration and audit, establishment and certification of comprehensive emergency obstetric and newborn-care centres, 24-hour x 7-day delivery services through posting of three staff nurses at the primary health centre level, and attracting medical officers to rural areas through incentives in terms of reserved seats in postgraduate studies and others. This is supported by the better management capacity at the state and district levels through dedicated public-health officers. Despite substantial progress, there is some scope for further improvement of quality of infrastructure and services. The paper draws out lessons for other states and countries in the region. PMID:19489416

  8. Teacher's Professional Use of Information and Communication Technology in Secondary Schools in Tamil Nadu, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagamani, Deepa; Muthuswamy, Prema

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate secondary school teachers' abilities to use Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in schools in Tamil Nadu, India. Questionnaires method was used for data collection. Around 200 questionnaires were distributed to secondary school teachers and headmasters, in which 157 were completed and returned.…

  9. Forest Dynamics in the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayakumar, S.; Ramachandran, A.; Bhaskaran, G.; Heo, J.

    2009-02-01

    The primary deciduous forests in the Eastern Ghats (EG) of Tamil Nadu (TN) India have undergone many changes owing to various need-based forest managements, such as timber extraction for industry, railway sleepers, charcoal, and forest clearance for hydroelectric projects and agriculture, during preindependence and postindependence periods (i.e., from 1800 to 1980). The enactment of a forest conservation act during the 1980s changed the perception of forest managers from utilization to conservation. This study was taken up to assess the forests dynamics in the EG of TN spatially between 1990 and 2003 and nonspatially between 1900 and the 1980s. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Indian Remote Sensing satellite (IRS) 1D Linear Imaging and Self Scanning (LISS III) data were used to assess forests during 1990 and 2003, respectively. Field floristic survey and secondary data (such as published literature, floras, books, and forest working plans) were used to assess the forest dynamics in terms of forest type and species composition among the preindependence period, the postindependence period, and the present (i.e., before and after 1980). The satellite data analysis revealed a considerable amount of changes in all forest types during the 13 years. The comparison of species composition and forest types between the past and present revealed that need-based forest management along with anthropogenic activity have altered the primary deciduous forest in to secondary and postextraction secondary forests such as southern thorn and southern thorn scrub forests in the middle [400-900 m above mean sea level (MSL)] and lower slopes (<400 m MSL). However, the evergreen forests present at the upper slope (>900 m MSL) and plateau seemed not to be much affected by the forest management. The changes estimated by the satellite data processing in the major forest types such as evergreen, deciduous, southern thorn, and southern thorn scrub are really alarming because these changes have occurred after the implementation of a forest conservation act. The dependence of local people on forests for various purposes in this region is also considerably high, which might be a key factor for the changes in the forests. The results of this study not only provide an outlook on the present status of the forests and the change trends but also provide the basis for further studies on forests in the EG of TN.

  10. Metamorphism of the Oddanchatram anorthosite, Tamil Nadu, South India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiebe, R. A.; Janardhan, A. S.

    1988-01-01

    The Oddanchatram anorthosite is located in the Madurai District of Tamil Nadu, near the town of Palni. It is emplaced into a granulite facies terrain commonly presumed to have undergone its last regional metamorphism in the late Archean about 2600 m.y. The surrounding country rock consists of basic granulites, charnockites and metasedimentary rocks including quartzites, pelites and calc-silicates. The anorthosite is clearly intrusive into the country rock and contains many large inclusions of previously deformed basic granulite and quartzite within 100 meters of its contact. Both this intrusion and the nearby Kaduvar anorthosite show evidence of having been affected by later metamorphism and deformation.

  11. Social Inclusion: Teachers as Facilitators in Peer Acceptance of Students with Disabilities in Regular Classrooms in Tamil Nadu, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Ruffina; Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the impact of classroom teachers' attitudes towards inclusive education, teachers' self-efficacy and classroom practices on the social status of students with disabilities in inclusive classrooms in Tamil Nadu, India. Questionnaires, interviews and classroom observations were employed to gather data. The data analysis included…

  12. Costs analysis of a population level rabies control programme in Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Syed Shahid; Kakkar, Manish; Rogawski, Elizabeth Tacket

    2014-02-01

    The study aimed to determine costs to the state government of implementing different interventions for controlling rabies among the entire human and animal populations of Tamil Nadu. This built upon an earlier assessment of Tamil Nadu's efforts to control rabies. Anti-rabies vaccines were made available at all health facilities. Costs were estimated for five different combinations of animal and human interventions using an activity-based costing approach from the provider perspective. Disease and population data were sourced from the state surveillance data, human census and livestock census. Program costs were extrapolated from official documents. All capital costs were depreciated to estimate annualized costs. All costs were inflated to 2012 Rupees. Sensitivity analysis was conducted across all major cost centres to assess their relative impact on program costs. It was found that the annual costs of providing Anti-rabies vaccine alone and in combination with Immunoglobulins was $0.7 million (Rs 36 million) and $2.2 million (Rs 119 million), respectively. For animal sector interventions, the annualised costs of rolling out surgical sterilisation-immunization, injectable immunization and oral immunizations were estimated to be $ 44 million (Rs 2,350 million), $23 million (Rs 1,230 million) and $ 11 million (Rs 590 million), respectively. Dog bite incidence, health systems coverage and cost of rabies biologicals were found to be important drivers of costs for human interventions. For the animal sector interventions, the size of dog catching team, dog population and vaccine costs were found to be driving the costs. Rabies control in Tamil Nadu seems a costly proposition the way it is currently structured. Policy makers in Tamil Nadu and other similar settings should consider the long-term financial sustainability before embarking upon a state or nation-wide rabies control programme. PMID:24587471

  13. Costs Analysis of a Population Level Rabies Control Programme in Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Syed Shahid; Kakkar, Manish; Rogawski, Elizabeth Tacket

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to determine costs to the state government of implementing different interventions for controlling rabies among the entire human and animal populations of Tamil Nadu. This built upon an earlier assessment of Tamil Nadu's efforts to control rabies. Anti-rabies vaccines were made available at all health facilities. Costs were estimated for five different combinations of animal and human interventions using an activity-based costing approach from the provider perspective. Disease and population data were sourced from the state surveillance data, human census and livestock census. Program costs were extrapolated from official documents. All capital costs were depreciated to estimate annualized costs. All costs were inflated to 2012 Rupees. Sensitivity analysis was conducted across all major cost centres to assess their relative impact on program costs. It was found that the annual costs of providing Anti-rabies vaccine alone and in combination with Immunoglobulins was $0.7 million (Rs 36 million) and $2.2 million (Rs 119 million), respectively. For animal sector interventions, the annualised costs of rolling out surgical sterilisation-immunization, injectable immunization and oral immunizations were estimated to be $ 44 million (Rs 2,350 million), $23 million (Rs 1,230 million) and $ 11 million (Rs 590 million), respectively. Dog bite incidence, health systems coverage and cost of rabies biologicals were found to be important drivers of costs for human interventions. For the animal sector interventions, the size of dog catching team, dog population and vaccine costs were found to be driving the costs. Rabies control in Tamil Nadu seems a costly proposition the way it is currently structured. Policy makers in Tamil Nadu and other similar settings should consider the long-term financial sustainability before embarking upon a state or nation-wide rabies control programme. PMID:24587471

  14. Integrated Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Maize Farms and Farm Household Incomes in South India: A Case Study from Tamil Nadu. 9; Chapter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponnusamy, Paramasivam; Vellingiri, Geethalakshmi; Danda, Raji Reddy; Arunachalam, Lakshmanan; Murthy, Dakshina; Prema, Sunandini; Gade, Sreenivas; McDermid, Sonali P.; Valdivia, Roberto O.

    2015-01-01

    South India is characterized by a wide variety of landscapes, soils and climatic zones. It is comprised of tropical, semi-arid, humid-moist, and high-altitude environments, which support a diversity of agricultural systems. Our study focused on the state of Tamil Nadu, which is characterized by a generally tropical climate, and receive rainfall during both the southwest monsoon season (SWM, June to September) and the northeast monsoon (NEM, September to December). Agriculture continues to be an important sector in the state economy, as more than 56 of the people depend on agriculture and allied sectors for their livelihood. Analysis of land-use patterns in Tamil Nadu reveals that in the past decade there has been a reduction in net sown area and current fallow, while the share of cultivable wastelands has increased. The area under cereals, pulses, and oilseeds had marginally declined, although area under commercial crops like turmeric, sugar-cane, banana, fruits, and vegetables has shown an increasing trend. The production performance of major crops like cereals, pulses, and oilseeds has not shown any significant increase. Demand and supply gap of important crops in Tamil Nadu for the year 2010 indicates that the state is lagging far behind in the production of various crops.

  15. Background radiation and individual dosimetry in the costal area of Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Naoki; Brahmanandhan, G M; Yoshida, Masahiro; Takamura, Noboru; Suyama, Akihiko; Koguchi, Yasuhiro; Juto, Norimichi; Raj, Y Lenin; Winsley, Godwin; Selvasekarapandian, S

    2011-07-01

    South coast of India is known as the high-level background radiation area (HBRA) mainly due to beach sands that contain natural radionuclides as components of the mineral monazite. The rich deposit of monazite is unevenly distributed along the coastal belt of Tamil Nadu and Kerala. An HBRA site that laid in 2×7 m along the sea was found in the beach of Chinnavillai, Tamil Nadu, where the maximum ambient dose equivalent reached as high as 162.7 mSv y(-1). From the sands collected at the HBRA spot, the high-purity germanium semi-conductor detector identified six nuclides of thorium series, four nuclides of uranium series and two nuclides belonging to actinium series. The highest radioactivity observed was 43.7 Bq g(-1) of Th-228. The individual dose of five inhabitants in Chinnavillai, as measured by the radiophotoluminescence glass dosimetry system, demonstrated the average dose of 7.17 mSv y(-1) ranging from 2.79 to 14.17 mSv y(-1). PMID:21502300

  16. Ethnobotanical investigations among tribes in Madurai District of Tamil Nadu (India)

    PubMed Central

    Ignacimuthu, S; Ayyanar, M; Sivaraman K, Sankara

    2006-01-01

    Background An ethnobotanical survey was carried out to collect information on the use of medicinal plants in Southern Western Ghats of India (Madurai district, Tamil Nadu). Information presented in this paper was gathered from the paliyar tribes using an integrated approach of botanical collections, group discussions and interviews with questionnaires in the years 1998 – 1999. The informants interviewed were 12 among whom 4 were tribal practitioners. Results A total of 60 ethnomedicinal plant species distributed in 32 families are documented in this study. The medicinal plants used by paliyars are listed with Latin name, family, local name, parts used, mode of preparation and medicinal uses. Generally, fresh part of the plant was used for the preparation of medicine. Conclusion We observed that the documented ethnomedicinal plants were mostly used to cure skin diseases, poison bites, stomachache and nervous disorders. The results of this study showed that these tribal people still depend on medicinal plants in Madurai district forest areas. PMID:16689985

  17. Assessment of village water and sanitation committee in a district of Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, S R; Kumar, S Ganesh; Sarkar, Sonali; Kar, Sitanshu Sekhar; Roy, Gautam; Premarajan, K C

    2013-01-01

    A descriptive study was conducted among 75 members of five Village Water and Sanitation Committees (VWSCs) and 15 local residents in Tamil Nadu, India to assess committee's formation and decision making process. There were 64% females and rest were males, all aged between 20 years and 45 years. A total of 50.7% of them passed 12 th standard and 29.3% belonged to self-help groups. Although, all of them were aware about presence of guidelines, none of them knew its contents. About 20% opined that meetings were not being conducted regularly. All members said that they had problems in attending meeting regularly, take decisions if at least 10 (67%) members are present and fund was not adequate for 1 year period. One-third of local residents did not know the committee formation process and none of them aware about guidelines. Formation and decision making process of VWSC should be improved to tackle the sanitation problem. PMID:23649144

  18. Factors influencing the spatial distribution of Anopheles larvae in Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Arjunan, Naresh Kumar; Kadarkarai, Murugan; Kumar, Shobana; Pari, Madhiyazhagan; Thiyagarajan, Nataraj; Vincent, C Thomas; Barnard, Donald R

    2015-12-01

    Malaria causes extensive morbidity and mortality in humans and results in significant economic losses in India. The distribution of immature malaria-transmitting Anopheles mosquitoes was studied in 17 villages in Coimbatore District as a prelude to the development and implementation of vector control strategies that are intended to reduce the risk of human exposure to potentially infectious mosquitoes. Eight Anopheles species were recorded. The most numerous species were Anopheles vagus, Anopheles subpictus, and Anopheles hyrcanus. The location of mosquito development sites and the density of larvae in each village was evaluated for correlation with selected demographic, biologic, and land use parameters using remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) technology. We found the number of mosquito development sites in a village and the density of larvae in such sites to be positively correlated with human population density but not the surface area (km(2)) of the village. The number of mosquito development sites and the density of larvae in each site were not correlated. Data from this study are being used to construct a GIS-based mapping system that will enable the location of aquatic habitats with Anopheles larvae in the Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, India as target sites for the application of vector control. PMID:26364718

  19. Nocardiopsis sp. SD5: a potent feather degrading rare actinobacterium isolated from feather waste in Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Saha, Subhasish; Dhanasekaran, D; Shanmugapriya, S; Latha, S

    2013-07-01

    Feather waste, generated in large quantities as a byproduct of commercial poultry processing, is nearly pure keratin protein, and keratin in its native state is not degradable by common proteolytic enzymes. The aim of the study was to find a potent feather degrading actinobacteria from feather waste soil. Out of 91 actinobacterial isolates recorded from feather waste soil in Tiruchirappalli and Nammakkal District, Tamil Nadu, India, isolate SD5 was selected for characterization because it exhibited significant keratinolytic activity. On the basis of the phenotypic, biochemical characterization and 16S rRNA gene-sequencing studies, the isolate was identified as Nocardiopsis sp. SD5. Protease and keratinase activity of Nocardiopsis sp. SD5 were analyzed. The enzyme was more stable over the neutral pH and the temperature of 40?°C. The optimum temperature and pH for both proteolytic and keratinolytic activity was determined at 50?°C and pH 9, respectively. Enzyme inhibitors, detergents and chelator declined the enzyme activity with increasing concentration. Nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and zymogram elucidated the presence of 30 and 60 kDa protease enzymes. These findings indicated that thermo alkaliphilic feather degrading strain Nocardiopsis sp. SD5 could be used to control the feather waste pollution and to convert keratin rich feather waste into useful feedstock for poultry industry. PMID:23864545

  20. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of leptospiral strains isolated from two geographic locations of Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Kanagavel, Murugesan; Princy Margreat, Alphonse Asirvatham; Arunkumar, Manivel; Prabhakaran, Shanmugarajan Gnanasekaran; Shanmughapriya, Santhanam; Natarajaseenivasan, Kalimuthusamy

    2016-01-01

    Here the rodent carrier status for the transmission of human leptospirosis in Tiruchirappalli, district, Tamil Nadu, India was assessed. The predominantly circulating leptospiral STs were recognized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A total of 113 rodents were trapped from different provinces of the Tiruchirappalli district. The most prevalent rodent was Bandicota bengalensis (37.2%), and of the total, 52.2% (n=59) rodents were found to be positive for leptospiral 16S rRNA. These results were validated with a leptospiral culture positivity of 45.8% (n=27). Three isolates from Chennai (2 rodents and 1 human) and 1 human isolate from Tiruchirappalli were included to understand the spatial variations and to track the source of human leptospirosis. The serogroup, serovar, and species level identification of all 31 isolates identified 28 to be Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Javanica and three as Leptospira interrogans serovar Autumnalis. MLST analysis defined all isolates to the existing ST profiles (ST145 and ST27) with the exception of 6 L. borgpetersenii (ST DR) isolates that showed variations in the sucA and pfkB loci. The DR ST was locally confined to Chatram province of Tiruchirappalli suggesting an epidemiological link. The predominant STs, ST145 and ST-DR form a group, indicating the presence of original strain that subsequently diverged evolutionarily into two STs. The variations between L. borgpetersenii in sucA and pfkB loci may be an indication that evolutionary changes transpired in Tiruchirappalli. PMID:26577860

  1. Re-activating modern traditions of justice: mobilising around health in rural Tamil Nadu, South India.

    PubMed

    Ram, Kalpana

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses empirical material from health activists in Tamil Nadu to show that the health discourses that enjoy the greatest continuity and reach in India are also those that presume a radical connection between the health of the individual body and mobilising for a more just social order. The forging of this tradition is traced back to early anti-colonial forms of mobilisation. The transmission of this tradition is then ethnographically traced through various organisations that relay a characteristic set of orientations of thought and action to new generations and groups. The freshness of the synthesis of the tradition effected by each activist is emphasised. Arguing along phenomenological lines, these capacities to synthesise and renew a tradition are located in the capacities of the body. By attending to the unique place of the body in human experience, we may be in a better position to also understand the way in which health discourses that are embedded within wider experiences of injustice are able to circulate with renewed affective force. PMID:24735236

  2. ‘Too many girls, too much dowry’: son preference and daughter aversion in rural Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    DIAMOND-SMITH, NADIA; LUKE, NANCY; MCGARVEY, STEPHEN

    2013-01-01

    The southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu has experienced a dramatic decline in fertility, accompanied by a trend of increased son preference. This paper reports on findings from qualitative interviews with women in rural villages about their fertility decision-making. Specifically addressed are the reasons behind increasing son preference and the consequences of this change. Findings suggest that daughter aversion, fuelled primarily by the perceived economic burden of daughters due to the proliferation of dowry, is playing a larger role in fertility decision-making than son preference. The desire for a son is often trumped by the worry over having many daughters. Women use various means of controlling the sex of their children, which in this study appear to be primarily female infanticide. It is important to distinguish between son preference and daughter aversion and to examine repercussions of low fertility within this setting. PMID:18821352

  3. Study of Morbidity Pattern Among Salt Workers in Marakkanam, Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Zile; Bazroy, Joy; Purty, Anil jacob; Natesan, Murugan; Chavada, Vijay kantilal

    2015-01-01

    Background Salt workers are exposed to occupational hazards like contact with salt crystals and brine, physical stress, sunlight and glare due to sunlight reflected by salt crystals. Very few studies have documented the morbidity among the salt workers. Aim To assess the morbidity pattern among salt workers in Marakkanam, Tamil Nadu, India. Materials and Methods A community based cross-sectional study was undertaken in 4 randomly selected salt worker villages. Three hundred thirty one salt workers were reached by a house-to-house survey during April 2010 to March 2011. Demographic data was collected; clinical examination was conducted using a predesigned and pretested questionnaire. A pilot study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of morbidity before initiating the study. The data was analyzed using SPSS Version 11.5. Chi-square test and odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to determine the association of morbidity levels with various factors. Results Of the 331 salt workers in the study, 58% were females, mean age was 41.9 ± 10.8 y. Eighty seven percent salt workers had some or other morbidity. The observed morbidities include clinical pallor (44.4%), ocular morbidities including cataract, pterygium, conjunctivitis, pingecula and corneal ulcer (42%), caries teeth (41.7%), hypertension (23.3%), underweight (19.3%), goiter (19%), obesity (14.8%) and dermal conditions including dermatitis, thickening of palm and sole, tinea unguum, follicultitis (9.1%). The presence of morbidity did not show any significant association with increase in age, gender, duration of employment or the type of salt work involved with. However, the lower the education level, the higher is the morbidity level among salt workers (OR = 5.23, 95% CI= 2.07 to 13.21) Conclusion Morbidity among salt workers is high. Intervention programs are needed to alleviate the health problems in the salt workers. PMID:26023571

  4. Molecular characterization of mosquitocidal Bacillus sphaericus isolated from Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, D Immanual Gilwax; Sankar, S Gowri; Vasan, P Thirumalai; Piriya, P Sobana; Selvan, B Karpanai; Vennison, S John

    2013-09-01

    Forty-two Bacillus sphaericus strains were isolated from soil around Tamil Nadu, India. The phylogenetic relationship among the B. sphaericus isolates was analysed by REP-PCR and multiplex PCR was performed for the detection of mosquito larvicidal genes binA, binB, mtx1, mtx2 and mtx3 in B. sphaericus isolates. According to the REP-PCR band pattern, B. sphaericus isolates were divided into group A comprising I-XI clusters and group B comprising cluster XII. Three of the isolates BSTN01, 23 and 24 were gathered under cluster XII showed a high level of larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles stephensi, the other 39 isolates grouped under I-XI clusters were non-toxic or weak or moderately toxic to mosquito larvae. Even though BSTN23 and 24 were isolated from the same location and both contained all the five mosquito larvicidal genes, their intraspecies difference was clearly elucidated by REP-PCR analysis. Among high toxic isolates, BSTN23 and 24 were observed to contain all the five toxin genes and BSTN01 showed the presence of binary toxin and Mtx1 toxin genes. The isolates BSTN02, 03, 07, 14, 16, 19, 20, 21, 25, 31, 36 and 39 were found to contain mtx1 gene with combination of mtx2 and/or mtx3 showed moderate or low toxicity against mosquito larvae. binA, binB and mtx1 genes were not present in non-toxic isolates. The present study revealed the genetic heterogeneity between both toxic and non-toxic isolates and indicates that there is a good correlation between the presence of toxin genes and toxicity of the strains. These techniques could be developed in screening of novel highly toxic B. sphaericus strains from environment without bioassay on mosquito larvae. PMID:23648218

  5. Reproductive pattern, perinatal mortality, and sex preference in rural Tamil Nadu, south India: community based, cross sectional study.

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, B. B.; Liljestrand, J.; Hedegaard, M.; Thilsted, S. H.; Joseph, A.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study reproductive pattern and perinatal mortality in rural Tamil Nadu, South India. DESIGN: Community based, cross sectional questionnaire study of 30 randomly selected areas served by health subcentres. SETTING: Rural parts of Salem District, Tamil Nadu, South India. SUBJECTS: 1321 women and their offspring delivered in the 6 months before the interview. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of pregnancies, pregnancy outcome, spacing of pregnancies, sex of offspring, perinatal and neonatal mortality rates. RESULTS: 41% of the women (535) were primiparous; 7 women (0.5%) were grand multiparous (> 6 births). The women had a mean age of 22 years and a mean of 2.3 pregnancies and 1.8 live children. The sex ratio at birth of the index children was 107 boys per 100 girls. The stillbirth rate was 13.5/1000 births, the neonatal mortality rate was 35.3/1000, and the perinatal mortality rate was 42.0/1000. Girls had an excess neonatal mortality (rate ratio 3.42%; 95% confidence interval 1.68 to 6.98; this was most pronounced among girls born to multiparous women with no living sons (rate ratio 15.48 (2.04 to 177.73) v 1.87 (0.63 to 5.58) in multiparous women with at least one son alive). CONCLUSIONS: In this rural part of Tamil Nadu, women had a controlled reproductive pattern. The excess neonatal mortality among girls constitutes about one third of the perinatal mortality rate. It seems to be linked to a preference for sons and should therefore be addressed through a holistic societal approach rather than through specific healthcare measures. PMID:9169399

  6. Hospital and urban effluent waters as a source of accumulation of toxic metals in the sediment receiving system of the Cauvery River, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Devarajan, Naresh; Laffite, Amandine; Ngelikoto, Patience; Elongo, Vicky; Prabakar, Kandasamy; Mubedi, Josué I; Piana, Pius T M; Wildi, Walter; Poté, John

    2015-09-01

    Hospital and urban effluents contain a variety of toxic and/or persistent substances in a wide range of concentrations, and most of these compounds belong to the group of emerging contaminants. The release of these substances into the aquatic ecosystem can lead to the pollution of water resources and may place aquatic organisms and human health at risk. Sediments receiving untreated and urban effluent waters from the city of Tiruchirappalli in the state of Tamil Nadu, India, are analyzed for potential environmental and human health risks. The sediment samples were collected from five hospital outlet pipes (HOP) and from the Cauvery River Basin (CRB) both of which receive untreated municipal effluent waters (Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India). The samples were characterized for grain size, organic matter, toxic metals, and ecotoxicity. The results highlight the high concentration of toxic metals in HOP, reaching values (mg kg(-1)) of 1851 (Cr), 210 (Cu), 986 (Zn), 82 (Pb), and 17 (Hg). In contrast, the metal concentrations in sediments from CRB were lower than the values found in the HOP (except for Cu, Pb), with maximum values (mg kg(-1)) of 75 (Cr), 906 (Cu), 649 (Zn), 111 (Pb), and 0.99 (Hg). The metal concentrations in all sampling sites largely exceed the Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs) and the Probable Effect Concentration (PEC) for the Protection of Aquatic Life recommendation. The ecotoxicity test with ostracods exposed to the sediment samples presents a mortality rate ranging from 22 to 100 % (in sediments from HOP) and 18-87 % (in sediments from CRB). The results of this study show the variation of toxic metal levels as well as toxicity in sediment composition related to both the type of hospital and the sampling period. The method of elimination of hospital and urban effluents leads to the pollution of water resources and may place aquatic organisms and human health at risk. PMID:25913309

  7. Dental Caries and the Associated Factors Influencing It in Tribal, Suburban and Urban School Children of Tamil Nadu, India: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    John, J. Baby; Asokan, Sharath; Aswanth, KP; Priya, P.R. Geetha; Shanmugaavel, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    Background The study was planned to assess the prevalence of dental caries among tribal, suburban and urban children of Tiruchengode and Erode of Tamil Nadu state, India. The objective of the study was to assess the association of dental caries with family background, dental service availability, transportation and knowledge on preventive dental measures among these three groups Design and methods Cross-sectional study. A total of 1028 school children in the age range of 9-12 years from various government schools located in Palamalai and Kolli Hills (tribal), Tiruchengode (suburban) and Erode (urban), Tamil Nadu, were included in the study. Decayed, filled, and missing teeth (DMFT), decayed and filled teeth (dft) and Significant Caries Index were recorded. A specially prepared questionnaire was used to record all the data regarding oral hygiene practices, socioeconomic background, dental treatment availability, parent’s education level were used for the study. ANOVA t-test and post hoc test were used for comparing quantitative variables between the 3 subgroups. Results The tribal school children had 89.3% caries prevalence, where as it was 77% in suburban and 55% in urban school children. The mean DMFT score among tribal, suburban and urban school children were statistically significant different (P=0.001) between the three groups. There was a highly significant difference (P=0.001) in the mean DMFT score based on brushing frequency. There was a statistically significant difference (P=0.018) in the mean DMFT scores in the urban group based on the mothers education status. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean DMFT scores based on the presence or absence of television in their house and the parents’ income. Conclusions Oral hygiene practices, dietary habits and access to dental care services played an important role in prevalence of dental caries. It was observed that the socioeconomic status, parents’ educational status and mass media influenced the oral health of these children but without a significant contribution. Significance for public health It was observed from the present study that the socioeconomic status, parents’ educational status, media and family structure influence the oral health of children in under-privileged communities. Oral hygiene practices, dietary habits and access to dental care services also play an important role in the prevalence of dental caries among children. Children of government schools in Tamil Nadu, India, don’t get adequate information on oral health, related diseases and methods of prevention. Oral health education and health promotion should be mandatory for all school children. PMID:25918690

  8. Mate selection and its impact on female marriage age, pregnancy wastages, and first child survival in Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Sureender, S; Prabakaran, B; Khan, A G

    1998-01-01

    Marriage in Indian society is a religious duty. Consanguineous marriage is common, where individuals prefer to marry within their clan (a unilateral kin group based on either matrilineal or patrilineal descent). Keeping in mind that this form of marriage has certain disadvantages for social and biological as well as demographic aspects of individuals and families, the present study examines the influence of mate selection (i.e., close relatives, distant relatives, not related) on female age at marriage, pregnancy wastages, and survival status of the first child. The study was designed based on the information collected on a sample size of 3,948 married women aged 13-49 in Tamil Nadu, India, by the National Family Health Survey (NFHS), 1992. Results suggest that 48 per cent of women in Tamil Nadu marry their relatives. This practice of marrying relatives is high in rural areas, among Hindus, Scheduled Castes/tribes, and illiterate women as compared to urban areas, among non-Hindus, non-SC/ST, and educated women, respectively. The bivariate analysis reveals that women marrying their close relatives had low age at marriage and experienced a higher per cent of pregnancy wastage and child loss (first child) as compared to those women marrying their distant relatives or nonrelatives. The result is found to be consistent even after controlling for selected background variables through multivariate techniques (applied separately for age at marriage, pregnancy wastages, and the survival status of first child). Hence, this study suggests that steps should be taken to inform people about the problems of marrying close relatives through appropriate IEC programs in Tamil Nadu. PMID:10085741

  9. "Yes" to abortion but "no" to sexual rights: the paradoxical reality of married women in rural Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, T K Sundari; Balasubramanian, P

    2004-05-01

    This study in rural Tamil Nadu, India, explored the reasons why many married women in India undergo induced abortions rather than use reversible contraception to space or limit births in terms of women's sexual and reproductive rights within marriage, and in the context of gender relations between couples more generally. It is based on in-depth interviews with two generations of ever-married women, some of whom had had abortions and others who had not, from 98 rural hamlets. The respondents were 66 women and 44 of their husbands. Non-consensual sex, sexual violence and women's inability to refuse their husband's sexual demands appeared to underlie the need for abortion in both younger and older women. Many men seemed to believe that sex within marriage was their right, and that women had no say in the matter. The findings raise questions about the presumed association between legal abortion and the enjoyment of reproductive and sexual rights. A large number of women who had abortions in this study were denied their sexual rights but were permitted, even forced, to terminate their pregnancies for reasons unrelated to their right to choose abortion. The study brings home the need for activism to promote women's sexual rights and a campaign against sexual violence in marriage. PMID:15242214

  10. Geomorphic evolution and genesis of laterites around the east coast of Madras, Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achyuthan, Hema

    1996-05-01

    Laterites and lateritic soils (Red soils) of the east coast especially around Madras, Tamil Nadu have been formed in different geomorphic conditions and on various geological deposits. They occur as caprocks over recent alluvium, Upper Gondwana sandstones and shales, and Precambrian basement rocks. The laterite profiles studied around Madras are generally 2 to 5 m thick and exposed 5 to 45 km inland from the present-day shoreline. Detailed analysis (micromorphological and chemical) and the bore hole litho-log data reveal that lateritisation was not continuous but occurred in phases. Lateritisation could have taken place in humid to sub-humid conditions with a rich source of iron in the parent rock and sediment and efficient internal drainage. Geoarchaeological investigations and Quaternary stratigraphical studies date the lateritic crust surface to the early late Neogene. Neotectonics have played a vital role in shaping the present landscape.

  11. Molecular Serotyping and Pathogenic Potential of Listeria monocytogenes Isolated from Milk and Milk Products in Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Raman; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash

    2015-06-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, an important bacterial pathogen, is responsible for foodborne illnesses worldwide. Examination of food samples for the presence of L. monocytogenes and assessment of their pathogenicity is usually an effective strategy in the prevention of listeriosis. In the present study, we have tested 307 samples of milk and milk products from various places in Tamil Nadu, India for the presence of L. monocytogenes using ISO 11290 and U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual methods. 16S rDNA sequencing and duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for prs and iap genes were used to identify L. monocytogenes at the species level. Fifteen of the 307 samples screen tested positive for L. monocytogenes. Molecular serotyping of the L. monocytogenes isolates by multiplex PCR revealed the predominance of the serogroups 1/2a and 4b. Fourteen of the 15 isolates contained all the virulence genes (inlA, inlB, hlyA, and plcA) screened for using multiplex PCR. Only one isolate of L. monocytogenes was negative for the plcA gene and in vitro phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C activity. L. monocytogenes strains that belong to the serogroup 4b exhibited higher nematocidal activity against Caenorhabditis elegans than the serogroup 1/2a. Worms infected with L. monocytogenes were symptomatic with aberrant contraction of body muscles, loss of pharyngeal pumping, and decreased locomotion, which highlights the pathogenic potential of the L. monocytogenes isolates. PMID:25793931

  12. Microbial diversity in firework chemical exposed soil and water samples collected in Virudhunagar district, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Dhasarathan, P; Theriappan, P; Ashokraja, C

    2010-03-01

    Microbial diversity of soil and water samples collected from pyrochemicals exposed areas of Virdhunagar district (Tamil Nadu, India) was studied. Soil and water samples from cultivable area, waste land and city area of the same region were also studied for a comparative acount. There is a remarkable reduction in total heterotrophic bacterial population (THB) in pyrochemicals exposed soil and water samples (42 × 10(4) CFU/g and 5.6 × 10(4) CFU/ml respectively), compared to the THB of cultivable area soil and water samples (98 × 10(7) CFU/g and 38.6 × 10(7) CFU/ml). The generic composition the THB of the pyrochemicals exposed samples too exhibited considerable change compared to other samples. Pseudomonas sp. was the predominant one (41.6%) followed by Achromobacter sp. (25%) in pyrochemical exposed soil and Pseudomonas sp. was the predominant one (25%) in pyrochemical exposed water samples followed by Bacillus sp. (25%) and Micrococcus sp. (16.6%). It was observed that Cornybacterium sp. and Micrococcus sp. were absent completely in pyrochemical exposed soil and Achromobacter sp. was missing in the pyrochemical exposed water samples, which were present in the other samples. The outcome of this study clearly demonstrates that pollutants such as chemicals used in pyrotechniques affect the microbial biodiversity and suitable measures have to be taken to control the pollution level and to save biodiversity. PMID:23100806

  13. Environmental monitoring and assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments at Coleroon River Estuary in Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Venkatramanan, S; Chung, S Y; Ramkumar, T; Selvam, S

    2015-08-01

    The combined studies on grain size distribution, organic matter contents of sediments, sequential extraction and bulk concentration of heavy metals, statistical analysis, and ecological risk assessments were carried out to investigate the contamination sources and ecological risks of surface sediments at Coleroon River Estuary in Tamil Nadu, India. The sequential extraction of metals showed that a larger portion of the metals was associated with the residual phase and also in other fractions. The low concentrations of heavy metals were found in exchangeable and carbonate bounds (bioavailable phases). It revealed that sediments of Coleroon River Estuary were relatively unpolluted and were influenced mainly by natural sources. The observed order of bulk concentrations of heavy metals in the sediments was as follows: Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu > Pb > Cr > Ni > Co. Factor analyses represented that the enrichment of heavy metals was mostly resulted from lithogenic origins associated with anthropogenic sources. These sources were reconfirmed by cluster analysis. Risk assessment code (RAC) suggested that all metals were not harmful in monsoon season. However, Fe was in medium risk, and Mn and Cu were in low risk in summer. According to pollution load index (PLI) of sediments, all heavy metals were toxic. Cu might be related with adverse biological effects on the basis of sediment quality guidelines (SQG) in both seasons. These integrated approaches were very useful to identify the contamination sources and ecological risks of sediments in estuarine environment. It is expected that this research can give a useful information for the remediation of heavy metals in sediments. PMID:26178040

  14. Medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Kancheepuram District of Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    Muthu, Chellaiah; Ayyanar, Muniappan; Raja, Nagappan; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2006-01-01

    An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken to collect information from traditional healers on the use of medicinal plants in Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu during October 2003 to April 2004. The indigenous knowledge of local traditional healers and the native plants used for medicinal purposes were collected through questionnaire and personal interviews during field trips. The investigation revealed that, the traditional healers used 85 species of plants distributed in 76 genera belonging to 41 families to treat various diseases. The documented medicinal plants were mostly used to cure skin diseases, poison bites, stomachache and nervous disorders. In this study the most dominant family was Euphorbiaceae and leaves were most frequently used for the treatment of diseases. This study showed that many people in the studied parts of Kancheepuram district still continue to depend on medicinal plants at least for the treatment of primary healthcare. The traditional healers are dwindling in number and there is a grave danger of traditional knowledge disappearing soon since the younger generation is not interested to carry on this tradition. PMID:17026769

  15. Death before Birth : Negotiating Reproduction, Female Infanticide and Sex Selective Abortion in Tamil Nadu, South India 

    E-print Network

    Perwez, Mohammad Shahid.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis deals with the cultural and political underpinnings of female infanticide and sex selective abortion in contemporary South India. Based on a fifteen months' ethnographic fieldwork in western parts of Salem ...

  16. Report on the occurrence of synanthropic derived form of Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae) from Royapuram fishing harbour, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    Ramaraj, Paulchamy; Selvakumar, Chellappa; Ganesh, Arumugam

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The occurrence of dipteran fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) is reported for the first time from Royapuram fishing harbour (Chennai), Tamil Nadu, South East India. The fully grown third instar larvae of Chrysomya megacephala were collected from decaying fishes near Royapuram fishing harbour. This site is found to be the regular breeding site for Chrysomya megacephala. Larvae were reared under laboratory condition and freshly emerged adult flies from pupae were collected and identified by morphological features and molecular tools. Molecular identification through generation of DNA barcoding using mitochondrial COI gene of Chrysomya megacephala is appended. PMID:25057250

  17. Evaluating influence of active tectonics on spatial distribution pattern of floods along eastern Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvakumar, R.; Ramasamy, SM.

    2014-12-01

    Flooding is a naturally recurrent phenomenon that causes severe damage to lives and property. Predictions on flood-prone zones are made based on intensity-duration of rainfall, carrying capacity of drainage, and natural or man-made obstructions. Particularly, the lower part of the drainage system and its adjacent geomorphic landforms like floodplains and deltaic plains are considered for analysis, but stagnation in parts of basins that are far away from major riverine systems is less unveiled. Similarly, uncharacteristic flooding in the upper and middle parts of drainage, especially in zones of an anomalous drainage pattern, is also least understood. Even though topographic differences are attributed for such anomalous spatial occurrence of floods, its genetic cause has to be identified for effective management practice. Added to structural and lithological variations, tectonic movements too impart micro-scale terrain undulations. Because active tectonic movements are slow-occurring, long-term geological processes, its resultant topographical variations and drainage anomalies are least correlated with floods. The recent floods of Tamil Nadu also exhibit a unique distribution pattern emphasizing the role of tectonics over it. Hence a detailed geoinformatics-based analysis was carried out to envisage the relationship between spatial distribution of flood and active tectonic elements such as regional arches and deeps, block faults, and graben and drainage anomalies such as deflected drainage, compressed meander, and eyed drainages. The analysis reveals that micro-scale topographic highs and lows imparted by active tectonic movements and its further induced drainage anomalies have substantially controlled the distribution pattern of flood.

  18. Patterns of Financial Behavior Among Rural and Urban Microfinance Clients: Evidence from Tamil Nadu, India

    E-print Network

    Chen, Zhongping

    Rural Urban Patterns of Financial Behavior Among Rural and Urban Microfinance Clients: Evidence needs of the poor vary widely across rural and urban India. The study by IMTFI researchers Lakshmi Kumar) while the urban poor dominate in high-skill activities (tailoring, embroidery). Further, the rural poor

  19. Myocilin mutations among POAG patients from two populations of Tamil Nadu, South India, a comparative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Rajiv; Balakrishnan, Anandan; Arumugam, Paramasivam; Shanmugam, Sambandham; Gopalswamy, Jayaraman

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common type of glaucoma. Among the POAG genes identified so far, myocilin (MYOC) is the most frequently mutated gene in POAG patients worldwide. The MYOC Gln48His mutation is unique among Indian POAG patients. This mutation has not been observed in some populations within India and in other populations worldwide. The objectives of this work were to characterize and compare the mutation spectrum among POAG patients from two places of South India and identify the occurrence and prevalence of Gln48His mutation in our study populations. Methods One hundred-one (101) POAG patients from Chennai, South India were recruited for the study. Earlier, 100 patients from the southernmost part of India, Kanyakumari district, were screened. MYOC was screened by polymerase chain reaction based single stand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) methodology. DNA sequencing of deviant samples was performed. Secondary structures of the proteins with amino acid sequence variations were predicted. Results The mutation frequency of MYOC among POAG patients in Chennai was 2%. Three types of mutations were observed. The MYOC Gln48His mutation was observed among 2 POAG patients from Chennai. However, absence of this mutation among patients from Kanyakumari suggests possible involvement of demographic factors in disease causation via this mutation. Two heterozygous sequence variants, Thr353Ile and Asn480Lys, in the same exon (exon III) of MYOC were observed in one POAG patient who had a severe disease phenotype. This is the first such report of a compound heterozygote individual with two mutations in the same exon of MYOC. Conclusions The presence of mutations at a rate similar to other studies suggests the causative role of MYOC among POAG patients from Chennai. Screening of more patients and families from all parts of India is required to identify the actual frequency of the Gln48His mutation and thus highlight its importance. The compound heterozygote with a severe disease phenotype reiterates the importance of MYOC in certain POAG patients. PMID:22194650

  20. Dental caries status of inmates in central prison, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    George, Benley; John, Joseph; Saravanan, S.; Arumugham, I. Meignana; Johny, Minimol K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To understand the dental health among prison inmates, we assessed the dental caries status of central prison inmates in Chennai, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 1060 inmates from three divisions of the central prison in Chennai were assessed by a single investigator for dental caries status based on World Health Organization specifications. Results: Among the inmates, 58.2% of males and 54.2% of females had decayed teeth. About 4.1% of males and 2.9% of females had filled teeth. The mean decayed, missing, filled teeth index was 5.1 and 3.9 for female and male prisoners, respectively. The prevalence of dental caries was highest among inmates younger than 24 years age. Conclusion: Our study suggests that a high proportion of prison inmates was affected by dental caries, which necessitates the need for initiating oral health promotion activities among prison inmates.

  1. Mapping of groundwater potential zones in Salem Chalk Hills, Tamil Nadu, India, using remote sensing and GIS techniques.

    PubMed

    Thilagavathi, N; Subramani, T; Suresh, M; Karunanidhi, D

    2015-04-01

    This study proposes to introduce the remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques in mapping the groundwater potential zones. Remote sensing and GIS techniques have been used to map the groundwater potential zones in Salem Chalk Hills, Tamil Nadu, India. Charnockites and fissile hornblende biotite gneiss are the major rock types in this region. Dunites and peridodites are the ultramafic rocks which cut across the foliation planes of the gneisses and are highly weathered. It comprises magnesite and chromite deposits which are excavated by five mining companies by adopting bench mining. The thickness of weathered and fracture zone varies from 2.2 to 50 m in gneissic formation and 5.8 to 55 m in charnockite. At the contacts of gneiss and charnockite, the thickness ranges from 9.0 to 90.8 m favoring good groundwater potential. The mine lease area is underlined by fractured and sheared hornblende biotite gneiss where groundwater potential is good. Water catchment tanks in this area of 5 km radius are small to moderate in size and are only seasonal. They remain dry during summer seasons. As perennial water resources are remote, the domestic and agricultural activities in this region depend mainly upon the groundwater resources. The mines are located in gently slope area, and accumulation of water is not observed except in mine pits even during the monsoon period. Therefore, it is essential to map the groundwater potential zones for proper management of the aquifer system. Satellite imageries were also used to extract lineaments, hydrogeomorphic landforms, drainage patterns, and land use, which are the major controlling factors for the occurrence of groundwater. Various thematic layers pertaining to groundwater existence such as geology, geomorphology, land use/land cover, lineament, lineament density, drainage, drainage density, slope, and soil were generated using GIS tools. By integrating all the above thematic layers based on the ranks and weightages, eventually groundwater potential zones were demarcated. The study indicates that groundwater potential is good to high in 22 villages and moderate in 13 villages. The good to high potential zone occupies an area of 128 km2 and moderate potential zone occupies an area of 77 km2. Groundwater occurrence is poor in five villages which need artificial recharge to augment groundwater. PMID:25740689

  2. Hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality assessment of Ranipet industrial area, Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, G. Tamma; Rao, V. V. S. Gurunadha; Ranganathan, K.

    2013-06-01

    One of the highly polluted areas in India located at Ranipet occupies around 200 tanneries and other small scale chemical industries. Partially treated industrial effluents combined with sewage and other wastes discharged on the surface cause severe groundwater pollution in the industrial belt. This poses a problem of supply of safe drinking water in the rural parts of the country. A study was carried out to assess the groundwater pollution and identify major variables affecting the groundwater quality in Ranipet industrial area. Twenty five wells were monitored during pre- and post-monsoon in 2008 and analyzed for the major physico-chemical variables. The water quality variables such as total dissolved solids (TDS), Iron (Fe2 + ), Hexavalent Chromium (Cr6 + ), at most of the sampling locations exceeded the ISI and WHO guideline levels for drinking water. Multivariate statistical techniques such as factor analysis were applied to identify the major factors (variables) corresponding to the different source of variation in groundwater quality. The water quality of groundwater is influenced by both anthropogenic and chemical weathering. The most serious pollution threat to groundwater is from TDS, Cr6 + and Fe2 + , which are associated with sewage and pollution of tannery waste. The study reveals that the groundwater quality changed due to anthropogenic and natural influences such as agricultural, natural weathering process.

  3. Taboos Related to Dog Bite in an Urban Area of Kancheepuram District of Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    Chinnaian, Sivagurunathan; Ramachandran, Umadevi; Ravi, Rama; Pandurangan, Mohan Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background India is known for its diverse social and cultural backgrounds with wide range of myths and misconceptions related to diseases/illnesses. One such belief is certain food taboos and diet restrictions practiced following dog bite, which is widely prevalent. Materials and Methods This is a community based cross- sectional study conducted among adults population in Anakaputhur area of Kancheepuram district. The sample size was estimated to be 275 based on previous study data and simple random sampling method was used for data collection. Data collected was analysed using SPSS version 16 and results described using descriptive statistics and Chi-square test was used for finding statistical association. Results About 84.4% of the study participants said that some kind of restrictions should be followed in case of dog bite, among them 68.7% said non vegetarian foods should be avoided. About 81 % of those bitten by dogs followed some form of food restrictions. Nearly 93.6% of those bitten did follow certain restrictions, based on advice of family members/relatives while about 6.4% of the study group followed restrictions based on advice by ‘medical personnel’. Illiterates and those educated up to high school; participants with no history of animal bite in their family, were more at risk of having misconceptions (p<0.05). Pet owners have more misconceptions compared to non pet owners. Conclusion This study reveals the existence of certain food taboos in case of dog bite among the study population. These practices and taboos are of no use and can be harmful at times. It is important to clear these misconceptions through appropriate health education measures for better health seeking behaviour and management. PMID:26393149

  4. Silent spread of dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever to Coimbatore and Erode districts in Tamil Nadu, India, 1998: need for effective surveillance to monitor and control the disease.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, J.; Balakrishnan, N.; Bhardwaj, M.; Amuthadevi, P.; George, E. G.; Subramani, K.; Soundararajan, K.; Appavoo, N. C.; Jain, D. C.; Ichhpujani, R. L.; Bhatia, R.; Sokhey, J.

    2000-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) or dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) has not previously been reported in Coimbatore and Erode districts in Tamil Nadu in India. In 1998, 20 hospitalized cases of fever tested positive for dengue virus IgM and/or IgG antibodies. All of them had dengue-compatible illness, and at least four had DHF. Two of them died. Sixteen cases were below 10 years of age. The cases were scattered in 15 distantly located villages and 5 urban localities that had a high Aedes aegypti population. Although the incidence of dengue-like illness has not increased recently, almost 89% (95/107) of samples from healthy persons in the community tested positive for dengue IgG antibodies. The study showed that dengue has been endemic in the area, but was not suspected earlier. A strong laboratory-based surveillance system is essential to monitor and control DF/DHF. PMID:11057977

  5. Hydrogeochemical Modelling for Groundwater in Neyveli Aquifer, Tamil Nadu, India, Using PHREEQC: A Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Chidambaram, S.; Anandhan, P.; Prasanna, M. V.; Ramanathan, AL.; Srinivasamoorthy, K.; Senthil Kumar, G.

    2012-09-15

    Sophisticated geochemical models have been used to describe and predict the chemical behaviour of complex natural waters and also to protect the groundwater resources from future contamination. One such model is used to study the hydrogeochemical complexity in a mine area. Extraction of groundwater from the coastal aquifer has been in progress for decades to mine lignite in Neyveli. This extraction has developed a cone of depression around the mine site. This cone of depression is well established by the geochemical nature of groundwater in the region. 42 groundwater samples were collected in a definite pattern and they were analysed for major cations, anions and trace elements. The saturation index (SI) of the groundwater for carbonate, sulphate and silica minerals was studied and it has been correlated with the recharge and the discharge regions. The SI of alumino silicates has been used to decipher the stage of weathering. The SI{sub Gibbsite} - SI{sub K-feldspar} has been spatially distributed and the regions of discharge and recharge were identified. Then two flow paths A1 and A2 were identified and inverse modelling using PHREEQC were carried out to delineate the geochemical process that has taken place from recharge to discharge. The initial and final solutions in both the flow paths were correlated with the thermodynamic silicate stability diagrams of groundwater and it was found that the state of thermodynamic stability of the end solutions along the flow path were approaching similar states of equilibrium at the discharge.

  6. Distribution patterns of natural radioactivity and delineation of anomalous radioactive zones using in situ radiation observations in Southern Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, H N; Shanker, D; Neelakandan, V N; Singh, V P

    2007-03-01

    In situ radiation measurements in the beach sectors and adjacent hinterlands and along rivers in the interiors of southern peninsular India were carried out using a portable radiation survey meter. A very high intrinsic anomalous radioactivity >26microGy/h has been observed in the hinterlands within a fresh quarry and weathered boulders in the syenite rock body around Puttetti in the western Kanyakumari district of southern Tamil Nadu. Over the weathered hillocks in the hinterlands adjacent to the coast around Inayam, Kurumpanai and Midalam, the in situ radiation measurements have also exhibited high radioactivity ranging from 4 to 22microGy/h which is significantly higher than the radiation exposure rates (RER) observed along the beach sectors at various locations from Chavara to Tuticorin (1-14microGy/h). The observed radiation levels are presumably the highest concentration in southern India and it is the first time that such a high intrinsic radiogenic source in the hinterlands is reported in southwest coast of India. It is also observed based on the laboratory analysis of samples and in situ radiation data that the rivers/channels in this region contain insignificant level of radioactivity concentration and hence they do not contribute much to the placer deposits on the beaches. The placer deposits associated with significant RER (both in situ observations as well as laboratory estimates from samples) in the beach sectors from Kadiapattanam to Inayam are inferred to be derived through the country rocks/weathered hillocks in the immediate hinterlands. PMID:16904260

  7. Impact of leachate on groundwater pollution due to non-engineered municipal solid waste landfill sites of erode city, Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Leachate and groundwater samples were collected from Vendipalayam, Semur and Vairapalayam landfill sites in Erode city, Tamil Nadu, India, to study the possible impact of leachate percolation on groundwater quality. Concentrations of various physicochemical parameters including heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Fe and Zn) were determined in leachate samples and are reported. The concentrations of Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, NH4+ were found to be in considerable levels in the groundwater samples particularly near to the landfill sites, likely indicating that groundwater quality is being significantly affected by leachate percolation. Further they were proved to be the tracers for groundwater contamination near Semur and Vendipalayam dumpyards. The presence of contaminants in groundwater particularly near the landfill sites warns its quality and thus renders the associated aquifer unreliable for domestic water supply and other uses. Although some remedial measures are suggested to reduce further groundwater contamination via leachate percolation, the present study demands for the proper management of waste in Erode city. PMID:23369323

  8. Increased Utilization of Primary Health Care Centers for Birthing Care in Tamil Nadu, India: A Visible Impact of Policies, Initiatives, and Innovations

    PubMed Central

    Pandian, Jayanthi; Suresh, Saradha; Desikachari, B. R.; Padmanaban, P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tamil Nadu has been showing an increasing trend in institutional deliveries since early 1990's and has now achieved near 100%. Among the institutional deliveries, a change was observed since 2006, wherein primary health centers (PHCs) showed a four-fold increase in deliveries, while other public and private health facilities showed a decline, despite equal access to all categories of health facilities. What led to this increased utilization of PHCs for birthing care? Material and Methods: Policies, documents, and published reports of the Government of Tamil Nadu (GoTN) were reviewed and interviews were conducted with the various stakeholders involved in providing birthing care in the PHCs. This study analyzes the impact of the policies and supply side initiatives and innovations which led to increase utilization of the PHCs for birthing care. Results: Scaling up of 24 × 7 services in all PHCs, upgrading PHCs with good infrastructure, human resources, and women friendly services have helped to boost the image of the PHCs. Pro-women policies like maternity benefit schemes, birth companionship, providing food, and compulsory stay for 48 h following delivery have attracted women towards PHC. Innovative strategies like maternity picnics and use of expected date of delivery (EDD) chart for follow-up have made women choose PHCs, while periodic reviews and support to staff has improved service delivery. Conclusion: Women centered policies, efficient managerial systems, quality care, and innovative marketing of services have together contributed to increased utilization of PHCs for birthing. Other states could explore the possibility of replicating this model to make optimal use the PHC facilities.

  9. Hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality appraisal of part of south Chennai coastal aquifers, Tamil Nadu, India using WQI and fuzzy logic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna Kumar, S.; Bharani, R.; Magesh, N. S.; Godson, Prince S.; Chandrasekar, N.

    2014-12-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking purposes in the urban coastal aquifers of part of south Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Twenty-three groundwater samples were collected during March 2012. The minimum and maximum values of pH (6.3-8 on scale), electrical conductivity (620-12,150 ?S/cm), total dissolved solids (399.28-7,824.6 mg/l), carbonate (0-30 mg/l), bicarbonate (0.9-58.9 mg/l), chloride (70.9-4,067.89 mg/l), sulphate (17.4-105 mg/l), nitrate (0.4-6.0 mg/l), calcium (30-200 mg/l), magnesium (1.2-164 mg/l), sodium (69-1,490 mg/l) and potassium (8-340 mg/l) were recorded in the coastal aquifers of Chennai city. The groundwater samples show that the majority of the sampling points clustered on the NaCl and mixed CaMgCl facies of the piper trilinear diagram. In the Gibbs diagram, the majority of the sampling points fall under rock water and evaporation dominance field. Fuzzy membership classification suggests that the majority of the samples fall under good water type followed by excellent water and poor water categories. Groundwater quality index showing the majority of the samples falls under excellent to poor category of water. A positive correlation was observed with Cl-, SO4 2-, Ca2+, Na+, K+, EC and TDS. The extracted results of the correlation matrix and geochemical analysis suggest that the dominant ions of groundwater (Na+, Ca2+, K+, Cl- and SO4 2-) were derived from seawater intrusion and gypsum dissolution process. Nitrate concentration is most significantly derived from anthropogenic sources.

  10. Monsoon Harvests: Assessing the Impact of Rainwater Harvesting Ponds on Subsistence-Level Agriculture in the Gundar Basin, Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiff, M.; Van Meter, K. J.; Basu, N. B.

    2013-12-01

    Lack of consistent water availability for irrigated agriculture is recognized as one of the primary constraints to meeting the UN Millennium Development Goals to alleviate hunger, and in semi-arid landscapes such as those of southern India, which are characterized by high intra-annual variability in rainfall, provision of capabilities for seasonal storage is recognized to be one of the key strategies towards alleviating water scarcity problems and ensuring food security. Although the issue of increased storage can be addressed by centralized infrastructure projects such as large-scale irrigation systems and dams, an alternative is the "soft path" approach, in which existing large-scale projects are complemented by small-scale, decentralized solutions. Such a decentralized approach has been utilized in southern India for thousands of years in the form of village rainwater harvesting tanks or ponds, providing a local and inherently sustainable approach to providing sufficient water for rice cultivation. Over the last century, however, large-scale canal projects and groundwater pumping have replaced rainwater harvesting as the primary source of irrigation water. But with groundwater withdrawals now exceeding recharge in many areas and water tables continuing to drop, many NGOs and government agencies are advocating for a revival of the older rainwater harvesting systems. Questions remain, however, regarding the limits to which rainwater harvesting can provide a solution to decades of water overexploitation. In the present work, we have utilized secondary data sources to analyze the linkages between the tank irrigation systems and the village communities that depend on them within the Gundar Basin of southern Tamil Nadu. Combining socioeconomic data with information regarding climate, land use, groundwater depletion, and tank density, we have developed indicators of sustainability for these systems. Using these indicators, we have attempted to unravel the close coupling that exists between tanks, the village communities, and the natural landscape within which they are embedded. Preliminary results suggest that groundwater over-extraction is in many cases negatively impacting the ability of the rainwater harvesting ponds to provide a reliable water supply. In addition, while the social and economic benefits provided by these ponds reduce community vulnerability to variations in the region's yearly monsoons, there can be negative environmental impacts. Large-scale rainwater harvesting, similar to groundwater extraction, can change the overall water balance of a watershed, leading to a tradeoff of water availability between socioeconomic and ecosystem demands. Although traditional rainwater harvesting practices may appear to be more sustainable than the current high levels of groundwater pumping, the two practices carried out in tandem can increase water consumption even further, pushing the system closer to a threshold beyond which a profound crisis may loom.

  11. PREVALENCE OF ERGOT OF SORGHUM IN INDIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On-farm sorghum ergot surveys were conducted in India in 1999, 2000 and 2001. A seven state area was surveyed including 250 fields in Andhra Pradesh, 451 fields in Karnataka, 413 fields in Maharashtra, 127 fields in Tamil Nadu, 3 in Rajasthan, 10 in Uttar Pradesh, and 1 in Gujarat. Ergot incidence ...

  12. Safe, accessible medical abortion in a rural Tamil Nadu clinic, India, but what about sexual and reproductive rights?

    PubMed

    Sri, Subha B; Ravindran, T K Sundari

    2015-02-01

    Women's control over their own bodies and reproduction is a fundamental prerequisite to the achievement of sexual and reproductive health and rights. A woman's ability to terminate an unwanted pregnancy has been seen as the exercise of her reproductive rights. This study reports on interviews with 15 women in rural South India who had a medical abortion. It examines the circumstances under which they chose to have an abortion and their perspectives on medical abortion. Women in this study decided to have an abortion when multiple factors like lack of spousal support for child care or contraception, hostile in-laws, economic hardship, poor health of the woman herself, spousal violence, lack of access to suitable contraceptive methods, and societal norms regarding reproduction and sexuality converged to oppress them. The availability of an easy and affordable method like medical abortion pills helped the women get out of a difficult situation, albeit temporarily. Medical abortion also fulfilled their special needs by ensuring confidentiality, causing least disruption of their domestic schedule, and dispensing with the need for rest or a caregiver. The study concludes that medical abortion can help women in oppressive situations. However, this will not deliver gender equality or women's empowerment; social conditions need to change for that. PMID:25702077

  13. Pathways of calcrete development on weathered silicate rocks in Tamil Nadu, India: Mineralogy, chemistry and paleoenvironmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, N.; Gunnell, Y.; Curmi, P.; Ahmad, S. M.

    2006-11-01

    Poorly documented yet spectacularly thick and extensive outcrops of calcrete hardpan occur on gneiss in the semiarid region of Coimbatore, South India. The hardpan caps a series of residual plateaux forming the present-day continental divide and grades into large expanses of Vertisols. Characteristic calcrete and Vertisol profiles were logged along toposequences and sampled for macro- and micromorphological study, and for chemical and mineralogical composition. Strontium isotopic analyses revealed that the calcrete is derived from in situ weathering of Ca-bearing primary minerals of the saprolite, which is rich in ankerite, Ca-amphiboles and Ca-plagioclase. The macroscale analysis revealed a range of facies developed within the gneiss saprolite, but in terms of relative chronology the nodular hardpan has the longest history. Two evolutionary pathways leading to nodular hardpan formation have been established. The first occurs entirely within a vadose environment, whereas the second begins within a phreatic environment before continuing to develop in vadose conditions. The ability to identify and map these generic categories of calcrete constitutes a potential tool for reconstructing paleotopography and paleogroundwater levels. The bedrock-weathering-derived nodular hardpan is blanketed by a laminar facies that correlates with an eolian event with marine Sr signatures. This suggests influx of Ca dust from the Arabian Sea continental shelf during a Pleistocene sea-level low-stand. It defines an important benchmark in the chronology of the area and highlights the potential antiquity of the thick calcrete profiles.

  14. Antibacterial activity of selected medicinal plants against multiple antibiotic resistant uropathogens: a study from Kolli Hills, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, A S; Raja, S S S; Ponmurugan, K; Kandekar, S C; Natarajaseenivasan, K; Maripandi, A; Mandeel, Q A

    2011-09-01

    The increasing incidence of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens necessitates medicinal plants as an alternate therapy in restricting the resistant infectious organisms. In this primitive study, the antibiotic resistance of organisms isolated from urinary tract infected patients was evaluated using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) method and Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) index values, and the MAR values was also calculated for plant extracts. The 10 common medicinal plants collected from Kolli hills, Namakkal, south India were extracted using the chloroform, methanol, acetone, ethanol and saponification procedure. The efficacy of the extracts on the uropathogens was tested by agar disc diffusion method in order to analyse the inhibitory activity of plant extract on the organisms. Azadiracta indica A. Juss., Tinospora cordifolia (Wild.) and Euphorbia hirta Linn. exhibited high inhibitory activity against most of the 11 tested organisms followed by Cassia javanica Linn. and Phyllanthus niruri Linn. The maximum zone size of 46.3 mm was exhibited by methanol extract of P. niruri Linn. against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Asparagus racemosus Willd. and Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl had the least activity against resistant pathogens. Saponified lipids of most of the plants exhibited maximum antibacterial activity. Among the tested organisms, P. aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis were the most susceptible and Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter cloaceae, Citrobacter koseri, and Citrobacter freundii were the least inhibited by most of the extracts of medicinal plants. It is concluded that revised antibiotic policies and more importantly the development of herbal medicine as an alternative may be incorporated in urological practice. PMID:21986363

  15. Targets for intervention to improve virological outcomes for patients receiving free antiretroviral therapy in Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    McMahon, James H; Manoharan, Anand; Wanke, Christine; Mammen, Shoba; Jose, Hepsibah; Malini, Thabeetha; Kadavanu, Tony; Jordan, Michael R; Elliott, Julian H; Lewin, Sharon R; Mathai, Dilip

    2014-01-01

    Operational research to identify factors predicting poor clinical outcomes is critical to maximize patient care and prolong first-line regimens for those receiving free antiretroviral therapy (ART) in India. We sought to identify social or clinical factors amenable to intervention that predict virological outcomes after 12 months of ART. We examined a retrospective cohort of consecutive adults initiating free nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based regimens. Individuals remaining in care 12 months post-ART initiation were tested for HIV viral load and surveyed to identify barriers and facilitators to adherence, and to determine clinic travel times and associated costs. Uni- and multivariate logistic regression identified factors predicting HIV viral load >200 copies/mL after 12 months of ART. Of 230 adults initiating ART, 10% of patients died, 8% transferred out, 5% were lost to follow-up, and 174/230 (76%) completed 12 months of ART, the questionnaire, and viral load testing. HIV viral load was <200 copies/mL in 140/174 (80%) patients. In multivariate models, being busy with work or caring for others (OR 2.9, p < 0.01), having clinic transport times ? 3 hours (OR 3.0, p = 0.02), and alcohol use (OR 4.8, p = 0.03) predicted viral load >200 copies/mL after 12 months of ART. Clinical outcomes following ART are related to programmatic factors such as prolonged travel time and individual factors such as being busy with family or using alcohol. Simple interventions that alter these factors should be evaluated to improve clinical outcomes for populations receiving free ART in similar settings. PMID:24125035

  16. Assessment of water contribution on total fluoride intake of various age groups of people in fluoride endemic and non-endemic areas of Dindigul District, Tamil Nadu, South India.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Gopalan; Gopalakrishnan, S; Siva Ilango, S

    2010-12-01

    The prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the intake of large quantities of fluoride through water. It is necessary to determine the contribution of water used for drinking and food processing and other diet sources on daily fluoride intake for finding the ways to reduce the excess fluoride intake than the minimum safe level intake of 0.05 mg/kg/day. The main objectives of this study are to determine the quantitative impact of water through drinking and cooking of food and beverages on total fluoride intake as well as to estimate the contribution of commonly consumed diet sources on total fluoride intake. Contribution of water on daily fluoride intake and estimation of total fluoride intake through the diet sources were accomplished through analysis of fluoride in drinking water, solid and liquid food items, Infant formulae, tea and coffee infusions using fluoride ion selective electrode. Determination of incidence of fluorosis in different fluoride endemic areas in Dindigul District of Tamil Nadu, South India is achieved through clinical survey. The percentage of daily fluoride intake through water is significantly higher for infants than children, adults and old age groups of people. The percentile scores of fluoride intake through water from drinking and cooking increases with increase of water fluoride level. The rate of prevalence of fluorosis is higher in adolescent girls and females than adolescent boys and males residing in high fluoride endemic areas. More than 60% of the total fluoride intake per day derived from water used for drinking and food processing. Hence the people residing in the fluoride endemic areas in Dindigul District of Tamil Nadu, South India are advised to take serious concern about the fluoride level of water used for drinking and cooking to avoid further fluorosis risks. PMID:20728198

  17. Zircon mineral trace element chemistry as a function of metamorphic grade along a traverse of lower Archean crust, Tamil Nadu, south India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlov, Daniel; Dunkley, Daniel; Hansen, Edward; Hokada, Tomokazu

    2010-05-01

    Trends in whole-rock and mineral chemistry are seen along a 95 km traverse of lower Archean granitic orthogneissic crust, in the Eastern Dharwar Craton, Tamil Nadu, south India (Hansen and Harlov 2007 J Petrol 48, 1641). Going from north (amphibolite facies) to south (granulite-facies) along the traverse, chemical trends include whole-rock depletion of Rb, Cs, Th, and U; enrichment in Ti and F with depletion in Fe and Mn in biotite and amphibole; increases in Al with decreases in Mn in orthopyroxene; and enrichment of fluorapatite in F coupled with depletion in Cl. In the northern most portion of the traverse the principal REE-bearing minerals are allanite and titanite. South of a clinopyroxene isograd, separating the granulite- and amphibolite-facies zones, monazite grains independent of fluorapatite are the major REE- and Th-bearing phase. Further south independent monazite is rare but Th-free monazite inclusions are common in fluorapatite. During prograde metamorphism, independent monazite was replaced by REE-rich fluorapatite in which the monazite inclusions later formed. The loss of independent monazite was accompanied by a loss of whole-rock Th and possibly a small depletion in LREE. Zircon grains along the traverse preserve domains of magmatic zoning with ages between ca. 2.70Ga and 2.55Ga, recording the emplacement of granitic protoliths. Magmatic zircon was modified during metamorphism in two distinct ways: (i) zircon along cracks, growth zones and margins is replaced by U-enriched zircon, commonly with abundant silicate inclusions; and (ii) grain margins are dissolved and overgrown by faceted rims of U and Th depleted zircon. Type (i) replacement textures are variably found in samples along the whole traverse, whereas type (ii) overgrowths appear near the clinopyroxene isograd and increase in proportion to the original protolith zircon southwards, such that most samples in the southern half of the traverse contain only minor remnants of protolith zircon relative to overgrowth zircon. Thorium and U contents of magmatic zircon do not have simple relationships to whole-rock Th-U-Zr contents, or to either type of metamorphic zircon. Instead, high U - low Th compositions of type (i) zircon may reflect equilibration with Th-bearing phases at amphibolite to lower granulite-facies conditions, whereas type (ii) low U - low Th overgrowths reflect whole-rock depletion in Th and U (but not Zr). Ages for type (ii) overgrowths cluster around 2.5Ga, similar to those obtained for identical zircon from the southern margin of the Eastern Dharwar Craton (Clark et al. 2009, Gondwana Res. 16, 27), whereas ages from type (i) zircon scatter towards protolith ages, consistent with partial resetting through recrystallisation of magmatic zircon. Whole-rock U-Th-Zr compositions are decoupled from magmatic zircon, and coupled with type (ii) overgrowths, demonstrating that chemical changes along the traverse were produced during metamorphism, rather than reflecting differences in the protoliths. Most mineralogical features along the traverse can be accounted for by progressive dehydration and oxidation reactions. Trace element depletion is best explained by the action of externally derived low-H2O activity brine migrating from a source at greater depth, possibly preceded or accompanied by partial melting.

  18. Prevalence and Predictors of Self-Reported Consistent Condom Usage among Male Clients of Female Sex Workers in Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Bimal; Sam, Asirvatham Edwin

    2014-01-01

    Clients of female sex workers (FSWs) possess a high potential of transmitting HIV and other sexually transmitted infections from high risk FSWs to the general population. Promotion of safer sex practices among the clients is essential to limit the spread of HIV/AIDS epidemic. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of consistent condom use (CCU) among clients of FSWs and to assess the factors associated with CCU in Tamil Nadu. 146 male respondents were recruited from the hotspots who reportedly had sex with FSWs in exchange for cash at least once in the past one month. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate methods. Overall, 48.6 and 0.8 percent clients consistently used condoms in the past 12 months with FSWs and regular partners, respectively. Logistic regression showed that factors such as education, peers' use of condoms, and alcohol consumption significantly influenced clients' CCU with FSWs. Strategies for safe sex-behaviour are needed among clients of FSWs in order to limit the spread of HIV/AIDS epidemic in the general population. The role of peer-educators in experience sharing and awareness generation must also be emphasized. PMID:26316978

  19. Analysis of Social Aspects of Migrant Labourers Living With HIV/AIDS Using Fuzzy Theory and Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps: With Special Reference to Rural Tamil Nadu in India

    E-print Network

    W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache

    2004-06-15

    This book has seven chapters. The first chapter is introductory in nature and it speaks about the migrant labourers. In chapter two we use Fuzzy Cognitive Maps to analyze the socio-economic problems of HIV/AIDS infected migrant labourers in rural areas of Tamil Nadu. In chapter three we analyze the role played by the government helping these migrant labourers with HIV/AIDS and factors of migration and their vulnerability in catching HIV/AIDS. For the first time Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps are used in the study of migrant labourers who have become HIV/AIDS victims. This study is done in Chapter IV. In chapter V we use Neutrosophic Relational Maps and we define some new neutrosophic tools like Combined Disjoint Block FRM, Combined Overlap NRM and linked NRM. We adopt these new techniques in the study and analysis of this problem. Chapter VI gives a very brief sketch of the life history of these 60 HIV/AIDS infected migrant labourers so that people from different social and cultural backgrounds follow our analysis. The last chapter gives suggestions and conclusions based on our study.

  20. Influence of behavioral biases on the assessment of multi-hazard risks and the implementation of multi-hazard risks mitigation measures: case study of multi-hazard cyclone shelters in Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komendantova, Nadejda; Patt, Anthony

    2013-04-01

    In December 2004, a multiple hazards event devastated the Tamil Nadu province of India. The Sumatra -Andaman earthquake with a magnitude of Mw=9.1-9.3 caused the Indian Ocean tsunami with wave heights up to 30 m, and flooding that reached up to two kilometers inland in some locations. More than 7,790 persons were killed in the province of Tamil Nadu, with 206 in its capital Chennai. The time lag between the earthquake and the tsunami's arrival in India was over an hour, therefore, if a suitable early warning system existed, a proper means of communicating the warning and shelters existing for people would exist, than while this would not have prevented the destruction of infrastructure, several thousands of human lives would have been saved. India has over forty years of experience in the construction of cyclone shelters. With additional efforts and investment, these shelters could be adapted to other types of hazards such as tsunamis and flooding, as well as the construction of new multi-hazard cyclone shelters (MPCS). It would therefore be possible to mitigate one hazard such as cyclones by the construction of a network of shelters while at the same time adapting these shelters to also deal with, for example, tsunamis, with some additional investment. In this historical case, the failure to consider multiple hazards caused significant human losses. The current paper investigates the patterns of the national decision-making process with regards to multiple hazards mitigation measures and how the presence of behavioral and cognitive biases influenced the perceptions of the probabilities of multiple hazards and the choices made for their mitigation by the national decision-makers. Our methodology was based on the analysis of existing reports from national and international organizations as well as available scientific literature on behavioral economics and natural hazards. The results identified several biases in the national decision-making process when the construction of cyclone shelters was being undertaken. The availability heuristics caused a perception of low probability of tsunami following an earthquake, as the last large similar event happened over a hundred years ago. Another led to a situation when decisions were taken on the basis of experience and not statistical evidence, namely, experience showed that the so-called "Ring of Fire" generates underground earthquakes and tsunamis in the Pacific Ocean. This knowledge made decision-makers to neglect the numerical estimations about probability of underground earthquake in the Indian Ocean even though seismologists were warning about probability of a large underground earthquake in the Indian Ocean. The bounded rationality bias led to misperception of signals from the early warning center in the Pacific Ocean. The resulting limited concern resulted in risk mitigation measures that considered cyclone risks, but much less about tsunami. Under loss aversion considerations, the decision-makers perceived the losses connected with the necessary additional investment as being greater than benefits from mitigating a less probable hazard.

  1. Empowerment of Fisher Women of Siluvaipatti Fishing Village of Tuticorin, Southeast Coast of India through Adult Education and ICT Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Jamila; Linden, Eva; Bierbrier, Christin; Lofgren, Inger; Wilhelmsson, Dan; Edward, J. K. Patterson

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on adult education and information and communication technologies (ICT) training to fisherwomen of Siluvaipatti fishing village in Tuticorin district of Tamil Nadu State, southeastern India. The total families in this village are 209 with population 899 (Male: 442; Female: 457). The education level is generally good in…

  2. Understanding public drug procurement in India: a comparative qualitative study of five Indian states

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Prabal Vikram; Tatambhotla, Anand; Kalvakuntla, Rohini; Chokshi, Maulik

    2013-01-01

    Objective To perform an initial qualitative comparison of the different procurement models in India to frame questions for future research in this area; to capture the finer differences between the state models through 53 process and price parameters to determine their functional efficiencies. Design Qualitative analysis is performed for the study. Five states: Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Odisha, Punjab and Maharashtra were chosen to ensure heterogeneity in a number of factors such as procurement type (centralised, decentralised or mixed); autonomy of the procurement organisation; state of public health infrastructure; geography and availability of data through Right to Information Act (RTI). Data on procurement processes were collected through key informant analysis by way of semistructured interviews with leadership teams of procuring organisations. These process data were validated through interviews with field staff (stakeholders of district hospitals, taluk hospitals, community health centres and primary health centres) in each state. A total of 30 actors were interviewed in all five states. The data collected are analysed against 52 process and price parameters to determine the functional efficiency of the model. Results The analysis indicated that autonomous procurement organisations were more efficient in relation to payments to suppliers, had relatively lower drug procurement prices and managed their inventory more scientifically. Conclusions The authors highlight critical success factors that significantly influence the outcome of any procurement model. In a way, this study raises more questions and seeks the need for further research in this arena to aid policy makers. PMID:23388196

  3. Study on quality of effluent discharge by the Tiruppur textile dyeing units and its impact on river Noyyal, Tamil Nadu (India).

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, A Samuel; Nagan, S

    2010-10-01

    In Tiruppur, 729 textile dyeing units are under operation and these units generate 96.1 MLD of wastewater. The untreated effluent was discharged into the Noyyal River till 1997. After the issuance of directions by Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board (TNPCB) in 1997, these units have installed 8 common effluent treatment plants (CETP) consisting of physical, chemical and biological treatment units. Some of the units have installed individual ETP (IETP). The treated effluent was finally discharged into the river. The dyeing units use sodium chloride in the dyeing process for efficient fixing of dye in the fabric efficiently. This contributes high total dissolved solids (TDS) and chlorides in the effluent. CETPs and IETPs failed to meet discharge standards of TDS and chlorides and thereby significantly affected the river water quality. TDS level in the river water was in the range of 900 - 6600 mg/L, and chloride was in the range of 230 - 2700 mg/L. Orathupalayam dam is located across Noyyal river at 32 km down stream of Tiruppur. The pollutants carried by the river were accumulated in the dam. TDS in the dam water was in the range of 4250 - 7900 mg/L and chloride was in the range of 1600 - 2700 mg/L. The dam sediments contain heavy metals of chromium, copper, zinc and lead. In 2006, the High Court has directed the dyeing units to install zero liquid discharge (ZLD) plant and to stop discharging of effluent into the river. Accordingly, the industries have installed and commissioned the ZLD plant consisting of RO plant and reject management system in 2010. The effluent after secondary treatment from the CETP is further treated in RO plant. The RO permeate is reused by the member units. The RO reject is concentrated in multiple effect evaporator (MEE)/ mechanical vacuum re-compressor (MVR). The concentrate is crystallized and centrifuged to recover salt. The salt recovered is reused. The liquid separated from the centrifuge is sent to solar evaporation pan. The salt collected in the solar pan is bagged and stored in secure land fill facility. Thus, the discharge into the river is now stopped. However, the damage caused to the groundwater and soil contamination in the river basin is yet to be restored. PMID:22312804

  4. Trends in consanguinity in South India.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, S; Audinarayana, N

    2001-04-01

    This study uses data from the 1992-93 National Family Health Survey to assess trends in consanguinity in the South Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. In Kerala, the frequency of consanguineous marriages is very low and one type of preferred marriage of the Dravidian marriage system uncle niece marriage--is conspicuously absent. In the other states of South India, consanguinity and the coefficient of inbreeding are high. While no change in consanguinity is observed during the past three to four decades in Karnataka, a definite decline is observed in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. Due to recent changes in the demographic and social situation in these states, this decline in consanguinity is likely to continue. PMID:11284626

  5. Metabolic variations, antioxidant potential, and antiviral activity of different extracts of Eugenia singampattiana (an endangered medicinal plant used by Kani tribals, Tamil Nadu, India) leaf.

    PubMed

    John, K M Maria; Ayyanar, Muniappan; Jeeva, Subbiah; Suresh, Murugesan; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Eugenia singampattiana is an endangered medicinal plant used by the Kani tribals of South India. The plant had been studied for its antioxidant, antitumor, antihyperlipidemic, and antidiabetic activity. But its primary and secondary metabolites profile and its antiviral properties were unknown, and so this study sought to identify this aspect in Eugenia singampattiana plant through different extraction methods along with their activities against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The GC-MS analysis revealed that 11 primary metabolites showed significant variations among the extracts. Except for fructose all other metabolites were high with water extract. Among 12 secondary metabolites showing variations, the levels of 4-hydroxy benzoic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, ferulic acid, coumaric acid, epigallocatechin gallate, quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol were high with methanol extract. Since the flavonoid content of methanol extracts was high, the antioxidant potential, such as ABTS, and phosphomolybdenum activity increased. The plants antiviral activity against PRRSV was for the first time confirmed and the results revealed that methanol 25?µg and 75 to 100?µg in case of water extracts revealed antiviral activity. PMID:25133179

  6. 3 CFR - Certifications Pursuant to Section 104 of the United States-India Nuclear Cooperation Approval...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... States-India Nuclear Cooperation Approval and Nonproliferation Enhancement Act Regarding the Safeguards Agreement Between India and the International Atomic Energy Agency Presidential Documents Other Presidential... of the United States-India Nuclear Cooperation Approval and Nonproliferation Enhancement...

  7. [India within World History.] Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragdon, Ann E.

    This paper presents slide narration to accompany eight separate units on India to be used in World History classes or other areas across the curriculum. Units include: (1) "Religion: India's Diverse Temples and Sacred Places"; (2) "Styles of Dress: Shimla to Kerala"; (3) "Traditional Dance in India"; (4) "South India: Kerala & Tamil Nadu"; (5)…

  8. India.

    PubMed

    1989-03-01

    In 1988, India's population stood at 817 million, 25% of which was concentrated in urban areas. The annual rate of population growth is 2.01%. Life expectancy is currently 56 years, and infant mortality is 90/1000 live births. Education is compulsory to the age of 14 years, but the adult literacy rate is only 36%. Of the work force of 300 million, 70% are engaged in agriculture, 19% are in industry and commerce, 8% work in the services and government sector, and 3% are employed in transport and communications. India's gross national product currently stands at US$246 billion, with a real growth rate of 1.8% and a per capita income of $313. Although India is a federal republic, its central government has greater power in relation to its states than is the case in the US and there is a parliamentary system. Nonetheless, some states have been revitalizing traditional village councils and introducing grassroots democracy at the village level. A relatively sophisticated industrial base and pool of skilled labor have emerged since India achieved independence, although agriculture remains the crucial economic sector. There was a surge in agricultural production in the late 1960s and early 1970s as a result of the "green revolution" that made India largely self-sufficient in grain production through the use of hybrid seeds, irrigation, and fertilizer. However, failed monsoons and severe drought conditions have created fluctuations in the output of the agricultural sector in recent years. Gradual deregulation of industry and trade is providing increased incentives for foreign trade, and the Indian Government is encouraging collaborations that involve the transfer of high technology. PMID:12177992

  9. Evidence for CO2-rich fluids in rocks from the type charnockite area near Pallavaram, Tamil Nadu

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, E.; Hunt, W.; Jacob, S. C.; Morden, K.; Reddi, R.; Tacy, P.

    1988-01-01

    Fluid inclusion and mineral chemistry data was presented for samples from the type charnockite area near Pallavaram (Tamil Nadu, India). The results indicate the presence of a dense CO2 fluid phase, but the data cannot distinguish between influx of this fluid from elsewhere or localized migration of CO2-rich fluids associated with dehydration melting.

  10. State Consolidation through Liberalization of Telecommunications Services in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mody, Bella

    1995-01-01

    Traces changing state-capital relations in telecommunications in India since its beginning as a law-and-order maintenance tool of the British Empire. Focuses on how the state included the interests of particular external and internal forces (foreign capital, domestic capital, the World Bank, workers and managers in the state monopoly, and users)…

  11. Quantification of Water Energy Nexus for Sustainable Development at Local Level: Case Study of Tamil Nadu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grover, S.; Tayal, S.

    2014-12-01

    Interdependency between water and energy is generally transacted in trade-off mode; where either of the resource gets affected because of the other. Generally this trade-off is commonly known as water-energy nexus. Many studies have been undertaken in various parts of the world using various approaches to tease out the intricate nexus. This research has adopted a different approach to quantify the inter-dependency. The adopted approach made an attempt to tease out the nexus from demand side for both the resources. For water demand assessment PODIUM Sim model was used and for other parameters available secondary data was used. Using this approach percentage share of water for energy and energy for water was estimated. For an informed decision making and sustainable development, assessment was carried out at state level as most of the policies are made specifically for the state. The research was done for the southernmost state of India, Tamil Nadu which is a rapidly growing industrial hub. Tamil Nadu is energy and water intensive state and the analysis shows that the share of water demand from energy sector compared to water demand from other major sectors is miniscule. While, the energy demand in water sector for various processes in different sectors compared to energy demand as total has a comparable share of range 15-25%. This analysis indicated the relative risk sectors face in competition for the resource. It point outs that water sector faces fierce competition with other sectors for energy. Moreover, the results of the study has assessed that state has negative water balance, which may make access to water more energy intensive with time. But, a projection into future scenario with an assumption based on the ongoing policy program of improving irrigation efficiency was made. It provided a solution of a potential positive equilibrium which conserves both water and energy. This scenario gave promising results which indicated less of water demand from agricultural sector which is the most water intensive sector in the state, less requirement of energy for irrigation and improvement in overall water balance of the state.With the changing climate and growing population, resources at crisis can be managed sustainably if this nexus is decoded to understand the interdependency.

  12. Cognition related to domestic violence in India: implications for reproductive health programme.

    PubMed

    Anand, Sandip; Sinha, R K; Singh, Lakhan

    2010-03-01

    In India, the nature of interdependency between wife and husband is regarded as different from what it is in the west. It is observed that in Indian state of Bihar, there is co-existence of memory of domestic violence and attitudinal justification of domestic violence on all the dimensions of domestic violence. However, In Tamil Nadu, demographic transition is likely to create the differentiation and therefore significant co-existence of certain forms of attitude (attitudinal justification of beating for household chores, contraceptives, and sex refusal) and 'memories related to domestic violence' are not present there. Attitudinal assertion against domestic violence in the name of 'unfaithfulness' seems to be helping women both in Bihar & Tamil Nadu. However, in Tamil Nadu, if women raise her voice against beating by husband for sex refusal; her chance of facing domestic violence gets increased here. These kind of connect between violence and attitude is not present in Bihar. In Bihar, attitudinally if women assert their voice against violence for contraceptive decision making; it makes them to feel lesser amount of constant strain. The study shows the implications for reproductive health programme in India. PMID:21413565

  13. 3 CFR - Certifications Pursuant to Section 104 of the United States-India Nuclear Cooperation Approval...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Pursuant to Section 104 of the United States-India Nuclear Cooperation Approval and Nonproliferation...Regarding the Safeguards Agreement Between India and the International Atomic Energy Agency...Pursuant to Section 104 of the United States-India Nuclear Cooperation Approval and...

  14. Establishing integrated rural–urban cohorts to assess air pollution-related health effects in pregnant women, children and adults in Southern India: an overview of objectives, design and methods in the Tamil Nadu Air Pollution and Health Effects (TAPHE) study

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Sambandam, Sankar; Ramaswamy, Padmavathi; Ghosh, Santu; Venkatesan, Vettriselvi; Thangavel, Gurusamy; Mukhopadhyay, Krishnendu; Johnson, Priscilla; Paul, Solomon; Puttaswamy, Naveen; Dhaliwal, Rupinder S; Shukla, D K

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In rapidly developing countries such as India, the ubiquity of air pollution sources in urban and rural communities often results in ambient and household exposures significantly in excess of health-based air quality guidelines. Few efforts, however, have been directed at establishing quantitative exposure–response relationships in such settings. We describe study protocols for The Tamil Nadu Air Pollution and Health Effects (TAPHE) study, which aims to examine the association between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposures and select maternal, child and adult health outcomes in integrated rural–urban cohorts. Methods and analyses The TAPHE study is organised into five component studies with participants drawn from a pregnant mother–child cohort and an adult cohort (n=1200 participants in each cohort). Exposures are assessed through serial measurements of 24–48?h PM2.5 area concentrations in household microenvironments together with ambient measurements and time-activity recalls, allowing exposure reconstructions. Generalised additive models will be developed to examine the association between PM2.5 exposures, maternal (birth weight), child (acute respiratory infections) and adult (chronic respiratory symptoms and lung function) health outcomes while adjusting for multiple covariates. In addition, exposure models are being developed to predict PM2.5 exposures in relation to household and community level variables as well as to explore inter-relationships between household concentrations of PM2.5 and air toxics. Finally, a bio-repository of peripheral and cord blood samples is being created to explore the role of gene–environment interactions in follow-up studies. Ethics and dissemination The study protocols have been approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of Sri Ramachandra University, the host institution for the investigators in this study. Study results will be widely disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and scientific presentations. In addition, policy-relevant recommendations are also being planned to inform ongoing national air quality action plans concerning ambient and household air pollution. PMID:26063570

  15. Empirical Analysis of the Variability of Wind Generation in India: Implications for Grid Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Phadke, Amol; Abhyankar, NIkit; Rao, Poorvi

    2014-06-17

    We analyze variability in load and wind generation in India to assess its implications for grid integration of large scale wind projects using actual wind generation and load data from two states in India, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. We compare the largest variations in load and net load (load ?wind, i.e., load after integrating wind) that the generation fleet has to meet. In Tamil Nadu, where wind capacity is about 53percent of the peak demand, we find that the additional variation added due to wind over the current variation in load is modest; if wind penetration reaches 15percent and 30percent by energy, the additional hourly variation is less than 0.5percent and 4.5percent of the peak demand respectively for 99percent of the time. For wind penetration of 15percent by energy, Tamil Nadu system is found to be capable of meeting the additional ramping requirement for 98.8percent of the time. Potential higher uncertainty in net load compared to load is found to have limited impact on ramping capability requirements of the system if coal plants can me ramped down to 50percent of their capacity. Load and wind aggregation in Tamil Nadu and Karnataka is found to lower the variation by at least 20percent indicating the benefits geographic diversification. These findings suggest modest additional flexible capacity requirements and costs for absorbing variation in wind power and indicate that the potential capacity support (if wind does not generate enough during peak periods) may be the issue that has more bearing on the economics of integrating wind

  16. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie

    This text examines India's rich and long history, then uses this perspective to focus on present day problems and aspirations. It forces students to reevaluate their stereotyped images of India by presenting a nation that has striven to recover from a past of colonial domination, is presently faced with regional ethnic discord and disparity, and…

  17. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie; Lightman, Kathleen

    Not only is India one of the oldest continuous civilizations in the world, it has also become one of the greatest industrial nations. This package explores India's heritage, its people, and the traumatic changes of the 20th century. Contents include: Introduction, Climate, The Land, Cities, Agriculture, Rural Life, History, Religions, Dress, Food,…

  18. Neglected Plasmodium vivax malaria in northeastern States of India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vinod P.; Dev, Vas; Phookan, Sobhan

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: The northeastern States of India are co-endemic for Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax malaria. The transmission intensity is low-to-moderate resulting in intermediate to stable malaria. Malaria control prioritized P. falciparum being the predominant and life threatening infection (>70%). P. vivax malaria remained somewhat neglected. The present study provides a status report of P. vivax malaria in the northeastern States of India. Methods: Data on spatial distribution of P. vivax from seven northeastern States (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura) were analysed retrospectively from 2008–2013. In addition, cross-sectional malarial surveys were conducted during 1991-2012 in malaria endemic pockets across the States of Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Tripura to ascertain the prevalence of P. vivax in different age groups. Results: Vivax malaria was encountered in all northeastern States but there existed a clear division of two malaria ecotypes supporting ?30 and >30 per cent of total malaria cases. High proportions of P. vivax cases (60–80%) were seen in Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland in the north with alpine environment, 42-67 per cent in Manipur, whereas in Assam it varied from 23-31 per cent with subtropical and tropical climate. Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram had the lowest proportion of P. vivax cases. Malaria cases were recorded in all age groups but a higher proportion of P. vivax consistently occurred among <5 yr age group compared to P. falciparum (P<0.05). P. vivax cases were recorded throughout the year with peak coinciding with rainy season although transmission intensity and duration varied. Interpretation & conclusions: In northeast India, P. vivax is a neglected infection. Estimating the relapsing pattern and transmission dynamics of P. vivax in various ecological settings is an important pre-requisite for planning malaria elimination in the northeastern States. PMID:26139771

  19. 78 FR 65290 - Request for Applicants for the Appointment to the United States-India CEO Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ...Appointment to the United States- India CEO Forum AGENCY: Global Markets, International...and India established the U.S.-India CEO Forum. On February 10, 2012, we published...Appointment to the United States-India CEO Forum'' (FR Doc. 2012-3158),...

  20. Parallel cousin marriages in Madras, Tamil Nadu: new trends in Dravidian kinship.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, A; Srikumari, C R; Sukumar, S

    1989-01-01

    The frequency distribution of various consanguineous marriages was studied in the city of Madras, Tamil Nadu, South India. Parallel first cousin marriages (PFC) were found to occur in appreciable frequencies in all caste groups of Hindus. While it has been generally believed that PFC marriages among Hindus are mere exceptions and are usually not tolerated, our data show that they can no longer be treated as exceptions. The high frequency (27 per cent) of PFC marriages in some Hindu communities necessitates in-depth studies to elucidate the forces at work which go against the very fundamentals of Dravidian kinship. PMID:2629111

  1. On the transmission pattern of Kyasanur Forest disease (KFD) in India.

    PubMed

    Murhekar, Manoj V; Kasabi, Gudadappa S; Mehendale, Sanjay M; Mourya, Devendra T; Yadav, Pragya D; Tandale, Babasaheb V

    2015-01-01

    Kyasanur Forest disease (KFD), a tick-borne viral hemorrhagic fever, is endemic in five districts of Karnataka state, India. Recent reports of the spread of disease to neighboring districts of the Western Ghats, namely Chamarajanagar district in Karnataka, Nilgiri district in Tamil Nadu, Wayanad and Malappuram districts in Kerala, and Pali village in Goa are a cause for concern. Besides vaccination of the affected population, establishing an event-based surveillance system for monkey deaths in the national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and reserve forests of the Western Ghats would help detect the disease early and thereby help implement appropriate control measures. PMID:26286631

  2. Subsurface Images Shed Light on Past Tsunamis in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Rajesh R.; Buynevich, Ilya; Goble, Ronald J.; Srinivasan, P.; Murthy, S. G. N.; Kandpal, S. C.; Lakshmi, C. S. Vijaya; Trivedi, D.

    2010-12-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caused massive devastation and left a lasting impact along many of the major coastal regions in South Asia, including the coast of Tamil Nadu, a state in the southeastern tip of India. Following the event, sand deposits draped the low-lying areas and buried the muddy sediments of the coastal plain [Babu et al., 2007; Srinivasalu et al., 2007]. In addition, erosional features related to the tsunami, such as channels and scarps, have been observed along many parts of the coast (Figure 1a). This tsunami, along with a recorded history of intense monsoons, has highlighted the need for focused research on the role of extreme events in shaping the geological character of India's coastal plains.

  3. Mending the seams of an Urban Patchwork Quilt : achieving an 'Ordered Chaos' in temple towns of Southern India

    E-print Network

    Rajaraman, Harini S

    2007-01-01

    Historically rich and culturally vibrant, the city of Mylapore (located in Tamil Nadu) is a prominent temple town of Southern India, in which the Kapaleeshwarar Temple is treasured. The analysis of this town, in relation ...

  4. 77 FR 7132 - Request for Applicants for the Appointment to the United States-India CEO Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ...Appointment to the United States- India CEO Forum AGENCY: Market Access and Compliance...and India established the U.S.-India CEO Forum. This notice announces membership...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The U.S.-India CEO Forum, consisting of both private and...

  5. 78 FR 65290 - Request for Applicants for the Appointment to the United States-India CEO Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... the United States-India CEO Forum'' (FR Doc. 2012-3158), announcing membership opportunities for... the Appointment to the United States-India CEO Forum'' (FR Doc. 2012-3158), announcing membership... International Trade Administration Request for Applicants for the Appointment to the United States- India...

  6. 3 CFR - Delegation of Certain Functions Under Section 204(c) of the United States-India Nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Section 204(c) of the United States-India Nuclear Cooperation Approval and Nonproliferation...Section 204(c) of the United States-India Nuclear Cooperation Approval and Nonproliferation...section 204(c) of the United States-India Nuclear Cooperation Approval and...

  7. 3 CFR - Delegation of Certain Functions Under Section 104(g) of the United States-India Peaceful Atomic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Section 104(g) of the United States-India Peaceful Atomic Energy Cooperation Act...Section 104(g) of the United States-India Peaceful Atomic Energy Cooperation Act...section 104(g) of the United States-India Peaceful Atomic Energy Cooperation...

  8. First Impressions on the State of Cellular Data Connectivity in India

    E-print Network

    Ribeiro, Vinay

    ]. With wired broadband (> 256Kbps) connectivity available to less than 2% of the population [8], cellular dataFirst Impressions on the State of Cellular Data Connectivity in India Zahir Koradia Goutham Mannava ICT Australia Sydney, Australia ABSTRACT Cellular penetration in India has grown tremendously in re

  9. ACUTE NON-ORGANIC PSYCHOTIC STATE IN INDIA: SYMPTOMATOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Vijoy K.; Malhotra, Savita; Jiloha, Ram C.

    1992-01-01

    Patients with acute onset, non-organic psychotic states are frequently reported from India and certain other developing countries. This paper relates to an investigation of such cases in terms of their clinical history and their symptomatology examining the extent to which these are similar /dissimilar to schizophrenia and affective psychosis. 109 cases of acute psychosis fulfilling specified screening criteria were assessed on the Schedule for Clinical Assessment Acute Psychotic States (SCAAPS) and Present Slate Examination (PSE). Vie findings revealed that about 34% of all patients experienced significant strees before the onset of psychosis. About 40% of all cases presented with Catego subtype which was not indicative clearly of a specific diagnostic category. This subgroup of patients differed from the remaining 60% of patient in having greater frequency of stress before the onset of psychosis. On the whole the delusions were more commonly seen in patients from upper socioeconomic status & urban background. Limitations of classificatory provisions in the ICD-9 and catego in dealing with acute psychotic state are highlighted. PMID:21776107

  10. Issues and Challenges in Geomatics Education in Haryana State, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhary, B. S.

    2012-07-01

    In Haryana, the beginning of Geomatics may be traced back to the establishment of Haryana State Remote Sensing Application Centre (HARSAC) now renamed as Haryana Space Application Centre at Hisar under the aegis of Department of Science and Technology, Govt. of Haryana with the active support from Department of Space, Govt. of India in 1986. Though, Gurgaon has developed as Geomatics hub housing many national and international collaborators but mostly involved in RS& GIS applications and rarely as a training centre. Looking to the needs of the trained manpower in Geomatics, PG diploma course in remote sensing and GIS was started by MDU, Rohtak in 2005 followed by CRM, Jat College Hisar in 2007. GJU, Hisar came up with M. Tech. degree in Geoinformatics in collaboration with HARSAC, Hisar two years before i.e. in 2009. MDU, Rohtak has also come up the M. Tech. programme in Geoinformatics this year. The Geo-sciences disciplines including the department of Geophysics, Geology, Geography and Environmental Sciences in different universities in Haryana are also having a compulsory paper on RS, GIS and GPS emphasizing more on the fundamentals and applications specifically in their specific domains. The Department of Geophysics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra has also established Geoinformatics lab with funding from UGC to cater the training needs in this sector. The present paper discusses critical issues related to the present status, grey areas and future scenario of Geomatics education in Haryana.

  11. 77 FR 7132 - Request for Applicants for the Appointment to the United States-India CEO Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... International Trade Administration Request for Applicants for the Appointment to the United States- India CEO....-India CEO Forum. This notice announces membership opportunities for appointment or reappointment as... Commerce, telephone: (202) 482-2955. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The U.S.-India CEO Forum, consisting...

  12. Assessing Network Applications for Economic Development Sustainable Access in Rural India (SARI) Project

    E-print Network

    Reif, Rafael

    Assessing Network Applications for Economic Development Sustainable Access in Rural India (SARI Department of Electric Engineering MIT Media Laboratory- eDevelopment Group #12;SUSTAINABLE ACCESS IN RURAL) Project Pilot Phase Assessment ­ Madurai District, Tamil Nadu, India Professor Michael Best Director, eDevelopment

  13. Shoreline change analysis of Vedaranyam coast, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Natesan, Usha; Thulasiraman, N; Deepthi, K; Kathiravan, K

    2013-06-01

    The coastal zone is one of the nation's greatest environmental and economic assets. The present research aims at studying the shoreline changes along Vedaranyam coast using conventional and modern techniques including field sampling, remote sensing, and geographical information system (GIS). The study area was divided into three zones. Dynamic Land/Sea polygon analysis was performed to obtain the shore line changes at different time periods between 1930 and 2005. From the multidate shoreline maps, the rate of shoreline change was computed using linear regression rate and end point rate. Further, the shoreline was classified into eroding, accreting, and stable regions through GIS analysis. The eroding, accreting, and stable coastal stretch along Vedaranyam is observed as 18 %, 80.5 %, and 1.5 %, respectively. Net shoreline movement is seaward, i.e., the coast is progressive with an average rate of 5 m/year. A maximum shoreline displacement of 1.3 km towards the sea is observed near Point Calimere. During the Asian Tsunami 2004, the eastern part of the study area showed high erosion. Sediment transport paths derived from the grain size analysis of beach sediments collected during different seasons help to identify the major sediment source and sinks. Point Calimere acts as the major sink for sediments whereas Agastiyampalli and Kodiakkarai are found to be the major sources for the sediment supply along the Vedaranyam coast. Shoreline change study from field and satellite data using GIS analysis confirms that Vedaranyam coast is accreting in nature. PMID:23054290

  14. Transitional relief housing for tsunami victims of Tamil Nadu, India

    E-print Network

    Jin, Shauna

    2006-01-01

    In the wake of the recent tsunami that swept across Asia, there is a dire need to salvage and rebuild the lives and livelihoods that were swept away. The aim of this thesis project is to design and model a transitional ...

  15. Prevalence of tuberculosis in Faridabad district, Haryana State, India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, S.K.; Goel, Ashish; Gupta, S.K.; Mohan, Krishna; Sreenivas, V.; Rai, S.K.; Singh, U.B.; Chauhan, L.S.

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Epidemiological information on tuberculosis (TB) has always been vital for planning control strategies. It has now gained further importance for monitoring the impact of interventions to control the disease. The present study was done to estimate the prevalence of bacillary tuberculosis in the district of Faridabad in Haryana State of India among persons aged older than 15 years. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, residents of Faridabad district were assessed for the prevalence of tuberculosis. Twelve rural and 24 urban clusters with estimated populations of 41,106 and 64,827 individuals were selected for the study. Two sputum samples were collected from individuals found eligible for inclusion. The samples were also cultured by modified Petroff's method and were examined for growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis once a week for eight weeks. A person found positive by smear and/or culture was identified as sputum-positive pulmonary TB positive. Results: A total of 105,202 subjects were enumerated in various clusters of the Faridabad district. There were 50,057 (47.58%) females and 55,145 (52.42%) males. Of these 98,599 (93.7%) were examined by the study group (47,976 females; 50,623 males). The overall prevalence of sputum smear or culture positive pulmonary tuberculosis in our study was found to be 101.4 per 100,000 population. Interpretation & conclusions: The present results showed that the prevalence of sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis was higher in Faridabad district than the notification rates recorded by the World Health Organization for the contemporary period, a disparity that could be explained by a difference in case detection strategy employed for the study. PMID:25900959

  16. Iodine nutritional status in Himachal Pradesh state, India

    PubMed Central

    Kapil, Umesh; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Sareen, Neha; Khenduja, Preetika; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Iodine deficiency (ID) is the preventable causes of mental retardation worldwide. Himachal Pradesh (HP) state is a known endemic region to ID. Objective: the objective was to assess the current status of iodine nutrition in a population of HP, India. Methodology: There are three regions in HP namely: Kangra, Mandi, and Shimla. In each region, one district was selected namely: Kangra, Kullu, and Solan. In each district, 30 clusters were identified by utilizing population proportional-to-size cluster sampling methodology. A total of 5748 school-age children (SAC) (Kangra; 1864, Kullu; 1986, Solan: 1898), 1711 pregnant mothers (PMs) (Kangra; 647, Kullu; 551, Solan: 513), and 1934 neonates (Kangra; 613, Kullu; 638, Solan: 683), were included in study. Clinical examination of thyroid of each child and PM was conducted. Casual urine samples were collected from children and PMs. Cord blood samples were collected for estimation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) among neonates. Results: In SAC, total goiter rate (TGR) was 15.8% (Kangra), 23.4% (Kullu), and 15.4% (Solan). Median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) level was 200 ?g/l (Kangra), 175 ?g/l (Kullu), and 62.5 ?g/l (Solan). In PMs, TGR was 42.2% (Kangra), 42.0% (Kullu), and 19.9% (Solan). Median UIC level was 200 ?g/l (Kangra), 149 ?g/l (Kullu), and 130 ?g/l (Solan). In Neonates, TSH levels of > 5 mIU/L were found in 73.4 (Kangra), 79.8 (Kullu), and 63.2 (Solan) percent of neonates. Conclusion: As per, UIC level (<100 ?g/l) in SAC, ID was found in district Solan. In Kullu and Solan districts, there were ID (UIC level < 150 ?g/l) among PMs. TSH levels indicated ID in all districts surveyed. PMID:26425467

  17. Inconsistent condom use by male clients during anal intercourse with occasional and regular female sex workers (FSWs): survey findings from southern states of India

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Shreena; Nagarajan, Karikalan; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmi; Mainkar, Mandar K; Goswami, Prabuddhagopal; Yadav, Diwakar; Sen, Shrabanti; George, Bitra; Rachakulla, Harikumar; Subramanian, Thilakavathi; Paranjape, Ramesh S

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Self-reported anal intercourse by female sex workers (FSWs) documented in recent studies from India range between 11.9% and 22%. However, comparable data on anal intercourse and condom use from male clients of FSWs is lacking. Using data from a bio-behavioural survey (2009–2010), we examined prevalence of anal intercourse, male clients’ self-reported inconsistent condom use during anal intercourse with FSWs, and correlates of this behaviour in India's high HIV prevalence southern states (Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu combined). Methods Using two-stage time location cluster sampling, we recruited 4803 clients of FSWs, ages 18–60?years, who had purchased sex from an FSW in the past month. After obtaining informed consent, respondents were interviewed and tested for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (syphilis, gonorrhoea and chlamydia). Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with inconsistent condom use during anal intercourse (in the past 6?months) with FSWs. Results Overall, 12.3% clients reported anal intercourse in the past 6?months, of whom 48.4% used condoms inconsistently. Clients of FSWs who were ages 26?years or older (AOR 2.68, p=0.032); employed as manual labourers (AOR 2.43, p=0.013); consumed alcohol (AOR 2.63, p=0.001); reported five or more sex acts with FSWs in the past month (AOR 2.53, p=0.031); and perceived themselves to be at higher risk for HIV (AOR 4.82, p=0.001) were more likely to inconsistently use condoms during anal intercourse. Conclusions The results suggest that sex workers and their clients commonly practice anal intercourse, but a relatively high proportion of clients do not consistently use condoms, leading to a greater risk of acquiring HIV and its further transmission to other male and female sexual partners. Given the multidirectional risk, safer sex communication on heterosexual anal intercourse must be incorporated into HIV prevention programmes. PMID:25410604

  18. TNAURice: Database on rice varieties released from Tamil Nadu Agricultural University.

    PubMed

    Ramalingam, Jegadeesan; Arul, Loganathan; Sathishkumar, Natarajan; Vignesh, Dhandapani; Thiyagarajan, Katiannan; Samiyappan, Ramasamy

    2010-01-01

    WE DEVELOPED, TNAURICE: a database comprising of the rice varieties released from a public institution, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU), Coimbatore, India. Backed by MS-SQL, and ASP-Net at the front end, this database provide information on both quantitative and qualitative descriptors of the rice varities inclusive of their parental details. Enabled by an user friendly search utility, the database can be effectively searched by the varietal descriptors, and the entire contents are navigable as well. The database comes handy to the plant breeders involved in the varietal improvement programs to decide on the choice of parental lines. TNAURice is available for public access at http://www.btistnau.org/germdefault.aspx. PMID:21364829

  19. Enabling Efficient, Responsive, and Resilient Buildings: Collaboration Between the United States and India

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, Chandrayee; Ghatikar, Girish

    2013-09-25

    The United States and India have among the largest economies in the world, and they continue to work together to address current and future challenges in reliable electricity supply. The acceleration to efficient, grid-responsive, resilient buildings represents a key energy security objective for federal and state agencies in both countries. The weaknesses in the Indian grid system were manifest in 2012, in the country’s worst blackout, which jeopardized the lives of half of India’s 1.2 billion people. While both countries are investing significantly in power sector reform, India, by virtue of its colossal growth rate in commercial energy intensity and commercial floor space, is better placed than the United States to integrate and test state-of-art Smart Grid technologies in its future grid-responsive commercial buildings. This paper presents a roadmap of technical collaboration between the research organizations, and public-private stakeholders in both countries to accelerate the building-to-grid integration through pilot studies in India.

  20. Modeling winter rainfall in Northwest India using a hidden Markov model: understanding occurrence of different states

    E-print Network

    Smerdon, Jason E.

    rainfall process is considered to follow a hidden Markov model (HMM), with the hidden states assumedModeling winter rainfall in Northwest India using a hidden Markov model: understanding occurrence of different states and their dynamical connections Indrani Pal · Andrew W. Robertson · Upmanu Lall · Mark A

  1. Outsourcing the State? PublicPrivate Partnerships and Information Technologies in India

    E-print Network

    Sanders, Seth

    itself with respect to civil society under a PPP model of service delivery? We find that each state Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Key words -- Asia, India, developmental state, Governance, information) Green Revolution and Appro- priate Technology movements, the ICTD movement presents a technology

  2. Genetic counselling in tribals in India.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Dipika; Das, Kishalaya

    2011-10-01

    Genetic counselling in tribals unlike general population residing in cities and near villages is a difficult task due of their lower literacy and poor socio-economic status. However, sustained effort is essential with a close interaction in the local language, certain misbeliefs need to be removed gradually taking into account their socio-cultural background. The present communication deals with our experience in counselling for haemoglobinopathies during Neonatal Screening Programme undertaken for sickle cell disease in Kalahandi district of Orissa and Community Screening Programmes in primitive tribes of India in four States viz. Orissa, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra. Counselling during neonatal screening programme was very well accepted demonstrating the benefit to the small babies as regards the morbidity. Premarital marriage counselling was also accepted by them. The success rate as followed up for 5 years is almost 50 per cent, the limitation being long follow up. Genetic counselling in these areas has to be continuous to achieve success and therefore the need for setting up of permanent centres in the tribal areas in India. PMID:22089621

  3. Poverty and the state of nutrition in India.

    PubMed

    Varadharajan, Kiruba S; Thomas, Tinku; Kurpad, Anura V

    2013-01-01

    India is often thought of as a development paradox with relatively high economic growth rates in the past few years, but with lower progress in areas of life expectancy, education and standard of living. While serious inequalities in growth, development and opportunity explain the illusion of the paradox at the country level, still, a significant proportion of the world's poor live in India, as do a significant proportion of the world's malnourished children. Poverty and undernutrition coexist, and poor dietary quality is associated with poor childhood growth, as well as significant micronutrient deficiencies. Food security is particularly vulnerable to changes in the economic scenario and to inequities in wealth distribution. Migration from rural to urban settings with a large informal employment sector also ensures that migrants continue to live in food insecure situations. While food production has for the most part kept pace with the increasing population, it has been with regard to cereal rather than of pulses and millet production. Oil seeds, sugar cane and horticultural crops, along with non-food crops are also being promoted, which do not address nutrition security, and, coupled with the increase in the consumption of pre-prepared food, may indeed predispose towards the double burden of malnutrition. Access to food is also particularly susceptible to poverty and inequality. Many strategies and policies have been proposed to counter undernutrition in India, but their implementation has not been uniform, and it is still too early to assess their lasting impact at scale. PMID:23945402

  4. Political contexts and maternal health policy: insights from a comparison of south Indian states.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephanie L

    2014-01-01

    Nearly 300,000 women die from pregnancy-related complications each year. One-fifth of these deaths occur in India. Maternal survival rose on India's national policy agenda in the mid-2000s, but responsibility for health policy and implementation in the federal system is largely devolved to the state level where priority for the issue and maternal health outcomes vary. This study investigates sources of variation in maternal health policy and implementation sub-nationally in India. The study is guided by four analytical categories drawn from policy process literature: constitutional, governing and social structures; political contexts; actors and ideas. The experiences of two south Indian states-Tamil Nadu a leader and Karnataka a relatively slow mover-are examined. Process-tracing, a case study methodology that helps to identify roles of complex historical events in causal processes, was employed to investigate the research question in each state. The study is informed by interviews with public health policy experts and service delivery professionals, observation of implementation sites and archival document analysis. Historical legacies-Tamil Nadu's non-Brahmin social movement and Karnataka's developmental disparities combined with decentralization-shape the states' political contexts, affecting variation in maternal health policy and implementation. Competition to advance consistent political priorities across regimes in Tamil Nadu offers fertile ground for policy entrepreneurship and strong public health system administration facilitates progress. Inconsistent political priorities and relatively weak public health system administration frustrate progress in Karnataka. These variations offer insights to the ways in which sub-national political and administrative contexts shape health policy and implementation. PMID:24444838

  5. Cost and utilisation of hospital based delivery care in Empowered Action Group (EAG) states of India.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Sanjay K; Srivastava, Akanksha

    2013-10-01

    Large scale investment in the National Rural Health Mission is expected to increase the utilization and reduce the cost of maternal care in public health centres in India. The objective of this paper is to examine recent trends in the utilization and cost of hospital based delivery care in the Empowered Action Group (EAG) states of India. The unit data from the District Level Household Survey 3, 2007-2008 is used in the analyses. The coverage and the cost of hospital based delivery at constant price is analyzed for five consecutive years preceding the survey. Descriptive and multivariate analyses are used to understand the socio-economic differentials in cost and utilization of delivery care. During 2004-2008, the utilization of delivery care from public health centres has increased in all the eight EAG states. Adjusting for inflation, the household cost of delivery care has declined for the poor, less educated and in public health centres in the EAG states. The cost of delivery care in private health centres has not shown any significant changes across the states. Results of the multivariate analyses suggest that time, state, place of residence, economic status; educational attainment and delivery characteristics of mother are significant predictors of hospital based delivery care in India. The study demonstrates the utility of public spending on health care and provides a thrust to the ongoing debate on universal health coverage in India. PMID:23054455

  6. Girl prostitution in India.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, K K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the nature, magnitude, causes, and consequences of female child prostitution in India and offers measures for control and prevention of girl prostitution. Data are obtained from the 6-city study of prostitution and the author's own research. An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi entered the work at an early age. The numbers are rising. The promotion of tourism is linked with prostitution. Girl prostitutes are primarily located in low-middle income areas and business districts and are known by officials. Brothel keepers regularly recruit young girls. An estimated 33% of prostitutes are young girls. In Bangalore, Calcutta, Delhi, and Hyderabad, there are an estimated 10,000 girl prostitutes. UNICEF estimates about 300,000 child prostitutes. Girl prostitutes are grouped as common prostitutes, singers and dancers, call girls, religious prostitutes or devdasi, and caged brothel prostitutes. Religious prostitutes are mainly found in the South. Caged ones are found in Bombay. A little over 50% of prostitutes come from other countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The girls tend to come from urban slums and poor rural areas. High prostitute supply regions include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengel states. About 85% are Hindus, and about 66% are from scheduled castes and tribes. Bangalore and Bombay have a higher proportion of girl prostitutes. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution. Economic causes include poverty and economic distress. Psychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection. Most enter involuntarily. A brief profile is given of the life of a prostitute. PMID:12158002

  7. Suicide Notes from India and the United States: A Thematic Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenaars, Antoon A.; Girdhar, Shalina; Dogra, T. D.; Wenckstern, Susanne; Leenaars, Lindsey

    2010-01-01

    Suicide is a global concern, hence, cross-cultural research ought to be important; yet, there is a paucity of cross-cultural study in suicidology. This study sought to investigate suicide notes drawn from India and the United States, as these countries have similar suicide rates but markedly different cultures. A thematic or theoretical-conceptual…

  8. Gender Roles, Obedience, and Chastity in India and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajagopalan, Vaidehi; And Others

    Most studies of gender roles in India have emphasized the subordinate roles of women, especially in comparison to the women in the United States. In contrast, the traditional dominant role of Indian women in the domestic aspects of family has not received as much attention. The present study compared the attitudes of college students in the United…

  9. 75 FR 7337 - Certifications Pursuant to Section 104 of the United States-India Nuclear Cooperation Approval...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    .... (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, WASHINGTON, February 3, 2010 [FR Doc. 2010-3386 Filed 2-18-10; 8:45 am..., 2010 Certifications Pursuant to Section 104 of the United States-India Nuclear Cooperation Approval and Nonproliferation Enhancement Act Regarding the Safeguards Agreement Between India and the International...

  10. Improving student learning via mobile phone video content: Evidence from the BridgeIT India project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wennersten, Matthew; Quraishy, Zubeeda Banu; Velamuri, Malathi

    2015-08-01

    Past efforts invested in computer-based education technology interventions have generated little evidence of affordable success at scale. This paper presents the results of a mobile phone-based intervention conducted in the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu in 2012-13. The BridgeIT project provided a pool of audio-visual learning materials organised in accordance with a system of syllabi pacing charts. Teachers of Standard 5 and 6 English and Science classes were notified of the availability of new videos via text messages (SMS), which they downloaded onto their phones using an open-source application and showed, with suggested activities, to students on a TV screen using a TV-out cable. In their evaluation of this project, the authors of this paper found that the test scores of children who experienced the intervention improved by 0.36 standard deviations in English and 0.98 standard deviations in Science in Andhra Pradesh, relative to students in similar classrooms who did not experience the intervention. Differences between treatment and control schools in Tamil Nadu were less marked. The intervention was also cost-effective, relative to other computer-based interventions. Based on these results, the authors argue that is possible to use mobile phones to produce a strong positive and statistically significant effect in terms of teaching and learning quality across a large number of classrooms in India at a lower cost per student than past computer-based interventions.

  11. Improving student learning via mobile phone video content: Evidence from the BridgeIT India project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wennersten, Matthew; Quraishy, Zubeeda Banu; Velamuri, Malathi

    2015-09-01

    Past efforts invested in computer-based education technology interventions have generated little evidence of affordable success at scale. This paper presents the results of a mobile phone-based intervention conducted in the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu in 2012-13. The BridgeIT project provided a pool of audio-visual learning materials organised in accordance with a system of syllabi pacing charts. Teachers of Standard 5 and 6 English and Science classes were notified of the availability of new videos via text messages (SMS), which they downloaded onto their phones using an open-source application and showed, with suggested activities, to students on a TV screen using a TV-out cable. In their evaluation of this project, the authors of this paper found that the test scores of children who experienced the intervention improved by 0.36 standard deviations in English and 0.98 standard deviations in Science in Andhra Pradesh, relative to students in similar classrooms who did not experience the intervention. Differences between treatment and control schools in Tamil Nadu were less marked. The intervention was also cost-effective, relative to other computer-based interventions. Based on these results, the authors argue that is possible to use mobile phones to produce a strong positive and statistically significant effect in terms of teaching and learning quality across a large number of classrooms in India at a lower cost per student than past computer-based interventions.

  12. Under-Five Mortality in High Focus States in India: A District Level Geospatial Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Chandan; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Rai, Rajesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Background This paper examines if, when controlling for biophysical and geographical variables (including rainfall, productivity of agricultural lands, topography/temperature, and market access through road networks), socioeconomic and health care indicators help to explain variations in the under-five mortality rate across districts from nine high focus states in India. The literature on this subject is inconclusive because the survey data, upon which most studies of child mortality rely, rarely include variables that measure these factors. This paper introduces these variables into an analysis of 284 districts from nine high focus states in India. Methodology/Principal Findings Information on the mortality indicator was accessed from the recently conducted Annual Health Survey of 2011 and other socioeconomic and geographic variables from Census 2011, District Level Household and Facility Survey (2007–08), Department of Economics and Statistics Divisions of the concerned states. Displaying high spatial dependence (spatial autocorrelation) in the mortality indicator (outcome variable) and its possible predictors used in the analysis, the paper uses the Spatial-Error Model in an effort to negate or reduce the spatial dependence in model parameters. The results evince that the coverage gap index (a mixed indicator of district wise coverage of reproductive and child health services), female literacy, urbanization, economic status, the number of newborn care provided in Primary Health Centers in the district transpired as significant correlates of under-five mortality in the nine high focus states in India. The study identifies three clusters with high under-five mortality rate including 30 districts, and advocates urgent attention. Conclusion Even after controlling the possible biophysical and geographical variables, the study reveals that the health program initiatives have a major role to play in reducing under-five mortality rate in the high focus states in India. PMID:22629412

  13. Genetic polymorphism of six DNA loci in six population groups of India.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Shazia; Seshadri, M

    2007-08-01

    The genetic profile based on autosomal markers, four microsatellite DNA markers (D8S315, FES, D8S592, and D2S1328) and two minisatellite DNA markers (TPMT and PDGFA), were analyzed in six endogamous populations to examine the effect of geographic and linguistic affiliation on the genetic affinities among the groups. The six populations are from three different states of India and are linguistically different. Marathas from western India speak Marathi, an Indo-European language. Arayas, Muslims, Ezhavas, and Nairs from Kerala state of South India speak Malayalam, and Iyers from Tamil Nadu state speak Tamil. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples of random, normal, healthy individuals. Locus-specific PCR amplification was carried out, followed by electrophoresis of the amplicons and genotyping. All the loci were highly polymorphic and followed Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, except for loci D8S315 and PDGFA in Iyers and Marathas, respectively. All six loci had high heterozygosity (average heterozygosity ranged from 0.73 to 0.76) and high polymorphism information content (0.57-0.90). The extent of gene differentiation among the six populations (G(ST) = 0.030) was greater than that for four Kerala populations (G(ST) = 0.011), suggesting proximity between the four Kerala populations. This result conforms with the cultural and linguistic background of the populations. The extent of diversity found among the populations probably resulted from the strict endogamous practices that they follow. PMID:18075006

  14. Diversity of sickle cell trait in Jharkhand state in India: Is it the zone of contact between two geographically and ethnically distinct populations in India?

    PubMed

    Nagar, Rachana; Raman, Rajiva

    2015-09-01

    Incidence of sickle cell trait in India is high in peninsular south, south-eastern, central and south-western India, while in north and north-eastern India, it is absent. Unicentric origin of SCD in the tribals of nilgiri hills in southern India has been proposed. The present study on the frequency of HbS trait and beta-globin gene haplotypes was conducted in the tribal-rich states of Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand to get an insight into the uneven distribution of HbS in India. Jharkhand borders with the HbS-high Odisha and Chhattisgarh, and HbS-low UP, Bihar and Bengal. Cellulose acetate gel electrophoresis was performed on the collected blood samples, to detect sickle haemoglobin (HbS) followed by DNA analysis. HbS associated beta-gene haplotype was constructed for the samples positive for HbS and all the tribals by PCR-RFLP. Out of 805 (Chhattisgarh - 261, Jharkhand - 544; greater than 36 percent tribals) samples analysed HbS frequency was 13 percent in Chhattisgarh and 3.3 percent in Jharkhand. Within Jharkhand, frequencies varied considerably from 10 percent in Tatanagar to nil in Sahibganj. The Arab-India (AI) haplotype of beta-globin cluster occurred in low frequency, confined mainly to Chhattisgarh. The most abundant haplotype in all the populations was the East Asian, + - - - - - +, rare in HbS, mainly in Sahibganj in east Jharkhand, which lacked AI. Our results indicate that besides the heterozygote advantage againstmalaria, the uneven regional distribution of HbS trait is because of restricted movement of two different populations, Dravidian from the south and Tibeto-Burman from the east into the Indianmainland which failed tomeet, we conjecture, due to severe climatic conditions (deserts and heat) prevailing through parts of central India. Apparently, Jharkhand became a zone of contact between them in recent times. PMID:26333400

  15. Application of wheat yield model to United States and India. [Great Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feyerherm, A. M. (principal investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The wheat yield model was applied to the major wheat-growing areas of the US and India. In the US Great Plains, estimates from the winter and spring wheat models agreed closely with USDA-SRS values in years with the lowest yields, but underestimated in years with the highest yields. Application to the Eastern Plains and Northwest indicated the importance of cultural factors, as well as meteorological ones in the model. It also demonstrated that the model could be used, in conjunction with USDA-SRRS estimates, to estimate yield losses due to factors not included in the model, particularly diseases and freezes. A fixed crop calendar for India was built from a limited amount of available plot data from that country. Application of the yield model gave measurable evidence that yield variation from state to state was due to different mixes of levels of meteorological and cultural factors.

  16. State of roads : public works as research, India circa 1960

    E-print Network

    Khorakiwala, Ateya A

    2009-01-01

    That the road is a symbol of the prowess of the nation-state seems tautological, a uni"ed phenomenon of political symbolism that manifests as an infrastructural network. When subjected to a close historical examination, ...

  17. Physical Domestic Violence and Subsequent Contraceptive Adoption Among Women in Rural India

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Rob; Jadhav, Apoorva; Hindin, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between male to female physical domestic violence and contraceptive adoption among women in four economically and culturally distinct areas of India. Data from India’s 1998–1999 National Family Health Survey–2 and a follow-up survey in 2002–2003 for which the same women in four states were reinterviewed are analyzed. The focus of the analysis is on how baseline exposure to physical domestic violence is associated with the intersurvey adoption of contraception. Women who experience physical violence from their husbands are significantly less likely to adopt contraception in the intersurvey period, although this relationship varies by State. This study builds upon previous work by using an indicator of physical domestic violence exposure that is measured before contraceptive adoption, thus allowing the identification of how exposure to violence shapes the adoption of contraception. The results demonstrate that for women living in Bihar and Jharkhand there is a clear negative relationship between physical domestic violence and a woman’s adoption of contraception; this relationship was not found for women in Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. The results point to the need to include domestic violence screening and referral services into family planning services. PMID:23008052

  18. Globalisation of birth markets: a case study of assisted reproductive technologies in India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The escalation of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs) in India into a veritable fertility industry is the result of a multitude of reasons. This paper places the bio-genetic industry within the larger political economy framework of globalisation and privatisation, thus employing a framework that is often omitted from discussions on ARTs, but has direct and significant bearings on the ART industry in India. As markets for human organs, tissues and reproductive body parts experience unprecedented growth, the limits of what can or should be bought and sold continue to be pushed. As such, bodies have emerged as sale-worthy economic capital. Commercial flows of reproductive material create and deploy the division of the body into parts over which ownership is claimed, in the process following 'modern routes of capital' and raising issues of structural inequality. This paper presents a brief picture of India's fertility industry with specific focus on its ground-level operation, nature and growth. It aims to explore the industry dimensions of ARTs, by highlighting the macro picture of health care markets and medical tourism in India, the proliferation of the ART industry, market features such as the social imperative to mother, costs, promotion and marketing, unverified claims, inflated success rates, deals and offers, actors and collaborations in the field, and finally, the absence of standards. This paper presents findings from the research 'Constructing Conceptions: The Mapping of Assisted Reproductive Technologies in India', by Sama, a Delhi-based resource group working on gender, health and rights. This research was conducted from 2008 to 2010 in the three states of Uttar Pradesh, Orissa and Tamil Nadu in India, and is one of the first of its kind, highlighting unethical medical practices and making a case for the regulation of the ART industry. As such, it forms a significant part of Sama's ongoing work on women and technologies, particularly policy-level advocacy. PMID:21838866

  19. Globalisation of birth markets: a case study of assisted reproductive technologies in India.

    PubMed

    Sarojini, Nadimpally; Marwah, Vrinda; Shenoi, Anjali

    2011-01-01

    The escalation of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs) in India into a veritable fertility industry is the result of a multitude of reasons. This paper places the bio-genetic industry within the larger political economy framework of globalisation and privatisation, thus employing a framework that is often omitted from discussions on ARTs, but has direct and significant bearings on the ART industry in India. As markets for human organs, tissues and reproductive body parts experience unprecedented growth, the limits of what can or should be bought and sold continue to be pushed. As such, bodies have emerged as sale-worthy economic capital. Commercial flows of reproductive material create and deploy the division of the body into parts over which ownership is claimed, in the process following 'modern routes of capital' and raising issues of structural inequality.This paper presents a brief picture of India's fertility industry with specific focus on its ground-level operation, nature and growth. It aims to explore the industry dimensions of ARTs, by highlighting the macro picture of health care markets and medical tourism in India, the proliferation of the ART industry, market features such as the social imperative to mother, costs, promotion and marketing, unverified claims, inflated success rates, deals and offers, actors and collaborations in the field, and finally, the absence of standards. This paper presents findings from the research 'Constructing Conceptions: The Mapping of Assisted Reproductive Technologies in India', by Sama, a Delhi-based resource group working on gender, health and rights. This research was conducted from 2008 to 2010 in the three states of Uttar Pradesh, Orissa and Tamil Nadu in India, and is one of the first of its kind, highlighting unethical medical practices and making a case for the regulation of the ART industry. As such, it forms a significant part of Sama's ongoing work on women and technologies, particularly policy-level advocacy. PMID:21838866

  20. India's population--what is being done?

    PubMed

    Maloney, C

    1986-01-01

    Thus far, India's efforts to curtail population growth have consistently failed to meet official targets. The crude birthrate (per 1000 population per year) is highest in the belt of 6 Hindi-speaking states, which include Rajasthan (40), Madhya Pradesh (38.5), Uttar Pradesh (38.4), Bihar (37.2), and Haryana (35.9). The rates are slightly lower in the other large North Indian States. The rate is 33.6 for India as a whole according to 1983 data. 3 of the South Indian states have the lowest crude birthrates: Kamataka (28.7), Tamil Nadu (27.8), and Kerata (24.9). Each of India's successive Five Year Plans gave increasingly more emphasis to population control, but the key tactical features have stayed the same. Population control comes under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, with family planning services provided through the free health delivery system. The main strategy continues to be to persuade people on an individual basis to accept the small family norm by a wide range of advertising and educational efforts. As of 1986, the family planning establishment had grown to gigantic proportions, employing half a million people in the family planning and health services. The Five Year Plan initiated in July 1985 continues the same approach but with added features. "Green cards" are given to those who accept sterilization after 2 children, allowing them a wide range of benefits such as low interest housing loans, preference in getting housing plots and enterprise loans, and salary increases for government employees. Health workers and other government employees have quotas of persons to motivate for contraceptive acceptance. They receive a small monetary incentive, which they often give to the acceptors so they can maintain their quotas and keep their jobs. The 1986 Revised Strategy for Family Planning is essentially more of the same with family planning more integrated with the health delivery system. Foreign and international donor agencies frequently have placed contradictory pressures on the Indian government, according to their own ideological tendencies. The family planning program is essential despite its faults, which are: bypassing of the natural community; and excessive medicalization and linkage with the health delivery system. In India there is an increasing realization that the achievements of the rural development and family planning programs are marginal relative to the amount of resources committed to them. This is because of the bureaucratic, from-the-top-down bias in which the physical community is neglected. PMID:12315281

  1. Survey on anthelmintic resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes in unorganized goat farms of Tamil Nadu.

    PubMed

    Manikkavasagan, I; Binosundar, S T; Raman, M

    2015-06-01

    One of the major problems in small ruminant farms is emergence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) to commonly used dewormers. This study investigated AR to gastrointestinal nematodes affecting goats in 27 unorganized farms in three different agro-climatic zones (Cauvery delta zone, high altitude zone and high rainfall zone) of Tamil Nadu, India. Two anthelmintics viz., albendazole (AZ) and levamisole (LEV) were used in this study as per the dose recommended by the manufacturer. Status of AR was detected by using the faecal egg count reduction test. Results revealed the presence of high level of resistance to both AZ and LEV. In the high rainfall and high altitude zones, all the farm flocks were found to be resistant to LEV. In the Cauvery delta zone, 13 farm flocks were resistant and four farm flocks showed suspect resistance to AZ. Fifteen farm flocks showed resistance and two showed suspect resistance to LEV. Further, morphological characterization of the infective larvae derived from faecal cultures indicated that by far the most predominant gastrointestinal nematode species found in goats was Haemonchus contortus. PMID:26064012

  2. Modeling Vulnerability and Resilience to Climate Change: A Case Study of India and Indian States

    SciTech Connect

    Brenkert, Antoinette L.; Malone, Elizabeth L.

    2005-09-01

    The vulnerability of India and Indian states to climate change was assessed using the Vulnerability-Resilience Indicator Prototype (VRIP). The model was adapted from the global/country version to account for Indian dietary practices and data availability with regard to freshwater resources. Results (scaled to world values) show nine Indian states to be moderately resilient to climate change, principally because of low sulfur emissions and a relatively large percentage of unmanaged land. Six states are more vulnerable than India as a whole, attributable largely to sensitivity to sea storm surges. Analyses of results at the state level (Orissa, and comparisons between Maharashtra and Kerala, and Andhra Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh) demonstrate the value of VRIP analyses used in conjunction with other socioeconomic information to address initial questions about the sources of vulnerability in particular places. The modeling framework allows analysts and stakeholders to systematically evaluate individual and sets of indicators and to indicate where the likely vulnerabilities are in the area being assessed.

  3. Knowledge and attitudes of dental interns in Karnataka state, India, regarding implants.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Sohini; Gowda, Triveni M; Kumar, Tarun A B; Mehta, Dhoom S

    2013-10-01

    Implant treatment today is highly reliable as a valid restorative option for missing teeth. As more patients worldwide opt for implant treatment, it is now imperative for dental practitioners to have sound information about dental implants so they can help patients make informed decisions. This study sought to define the knowledge and attitudes regarding dental implants of dental interns in the state of Karnataka, India, and to evaluate the dental implant curriculum structure at the undergraduate level. A survey was conducted of dental interns (students in their fifth, clinical year of undergraduate study) in seven of the forty-five academic dental institutions in this state. The questionnaire consisted of fifteen questions that assessed the respondents' level of knowledge and source of information regarding implants. A total of 500 questionnaires were distributed, and 417 interns responded for a response rate of 83.4 percent. In the results, 73.3 percent reported they were not provided sufficient information about implants in their undergraduate curriculum, and 95.7 percent of them wanted more. Also, 63.5 percent of the respondents believed that high costs could limit the use of dental implants as a tooth replacement modality in India. This study concludes that revision in the undergraduate dental curricula at these schools is needed to better prepare students for practicing implant dentistry. PMID:24098041

  4. Dengue Outbreak in a Hilly State of Arunachal Pradesh in Northeast India

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Siraj A.; Dutta, Prafulla; Topno, Rashmee; Soni, Monika; Mahanta, Jagadish

    2014-01-01

    Dengue has been reported from plains as well as hilly regions of India including some parts of Northeast India. In July-August 2012, outbreak of fever with unknown origin (FUO) indicative of Dengue was reported in Pasighat, East Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh (AP) state. Serum samples (n = 164) collected from patients from Health Training and Research Centre General Hospital, Pasighat, were tested for NS1 antigen and IgM antibodies. NS1-positive samples were analyzed by RT-PCR assay and entomological surveys were carried out. The majority of suspected cases reported NS1 antigen positivity. Females and young adults were mostly affected. The majority of the amplified NS1-positive samples showed Dengue serotype 3 infection. Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus, known as semiurban breeding mosquitoes, was the only potential vector species identified from the affected areas of Pasighat which single handedly contributed to the outbreak. Thus, the present work identifies Dengue as an emerging arboviral infection in hilly state of AP along with a looming risk of its spread to neighbouring areas. PMID:24587732

  5. How Culture Influences the "Social" in Social Media: Socializing and Advertising on Smartphones in India and the United States.

    PubMed

    Muralidharan, Sidharth; La Ferle, Carrie; Sung, Yongjun

    2015-06-01

    The importance of the mobile phone is evidenced by predictions that there will be 1.76 billion smartphone users worldwide at the start of 2015. A country that is spearheading this movement toward the digital era is India. To illustrate this, India is expected to surpass the United States in 2015 and record the second highest smartphone sales globally. Despite the rising penetration and adoption of smartphones, there is limited advertising research that sheds light on the Indian smartphone user. The current study aims to fill that void by cross-culturally comparing a national online panel of smartphone users from India (n=158) with users from the United States (n=114). Findings reveal that entertainment impacts Indians' attitudes toward smartphone advertising while informativeness is stronger for the American sample. Collectivism was found to be the driving force behind socializing activities on social networking sites for Indian consumers. Implications are discussed. PMID:25977980

  6. Geography of underweight and overweight among women in India: A multilevel analysis of 3204 neighborhoods in 26 states

    PubMed Central

    Ackerson, Leland K.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Barbeau, Elizabeth M.; Subramanian, S.V.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the geographic distribution and the relationship with neighborhood wealth of underweight and overweight in India. Using multilevel modeling techniques, we calculated state-specific smoothed shrunken state residuals of overweight and underweight, neighborhood and state variation of nutritional status, and the relationships between neighborhood wealth and nutritional status of 76,681 women living in 3204 neighborhoods in 26 Indian states. We found a substantial variation in overweight and underweight at the neighborhood and state levels, net of what could be attributed to individual-level factors. Neighborhood wealth was associated with increased levels of overweight and decreased levels of underweight, and was found to modify the relationship between personal living standard and nutritional status. These findings suggest that interventions to address the double burden of undernutrition and overnutrition in India must take into account state and neighborhood characteristics in order to be successful. PMID:18602351

  7. Phosphine resistance in India is characterised by a dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase variant that is otherwise unobserved in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Kaur, R; Subbarayalu, M; Jagadeesan, R; Daglish, G J; Nayak, M K; Naik, H R; Ramasamy, S; Subramanian, C; Ebert, P R; Schlipalius, D I

    2015-09-01

    Phosphine (PH3) fumigation is the primary method worldwide for controlling insect pests of stored commodities. Over-reliance on phosphine, however, has led to the emergence of strong resistance. Detailed genetic studies previously identified two loci, rph1 and rph2, that interact synergistically to create a strong resistance phenotype. We compared the genetics of phosphine resistance in strains of Rhyzopertha dominica and Tribolium castaneum from India and Australia, countries having similar pest species but widely differing in pest management practices. Sequencing analysis of the rph2 locus, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (dld), identified two structurally equivalent variants, Proline49>Serine (P49S) in one R. dominica strain and P45S in three strains of T. castaneum from India. These variants of the DLD protein likely affect FAD cofactor interaction with the enzyme. A survey of insects from storage facilities across southern India revealed that the P45/49S variant is distributed throughout the region at very high frequencies, in up to 94% of R. dominica and 97% of T. castaneum in the state of Tamil Nadu. The abundance of the P45/49S variant in insect populations contrasted sharply with the evolutionary record in which the variant was absent from eukaryotic DLD sequences. This suggests that the variant is unlikely to provide a strong selective advantage in the absence of phosphine fumigation. PMID:25853517

  8. Diversity, Democracy, and Higher Education: A View from Three Nations--India, South Africa, the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckham, Edgar F., Ed.

    This publication includes six essays that were presented at the first of three tri-national seminars on diversity issues in higher education. The seminars brought together representatives and observers of higher education from India, South Africa, and the United States to explore the role of higher education in promoting understanding of human…

  9. The India Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Alim, Jamaal

    2012-01-01

    Even though lawmakers in India don't seem likely to pass any laws that would enable foreign universities to set up shop in India anytime soon, opportunities still abound for institutions of higher learning in the United States to collaborate with their Indian counterparts and to engage and recruit students in India as well. That's the consensus…

  10. Claiming the state : citizen-state relations and service delivery in rural India

    E-print Network

    Kruks-Wisner, Gabrielle K

    2013-01-01

    Who makes claims on the state and how? This dissertation examines the processes through which citizens seek to secure public resources from the state and, by extension, the patterns of participation and citizen-state ...

  11. Capacity Building for collecting primary data through Crowdsourcing - An Example of Disaster affected Uttarakhand State (India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna Murthy, Y. V. N.; Raju, P. L. N.; Srivastav, S. K.; Kumar, P.; Mitra, D.; Karnatak, H.; Saran, S.; Pandey, K.; Oberai, K.; Shiva Reddy, K.; Gupta, K.; Swamy, M.; Deshmukh, A.; Dadhwal, V. K.; Bothale, V.; Diwakar, P. G.; Ravikumar, M. V.; Leisely, A.; Arulraj, M.; Kumar, S.; Rao, S. S.; Singh Rawat, R.; Pathak, D. M.; Dutt, V.; Negi, D.; Singh, J.; Shukla, K. K.; Tomar, A.; Ahmed, N.; Singh, B.; Singh, A. K.; Shiva Kumar, R.

    2014-11-01

    Uttarakhand State of India suffered a widespread devastation in June 2013 due to floods caused by excessive rain in the upper reaches of the Himalaya, glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) and landslides. Restoration process in this mountainous State calls for scientifically sound planning so that the vulnerabilities and risks to such natural hazards are minimised and developmental processes are sustainable in long run. Towards this, an understanding of the patterns and major controls of damage of the recent disaster is a key requirement which can be achieved only if the primary data on locations and types of damage along with other local site conditions are available. Considering widespread damage, tough nature of terrain and the need for collecting the primary data on damage in shortest possible time, crowdsourcing approach was considered to be the most viable solution. Accordingly, a multiinstitutional initiative called "Map the Neighbourhood in Uttarakhand" (MANU) was conceptualised with the main objective of collecting primary data on damage through participation of local people (mainly students) using state-of-art tools and technologies of data collection and a mechanism to integrate the same with Bhuvan geo-portal (www.bhuvan.nrsc.gov.in) in near real-time. Geospatial analysis of crowd-sourced points with different themes has been carried out subsequently for providing inputs to restoration planning and for future developmental activities. The present paper highlights the capacity building aspect in enabling the data collection process using crowdsourcing technology.

  12. Spatial distribution and characteristics of injecting drug users (IDU) in five Northeastern states of India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Injecting drugs is the major driving force of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in Northeastern India. We have assessed the spatial distribution of locations where injecting drug users (IDU) congregate, as well as the risk behaviour and key characteristics of IDUs to develop new strategies strengthening intervention measures for HIV prevention in this region. Methods Locations of IDUs congregation for buying and injecting drugs were identified through Key Informants (KI). Verification of the location and its characteristics were confirmed through field visits. We also conducted semi-structured and structured interviews with IDUs to learn more about their injecting behaviour and other characteristics. Results Altogether, 2462 IDU locations were identified in 5 states. The number of IDU locations was found to be greater in the states bordering Myanmar. Private houses, parks, abandoned buildings, pharmacies, graveyards, and isolated places were the most frequently chosen place for injecting drugs. Many injecting locations were visited by IDUs of varying ages, of which about 10-20% of locations were for females. In some locations, female IDUs were also involved in sex work. Sharing of needle and syringes was reported in all the states by large proportion of IDUs, mainly with close friends. However, even sharing with strangers was not uncommon. Needle and syringes were mainly procured from pharmacies, drug peddlers and friends. Lack of access to free sterile needles and syringes, and inconsistent supplies from intervention programs, were often given as the cause of sharing or re-use of needles and syringes by IDUs. Most of the IDUs described a negative attitude of the community towards them. Conclusion We highlight the injection of drugs as a problem in 5 Northeastern India states where this is the major driving force of an HIV epidemic. Also highlighted are the large numbers of females that are unrecognized as IDUs and the association between drug use and sex work. Understanding of risk behaviours and other key charecteristics of IDUs in the region will help in strengthening harm reduction efforts that can prevent HIV transmission. PMID:21281465

  13. Abuse against elderly in India – The role of education

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Abuse against the elderly is recognized as an important challenge to elderly health, but its determinants are not yet well understood. We present findings from a new dataset which covers a representative sample of the population aged 60 years and above from seven Indian states across India – all of which have a higher proportion aged 60 plus compared to the national average. Earlier studies suggest that schooling levels can be relevant in determining the level of abuse against seniors. This study focuses on the role of education on the prevalence of elderly abuse in India. Methods We conduct an analysis of cross sectional primary data that contains information on elderly abuse. The households in the sample were randomly selected from the seven demographically oldest states in India. These states are Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. A total of 9852 elderly from 8329 households were interviewed. The statistical analysis is based on logistic regression to understand the independent relation of education with abuse against the elderly. Results Our findings reveal that 11% of 60+ year olds have experienced at least one type of elderly abuse (Physical 5.3%, Verbal 10.2%, Economic 5.4%, Disrespect 6%, Neglect 5.2%). The most common perpetrator is the son, who is reported to be responsible for the abuse among 41% of male victims and 43% of female victims. Formal education among elderly beyond a certain level (8 years) has a strong relation with reduced violence against elderly. Conclusions Our findings suggest that level of schooling among elderly is strongly negatively related to abuse against them. More members in the household reduces the chance of abuse while having a greater number of children increases the chance of abuse (neglect and verbal abuse). We find that education even after controlling for wealth and other relevant variables is the factor that most consistently lowers elderly abuse. However, the relation of education to abuse is limited to those with more than 8 years of schooling. This suggests that the ongoing educational expansion beyond the basic schooling years in India may lead to a decline in the incidence of elderly abuse. PMID:24717052

  14. Using Third-Party Inspectors in Building Energy Codes Enforcement in India

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Kumar, Pradeep; Van Wie, Laura; Bhatt, Vatsal

    2013-01-31

    India is experiencing fast income growth and urbanization, and this leads to unprecedented increases in demand for building energy services and resulting energy consumption. In response to rapid growth in building energy use, the Government of India issued the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) in 2007, which is consistent with and based on the 2001 Energy Conservation Act. ECBC implementation has been voluntary since its enactment and a few states have started to make progress towards mandatory implementation. Rajasthan is the first state in India to adopt ECBC as a mandatory code. The State adopted ECBC with minor additions on March 28, 2011 through a stakeholder process; it became mandatory in Rajasthan on September 28, 2011. Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, and Andhra Pradesh have started to draft an implementation roadmap and build capacity for its implementation. The Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) plans to encourage more states to adopt ECBC in the near future, including Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, West Bengal, and Delhi. Since its inception, India has applied the code on a voluntary basis, but the Government of India is developing a strategy to mandate compliance. Implementing ECBC requires coordination between the Ministry of Power and the Ministry of Urban Development at the national level as well as interdepartmental coordination at the state level. One challenge is that the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs), the enforcement entities of building by-laws, lack capacity to implement ECBC effectively. For example, ULBs in some states might find the building permitting procedures to be too complex; in other cases, lack of awareness and technical knowledge on ECBC slows down the amendment of local building by-laws as well as ECBC implementation. The intent of this white paper is to share with Indian decision-makers code enforcement approaches: through code officials, third-party inspectors, or a hybrid approach. Given the limited capacity and human resources available in the state and local governments, involving third-party inspectors could rapidly expand the capacity for plan reviews and broad implementation. However, the procedures of involving third-parties need to be carefully designed in order to guarantee a fair process. For example, there should be multiple checks and certification requirements for third-party inspectors, and the government should have the final approval when third-party inspectors are used in a project. This paper discusses different approaches of involving third-parties in ECBC enforcement; the Indian states may choose the approaches that work best in their given circumstances.

  15. Uncertainty in Resilience to Climate Change in India and Indian States

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, Elizabeth L.; Brenkert, Antoinette L.

    2008-10-03

    This study builds on an earlier analysis of resilience of India and Indian states to climate change. The previous study (Brenkert and Malone 2005) assessed current resilience; this research uses the Vulnerability-Resilience Indicators Model (VRIM) to project resilience to 2095 and to perform an uncertainty analysis on the deterministic results. Projections utilized two SRES-based scenarios, one with fast-and-high growth, one with delayed growth. A detailed comparison of two states, the Punjab and Orissa, points to the kinds of insights that can be obtained using the VRIM. The scenarios differ most significantly in the timing of the uncertainty in economic prosperity (represented by GDP per capita) as a major factor in explaining the uncertainty in the resilience index. In the fast-and-high growth scenario the states differ most markedly regarding the role of ecosystem sensitivity, land use and water availability. The uncertainty analysis shows, for example, that resilience in the Punjab might be enhanced, especially in the delayed growth scenario, if early attention is paid to the impact of ecosystems sensitivity on environmental well-being of the state. By the same token, later in the century land-use pressures might be avoided if land is managed through intensification rather than extensification of agricultural land. Thus, this methodology illustrates how a policy maker can be informed about where to focus attention on specific issues, by understanding the potential changes at a specific location and time – and, thus, what might yield desired outcomes. Model results can point to further analyses of the potential for resilience-building.

  16. Epidemiology of foot and mouth disease in Karnataka state, India: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Raveendra; Gomes, Amitha R; Giridhar, P; Kowalli, Srikanth; Shivashankar, B P; Sudharshana, K J; Nagaraj, K; Sesharao, R; Mallinath, K C; Shankar, B P; Nagaraj, D; Seema, C M; Khan, Tanveer Ahmed; Nagaraj, G V; Srikala, K; Dharanesh, N K; Venkatesha, M D; Renukaprasad, C

    2014-12-01

    A retrospective study on the epidemiology of foot and- mouth disease (FMD) in Karnataka, India between the years 1977 and 2012-13 based on the data collected through passive and active surveillance was undertaken. A total of 11,159 outbreaks with 0.271 million cases of FMD were recorded from 30 different revenue districts of Karnataka. There was a significant difference between the years for the annual incidence of FMD (P = <0.001, F = 19.10) and also between the months (P = <0.001, F = 4.22). Cattle and buffaloes were the predominant species affected being involved in all of the outbreaks reported. A significant correlation was observed between livestock density and the number of outbreaks reported (r = 0.70, p < 0.02), and number of cases (r = 0.76, p < 0.01) for all the agro-climatic zones. The Central dry zone (n = 2257, 19.89 %) reported the highest number of outbreaks followed by the Northern dry zone (n = 1881, 16.58 %) and the Southern transition zone (n = 1761, 15.52 %), and attack rates were concentrated in the North/Northeastern/Central dry and transition zones. A large majority of the outbreaks were caused by serotype O (64.04 %), followed by Asia 1 (19.87 %) and A (12.27 %). Serotype C was not reported since 1993 in the state. In recent years, serotype O has dominated (82.59 %), with the rest of the outbreaks being almost equally caused by A (9.01 %) and Asia 1 (8.40 %). The study highlights the significance of the O serotype and cattle as the main indicator species in the epidemiology of FMD in Karnataka, India. The findings from this study can be used as baseline epidemiological data for further research to identify endemic and epidemic areas for the development of a sustainable programme for the progressive control of FMD in the state of Karnataka as well as other endemic settings. PMID:25674631

  17. Temporal change in land use by irrigation source in Tamil Nadu and management implications.

    PubMed

    Gumma, Murali Krishna; Kajisa, Kei; Mohammed, Irshad A; Whitbread, Anthony M; Nelson, Andrew; Rala, Arnel; Palanisami, K

    2015-01-01

    Interannual variation in rainfall throughout Tamil Nadu has been causing frequent and noticeable land use changes despite the rapid development in groundwater irrigation. Identifying periodically water-stressed areas is the first and crucial step to minimizing negative effects on crop production. Such analysis must be conducted at the basin level as it is an independent water accounting unit. This paper investigates the temporal variation in irrigated area between 2000-2001 and 2010-2011 due to rainfall variation at the state and sub-basin level by mapping and classifying Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 8-day composite satellite imagery using spectral matching techniques. A land use/land cover map was drawn with an overall classification accuracy of 87.2%. Area estimates between the MODIS-derived net irrigated area and district-level statistics (2000-2001 to 2007-2008) were in 95% agreement. A significant decrease in irrigated area (30-40%) was observed during the water-stressed years of 2002-2003, 2003-2004, and 2009-2010. Major land use changes occurred three times during 2000 to 2010. This study demonstrates how remote sensing can identify areas that are prone to repeated land use changes and pin-point key target areas for the promotion of drought-tolerant varieties, alternative water management practices, and new cropping patterns to ensure sustainable agriculture for food security and livelihoods. PMID:25481120

  18. Aboriginal uses and management of ethnobotanical species in deciduous forests of Chhattisgarh state in India

    PubMed Central

    Kala, Chandra Prakash

    2009-01-01

    A study on the native uses of ethnobotanical species was carried out in the south Surguja district of Chhattisgarh state in India with the major objective of identifying different food and medicinal plant species and also to understand their ongoing management and conservation. Through questionnaire and personal interviews, a total of 73 ethnobotanical species used by tribal and non-tribal communities were documented, of these 36 species were used in curing different types of diseases and 22 were used as edible food plants. This rich traditional knowledge of local people has an immense potential for pharmacological studies. The outside forces, at present, were mainly blamed to change the traditional system of harvesting and management of ethnobotanical species. The destructive harvesting practices have damaged the existing populations of many ethnobotanical species viz., Asparagus racemosus, Dioscorea bulbifera, Boswellia serrata, Buchnania lanzan, Sterculia urens and Anogeissus latifolia. The sustainable harvesting and management issues of ethnobotanical species are discussed in view of their conservation and management. PMID:19653889

  19. Aboriginal uses and management of ethnobotanical species in deciduous forests of Chhattisgarh state in India.

    PubMed

    Kala, Chandra Prakash

    2009-01-01

    A study on the native uses of ethnobotanical species was carried out in the south Surguja district of Chhattisgarh state in India with the major objective of identifying different food and medicinal plant species and also to understand their ongoing management and conservation. Through questionnaire and personal interviews, a total of 73 ethnobotanical species used by tribal and non-tribal communities were documented, of these 36 species were used in curing different types of diseases and 22 were used as edible food plants. This rich traditional knowledge of local people has an immense potential for pharmacological studies. The outside forces, at present, were mainly blamed to change the traditional system of harvesting and management of ethnobotanical species. The destructive harvesting practices have damaged the existing populations of many ethnobotanical species viz., Asparagus racemosus, Dioscorea bulbifera, Boswellia serrata, Buchnania lanzan, Sterculia urens and Anogeissus latifolia. The sustainable harvesting and management issues of ethnobotanical species are discussed in view of their conservation and management. PMID:19653889

  20. Emerging Capripoxvirus disease outbreaks in Himachal Pradesh, a northern state of India.

    PubMed

    Verma, S; Verma, L K; Gupta, V K; Katoch, V C; Dogra, V; Pal, B; Sharma, M

    2011-02-01

    Both sheep and goat pox are contagious viral diseases and affect small ruminants and are caused by sheep pox virus and goat pox virus respectively that belong to genus Capripoxvirus of Poxviridae family. Huge economic losses emanating from the disease outbreaks are the results of the wool and hide damage, subsequent production losses and also the morbidities and mortalities associated with the disease. This communication highlights clinico-epidemiological observations from the two sheep pox and one goat pox outbreaks. Grossly, multisystemic nodular lesions, mucopurulent nasal discharges and respiratory symptoms were observed in the affected animals. The morbidity, mortality and case fatality rates were 5.18%, 2.45% and 32.37%, respectively. Histopathological, haematological, molecular and serological techniques and also isolation of virus in embryonated chicken eggs were used for the diagnosis of the diseases. The spatial distribution of the disease signifies the role of common pasturelands used for grazing the animals while temporally all three outbreaks occurred in winters and were probably associated with cold stress and fodder scarcity. This is the first recorded report of Capripoxvirus infection in recent times and it highlights the disease as one of the emerging diseases in the northern state of Himachal Pradesh in India. PMID:21214867

  1. Deviations from the O3-NO-NO2 photo-stationary state in Delhi, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chate, Dilip M.; Ghude, Sachin D.; Beig, Gurfan; Mahajan, Anoop S.; Jena, Chinmay; Srinivas, Reka; Dahiya, Anita; Kumar, Nandini

    2014-10-01

    A network of air quality and weather monitoring stations was set-up across Delhi, India, under the System of Air quality Forecasting And Research (SAFAR) project. The objective of this network was to enable better understanding of air quality in terms of atmospheric chemistry, emissions and forecasting in Delhi, one of the largest metropolises in the world. In this study, we focus on the O3-NO-NO2-triad Photo Stationary State (PSS), and investigate site-specific deviations in the Leighton Ratio (?) during a short period in 2012 (1-31 December). Large variations were observed in the NO (<1 ppbv to a peak of 295 ppbv), NO2 (<2 ppbv-47 ppbv) and O3 (4 ppbv-95 ppbv) mixing ratios, all of which showed strong diurnal variation. The ? values showed large deviations from unity over the measurement period, with mostly negative deviations (? < 1), showing that the air masses were dominated by local sources of NOx and that the PSS was not achieved. Positive deviations (? > 1) were also observed occasionally, and these data were used to estimate the total peroxy radical (PO2) mixing ratios. This is the first estimate of PO2 reported for the city of Delhi and compares well with the results in the literature.

  2. SOIL MOISTURE RETENTION CHARACTERISTICS AND HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY FOR DIFFERENT AREAS IN INDIA IN SELECTED STATES

    E-print Network

    Kumar, C.P.

    SOIL MOISTURE RETENTION CHARACTERISTICS AND HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY FOR DIFFERENT AREAS IN INDIA systems require knowledge of the relationships between soil moisture content (), soil water pressure (h) and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (K). This study involved field and laboratory determination of soil

  3. Rock fall analysis of slope along state highway in Uttarakhand Himalaya, India using numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishal, V.; Phophliya, M. K.; Purohit, R.

    2014-12-01

    With almost 1% of the reported accidents being associated with slope stability problems, landslides and rock fall have been responsible for nearly 25% of fatalities in hill slopes and surface mines over past few decades. Morpho-dynamic terrain of Himalaya is continually facing challenges in stability of rock/slopes, which are aggravated due to increased disturbance level in rock/soil mass due to human intervention. The lithological and structural variations, orientations and patterns of different water bodies and vegetation are varied along the slopes which indicate site-specific studies of rock fall prone areas in Uttarakhand. Lack of sufficient knowledge and understanding of the phenomenon, frequent occurrences of rock fall along state and national highways, the consequent inconveniences and loss of lives highlight the importance of addressing the subject on a priority basis. Rock fall simulation of the hill cut face along state highway in India was performed to replicate the effects of the falling rock blocks in the valley. The energy, velocity, bounce height and the trajectory of possible rock failures were determined. The slopes were optimised with respect to the intermediate benches to reduce the impact of falling rock blocks on the adjoining road. It was observed that introducing benches near the top did not reduce the impact of falling boulders much, however, the number of rocks crossing the ditch was less. On the contrary, benches at intermediate height reduced the energy of falling blocks but could not restrict the blocks to cross over the ditch on to the road. An optimisation of the angle of inclination of the ditch angle was also carried out. A ditch angle of 15o could restrict the passage of boulders from ditch over to the adjoining road. The study will be very useful for safe design of structures for prevention and mitigation of hazards due to rock failures along these slopes.

  4. Emergence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Amreli District of Gujarat State, India, June to July 2013.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Pragya D; Gurav, Yogesh K; Mistry, Madhulika; Shete, Anita M; Sarkale, Prasad; Deoshatwar, Avinash R; Unadkat, Vishwa B; Kokate, Prasad; Patil, Deepak Y; Raval, Dinkar K; Mourya, Devendra T

    2014-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) etiology was detected in a family cluster (nine cases, including two deaths) in the village of Karyana, Amreli District, and also a fatal case in the village of Undra, Patan District, in Gujarat State, India. Anti-CCHFV IgG antibodies were detected in domestic animals from Karyana and adjoining villages. Hyalomma ticks from households were found to be positive for CCHF viral RNA. This confirms the emergence of CCHFV in new areas and the wide spread of this disease in Gujarat State. PMID:24211848

  5. Overweight and obesity prevalence among Indian women by place of residence and socio-economic status: Contrasting patterns from 'underweight states' and 'overweight states' of India.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Angan; Angeli, Federica; Syamala, Thelakkat S; Dagnelie, Pieter C; van Schayck, C P

    2015-08-01

    Evidence from developing countries demonstrates a mixed relationship of overweight/obesity with socioeconomic status (SES) and place of residence. Theory of nutrition transition suggests that over the course of development, overweight first emerges among rich and urban people before spreading among rural and poor people. India is currently experiencing a rapid rise in the proportion of overweight and obese population especially among adult women. Under the backdrop of huge socio-economic heterogeneity across the states of India, the inter-state scenario of overweight and obesity differs considerably. Hence, this paper investigates the evolution over time of overweight and obesity among ever-married Indian women (15-49 years) from selected 'underweight states' (Bihar, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh, where underweight proportion is predominant) and 'overweight states' (Kerala, Delhi and Punjab, where overweight is the prime concern), in relation to a few selected socio-economic and demographic indicators. This study analysed National Family Health Surveys- NFHS-2 (1998-99) and NFHS-3 (2005-06) following Asian population specific BMI cut-offs for overweight and obesity. The results confirm that within India itself the relationship of overweight and obesity with place of residence and SES cannot be generalized. Results from 'overweight states' show that the overweight problem has started expanding from urban and well-off women to the poor and rural people, while the rural-urban and rich-poor difference has disappeared. On the other hand in 'underweight states' overweight and obesity have remained socially segregated and increasing strongly among urban and richer section of the population. The rate of rise of overweight and obesity has been higher in rural areas of 'OW states' and in urban areas of 'UW states'. Indian policymakers thus need to design state-specific approaches to arrest the rapid growth of overweight and its penetration especially towards under-privileged section of the society. PMID:26094178

  6. Climate variables as predictors for seasonal forecast of dengue occurrence in Chennai, Tamil Nadu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subash Kumar, D. D.; Andimuthu, R.

    2013-12-01

    Background Dengue is a recently emerging vector borne diseases in Chennai. As per the WHO report in 2011 dengue is one of eight climate sensitive disease of this century. Objective Therefore an attempt has been made to explore the influence of climate parameters on dengue occurrence and use for forecasting. Methodology Time series analysis has been applied to predict the number of dengue cases in Chennai, a metropolitan city which is the capital of Tamil Nadu, India. Cross correlation of the climate variables with dengue cases revealed that the most influential parameters were monthly relative humidity, minimum temperature at 4 months lag and rainfall at one month lag (Table 1). However due to intercorrelation of relative humidity and rainfall was high and therefore for predictive purpose the rainfall at one month lag was used for the model development. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models have been applied to forecast the occurrence of dengue. Results and Discussion The best fit model was ARIMA (1,0,1). It was seen that the monthly minimum temperature at four months lag (?= 3.612, p = 0.02) and rainfall at one month lag (?= 0.032, p = 0.017) were associated with dengue occurrence and they had a very significant effect. Mean Relative Humidity had a directly significant positive correlation at 99% confidence level, but the lagged effect was not prominent. The model predicted dengue cases showed significantly high correlation of 0.814(Figure 1) with the observed cases. The RMSE of the model was 18.564 and MAE was 12.114. The model is limited by the scarcity of the dataset. Inclusion of socioeconomic conditions and population offset are further needed to be incorporated for effective results. Conclusion Thus it could be claimed that the change in climatic parameters is definitely influential in increasing the number of dengue occurrence in Chennai. The climate variables therefore can be used for seasonal forecasting of dengue with rise in minimum temperature and rainfall at a city level. Table 1. Cross correlation of climate variables with dengue cases in Chennai ** p<0.01,*p<0.05

  7. Sensitivity analysis of seismic hazard for the northwestern portion of the state of Gujarat, India

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, M.D.; Rastogi, B.K.; Schweig, E.S.; Harmsen, S.C.; Gomberg, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    We test the sensitivity of seismic hazard to three fault source models for the northwestern portion of Gujarat, India. The models incorporate different characteristic earthquake magnitudes on three faults with individual recurrence intervals of either 800 or 1600 years. These recurrence intervals imply that large earthquakes occur on one of these faults every 266-533 years, similar to the rate of historic large earthquakes in this region during the past two centuries and for earthquakes in intraplate environments like the New Madrid region in the central United States. If one assumes a recurrence interval of 800 years for large earthquakes on each of three local faults, the peak ground accelerations (PGA; horizontal) and 1-Hz spectral acceleration ground motions (5% damping) are greater than 1 g over a broad region for a 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years' hazard level. These probabilistic PGAs at this hazard level are similar to median deterministic ground motions. The PGAs for 10% in 50 years' hazard level are considerably lower, generally ranging between 0.2 g and 0.7 g across northwestern Gujarat. Ground motions calculated from our models that consider fault interevent times of 800 years are considerably higher than other published models even though they imply similar recurrence intervals. These higher ground motions are mainly caused by the application of intraplate attenuation relations, which account for less severe attenuation of seismic waves when compared to the crustal interplate relations used in these previous studies. For sites in Bhuj and Ahmedabad, magnitude (M) 7 3/4 earthquakes contribute most to the PGA and the 0.2- and 1-s spectral acceleration ground motion maps at the two considered hazard levels. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. State of municipal solid waste management in Delhi, the capital of India.

    PubMed

    Talyan, Vikash; Dahiya, R P; Sreekrishnan, T R

    2008-01-01

    Delhi is the most densely populated and urbanized city of India. The annual growth rate in population during the last decade (1991-2001) was 3.85%, almost double the national average. Delhi is also a commercial hub, providing employment opportunities and accelerating the pace of urbanization, resulting in a corresponding increase in municipal solid waste (MSW) generation. Presently the inhabitants of Delhi generate about 7000tonnes/day of MSW, which is projected to rise to 17,000-25,000tonnes/day by the year 2021. MSW management has remained one of the most neglected areas of the municipal system in Delhi. About 70-80% of generated MSW is collected and the rest remains unattended on streets or in small open dumps. Only 9% of the collected MSW is treated through composting, the only treatment option, and rest is disposed in uncontrolled open landfills at the outskirts of the city. The existing composting plants are unable to operate to their intended treatment capacity due to several operational problems. Therefore, along with residue from the composting process, the majority of MSW is disposed in landfills. In absence of leachate and landfill gas collection systems, these landfills are a major source of groundwater contamination and air pollution (including generation of greenhouse gases). This study describes and evaluates the present state of municipal solid waste management in Delhi. The paper also summarizes the proposed policies and initiatives of the Government of Delhi and the Municipal Corporation of Delhi to improve the existing MSW management system. PMID:17692510

  9. State of municipal solid waste management in Delhi, the capital of India

    SciTech Connect

    Talyan, Vikash Dahiya, R.P.; Sreekrishnan, T.R.

    2008-07-01

    Delhi is the most densely populated and urbanized city of India. The annual growth rate in population during the last decade (1991-2001) was 3.85%, almost double the national average. Delhi is also a commercial hub, providing employment opportunities and accelerating the pace of urbanization, resulting in a corresponding increase in municipal solid waste (MSW) generation. Presently the inhabitants of Delhi generate about 7000 tonnes/day of MSW, which is projected to rise to 17,000-25,000 tonnes/day by the year 2021. MSW management has remained one of the most neglected areas of the municipal system in Delhi. About 70-80% of generated MSW is collected and the rest remains unattended on streets or in small open dumps. Only 9% of the collected MSW is treated through composting, the only treatment option, and rest is disposed in uncontrolled open landfills at the outskirts of the city. The existing composting plants are unable to operate to their intended treatment capacity due to several operational problems. Therefore, along with residue from the composting process, the majority of MSW is disposed in landfills. In absence of leachate and landfill gas collection systems, these landfills are a major source of groundwater contamination and air pollution (including generation of greenhouse gases). This study describes and evaluates the present state of municipal solid waste management in Delhi. The paper also summarizes the proposed policies and initiatives of the Government of Delhi and the Municipal Corporation of Delhi to improve the existing MSW management system.

  10. Pulmonary function of adolescents from Tripura, a North-eastern state of India

    PubMed Central

    Choudhuri, Dipayan; Sutradhar, Balaram

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Spirometric evaluation of pulmonary function has been evolved as clinical tool in diagnosis, management, and follow-up of respiratory disorders. There are very few studies on normative reference values of pulmonary function parameters for adolescents from Tripura, a North-eastern state of India. The present study was aimed to evaluate pulmonary function and their predictors in male and female adolescents of Tripura. Materials and Methods: A total of 640 (320 from tribal and 320 non-tribal) healthy, non-smoking male and female school children (age 10-14 years) from four different districts of Tripura were randomly sampled for the study. The pulmonary function parameters analysed included forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% expired volume (FEF25-75%), ratio of FEV1/FVC and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV). Results: The results revealed that body weight, body mass index (BMI), PEFR, FEF25-75% and MVV are significantly high among male tribal children in comparison to non-tribal children. Height, weight, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), PEFR and MVV were found to be significantly more in tribal girls. In case of adolescents from Tripura, most of the pulmonary function parameters correlated with anthropometric parameters of the subject like height, weight, BMI, WHR, and WHtR. Conclusion: From the present study, it can be concluded that both anthropometric and pulmonary function status of tribal and non-tribal adolescents from Tripura are comparable. The computed regression norms may be used to predict pulmonary function of adolescents from Tripura by using anthropometric indices. PMID:26180385

  11. The Epidemiology of Soil-Transmitted Helminths in Bihar State, India

    PubMed Central

    Greenland, Katie; Dixon, Ruth; Khan, Shabbir Ali; Gunawardena, Kithsiri; Kihara, Jimmy H.; Smith, Jennifer L.; Drake, Lesley; Makkar, Prerna; Singh, Sarman; Kumar, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) infect over a billion individuals worldwide. In India, 241 million children are estimated to need deworming to avert the negative consequences STH infections can have on child health and development. In February-April 2011, 17 million children in Bihar State were dewormed during a government-led school-based deworming campaign. Prior to programme implementation, a study was conducted to assess STH prevalence in the school-age population to direct the programme. The study also investigated risk factors for STH infections, including caste, literacy, and defecation and hygiene practices, in order to inform the development of complementary interventions. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among children in 20 schools in Bihar. In addition to providing stool samples for identification of STH infections, children completed a short questionnaire detailing their usual defecation and hand-hygiene practices. Risk factors for STH infections were explored. Results In January-February 2011, 1279 school children aged four to seventeen provided stool samples and 1157 children also completed the questionnaire. Overall, 68% of children (10-86% across schools) were infected with one or more soil-transmitted helminth species. The prevalence of ascariasis, hookworm and trichuriasis was 52%, 42% and 5% respectively. The majority of children (95%) practiced open defecation and reported most frequently cleansing hands with soil (61%). Increasing age, lack of maternal literacy and certain castes were independently associated with hookworm infection. Absence of a hand-washing station at the schools was also independently associated with A. lumbricoides infection. Conclusions STH prevalence in Bihar is high, and justifies mass deworming in school-aged children. Open defecation is common-place and hands are often cleansed using soil. The findings reported here can be used to help direct messaging appropriate to mothers with low levels of literacy and emphasise the importance of water and sanitation in the control of helminths and other diseases. PMID:25993697

  12. Detection and molecular characterization of Newcastle disease virus in peafowl (Pavo cristatus) in Haryana State, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Aman; Maan, Sushila; Mahajan, Nand Kishore; Rana, Virender Pratap; Jindal, Naresh; Batra, Kanisht; Ghosh, Arnab; Mishra, Shiv Kumar; Kapoor, Sanjay; Maan, Narender Singh

    2013-12-01

    Present study was undertaken to investigate the cause of deaths of peafowls in Haryana State. In total, 145 birds were sick and 28 birds were reported dead during July to September 2012. Some of the sick birds were showing signs of shaking of heads, torticollis and paresis. Blood and cloacal swab samples from sick birds along with brain and intestinal tissues from dead birds were collected for further investigation. Although post-mortem examination showed no typical lesions of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) yet raised HI tires against NDV in some serum samples and clinical signs indicated the presence of NDV. One of the brain tissues (NDV/IND2012/01) from the field case was processed and adapted to Vero cell line for virus isolation. The fusion (F) gene based nested RT-PCR (RT-nPCR) confirmed the presence of NDV in all field samples and cell culture isolate. Sequencing of the partial F gene amplicons (216 bp) using the PCR primers as sequencing primers confirmed the PCR results. The deduced amino acid sequences of partial F gene were found to have the amino acid motif (111)GRRQKR/F(117) in the fusion protein cleavage site (FPCS). This amino acid motif is indicative of the velogenic nature of these NDVs. Phylogenetic studies have shown that the virus belonged to class II genotype VII very closely related to virus isolates originated from outbreaks in Western Europe, Israel, Indonesia, Taiwan and India. Phylogenetic grouping of the virus and sequence of FPCS is indicative of pathogenic potential of virus strain circulating in peacocks in Haryana. PMID:24426301

  13. Molecular characterization of peste-des-petits ruminants virus (PPRV) isolated from an outbreak in the Indo-Bangladesh border of Tripura state of North-East India.

    PubMed

    Muthuchelvan, Dhanavelu; De, Ankan; Debnath, Bikas; Choudhary, Dheeraj; Venkatesan, Gnanavel; Rajak, Kaushal Kishore; Sudhakar, Shashi Bhusan; Himadri, Divakar; Pandey, Awadh Bihari; Parida, Satya

    2014-12-01

    Peste-des-petits- ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious and devastating disease of goats and sheep. Although India is endemic for PPR, Tripura, a state in North East India has never been reported confirmed PPR outbreaks. Recently, an outbreak of PPR occurred in non-descript goats at the Sabroom town of Tripura state in North-East India in June, 2013. The causative agent, PPR virus (PPRV) was confirmed by sandwich ELISA, virus isolation and N gene based RT-PCR and sequencing. The sequence and phylogenetic analysis confirmed the involvement of lineage IV PPR virus in the outbreak. The outbreak viruses from Tripura state were clustered mainly with circulating viruses from Bangladesh, India, China, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Dubai and Kurdistan. However, the nucleotide sequence homology ranged from 99.2 to 99.6% with the PPR strains circulating in Bangladesh during 2011 and 2012 whereas 95.5-98% homology has been observed with the viruses from India and other countries. These findings suggest the transboundary circulation of PPR virus between India and Bangladesh border, which warrant immediate vaccination across the international border to create an immune belt. PMID:25465184

  14. Role of Directorates in Promoting Nursing and Midwifery Across the Various States of India: Call for Leadership for Reforms

    PubMed Central

    Bagga, Rajni; Jaiswal, Vaishali; Tiwari, Ritika

    2015-01-01

    Background: While the roles and responsibilities of nursing professionals have multiplied over the years, but there are huge concerns with regard to the development of the nursing workforce and human resources (HR) issues for their career growth. The major lacuna is in not involving the nursing professionals in policy framing and decision-making. As a result, there is a leadership crisis of the nursing workforce across India. Objectives: The paper, is part of the WHO supported study, entitled “Study on Nursing and Midwifery in India: a critical review”, is developed with the objective to review the current organizational and management structure for the nursing positions at the State Directorates in India and obtain a Leadership perspective to strengthen nursing management capacities to address maternal health issues. Materials and Methods: The study descriptive and qualitative in nature and the sources of information were both primary and secondary collected from 16 states of India. Results: Since none of the states have neither a Nursing Cell nor the post of Director Nursing, final decision-making powers rest with state health secretaries and medical directors. The nursing management structure majorly managed by senior policy makers from the medical fraternity, and provides very little scope for nursing professionals to participate in policy decision making to bring about reforms. There is no uniformity on HR issues concerning career graphs and pay structures across the states. Conclusions: In order to strengthen nursing as a profession and for facilitating their role at the policy level, more powers and autonomy needs to be given to them and this requires HR policy guidelines for nurses. Setting up a separate nursing directorate, to be headed by a senior nursing professional, is suggested in every state along with a strong nursing division at the National level. This total paradigm shift will empower nursing professionals to take up the leadership role at the policy level to bring about necessary reforms. Across the country, nursing professionals repeatedly echoed one requirement: To reframe nursing leadership at all levels. PMID:25861169

  15. A note on the new species of the genus Isopsera (Orthoptera: Phaneropteridae: Phaneropterinae) from India.

    PubMed

    Nagar, Rajendra; Mal, Jhabar; Swaminathan, R

    2015-01-01

    A new species of the genus, Isopsera: Isopsera arcuata Nagar, Mal, Swaminathan sp. nov. (Orthoptera:Phaneropteridae Burmeister, 1838; Phaneropterinae Burmeister, 1838) is described. The holotype (?) was collected from South India: Coimbatore (Tamil Nadu). The geographical location had the following specifications: 12058 N 77035E 930MSL South India. The described species differs from the two closely related species, I. caligula Ingrisch and I. spinosa Ingrisch, based on the structure of the male sub-genital plate, cerci and stridulatory file on the left tegmen. PMID:26249423

  16. Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing over Delhi NCR, India: Sensitivity to Mixing State and Particle Shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Parul; Dey, Sagnik; Srivastava, Atul; Singh, Sachchidanand; Agarwal, Poornima

    2015-04-01

    Aerosol properties changes with the change in mixing state of aerosols and thus aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF). The problem is important in the Indo-Gangetic Basin, Northern India, where various aerosol types mix and show strong seasonal variations. A detailed chemical composition analysis of aerosols for Delhi National capital region (NCR) is carried out during 2007-2008. These results were used to examine the sensitivity of optical properties to the aerosol mixing state. Black carbon, BC was measured directly by Aethalometer. The species are grouped into four major components; dust, water soluble (WS), water insoluble (WINS) and BC. To infer the probable mixing state of aerosols in the Delhi NCR, eight different mixing cases, external mixing, internal mixing, and six combinations of core- shell type mixing which includes two modes of dust (accumulation and coarse) have been considered. Core-shell mixing cases are considered to be as follows - BC over dust, WS over dust, BC over WS and, WS over BC. These core shell mixed components are then externally mixed with rest of the aerosol species. The spectral aerosol optical properties - extinction coefficient, single scattering albedo (SSA) and asymmetry parameter (g) for each of the mixing state cases are calculated. These optical properties are utilized to estimate the radiative forcing using a radiative transfer model. The surface-reaching fluxes for each of the cases are compared with MERRA downward shortwave surface flux. MISR aerosol products were also analyzed to understand the seasonal variations of the bulk aerosol properties that may help in interpreting the sensitivity results. We observed that for the pre-monsoon season (MAMJ), core shell mixed case; BC coated over WS (surface DRF is -10.52 Wm-2) and BC over coarse dust (surface DRF is -2.81 Wm-2) are the most probable mixing states. For monsoon season (JAS,) BC coated over coarse dust (often referred to as polluted dust) (surface DRF is -0.60 Wm-2) is in better agreement with MERRA. For the post-monsoon season (ON) and winter season (DJF); external and internal mixing states are comparatively closer to MERRA flux. The remaining discrepancy may be attributed to the assumption of uniform vertical distribution (calculated from CALIPSO data) for each individual aerosol species, whereas ideally different vertical profile should be considered. Secondly, dust is assumed to be spherical whereas literature suggests it to be non-spherical. Three non-spherical shapes - spheroid, cylinder and chebyshev are considered. We have calculated optical properties of dust assuming it to be non-spherical for all the three different shapes. Our results show that the SSA deviates from spherical dust case by ~55% for all the three shapes, while the corresponding deviations for g are 15% for spheroid and cylinder shape and 38% for chebyshev shape. The % deviation of the externally mixed aerosol surface flux from non- spherical to spherical dust is in the range of 2-10%. Thus we observe that the absorption is under estimated at the surface if non-sphericity is not included in forcing estimation. The results will help reducing the uncertainty in aerosol DRF estimates for the Indian region.

  17. Public health system readiness to treat malaria in Odisha State of India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Early diagnosis and prompt treatment is a cornerstone of malaria control. In India, artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) became the first-line treatment for falciparum malaria and rapid diagnostic test (RDTs) kits were recommended for use at the grass-root level in the new malaria treatment policy (2010). Odisha State contributes about one-fourth of the total Indian malaria burden and 40% of falciparum infection. The present study assessed the health system readiness to deploy RDTs and ACT for malaria control across the State. Methods Data collection was carried out from February to July 2012. Five of Odisha’s 30 districts were selected through stratified random sampling, with stratification based on the phased roll-out of ACT and RDT. Two administrative 'blocks’ were selected randomly in each district and data collected through health facility, auxiliary nurse midwives (ANMs) and accredited social health activist (ASHAs) assessments. Key informant interviews were conducted with individuals involved in the implementation of the malaria control programme. Results Of the 220 ANMs interviewed, 51.4% had been trained in malaria case management, including the use of ACT and RDT. A high proportion of ANM (80%) and AHSA (77%) had the necessary level of knowledge to be able to use RDT for malaria diagnosis. The proportion of ASHAs trained on malaria case management was 88.9% (209/235). However, 71% of ANM and 55% of ASHAs usually referred falciparum-positive patients to the health facility for treatment, the major reason for referral being the non-availability of drugs at the ANM and ASHA level. Conclusion The relatively high level of knowledge about how to diagnose and treat malaria at the grass-root level was undermined by the poor availability of RDTs, ACT and primaquine tablets. This was associated with an unnecessarily high referral rate and potential delays in the treatment of this potentially life-threatening infection. Improvements in the supply chain for RDTs and ACT could dramatically enhance the effectiveness of malaria control in Odisha. PMID:24088525

  18. Association of child health and household amenities in high focus states in India: a district-level analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gouda, Jitendra; Gupta, Ashish Kumar; Yadav, Ajit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess household amenities in districts of high focus states and their association with child health in India. Design The data for the study are extracted from Annual Health Survey (AHS) and Census 2011. Settings Districts in high focus states in India. Participants Information regarding children below 5?years of age and women aged 15–49 has been extracted from the AHS (2010–2011), and household amenities information has been obtained from the Census (2011). Measures Household amenities were assessed from the census at the district level in the high focus states. Child health indicators and wealth index were borrowed from AHS and used in this study to check their linkage with household amenities. Results Absence of drinking water from a treated source, improved sanitation, usage of clean cooking fuel and drainage facility in the household were adversely associated with the incidence of acute respiratory infection, diarrhoea, infant mortality rate (IMR) and under 5 mortality rate (U5MR). The mean IMR declined from 64 to 54 for districts where a high proportion of household have improved sanitation. The result of ordinary least square regression shows that improved sanitation has a negative and statistically significant association (?=?0.0067, p<0.01) with U5MR. Conclusions Although child healthcare services are important in addressing child health issues, they barely touch on the root of the problem. Building toilets and providing safe drinking water, clean cooking fuel and drainage facilities at the household level, may prevent a number of adverse child health issues and may reduce the burden on the healthcare system in India. PMID:25968003

  19. FOLK HERBAL MEDICINE: A SURVEY ON THE PANIYA TRIBES OF MUNDAKUNNU VILLAGE OF THE NILGIRI HILLS, SOUTH INDIA

    PubMed Central

    Manikandan, P. N. Arul

    2005-01-01

    The present paper represents the results of an ethnobotanical survey conducted in Mundakunnu village of Gudalur taluk, Nilgiri district of Tamil Nadu, India. It has been observed that the plant species are used to various ailments of analgesic, antidiarrhoeal, piles, antidiabetic, gynecological problems, vermifuge, antidandruff, venereal diseases, bone fracture and as vegetables. A total of 52 plants species belonging to 51 genera (33 dicot & 6 monocot) have been discussed. PMID:22557184

  20. Communication Behavior of Village Level Workers in Surat and Mehsana Districts, Gujarat State, India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Ishwarlal Chaturdas

    This study investigated communication patterns, procedures, and background characteristics associated with effectiveness in village level workers (VLWs) in two districts of Gujarat, India. Questionnaire interviews were held with 222 VLWs who had induced farmers to adopt one or more farm practices. An appraisal form was used to measure the…

  1. India: Implications of Communication Infrastructure on the Production of Media in State Training Institutes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maughan, George R.

    1989-01-01

    Description of training institutes developed by the government of India to improve the irrigation system focuses on the communication system infrastructure for the production and use of audiovisual materials for training. Highlights include local production of media; equipment and communication networks; cost effectiveness; and recommendations for…

  2. Groundwater pollution around an industrial area in the coastal stretch of Maharashtra State, India.

    PubMed

    Naik, Pradeep K; Dehury, Biranchi N; Tiwari, Arun N

    2007-09-01

    The main objective of this paper is to examine pollution threat, especially to the groundwater resources, around Tarapur industrial area (also called the Tarapur MIDC area) located on the Arabian Sea Coast in Thane District of Maharashtra State, India and suggest remedial measures that may also be relevant to other industrial areas on the Indian Sea Coast. One hundred and thirty one samples were collected from various sources, such as dugwells, borewells, dug-cum-borewells, effluent sumps, drainage channels (effluent channels), creeks and ocean, for chemical analyses. These analyses show that the area in general is characterized by hard water and high salinity hazard, possibly due to its proximity and hydraulic connection with the sea. Although the potability of groundwater is questionable in certain pockets, it is good enough for irrigation purposes at present. Low pH value and high heavy metal contents in the adjoining Muramba creek water is a matter of great concern and may be attributed to the indiscriminate disposal of industrial effluents to the drainage channels connecting the creek. Muramba Creek is well connected with the Arabian Sea, and there are evidences of seawater intrusion around this creek. Because of the fact that Muramba Creek is highly polluted, and is hydraulically connected with the dugwells and borewells surrounding the creek, it cannot be ruled out that the groundwater around this creek is susceptible to contamination. Unless measures are not taken immediately to stop the indiscriminate disposal of the solid wastes and liquid effluents in open ground and drainage channels, and measures are not taken to maintain the appropriate pH values at the effluent treatment facilities before their disposal, the problem would indeed be formidable one day, and it will be too late then for the authorities to take care of the resulting maladies. Few suggestions have been given for controlling and managing the industrial pollution around the Tarapur MIDC area. These suggestions are relevant to other industrial areas situated on the 7,000 km long Indian Sea Coast. PMID:17171245

  3. Geospatial characterization of deforestation, fragmentation and forest fires in Telangana state, India: conservation perspective.

    PubMed

    Sudhakar Reddy, C; Vazeed Pasha, S; Jha, C S; Dadhwal, V K

    2015-07-01

    Conservation of biodiversity has been put to the highest priority throughout the world. The process of identifying threatened ecosystems will search for different drivers related to biodiversity loss. The present study aimed to generate spatial information on deforestation and ecological degradation indicators of fragmentation and forest fires using systematic conceptual approach in Telangana state, India. Identification of ecosystems facing increasing vulnerability can help to safeguard the extinctions of species and useful for conservation planning. The technological advancement of satellite remote sensing and Geographical Information System has increased greatly in assessment and monitoring of ecosystem-level changes. The areas of threat were identified by creating grid cells (5 × 5 km) in Geographical Information System (GIS). Deforestation was assessed using multi-source data of 1930, 1960, 1975, 1985, 1995, 2005 and 2013. The forest cover of 40,746 km(2), 29,299 km(2), 18,652 km(2), 18,368 km(2), 18,006 km(2), 17,556 km(2) and 17,520 km(2) was estimated during 1930, 1960, 1975, 1985, 1995, 2005 and 2013, respectively. Historical evaluation of deforestation revealed that major changes had occurred in forests of Telangana and identified 1095 extinct, 397 critically endangered, 523 endangered and 311 vulnerable ecosystem grid cells. The fragmentation analysis has identified 307 ecosystem grid cells under critically endangered status. Forest burnt area information was extracted using AWiFS data of 2005 to 2014. Spatial analysis indicates total fire-affected forest in Telangana as 58.9% in a decadal period. Conservation status has been recorded depending upon values of threat for each grid, which forms the basis for conservation priority hotspots. Of existing forest, 2.1% grids had severe ecosystem collapse and had been included under the category of conservation priority hotspot-I, followed by 27.2% in conservation priority hotspot-II and 51.5% in conservation priority hotspot-III. This analysis complements assessment of ecosystems undergoing multiple threats. An integrated approach involving the deforestation and degradation indicators is useful in formulating the strategies to take appropriate conservation measures. PMID:26093894

  4. Seasonal Variation of Groundwater Quality in Erode District, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Kavidha, R; Elangovan, K

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, the recurring environmental issues regarding hazardous waste, global climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, groundwater contamination, disaster mitigation and removal of pollutant have become the focus of environmental attention. In the management of water resources, quality of water is just as important as its quantity. In order to assess the quality and/or suitability of groundwater for drinking and irrigation in Erode District, 144 water samples each in post-monsoon and pre-monsoon during the year 2007 were collected and analyzed for various parameters. These parameters were compared with IS: 10500-1991 drinking water standards. Out of 144 samples, 29 samples exceeded the permissible limit for both the monsoons, 71 samples were within the permissible limit for both the monsoons and the remaining samples exceeded the permissible limit for any one of the monsoon. During both monsoons, except some samples, most of the samples were suitable for drinking and irrigation. PMID:26563080

  5. GPR studies over the tsunami affected Karaikal beach, Tamil Nadu, south India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loveson, V. J.; Gujar, A. R.; Barnwal, R.; Khare, Richa; Rajamanickam, G. V.

    2014-08-01

    In this study, results of GPR profiling related to mapping of subsurface sedimentary layers at tsunami affected Karaikal beach are presented . A 400 MHz antenna was used for profiling along 262 m stretch of transect from beach to backshore areas with penetration of about 2.0 m depth (50 ns two-way travel time). The velocity analysis was carried out to estimate the depth information along the GPR profile. Based on the significant changes in the reflection amplitude, three different zones are marked and the upper zone is noticed with less moisture compared to other two (saturated) zones. The water table is noticed to vary from 0.5 to 0.75 m depth (12-15 ns) as moving away from the coastline. Buried erosional surface is observed at 1.5 m depth (40-42 ns), which represents the limit up to which the extreme event acted upon. In other words, it is the depth to which the tsunami sediments have been piled up to about 1.5 m thickness. Three field test pits were made along the transect and sedimentary sequences were recorded. The sand layers, especially, heavy mineral layers, recorded in the test pits indicate a positive correlation with the amplitude and velocity changes in the GPR profile. Such interpretation seems to be difficult in the middle zone due to its water saturation condition. But it is fairly clear in the lower zone located just below the erosional surface where the strata is comparatively more compact. The inferences from the GPR profile thus provide a lucid insight to the subsurface sediment sequences of the tsunami sediments in the Karaikal beach.

  6. Complexity, complicity and fluidity: early years provision in Tamil Nadu (India

    E-print Network

    Aruldoss, Vinnarasan

    2013-11-27

    Early years provision, which combines childcare and preschool education, has been considered vital for child development by theorists and practitioners. Within early years provision pedagogy is assumed to be both an ...

  7. Assessment of fluoride contaminations in groundwater of hard rock aquifers in Madurai district, Tamil Nadu (India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thivya, C.; Chidambaram, S.; Rao, M. S.; Thilagavathi, R.; Prasanna, M. V.; Manikandan, S.

    2015-07-01

    The fluoride contamination in drinking water is already gone to the alarming level and it needs the immediate involvement and attention of all people to solve this problem. Fluoride problem is higher in hard rock terrains in worldwide and Madurai is such type of hard rock region. Totally 54 samples were collected from the Madurai district of Tamilnadu with respect to lithology. The samples collected were analysed for major cations and anions using standard procedures. The higher concentration of fluoride is noted in the Charnockite rock types of northern part of the study area. 20 % of samples are below 0.5 ppm and 6 % of samples are above 1.5 ppm exceeding the permissible limit. The affinity between the pH and fluoride ions in groundwater suggests that dissolution of fluoride bearing minerals in groundwater. The higher concentration of fluoride ions are observed in the lower EC concentration. The isotopic study suggests that fluoride is geogenic in nature. In factor scores, fluoride is noted in association with pH which indicates the dissolution process.

  8. Hydrochemical characteristics and quality assessment of groundwater along the Manavalakurichi coast, Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, Y.; Aghil, T. B.; Hudson Oliver, D.; Nithya Nair, C.; Chandrasekar, N.

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to find the groundwater quality of coastal aquifer along Manavalakurichi coast. For this study, a total of 30 groundwater samples were collected randomly from open wells and borewells. The concentration of major ions and other geochemical parameters in the groundwater were analyzed in the laboratory by adopting standard procedures suggested by the American Public Health Association. The order of the dominant cations in the study area was found to be Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+, whereas the sequence of dominant anions was {{Cl}}^{ - } > {{HCO}}3^{ - } > {{SO}}4^{2 - } . The hydrogeochemical facies of the groundwater samples were studied by constructing piper trilinear diagram which revealed the evidence of saltwater intrusion into the study area. The obtained geochemical parameters were compared with the standard permissible limits suggested by the World Health Organization and Indian Standard Institution to determine the drinking water quality in the study area. The analysis suggests that the groundwater from the wells W25 and W26 is unsuitable for drinking. The suitability of groundwater for irrigation was studied by calculating percent sodium, sodium absorption ratio and residual sodium carbonate values. The Wilcox and USSL plots were also prepared. It was found that the groundwater from the stations W1, W25 and W26 is unfit for irrigation. The Gibbs plots were also sketched to study the mechanisms controlling the geochemical composition of groundwater in the study area.

  9. An investigation on the pollution status of holy aquifers of Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Sivasankar, V; Ramachandramoorthy, T

    2009-09-01

    The Study area is the sacred Ramanathasamy temple and selected for the characterization of physico-chemical parameters viz., pH, EC, TDS, Salinity, TA, TH, Ca( + 2), Mg( + 2), Chloride and Fluoride for 22 groundwater samples and the impact of pre- and post-monsoon on the groundwater quality was also studied. The study area is well known for the chronic fresh water shortage and the locals depend mostly on springs for their fresh water needs. The Water Quality Index (WQI) computed shows the transfer of samples under unacceptable quality to acceptable quality. The Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) reflected that majority of the samples have the tendency to form scale. The Karl Pearson correlation matrix has approved the maximum relationship of calcium and chloride with respect to the total dissolved solids (TDS). It is interesting to conclude that the groundwater in the study area has very hard nature, especially of non-carbonate type. PMID:18716889

  10. From "Time Pass" to Transformative Force: School-Based Human Rights Education in Tamil Nadu, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajaj, Monisha

    2012-01-01

    This article presents data collected at the level of practice to highlight one non-governmental organization's approach to human rights education and how household-, school-, and community-level factors mediated student impact. Findings suggest that a variety of factors at the three levels contribute to the program's successful implementation in…

  11. Phytochemicals of selected plant species of the Apocynaceae and Asclepiadaceae from Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A concern about the declining supply of petroleum products has led to a renewed interest in evaluating plant species as potential alternate sources of energy. Five species of the Apocynaceae and three species of the Asclepiadaceae from the Western Ghats were evaluated as alternative sources of energ...

  12. ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES FROM PLANTS OF WESTERN GHATS (TAMIL NADU, INDIA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-two taxa of Western Ghats plants were screened as potential alternative crops for renewable energy, oil, hydrocarbon and phytochemicals. The highest hydrocarbon yields were observed in Carissa carandas (1.7%), and Jatropha gossypifolia (1.7%). The highest polyphenol fraction was observed in D...

  13. Landscape Heterogeneity mapping for Access to Tribal health care in Nilgiris District of Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brindha, B.; Prashanthi Devi, M.

    2014-11-01

    The Nilgiris district in Tamilnadu has a rich biodiversity in terms of flora, fauna and ethnic population. The district is basically a mountainous region, situated at an elevation of 2000 to 2,600 meters above MSL and constituting of several hill and Steep Mountain valleys. This region houses six tribes who are mainly forest dwellers and live in close settlements depending on the forest resources for their livelihood. The Tribes of Nilgiris have been diagnosed and monitored for Sickle cell Anemia which is a disease of major concern among these ethnic populations. This genetic disorder developed due to the sickling of Red Blood Cells has increased during the past few decades. The Tribes, as they live in close encounter with the forest regions and have strict social cultural barriers, face difficulty in availing treatment or counseling from the Sickle Cell Research Center (SCRC) and other NGOs like NAWA and AHWINI in the region. It was observed that many factors such as landscape terrain, climatic conditions and improper roads tend to hinder the access to appropriate health care. The SCRC in Gudalur region is a facility established to monitor the disease cases inspite of these influencing factors. On analyzing the year bound age wise classification among male and female patients, certain dropouts in cases were observed which may be due to inaccessible condition or migration of the patient. In our study, Landscape heterogeneity mapping for different climatic seasons was done in ArcGIS 10.1. For this, contour and terrain maps, road networks and villages were prepared and factors that determine Terrain Difficulty were assessed. Vegetation mapping using IRS satellite images for the study region was attempted and associated with the landscape map. A risk analysis was proposed based on terrain difficulty and access to the nearest Health care Center. Based on this, the above factors alternate routes were suggested to access the difficult areas.

  14. Malaria problem and its control in north eastern states of India.

    PubMed

    Yadava, R L; Sharma, R S

    1995-12-01

    There has been a substantial increase in the overall malaria incidence and incidence of Plasmodium falciparum in the north-eastern region of India. The main contributory factors for this are: (i) difficult terrain, (ii) 'Jhum' cultivation, (iii) presence of optimum climatic conditions for prolonged transmission, (iv) presence of highly efficient malaria vectors, (v) developmental projects attracting aggregation of labour, (vi) influx of population along the international borders and (vii) chloroquine resistant P. falciparum strains. To combat this situation new approaches like providing 100 per cent Central assistance, intensifying training of personnel and DDT spray, opening Drug Distribution Centres and Fever Treatment Depots and making drugs available in the villages have been put into action. In this communication the overall malaria situation in the north-east India is discussed. PMID:8866993

  15. Perchlorate contamination of groundwater from fireworks manufacturing area in South India.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Tomohiko; Ogawa, Shohei P; Sugimoto, Rina; Ramu, Karri; Sudaryanto, Agus; Malarvannan, Govindan; Devanathan, Gnanasekaran; Ramaswamy, Babu Rajendran; Munuswamy, Natesan; Ganesh, Deavaraj Sankar; Sivakumar, Jeyaraj; Sethuraman, A; Parthasarathy, V; Subramanian, Annamalai; Field, Jennifer; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-07-01

    Perchlorate contamination was investigated in groundwater and surface water from Sivakasi and Madurai in the Tamil Nadu State of South India. Sensitive determination of perchlorate (LOQ?=?0.005 ?g/L) was achieved by large-volume (500 ?L) injection ion chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Concentrations of perchlorate were <0.005-7,690 ?g/L in groundwater (n?=?60), <0.005-30.2 ?g/L in surface water (n?=?11), and 0.063-0.393 ?g/L in tap water (n?=?3). Levels in groundwater were significantly higher in the fireworks factory area than in the other locations, indicating that the fireworks and safety match industries are principal sources of perchlorate pollution. This is the first study that reports the contamination status of perchlorate in this area and reveals firework manufacture to be the pollution source. Since perchlorate levels in 17 out of 57 groundwater samples from Sivakasi, and none from Madurai, exceeded the drinking water guideline level proposed by USEPA (15 ?g/L), further investigation on human health is warranted. PMID:23108714

  16. Relative Roles of Weather Variables and Change in Human Population in Malaria: Comparison over Different States of India

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Prashant; Murty, Upadhayula Suryanarayana; Mutheneni, Srinivasa Rao; Krishnan, Swathi Trithala

    2014-01-01

    Background Pro-active and effective control as well as quantitative assessment of impact of climate change on malaria requires identification of the major drivers of the epidemic. Malaria depends on vector abundance which, in turn, depends on a combination of weather variables. However, there remain several gaps in our understanding and assessment of malaria in a changing climate. Most of the studies have considered weekly or even monthly mean values of weather variables, while the malaria vector is sensitive to daily variations. Secondly, rarely all the relevant meteorological variables have been considered together. An important question is the relative roles of weather variables (vector abundance) and change in host (human) population, in the change in disease load. Method We consider the 28 states of India, characterized by diverse climatic zones and changing population as well as complex variability in malaria, as a natural test bed. An annual vector load for each of the 28 states is defined based on the number of vector genesis days computed using daily values of temperature, rainfall and humidity from NCEP daily Reanalysis; a prediction of potential malaria load is defined by taking into consideration changes in the human population and compared with the reported number of malaria cases. Results For most states, the number of malaria cases is very well correlated with the vector load calculated with the combined conditions of daily values of temperature, rainfall and humidity; no single weather variable has any significant association with the observed disease prevalence. Conclusion The association between vector-load and daily values of weather variables is robust and holds for different climatic regions (states of India). Thus use of all the three weather variables provides a reliable means of pro-active and efficient vector sanitation and control as well as assessment of impact of climate change on malaria. PMID:24971510

  17. Universal health coverage for India by 2022: a utopia or reality?

    PubMed

    Singh, Zile

    2013-04-01

    It is the obligation of the state to provide free and universal access to quality health-care services to its citizens. India continues to be among the countries of the world that have a high burden of diseases. The various health program and policies in the past have not been able to achieve the desired goals and objectives. 65(th) World Health Assembly in Geneva identified universal health coverage (UHC) as the key imperative for all countries to consolidate the public health advances. Accordingly, Planning Commission of India constituted a high level expert group (HLEG) on UHC in October 2010. HLEG submitted its report in Nov 2011 to Planning Commission on UHC for India by 2022. The recommendations for the provision of UHC pertain to the critical areas such as health financing, health infrastructure, health services norms, skilled human resources, access to medicines and vaccines, management and institutional reforms, and community participation. India faces enormous challenges to achieve UHC by 2022 such as high disease prevalence, issues of gender equality, unregulated and fragmented health-care delivery system, non-availability of adequate skilled human resource, vast social determinants of health, inadequate finances, lack of inter-sectoral co-ordination and various political pull and push of different forces, and interests. These challenges can be met by a paradigm shift in health policies and programs in favor of vulnerable population groups, restructuring of public health cadres, reorientation of undergraduate medical education, more emphasis on public health research, and extensive education campaigns. There are still areas of concern in fulfilling the objectives of achieving UHC by 2022 regarding financing model for health-care delivery, entitlement package, cost of health-care interventions and declining state budgets. However, the Government's commitment to provide adequate finances, recent bold social policy initiatives and enactments such as food security bill, enhanced participation by civil society in all health matters, major initiative by some states such as Tamil Nadu to improve health, water, and sanitation services are good enough reasons for hope that UHC can be achieved by 2022. However, in the absence of sustained financial support, strong political will and leadership, dedicated involvement of all stakeholders and community participation, attainment of UHC by 2022 will remain a Utopia. PMID:23878417

  18. Estimation of Stature From Hand and Foot Measurements in a Rare Tribe of Kerala State in India

    PubMed Central

    Geetha, GN; Swathi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The present study has been undertaken on the Vettuvar group of tribes in Kasargod district of Kerala state, and explores the usability of dimensions of hands and feet as predictors of stature in the tribal population of Kasargod District of Kerala, India. The present study is the first ever documented anthropological work on the tribes of Kasargod district, Kerala, India. Materials and Methods Two hundred subjects comprising of 100 males and 100 females in 20-30 years age group were included in the study group. Dimensions of hands and feet viz: hand length, hand breadth, foot length and foot breadth were measured independently on left and right side of each individual using a Sliding calliper. Stature of individuals was measured with the help of a Stadiometer. Results Statistical analysis indicated that the bilateral variations were insignificant for all the measurements except foot breadth among females (p<0.001). The paired sample t-test showed that the statistical difference between males and females was highly significant for all the measurements (p<0.001). The correlation between the stature and various parameters studied in males and females were found to be positive and statistically highly significant. Linear and multiple regression equation for stature estimation were calculated separately for males and females. Conclusion The significant positive correlation between the study variables and the stature indicates that these variables can be successfully used to predict stature. PMID:26557539

  19. Complex Behaviour of Glaciers in Ladakh Mountains (J & K State, India) : Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganjoo, R. K.

    2011-12-01

    The Ladakh Mountains house approximately 4500 glaciers in its two major basins, namely Indus (1800 glaciers) and Shyok (2700 glaciers).Glaciers in Indian Himalaya have been under monitor for past about five decades. Monitoring of scores of glaciers have been both in terms of documentary record and field studies of the glaciers in northwest Himalaya. The studies suggest that glaciers of Ladakh mountains show an extremely different behavior as compared to the glaciers of rest of northwest Himalaya. Four glaciers, namely Durung Drung, Kangriz, Machoi and Siachen, representing the Indus and Shyok basin are dealt herein. Sufficient documentary and field evidences of these four glaciers support the view that glaciers housed in Ladakh mountains contradict the commonly accepted concept of fast melting glaciers in Himalaya (Ganjoo and Koul 2009; Ganjoo et al. 2010). The studies further suggest that the secular movement of glaciers in Ladakh mountains is a complex phenomena of several micro and macro-climatic factors, terrain morphology, and tectonics (Ganjoo 2009, Koul and Ganjoo 2010). The change in the morphology of glaciers is not necessarily related with the change in climate as commonly believed and hyped. Ganjoo, R.K. (2009) Holocene Tectonics and Climate of Durung Drung Glacier Basin, Zanskar Himalaya, India (Abstract). The 5th International Symposium on Tibetan Plateau and 24th Himalaya- Karakorum-Tibet Workshop, Aug. 11-14, Beijing, China. Ganjoo, R.K. and Koul, M.N. (2009) Is the Siachen glacier melting? Current Science, 97(3), 309-310. Ganjoo, RK; Koul, MN; Ajai; Bahuguna, IM (2010) Glaciers of Nubra valley, Karakorum mountains, Ladakh (India) vis-à-vis climate change (abstract). 7th Annual Meeting of Asia Oceania Geosciences Society, Hyderabad. Koul, M.N. and Ganjoo, R.K. (2010) Impact of inter- and intra-annual variation in weather parameters on mass balance and equilibrium line altitude of Naradu glacier (Himachal Pradesh), NW Himalaya, India. Climatic Change, 99, 119-139.

  20. Burden of Complicated Malaria in a Densely Forested Bastar Region of Chhattisgarh State (Central India)

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Vidhan; Basak, Sanjay; Bhandari, Sneha; Bharti, Praveen K.; Thomas, Trilok; Singh, Mrigendra P.; Singh, Neeru

    2014-01-01

    Background A prospective study on severe and complicated malaria was undertaken in the tribal dominated area of Bastar division, Chhattisgarh (CG), Central India, with an objective to understand the clinical epidemiology of complicated malaria in patients attending at a referral hospital. Methods Blood smears, collected from the general medicine and pediatric wards of a government tertiary health care facility located in Jagdalpur, CG, were microscopically examined for malaria parasite from July 2010 to December 2013. The Plasmodium falciparum positive malaria cases who met enrollment criteria and provided written informed consent were enrolled under different malaria categories following WHO guidelines. PCR was performed to reconfirm the presence of P.falciparum mono infection among enrolled cases. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to identify different risk factors using STATA 11.0. Results A total of 40,924 cases were screened for malaria. The prevalence of malaria and P.falciparum associated complicated malaria (severe and cerebral both) in the hospital was 6% and 0.81%, respectively. P.falciparum malaria prevalence, severity and associated mortality in this region peaked at the age of>4–5 years and declined with increasing age. P.falciparum malaria was significantly more prevalent in children than adults (P<0.00001). Among adults, males had significantly more P.falciparum malaria than females (P<0.00001). Case fatality rate due to cerebral malaria and severe malaria was, respectively, 32% and 9% among PCR confirmed mono P.falciparum cases. Coma was the only independent predictor of mortality in multivariate regression analysis. Mortality was significantly associated with multi-organ complication score (P?=?0.0003). Conclusion This study has revealed that the pattern of morbidity and mortality in this part of India is very different from earlier reported studies from India. We find that the peak morbidity and mortality in younger children regardless of seasonality. This suggests that this age group needs special care for control and clinical management. PMID:25531373

  1. State of Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry in India: Current status and vision for future

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sandeep

    2011-01-01

    Over the years Consultation-Liaison (C-L) psychiatry has contributed significantly to the growth of the psychiatry and has brought psychiatry very close to the advances in the medicine. It has also led to changes in the medical education and in the providing comprehensive management to the physically ill. In India, although the General Hospital Psychiatric units were established in 1930s, C-L Psychiatry has never been the main focus of training and research. Hence there is an urgent need to improve C-L Psychiatry services and training to provide best and optimal care to the patients and provide best education to the trainees. PMID:22135437

  2. India has the largest number of people infected with HIV.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S

    1999-01-01

    With a population of almost 1 billion people and an estimated 4 million people infected with HIV, India is thought to be the country with the largest number of HIV-infected people in the world. According to UNAIDS, HIV is firmly embedded in India's general population and rapidly spreading into rural areas previously thought to be relatively spared from the epidemic. Almost 500,000 people are infected in Tamil Nadu and the infection rate is 3 times higher in villages than in cities. According to the National AIDS Control Organization, the rate of HIV infection among attendees of STD clinics in Mumbai increased from 23% to 36% in 1 year, and 51% of prostitutes in Mumbai and 55.8% of IV drug users in Manipur are infected. It is estimated that AIDS will cost India US$11 billion cumulatively by 2000, 5% of the country's gross domestic product. Negotiations are underway for the World Bank to loan India $200 million with which to combat HIV/AIDS. Since antiretroviral therapy is too expensive for most Indians, vaccine research must be accelerated in India. HIV infection in India is mainly of HIV-1 subtype C, although subtypes A and B, along with some new recombinant subtypes, have also been reported. HIV-2 has been reported sporadically. PMID:10023963

  3. The GVK EMRI maternal and neonatal transport system in India: a mega plan for a mammoth problem.

    PubMed

    Kumutha, J; Rao, G V Ramana; Sridhar, B N; Vidyasagar, D

    2015-10-01

    Maternal and infant mortality has been a major concern in India with the Government taking serious efforts to achieve the Millennium Development Goals by 2015. Ganapathy Venkata Krishna Reddy Emergency Management and Research Institute (GVK EMRI) is one such effort and is the country's first emergency service provider working under the public-private partnership model to provide emergency response services and quality pre-hospital care to any sick person, pregnant mothers, and sick neonates. Since the introduction of the emergency medical services, institutional deliveries have increased in all states and union territories where the ambulances have been deployed and the majority of mothers have been provided the required emergency care at the appropriate time. This in turn has helped in considerably reducing the maternal mortality. GVK EMRI has partnered with the government of Tamil Nadu and deployed specialized neonatal ambulances to ensure safe transport of newborns. The safe transport of sick, vulnerable neonates and the improvement in survival of transported neonates over the years advocate scaling up of this program to other states, which would greatly contribute towards reducing infant and neonatal mortality. PMID:26212526

  4. Developing a sustainable phytomanagement strategy for excessive selenium in western United States and India.

    PubMed

    Bañuelos, G S; Dhillon, K S

    2011-01-01

    Phytomanagement technology is recognized as an inexpensive and environmental friendly strategy for managing natural-occurring selenium (Se) in soils and in poor quality waters. Multi-year field and greenhouse studies were conducted with different plant species in California, USA and Punjab, India under high Se growing conditions. Some of the plant species included; canola (Brassica napus), mustard (B. juncea), broccoli (B. oleracea), spearmint (Mentha viridis), sugarcane (Saccharum officcinarum), guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and poplar (Populus deltoides). California soils had a sodium-sulfate-dominated salinity between 6-10 dS m(-1), while Indian soils had a calcium carbonate salinity less than 1 dS m(-1). Results demonstrated that high sulfate conditions reduced plant Se accumulation more than 100 x in Californian grown plants compared to Se accumulation in Indian grown plants. Tissue concentrations generally did not exceed 10 and 200 mg kg DM(-1) in leaves of plants grown in California and India, respectively. At these plant concentrations, Se phytomanagement is more effective in Indian soils than in California soils. Successful management of Se by plants requires selecting crops or crop rotations that are tolerant of the soil condition and identifying and creating new viable Se-enriched products. PMID:22046761

  5. Groundwater arsenic contamination in Manipur, one of the seven North-Eastern Hill states of India: a future danger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Singh, E. Jayantakumar; Das, Bhaskar; Shah, Babar Ali; Hossain, M. Amir; Nayak, Bishwajit; Ahamed, Sad; Singh, N. Rajmuhon

    2008-11-01

    Manipur State, with a population of 2.29 million, is one of the seven North-Eastern Hill states in India, and is severely affected by groundwater arsenic contamination. Manipur has nine districts out of which four are in Manipur Valley where 59% of the people live on 10% of the land. These four districts are all arsenic contaminated. We analysed water samples from 628 tubewells for arsenic out of an expected total 2,014 tubewells in the Manipur Valley. Analyzed samples, 63.3%, contained >10 ?g/l of arsenic, 23.2% between 10 and 50 ?g/l, and 40% >50 ?g/l. The percentages of contaminated wells above 10 and 50 ?g/l are higher than in other arsenic affected states and countries of the Ganga-Meghna-Brahmaputra (GMB) Plain. Unlike on the GMB plains, in Manipur there is no systematic relation between arsenic concentration and the depth of tubewells. The source of arsenic in GMB Plain is sediments derived from the Himalaya and surrounding mountains. North-Eastern Hill states were formed at late phase of Himalaya orogeny, and so it will be found in the future that groundwater arsenic contamination in the valleys of other North-Eastern Hill states. Arsenic contaminated aquifers in Manipur Valley are mainly located within the Newer Alluvium. In Manipur, the high rainfall and abundant surface water resources can be exploited to avoid repeating the mass arsenic poisoning that has occurred on the GMB plains.

  6. Peer-to-Peer Consultations: Ancillary Services Peer Exchange with India: Experience from South Africa, Europe & the United States (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-05-01

    In support of national and subnational decision makers, the 21st Century Power Partnership regularly works with country partners to organize peer-to-peer consultations on critical issues. In March 2014, 21CPP collaborated with the Regulatory Assistance Project - India to host two peer-to-peer exchanges among experts from India, South Africa, Europe, and the United States to discuss the provision of ancillary services, particularly in the context of added variability and uncertainty from renewable energy. This factsheet provides a high level summary of the peer-to-peer consultation.

  7. Post-sterilization autonomy among young mothers in South India.

    PubMed

    Pallikadavath, Saseendran; Rajan, Irudaya; Singh, Abhishek; Ogollah, Reuben; Page, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the post-sterilization autonomy of women in south India in the context of early sterilization and low fertility. Quantitative data were taken from the third round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) carried out in 2005-06, and qualitative data from one village each in Kerala and Tamil Nadu during 2010-11. The incident rate ratios and thematic analysis showed that among currently married women under the age of 30 years, those who had been sterilized had significantly higher autonomy in household decision-making and freedom of mobility compared with women who had never used any modern family planning method. Early age at sterilization and low fertility enables women to achieve the social status that is generally attained at later stages in the life-cycle. Policies to capitalize on women's autonomy and free time resulting from early sterilization and low fertility should be adopted in south India. PMID:25487194

  8. Comparative Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistance in Community-Acquired Urinary Tract Infection Cases from Representative States of Northern and Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shivani; Padmavathi, DV

    2014-01-01

    Context: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are amongst the most common infections described in outpatient settings. Increased antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of urinary tract pathogens is a matter of global public health concern. Treatment of UTI depends on both prevalence and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of causative bacteria at any specific geographical location. Aim: This study was undertaken to compare the prevalence of uropathogens and their AMR profile in two different geographical parts of India. Materials and Methods: Clean-catch mid-stream urine samples were collected from adult patients, bacterial flora isolated from human urine was evaluated for antimicrobial susceptibility profile using Kirby Bauer’s disc diffusion method among patients from Hyderabad (Southern India), Rajasthan and Punjab (Northern India). The data were analysed using Chi-square (?2) test, confidence interval (CI), odds ratio (OR) analysis and p-value using SPSS 16 software. Results: Escherichia coli (55.1%) were the most prevalent isolates followed by Enterococcus faecalis (15.8%). Amikacin was the most active antimicrobial agents which showed low resistance rate of 14%. The present study revealed the geographical difference in prevalence of uropathogens with Klebsiella pneumoniae being the second most common uropathogen followed by E. faecalis in the states from northern India while no K. pneumoniae was seen in samples from southern India but E. faecalis was the second most prevalent organism. Conclusion: Therefore, development of regional surveillance programs is highly recommended for implementation of national CA-UTI guidelines in Indian settings. PMID:25386432

  9. Prevalence of generalized & abdominal obesity in urban & rural India- the ICMR - INDIAB Study (Phase-I) [ICMR - INDIAB-3

    PubMed Central

    Pradeepa, Rajendra; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Joshi, Shashank R.; Bhansali, Anil; Deepa, Mohan; Joshi, Prashant P.; Dhandania, Vinay K.; Madhu, Sri Venkata; Rao, Paturi Vishnupriya; Geetha, Loganathan; Subashini, Radhakrishnan; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Shukla, Deepak Kumar; Kaur, Tanvir; Mohan, Viswanathan; Das, Ashok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Overweight and obesity are rapidly increasing in countries like India. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of generalized, abdominal and combined obesity in urban and rural India. Methods: Phase I of the ICMR-INDIAB study was conducted in a representative population of three States [Tamil Nadu (TN), Maharashtra (MH) and Jharkhand (JH)] and one Union Territory (UT)[Chandigarh (CH)] of India. A stratified multi-stage sampling design was adopted and individuals ?20 yr of age were included. WHO Asia Pacific guidelines were used to define overweight [body mass index (BMI) ?23 kg/m2 but <25 kg/m2), generalized obesity (GO, BMI?25kg/m2), abdominal obesity (AO, waist circumference ?90 cm for men and ?80cm for women) and combined obesity (CO, GO plus AO). Of the 14,277 participants, 13,800 subjects (response rate, 96.7%) were included for the analysis (urban: n=4,063; rural: n=9737). Results: The prevalence of GO was 24.6, 16.6, 11.8 and 31.3 per cent among residents of TN, MH, JH and CH, while the prevalence of AO was 26.6, 18.7, 16.9 and 36.1 per cent, respectively. CO was present in 19.3, 13.0, 9.8 and 26.6 per cent of the TN, MH, JH and CH population. The prevalence of GO, AO and CO were significantly higher among urban residents compared to rural residents in all the four regions studied. The prevalence of overweight was 15.2, 11.3, 7.8 and 15.9 per cent among residents of TN, MH, JH and CH, respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that female gender, hypertension, diabetes, higher socio-economic status, physical inactivity and urban residence were significantly associated with GO, AO and CO in all the four regions studied. Age was significantly associated with AO and CO, but not with GO. Interpretation & conclusions: Prevalence of AO as well as of GO were high in India. Extrapolated to the whole country, 135, 153 and 107 million individuals will have GO, AO and CO, respectively. However, these figures have been estimated from three States and one UT of India and the results may be viewed in this light. PMID:26354211

  10. Assessment of 'accredited social health activists'-a national community health volunteer scheme in Karnataka State, India.

    PubMed

    Fathima, Farah N; Raju, Mohan; Varadharajan, Kiruba S; Krishnamurthy, Aditi; Ananthkumar, S R; Mony, Prem K

    2015-03-01

    About 700,000 Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHA) have been deployed as community health volunteers throughout India over the last few years. The objective of our study was to assess adherence to selection criteria in the recruitment of ASHA workers and to assess their performance against their job descriptions in Karnataka state, India. A cross-sectional survey, using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods, was undertaken in 2012. Three districts, 12 taluks (subdistricts), and 300 villages were selected through a sequential sampling scheme. For the quantitative survey, 300 ASHAs and 1,800 mothers were interviewed using sets of structured questionnaire. For the qualitative study, programme officers were interviewed via in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Mean ± SD age of ASHAs was 30.3 ± 5.0 years, and about 90% (261/294) were currently married, with eight years of schooling. ASHAs were predominantly (>80%) involved in certain tasks: home-visits, antenatal counselling, delivery escort services, breastfeeding advice, and immunization advice. Performance was moderate (40-60%) for: drug provision for tuberculosis, caring of children with diarrhoea or pneumonia, and organizing village meetings for health action. Performance was low (<25%) for advice on: contraceptive-use, obstetric danger sign assessment, and neonatal care. This was self-reported by ASHAs and corroborated by mothers. In conclusion, ASHA workers were largely recruited as per preset selection criteria with regard to age, education, family status, income, and residence. The ASHA workers were found to be functional in some areas with scope for improvement in others. The role of an ASHA worker was perceived to be more of a link-worker/facilitator rather than a community health worker or a social activist. PMID:25995730

  11. Impact of riparian land use on stream insects of Kudremukh National Park, Karnataka state, India

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, K.A.; Sivaramakrishnan, K.G.; Gadgil, Madhav

    2005-01-01

    The impact of riparian land use on the stream insect communities was studied at Kudremukh National Park located within Western Ghats, a tropical biodiversity hotspot in India. The diversity and community composition of stream insects varied across streams with different riparian land use types. The rarefied family and generic richness was highest in streams with natural semi evergreen forests as riparian vegetation. However, when the streams had human habitations and areca nut plantations as riparian land use type, the rarefied richness was higher than that of streams with natural evergreen forests and grasslands. The streams with scrub lands and iron ore mining as the riparian land use had the lowest rarefied richness. Within a landscape, the streams with the natural riparian vegetation had similar community composition. However, streams with natural grasslands as the riparian vegetation, had low diversity and the community composition was similar to those of paddy fields. We discuss how stream insect assemblages differ due to varied riparian land use patterns, reflecting fundamental alterations in the functioning of stream ecosystems. This understanding is vital to conserve, manage and restore tropical riverine ecosystems. PMID:17119631

  12. Indoor concentration of radon, thoron and their progeny around granite regions in the state of Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Sannappa, J; Ningappa, C

    2014-03-01

    An extensive studies on the indoor activity concentrations of thoron, radon and their progeny in the granite region in the state of Karnataka, India, has been carried out since, 2007 in the scope of a lung cancer epidemiological study using solid-state nuclear track detector-based double-chamber dosemeters (LR-115, type II plastic track detector). Seventy-four dwellings of different types were selected for the measurement. The dosemeters containing SSNTD detectors were fixed 2 m above the floor. After an exposure time of 3 months (90 d), films were etched to reveal tracks. From the track density, the concentrations of radon and thoron were evaluated. The value of the indoor concentration of thoron and radon in the study area varies from 16 to 170 Bq m(-3) and 18 to 300 Bq m(-3) with medians of 66 and 82.3 Bq m(-3), respectively, and that of their progeny varies from 1.8 to 24 mWL with a median of 3.6 mWL and 1.6 to 19.6 mWL, respectively. The concentrations of indoor thoron, radon and their progeny and their equivalent effective doses are discussed. PMID:24106330

  13. Isolation of viable but nonculturable Vibrio cholerae O1 from environmental water samples in Kolkata, India, in a culturable state

    PubMed Central

    Senoh, Mitsutoshi; Ghosh-Banerjee, Jayeeta; Mizuno, Tamaki; Shinoda, Sumio; Miyoshi, Shin-ichi; Hamabata, Takashi; Nair, G Balakrish; Takeda, Yoshifumi

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we reported that viable but nonculturable (VBNC) Vibrio cholerae was converted into a culturable state by coculture with several eukaryotic cell lines including HT-29 cells. In this study, we found that a factor converting VBNC V. cholerae into a culturable state (FCVC) existed in cell extracts of eukaryotic cells. FCVC was nondialyzable, proteinase K-sensitive, and stable to heating at <60°C for 5 min. We prepared thiosulfate citrate bile salts sucrose (TCBS) plates with FCVC (F-TCBS plates). After confirming that VBNC V. cholerae O1 and O139 formed typical yellow colonies on F-TCBS plates, we tried to isolate cholera toxin gene-positive VBNC V. cholerae from environmental water samples collected in urban slum areas of Kolkata, India and succeeded in isolating V. cholerae O1 El Tor variant strains harboring a gene for the cholera toxin. The possible importance of VBNC V. cholerae O1 as a source of cholera outbreaks is discussed. PMID:24574069

  14. A study on agricultural drought vulnerability at disaggregated level in a highly irrigated and intensely cropped state of India.

    PubMed

    Murthy, C S; Yadav, Manoj; Mohammed Ahamed, J; Laxman, B; Prawasi, R; Sesha Sai, M V R; Hooda, R S

    2015-03-01

    Drought is an important global hazard, challenging the sustainable agriculture and food security of nations. Measuring agricultural drought vulnerability is a prerequisite for targeting interventions to improve and sustain the agricultural performance of both irrigated and rain-fed agriculture. In this study, crop-generic agricultural drought vulnerability status is empirically measured through a composite index approach. The study area is Haryana state, India, a prime agriculture state of the country, characterised with low rainfall, high irrigation support and stable cropping pattern. By analysing the multiyear rainfall and crop condition data of kharif crop season (June-October) derived from satellite data and soil water holding capacity and groundwater quality, nine contributing indicators were generated for 120 blocks (sub-district administrative units). Composite indices for exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity components were generated after assigning variance-based weightages to the respective input indicators. Agricultural Drought Vulnerability Index (ADVI) was developed through a linear combination of the three component indices. ADVI-based vulnerability categorisation revealed that 51 blocks are with vulnerable to very highly vulnerable status. These blocks are located in the southern and western parts of the state, where groundwater quality is saline and water holding capacity of soils is less. The ADVI map has effectively captured the spatial pattern of agricultural drought vulnerability in the state. Districts with large number of vulnerable blocks showed considerably larger variability of de-trended crop yields. Correlation analysis reveals that crop condition variability, groundwater quality and soil factors are closely associated with ADVI. The vulnerability index is useful to prioritise the blocks for implementation of long-term drought management plans. There is scope for improving the methodology by adding/fine-tuning the indicators and by optimising the weights. PMID:25716524

  15. Use of Contraceptives and Unmet Need for Family Planning among Tribal Women in India and Selected Hilly States

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The paper provides a comprehensive picture of knowledge and use of contraceptives among scheduled tribes of India and selected central hilly states where tribal population contributes more than 30% of the total tribal population of the country. An attempt is also made to know how far scheduled tribes differ from non-tribes in the states, namely Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, and Chhattisgarh, using information collected in the third round of District-level Household Survey (DLHS-RCH III: 2007-2008). Bivariate analysis was used for understanding the level of knowledge, use of and unmet need for contraception among different tribal and non-tribal groups. Binary logistic regression was used for understanding the factors associated with the use of contraception and unmet need for family planning among tribal women. Knowledge and use of temporary contraceptive methods are considerably lower among tribal women compared to their non-tribal counterparts in the three states under study. Low acceptance due to phobia of adverse health consequences, accessibility to and lack of sound knowledge of contraception are the leading reasons for not using contraceptives. The unmet need for family planning among them was quite high, especially in the state of Jharkhand. Multivariate analysis substantiated the role of women and husbands’ education, age of women, and number of surviving boys in the use of any modern method of contraception. Educating women and their respective husbands about proper use and benefits of modern contraceptives is important to solve the problem of high unmet need for family planning among these tribal women. A simultaneous attention to the health systems strengthening component is crucial for ensuring sustained delivery of good-quality family planning services. PMID:25076671

  16. Cost & efficiency evaluation of a publicly financed & publicly delivered referral transport service model in three districts of Haryana State, India

    PubMed Central

    Prinja, Shankar; Manchanda, Neha; Aggarwal, Arun Kumar; Kaur, Manmeet; Jeet, Gursimer; Kumar, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Various models of referral transport services have been introduced in different States in India with an aim to reduce maternal and infant mortality. Most of the research on referral transport has focussed on coverage, quality and timeliness of the service with not much information on cost and efficiency. This study was undertaken to analyze the cost of a publicly financed and managed referral transport service model in three districts of Haryana State, and to assess its cost and technical efficiency. Methods: Data on all resources spent for delivering referral transport service, during 2010, were collected from three districts of Haryana State. Costs incurred at State level were apportioned using appropriate methods. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) technique was used to assess the technical efficiency of ambulances. To estimate the efficient scale of operation for ambulance service, the average cost was regressed on kilometres travelled for each ambulance station using a quadratic regression equation. Results: The cost of referral transport per year varied from ?5.2 million in Narnaul to ?9.8 million in Ambala. Salaries (36-50%) constituted the major cost. Referral transport was found to be operating at an average efficiency level of 76.8 per cent. Operating an ambulance with a patient load of 137 per month was found to reduce unit costs from an average ? 15.5 per km to ? 9.57 per km. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that the publicly delivered referral transport services in Haryana were operating at an efficient level. Increasing the demand for referral transport services among the target population represents an opportunity for further improving the efficiency of the underutilized ambulances. PMID:24521648

  17. Potential and prospects of solar energy in Uttara Kannada, District of Karnataka State, India

    SciTech Connect

    Ramachandra, T.V.; Subramanian, D.K.

    1997-11-01

    Estimation of solar radiation for Uttara Kannada district is done on the basis of solar and other climatological data available at stations located at Karwar, Honnavar, Shirali, Mangalore, and Goa. The most commonly used empirical formula is the one that relates sunshine duration and global radiation, also referred to as Angstrom`s equation. The authors have used this relationship to estimate global radiation based on 20 years of data at Mangalore and 25 years of data at Goa provided by the India Meteorological Department. It is seen that computed and measured values (actual values) of global radiation (GR) agree within the range of 2--5% for most months. Data at Goa and Mangalore have been analyzed in order to improve accuracy and to establish the role of other climatological parameters, such as mean daily temperature, relative humidity, specific humidity, minimum and maximum temperature, and rainfall. The computed and estimated values are within the range {+-}5%. With this empirical relationship, GR is estimated (kWh/m{sup 2}) for Karwar (with 37 years of climatological data), Honnavar (with 50 years of climatological data), and Bhatkal (Shirali, with 15 years of climatological data). Karwar has a GR range of 5.5--6.5 for January--May and is in the range of 4--5 during the monsoon months, July--September, while at Honnovar the GR range during January--May is 5.47--6.5 and its minimum during the monsoon months. This study suggests that solar conversion technologies have considerable potential for application, provided that questions of storage and the monsoon season requirement can be adequately addressed through other options. The abundance of solar resources can be illustrated by comparing the land requirements of solar projects (thermal or photovoltaic) with those of hydro or energy plantation projects.

  18. Burden of Outdoor Air Pollution in Kerala, India—A First Health Risk Assessment at State Level

    PubMed Central

    Tobollik, Myriam; Razum, Oliver; Wintermeyer, Dirk; Plass, Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    Ambient air pollution causes a considerable disease burden, particularly in South Asia. The objective of the study is to test the feasibility of applying the environmental burden of disease method at state level in India and to quantify a first set of disease burden estimates due to ambient air pollution in Kerala. Particulate Matter (PM) was used as an indicator for ambient air pollution. The disease burden was quantified in Years of Life Lost (YLL) for the population (30 + years) living in urban areas of Kerala. Scenario analyses were performed to account for uncertainties in the input parameters. 6108 (confidence interval (95% CI): 4150–7791) of 81,636 total natural deaths can be attributed to PM, resulting in 96,359 (95% CI: 65,479–122,917) YLLs due to premature mortality (base case scenario, average for 2008–2011). Depending on the underlying assumptions the results vary between 69,582 and 377,195 YLLs. Around half of the total burden is related to cardiovascular deaths. Scenario analyses show that a decrease of 10% in PM concentrations would save 15,904 (95% CI: 11,090–19,806) life years. The results can be used to raise awareness about air quality standards at a local level and to support decision-making processes aiming at cleaner and healthier environments. PMID:26343701

  19. Macro-Level Assessment of Seismically Induced Landslide Hazard for the State of Sikkim, India Based On GIS Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, N.; Sitharam, T. G.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a macro-level seismic landslide hazard assessment for the entire state of Sikkim, India, based on the Newmark's methodology. The slope map of Sikkim was derived from ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM). Seismic shaking in terms of peak horizontal acceleration (PHA) at bedrock level was estimated from deterministic seismic hazard analysis (DSHA), considering point source model. Peak horizontal acceleration at the surface level for the study area was estimated based on nonlinear site amplification technique, considering B-type NEHRP site class. The PHA at surface was considered to induce driving forces on slopes, thus causing landslides. Knowing the surface level PHA and slope angle, the seismic landslide hazard assessment for each grid point was carried out using Newmark's analysis. The critical static factor of safety required to resist landslide for the PHA (obtained from deterministic analysis) was evaluated and its spatial variation throughout the study area is presented. For any slope in the study area, if the in-situ (available) static factor of safety is greater than the static factor of safety required to resist landslide as predicted in the present study, that slope is considered to be safe.

  20. Altitudinal and Seasonal Variation in Drosophila Species on Mount Japfu of Nagaland, a Sub-Himalayan Hilly State of India

    PubMed Central

    Achumi, Bovito; Hegde, Shridhar N.; Lal, Pardeshi; Yenisetti, Sarat Chandra

    2013-01-01

    Drosophila (L.) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) has richly contributed to the understanding of patterns of inheritance, variation, speciation, and evolution. Drosophila, with its cosmopolitan nature and complexities in species compositions, is an excellent model for studying the eco-distributional patterns of various species. This study analyzed the altitudinal and seasonal variation in Drosophila species of Mount Japfu in Nagaland, a sub-Himalayan hilly state of northeast India, over the course of one year. A total of 4,680 Drosophila flies belonging to 19 species of 4 subgenera were collected at altitudes of 1500, 1800, 2100, 2400, and 2700 m a.s.l. The subgenus Sophophora Sturtevant was predominant, with 10 species, followed by subgenus Drosophila, with 4 species. Subgenus Dorsilopha and subgenus Scaptodrosophila were represented by 1 species each. The remaining 3 species were not identified. Cluster analysis and constancy methods were used to analyze the species occurrence qualitatively. Altitudinal changes in the population densities and relative abundances of the different species at different seasons were also studied. The diversity of the Drosophila community was assessed by applying Simpson's diversity index. At 1800 m a.s.l., the Simpson's index was low (0.09301), suggesting high Drosophila diversity at this altitude. The density of Drosophila changed significantly during different seasons (F = 26.72; df = 2; p < 0.0001). The results suggest the distributional pattern of a species or related group of species was uneven in space and time. PMID:24773245

  1. Application of a new methodology for coastal multi-hazard-assessment & management on the state of Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Rosendahl Appelquist, Lars; Balstrøm, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the application of a new methodology for coastal multi-hazard assessment & management under a changing global climate on the state of Karnataka, India. The recently published methodology termed the Coastal Hazard Wheel (CHW) is designed for local, regional and national hazard screening in areas with limited data availability, and covers the hazards of ecosystem disruption, gradual inundation, salt water intrusion, erosion and flooding. The application makes use of published geophysical data and remote sensing information and is showcasing how the CHW framework can be applied at a scale relevant for regional planning purposes. It uses a GIS approach to develop regional and sub-regional hazard maps as well as to produce relevant hazard risk data, and includes a discussion of uncertainties, limitations and management perspectives. The hazard assessment shows that 61 percent of Karnataka's coastline has a high or very high inherent hazard of erosion, making erosion the most prevalent coastal hazard. The hazards of flooding and salt water intrusion are also relatively widespread as 39 percent of Karnataka's coastline has a high or very high inherent hazard for both of these hazard types. PMID:25602921

  2. On the Social Constructionist Approach to Traumatized Selves in Post-disaster Settings: State-Induced Violence in Nandigram, India.

    PubMed

    Priya, Kumar Ravi

    2015-09-01

    Through the use of concepts such as traumatization and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the distressing experiences of survivors are understood in psychology and psychiatry primarily as the behavioural symptoms resulting supposedly from an incomplete emotional and cognitive processing of traumatic events. Due to such an exclusive focus on the intra-psychic processes, besides the survivors' healing facilitated by cultural beliefs and symbols, their trauma-related distress associated with the cultural interpretation of loss is also generally ignored. This paper illustrates the utility of the social constructionist paradigm in understanding the survivors' experiences of suffering and healing within the cultural and socio-political context of violence through an ethnographic study among the poor farmers of Nandigram, India, inflicted by violence from the state government as it tried to forcibly acquire their land to build a chemical factory. How the traumatized selves experience intense distress resulting from disruptions to a sense of wholeness and how this wholeness may be reformulated through culturally valued beliefs are highlighted in the themes of suffering ('experience of PTSD symptoms', 'betrayed self', 'overwhelmed by loss', and 'biographical disruption') and healing ('moral re-affirmation', 'sense of togetherness', 'sense of security due to change in political environment') presented in the vignettes. PMID:25604864

  3. Burden of Outdoor Air Pollution in Kerala, India—A First Health Risk Assessment at State Level.

    PubMed

    Tobollik, Myriam; Razum, Oliver; Wintermeyer, Dirk; Plass, Dietrich

    2015-09-01

    Ambient air pollution causes a considerable disease burden, particularly in South Asia. The objective of the study is to test the feasibility of applying the environmental burden of disease method at state level in India and to quantify a first set of disease burden estimates due to ambient air pollution in Kerala. Particulate Matter (PM) was used as an indicator for ambient air pollution. The disease burden was quantified in Years of Life Lost (YLL) for the population (30 + years) living in urban areas of Kerala. Scenario analyses were performed to account for uncertainties in the input parameters. 6108 (confidence interval (95% CI): 4150-7791) of 81,636 total natural deaths can be attributed to PM, resulting in 96,359 (95% CI: 65,479-122,917) YLLs due to premature mortality (base case scenario, average for 2008-2011). Depending on the underlying assumptions the results vary between 69,582 and 377,195 YLLs. Around half of the total burden is related to cardiovascular deaths. Scenario analyses show that a decrease of 10% in PM concentrations would save 15,904 (95% CI: 11,090-19,806) life years. The results can be used to raise awareness about air quality standards at a local level and to support decision-making processes aiming at cleaner and healthier environments. PMID:26343701

  4. Traditional Practicing with Arsenic Rich Water in Fish Industries Leads to Health Hazards in West Bengal and North-Eastern States of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashyap, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The supply of good quality food is main necessity for economic and social health of urban and rural population throughout the globe. This study comes to know the severity of As in the west Bengal and north-eastern states of the India. Over the 75% large population of India lives in villages and associated with farming and its related work. West Bengal is the densest populated area of India, fish and rice is the staple food as well as in north-eastern states. For the fulfil demand of fish large population the area are used fisheries as the business. Arsenic contamination in ground water is major growing threat to worldwide drinking water resources. High As contamination in water have been reported in many parts of the world Chandrasekharam et al., 2001; Smedley and Kinniburgh, 2002; Farooq et al., 2010). In context to West Bengal and north-east states of India arsenic is main problem in the food chain. These areas are very rich in arsenic many fold higher concentrations of Arsenic than their respective WHO permissible limits have been reported in the water. Over the 36 million people in Bengal delta are at risk due to drinking of As contaminated water (Nordstrom, 2002). The highest concentration of arsenic (535 ?g/L Chandrashekhar et al. 2012) was registered from Ngangkha Lawai Mamang Leikai area of Bishnupur district which is fifty fold of the WHO limit for arsenic and tenfold of Indian permissible limit. With the continuous traditional practicing (As rich water pond) and untreated arsenic rich water in fish industries leads to health hazards. A sustainable development in aquaculture should comprise of various fields including environmental, social, cultural and economic aspects. A scientific study has to be needed for the overcome on this problem and rain harvested water may be used for reduce the arsenic problems in fisheries.

  5. HIV in India: the Jogini culture.

    PubMed

    Borick, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Jogini is the name for a female sexually exploited temple attendant and is used interchangeably with Devadasi in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. Jogini are twice more likely than other women who are used for sexual intercourse in India to be HIV positive, and their rate of mortality from HIV is 10 times the total mortality rate for all women in India. The four states in India with the most Jogini also have the highest prevalence of HIV. The following case is unfortunately typical of the Jogini and sheds light on a potentially disastrous public health problem in rural South India. PMID:25015167

  6. Structural patterns in high grade terrain in parts of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugavanam, E. B.; Vidyadharan, K. T.

    1988-01-01

    Detailed geological mapping in parts of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka has brought out vast areas occupied by highly deformed charnockite and high grade gneisses. These areas, similar to high grade shield terrains in other parts of the world have the impress of extensive tectonic reworking multideformation and polymetamorphism and are closely associated with layered ultramafics, shelf type sediments and different igneous events. In North Arcot and Charmapuri districts of Tamil Nadu and Kollegal taluk in Mysore district in Karnataka, charnockite is intensely cofolded with a supracrustal succession of layered ultramafics, pyroxene granulite, pink granolites, magnetite quartzite and khondalites. These areas have undergone five phases of deformation, five generations of basic dyke activities, four phases of migmatisation and two periods of metallogeny. Geochronological data ranges from 2900 m.y. to 750 m.y. In working out the tectanostratigraphy of the above areas the basic dykes of different generations have served as major time markers. In addition, the persistent strike continuity of linear bands of pyroxene granulite, pink granolite and magnetite quartzite has been of great utility in using them as structural markers for bringing out the complex structural history in these areas.

  7. Usage pattern of synthetic food colours in different states of India and exposure assessment through commodities preferentially consumed by children.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Sumita; Purshottam, S K; Khanna, S K; Das, Mukul

    2011-08-01

    Exposure studies in children are emphasized nowadays given children's higher consumption vulnerability. The present study generated national-level data covering 16 major states of India on the usage pattern of colours and it identified food commodities through which a particular colour has the scope to exceed ADI limits. Out of the total analysed samples, 87.8% contained permitted colours, of which only 48% adhered to the prescribed limit of 100?mg?kg(-1). The majority of candyfloss, sugar toys, beverages, mouth fresheners, ice candy and bakery product samples exceeded the prescribed limit. Non-permitted colours were mostly prevalent in candyfloss and sugar toy samples. Though sunset yellow FCF (SSYFCF) and tartrazine were the two most popular colours, many samples used a blend of two or more colours. The blend of SSYFCF and tartrazine exceeded the prescribed limit by a factor of 37 in one sample, and the median and 95th percentile levels of this blend were 4.5- and 25.7-fold, respectively. The exposure assessment showed that the intake of erythrosine exceeded the ADI limits by two to six times at average levels of detected colours, whereas at the 95th percentile level both SSYFCF and erythrosine exceeded the respective ADI limits by three- to 12-fold in all five age groups. Thus, the uniform prescribed limit of synthetic colours at 100?mg?kg(-1) under Indian rules needs to be reviewed and should be governed by consumption profiles of the food commodities to check the unnecessary exposure of excessive colours to those vulnerable in the population that may pose a health risk. PMID:21790487

  8. Surface deformation monitored on the south eastern part of Uttarakhand State of India by the Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yhokha, A.; Chang, C.; Yen, J.; Goswami, P. K.; Ching, K.

    2013-12-01

    Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) is a useful tool in gathering the first basic information about the surface deformation, despite of different natural terrains, forested or mountainous region. This technique has been applied successfully by various worker in different field in extracting surface information in variety of terranes. The advantage of this techniques is that it has the ability of taking into account of only those return radar signal which are the brightest or the strongest in the surrounding background signal. Moreover, PS algorithms operate on a time series of interferograms all formed with respect to a single master SAR image that the noise terms of displacement for each PS pixel are much reduced. Keeping all these points in mind, we applied this technique in the Himalayan mountain, covering the south eastern part of the Uttarakhand state of India. So far lots of different work has been carried out in the Himalayan region, but less work has been done in regards to its surface deformation. The Himalayan mountain are well know for its segmented nature, different region undergoing different tectonic activity. In the similar manner, our PSI result in our study area also reveal two different set of deformation, with its eastern part revealing subsidence and the western part undergoing uplift, these two set of deformation is separated by a right later strike slip fault called, the Garampani-Kathgodam fault (G-KF). Apart from this obvious deformation, the western part also reveal differential deformation. Based on our result we have also tried to create a deformation model, to understand and to get better knowledge of the tectonic deformation setting.

  9. Residue dynamics of fenamidone and mancozeb on gherkin under two agro climatic zones in the state of Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Soudamini; Deepa, M

    2012-04-01

    Residue dynamics of fenamidone and mancozeb on gherkin was evaluated at two different agro climatic zones i.e. at Bangalore (Zone-1) and Dharwad (Zone-2) in the state of Karnataka, India. Two treatments of the combination formulation (fenamidone 10% + mancozeb 50%) were given at the standard dose 150 + 750 g a.i. ha(-1) and double dose 300 + 1,500 g a.i. ha(-1). Initial residue deposits of fenamidone were 0.467 and 0.474 mg kg(-1) at Zone-1 and 2, respectively from standard dose treatment. From double dose treatment they were 0.964 and 0.856 mg kg(-1), respectively. Fenamidone residues persisted for 15 and 10 days and dissipated with the half-life of 4 and 3 days at Zone-1 and 2, respectively. Mancozeb residue deposits on gherkin were 0.383 and 0.428 mg kg(-1) from standard dose and 0.727 and 0.626 mg kg(-1) from double dose treatment at Zone-1 and 2, respectively. Mancozeb residues dissipated with the half-life of 2 and 1 day, respectively. Residues of both fenamidone and mancozeb dissipated faster at Zone-2 compared to Zone-1. The limit of quantification of fenamidone and mancozeb were 0.02 and 0.1 mg kg(-1), respectively in both gherkin and soil. Residues of fenamidone and mancozeb in soil collected on the 20th day from the 2 locations were found to be below quantifiable limit of both fungicides. PMID:22349284

  10. Bacteriological Profile of Surgical Site Infections and Their Antibiogram: A Study From Resource Constrained Rural Setting of Uttarakhand State, India

    PubMed Central

    Negi, Vikrant; Pal, Shekhar; Sharma, Munesh Kumar; Sharma, Neelam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Surgical site infections (SSI) constitute a major public health problem worldwide and are the second most frequently reported nosocomial infections. They are responsible for increasing the treatment cost, length of hospital stay and significant morbidity and mortality. Aim To determine the incidence of SSIs and the prevalence of aerobic bacterial pathogens involved with their antibiogram. Materials and Methods Samples were collected using sterile cotton swabs from 137 patients clinically diagnosed of having SSIs and were processed as per standard microbiological techniques. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done using modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. This cross sectional study was conducted for a period of six months (January 2013 to June 2013) in the Department of Microbiology at a rural tertiary care hospital of Uttarakhand state, India. Results Out of 768 patients, 137 (17.8%) were found to have SSIs and samples were collected from them. Out of total 137 samples, 132 (96.4%) yielded bacterial growth and 139 bacterial isolates were obtained. Staphylococcus aureus (50.4%) was the commonest organism followed by Escherichia coli (23.02%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (7.9%) and Citrobacter species (7.9%). Antimicrobial profile of gram positive isolates revealed maximum sensitivity to vancomycin, teicoplanin and linezolid, whereas among gram negative isolates meropenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, and amikacin were found to be most sensitive. Conclusion The rate of SSI observed in this study was comparable to other similar studies, however we observed a higher degree of antimicrobial resistance. Adherence to strict infection control measures, maintenance of proper hand hygiene and optimal preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative patient care will surely reduce the incidence of SSIs. PMID:26557520

  11. Planting Trees in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, James M.

    Reforestation is desperately needed in India. Three-fourths of the country's ground surface is experiencing desertification, and primitive forests are being destroyed. Reforestation would help moderate temperatures, increase ground water levels, improve soil fertility, and alleviate a wood shortage. In the past, people from the United States, such…

  12. Can India's "Literate" Read?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata

    2010-01-01

    This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading Method…

  13. Environmental isotopes investigation on recharge processes and hydrodynamics of the coastal sedimentary aquifers of Tiruvadanai, Tamilnadu State, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravana Kumar, U.; Sharma, Suman; Navada, S. V.; Deodhar, A. S.

    2009-01-01

    SummaryEnvironmental isotopes ( 2H, 18O, 3H, 13C, 14C, 34S), in conjunction with hydro-geological and hydro-chemical data, were employed to understand the groundwater recharge processes and hydrodynamics of the Tiruvadanai aquifers in the Tamilnadu State in Southern India. Hydro-chemical characterisation of the groundwater indicated that the Tertiary aquifers (depth: 50-200 m, un-confined/semi-confined/confined), contain no-dominant (Ca-Mg-HCO 3-Cl) to brackish (Na-Cl) type of waters and the deeper (350-500 m) Cretaceous aquifer (confined) contains freshwater. The concentration of various chemical species along the general groundwater flow direction (northwest to east) showed a trend with decrease in Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ and an increase in Na + and K + in both Tertiary and Cretaceous aquifers which is also indicated by decreasing saturation index values for dolomite along the flow path. This could be attributed to ion-exchange processes. A higher pH value of Cretaceous aquifer samples (7.4-8.6) could also be responsible for the lowering of Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ concentrations by facilitating precipitation of carbonates in them. On the ? 2H-? 18O plot, the Tertiary aquifers samples fall on an evaporation line. Their 3H values near the ephemeral rivers range from 2 to 5 TU while those away from the rivers have <1 TU and 14C DIC model ages range from 1 to 13 ka BP. The Cretaceous aquifer samples measured 3H values <1.5 TU and their 14C DIC model ages are >20 ka BP, indicating palaeo-waters. Based on 14C model ages, the groundwater velocity was estimated (Tertiary aquifers: 10 -2-10 -3 m d -1; Cretaceous aquifer: 10 -3 m d -1). Dissolution of carbonate bearing minerals in the Tertiary aquifer and oxidation of organic matter in the Cretaceous aquifers seems to be the dominant processes and thus resulting in the corresponding enrichment and depletion in 13C DIC along the flowpaths. The values of ? 34S (aq. SO42-) showed enrichment in the Cretaceous aquifer samples compared to that of the Tertiary aquifers samples. The ? 34S (aq. SO42-) enrichment could be due to bacterial reduction of sulphate. From the investigation, three types of recharge processes to the aquifer system are discerned, with the overall modern recharge component being low. The Cretaceous aquifer contains fossil groundwaters and hence the resources may be finite and their exploitation is mining. Deeper coastal groundwater isotopic evidence of palaeo-climatic excursions between arid and humid phases during the Holocene and Late Pleistocene in the Southern India has been obtained for the first time.

  14. Gerontology in India.

    PubMed

    Panruti, Ramamurti V; Liebig, Phoebe S; Duvvuru, Jamuna

    2015-12-01

    India, with a population of 1.22 billion, has a predominantly agriculture-based economy. Its 90 million elderly population heavily depend on their children for financial support and caregiving. Research on aging in India today is focused on the medical, biological, behavioral, and social sciences. Aging as an independent subject is only taught at a few institutions. Several national and state agencies and many nongovernmental organizations offer housing, day care, and health care services. The 1999 National Policy on Older Persons is being revised, 2 National Institutes on Aging have been designated, and a pilot health program targeting seniors has been implemented. India's greatest concern is how to provide adequate health care and income security for its huge elderly population, especially the uneducated rural poor. PMID:26585602

  15. Disparities in child mortality trends: what is the evidence from disadvantaged states in India? the case of Orissa and Madhya Pradesh

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The Millennium Development Goals prompted renewed international efforts to reduce under-five mortality and measure national progress. However, scant evidence exists about the distribution of child mortality at low sub-national levels, which in diverse and decentralized countries like India are required to inform policy-making. This study estimates changes in child mortality across a range of markers of inequalities in Orissa and Madhya Pradesh, two of India’s largest, poorest, and most disadvantaged states. Methods Estimates of under-five and neonatal mortality rates were computed using seven datasets from three available sources – sample registration system, summary birth histories in surveys, and complete birth histories. Inequalities were gauged by comparison of mortality rates within four sub-state populations defined by the following characteristics: rural–urban location, ethnicity, wealth, and district. Results Trend estimates suggest that progress has been made in mortality rates at the state levels. However, reduction rates have been modest, particularly for neonatal mortality. Different mortality rates are observed across all the equity markers, although there is a pattern of convergence between rural and urban areas, largely due to inadequate progress in urban settings. Inter-district disparities and differences between socioeconomic groups are also evident. Conclusions Although child mortality rates continue to decline at the national level, our evidence shows that considerable disparities persist. While progress in reducing under-five and neonatal mortality rates in urban areas appears to be levelling off, polices targeting rural populations and scheduled caste and tribe groups appear to have achieved some success in reducing mortality differentials. The results of this study thus add weight to recent government initiatives targeting these groups. Equitable progress, particularly for neonatal mortality, requires continuing efforts to strengthen health systems and overcome barriers to identify and reach vulnerable groups. PMID:23802752

  16. Can currently available advanced combustion biomass cook-stoves provide health relevant exposure reductions? Results from initial assessment of select commercial models in India.

    PubMed

    Sambandam, Sankar; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Ghosh, Santu; Sadasivam, Arulselvan; Madhav, Satish; Ramasamy, Rengaraj; Samanta, Maitreya; Mukhopadhyay, Krishnendu; Rehman, Hafeez; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran

    2015-03-01

    Household air pollution from use of solid fuels is a major contributor to the national burden of disease in India. Currently available models of advanced combustion biomass cook-stoves (ACS) report significantly higher efficiencies and lower emissions in the laboratory when compared to traditional cook-stoves, but relatively little is known about household level exposure reductions, achieved under routine conditions of use. We report results from initial field assessments of six commercial ACS models from the states of Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh in India. We monitored 72 households (divided into six arms to each receive an ACS model) for 24-h kitchen area concentrations of PM2.5 and CO before and (1-6 months) after installation of the new stove together with detailed information on fixed and time-varying household characteristics. Detailed surveys collected information on user perceptions regarding acceptability for routine use. While the median percent reductions in 24-h PM2.5 and CO concentrations ranged from 2 to 71% and 10-66%, respectively, concentrations consistently exceeded WHO air quality guideline values across all models raising questions regarding the health relevance of such reductions. Most models were perceived to be sub-optimally designed for routine use often resulting in inappropriate and inadequate levels of use. Household concentration reductions also run the risk of being compromised by high ambient backgrounds from community level solid-fuel use and contributions from surrounding fossil fuel sources. Results indicate that achieving health relevant exposure reductions in solid-fuel using households will require integration of emissions reductions with ease of use and adoption at community scale, in cook-stove technologies. Imminent efforts are also needed to accelerate the progress towards cleaner fuels. PMID:25293811

  17. The biological sciences in India

    PubMed Central

    Dell, Karen

    2009-01-01

    India is gearing up to become an international player in the life sciences, powered by its recent economic growth and a desire to add biotechnology to its portfolio. In this article, we present the history, current state, and projected future growth of biological research in India. To fulfill its aspirations, India's greatest challenge will be in educating, recruiting, and supporting its next generation of scientists. Such challenges are faced by the US/Europe, but are particularly acute in developing countries that are racing to achieve scientific excellence, perhaps faster than their present educational and faculty support systems will allow. PMID:19204144

  18. 76 FR 18248 - Sulfanilic Acid From China and India

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ...731-TA-538 and 561 (Third Review)] Sulfanilic Acid From China and India AGENCY: United States...the countervailing duty order on sulfanilic acid from India and the antidumping duty orders on sulfanilic acid from China and...

  19. GIS based 3D visualization of subsurface and surface lineaments / faults and their geological significance, northern tamil nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanavel, J.; Ramasamy, S. M.

    2014-11-01

    The study area falls in the southern part of the Indian Peninsular comprising hard crystalline rocks of Archaeozoic and Proterozoic Era. In the present study, the GIS based 3D visualizations of gravity, magnetic, resistivity and topographic datasets were made and therefrom the basement lineaments, shallow subsurface lineaments and surface lineaments/faults were interpreted. These lineaments were classified as category-1 i.e. exclusively surface lineaments, category-2 i.e. surface lineaments having connectivity with shallow subsurface lineaments and category-3 i.e. surface lineaments having connectivity with shallow subsurface lineaments and basement lineaments. These three classified lineaments were analyzed in conjunction with known mineral occurrences and historical seismicity of the study area in GIS environment. The study revealed that the category-3 NNE-SSW to NE-SW lineaments have greater control over the mineral occurrences and the N-S, NNE-SSW and NE-SW, faults/lineaments control the seismicities in the study area.

  20. Knowledge, Stigma, and Behavioral Outcomes among Antiretroviral Therapy Patients Exposed to Nalamdana's Radio and Theater Program in Tamil Nadu, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nambiar, Devaki; Ramakrishnan, Vimala; Kumar, Paresh; Varma, Rajeev; Balaji, Nithya; Rajendran, Jeeva; Jhona, Loretta; Chandrasekar, Chokkalingam; Gere, David

    2011-01-01

    Arts-based programs have improved HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and behavior in general and at-risk populations. With HIV transformed into a chronic condition, this study compares patients at consecutive stages of receiving antiretroviral treatment, coinciding with exposure to a radio-and-theater-based educational program (unexposed [N = 120],…

  1. Isolation and Characterization of Multi-Metal-Resistant Halomonas sp. MG from Tamil Nadu Magnesite Ore Soil in India.

    PubMed

    Govarthanan, Muthusamy; Shim, Jaehong; Kim, Seol Ah; Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to isolate and characterize potential multi-metal-resistant bacteria from ore soils. A total of three bacteria were isolated and assayed for resistance to arsenic (As), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb). Isolate Halomonas sp. MG exhibited maximum resistance to 1000 mg Pb/L, 800 mg As/L, and 500 mg Cu/L and it was identified as Halomonas sp. based on the partial 16S rDNA sequences. The metal(loid)s resistance mechanisms were further confirmed by amplification of arsC (As) copAU (Cu), and pbrT (Pb) genes. Biological transmission electron micrographs and XRD studies showed that the isolate Halomonas sp. MG transformed and/or biomineralized the metals either intracellularly or extracellularly. These results suggest that the isolate could be used as a potential candidate for the bioremediation of As, Cu, and Pb. PMID:26298269

  2. Prevalence of fluorosis and identification of fluoride endemic areas in Manur block of Tirunelveli District, Tamil Nadu, South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, Subarayan Bothi; Viswanathan, Gopalan; Siva Ilango, S.

    2012-12-01

    Prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the consumption of more fluoride through drinking water. It is necessary to identify the fluoride endemic areas to adopt remedial measures for the people under the risk of fluorosis. The objectives of this study were to identify the exact location of fluoride endemic areas in Manur block of Tirunelveli District and to estimate fluoride exposure level through drinking water for different age groups. Identification of fluoride endemic areas was performed through Isopleth and Google earth mapping techniques. Fluoride level in drinking water samples was estimated by fluoride ion selective electrode method. A systematic clinical survey conducted in 19 villages of Manur block revealed the rate of prevalence of fluorosis. From this study, it has been found that Alavanthankulam, Melapilliyarkulam, Keezhapilliyarkulam, Nadupilliyarkulam, Keezhathenkalam and Papankulam are the fluoride endemic villages, where the fluoride level in drinking water is above 1 mg/l. Consumption of maximum fluoride exposure levels of 0.30 mg/kg/day for infants, 0.27 mg/kg/day for children and 0.15 mg/kg/day for adults were found among the respective age group people residing in high fluoride endemic area. As compared with adequate intake level of fluoride of 0.01 mg/kg/day for infants and 0.05 mg/kg/day for other age groups, the health risk due to excess fluoride intake to the people of Alavanthankulam and nearby areas has become evident. Hence the people of these areas are advised to consume drinking water with optimal fluoride to avoid further fluorosis risks.

  3. Groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and irrigational use in the Southern Tiruchirappalli district, Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvakumar, S.; Ramkumar, K.; Chandrasekar, N.; Magesh, N. S.; Kaliraj, S.

    2014-12-01

    A total of 20 groundwater samples were collected from both dug and bore wells of southern Tiruchirappalli district and analyzed for various hydrogeochemical parameters. The analyzed physicochemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, carbonate, sulfate, chloride, nitrate, and fluoride are used to characterize the groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and irrigational uses. The results of the chemical analysis indicates that the groundwater in the study area is slightly alkaline and mainly contains Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ cations as well as HCO3 2-, Cl-, SO4 2-and NO3 - anions. The total dissolved solids mainly depend on the concentration of major ions such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, HCO3, Cl, and SO4. Based on TDS, 55 % of the samples are suitable for drinking and rest of the samples are unsuitable for drinking. The total hardness indicates that majority of the groundwater samples are found within the permissible limit of WHO. The dominant hydrochemical facies for groundwater are Ca-Mg-Cl, Ca-HCO3, and Ca-Cl type. The USSL graphical geochemical representation of groundwater quality suggests that majority of the water samples belongs to high medium salinity with low alkali hazards. The Gibb's plot indicates that the groundwater chemistry of the study area is mainly controlled by evaporation and rock-water interaction. Spearman's correlation and factor analysis were used to distinguish the statistical relation between different ions and contamination source in the study area.

  4. Evaluation of groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and agricultural use in Thanjavur city, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, R; Rajmohan, N; Mahendran, U; Senthamilkumar, S

    2010-12-01

    As groundwater is a vital source of water for domestic and agricultural activities in Thanjavur city due to lack of surface water resources, groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and agricultural usage were evaluated. In this study, 102 groundwater samples were collected from dug wells and bore wells during March 2008 and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, temperature, major ions, and nitrate. Results suggest that, in 90% of groundwater samples, sodium and chloride are predominant cation and anion, respectively, and NaCl and CaMgCl are major water types in the study area. The groundwater quality in the study site is impaired by surface contamination sources, mineral dissolution, ion exchange, and evaporation. Nitrate, chloride, and sulfate concentrations strongly express the impact of surface contamination sources such as agricultural and domestic activities, on groundwater quality, and 13% of samples have elevated nitrate content (>45 mg/l as NO(3)). PHREEQC code and Gibbs plots were employed to evaluate the contribution of mineral dissolution and suggest that mineral dissolution, especially carbonate minerals, regulates water chemistry. Groundwater suitability for drinking usage was evaluated by the World Health Organization and Indian standards and suggests that 34% of samples are not suitable for drinking. Integrated groundwater suitability map for drinking purposes was created using drinking water standards based on a concept that if the groundwater sample exceeds any one of the standards, it is not suitable for drinking. This map illustrates that wells in zones 1, 2, 3, and 4 are not fit for drinking purpose. Likewise, irrigational suitability of groundwater in the study region was evaluated, and results suggest that 20% samples are not fit for irrigation. Groundwater suitability map for irrigation was also produced based on salinity and sodium hazards and denotes that wells mostly situated in zones 2 and 3 are not suitable for irrigation. Both integrated suitability maps for drinking and irrigation usage provide overall scenario about the groundwater quality in the study area. Finally, the study concluded that groundwater quality is impaired by man-made activities, and proper management plan is necessary to protect valuable groundwater resources in Thanjavur city. PMID:20072811

  5. Estimation of Annual Average Soil Loss, Based on Rusle Model in Kallar Watershed, Bhavani Basin, Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahaman, S. Abdul; Aruchamy, S.; Jegankumar, R.; Ajeez, S. Abdul

    2015-10-01

    Soil erosion is a widespread environmental challenge faced in Kallar watershed nowadays. Erosion is defined as the movement of soil by water and wind, and it occurs in Kallar watershed under a wide range of land uses. Erosion by water can be dramatic during storm events, resulting in wash-outs and gullies. It can also be insidious, occurring as sheet and rill erosion during heavy rains. Most of the soil lost by water erosion is by the processes of sheet and rill erosion. Land degradation and subsequent soil erosion and sedimentation play a significant role in impairing water resources within sub watersheds, watersheds and basins. Using conventional methods to assess soil erosion risk is expensive and time consuming. A comprehensive methodology that integrates Remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), coupled with the use of an empirical model (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation- RUSLE) to assess risk, can identify and assess soil erosion potential and estimate the value of soil loss. GIS data layers including, rainfall erosivity (R), soil erodability (K), slope length and steepness (LS), cover management (C) and conservation practice (P) factors were computed to determine their effects on average annual soil loss in the study area. The final map of annual soil erosion shows a maximum soil loss of 398.58 t/ h-1/ y-1. Based on the result soil erosion was classified in to soil erosion severity map with five classes, very low, low, moderate, high and critical respectively. Further RUSLE factors has been broken into two categories, soil erosion susceptibility (A=RKLS), and soil erosion hazard (A=RKLSCP) have been computed. It is understood that functions of C and P are factors that can be controlled and thus can greatly reduce soil loss through management and conservational measures.

  6. Are We Asking the Right Questions? Moving beyond the State vs Non-State Providers Debate: Reflections and a Case Study from India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bangay, Colin; Latham, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of recent trends in basic education provision in India: charting an impressive expansion of enrolment in public schools but a growing concern with the quality of learning. Concerns around quality are seen as a driving factor in the migration of students from the public sector to low fee private schools. While there…

  7. Comparison of resident operative case logs during a surgical oncology rotation in the United States and an international rotation in India.

    PubMed

    Kolkman, Paul; Soliman, Mohsin; Kolkman, Marcy; Stack, Apollo; Rao, T Subramanyeshwar; Mukta, Srinivasulu; Schmid, Kendra; Thompson, Jon; Are, Chandrakanth

    2015-03-01

    This study compared the operative case log experience between rotations during General Surgery residency in the United States and an international rotation in India. A resident from the General Surgery residency program at University of Nebraska Medical Center participated in an international rotation in Surgical Oncology at Mehdi Nawaz Jung Institute of Oncology in Hyderabad, India for 3 months in 2009. The operative case log of this resident (INT) was compared to those of another resident (US) on a rotation in surgical oncology at the parent institution during the same time period. Both institutions were tertiary care centers. We noted that the INT resident performed a greater number of cases (132) when compared to the US resident (61). The INT resident also performed cases in a wider variety of disease categories such as: head and neck (26 %), gynecology (19 %), breast (14 %) and urology (4 %). In contrast, abdominal cases accounted for 68 % of the cases performed by the US resident with fewer cases in the other categories. The INT resident performed 98 % of the cases by the open approach, whereas the US resident performed only 81 % of cases by the open approach, with the remaining 19 % of cases performed by the laparoscopic approach. The results demonstrate that the INT resident performed a greater number of operative cases when compared to a resident (US) at the parent institution, and performed cases in more diverse disease categories with an emphasis on the open operative approach. PMID:25937762

  8. Association Between System Reach and Exposure to Interventions and Characteristics of Mobile Female Sex Workers in Four High HIV Prevalence States in India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Varun; Saggurti, Niranjan; Bharat, Shalini

    2015-01-01

    Mobility among Female Sex Workers (FSWs) interrupts their demand for, and utilization of, health services under any intervention. Various strategic interventions are meant to provide access to care and reduce the incidence of HIV and other STIs among FSWs. This paper applies a bivariate probit regression analysis to explain the probability of mobile FSWs being reached by the system and being exposed to interventions jointly with a wide variety of characteristics of mobile FSWs in India. The data used are based on a cross-section survey among 5,498 mobile FSWs in 22 districts of four high HIV prevalence states in southern India. A majority of mobile FSWs (59%) were street-based and about 70 percent of them were members of SW organization and nearly half (46%) were highly mobile. The majority of them (90%) had been contacted by outreach workers from any system in the last two years in their current location and 94 percent were exposed to interventions in terms of getting free or subsidized condoms. Bivariate probit analysis revealed that comprehensive interventions are able to reach more vulnerable mobile FSWs effectively, e.g. new entrants, highly mobile, reported STIs, tested for HIV ever and serving a high volume of clients. The results complement the efforts of government and other agencies in response to HIV. However, the results highlight that specific issues related to various subgroups of this highly vulnerable population remain unaddressed calling for tailoring the response to the specific needs of the sub-groups. PMID:25946932

  9. Tsunami: India

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... 9.0 earthquake occurred off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. This was the fourth largest earthquake in the world since 1900 and ... in modern history, causing devastation along the shores of Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Thailand, and other countries. The initial ...

  10. Dhaksha, the Unmanned Aircraft System in its New Avatar-Automated Aerial Inspection of INDIA'S Tallest Tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, K. S.; Rasheed, A. Mohamed; Krishna Kumar, R.; Giridharan, M.; Ganesh

    2013-08-01

    DHAKSHA, the unmanned aircraft system (UAS), developed after several years of research by Division of Avionics, Department of Aerospace Engineering, MIT Campus of Anna University has recently proved its capabilities during May 2012 Technology demonstration called UAVforge organised by Defence Research Project Agency, Department of Defence, USA. Team Dhaksha with its most stable design outperformed all the other contestants competing against some of the best engineers from prestigi ous institutions across the globe like Middlesex University from UK, NTU and NUS from Singapore, Tudelft Technical University, Netherlands and other UAV industry participants in the world's toughest UAV challenge. This has opened up an opportunity for Indian UAVs making a presence in the international scenario as well. In furtherance to the above effort at Fort Stewart military base at Georgia,USA, with suitable payloads, the Dhaksha team deployed the UAV in a religious temple festival during November 2012 at Thiruvannamalai District for Tamil Nadu Police to avail the instant aerial imagery services over the crowd of 10 lakhs pilgrims and also about the investigation of the structural strength of the India's tallest structure, the 300 m RCC tower during January 2013. The developed system consists of a custom-built Rotary Wing model with on-board navigation, guidance and control systems (NGC) and ground control station (GCS), for mission planning, remote access, manual overrides and imagery related computations. The mission is to fulfill the competition requirements by using an UAS capable of providing complete solution for the stated problem. In this work the effort to produce multirotor unmanned aerial systems (UAS) for civilian applications at the MIT, Avionics Laboratory is presented

  11. The expanding host tree species spectrum of Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans and their isolations from surrounding soil in India.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, H S; Kowshik, T; Chowdhary, Anuradha; Preeti Sinha, K; Khan, Z U; Sun, Sheng; Xu, Jianping

    2008-12-01

    This study reports the widespread prevalence of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii in decayed wood inside trunk hollows of 14 species representing 12 families of trees and from soil near the base of various host trees from Delhi and several places in the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Tamil Nadu and Chandigarh Union Territory. Of the 311 trees from which samples were obtained, 64 (20.5%) were found to contain strains of the C. neoformans species complex. The number of trees positive for C. neoformans var grubii (serotypeA) was 51 (16.3%), for C. gattii (serotype B) 24 (7.7%) and for both C. neoformans and C. gattii 11 (3.5%). The overall prevalence of C. neoformans species complex in decayed wood samples was 19.9% (111/556). There was no obvious correlation between the prevalence of these two yeast species and the species of host trees. The data on prevalence of C. gattii (24%) and C. neoformans (26%) in soil around the base of some host trees indicated that soil is another important ecologic niche for these two Cryptococcus species in India. Among our sampled tree species, eight and six were recorded for the first time as hosts for C. neoformans var grubii and C. gattii, respectively. A longitudinal surveillance of 8 host tree species over 0.7 to 2.5 years indicated long term colonization of Polyalthia longifolia, Mimusops elengi and Manilkara hexandra trees by C. gattii and/or C. neoformans. The mating type was determined for 153 of the isolates, including 98 strains of serotype A and 55 of serotype B and all proved to be mating type alpha (MAT alpha). Our observations document the rapidly expanding spectrum of host tree species for C. gattii and C. neoformans and indicate that decayed woods of many tree species are potentially suitable ecological niches for both pathogens. PMID:18608895

  12. India's population in transition.

    PubMed

    Visaria, L; Visaria, P

    1995-10-01

    This demographic profile of India addresses fertility, family planning, and economic issues. India is described as a country shifting from economic policies of self-reliance to active involvement in international trade. Wealth has increased, particularly at higher educational levels, yet 25% still live below the official poverty line and almost 66% of Indian women are illiterate. The government program in family planning, which was instituted during the early 1950s, did not change the rate of natural increase, which remained stable at 2.2% over the past 30 years. 1993 marked the first time the growth rate decline to under 2%. The growth rate in 1995 was 1.9%. The total population is expected double in 36 years. Only Nigeria, Pakistan, and Bangladesh had a higher growth rate and higher fertility in 1995. India is geographically diverse (with the northern Himalayan mountain zone, the central alluvial plains, the western desert region, and the southern peninsula with forest, mountains, and plains). There are regional differences in the fertility rates, which range from replacement level in Kerala and Goa to 5.5 children in Uttar Pradesh. Fertility is expected to decline throughout India due to the slower pace of childbearing among women over the age of 35 years, the increase in contraceptive use, and increases in marriage age. Increased educational levels in India and its state variations are related to lower fertility. Literacy campaigns are considered to be effective means of increasing the educational levels of women. Urbanization is not expected to markedly affect fertility levels. Urban population, which is concentrated in a few large cities, remains a small proportion of total population. Greater shifts are evident in the transition from agriculture to other wage labor. Fertility is expected to decline as women's share of labor force activity increases. The major determinant of fertility decline in India is use of family planning, which has improved in access and use during the 1980s. If India is to keep a stable population under 1.6 billion in the future, Indians may have to accept only one child per family. PMID:12290691

  13. 76 FR 34041 - Clean Technologies Mission to India

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ...located and one of India's fastest growing metropolitan areas. Ahmedabad is the 7th largest city in India, and is located in Gujarat which is one of the leading industrialized states in India. Ahmedabad is the second largest industrial center in...

  14. Teaching India. Footnotes. Volume 11, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehner, Trudy

    2006-01-01

    On March 11-12, 2006 the FPRI's Marvin Wachman Fund for International Education hosted 44 teachers from 16 states across the country for a weekend of discussion on teaching about India. Sessions included: (1) Why It's Important to Know about India (Ainslie T. Embree); (2) Early Indian History (Richard H. Davis); (3) Modern Indian History (Marc…

  15. Upper and lower pharyngeal airway space in West-Tamil Nadu population

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Prabhakaran; Muthukumar, Karthi; Krishnan, Prabhakar; Senthil Kumar, K. P.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare the upper and lower pharyngeal airway (LPA) width in Class II malocclusion patients with low, average, and high vertical growth patterns. Study Design: Cross-sectional analytical study. Materials and Methods: Pretreatment lateral cephalometric films of 90 Class II subjects were used to measure the upper and LPAs. The inclusion criteria were subjects of West-Tamil Nadu, aged between 14 and 25 years, only skeletal Class II subjects of either gender and no pharyngeal pathology at initial visit. The sample comprised a total of 90 Class II subjects divided into three groups according to the vertical facial pattern: Normodivergent (n = 30), hypodivergent (n = 30), and hyperdivergent (n = 30). The assessment of upper and LPAs was done according to McNamara's airway analysis. Statistical Analysis: The intergroup comparison of the upper and LPAs was performed with one-way analysis of variance and the Tukey test was used to compare among the various vertical patterns. Results: Skeletal Class II subjects with hyperdivergent facial pattern showed statistically significant narrow upper pharyngeal width when compared to normodivergent and hypodivergent facial patterns. No statistically significant difference was found in the lower pharyngeal width in all three vertical facial growth patterns. Conclusion: Subjects with Class II malocclusions and hyperdivergent growth pattern have significantly narrow upper pharyngeal airway space when compared to other two vertical patterns. Narrow pharyngeal airway space is one of the predisposing factors for mouth breathing and obstructive sleep apnea. PMID:26538913

  16. Spatial and Temporal Variation of Meteorological Drought in the Parambikulam-Aliyar Basin, Tamil Nadu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikandan, M.; Tamilmani, D.

    2015-09-01

    The present study aims to investigate the spatial and temporal variation of meteorological drought in the Parambikulam-Aliyar basin, Tamil Nadu using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) as an indicator of drought severity. The basin was divided into 97 grid-cells of 5 × 5 km with each grid correspondence to approximately 1.03 % of total area. Monthly rainfall data for the period of 40 years (1972-2011) from 28 rain gauge stations in the basin was spatially interpolated and gridded monthly rainfall was created. Regional representative of SPI values calculated from mean areal rainfall were used to analyse the temporal variation of drought at multiple time scales. Spatial variation of drought was analysed based on highest drought severity derived from the monthly gridded SPI values. Frequency analyse was applied to assess the recurrence pattern of drought severity. The temporal analysis of SPI indicated that moderate, severe and extreme droughts are common in the basin and spatial analysis of drought severity identified the areas most frequently affected by drought. The results of this study can be used for developing drought preparedness plan and formulating mitigation strategies for sustainable water resource management within the basin.

  17. Awareness, social acceptance and community views on leprosy and its relevance for leprosy control, Tamil Nadu.

    PubMed

    Thilakavathi, S; Manickam, P; Mehendale, S M

    2012-01-01

    As the leprosy burden has declined considerably, we need to understand the current social status of the disease and patients. A qualitative study was conducted in a rural community near Chennai in Tamil Nadu, between March and October 2011. In-depth interviews with 72 leprosy patients from 25 villages and 3 focus group discussions (FGDs) with 26 women from 3 villages were conducted using a guide. The qualitative data were grouped into different domains and analysed. Most of them did not have basic knowledge on leprosy; instead there were misconceptions on cause and spread of leprosy. Nearly one third of the patients had not disclosed about the disease to their spouse, family members, relatives or friends for fear of social rejection, discrimination and ill treatment. In all, more than half of them had self-stigma and, most of them who had deformity faced actual stigma by way of disowning, isolation and social rejection. Many patients, particularly PB cases had the behavior of "denial". FGD women reported of self and actual stigma, particularly towards deformity and disfigurement, for fear of getting infected. Stigma among patients with deformity, and denial of the disease among PB cases, were highlighted. Importance of awareness programmes to remove misconceptions related to cause and spread of the disease was stressed. Need for person-centered social treatment was suggested for increased case detection. PMID:23484338

  18. Delhi, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Delhi is the second largest metropolis in India, with a population of 16 million. Located in northern India along the banks of the Yamuna River, Delhi has the status of a federally-administered union territory. Within it is the district of New Delhi, India's capital. Delhi is one of the oldest continually inhabited cites in the world, with traces of human occupation dating to the second millennium BC. The image was acquired September 22, 2003, covers an area of 30.6 x 34.8 km, and is located near 28.6 degrees north latitude, 77.2 degrees east longitude.

    The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  19. Phylogenetic analysis of bovine Theileria spp. isolated in south India.

    PubMed

    Aparna, M; Vimalkumar, M B; Varghese, S; Senthilvel, K; Ajithkumar, K G; Raji, K; Syamala, K; Priya, M N; Deepa, C K; Jyothimol, G; Juliet, S; Chandrasekhar, L; Ravindran, R

    2013-06-01

    The objective of the present study is to determine the phylogenetic position of the Theileria organisms in blood of cattle of southern India using molecular tools. Theileria annulata (Namakkal isolate, Tamil Nadu) and three Theileria field isolates (free of T. annulata) from Wayanad, Kerala (Wayanad 1, 2, 3) were used. The small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) and major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) gene products were cloned, sequenced and the phylogenetic tree constructed. SSU rRNA gene of Wayanad 1 isolate (JQ706077) revealed maximum identity with Theileria velifera or Theileria cervi. The phylogenetic tree constructed based on SSU rRNA genes revealed that Wayanad 1 isolate belonged to a new type which share common ancestor with all the other theilerial species while Wayanad 2 and 3 isolates (JX294459, JX294460) were close to types A and C respectively. Based on MPSP gene sequences, Wayanad 2 and 3 (JQ706078, JX648208) isolates belonged to Type 1 and 3 (Chitose) respectively. When, the previously reported MPSP type 7 is also considered from the same study area, Theileria orientalis types 1, 3 and 7 are observed in south India. SSU rRNA sequence of South Indian T. annulata (JX294461) showed a maximum identity with Asian isolates while the Tams1 merozoite surface antigen (MSA) gene (JX648210) showed maximum identity with north Indian isolate. PMID:23959494

  20. Pre-hospital care among victims of road traffic accident in a rural area of Tamil Nadu: A cross-sectional descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Saurabh R.; Pandian, Pradeep; Shrivastava, Prateek S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization has estimated that globally almost 1.24 million people die annually on the world's roads. The aim of the study was to assess the attributes of pre-hospital care in road traffic accidents (RTAs) victim brought to the health care establishment and to evaluate the pre-hospital trauma care provided in the rural areas of Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study of 3 months duration (June 2014 to August 2014) was conducted in the Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Kancheepuram. The method of sampling was universal sampling and all RTA victims satisfying the inclusion criteria were included in the study. During the entire study duration, total 200 RTA victims were included. A pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire was used to elicit the desired information after the victims of RTAs are stabilized. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Institutional Ethics Committee prior to the start of the study. Written informed consent was obtained from the study participants (patient/guardian of children) before obtaining any information from them. Data entry and statistical analysis were done using SPSS version 18. Frequency distributions and percentages were computed for all the variables. Results: Majority of the RTA victims 158 (79%) were from the age-group of 15-45 years. Most of the accidents were reported in night time [77 (38.5%)], on week-ends [113 (56.5%)], and involved two-wheelers [153 (76.5%)]. Almost 66 (33%) of the victims were not aware of the existence of emergency ambulance services. Also, only 15 (7.5%) victims were brought to the hospital in the emergency ambulance, of which only 3 victims were accompanied by a doctor. Conclusion: To conclude, the study indicates that a significant proportion of people were unaware about the emergency trauma ambulance services and the existing pre-hospital care services lack in multiple dimensions in a rural area of South India. PMID:25540536

  1. Willingness to Pay for Annual Health Care Services in Small Ruminants: The Case of South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathiravan, G.; Thirunavukkarasu, M.; Michealraj, P.

    A study was undertaken in southern peninsular State of India, the Tamil Nadu State, to assess the farmers Willingness To Pay` (WTP) for annual health care services in small ruminants. The districts of the State were categorized as Livestock Developed (LD) and Livestock Under Developed (LUD) based on initial base line developed. Contingent Valuation (CV) approach was used to study the farmers maximum WTP value for two types of health care services: (a) providing animal health care services at government veterinary centres, (b) extending animal health care services at farmers door steps. A Payment Card (PC) format was used to assess the farmers` maximum WTP for ensuring health care services to sheep and goat. The Maximum Likelihood technique was used on interval midpoints. The study revealed that the farmers were willing to pay a maximum of INR 56.34 and INR 61.61 for availing health services to their sheep and goat, respectively, by in-centre services, while they were ready to offer INR 87.49 and INR 95.27 for the animal health services delivered at doorsteps. The mean maximum WTP value was found to be more for goats than sheep, postulated both in-centre and home services. Of the factors incorporated in the in-centre service model for sheep, age of respondent, livelihood share of livestock, number of sheep and VLU owned and distance from nearest public veterinary centre were found to significantly influence the WTP values. Unlike sheep, age of respondent, VLU possession, distance of the public veterinary centre and district versatility had a significant role in determining WTP values for goats. WTP values in sheep for home service were found to be significantly predisposed by all the significant factors of in-centre services model, except number of sheep owned. Similarly, in goat, the age of respondent turned to be insignificant in home services model. The results indicated that the people were willing to pay more for getting their small ruminants adequately protected from diseases and treated at once with quality services.

  2. Race and bicultural socialization in the Netherlands, Norway, and the United States of America in the adoptions of children from India.

    PubMed

    Riley-Behringer, Maureen; Groza, Victor; Tieman, Wendy; Juffer, Femmie

    2014-04-01

    A cross-national sample of 622 internationally adopted children from India with White parents in The Netherlands (n = 409), Norway (n = 146), and the United States (n = 67) was used to contrast country-specific bicultural socialization (BCS) practices among families of transracial intercountry adoption. The 3 countries vary in their degrees of minority (US > Netherlands > Norway) and Indian populations (US > Norway > Netherlands). The current study examined parental survey trends among BCS practices, children's negative encounters about adoption, racial and positive discrimination, and parental worry about these issues. Country-specific differences were revealed: The United States and Norway (greatest Indian populations) reported the greatest similarity in BCS practices, classmates being a source of negative reactions/racial discrimination, and parental worry. The American sample encountered greater negative reactions to adoption from others; Dutch children experienced the least negative reactions from others overall, yet as in the United States (samples with the greatest minority heterogeneity) they still noted significant experiences of racial discrimination. Country-specific sociopolitical perceptions about adoption, ethnicity/race, and immigration are considered as factors that may have been used to inform parenting practices that facilitate children's biculturalism into family life (i.e., adoptive family stigma, percentages of Indian/minority populations, immigration policy trends). Concluding, cross-national research such as the current study may help intercountry adoption policymakers and practitioners to better understand and inform BCS practices in adoptive families. PMID:24773007

  3. Paragonimus & paragonimiasis in India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, T. Shantikumar; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Rangsiruji, Achariya

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of the first indigenous case in 1981, paragonimiasis has gained recognition as a significant food borne parasitic zoonosis in India. The data available on the occurrence of paragonimiasis, until today, may be just the tip of an iceberg as the study areas covered were restricted to Northeast Indian States. Nevertheless, the results of research on paragonimiasis in India have revealed valuable information in epidemiology, life cycle, pathobiology and speciation of Indian Paragonimus. Potamiscus manipurensis, Alcomon superciliosum and Maydelliathelphusa lugubris were identified as the crab hosts of Paragonimus. Paragonimus miyazakii manipurinus n. sub sp., P. hueit’ungensis, P. skrjabini, P. heterotremus, P. compactus, and P. westermani have been described from India. P. heterotremus was found as the causative agent of human paragonimiasis. Ingestion of undercooked crabs and raw crab extract was the major mode of infection. Pulmonary paragonimiasis was the commonest clinical manifestation while pleural effusion and subcutaneous nodules were the common extra-pulmonary forms. Clinico-radiological features of pulmonary paragonimiasis simulated pulmonary tuberculosis. Intradermal test, ELISA and Dot-immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) were used for diagnosis and epidemiological survey of paragonimiasis. Phylogenitically, Indian Paragonimus species, although nested within the respective clade were distantly related to others within the clade. PMID:22960885

  4. Bombay, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Formerly known as Bombay, the city of Mumbai is situated on India's west coast, on the Arabian Sea, roughly 500 km (310 miles) south of the Tropic of Cancer. Its large harbor and ideal location facing Africa, Europe, and the Middle East make it an excellent city for trade. Sometimes referred to as the 'Gateway of India,' Mumbai handles more than one third of the country's foreign trade. The city supports a population of more than 12 million people in an area of roughly 619 square km (239 square miles). The port was acquired in 1534 by Portugal, which named it Bom Bahia, meaning 'beautiful bay.' Originally, the city rested upon seven small islands, mostly basaltic bedrock from earlier lava flows. These islands are now connected to one another by reclaimed land, but each island, or neighborhood, still retains a distinct identity within the city. (For more details, visit Welcome to Bombay: The Gateway of India.) The blue-grey pixels in this false-color image are urban areas. The dark green areas are heavily vegetated surfaces while the light brown regions are more sparsely vegetated. This image of Mumbai was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+), flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. July 23, 2002, marks the 30th anniversary of the Landsat program. (Click to read the press release-Celebrating 30 Years of Imaging the Earth.) The Landsat program has been particularly instrumental in tracking land use and land cover changes-such as increased urban growth-over the last three decades. Image courtesy Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  5. India's Worsening Uranium Shortage

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, Michael M.

    2007-01-15

    As a result of NSG restrictions, India cannot import the natural uranium required to fuel its Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs); consequently, it is forced to rely on the expediency of domestic uranium production. However, domestic production from mines and byproduct sources has not kept pace with demand from commercial reactors. This shortage has been officially confirmed by the Indian Planning Commission’s Mid-Term Appraisal of the country’s current Five Year Plan. The report stresses that as a result of the uranium shortage, Indian PHWR load factors have been continually decreasing. The Uranium Corporation of India Ltd (UCIL) operates a number of underground mines in the Singhbhum Shear Zone of Jharkhand, and it is all processed at a single mill in Jaduguda. UCIL is attempting to aggrandize operations by establishing new mines and mills in other states, but the requisite permit-gathering and development time will defer production until at least 2009. A significant portion of India’s uranium comes from byproduct sources, but a number of these are derived from accumulated stores that are nearing exhaustion. A current maximum estimate of indigenous uranium production is 430t/yr (230t from mines and 200t from byproduct sources); whereas, the current uranium requirement for Indian PHWRs is 455t/yr (depending on plant capacity factor). This deficit is exacerbated by the additional requirements of the Indian weapons program. Present power generation capacity of Indian nuclear plants is 4350 MWe. The power generation target set by the Indian Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) is 20,000 MWe by the year 2020. It is expected that around half of this total will be provided by PHWRs using indigenously supplied uranium with the bulk of the remainder provided by breeder reactors or pressurized water reactors using imported low-enriched uranium.

  6. Assessment of prescribing practices among urban and rural general practitioners in Tamil Nadu

    PubMed Central

    Gopalakrishnan, Sekharan; Ganeshkumar, Parasuraman; Katta, Ajitha

    2013-01-01

    Background: Studying drug use pattern among medical practitioners is of vital importance in the present scenario where irrational drug use and development of drug resistance is becoming rampant. Objective: To assess, the pattern of prescribing practices among the general practitioners in a defined rural and urban area of Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: A community based descriptive study was conducted to collect 600 prescriptions from the catchment areas of rural and urban health training centers of a medical college using prescribing indicators as per the WHO “How to investigate drug use in health facilities” tool. Results: This prescription study revealed that multivitamins (19.5%), antibiotics (19.3%), drugs for gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) (18%), analgesic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs/ (NSAID's) (15.1%), and antihistaminic (12.5%) were prescribed frequently. Among the antibiotics, amoxicillin (49.2%) was the most commonly prescribed followed by gentamicin (31.7%). Percentage of prescriptions with an antibiotic was 55% and nearly 62% of the practitioners prescribed drugs by their generic names. As a practice of poly-pharmacy, it was observed that the average number of drugs prescribed in urban and rural area was nearly 5 and 4, respectively. Nearly 80% of the urban and rural practitioners were prescribing at least one injection. Study of the quality of prescriptions revealed that there was poor legibility, high usage of abbreviations, inadequate details of the drugs, and absence of signature by practitioners in the prescriptions. Conclusion: This study clearly highlights the practice of poly-pharmacy, low usage of generic drugs, injudicious usage of antibiotics and injections and low usage of drugs prescribed from essential drugs list. PMID:23833368

  7. Estimating the Impact of Reducing Under-Nutrition on the Tuberculosis Epidemic in the Central Eastern States of India: A Dynamic Modeling Study

    PubMed Central

    Oxlade, Olivia; Huang, Chuan-Chin; Murray, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) and under-nutrition are widespread in many low and middle-income countries. Momentum to prioritize under-nutrition has been growing at an international level, as demonstrated by the "Scaling Up Nutrition" movement. Low body mass index is an important risk factor for developing TB disease. The objective of this study was to project future trends in TB related outcomes under different scenarios for reducing under-nutrition in the adult population in the Central Eastern states of India. Methods A compartmental TB transmission model stratified by body mass index was parameterized using national and regional data from India. We compared TB related mortality and incidence under several scenarios that represented a range of policies and programs designed to reduce the prevalence of under-nutrition, based on the experience and observed trends in similar countries. Results The modeled nutrition intervention scenarios brought about reductions in TB incidence and TB related mortality in the Central Eastern Indian states ranging from 43% to 71% and 40% to 68% respectively, relative to the scenario of no nutritional intervention. Modest reductions in under-nutrition averted 4.8 (95% UR 0.5, 17.1) million TB cases and 1.6 (95% UR 0.5, 5.2) million TB related deaths over a period of 20 years of intervention, relative to the scenario of no nutritional intervention. Complete elimination of under-nutrition in the Central Eastern states averted 9.4 (95% UR 1.5, 30.6) million TB cases and 3.2 (95% UR 0.7-, 10.1) million TB related deaths, relative to the scenario of no nutritional intervention. Conclusion Our study suggests that intervening on under-nutrition could have a substantial impact on TB incidence and mortality in areas with high prevalence of under-nutrition, even if only small gains in under-nutrition can be achieved. Focusing on under-nutrition may be an effective way to reduce both rates of TB and other diseases associated with under-nutrition. PMID:26046649

  8. The political economy of farmers’ suicides in India: indebted cash-crop farmers with marginal landholdings explain state-level variation in suicide rates

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A recent Lancet article reported the first reliable estimates of suicide rates in India. National-level suicide rates are among the highest in the world, but suicide rates vary sharply between states and the causes of these differences are disputed. We test whether differences in the structure of agricultural production explain inter-state variation in suicides rates. This hypothesis is supported by a large number of qualitative studies, which argue that the liberalization of the agricultural sector in the early-1990s led to an agrarian crisis and that consequently farmers with certain socioeconomic characteristics–cash crops cultivators, with marginal landholdings, and debts–are at particular risk of committing suicide. The recent Lancet study, however, contends that there is no evidence to support this hypothesis. Methods We report scatter diagrams and linear regression models that combine the new state-level suicide rate estimates and the proportion of marginal farmers, cash crop cultivation, and indebted farmers. Results When we include all variables in the regression equation there is a significant positive relationship between the percentage of marginal farmers, cash crop production, and indebted farmers, and suicide rates. This model accounts for almost 75% of inter-state variation in suicide rates. If the proportion of marginal farmers, cash crops, or indebted farmers were reduced by 1%, the suicide rate–suicides per 100,000 per year–would fall by 0?·?437, 0?·?518 or 0?·?549 respectively, when all other variables are held constant. Conclusions Even if the Indian state is unable to enact land reforms due to the power of local elites, interventions to stabilize the price of cash crops and relieve indebted farmers may be effective at reducing suicide rates. PMID:24669945

  9. Cataloging Practices in India: Efforts for Standardization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikku, Upinder Kumar

    1984-01-01

    Surveys current cataloging practices in Indian libraries and discusses standardization in cataloging, types of catalogs, cataloging codes (Anglo-American and Ranganathan), subject headings, descriptive cataloging, and standardization efforts (international, United States, USSR, Great Britain, India). Footnotes are included. (EJS)

  10. Mobile phone-based clinical guidance for rural health providers in India.

    PubMed

    Gautham, Meenakshi; Iyengar, M Sriram; Johnson, Craig W

    2015-12-01

    There are few tried and tested mobile technology applications to enhance and standardize the quality of health care by frontline rural health providers in low-resource settings. We developed a media-rich, mobile phone-based clinical guidance system for management of fevers, diarrhoeas and respiratory problems by rural health providers. Using a randomized control design, we field tested this application with 16 rural health providers and 128 patients at two rural/tribal sites in Tamil Nadu, Southern India. Protocol compliance for both groups, phone usability, acceptability and patient feedback for the experimental group were evaluated. Linear mixed-model analyses showed statistically significant improvements in protocol compliance in the experimental group. Usability and acceptability among patients and rural health providers were very high. Our results indicate that mobile phone-based, media-rich procedural guidance applications have significant potential for achieving consistently standardized quality of care by diverse frontline rural health providers, with patient acceptance. PMID:24621929

  11. Non-steady-state exhumation of the Higher Himalaya, N.W. India: insights from a combined isotopic and sedimentological approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najman, Y.; Pringle, M.; Bickle, M.; Garzanti, E.; Burbank, D.; Ando, S.; Brozovic, N.

    2003-04-01

    Quantitative constraints to the exhumation of an orogen can be gained from the sediment record of the mountain belt's erosion. Our approach uses the determination of lag times, defined as the difference between a detrital mineral's isotopic age, which it starts to acquire at depth in the source region, and its host sediment depositional age. We use Ar-Ar ages of High-Himalayan derived detrital micas from a 20--5 Ma magnetostratigraphically dated section in the foreland basin of NW India to constrain exhumation of the Higher Himalaya. This work includes our previously published dataset and interpretations for the 20--13 Ma part of the sediment section (White et al., EPSL 2002), and new data for the 12--5 Ma sediment record. The data show zero lag times, indicative of rapid exhumation of the High Himalaya, between 20--17 Ma. After this time the lag times increase and there is no further evidence of rapid exhumation. Continued denudation to higher metamorphic levels is indicated by progressive appearance of index minerals in the sediment succession; first garnet (Najman &Garzanti 2000), followed by staurolite at 20 Ma, kyanite by 12 Ma and sillimanite at ca. 8 Ma. Calculation of exhumation rates from lag times can be determined using a thermal model which allows for advective modification of the geotherm. An exhumation rate of up to 5 mm/yr is calculated from the rapidly exhuming micas, slowing to <1mm/yr for the more slowly exhuming micas. This transition at 17 Ma corresponds to the first time that thrusting propagates into the footwall of the MCT, indicating the onset of a period of frontal accretion in the orogen. Exhumational steady state in an orogen, as defined by Willett &Brandon (Geology 2002), can be recognised in the sediment record as periods when lag times remain constant through time (Bernet et al., Geology 2001). Our data show that lag times do not remain constant upsection. Therefore, there is no evidence that the High Himalaya was in exhumational steady state during the studied time period. Reference White, N., Pringle, M., Garzanti, E., Bickle, M., Najman, Y., Chapman, H. and Friend, P. 2002. Constraints on the exhumation and erosion of the High Himalayan slab, NW India, from foreland basin deposits. EPSL 195, 29--44.

  12. WTERT-India Observations from India's Crisis Ranjith Annepu Observations from India's Crisis

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    the will of local residents, a landfill which had been closed following the orders issued by the state's pollution control board in response to public agitation, had to be reopened soon after its closure as the city could not find a new landfill site. Author Ranjith Annepu, WTERT ­ India Date February 04, 2013

  13. State Support for Private Schooling in India: What Do the Evaluations of the British Assisted Places Schemes Suggest?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walford, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    Section 12 of the Indian Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009 (the RTE Act) states that 25% of the entry-level places in all private schools should be free and reserved for students from economically and socially disadvantaged families. The Indian State governments will pay schools a per-child fee based on costs in the…

  14. Assessing Coupled Social Ecological Flood Vulnerability from Uttarakhand, India, to the State of New York with Google Earth Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellman, B.; Schwarz, B.

    2014-12-01

    This talk describes the development of a web application to predict and communicate vulnerability to floods given publicly available data, disaster science, and geotech cloud capabilities. The proof of concept in Google Earth Engine API with initial testing on case studies in New York and Utterakhand India demonstrates the potential of highly parallelized cloud computing to model socio-ecological disaster vulnerability at high spatial and temporal resolution and in near real time. Cloud computing facilitates statistical modeling with variables derived from large public social and ecological data sets, including census data, nighttime lights (NTL), and World Pop to derive social parameters together with elevation, satellite imagery, rainfall, and observed flood data from Dartmouth Flood Observatory to derive biophysical parameters. While more traditional, physically based hydrological models that rely on flow algorithms and numerical methods are currently unavailable in parallelized computing platforms like Google Earth Engine, there is high potential to explore "data driven" modeling that trades physics for statistics in a parallelized environment. A data driven approach to flood modeling with geographically weighted logistic regression has been initially tested on Hurricane Irene in southeastern New York. Comparison of model results with observed flood data reveals a 97% accuracy of the model to predict flooded pixels. Testing on multiple storms is required to further validate this initial promising approach. A statistical social-ecological flood model that could produce rapid vulnerability assessments to predict who might require immediate evacuation and where could serve as an early warning. This type of early warning system would be especially relevant in data poor places lacking the computing power, high resolution data such as LiDar and stream gauges, or hydrologic expertise to run physically based models in real time. As the data-driven model presented relies on globally available data, the only real time data input required would be typical data from a weather service, e.g. precipitation or coarse resolution flood prediction. However, model uncertainty will vary locally depending upon the resolution and frequency of observed flood and socio-economic damage impact data.

  15. Molecular variants and clinical importance of beta-thalassaemia traits found in the state of Orissa, India.

    PubMed

    Nishank, Sudhansu Sekhar; Ranjit, Manoranjan; Kar, Shantanu K; Chhotray, Guru Prasad

    2009-10-01

    Prevention of beta thalassaemia implies knowledge of the molecular spectrum occurring in the population at risk. This knowledge is necessary, especially when a prevention protocol is applied to a multiethnic population. For this purpose, we carried out molecular analysis of 431 beta thalassaemia subjects belonging to tribal (aboriginal) and non-tribal communities of Orissa, a part of peninsular India and found six types of mutation (four previously unreported and two reported). Molecular analysis of beta gene mutation showed that out of 431 beta thalassaemia cases (265 beta thalassaemia traits, 64 beta thalassaemia major, 47 haemoglobin E-beta thalassaemia, 55 haemoglobin S-beta thalassaemia cases), 71% of cases (n=306) showed the IVS I-5(G-->C) mutation, 12% of cases (n=52) showed FS 41/42(-CTTT), 7% of cases (n=30) showed CD 15(G-->A), 4.8% of cases (n=21) showed CD 30 (G-->C), 3% of cases (n=13) showed FS 8/9 (+G), and 2% of cases (n=9) showed IVSI-1(G-->T). The tribal populations possess only the IVS I-5(G-->C) mutation whereas the non-tribal groups possess the FS 41/42(-CTTT), FS 8/9 (+G), IVS I-1(G-->T), CD30(G-->C) and IVS I-5(G-->C) mutations. Among the non-tribal communities, Muslims did not have the IVS I-1 (G-->T) mutation. Clinically, anaemia was mild to moderate in beta thalassaemia trait and was found to be associated with the majority of abnormalities such as pyrexial episodes, fatigue, headache, lethargy and pallor. However, there were no differences in the incidence of clinical abnormalities between tribal and non-tribal populations and also among the different molecular variants of beta gene. This is the first report from Orissa on the prevalence of different molecular variants of beta thalassaemia. The clinical presentation of beta thalassaemia trait cases and their variation from other population have been discussed with reference to the different genetic variants. PMID:19843386

  16. Soil gas radon-thoron monitoring in Dharamsala area of north-west Himalayas, India using solid state nuclear track detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Gulshan; Kumar, Arvind; Walia, Vivek; Kumar, Jitender; Gupta, Vikash; Yang, Tsanyao Frank; Singh, Surinder; Bajwa, Bikramjit Singh

    2013-10-01

    The study described here is based on the measurements of soil gas radon-thoron concentrations performed at Dharamsala region of north-west (NW) Himalayas, India. The study area is tectonically and environmentally significant and shows the features of ductile shear zone due to the presence of distinct thrust planes. Solid state nuclear track detectors (LR-115 films) have been used for the soil gas radon-thoron monitoring. Twenty five radon-thoron discriminators with LR-115 films were installed in the borehole of about 50 cm in the study areas. The recorded radon concentration varies from 1593 to 13570 Bq/m3 with an average value of 5292 Bq/m3. The recorded thoron concentration varies from 223 to 2920 Bq/m3 with an average value of 901 Bq/m3. The anomalous value of radon-thoron has been observed near to the faults like main boundary thrust (MBT and MBT2) as well as neotectonic lineaments in the region.

  17. Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus and Its Risk Factors among Permanently Settled Tribal Individuals in Tribal and Urban Areas in Northern State of Sub-Himalayan Region of India

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Dhiraj; Bhardwaj, Ashok Kumar; Kumar, Dinesh; Raina, Sunil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background. Effect of urban environment on the development of DM and its risk factors is studied with an ecological fallacy due to their study designs that formulate the background for the present study. Objective. To study the prevalence of DM and associated lifestyle related risk factors in traditional tribal individuals residing in tribal area and migrating persons of the same tribe to urban area of sub-Himalayan northern state of India. Methodology. Population based cross-sectional study. Results. A total of 8000 individuals (tribal: 4000; urban: 4000) were recruited. Overall, among urban tribes the prevalence of central obesity (59.0%), overweight (29.3%), stage 1 (22.8%) and stage 2 (5.3%) hypertension, and DM (fasting: 7.8%; OGTT: 8.5%) (P = 0.00) was significantly higher than the tribes of tribal area. Based on OGTT, the prevalence of DM was found to be 9.2% among central obese tribes of urban area and 6.7% of tribal area (P = 0.00). DM showed a significant high prevalence among urban tribes with prehypertension (urban: 8.3%; tribal: 2.9%; P = 0.00), and stage 1 (urban: 14.1%; tribal: 8.7%; P = 0.00) and stage 2 (urban: 17.5%; tribal: 13.9%; P = 0.59) hypertension. Conclusion. Urban environment showed a changing lifestyle and high prevalence of DM among tribal migrating urban tribes as compared to traditional tribes. PMID:26464856

  18. Avian influenza surveillance reveals presence of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in poultry during 2009-2011 in the West Bengal State, India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction More than 70 outbreaks of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 have been reported in poultry in the western and north-eastern parts of India. Therefore, in view of the recent HPAI H5N1 outbreaks in poultry, active AI surveillance encompassing wild, resident, migratory birds and poultry was undertaken during 2009–2011 in the State of West Bengal. Methods A total of 5722 samples were collected from West Bengal; 3522 samples (2906 fecal droppings?+?616 other environmental samples) were from migratory birds and 2200 samples [1604 tracheal, cloacal swabs, environmental samples, tissue samples?+?596 blood (serum)] were from domestic ducks and poultry. All tracheal, cloacal and environmental samples were processed for virus isolation. Virus isolates were detected using hemagglutination assay and identified using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of partial region of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes was done. Intravenous pathogenicity index assays were performed in chickens to assess pathogenicity of AI virus isolates. Serum samples were tested for detection of antibodies against AI viruses using HI assay. Results A total of 57 AI H9N2, 15 AI H4N6 and 15 Newcastle Disease (NDV) viruses were isolated from chickens, from both backyard and wet poultry markets; AI H4N6 viruses were isolated from backyard chickens and domestic ducks. Characterization of AI H9N2 and H4N6 viruses revealed that they were of low pathogenicity. Domestic ducks were positive for antibodies against H5 and H7 viruses while chickens were positive for presence of antibodies against AI H9N2 and NDV. Conclusions In the current scenario of HPAI H5N1 outbreaks in West Bengal, this report shows presence of low pathogenic AI H9N2 and H4N6 viruses in chickens and domestic ducks during the period 2009–2011. This is the first report of isolation of H4N6 from India. Antibodies against AI H5 and H7 in ducks highlight the probable role of domestic ducks in the transmission of AI viruses. Human infections of H9N2 have been reported from China and Hong Kong. This necessitates implementation of prevention and control measures to limit the spread of AI viruses. PMID:22867041

  19. Study of Morbidity Profile of a Rural Population in Tamil Nadu

    PubMed Central

    Ganeshkumar, P.; Katta, Ajitha

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the reported morbidity profile of people according to age, gender and organ system affected using International Classification of Diseases (ICD) coding, in a demographically defined area in Tamil Nadu in order to identify their health care needs and to plan appropriate interventions strategies. Materials and Methods: This is a-cross sectional study using a convenience sample of 12308 persons sceened from the 41 panchayat units of the Kattankulathur block, comprising 90 villages with a population of about 2,00,890, over a period of one year. Diagnosis made were coded using ICD 10 version and data collected was analysed by appropriate statistical methods to explain the distribution of morbidity profile among the study population. Result: Out of total, 38.1% screened were males and 61.9% were females. Underfives were 5.3%, school going children 43.3%, adults 39.2% and elderly 12.3%. Majority had illness affecting respiratory system (20%), ‘symptoms and signs’ (19%), musculo-skeletal system (16.1%) and digestive system(11.9%). ‘Symptoms and signs’ classification, is a group of conditions which is of nonspecific diseases, signs, symptoms, abnormal findings and complaints, apart from the system specific conditions diagnosed properly and not elsewhere classified, More males were affeced with respiratory, digestive and illnesses with ‘symptoms and signs’ while more women were affected with musculo-skeletal problems. Only 9.7 % of patients reported with non-communicable diseases. Among them, 55 % women and 42.3 % men had osteoarthritis and 15.7 % women and 21.3 % men had cataract. About 15.8 % women and 18.1 % men had hypertension and other heart diseases while 9.7 % women and 8.4 % men had diabetes and 10.0 % men and 3.9 % women had chronic respiratory diseases. Conclusion: School going children and adults have higher levels of morbidity when compared to elderly and under five children. More females reported with illness but morbidity was found to be higher among males. The burden of illness increased with age. Acute ailments were responsible for high morbidity among children, while chronic ailments caused high morbidity among the elderly. PMID:25859470

  20. Students from India at a Major Research University in the United States: A Phenomenological Study of Transition, Adjustment, and Transformation 

    E-print Network

    Chennamsetti, Prashanti

    2011-08-08

    to the identification of two sub-themes under the theme individual experiences: individual factors that helped in adjustment and individual factors that hindered adjustment in the United States. Sub-themes identified under situational experiences were situational...

  1. Enhancing innovation between scientific and indigenous knowledge: pioneer NGOs in India

    PubMed Central

    Torri, Maria-Costanza; Laplante, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Background Until recently, little attention has been paid to local innovation capacity as well as management practices and institutions developed by communities and other local actors based on their traditional knowledge. This paper doesn't focus on the results of scientific research into innovation systems, but rather on how local communities, in a network of supportive partnerships, draw knowledge for others, combine it with their own knowledge and then innovate in their local practices. Innovation, as discussed in this article, is the capacity of local stakeholders to play an active role in innovative knowledge creation in order to enhance local health practices and further environmental conservation. In this article, the innovative processes through which this capacity is created and reinforced will be defined as a process of "ethnomedicine capacity". Methods The field study undertaken by the first author took place in India, in the State of Tamil Nadu, over a period of four months in 2007. The data was collected through individual interviews and focus groups and was complemented by participant observations. Results The research highlights the innovation capacity related to ethnomedical knowledge. As seen, the integration of local and scientific knowledge is crucial to ensure the practices anchor themselves in daily practices. The networks created are clearly instrumental to enhancing the innovation capacity that allows the creation, dissemination and utilization of 'traditional' knowledge. However, these networks have evolved in very different forms and have become entities that can fit into global networks. The ways in which the social capital is enhanced at the village and network levels are thus important to understand how traditional knowledge can be used as an instrument for development and innovation. Conclusion The case study analyzed highlights examples of innovation systems in a developmental context. They demonstrate that networks comprised of several actors from different levels can synergistically forge linkages between local knowledge and formal sciences and generate positive and negative impacts. The positive impact is the revitalization of perceived traditions while the negative impacts pertain to the transformation of these traditions into health commodities controlled by new elites, due to unequal power relations. PMID:19849851

  2. India’s R&D for Energy Efficient Buildings: Insights for U.S. Cooperation with India

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd

    2010-06-01

    This report outlines India’s current activities and future plans in building energy efficiency R&D and deployment, and maps them with R&D activities under the Department of Energy’s Building Technologies Program. The assessment, conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in FY10, reviews major R&D programs in India including programs under the 11th Five-Year Plan, programs under the NEF, R&D and other programs under state agencies and ongoing projects in major research institutions .

  3. India-Pakistan nuclear issues. Hearing before the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, Ninety-Sixth Congress, second session March 18, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The proceedings of Hearings on nuclear issues between the US, India and Pakistan are included in this volume. The committee wants to explore with the administration precisely where matters stand with India and Pakistan on nuclear issues, what policy alternatives the administration may be considering with respect to those issues, and how the administration intends to relate its actions on nuclear matters to other US foreign policy issues. (DMC)

  4. 76 FR 8773 - Forged Stainless Steel Flanges From India and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ...731-TA-639 and 640 (Third Review)] Forged Stainless Steel Flanges From India and Taiwan AGENCY: United States...revocation of the antidumping duty orders on forged stainless steel flanges from India and Taiwan would be likely to...

  5. Bluetongue virus infection in India: a review.

    PubMed

    Prasad, G; Jain, N C; Gupta, Y

    1992-09-01

    The history and epizootiology of bluetongue (BT) in India are reviewed. BT has become endemic in India. The first outbreak of BT in sheep and goats in the country was recorded in 1964 in Maharashtra State. Since then, several outbreaks of BT have been reported in sheep. Exotic sheep are more susceptible than indigenous and cross-bred sheep. A serological survey has indicated the presence of bluetongue virus (BTV) antibodies in cattle and buffalo in several states in India. However, clinical BT has not been observed in cattle or buffalo to date. Of the 24 known serotypes of BTV, 18 have been reported in India. Although BTV has been isolated from Culicoides midges, the particular species responsible for transmission has not yet been identified. PMID:1335304

  6. Papillomavirus infection in rural women in southern India

    PubMed Central

    Franceschi, S; Rajkumar, R; Snijders, P J F; Arslan, A; Mahé, C; Plummer, M; Sankaranarayanan, R; Cherian, J; Meijer, C J L M; Weiderpass, E

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of, and the risk factors for, cervical infection with 44 types of human papillomavirus (HPV) in a rural area in the Dindigul District, Tamil Nadu, India, we interviewed and obtained cervical cell samples from 1891 married women aged 16–59 years. HPV prevalence was 16.9% overall and 14.0% among women without cervical abnormalities, or 17.7 and 15.2%, respectively, age-standardised to the world standard population. In all, 21.9% of infections involved more than one HPV type. High-risk HPV types predominated, particularly HPV 16 (22.5% of women infected), followed by HPV 56, HPV 31, HPV 33 and HPV 18. Unlike most populations studied in developed countries, HPV prevalence was constant across the age groups. HPV positivity was inversely associated with education level (odds ratio (OR) among women with high school vs no education=0.6) and positively associated with widowhood and divorce (OR=1.7), nulligravidity (OR=2.3), and condom use (OR=2.6). It is unclear how much low clearance of, or frequent reinfection with HPV accounted for the study prevalence of infection in different age groups. PMID:15668709

  7. Usage pattern and exposure assessment of food colours in different age groups of consumers in the State of Uttar Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Dixit, S; Purshottam, S K; Gupta, S K; Khanna, S K; Das, M

    2010-02-01

    The present study aims to investigate the nature and levels of colours in food items and to undertake risk assessment vis-a-vis intake among different age groups of consumers in the State of Uttar Pradesh, India. A total of 478 edible foodstuffs were analysed, and of six permitted colours, Sunset Yellow FCF (SSYFCF) and Tartrazine were most popular, and two non-permitted colours, namely Metanil Yellow and Rhodamine B, were encountered. The study showed a marked improvement in the trend of use of non-permitted colours over previous surveys, with 90% foods now resorting to approved food colours. However, 59% of foods employing permitted colours exceeded the maximum allowable limit, with average quantities crossing the threshold of 100 mg kg(-1) in most food commodities. The intake of SSYFCF exceeded the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for children and adolescents by 88% and 39%, respectively, and was statistically significant when analysed by error bars and distribution curves. In adults, SSYFCF saturated 59% of the ADI. For Carmoisine, Tartrazine and Ponceau 4R, saturation of ADI ranged from 27.4% to 90.3% in children and adolescents and from 10.8% to 47.6% in adult subjects. These results indicate that children and adolescents are more vulnerable to higher intakes of food colours compared with the adult population. Allowing a uniform level of all colours in foods under Indian rules, notwithstanding wide variations of 250-fold in their allocated ADIs, could be one reason for the higher intake and hence only technological need-based levels of individual colours are desired to be prescribed. PMID:19890754

  8. Wintertime Experimental investigation of Morphology, Mixing States and Columnar Optical Properties of Aerosols over a Desert location in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S.; Kumar, T.; Sharma, C.; Prasad, M. V. S. N.; Singh, S.; Agnihotri, R.; Arya, B. C.; Gupta, B.; Naaraayanan, T.; Gautam, S.; Kumar, D.; Sood, K. N.; Tawale, J. S.; Sharma, A. K.; Mitra, A. K.

    2014-12-01

    Indian Desert (The Thar Desert) is considered as the source of mineral dust in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) especially in pre-monsoon period due to large scale convective activities during hot summer. To study the physico-chemical characteristics of aerosols over the Thar Desert (Jaisalmer, Rajasthan) during winter (December, 2013), a field campaign has been carried out in Jaisalmer in Rajasthan state. Experiments were conducted inside the city as well as far from the city. The faraway location is close to international border of another country i.e. Pakistan. PM2.5 and PM10 were collected within the city while PM5 was collected far from the city. Particles were collected on Teflon filters for bulk analysis with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), on Tin substrate for individual particle morphology and elemental composition analysis with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) and on the Cu-TEM grid for individual particle morphology and mixing state characterization using High Resolution-Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM). Together with this, aerosol size distribution observation and columnar spectral aerosol optical properties have been carried out with OPC (Optical Particle Counter, GRIMM Model 1.108) and hand held Microtops-II, respectively. HRTEM analysis reveals occurrence of carbonaceous fractals found in various mixing states 1) aged with some hygroscopic species 2) embedded in sulfate host 3) semi-externally mixed with sulfate and other species. Core-shell particles were also observed with varying core composition (carbon, typical mineral dust, and calcite) and shell thickness (shell comprising of water). The back trajectory analysis reveals the source of wind from Karachi and Islamabad from Pakistan which may be the potential source of carbonaceous species over the sampling site. SEM-EDS analysis reveals occurrence of mineral dust 1) pure mineral dust (Ca and Si rich) 2) polluted mineral dust (mixed with carbon and Cr) together with some pollutants (rich in carbon, S, K, Cl, Mo and Nb). Signatures of various organics were traced using FTIR. Aerosol columnar spectral optical properties, size distribution and meteorology in tandem with aforementioned aerosol properties will be discussed in detail during the presentation.

  9. Percentages, Process, and Patterns of HIV Disclosure Among the Spouses of HIV-Infected Men in South India.

    PubMed

    Suhadev, Mohanarani; Mahadevan, Udaya; Dilip, Meenalochani; Suryanarayanan, Devaraj; Sikhamani, Rajasekaran; Thomas, Beena

    2011-01-01

    Most studies have described the outcome of HIV status disclosure rather than the process of disclosure. Hence, a study was conducted among 201 women who accompanied their spouses and children to 3 hospitals at Chennai and Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India, during January to June 2007. Majority of the respondents were sero-positive (69%) and marriage was the only risk factor for them. Of 201 women, 49% did not know the reason for their husbands' HIV infection. Confidentiality of the patient was often breached during disclosure as family members were drawn into the process without consulting the patient. Only for 117 (50%) respondents, HIV diagnosis was disclosed directly by the health providers. There was a considerable delay for men in disclosing their HIV status to their spouses. Apart from the spouses, 122 (61%) shared their diagnosis with other family members. Disgrace to self and family (54%), fear of discrimination (27%), and fear of rejection (9%) were reported for nondisclosure. PMID:21266322

  10. Dynamic Site Characterization and Correlation of Shear Wave Velocity with Standard Penetration Test ` N' Values for the City of Agartala, Tripura State, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sil, Arjun; Sitharam, T. G.

    2014-08-01

    Seismic site characterization is the basic requirement for seismic microzonation and site response studies of an area. Site characterization helps to gauge the average dynamic properties of soil deposits and thus helps to evaluate the surface level response. This paper presents a seismic site characterization of Agartala city, the capital of Tripura state, in the northeast of India. Seismically, Agartala city is situated in the Bengal Basin zone which is classified as a highly active seismic zone, assigned by Indian seismic code BIS-1893, Indian Standard Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures, Part-1 General Provisions and Buildings. According to the Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi (2002), it is the highest seismic level (zone-V) in the country. The city is very close to the Sylhet fault (Bangladesh) where two major earthquakes ( M w > 7) have occurred in the past and affected severely this city and the whole of northeast India. In order to perform site response evaluation, a series of geophysical tests at 27 locations were conducted using the multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) technique, which is an advanced method for obtaining shear wave velocity ( V s) profiles from in situ measurements. Similarly, standard penetration test (SPT-N) bore log data sets have been obtained from the Urban Development Department, Govt. of Tripura. In the collected data sets, out of 50 bore logs, 27 were selected which are close to the MASW test locations and used for further study. Both the data sets ( V s profiles with depth and SPT-N bore log profiles) have been used to calculate the average shear wave velocity ( V s30) and average SPT-N values for the upper 30 m depth of the subsurface soil profiles. These were used for site classification of the study area recommended by the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP) manual. The average V s30 and SPT-N classified the study area as seismic site class D and E categories, indicating that the city is susceptible to site effects and liquefaction. Further, the different data set combinations between V s and SPT-N (corrected and uncorrected) values have been used to develop site-specific correlation equations by statistical regression, as ` V s' is a function of SPT- N value (corrected and uncorrected), considered with or without depth. However, after considering the data set pairs, a probabilistic approach has also been presented to develop a correlation using a quantile-quantile (Q-Q) plot. A comparison has also been made with the well known published correlations (for all soils) available in the literature. The present correlations closely agree with the other equations, but, comparatively, the correlation of shear wave velocity with the variation of depth and uncorrected SPT-N values provides a more suitable predicting model. Also the Q-Q plot agrees with all the other equations. In the absence of in situ measurements, the present correlations could be used to measure V s profiles of the study area for site response studies.

  11. Color-coded audio computer-assisted self-interviews (C-ACASI) for poorly educated men and women in a semi-rural area of South India: "good, scary and thrilling".

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Tarun; Brown, Joelle; Saravanamurthy, P Sakthivel; Kumar, Raju Mohan; Detels, Roger

    2013-07-01

    It is challenging to collect accurate and complete data on sensitive issues such as sexual behaviors. Our objective was to explore experience and perceptions regarding the use of a locally programmed color-coded audio computer-assisted self interview (C-ACASI) system among men and women in a semi-rural setting in south India. We conducted a mixed-methods cross-sectional survey using semi-structured interviews among 89 truck drivers and 101 truck driver wives who had participated earlier in the C-ACASI survey across a predominantly rural district in Tamil Nadu. To assess the color-coded format used, descriptive quantitative analysis was coupled with thematic content analysis of qualitative data. Only 10% of participants had ever used a computer before. Nearly 75% did not report any problem in using C-ACASI. The length of the C-ACASI survey was acceptable to 98% of participants. Overall, 87% of wives and 73% of truck drivers stated that C-ACASI was user-friendly and felt comfortable in responding to the sensitive questions. Nearly all (97%) participants reported that using C-ACASI encouraged them to respond honestly compared to face-to-face personal interviews. Both the drivers and wives expressed that C-ACASI provided confidentiality, privacy, anonymity, and an easy mechanism for responding truthfully to potentially embarrassing questions about their personal sexual relationships. It is feasible and acceptable to use C-ACASI for collecting sensitive data from poorly computer-literate, non-English-speaking, predominantly rural populations of women and men. Our findings support the implementation of effective and culturally sensitive C-ACASI for data collection, albeit with additional validation. PMID:23361948

  12. Can India's ``literate'' read?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata

    2010-12-01

    This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading Method (RM) which required the same individuals to actually read a simple text at grade 2 level. The findings revealed a substantial difference between the reading literacy rates obtained by CM and RM. CM over-reported RM by 16%. The overestimation was higher for males. Decoding skills were found to erode in most cases after completion of primary schooling, assuming no further education. A minimum grade 8-9 education was required for decoding skills to not deteriorate after schooling.

  13. Effect of User Charges on Secondary Level Surgical Care Utilization and Out-of-Pocket Expenditures in Haryana State, India

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Deepak; Prinja, Shankar; Aggarwal, Arun Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background Generation of resources for providing health care services is an important issue in developing countries. User charges in the form of Surgical Package Program (SPP) were introduced in all district hospitals of Haryana to address this problem. We evaluate the effect of this SPP program on surgical care utilization and out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditures. Methods Data on 25437 surgeries, from July 2006 to June 2013 in 3 districts of Haryana state, was analyzed using interrupted time series analysis to assess the impact of SPP on utilization of services. Adjustment was made for presence of any autocorrelation and seasonality effects. A cross sectional survey was undertaken among 180 patients in District hospital, Panchkula during June 2013 to assess the extent of out of pocket (OOP) expenditure incurred, financial risk protection and methods to cope with OOP expenditure. Catastrophic health expenditure, estimated as any expenditure in excess of 10% of the household consumption expenditure, was used to assess the extent of financial risk protection. Results User charges had a negative effect on the number of surgeries in public sector district hospitals in all the 3 districts. The mean out-of-pocket expenditure incurred by the patients was Rs.4564 (USD 74.6). The prevalence of catastrophic expenditure was 5.6%. A higher proportion among the poorest 20% population coped through borrowing money (47.2%), while majority (86.1%) of those belonging to richest quintile paid from their monthly income or savings, or had insurance. Conclusion There is a need to increase the public financing for curative services and it should be based on the needs of population. Any form of user charge in public sector hospitals should be removed. PMID:25938670

  14. Women's education in colonial Tamil Nadu, 1900-1930: the coalescence of patriarchy and colonialism.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, P

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical framework for approaches to women's education and employs this framework in a discussion of the effects of patriarchy and colonialism on the educational process in Western Europe and North America as adapted in India. According to Sylvia Walby, patriarchy is the system of social structures and practices in which men dominate, oppress, and exploit women, while colonialism depends on a relationship in which the colonized group is assumed to be intellectually, morally, and physically inferior to the colonizer. It is on the perspectives of these two systems that educational policy in Britain was based then imported to India, subsequently finding expression in various official and unofficial pronouncements. Most important, over the course of time educated Indian men in their official capacity endorsed and adapted these same pronouncements while concretizing policies relating to women's education. After the framework, an overview of schooling in Madras Presidency in the 1920s is presented. The impetus for the development of formal education for women had more to do with the notion of imparting a far greater impulse to the educational and moral tone of the people in general, and to men in particular, than with the espousal of equality of educational opportunities for women. Many issues, each of which needs to be explored further to get a picture of the complexity of the subject, compounded the problem of the expansion of women's education. PMID:12349196

  15. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in India

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Somasundaram, Sriram

    2009-04-07

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America. This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in India, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes in India, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial buildings in India.

  16. Inter-Generational Differences in Individualism/Collectivism Orientations: Implications for Outlook towards HRD/HRM Practices in India and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Rajashi; Chaudhuri, Sanghamitra

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a conceptual model to explore the effects of intergenerational transition in individualism/collectivism orientations on the outlook towards different human resource development (HRD) and management practices. It contributes to the existing cross-cultural research in HRD by defining three prominent generations in India and by…

  17. Estimating Wealth Effects without Expenditure Data--or Tears: An Application to Educational Enrollments in States of India. Policy Research Working Papers No. 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filmer, Deon; Pritchett, Lant

    The relationship between household wealth and educational enrollment of children can be estimated without expenditure data. A method for doing this uses an index based on household asset ownership indicators. To estimate the relationship between household wealth in India and the probability that a child aged 6-14 would be enrolled in school, data…

  18. ICT Usage by Distance Learners in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awadhiya, Ashish Kumar; Gowthaman, K.

    2014-01-01

    Open Universities across the world are embracing ICT based teaching and learning process to disseminate quality education to their learners spread across the globe. In India availability and access of ICT and learner characteristics are uneven and vary from state to state. Hence it is important to establish the facts about ICT access among…

  19. Photocopy of sketch in India Ink on a quilt from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of sketch in India Ink on a quilt from 1842 (quilt at the Chester County Historical Society, West Chester, Pennsylvania) Photocopy taken by Ned Goode, April 14, 1960 sketch of house in india ink on quilt from 1842 - Primitive Hall, State Route 841 (West Marlborough Township), Clonmell, Chester County, PA

  20. The Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India International Conference

    E-print Network

    Nahar, Sultana Nurun

    The Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India announces International Conference On Nanotechnology with The Ohio State University (OSU) in Ohio, USA and CEERI Pilani, the Aligarh Muslim University (AMU project (STEM-ER) funded by the US-India Education Foundation (USIEF) under the title `21st Century

  1. 7 CFR 319.56-46 - Mangoes from India.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mangoes from India. 319.56-46 Section 319.56-46... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-46 Mangoes from India. Mangoes (Mangifera indica) may be imported into the continental United States from...

  2. 7 CFR 319.56-46 - Mangoes from India.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mangoes from India. 319.56-46 Section 319.56-46... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-46 Mangoes from India. Mangoes (Mangifera indica) may be imported into the continental United States from...

  3. 7 CFR 319.56-46 - Mangoes from India.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mangoes from India. 319.56-46 Section 319.56-46... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-46 Mangoes from India. Mangoes (Mangifera indica) may be imported into the continental United States from...

  4. 7 CFR 319.56-46 - Mangoes from India.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mangoes from India. 319.56-46 Section 319.56-46... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-46 Mangoes from India. Mangoes (Mangifera indica) may be imported into the continental United States from...

  5. Studying India in Elementary and Secondary Schools. World Affairs Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenworthy, Leonard S.

    One of several World Affairs Guides, this booklet focuses on India as a region to be included in any K-12 social studies curriculum plan. It is felt that modern students in the United States should know a great deal about other significant areas of the world. India is thought to be significant because of its rich history, cultural contributions,…

  6. India's Doctor Shortage Reflects Problems in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neelakantan, Shailaja

    2008-01-01

    This article reports that India's medical profession is in a crisis. For every 10,000 people in India there are only six doctors, compared with nearly 55 in the United States and nearly 21 in Canada. The problem is likely to get worse before it gets better. Professors are leaving medical schools for better-paying jobs in private hospitals and in…

  7. India: Bihar

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... an immense wintertime pool of pollution over the northern Indian state of Bihar. The discovery was made by researchers analyzing four ... was discovered over Bihar, a largely rural area with a high population density. Blanketing around 100 million people, primarily in the ...

  8. India's petroleum privatization gathering speed

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-14

    Privatization of India's petroleum industry is seen as inevitable, even by the staunchest supporters of the state owned sector there. What has become clear is that the huge investments required for Indian exploration, refining, and marketing are beyond the scope of even the biggest state owned firms, such as Oil and Natural Gas Commission (ONGC) and Indian Oil Corp. (IOC). A proposal was put forth last fall to offer Bombay High offshore oil fields to leading multinationals for redevelopment to stem the production slide in India's mainstay producing area. Some of those projects could entail capital outlays of as much as $1 billion. In another step to attract foreign investment to the petroleum sector, India last month decided to take steps for phased decontrol of domestic crude oil prices to bring them in line with world market levels and help set the stage for privatization of ONGC. The paper describes major projects, the slide in oil production, price changes, the need for privatization, and the lukewarm interest in exploration.

  9. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) control in India

    PubMed Central

    Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Yadav, Kapil; Srivastava, Rahul; Pandav, Rijuta; Karmarkar, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) constitute the single largest cause of preventable brain damage worldwide. Majority of consequences of IDD are invisible and irreversible but at the same time these are preventable. In India, the entire population is prone to IDD due to deficiency of iodine in the soil of the subcontinent and consequently the food derived from it. To combat the risk of IDD, salt is fortified with iodine. However, an estimated 350 million people do not consume adequately iodized salt and, therefore, are at risk for IDD. Of the 325 districts surveyed in India so far, 263 are IDD-endemic. The current household level iodized salt coverage in India is 91 per cent with 71 per cent households consuming adequately iodized salt. The IDD control goal in India was to reduce the prevalence of IDD below 10 per cent in the entire country by 2012. What is required is a “mission approach” with greater coordination amongst all stakeholders of IDD control efforts in India. Mainstreaming of IDD control in policy making, devising State specific action plans to control IDD, strict implementation of Food Safety and Standards (FSS) Act, 2006, addressing inequities in iodized salt coverage (rural-urban, socio-economic), providing iodized salt in Public Distribution System, strengthening monitoring and evaluation of IDD programme and ensuring sustainability of IDD control activities are essential to achieve sustainable elimination of IDD in India. PMID:24135192

  10. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) control in India.

    PubMed

    Pandav, Chandrakant S; Yadav, Kapil; Srivastava, Rahul; Pandav, Rijuta; Karmarkar, M G

    2013-09-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) constitute the single largest cause of preventable brain damage worldwide. Majority of consequences of IDD are invisible and irreversible but at the same time these are preventable. In India, the entire population is prone to IDD due to deficiency of iodine in the soil of the subcontinent and consequently the food derived from it. To combat the risk of IDD, salt is fortified with iodine. However, an estimated 350 million people do not consume adequately iodized salt and, therefore, are at risk for IDD. Of the 325 districts surveyed in India so far, 263 are IDD-endemic. The current household level iodized salt coverage in India is 91 per cent with 71 per cent households consuming adequately iodized salt. The IDD control goal in India was to reduce the prevalence of IDD below 10 per cent in the entire country by 2012. What is required is a "mission approach" with greater coordination amongst all stakeholders of IDD control efforts in India. Mainstreaming of IDD control in policy making, devising State specific action plans to control IDD, strict implementation of Food Safety and Standards (FSS) Act, 2006, addressing inequities in iodized salt coverage (rural-urban, socio-economic), providing iodized salt in Public Distribution System, strengthening monitoring and evaluation of IDD programme and ensuring sustainability of IDD control activities are essential to achieve sustainable elimination of IDD in India. PMID:24135192

  11. Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Mian, Zia

    2014-05-09

    India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future.

  12. Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mian, Zia

    2014-05-01

    India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future.

  13. Spatial dynamics of deforestation and forest fragmentation (1930-2013) in Eastern Ghats, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhakar Reddy, C.; Jha, C. S.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2014-11-01

    The tropical forests are the most unique ecosystems for their potential economic value. Eastern Ghats, a phytogeographical region of India has rugged hilly terrain distributed in parts of five states, viz. Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. The present study is mainly aimed to analyse the trends in deforestation and its role in forest fragmentation of Eastern Ghats. The long term changes in forest cover with its spatial pattern over time has been assessed by analyzing a set of topographical maps and satellite remote sensing datasets. The multi-source and multi-date mapping has been carried out using survey of India topographical maps (1930's), Landsat MSS (1975 and 1985), IRS 1B LISS-I (1995), IRS P6 AWiFS (2005) and Resourcesat-2 AWiFS (2013) satellite images. The classified spatial data for 1930, 1975, 1985, 1995, 2005 and 2013 showed that the forest cover for the mentioned years are 102213 km2 (45.6 %), 76630 (34.2 %), 73416 km2 (32.7 %), 71730 km2 (32 %), 71305 km2 (31.8 %) and 71186 km2 (31.7 %) of the geographical area of Eastern Ghats respectively. A spatial statistical analysis of the deforestation rates and forest cover change were carried out based on distinctive time phases, i.e. 1930-1975, 1975-1985, 1985-1995, 1995-2005 and 2005-2013. The spatial analysis was carried out first by segmenting the study area into grid cells of 5 km x 5 km for time series assessment and determining spatial changes in forests. The distribution of loss and gain of forest was calculated across six classes i.e. <1 km2, 1-5 km2, 5-10 km2, 10-15 km2, 15-20 km2 and >20 km2. Landscape metrics were used to quantify spatial variability of landscape structure and composition. The results of study on net rate of deforestation was found to be 0.64 during 1935 to 1975, 0.43 during 1975-1985, 0.23 during 1985-1995, 0.06 during 1995-2005 and 0.02 during 2005-2013. The number of forest patches increased from 2688 (1930) to 13009 (2013). The largest forest patch in 1930 represents area of 41669 km2 that has reduced to 27800 km2 by 2013. Thus, it is evident that there is a substantial reduction in the size of the very large forest patches due to deforestation. According to spatial analysis, among the different land use change drivers, agriculture occupies highest area, followed by degradation to scrub and conversion to orchards. The dominant forest type was dry deciduous which comprises 37192 km2 (52.2 %) of the total forest area of Eastern Ghats, followed by moist deciduous forest (39.2 %) and semievergreen forest (4.8 %) in 2013. The change analysis showed that the large scale negative changes occurred in deciduous forests and semi-evergreen forests compared to wet evergreen forests due to high economic potential and accessibility. This study has quantified the deforestation that has taken place over the last eight decades in the Eastern Ghats. The decline in overall rate of deforestation in recent years indicates increased measures of conservation. The change analysis of deforestation and forest fragmentation provides a decisive component for conservation and helpful in long term management of forests of Eastern Ghats.

  14. Experience of violence and adverse reproductive health outcomes, HIV risks among mobile female sex workers in India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Female sex workers (FSWs) are a population sub-group most affected by the HIV epidemic in India and elsewhere. Despite research and programmatic attention to FSWs, little is known regarding sex workers' reproductive health and HIV risk in relation to their experiences of violence. This paper therefore aims to understand the linkages between violence and the reproductive health and HIV risks among a group of mobile FSWs in India. Methods Data are drawn from a cross-sectional behavioural survey conducted in 22 districts from four high HIV prevalence states (Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu) in India between September 2007 and July 2008. The survey sample included 5,498 FSWs who had moved to at least two different places for sex work in the past two years, and are classified as mobile FSWs in the current study. Analyses calculated the prevalence of past year experiences of violence; and adjusted logistic regression models examined the association between violence and reproductive health and HIV risks after controlling for background characteristics and program exposure. Results Approximately one-third of the total mobile FSWs (30.5%, n = 1,676) reported experiencing violence at least once in the past year; 11% reported experiencing physical violence, and 19.5% reported experiencing sexual violence. Results indicate that FSWs who had experienced any violence (physical or sexual) were significantly more likely to be vulnerable to both reproductive health and HIV risks. For example, FSWs who experienced violence were more likely than those who did not experience violence to have experienced a higher number of pregnancies (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-1.6), ever experienced pregnancy loss (adjusted OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.2-1.6), ever experienced forced termination of pregnancy (adjusted OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 2.0-2.7), experienced multiple forced termination of pregnancies (adjusted OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.7-2.8), and practice inconsistent condom use currently (adjusted OR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.4-2.0). Among FSWs who experienced violence, those who experienced sexual violence were more likely than those who had experienced physical violence to report inconsistent condom use (adjusted OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.4-2.3), and experience STI symptoms (adjusted OR = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1-1.7). Conclusion The pervasiveness of violence and its association with reproductive health and HIV risk highlights that the abuse in general is an important determinant for reproductive health risks; and sexual violence is significantly associated with HIV risks among those who experienced violence. Existing community mobilization programs that have primarily focused on empowering FSWs should broaden their efforts to promote reproductive health in addition to the prevention of HIV among all FSWs, with particular emphasis on FSWs who experienced violence. PMID:21599984

  15. Physico-chemical parameters and Ichthyofauna diversity of Arasalar estuary in southeast coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, C.; Sridharan, G.; Mariappan, P.; Chelladurai, G.

    2015-01-01

    The physico-chemical changes may have the tendency to accumulate in the various organs of estuarine organisms, especially fish which may in turn enter into the human metabolism through consumption causing serious hazards. Hence, the present study was carried out to dete rmine the physico-chemical characteristics of water and Ichthyofauna in Arasalar estuary in southeast coast of India for the period of 1 year during September 2012-August 2013. The environmental parameters such as, temperature, pH, salinity, DO, silicate, nitrate and phosphate were observed from Department of Zoology, Rajah Serfoji Goverment College, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India. During the period of study, air temperature varied from 28.8 to 35 °C. The surface water temperature also varied from 25 to 31.5 °C. The monthly mean values of hydrogen ion concentration of water varied from 7.1 to 8.2. The salinity of water varied from 5.5 ‰ to 34. Dissolved oxygen in Arasalar estuary was varied from 3.5 to 7.2 mg/l. The total phosphorus varied from 0.29 to 2.15 µg/1. The nitrate varied from 0.47 to 3.75 µg/l. The silicate content varied from 28.25 to 98.74 µg/l. Totally 866 fishes were collected belonging to 4 orders and 5 families. Mystus gulio was found to be the dominant species (25.40 %) in the study area.

  16. Post-tsunami relocation of fisher settlements in South Asia: evidence from the Coromandel Coast, India.

    PubMed

    Bavinck, Maarten; de Klerk, Leo; van der Plaat, Felice; Ravesteijn, Jorik; Angel, Dominique; Arendsen, Hendrik; van Dijk, Tom; de Hoog, Iris; van Koolwijk, Ant; Tuijtel, Stijn; Zuurendonk, Benjamin

    2015-07-01

    The tsunami that struck the coasts of India on 26 December 2004 resulted in the large-scale destruction of fisher habitations. The post-tsunami rehabilitation effort in Tamil Nadu was directed towards relocating fisher settlements in the interior. This paper discusses the outcomes of a study on the social effects of relocation in a sample of nine communities along the Coromandel Coast. It concludes that, although the participation of fishing communities in house design and in allocation procedures has been limited, many fisher households are satisfied with the quality of the facilities. The distance of the new settlements to the shore, however, is regarded as an impediment to engaging in the fishing profession, and many fishers are actually moving back to their old locations. This raises questions as to the direction of coastal zone policy in India, as well as to the weight accorded to safety (and other coastal development interests) vis-à-vis the livelihood needs of fishers. PMID:25546250

  17. India's baseline plan for nuclear energy self-sufficiency.

    SciTech Connect

    Bucher, R .G.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-01-01

    India's nuclear energy strategy has traditionally strived for energy self-sufficiency, driven largely by necessity following trade restrictions imposed by the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) following India's 'peaceful nuclear explosion' of 1974. On September 6, 2008, the NSG agreed to create an exception opening nuclear trade with India, which may create opportunities for India to modify its baseline strategy. The purpose of this document is to describe India's 'baseline plan,' which was developed under constrained trade conditions, as a basis for understanding changes in India's path as a result of the opening of nuclear commerce. Note that this treatise is based upon publicly available information. No attempt is made to judge whether India can meet specified goals either in scope or schedule. In fact, the reader is warned a priori that India's delivery of stated goals has often fallen short or taken a significantly longer period to accomplish. It has been evident since the early days of nuclear power that India's natural resources would determine the direction of its civil nuclear power program. It's modest uranium but vast thorium reserves dictated that the country's primary objective would be thorium utilization. Estimates of India's natural deposits vary appreciably, but its uranium reserves are known to be extremely limited, totaling approximately 80,000 tons, on the order of 1% of the world's deposits; and nominally one-third of this ore is of very low uranium concentration. However, India's roughly 300,000 tons of thorium reserves account for approximately 30% of the world's total. Confronted with this reality, the future of India's nuclear power industry is strongly dependent on the development of a thorium-based nuclear fuel cycle as the only way to insure a stable, sustainable, and autonomous program. The path to India's nuclear energy self-sufficiency was first outlined in a seminal paper by Drs. H. J. Bhabha and N. B. Prasad presented at the Second United Nations Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy in 1958. The paper described a three stage plan for a sustainable nuclear energy program consistent with India's limited uranium but abundant thorium natural resources. In the first stage, natural uranium would be used to fuel graphite or heavy water moderated reactors. Plutonium extracted from the spent fuel of these thermal reactors would drive fast reactors in the second stage that would contain thorium blankets for breeding uranium-233 (U-233). In the final stage, this U-233 would fuel thorium burning reactors that would breed and fission U-233 in situ. This three stage blueprint still reigns as the core of India's civil nuclear power program. India's progress in the development of nuclear power, however, has been impacted by its isolation from the international nuclear community for its development of nuclear weapons and consequent refusal to sign the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT). Initially, India was engaged in numerous cooperative research programs with foreign countries; for example, under the 'Atoms for Peace' program, India acquired the Cirus reactor, a 40 MWt research reactor from Canada moderated with heavy water from the United States. India was also actively engaged in negotiations for the NPT. But, on May 18, 1974, India conducted a 'peaceful nuclear explosion' at Pokharan using plutonium produced by the Cirus reactor, abruptly ending the era of international collaboration. India then refused to sign the NPT, which it viewed as discriminatory since it would be required to join as a non-nuclear weapons state. As a result of India's actions, the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) was created in 1975 to establish guidelines 'to apply to nuclear transfers for peaceful purposes to help ensure that such transfers would not be diverted to unsafeguarded nuclear fuel cycle or nuclear explosive activities. These nuclear export controls have forced India to be largely self-sufficient in all nuclear-related technologies.

  18. End-of-life decision-making in India.

    PubMed

    Freckelton, Ian

    2014-09-01

    The extraordinary circumstances and the tragic life of Aruna Shanbaug, together with the landmark Supreme Court of India decision in Shanbaug v Union of India (2011) 4 SCC 454, have provided a fillip and focus to debate within India about end-of-life decision-making. This extends to passive euthanasia, decision-making about withdrawal of nutrition, hydration and medical treatment from persons in a permanent vegetative or quasi-vegetative state, the role of the courts in such matters, the risks of corruption and misconduct, the criminal status of attempted suicide, and even the contentious issue of physician-assisted active euthanasia. The debates have been promoted further by important reports of the Law Commission of India. This editorial reviews the current state of the law and debate about such issues in India. PMID:25341315

  19. Energy Usage Attitudes of Urban India IBM Research India

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    Energy Usage Attitudes of Urban India Mohit Jain IBM Research India mohitjain@in.ibm.com Deepika@cs.cmu.edu Amarjeet Singh IIIT Delhi, India amarjeet@iiitd.ac.in Abstract-- Though rapid increase in energy factors affecting energy consumption in urban India. However, the small numbers of participants in those

  20. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 18: A comparison of the technical communication practices of aerospace engineers and scientists in India and the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1993-01-01

    As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, two studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of India and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies have the same seven objectives: first, to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communications to their profession; second, to determine the use and production of technical communications by aerospace engineers and scientists; third, to seek their views about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications; fourth, to determine aerospace engineers' and scientists' use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line data bases; fifth, to determine the use and importance of computer and information technology to them; sixth, to determine their use of electronic networks; and seventh, to determine their use of foreign and domestically produced technical reports. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to aerospace engineers and scientists at the Indian Institute of Science and the NASA Langley Research Center. The completion rates for the India and U.S. surveys were 48 and 53 percent, respectively. Responses of the India and U.S. participants to selected questions are presented in this report.

  1. Palliative care in India.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, S K; Chandra, P S

    1998-03-01

    While India has a long tradition of home-based spiritual and religious care of the dying, there has been no contemporary palliative care until relatively recently. The existing and planned palliative care services in India are presented, and future perspectives and the opportunities for training for both professionals and lay volunteers are discussed. PMID:9540164

  2. Fertility level changes in India.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, B N

    1989-12-01

    Survey data from India consistently show that female education above the primary school-level is the most powerful determinant of lowered fertility. The Government of India's strategies of increasing accessibility to family planning methods and improving the population's quality of life have been impeded by low levels of female education. The finding that rural women experience 0.8 more live births than their urban counterparts is a reflection of the higher education of the latter group. Within Calcutta, females in slum areas had an average of 5.6 live births compared to 3.5 births among those from nonslum parts of the city, again reflecting the influence of education on fertility. In the high-fertility states of Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Bihar, Madhyapradesh, Haryana, and Jammu and Kashmir, the percentage of females with an education above the primary level is under 5%. The intermediate variable of education beyond primary school seems to exert its effect on fertility by both raising the age at marriage and promoting use of modern contraceptive methods. Women with 1-4 years of education comprise the majority of sterilization acceptors; however, this minimal amount of education is not sufficient to motivate women to delay marriage and to use family planning methods to space births. Given the critical importance of female education, authorities in India should design extension programs and door-to-door campaigns to motivate parents to send their daughters to school and keep them enrolled. PMID:12316273

  3. Economic Inequalities in Maternal Health Care: Prenatal Care and Skilled Birth Attendance in India, 1992–2006

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Praveen Kumar; Singh, Abhishek; Subramanian, S. V.

    2010-01-01

    Background The use of maternal health care is limited in India despite several programmatic efforts for its improvement since the late 1980's. The use of maternal health care is typically patterned on socioeconomic and cultural contours. However, there is no clear perspective about how socioeconomic differences over time have contributed towards the use of maternal health care in India. Methodology/Principal Findings Using data from three rounds of National Family Health Survey (NFHS) conducted during 1992–2006, we analyse the trends and patterns in utilization of prenatal care (PNC) in first trimester with four or more antenatal care visits and skilled birth attendance (SBA) among poor and nonpoor mothers, disaggregated by area of residence in India and three contrasting provinces, namely, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. In addition, we investigate the relative contribution of public and private health facilities in meeting the demand for SBA, especially among poor mothers. We also examine the role of salient socioeconomic, demographic and cultural factors in influencing aforementioned outcomes. Bivariate analyses, concentration curve and concentration index, logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression models are used to understand the trends, patterns and predictors of the two outcome variables. Results indicate sluggish progress in utilization of PNC and SBA in India and selected provinces during 1992–2006. Enormous inequalities in utilization of PNC and SBA were observed largely to the disadvantage of the poor. Multivariate analysis suggests growing inequalities in utilization of the two outcomes across different economic groups. Conclusions The use of PNC and SBA remains disproportionately lower among poor mothers in India irrespective of area of residence and province. Despite several governmental efforts to increase access and coverage of delivery services to poor, it is clear that the poor (a) do not use SBA and (b) even if they had SBA, they were more likely to use the private providers. PMID:21048964

  4. Regional variations in cardiovascular risk factors in India: India heart watch

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rajeev; Guptha, Soneil; Sharma, Krishna Kumar; Gupta, Arvind; Deedwania, Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in India. Mortality statistics and morbidity surveys indicate substantial regional variations in CVD prevalence and mortality rates. Data from the Registrar General of India reported greater age-adjusted cardiovascular mortality in southern and eastern states of the country. Coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality is greater in south India while stroke is more common in the eastern Indian states. CHD prevalence is higher in urban Indian populations while stroke mortality is similar in urban and rural regions. Case-control studies in India have identified that the common major risk factors account for more than 90% of incident myocardial infarctions and stroke. The case-control INTERHEART and INTERSTROKE studies reported that hypertension, lipid abnormalities, smoking, obesity, diabetes, sedentary lifestyle, low fruit and vegetable intake, and psychosocial stress are as important in India as in other populations of the world. Individual studies have reported that there are substantial regional variations in risk factors in India. At a macro-level these regional variations in risk factors explain some of the regional differences in CVD mortality. However, there is need to study the prevalence of multiple cardiovascular risk factors in different regions of India and to correlate them with variations in CVD mortality using a uniform protocol. There is also a need to determine the “causes of the causes” or fundamental determinants of these risk factors. The India Heart Watch study has been designed to study socioeconomic, anthropometric and biochemical risk factors in urban populations in different regions of the country in order to identify regional differences. PMID:22558490

  5. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication---India, January 2010--September 2011.

    PubMed

    2011-11-01

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative was launched in 1988. In 1995, when eradication activities were initiated in India, an estimated 50,000 polio cases were occurring each year. By 2006, transmission of indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) had been interrupted in all countries except India, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria. During 2006--2009, India annually reported 559 to 874 cases of confirmed WPV, with cases centered in the northern states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. These cases accounted for 43% of confirmed cases of WPV reported worldwide during this period. However, in 2010, only 42 WPV cases were reported in India, and in 2011, only one WPV case had been confirmed as of October 31. This report updates previous reports and summarizes progress toward polio eradication in India during January 2010--September 2011. Throughout India, the most recent confirmed WPV type 3 (WPV3) case occurred on October 22, 2010, in Jharkhand, and the most recent confirmed WPV type 1 (WPV1) case occurred on January 13, 2011, in West Bengal; WPV2 has not been reported in India since 1999. Importation of WPV into India is a risk, and undetected low-level WPV transmission is a possibility, requiring high vaccination coverage in all states, continued focus on children in migrant and underserved populations, sensitive surveillance for prompt detection of any WPV, and preparedness to mount a robust emergency vaccination campaign in response to any WPV cases. PMID:22048729

  6. 75 FR 8111 - Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ...INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 731-TA-776-779 (Second Review)] Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised...

  7. 76 FR 17622 - U.S. Education Mission to India

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... International Trade Administration U.S. Education Mission to India AGENCY: International Trade Administration..., International Trade Administration, U.S. Commercial Service is organizing an education industry trade mission to... United States education institutions to potential students, university/ institution partners...

  8. Investigation of porous silica nanostructures in diatoms isolated from Kurichi and Sulur lakes of Coimbatore, India using field emission scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    N, Seethalakshmi; R, Selvakumar

    2015-12-01

    Diatoms are unicellular algae that possess cell wall made of silica. These diatoms play a pivotal role in synthesis of variety of silica nanostructures and have adorning morphology in nature. In the present study, we have used field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) to investigate their morphological features like pore size, shape, and porous pattern in various diatoms isolated from Kurichi and Sulur fresh water lakes, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. Diatoms were identified as Nitzschia sp., Cyclotella meneghiniana, Coscinodiscus sp. and Cyclotella atomus based on their morphological features. The arrangement of porous nanostructures in these diatoms have been characterized. The change in the nanostructures present in the diatoms have been correlated to the contamination of water bodies. PMID:26296232

  9. Assuring health coverage for all in India.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vikram; Parikh, Rachana; Nandraj, Sunil; Balasubramaniam, Priya; Narayan, Kavita; Paul, Vinod K; Kumar, A K Shiva; Chatterjee, Mirai; Reddy, K Srinath

    2015-12-12

    Successive Governments of India have promised to transform India's unsatisfactory health-care system, culminating in the present government's promise to expand health assurance for all. Despite substantial improvements in some health indicators in the past decade, India contributes disproportionately to the global burden of disease, with health indicators that compare unfavourably with other middle-income countries and India's regional neighbours. Large health disparities between states, between rural and urban populations, and across social classes persist. A large proportion of the population is impoverished because of high out-of-pocket health-care expenditures and suffers the adverse consequences of poor quality of care. Here we make the case not only for more resources but for a radically new architecture for India's health-care system. India needs to adopt an integrated national health-care system built around a strong public primary care system with a clearly articulated supportive role for the private and indigenous sectors. This system must address acute as well as chronic health-care needs, offer choice of care that is rational, accessible, and of good quality, support cashless service at point of delivery, and ensure accountability through governance by a robust regulatory framework. In the process, several major challenges will need to be confronted, most notably the very low levels of public expenditure; the poor regulation, rapid commercialisation of and corruption in health care; and the fragmentation of governance of health care. Most importantly, assuring universal health coverage will require the explicit acknowledgment, by government and civil society, of health care as a public good on par with education. Only a radical restructuring of the health-care system that promotes health equity and eliminates impoverishment due to out-of-pocket expenditures will assure health for all Indians by 2022--a fitting way to mark the 75th year of India's independence. PMID:26700532

  10. Primary Education in India. Development in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    Having steadily raised primary enrollment rates over the past 4 decades, India now has 67 million children aged 6-10 who are attending primary school, but 28-32 million who are not. This book draws on a wide range of sources, including original analytical work by Indian researchers and others, to describe the current state of primary education in…

  11. SOME MEDICINAL ORCHIDS OF SOUTHERN INDIA

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, A.; Rao, N. Rama; Kumar, K Ravi; Henry, A.N.

    1997-01-01

    Ethnobotanical Studies were carried out in some parts of Ahdhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu to identify orchids reported to have medicinal properties and to study their botanical distribution. This has resulted in the recording of 9 orchids used by the local population. PMID:22556814

  12. Vascular Access Creation and Care-Perspective From India.

    PubMed

    Sampathkumar, Krishnaswamy; Lobo, Valentine; Balasubramaniam, Jeyaraj; Mahaldar, Amol; Yevzlin, Alexander S; Kumbar, Lalathaksha

    2015-11-01

    India has one of the fastest growing economies in the world and is home to nearly one sixth of world's population. Chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension are common. Kidney disease is a known complication of these chronic diseases and is on the rise. Improving affordability with advanced care delivery has led to the increasing use of maintenance hemodialysis. Along with this hemodialysis comes the inevitable need for vascular access. Interventional nephrology in India is a fast-evolving discipline and promises to be a critical component of hemodialysis care in the future. This review provides a background on the current state of the CKD burden in India and the various vascular access options in use currently. In addition, we describe the experience of 2 centers in western and southern India in managing vascular access needs in hopes that they will serve as a model of the proliferation of vascular access care throughout India and in other developing countries. PMID:26524952

  13. Identification of major sources controlling groundwater chemistry from a hard rock terrain — A case study from Mettur taluk, Salem district, Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasamoorthy, K.; Chidambaram, S.; Prasanna, M. V.; Vasanthavihar, M.; Peter, John; Anandhan, P.

    2008-02-01

    The study area Mettur forms an important industrial town situated NW of Salem district. The geology of the area is mainly composed of Archean crystalline metamorphic complexes. To identify the major process activated for controlling the groundwater chemistry an attempt has been made by collecting a total of 46 groundwater samples for two different seasons, viz., pre-monsoon and post-monsoon. The groundwater chemistry is dominated by silicate weathering and (Na + Mg) and (Cl + SO4) accounts of about 90% of cations and anions. The contribution of (Ca + Mg) and (Na + K) to total cations and HCO3 indicates the domination of silicate weathering as major sources for cations. The plot for Na to Cl indicates higher Cl in both seasons, derived from Anthropogenic (human) sources from fertilizer, road salt, human and animal waste, and industrial applications, minor representations of Na also indicates source from weathering of silicate-bearing minerals. The plot for Na/Cl to EC indicates Na released from silicate weathering process which is also supported by higher HCO3 values in both the seasons. Ion exchange process is also activated in the study area which is indicated by shifting to right in plot for Ca + Mg to SO4 + HCO3. The plot of Na-Cl to Ca + Mg-HCO3-SO4 confirms that Ca, Mg and Na concentrations in groundwater are derived from aquifer materials. Thermodynamic plot indicates that groundwater is in equilibrium with kaolinite, muscovite and chlorite minerals. Saturation index of silicate and carbonate minerals indicate oversaturation during pre-monsoon and undersaturation during post-monsoon, conforming dissolution and dilution process. In general, water chemistry is guided by complex weathering process, ion exchange along with influence of Cl ions from anthropogenic impact.

  14. Is There a Quantity-Quality Trade-Off as Enrollments Increase? Evidence from Tamil Nadu, India. Policy Research Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duraisamy, P.; James, Estelle; Lane, Julia; Tan, Jee-Peng

    Developing countries have been expanding educational enrollments, especially at the lower levels. But for any given level of efficiency, increased enrollments require increased resources to maintain quality. This paper explores the negative impact of enrollment expansion on school conditions and learning, using a cross-district time series…

  15. Hydro-geochemistry and application of water quality index (WQI) for groundwater quality assessment, Anna Nagar, part of Chennai City, Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna kumar, S.; Logeshkumaran, A.; Magesh, N. S.; Godson, Prince S.; Chandrasekar, N.

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, the geochemical characteristics of groundwater and drinking water quality has been studied. 24 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and total hardness. The results were evaluated and compared with WHO and BIS water quality standards. The studied results reveal that the groundwater is fresh to brackish and moderately high to hard in nature. Na and Cl are dominant ions among cations and anions. Chloride, calcium and magnesium ions are within the allowable limit except few samples. According to Gibbs diagram, the predominant samples fall in the rock-water interaction dominance and evaporation dominance field. The piper trilinear diagram shows that groundwater samples are Na-Cl and mixed CaMgCl type. Based on the WQI results majority of the samples are falling under excellent to good category and suitable for drinking water purposes.

  16. Assessment of heavy metal and bacterial pollution in coastal aquifers from SIPCOT industrial zones, Gulf of Mannar, South Coast of Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvam, S.; Antony Ravindran, A.; Venkatramanan, S.; Singaraja, C.

    2015-06-01

    Heavy metals and microbiological contamination were investigated in groundwater in the industrial and coastal city of Thoothukudi. The main sources of drinking water in this area are water bores which are dug up to the depth of 10-50 m in almost every house. A number of chemical and pharmaceutical industries have been established since past three decades. Effluents from these industries are reportedly being directly discharged onto surrounding land, irrigation fields and surface water bodies forming point and non-point sources of contamination for groundwater in the study area. The study consists of the determination of physico-chemical properties, trace metals, heavy metals and microbiological quality of drinking water. Heavy metals were analysed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and compared with the (WHO in Guidelines for drinking water quality, 2004) standards. The organic contamination was detected in terms of most probable number (MPN) test in order to find out faecal coliforms that were identified through biochemical tests. A comparison of the results of groundwater samples with WHO guidelines reveals that most of the groundwater samples are heavily contaminated with heavy metals like arsenic, selenium, lead, boron, aluminium, iron and vanadium. The selenium level was higher than 0.01 mg/l in 82 % of the study area and the arsenic concentration exceeded 0.01 mg/l in 42 % of the area. The results reveal that heavy metal contamination in the area is mainly due to the discharge of effluents from copper industries, alkali chemical industry, fertiliser industry, thermal power plant and sea food industries. The results showed that there are pollutions for the groundwater, and the total Coliform means values ranged from 0.6-145 MPN ml-1, faecal Coliform ranged from 2.2-143 MPN ml-1, Escherichia coli ranged from 0.9 to 40 MPN ml-1 and faecal streptococci ranged from 10-9.20 × 102 CFU ml-1. The coastal regions are highly contaminated with total coliform bacteria, faecal coliform bacteria and E. coli. This might be due to the mixing of sewage from Thoothukudi town through the Buckle channel and fishing activity.

  17. Combined effect of seaweed (Sargassum wightii) and Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis on the coastal mosquito,Anopheles sundaicus, in Tamil Nadu, India

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were made of the extract of Sargassum wightii combined with Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) for control of the malaria vector Anopheles sundaicus. Treatment of mosquito larvae with 0.001% S. wightii extract indicated median lethal concentrations (LC50) of 88, 73, 134, 156, and...

  18. Impact of Education Campaign on Community-Based Vector Control in Hastening the Process of Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis in Tamil Nadu, South India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nandha, B.; Krishnamoorthy, K.

    2012-01-01

    Globally mosquito-borne lymphatic filariasis (LF) is targeted for elimination by 2020. Towards this goal, the scope of community-based vector control as a supplementary strategy to mass drug administration (MDA) was assessed through an intensive education campaign and evaluated using pre- and post-educational surveys in an intervention and…

  19. The Hidden Burden of Dengue and Chikungunya in Chennai, India

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Barraquer, Isabel; Solomon, Sunil S.; Kuganantham, Periaswamy; Srikrishnan, Aylur Kailasom; Vasudevan, Canjeevaram K.; Iqbal, Syed H.; Balakrishnan, Pachamuthu; Solomon, Suniti; Mehta, Shruti H.; Cummings, Derek A. T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dengue and chikungunya are rapidly expanding viruses transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. Few epidemiological studies have examined the extent of transmission of these infections in South India despite an increase in the number of reported cases, and a high suitability for transmission. Methods and findings We conducted a household-based seroprevalence survey among 1010 individuals aged 5-40 years living in fifty randomly selected spatial locations in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Participants were asked to provide a venous blood sample and to complete a brief questionnaire with basic demographic and daily activity information. Previous exposure to dengue and chikungunya was determined using IgG indirect ELISA (Panbio) and IgG ELISA (Novatec), respectively. We used this data to estimate key transmission parameters (force of infection and basic reproductive number) and to explore factors associated with seropositivity. While only 1% of participants reported history of dengue and 20% of chikungunya, we found that 93% (95%CI 89-95%) of participants were seropositive to dengue virus, and 44% (95%CI 37-50%) to chikungunya. Age-specific seroprevalence was consistent with long-tem, endemic circulation of dengue and suggestive of epidemic chikungunya transmission. Seropositivity to dengue and chikungunya were significantly correlated, even after adjusting for individual and household factors. We estimate that 23% of the susceptible population gets infected by dengue each year, corresponding to approximately 228,000 infections. This transmission intensity is significantly higher than that estimated in known hyperendemic settings in Southeast Asia and the Americas. Conclusions These results provide unprecedented insight into the very high transmission potential of dengue and chikungunya in Chennai and underscore the need for enhanced surveillance and control methods. PMID:26181441

  20. Rediscovery and range extension of Ciliopagurus liui Forest, 1995 and description of a new species of Pagurus Fabricius, 1775 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura: Paguroidea) from the Kerala State, southwestern India.

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki; Reshmi, Rema; Kumar, Appukuttan Nair Biju

    2013-01-01

    Two species of paguroid hermit crabs, Ciliopagurus liui Forest, 1995 (Diogenidae) and Pagurus spinossior n. sp. (Paguridae), are reported from the Kerala State, southwestern India. Ciliopagurus liui, is first recorded from the Indian Ocean. This species was originally described on the basis of a single male specimen from the Tonkin Gulf in the South China Sea, though its geographical range also included Japan, based on literature. Supplemental description and illustrations are provided for better understanding of the diagnostic features of this little known species. Pagurus spinossior n. sp., described on the basis of a single male specimen, appears closest to P. spinulentus (Henderson, 1888), known only by the holotype from the Philippines, but the lack of spinules on the dorsal margins of the dactyli of the second pereopods, the different shape of the anterior lobe of the thoracic stemite 6, and the more numerous spines on the terminal to posterior margins of the telson distinguish the new species from P. spinulentus. PMID:26106706

  1. ISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, Paper No. 456, Vol. 42, No. 2-3, June-September 2005, pp. 63-78 STRUCTURAL DAMAGES ON THE COAST OF TAMIL NADU DUE TO

    E-print Network

    Gupta, Vinay Kumar

    ISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, Paper No. 456, Vol. 42, No. 2-3, June-September 2005, pp. 63-78 STRUCTURAL DAMAGES ON THE COAST OF TAMIL NADU DUE TO TSUNAMI CAUSED BY DECEMBER 26, 2004 SUMATRA EARTHQUAKE B.K. Maheshwari, M.L. Sharma and J.P. Narayan Department of Earthquake Engineering Indian Institute of Technology

  2. Multilevel Analysis of the Predictors of HIV Prevalence among Pregnant Women Enrolled in Annual HIV Sentinel Surveillance in Four States in Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Thamattoor, Usha; Thomas, Tinku; Banandur, Pradeep; S, Rajaram; Duchesne, Thierry; Abdous, Belkacem; Washington, Reynold; B M, Ramesh; Moses, Stephen; Alary, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Background Heterogeneity of the HIV epidemic across districts of south India is reflected in HIV positivity among antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees. Along with individual factors, contextual factors also need consideration for effective HIV interventions. Thus, identifying district and individual level factors that influence ANC HIV positivity assumes importance to intervene effectively. Methods Data on HIV sentinel surveillance among the ANC population were obtained from the National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) between years 2004 and 2007. Data from serial cross-sectional studies among female sex workers (FSWs) conducted during this time period in 24 districts were used to generate district level variables corresponding to parameters concerning this high risk population. Other district level data were obtained from various official/governmental agencies. Multilevel logistic regression was used to identify individual and district level factors associated with ANC-HIV positivity. Results The average ANC-HIV prevalence from 2004 to 2007 in the 24 integrated biological and behavioural assessments (IBBA) districts ranged from 0.25 to 3.25%. HIV positivity was significantly higher among ANC women with age?25 years [adjusted odds ratio (AOR):1.49; 95% confidence interval (95%CI):1.27 to 1.76] compared to those with age<25 years; illiterate (AOR:1.62; 95%CI:1.03 to 2.54) compared to literate; employed in agriculture (AOR:1.34; 95%CI:1.11 to 1.62) or with occupations like driver/helper/industry/factory workers/hotel staff (AOR:1.59; 95%CI:1.26 to 2.01) compared to unemployed. District level HIV prevalence among FSWs (AOR:1.03; 95%CI:1.0 to 1.05) and percentage women marrying under 18 years were significantly associated with ANC-HIV positivity (AOR:1.02; 95%CI:1.00 to 1.04). Conclusion Illiteracy of the woman, higher HIV prevalence among FSWs and early marriage were associated with HIV positivity among pregnant women in southern India. In addition to targeted HIV preventive interventions among FSWs, studying and changing the behavior of FSW clients and addressing structural drivers of the epidemic might indirectly help reduce HIV infection among women in southern India. PMID:26147208

  3. Community Mobilization and Empowerment of Female Sex Workers in Karnataka State, South India: Associations With HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Harnalli L.; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Chandrashekar, Sudha; Isac, Shajy; Wheeler, Tisha; Prakash, Ravi; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M.; Blanchard, James F.; Heise, Lori; Vickerman, Peter; Moses, Stephen; Watts, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the impact of community mobilization (CM) on the empowerment, risk behaviors, and prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infection in female sex workers (FSWs) in Karnataka, India. Methods. We conducted behavioral–biological surveys in 2008 and 2011 in 4 districts of Karnataka, India. We defined exposure to CM as low, medium (attended nongovernmental organization meeting or drop-in centre), or high (member of collective or peer group). We used regression analyses to explore whether exposure to CM was associated with the preceding outcomes. Pathway analyses explored the degree to which effects could be attributable to CM. Results. By the final survey, FSWs with high CM exposure were more likely to have been tested for HIV (adjusted odd ratio [AOR]?=?25.13; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?13.07, 48.34) and to have used a condom at last sex with occasional clients (AOR?=?4.74; 95% CI?=? 2.17, 10.37), repeat clients (AOR?=?4.29; 95% CI?=?2.24, 8.20), and regular partners (AOR?=?2.80; 95% CI?=?1.43, 5.45) than FSWs with low CM exposure. They were also less likely to be infected with gonorrhea or chlamydia (AOR?=?0.53; 95% CI?=?0.31, 0.87). Pathway analyses suggested CM acted above and beyond peer education; reduction in gonorrhea or chlamydia was attributable to CM. Conclusions. CM is a central part of HIV prevention programming among FSWs, empowering them to better negotiate condom use and access services, as well as address other concerns in their lives. PMID:24922143

  4. Commitment of measles elimination by 2020: challenges in India.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, S R

    2015-02-01

    The eleven member states of World Health Organization South-East Asia Region committed to eliminate measles by 2020. In phased manner, Government of India is working on this goal, and has introduced two-dose strategy for measles vaccine in the routine immunization. Molecular epidemiology of measles in India has been considerably growing that would be useful for understanding the circulation of wild type measles in pre- and post-elimination period. However, importations of cases from other countries may be likely. This article describes major challenges to achieve the measles elimination goal in India. PMID:25691174

  5. In India, Psychiatry Has Come a Long Way*

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    This Presidential Address of the Bombay Psychiatry Society covers the state of psychiatry in India in 1997. It posits that with the advent of newer brain imaging technologies in India such as computerised tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, single photon emission computerised tomography and brain electrical activity mapping, an era of evidence-based psychiatry in India has arrived. The Address cautions against the dehumanising potential of excessive reliance on technology. The need for a greater emphasis on psychiatry during undergraduate medical education is discussed along with the need to destigmatise psychiatric disorders. Finally, the need to encourage quality research in psychiatric disorders is stressed. PMID:25838728

  6. India. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1994 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickler, Paul

    This curriculum packet on politics and international relations in India contains an essay, three lessons and a variety of charts, maps, and additional readings to support the unit. The essay is entitled "India 1994: The Peacock and the Vulture." The lessons include: (1) "The Kashmir Dispute"; (2) "India: Domestic Order and International Affairs, A…

  7. 75 FR 62916 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “India's Fabled City: The...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ...DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7207...India's Fabled City: The Art of Courtly Lucknow...India's Fabled City: The Art of Courtly Lucknow...exhibition within the United States, are of cultural significance...Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles, CA,...

  8. Country watch: India.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, R D

    1995-01-01

    At the first nongovernmental organization (NGO) networking meeting on HIV/AIDS in Gujarat State, India (July 1992), the 80 participants concluded that training for grassroots volunteers was urgently needed. The Gujarat AIDS Prevention Unit (GAP-SIRMCE) assumed responsibility for organizing this capacity-building activity. GAP facilitators formulated a training-of-trainers program and outlined a workshop manual. Feedback was obtained from NGOs and experts from training programs so that a manual could be finalized. 200 NGOs were invited to participate; 65 sent delegations for training during the 1-year project. They included NGOs working on health, rural and agricultural development, family welfare, slum development, cooperative movements, and women's groups. The workshops lasted 1-3 days, generally had 10-12 participants (2 trainees per NGO). Topics included basic information on HIV/AIDS, sexuality, and barriers to condom use. There were discussions on negotiating safer sex and identifying fulfilling alternatives to sex acts. Condom demonstrations were also done. GAP then presented important educational messages. Each workshop ended with an evaluation. One of the lessons learned during the project concerned funding of participants. Some NGOs said their participation depended on money received for travel and daily subsistence. It was decided that GAP should not offer such reimbursements because this encourages NGOs to see workshop participation merely as a means of earning money. The Gujarat NGOs in the Indian Network of NGOs on HIV/AIDS have identified 2 major areas for future collaboration. The first was adolescent sex education; more than 98% of NGOs wanted to offer such programs. The second area concerned training in counseling skills in relation to HIV/AIDS and also in family planning, drug addiction, and family and marriage counseling. PMID:12289025

  9. VENEREOLOGY IN INDIA

    PubMed Central

    Thappa, Devinder Mohan; Sivaranjini, Ramassamy

    2011-01-01

    Venereology-the study of venereal diseases or more recently, the sexually transmitted infections (STI) includes a variety of pathogens namely viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa for which the common factor is the mode of transmission and acquisition: Sexual relations between human beings. Medical and other historians have often suggested that well-known diseases such as syphilis, gonorrhea, chancroid and lymphogranuloma venereum have existed since earliest times. However, it is difficult to identify modern disease entities based on written historical record. Studying the origin of STIs helps us to learn the political, economic and moral conditions that led to the disease. Effective management of STI rests on three pillars of diagnosis, prevention and treatment. For most of past 50 years in India, the diagnostic pillar has been the least well-supported. Until well into present century, diagnosis of STI in India was clinical. Treatment of STIs in India followed the methods used in England. Of course in the 19th century, in many parts of the world, only a few had access to modern methods of treatment; in India, there was extensive use of Ayurvedic treatment with traditional medicines. This article thus gives just an overview and evolution of venereology in India with regard to venereal diseases (now more often known as STIs/disease), control measures, academic, association and journal development and finally future perspective. PMID:21965840

  10. India's nuclear power program : a study of India's unique approach to nuclear energy

    E-print Network

    Murray, Caitlin Lenore

    2006-01-01

    India is in the middle of the biggest expansion of nuclear power in its history, adding 20 GWe in the next 14 years in the form of pressure water reactors and fast breeder reactors. At the same time, the United States is ...

  11. Creating rigorous pathways to monetize methane and nitrous oxide emission reductions at small scale rice farms in three states of semi-arid peninsular India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kritee, K.; Tiwari, R.; Nair, D.; Adhya, T. K.; Rudek, J.

    2014-12-01

    As a part of a joint undertaking by Environmental Defense Fund and the Fair Climate Network, we have measured reduction in methane and nitrous oxide emissions due to alternate "low carbon" rice cultivation practices for three ago-ecological zones in India for the past two years. Sampling for nitrous oxide and methane emissions was done on approximately 60-80% of the total number of days in a growing season and was based on modified GRACEnet protocol. In recognition of farmer's economic interest and global food security demands, we also measured the effect of rice cultivation practices on farm economics and yields. Our data from three agro-ecological zones for 2012-2014 suggest that, for semi-arid peninsular India, low-carbon rice cultivation practices offer large range of emission reduction potential (0.5-5 metric tons CO2e/acre/year). The regions with sandy soils (Alfisols) had high rates of nitrous oxide emissions even under baseline "flooded" rice cultivation regimes and, thus, the Tier 1 IPCC emissions factors grossly underestimate both the amount of nitrous oxide emission from conventional rice cultivation practices, and the extent to which it can be reduced through better fertilizer management. Also, the IPCC factors overestimate the methane emission reduction possible due to water management for rice paddies. Therefore, it is crucial to customize N and water management to each region such that yields and net GHG emission reduction are maximized. These practices also have the potential to decrease water use by 10-30% and improve long term soil health by optimizing organic matter and increasing water-holding capacity. In addition, through GPS based demarcation of farmer plots, recording baseline practices through extensive surveys, documenting the parameters required to aggregate and prove implementation of low carbon rice farming practices, and to model the GHG emission reduction over large scales, we have put forward a path for better monetization of GHG emission reductions which will incentivize adoption of such practices. The payoff is a "triple win" including increased long-term food security (through enhanced yields), rural economic development (through improved farm profitability and adaptation), and lower environmental impacts (including lower GHG emissions).

  12. Isolation, Identification and Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Streptomyces flavogriseus, strain ACTK2 from Soil Sample of Kodagu, Karnataka State (India)

    PubMed Central

    Khandan Dezfully, Nooshin; Gottravalli Ramanayaka, Janardhana

    2015-01-01

    Background: The search for novel antibiotics continues to be of immense importance in research programs around the world for pharmaceutical, industrial and agricultural applications. Filamentous soil bacteria, belonging to the Streptomyces genus, are widely used as an important biological tool for their ability to produce a wide range of novel secondary metabolites, such as “antibiotics”. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to isolate and identify a strain of Streptomyces with high antibiotic production capability. Materials and Methods: The soil sample was collected randomly from the agricultural land of Kushalnagar Taluk of Kodagu district, Karnataka, India. The ACTK2 strain was isolated by serial dilution method and identified based on cultural, morphological, microscopic, biochemical and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene parameters. The isolated ACTK2 was analyzed for antimicrobial activities by perpendicular streak and disc diffusion methods, against the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 96), Bacillus subtilis (MTCC 121), Gram-negative Escherichia. coli (MTCC 729), Enterococcus aerogenes (MTCC 2829) and filamentous fungi (Trichoderma harizianum (MTCC6046), Fusarium proliferatum (MTCC 9375). Further, an antimicrobial metabolite from the ACTK2 strain was extracted by solvent extraction method, using n-butanol. The production of the antimicrobial compound by the ACTK2 strain was optimized by using different nutritional media and cultural conditions. Results: The strain Streptomyces flavogriseus designated as ACTK2 (Accession number KC990785) isolated from the soil sample of Kushalnagar Taluk, Kodagu, Karnataka, India, exhibited a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against test microorganisms. The optimum growth and antimicrobial compound production by strain ACTK2 was found to be a maximal pH 8, in the shaker incubator at 28ºC, for a period of 10 days. Conclusions: The crude n-butanol extract of the ACTK2 strain of S. flavogriseus showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities against the test organisms and this opened further research investigations on purification and structural characterization of the active compounds from the crude extract. PMID:25825640

  13. Veterinary herbal medicines in India

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Shruti; Pandey, Manoj Kumar; Prakash, Jai; Sharma, Alok; Singh, Gyanendra Nath

    2015-01-01

    India has a rich and diversified flora. It is seen that synthetic drugs could pose serious problems, are toxic and costly. In contrast to this, herbal medicines are relatively nontoxic, cheaper and are eco-friendly. Moreover, the people have used them for generations. They have also been used in day-to-day problems of healthcare in animals. 25% of the drugs prescribed worldwide come from plants. Almost 75% of the medicinal plants grow naturally in different states of India. These plants are known to cure many ailments in animals like poisoning, cough, constipation, foot and mouth disease, dermatitis, cataract, burning, pneumonia, bone fractures, snake bites, abdominal pains, skin diseases etc. There is scarce review of such information (veterinary herbals) in the literature. The electronic and manual search was made using various key words such as veterinary herbal, ethno-veterinary medicines etc. and the content systematically arranged. This article deals with the comprehensive review of 45 medicinal plant species that are official in Indian Pharmacopoeia (IP) 2014. The botanical names, family, habitat, plant part used and pharmacological actions, status in British Pharmacopoeia 2014, USP 36 are mentioned. Also, a relationship between animal and human dose, standardization and regulatory aspects of these selected veterinary herbals are provided. PMID:26392714

  14. India Through Literature: An Annotated Bibliography for Teaching India. Part I: India Through the Ancient Classics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Donald; Johnson, Jean

    The past and the present interweave in contemporary India. To understand India, one must know of the traditional stories. Two short pocket books make them accessible and acceptable to students: 1) The Dance of Shiva and Other Tales from India by Oroon Ghosh, published by the New American Library in New York; and, 2) Gods, Demons, and Others by R.…

  15. Surgical Site Infections Due to Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria in Puducherry, India

    PubMed Central

    Ragunathan, Latha; Sakthivel, Sulochana; Sasidar, A.R.; Muralidaran; Venkatachalam, G. K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rapidly growing Mycobacteria are increasingly recognized, nowadays as an important pathogen that can cause wide range of clinical syndromes in humans. We herein describe unrelated cases of surgical site infection caused by Rapidly growing Mycobacteria (RGM), seen during a period of 12 months. Materials and Methods: Nineteen patients underwent operations by different surgical teams located in diverse sections of Tamil Nadu, Pondicherry, Karnataka, India. All patients presented with painful, draining subcutaneous nodules at the infection sites. Purulent material specimens were sent to the microbiology laboratory. Gram stain and Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods were used for direct examination. Culture media included blood agar, chocolate agar, MacConkey agar, Sabourauds agar and Lowenstein-Jensen medium for Mycobacteria. Isolated microorganisms were identified and further tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by standard microbiologic procedures. Results: Mycobacterium fortuitum and M.chelonae were isolated from the purulent drainage obtained from wounds by routine microbiological techniques from all the specimens. All isolates analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility pattern were sensitive to clarithromycin, linezolid and amikacin but were variable to ciprofloxacin, rifampicin and tobramycin. Conclusion: Our case series highlights that a high level of clinical suspicion should be maintained for patients presenting with protracted soft tissue lesions with a history of trauma or surgery as these infections not only cause physical but also emotional distress that affects both the patients and the surgeon. PMID:25954616

  16. MASTERS OF EDUCATION STEM OSU-INDIA DUAL-DEGREE PROGRAM 2014-2016 Pursuant to the successful proposal on the partnership between the Ohio State University (OSU) and Aligarh

    E-print Network

    Nahar, Sultana Nurun

    MASTERS OF EDUCATION ­ STEM OSU-INDIA DUAL-DEGREE PROGRAM 2014-2016 Pursuant to the successful) for the project entitled "Training the Next Generation of STEM Faculty at Higher Education Institutions in India (hereafter the Project) that (I) Establishes a STEM Education and Research Center at AMU, and (II) launches

  17. GIS based application tool -- history of East India Company

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phophaliya, Sudhir

    The emphasis of the thesis is to build an intuitive and robust GIS (Geographic Information systems) Tool which gives an in depth information on history of East India Company. The GIS tool also incorporates various achievements of East India Company which helped to establish their business all over world especially India. The user has the option to select these movements and acts by clicking on any of the marked states on the World map. The World Map also incorporates key features for East India Company like landing of East India Company in India, Darjeeling Tea Establishment, East India Company Stock Redemption Act etc. The user can know more about these features simply by clicking on each of them. The primary focus of the tool is to give the user a unique insight about East India Company; for this the tool has several HTML (Hypertext markup language) pages which the user can select. These HTML pages give information on various topics like the first Voyage, Trade with China, 1857 Revolt etc. The tool has been developed in JAVA. For the Indian map MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) is used. MOJO is developed by ESRI. The major features shown on the World map was designed using MOJO. MOJO made it easy to incorporate the statistical data with these features. The user interface was intentionally kept simple and easy to use. To keep the user engaged, key aspects are explained using HTML pages. The idea is that pictures will help the user garner interest in the history of East India Company.

  18. Electrifying rural India

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, J.L.; Ullal, H.S.

    1999-12-01

    NREL personnel team with the Indian and US governments and an Indian NGO to bring photovoltaic electricity to rural residents of the Sundarbans in India. India is the world's second most populous country, quickly approaching one billion people. Although it has a well-developed electricity grid, many residents have little or no access to electricity and the benefits associated with it. Many rural areas, for example, are isolated from the grid and will not be connected for many years, if ever. One such area is the Sundarbans located in the delta region of the two great rivers, the Ganges and Brahmaputra. The region lies partially in India and partially in Bangladesh. It is estimated that 1.5 million people live in this area, crisscrossed by many islands and rivers, who have only marginal supplies of electricity generated primarily from diesel generators and batteries. Working with the regional non-governmental organization (NGO), the Ramakrishna Mission and the West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Agency, the governments of India and the US initiated a rural electrification initiative in Sundarbans. The initiative was designed to demonstrate the economic and technical feasibility of photovoltaics (PV) to provide limited supplies of electricity for applications such as solar home lighting systems (SHS), water pumping, vaccine refrigeration, communications and economic development activities.

  19. Teaching English in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatia, Sugan Chand

    Proposed and actual constitutional changes made in 1963 and 1965 concerning the status of English in India are discussed in the light of nation-wide sociological implications. The author examines the position of Hindi and English as the official languages of the nation and comments on the continuing importance of English as the language of…

  20. Women's Work in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devi, D. Radha; Ravindran, M.

    1983-01-01

    The proportion of women in paid employment in India is very low, and working women tend to be concentrated in low-wage, low-status, unskilled jobs, especially in agriculture. Even for the few women working in the modern sector, discrimination is pervasive, and change seems unlikely to occur soon. (IS)

  1. Patterns of condom use by men who have sex with men before and after the Avahan intervention in Andhra Pradesh state of India

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Two rounds of integrated biological and behavioural assessment (IBBA) surveys were done among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Andhra Pradesh during 2006 and 2009. Avahan, the India AIDS initiative, funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation implemented HIV prevention interventions among MSM starting around the time of the first round of IBBA. Methods Data on socio-demographic, sex behaviour characteristics and HIV status of MSM from the two IBBA rounds were used. Changes in the rates of consistent condom use over the past one month by MSM with various types of partners between the two rounds were assessed. Multivariate analysis was performed to assess associations between various factors and inconsistent condom use for sex with regular partners as well as HIV in MSM. Results A significant increase in consistent condom use by MSM was noted from 2006 to 2009 for paid male partners (19.5% to 93.8%), occasional male partners (13.2% to 86.2%), and paid female partners (25.9% to 94.2%). Consistent condom use with regular sex partners also increased but remained lower with regular male partner (75.8%) and very low with regular female partners (15.7%). MSM who used condoms inconsistently with their regular male partner were also more likely to use condoms inconsistently with their regular female partner. Multivariate analysis showed MSM who used condoms inconsistently with regular male partner had higher odds of HIV (odds ratio 1.8; 95% CI 1.2-2.7). MSM who received condoms from Avahan had the lowest odds (odds ratio 0.3; 95% CI 0.1-0.5) of inconsistent condom use with regular male partners. Conclusions Condom use by MSM increased markedly after implementation of Avahan, though a causal association cannot be assessed with the available data. The relatively lower condom use with regular partners of MSM suggests that additional programme effort is needed to address this aspect specifically. PMID:24447623

  2. Status of groundwater arsenic contamination in all 17 blocks of Nadia district in the state of West Bengal, India: A 23-year study report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Mondal, Debapriya; Das, Bhaskar; Sengupta, Mrinal Kumar; Ahamed, Sad; Hossain, M. Amir; Samal, Alok Chandra; Saha, Kshitish Chandra; Mukherjee, Subhash Chandra; Dutta, Rathindra Nath; Chakraborti, Dipankar

    2014-10-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted in Nadia, one of the nine arsenic (As) affected districts in West Bengal, India to determine the extent and severity of groundwater As contamination and its health effects in particular, dermatological effects and neurological complications. We collected 28,947 hand tube-well water samples from all 17 blocks of Nadia district and analyzed for As by the flow injection-hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometer (FI-HG-AAS). We found 51.4% and 17.3% of the tube-wells had As above 10 and 50 ?g/L, respectively and observed that groundwater of all 17 blocks contained As above 50 ?g/L with maximum observed level of 3200 ?g/L. We estimated that about 2.1 million and 0.6 million people could be drinking As contaminated water above 10 and 50 ?g/L, respectively, while 0.048 million could be at risk of drinking As-contaminated water above 300 ?g/L, the concentration predicted to cause overt arsenical skin lesions. We screened 15,153 villagers from 50 villages and registered 1077 with arsenical skin lesions resulting in a prevalence rate of 7.1%. Analyzing 2671 biological samples (hair, nail and urine), from people with and without arsenical skin symptoms we found 95% of the samples had As above the normal level, indicating many people in Nadia district are sub-clinically affected. Arsenical neuropathy was observed in 33% of 255 arsenicosis patients with 28.2% prevalence for predominant sensory neuropathy and 4.7% for sensorimotor. As groundwater is still the main source of drinking water, targeting low-As aquifers and switching tube-well from unsafe to nearby safe sources are two visible options to obtain safe drinking water.

  3. Practices of entomophagy and entomotherapy by members of the Nyishi and Galo tribes, two ethnic groups of the state of Arunachal Pradesh (North-East India)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We prepared a consolidated list of edible and therapeutic insects used in Arunachal Pradesh (N.E. India) by two tribal societies (i.e., the Nyishi of East Kameng and the Galo of West Siang). The list is based on thorough, semi-structured field-interviews with 20 informants of each tribal group. At least 81 species of local insects, belonging to 26 families and five orders of insects, namely Coleoptera (24 species), Orthoptera (17 species), Hemiptera (16 species), Hymenoptera (15 species) and Odonata (9 species), are being used as food among members of these two indigenous societies. However, Nyishi use overall more species of insects as food than Galo people do and consume mostly Coleoptera and Hemiptera; amongst the Galo, on the other hand, Odonata and Orthoptera dominate. The selection of the food insects amongst the Nyishi and Galo is dictated by traditional tribal beliefs as well as the taste and availability of the insects. Depending on the species, only particular or all developmental stages are consumed. Some food insects may be included in the local diet throughout the year, others only when seasonally available. Commonly specimens are being prepared for consumption by roasting, frying or boiling. Twelve species of insects are deemed therapeutically valuable by the locals and are being used by the tribes investigated to treat a variety of disorders in humans and domestic animals. Members of the Galo use a greater number of insect species for remedial purposes than the Nyishi. With the degradation of natural resources, rapid population growth, and increasing influence of 'westernization', the traditional wisdom of entomophagy and entomotherapy is at risk of being lost. There is thus an urgent need to record the role insects play as components of local diets and folk remedies and to assess insect biodiversity in the light of these uses. PMID:21235790

  4. Framework for a National STEMI Program: Consensus document developed by STEMI INDIA, Cardiological Society of India and Association Physicians of India.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Thomas; Mullasari, Ajit S; Kaifoszova, Zuzana; Khot, Umesh N; Nallamothu, Brahmajee; Ramana, Rao G V; Sharma, Meenakshi; Subramaniam, Kala; Veerasekar, Ganesh; Victor, Suma M; Chand, Kiran; Deb, P K; Venugopal, K; Chopra, H K; Guha, Santanu; Banerjee, Amal Kumar; Armugam, A Muruganathan; Panja, Manotosh; Wander, Gurpreet Singh

    2015-01-01

    The health care burden of ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in India is enormous. Yet, many patients with STEMI can seldom avail timely and evidence based reperfusion treatments. This gap in care is a result of financial barriers, limited healthcare infrastructure, poor knowledge and accessibility of acute medical services for a majority of the population. Addressing some of these issues, STEMI India, a not-for-profit organization, Cardiological Society of India (CSI) and Association Physicians of India (API) have developed a protocol of "systems of care" for efficient management of STEMI, with integrated networks of facilities. Leveraging newly-developed ambulance and emergency medical services, incorporating recent state insurance schemes for vulnerable populations to broaden access, and combining innovative, "state-of-the-art" information technology platforms with existing hospital infrastructure, are the crucial aspects of this system. A pilot program was successfully employed in the state of Tamilnadu. The purpose of this article is to describe the framework and methods associated with this programme with an aim to improve delivery of reperfusion therapy for STEMI in India. This programme can serve as model STEMI systems of care for other low-and-middle income countries. PMID:26432748

  5. Burden of childhood diseases and malnutrition in a semi-urban slum in southern India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background India has seen rapid unorganized urbanization in the past few decades. However, the burden of childhood diseases and malnutrition in such populations is difficult to quantify. The morbidity experience of children living in semi-urban slums of a southern Indian city is described. Methods A total of 176 children were recruited pre-weaning from four geographically adjacent, semi-urban slums located in the western outskirts of Vellore, Tamil Nadu for a study on water safety and enteric infections and received either bottled or municipal drinking water based on their area of residence. Children were visited weekly at home and had anthropometry measured monthly until their second birthday. Results A total of 3932 episodes of illness were recorded during the follow-up period, resulting in an incidence of 12.5 illnesses/child-year, with more illness during infancy than in the second year of life. Respiratory, mostly upper respiratory infections, and gastrointestinal illnesses were most common. Approximately one-third of children were stunted at two years of age, and two-thirds had at least one episode of growth failure during the two years of follow up. No differences in morbidity were seen between children who received bottled and municipal water. Conclusions Our study found a high burden of childhood diseases and malnutrition among urban slum dwellers in southern India. Frequent illnesses may adversely impact children’s health and development, besides placing an additional burden on families who need to seek healthcare and find resources to manage illness. PMID:23360429

  6. Healthcare financing: approaches and trends in India.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Vikas; Saraya, Anoop

    2010-01-01

    Despite the importance of healthcare for the well-being of society, there is little public debate in India on issues relating to it. The 'human capital approach' to finance healthcare largely relies on private investment in health, while the 'human development approach' envisages the State as the guarantorof preventive as well as curative care to achieve universalization of healthcare. The prevailing health indices of India and challenges in the field of public health require a human developmentapproach to healthcare. On the eve of independence, India adopted the human development approach, with the report of the Bhore Committee emphasizing the role of the State in the development and provision of healthcare. However, more recently, successive governments have moved towards the human capital approach. Instead of increasing state spending on health and expanding the public health infrastructure, the government has been relying more and more on the private sector. The public-private partnership has been touted as the new-age panacea for the ills of the Indian healthcare system. This approach has led to a stagnation of public health indices and a decrease in the access of the poor to healthcare. PMID:21192520

  7. Anaemia among women and children of India.

    PubMed

    Girija, P Lt

    2008-07-01

    Anaemia is a major public health issue in India today. Anemia can be called our national disease and in fact it is a national calamity. The figures for anemia among women and children of India are truly staggering. It is estimated that more than half of all Indian women and ¾th of Indian children suffer from anemia. The paradox about anemia is that, in India the level of anemia does not seem to have any relationship with the ^material wealth of the state- measured in terms of Net State Domestic Product (NSDP). Nor does anemia seem to have any relationship to the nutritional intake in different states measured in terms of calories proteins and fat. Neither the nutritionists nor the economists and sociologists of our country are able to provide any insight into this paradox. The only explanation possible for this paradox is provided by an Ayurvedic perspective. Ayurveda understands and treats anemia effectively and can offer a solution for this national problem. PMID:22557295

  8. Womb Outsourcing: Commercial Surrogacy in India.

    PubMed

    Frankford, David M; Bennington, Linda K; Ryan, Jane Greene

    2015-01-01

    Infertility affects more than 7 million American couples. As traditional treatments fail and the costs of hiring a surrogate increase in the United States, transnational commercial surrogacy becomes a feasible alternative for many couples. Infertile couples may opt for this choice after reading enticing Internet advertisements of global medical tourism offering "special deals" on commercial surrogacy. This is particularly true in India where couples from the United States can purchase transnational surrogacy for less than one-half or even one-third of the costs in the United States, including the cost of travel. The majority of surrogate mothers in India come from impoverished, poorly educated rural areas of India. Commercial surrogacy offers the lure of earning the equivalent of 5 years of family income. This multidisciplinary review of the literature suggests that the issue of commercial surrogacy is complex and influenced by a number of factors including expensive infertility costs, ease of global travel, and the financial vulnerability of Indian commercial surrogate mothers and their families. Questions are being raised about decision making by the surrogate mother particularly as influenced by gender inequities, power differentials, and inadequate legal protection for the surrogate mother. More research is needed to understand commercial surrogacy, especially research inclusive of the viewpoints of the Indian mothers and their families involved in these transactions. PMID:26110574

  9. Adivasis (Original Dwellers) "in the Way of" State-Corporate Development: Development Dispossession and Learning in Social Action for Land and Forests in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapoor, Dip

    2009-01-01

    This paper traces the kinds of learning engendered through Adivasi trans-local and local subaltern social movement (SSM) action addressing state-corporate developmental collusions, state-caste interests and the resulting dispossession of Adivasis from land, forest and their ways of life given the economic liberalization drive to exploit resources…

  10. Telemedicine diffusion in a developing country: The case of India (March 2004)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pal, A.; Mbarika, V.W.A.; Cobb-Payton, F.; Datta, P.; McCoy, S.

    2005-01-01

    Telemedicine (health-care delivery where physicians examine distant patients using telecommunications technologies) has been heralded as one of several possible solutions to some of the medical dilemmas that face many developing countries. In this study, we examine the current state of telemedicine in a developing country, India. Telemedicine has brought a plethora of benefits to the populace of India, especially those living in rural and remote areas (constituting about 70% of India's population). We discuss three Indian telemedicine implementation cases, consolidate lessons learned from the cases, and culminate with potential researchable critical success factors that account for the growth and modest successes of telemedicine in India. ?? 2005 IEEE.

  11. Educational Research in North-East India: A Source Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malhotra, Nirmal; Mittal, Pratibha

    The Northeast region of India has a distinct geophysical structure and concomitant socio-economic development. New educational development initiatives for Northeastern states include bridging gaps in basic minimum services, enhancing teachers training facilities, and preparing state specific holistic plans. This annotated bibliography represents…

  12. An integrated structural intervention to reduce vulnerability to HIV and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Karnataka state, south India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Structural factors are known to affect individual risk and vulnerability to HIV. In the context of an HIV prevention programme for over 60,000 female sex workers (FSWs) in south India, we developed structural interventions involving policy makers, secondary stakeholders (police, government officials, lawyers, media) and primary stakeholders (FSWs themselves). The purpose of the interventions was to address context-specific factors (social inequity, violence and harassment, and stigma and discrimination) contributing to HIV vulnerability. We advocated with government authorities for HIV/AIDS as an economic, social and developmental issue, and solicited political leadership to embed HIV/AIDS issues throughout governmental programmes. We mobilised FSWs and appraised them of their legal rights, and worked with FSWs and people with HIV/AIDS to implement sensitization and awareness training for more than 175 government officials, 13,500 police and 950 journalists. Methods Standardised, routine programme monitoring indicators on service provision, service uptake, and community activities were collected monthly from 18 districts in Karnataka between 2007 and 2009. Daily tracking of news articles concerning HIV/AIDS and FSWs was undertaken manually in selected districts between 2005 and 2008. Results The HIV prevention programme is now operating at scale, with over 60,000 FSWs regularly contacted by peer educators, and over 17,000 FSWs accessing project services for sexually transmitted infections monthly. FSW membership in community-based organisations has increased from 8,000 to 37,000, and over 46,000 FSWs have now been referred for government-sponsored social entitlements. FSWs were supported to redress > 90% of the 4,600 reported incidents of violence and harassment reported between 2007-2009, and monitoring of news stories has shown a 50% increase in the number of positive media reports on HIV/AIDS and FSWs. Conclusions Stigma, discrimination, violence, harassment and social equity issues are critical concerns of FSWs. This report demonstrates that it is possible to address these broader structural factors as part of large-scale HIV prevention programming. Although assessing the impact of the various components of a structural intervention on reducing HIV vulnerability is difficult, addressing the broader structural factors contributing to FSW vulnerability is critical to enable these vulnerable women to become sufficiently empowered to adopt the safer sexual behaviours which are required to respond effectively to the HIV epidemic. PMID:21962115

  13. Relative Abundance and Plasmodium Infection Rates of Malaria Vectors in and around Jabalpur, a Malaria Endemic Region in Madhya Pradesh State, Central India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Neeru; Mishra, Ashok K.; Chand, Sunil K.; Bharti, Praveen K.; Singh, Mrigendra P.; Nanda, Nutan; Singh, Om P.; Sodagiri, Kranti; Udhyakumar, Venkatachalam

    2015-01-01

    Background This study was undertaken in two Primary Health Centers (PHCs) of malaria endemic district Jabalpur in Madhya Pradesh (Central India). Methods In this study we had investigated the relative frequencies of the different anopheline species collected within the study areas by using indoor resting catches, CDC light trap and human landing methods. Sibling species of malaria vectors were identified by cytogenetic and molecular techniques. The role of each vector and its sibling species in the transmission of the different Plasmodium species was ascertained by using sporozoite ELISA. Results A total of 52,857 specimens comprising of 17 anopheline species were collected by three different methods (39,964 by indoor resting collections, 1059 by human landing and 11,834 by CDC light trap). Anopheles culicifacies was most predominant species in all collections (55, 71 and 32% in indoor resting, human landing and light trap collections respectively) followed by An. subpictus and An. annularis. All five sibling species of An. culicifacies viz. species A, B, C, D and E were found while only species T and S of An. fluviatilis were collected. The overall sporozoite rate in An. culicifacies and An. fluviatilis were 0.42% (0.25% for P. falciparum and 0.17% for P. vivax) and 0.90% (0.45% for P. falciparum and 0.45% for P. vivax) respectively. An. culicifacies and An. fluviatilis were found harbouring both P. vivax variants VK-210 and VK-247, and P. falciparum. An. culicifacies sibling species C and D were incriminated as vectors during most part of the year while sibling species T of An. fluviatilis was identified as potential vector in monsoon and post monsoon season. Conclusions An. culicifacies species C (59%) was the most abundant species followed by An. culicifacies D (24%), B (8.7%), E (6.7%) and A (1.5%). Among An. fluviatilis sibling species, species T was common (99%) and only few specimens of S were found. Our study provides crucial information on the prevalence of An. culicifacies and An. fluviatilis sibling species and their potential in malaria transmission which will assist in developing strategic control measures against these vectors. PMID:25970291

  14. Diurnal variations of (218)Po, (214)Pb, and (214)Po and their effect on atmospheric electrical conductivity in the lower atmosphere at Mysore city, Karnataka State, India.

    PubMed

    Pruthvi Rani, K S; Paramesh, L; Chandrashekara, M S

    2014-12-01

    The short-lived radon daughters ((218)Po, (214)Pb, (214)Bi and (214)Po) are natural tracers in the troposphere, in particular near the ground surface. They are electrically charged particles and are chemically reactive. As soon as they are formed they get attached to the aerosol particles of the atmosphere. The behavior of radon daughters is similar to that of aerosols with respect to their growth, transport and removal processes in the atmosphere. The electrical conductivity of the atmosphere is mainly due to the presence of highly mobile ions. Galactic cosmic rays are the main source of ionization in the planetary boundary layer; however, near the surface of the earth, ions are produced mainly by decays of natural radioactive gases emanating from the soil surface and by radiations emitted directly from the surface. Hence the electrical conductivity of air near the surface of the earth is mainly due to radiations emitted by (222)Rn, (218)Po, (214)Pb, (214)Bi and (214)Po, and depends on aerosol concentrations and meteorological parameters. In the present work the diurnal and seasonal variations of radon and its progeny concentrations are studied using Low Level Radon Detection System and Airflow Meter respectively. Atmospheric electrical conductivity of both positive and negative polarities is measured using a Gerdien Condenser. All the measurements were carried out simultaneously at one location in Mysore city (12°N, 76°E), India. The diurnal variation of atmospheric electrical conductivity was found to be similar to that of ion pair production rate estimated from radon and its progeny concentrations with a maximum in the early morning hours and minimum during day time. The annual average concentrations of (222)Rn, (218)Po, (214)Pb, and (214)Po at the study location were found to be 21.46, 10.88, 1.78 and 1.80 Bq m(-3) respectively. The annual average values of positive and negative atmospheric electrical conductivity were found to be 18.1 and 16.6 f S m(-1) respectively. The radon and its progeny concentrations are higher in winter than in summer and rainy season. PMID:24787467

  15. 75 FR 22424 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... responses to its notice of institution (75 FR 1078, January 8, 2010) were adequate for each order under... Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States... concerning the antidumping duty orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand,...

  16. U.S. - India Collaboration on Air Quality and Climate Research and Education

    EPA Science Inventory

    With partial support from the U.s. National Science Foundation and U.S. Department of Energy, a workshop held March 14 - 24,2011, in India, brought together experts from the United States and India (among other countries) with a common vision for identifying priority areas of res...

  17. Teachers' Beliefs and Practices regarding Developmentally Appropriate Practices: A Study Conducted in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegde, Archana V.; Cassidy, Deborah J.

    2009-01-01

    The study assessed kindergarten teachers' beliefs, stated practices and actual practices regarding developmentally appropriate practices (DAP) in India. Forty kindergarten teachers from the urban city of Mumbai (India) participated in the study. Overall, the results indicated that teachers' beliefs were more developmentally appropriate than their…

  18. 78 FR 35643 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam... States is materially retarded, by reason of subsidized imports from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia... alleged to be subsidized by the Governments of Ecuador and Indonesia. 1 2 \\1\\ The Department of...

  19. 78 FR 11221 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... notice in the Federal Register of January 4, 2013 (76 FR 764). The conference was held in Washington, DC... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam... States is materially injured by reason of imports from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia,...

  20. 78 FR 764 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    ... amended. The amendments took effect on November 7, 2011. See 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the newly... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam... the United States is materially retarded, by reason of imports from China, Ecuador, India,...

  1. Portrait of a Science Teacher as a Bricoleur: A Case Study from India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Ajay

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of science teaching in an eighth grade school classroom in India. It comes out of a larger ethnographic study done in 2005 that looked at how science was taught and learned in a rural government run middle school in the state of Madhya Pradesh in India. Subscribing to a sociocultural perspective, the paper presents…

  2. The Galli Galli Sim Sim Story Pond: Inspiring Children as Storytellers in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batada, Ameena; Joshi, Ira; Sharma, Garima; Mehta, Swati

    2010-01-01

    Children have long enjoyed a special status in the family and the community in India, where traditional teaching techniques include song, dance, play, and storytelling. In India, play-oriented, child-centered approaches to teaching and learning, which are common in the United States, Canada, Europe, and elsewhere, are the exception to the norm…

  3. Secondary School Education in Assam (India) with Special Reference to Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Das, N. R.; Baruah, Karuna

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the prevailing academic scenarios of a representative group of secondary schools in Assam (India) with special references to students performance in general and mathematics performance in particular. The state of Assam is one of the economically backward regions of India and is witnessing socio-political disturbances mainly…

  4. Spellings Joins Passage to India on Education: Trip Tied to Initiatives on Competitiveness Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alyson

    2006-01-01

    Secretary of Education Margaret Spellings and several key senators traveled to India last week to examine how that country, whose schools generally have fewer resources than those in the United States, has managed to produce top-notch engineers and technology professionals. Secretary Spellings arrived in India early in the week and met with…

  5. Floods in Bangladesh and Northeast India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    For the past month heavy monsoon rains have led to massive flooding in eastern India, Nepal, and Bangladesh, which have killed over 500 people and left millions homeless. This false-color image acquired on August 5, 2002, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft shows the extent of this flooding. In the upper right-hand corner of the image, the swollen Brahmaputra River runs east to west through the Indian state of Assam. Normally, the river and its tributaries would resemble a tangle of thin lines. Moving to the upper left-hand corner, flooding can be seen along the Ganges River in the state of Bihar, India. Both of these rivers flow into Bangladesh along with many others from India and Nepal. Heavy monsoon rains from all across the region have inundated the small country with water this year. Floodwaters have all but covered northeastern Bangladesh, which is usually dry. The Jamuna River, which runs down the center of the country off of the Brahmaputra River, now resembles a narrow lake. Millions of dollars in crops have been destroyed and thousands have been left stranded in their villages or on rafts. Forecasters are warning that flooding could get worse. In the false-color image, land is green, and water is black and dark brown. Clouds appear pink, red and white. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  6. Gujarat, Western India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Extremely high sediment loads are delivered to the Arabian Sea along the coast of Pakistan (upper left) and western India. In the case of the Indus River (far upper left) this sedimentation, containing large quantities of desert sand, combines with wave action to create a large sand-bar like delta. In the arid environment, the delta lacks much vegetation, but contains numerous mangrove-lined channels. This true-color image from May 2001 shows the transition from India's arid northwest to the wetter regions farther south along the coast. The increase in vegetation along the coast is brought about by the moisture trapping effect of the Western Ghats Mountain Range that runs north-south along the coast. Heavy sediment is visible in the Gulf of Kachchh (north) and the Gulf of Khambhat(south), which surround the Gujarat Peninsula.

  7. Severe Flooding in India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Floods devestated parts of eastern India along the Brahmaputra River in June 2000. In some tributaries of the Brahmaputra, the water reached more than 5 meters (16.5 feet) above flood stage. At least 40 residents died, and the flood waters destroyed a bridge linking the region to the rest of India. High water also threatened endangered Rhinos in Kaziranga National Park. Flooded areas are shown in red in the above image. The map was derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data taken on June 15, 2000. For more information on observing floods with satellites, see: Using Satellites to Keep our Head above Water and the Dartmouth Flood Observatory Image by the Dartmouth Flood Observatory

  8. Wind Resource Assessment of Gujarat (India)

    SciTech Connect

    Draxl, C.; Purkayastha, A.; Parker, Z.

    2014-07-01

    India is one of the largest wind energy markets in the world. In 1986 Gujarat was the first Indian state to install a wind power project. In February 2013, the installed wind capacity in Gujarat was 3,093 MW. Due to the uncertainty around existing wind energy assessments in India, this analysis uses the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate the wind at current hub heights for one year to provide more precise estimates of wind resources in Gujarat. The WRF model allows for accurate simulations of winds near the surface and at heights important for wind energy purposes. While previous resource assessments published wind power density, we focus on average wind speeds, which can be converted to wind power densities by the user with methods of their choice. The wind resource estimates in this study show regions with average annual wind speeds of more than 8 m/s.

  9. Dengue in India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nivedita; Srivastava, Sakshi; Jain, Amita; Chaturvedi, Umesh C.

    2012-01-01

    Dengue virus belongs to family Flaviviridae, having four serotypes that spread by the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. It causes a wide spectrum of illness from mild asymptomatic illness to severe fatal dengue haemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). Approximately 2.5 billion people live in dengue-risk regions with about 100 million new cases each year worldwide. The cumulative dengue diseases burden has attained an unprecedented proportion in recent times with sharp increase in the size of human population at risk. Dengue disease presents highly complex pathophysiological, economic and ecologic problems. In India, the first epidemic of clinical dengue-like illness was recorded in Madras (now Chennai) in 1780 and the first virologically proved epidemic of dengue fever (DF) occurred in Calcutta (now Kolkata) and Eastern Coast of India in 1963-1964. During the last 50 years a large number of physicians have treated and described dengue disease in India, but the scientific studies addressing various problems of dengue disease have been carried out at limited number of centres. Achievements of Indian scientists are considerable; however, a lot remain to be achieved for creating an impact. This paper briefly reviews the extent of work done by various groups of scientists in this country. PMID:23041731

  10. Medicine in South India

    PubMed Central

    McHenry, Malcolm M.

    1978-01-01

    A three-month sabbatical allowed a superficial overview of Indian medical history and practice. As in Western nations, cost is a major determinant of health care delivery in India; poverty and fiscal shortages, however, deny care to many. The education of Indian physicians is similar to that in Western nations and a high level of clinical competence is seen. However, physician compensation is woefully low by Western standards. India possesses its own indigenous medical systems, purported to be the oldest in the world and predating Hippocrates by several millenia. Most Indians are cared for by native practitioners whose medical techniques are intricately related to the Hindu and Islamic religions. Many of their herbal medicines have been assimilated into contemporary Western practice. Diseases unknown to us except by textbooks are commonly seen and effectively treated. On the other hand, Western diseases such as coronary arteriosclerosis are not uncommon in a land of massive overpopulation and malnutrition. The humbling aspect of this experience is the realization that medical practice dating back several millenia can be made more modern and carried out competently by contemporary physicians. A Western physician working in India finds an unparalleled variety of disease in a totally different medical-religious environment allowing him to reorganize his priorities and to rediscover himself in the world within which he lives. PMID:716392

  11. MENTAL HOSPITALS IN INDIA

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, K.; Venugopal, D.; Alimchandani, A.K.

    2000-01-01

    This review traces the history of the mental hospital movement, initially on the world stage, and later in India, in relation to advances in psychiatric care. Mental hospitals have played a significant role in the evolution of psychiatry to its present status The earliest hospital in India were established during the British colonial rule. They served as a means to isolate mentally ill persons from the societal mainstream and provide treatments that were in vogue at the time. Following India's independence, there has been a trend towards establishing general hospital psychiatry units and deinstitutionalization, while at the same time improving conditions in the existing mental hospitals. Since 1947, a series of workshops of superintendents was conducted to review the prevailing situations in mental hospitals and to propose recommendations to improve the same. Implementation of the Mental Health Act, 1987, and grovernmental focus upon mental hospital reform have paved way for a more specific and futuristic role for mental hospitals in planning psychiatric services for the new millenium, especially for severe mental illnesses. PMID:21407925

  12. Carbon taxes and India

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher-Vanden, K.A.; Pitcher, H.M.; Edmonds, J.A.; Kim, S.H.; Shukla, P.R.

    1994-07-01

    Using the Indian module of the Second Generation Model 9SGM, we explore a reference case and three scenarios in which greenhouse gas emissions were controlled. Two alternative policy instruments (carbon taxes and tradable permits) were analyzed to determine comparative costs of stabilizing emissions at (1) 1990 levels (the 1 X case), (2) two times the 1990 levels (the 2X case), and (3) three times the 1990 levels (the 3X case). The analysis takes into account India`s rapidly growing population and the abundance of coal and biomass relative to other fuels. We also explore the impacts of a global tradable permits market to stabilize global carbon emissions on the Indian economy under the following two emissions allowance allocation methods: (1) {open_quotes}Grandfathered emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on 1990 emissions. (2) {open_quotes}Equal per capita emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on share of global population. Tradable permits represent a lower cost method to stabilize Indian emissions than carbon taxes, i.e., global action would benefit India more than independent actions.

  13. Widening economic & social disparities: implications for India.

    PubMed

    Kurian, N J

    2007-10-01

    India is often characterized as an emerging economic super power. The huge demographic dividend, the high quality engineering and management talent, the powerful Indian diaspora and the emerging Indian transnational--kneeling the optimism. In contrast, there is another profile of India which is rather gloomy. This is the country with the largest number of the poor, illiterates and unemployed in the world. High infant mortality, morbidity and widespread anaemia among women and children continue. India suffers from acute economic and social disparities. This article addresses four dimensions of such disparities, viz. regional, rural-urban, social, and gender. There is empirical evidence to indicate that during the last two decades all these disparities have been increasing. As a result of economic reforms, the southern and western States experienced accelerated economic and social development as compared to northern and eastern States. This has led to widening gap in income, poverty and other indicators of development between the two regions. Rural-urban divide also widened in the wake of reforms. While large and medium cities experience unprecedented economic prosperity, the rural areas experience economic stagnation. As a result, there is widespread agrarian distress which results in farmers' suicide and rural unrest. Socially backward sections, especially scheduled castes and tribes (SCs and STs) have gained little from the new prosperity which rewards disproportionately those with assets, skills and higher education. STs have often been victims of development as a result of displacement. The gender gap in social and economic status, traditionally more in India as compared to other societies; has further widened by the economic reforms and globalization. The approach paper to the Eleventh Plan stresses the importance of more inclusive economic growth. It emphasizes the need for bridging the divides discussed in this article. Unless these are achieved in a time-bound manner, there could be serious adverse implications for the Indian economy, society and politics. PMID:18032812

  14. Promoting safe motherhood in rural India.

    PubMed

    Maclean, G

    1997-01-01

    This article identifies some activities performed to promote safe motherhood in rural India. Nurses from a voluntary organization in Hyderabad, India, trained women's groups from 32 villages in rural Andhra Pradesh state over 3 days in 1996 in maternal and child care, health and family welfare, gender issues, sanitation, leadership, literacy, negotiating skills, and health monitoring. The women were encouraged to perform health activities in their villages. In October 1996, a Conference of Women celebrated the birthday of Mahatma Gandhi, with women's groups reporting on health activities in specific villages. Each women's group had its own banner. Every woman wore a conference delegate badge. One woman's group was rewarded for making the most significant progress. Participants included women from 29 villages and auxiliary nurse-midwives. For some women, this was the first time away from home. Conference delegates toured the primary health center facilities at Shamirpet and met with staff. The aim was to reduce fear and reluctance to use the services and to promote awareness of available health care. Most villages in India rely on auxiliary nurse-midwives for maternal and child health care. Promotion of safe motherhood requires close cooperation between the auxiliary nurse-midwifes and women's groups. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of India is introducing in-service training to improve the clinical skills of auxiliary nurse-midwives in eight states. The nurse-midwives use adapted and new educational material from WHO's safe motherhood midwifery training modules. A workshop was used to introduce the new modules and to propose teaching methods for senior project staff. The five modules include a trainers' manual of educational methods. PMID:12321357

  15. The Determinants of Low Fertility in India

    PubMed Central

    Dharmalingam, A.; Rajan, Sowmya; Morgan, S. Philip

    2015-01-01

    Using a conceptual framework focusing on factors that enhance or reduce fertility relative to desired family size (see Bongaarts 2001), we study fertility variation across time (1992–2006) and space (states) in India. Our empirical analyses use data from three waves of the Indian National Family Health Surveys. We find that this framework can account for a substantial portion of the variation in the TFR across the states and over time. Our estimates focus attention on the critical components of contemporary Indian fertility, especially desired family size, unwanted fertility, son preference, and fertility postponement. PMID:24993746

  16. 78 FR 42505 - U.S. Healthcare Education Mission to New Delhi, Hyderabad, and Ahmedabad, India, January 27...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... future business prospects by establishing valuable contacts with prospective business partners and... business-friendly states in India and has some of the country's most dynamic entrepreneurs. The state's.... Gujarat has a 42% share of India's pharmaceutical/healthcare business. Mission Scenario Participation...

  17. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication--India, January 2007-May 2009.

    PubMed

    2009-07-10

    India is the most populous of the four remaining countries (including Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan) where transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) has never been interrupted. The last cases of WPV type 2 worldwide were reported in October 1999 in India. However, transmission of WPV type 1 (WPV1) and WPV type 3 (WPV3) persists in India in the northern states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. Transmission of indigenous WPV in all of India's other states was successfully interrupted in 2002, and all WPV cases reported since then in the country have resulted from WPV circulating in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. This report updates previous reports and summarizes India's progress toward polio eradication since January 2007, as of May 29, 2009. In 2005, the government of India introduced the use of monovalent oral polio vaccine type 1 (mOPV1), which has higher efficacy against WPV1 than does trivalent oral polio vaccine (tOPV), in supplementary immunization activities. After a multistate WPV1 outbreak in 2006, preferential use of mOPV1 was accelerated and WPV1 cases decreased from 83 in 2007 to 18 during January-May 2009. A resurgence of WPV3 cases in Uttar Pradesh in 2007 led to an outbreak in Bihar. SIAs using monovalent type 3 OPV (mOPV3) were expanded in 2007, and the number of WPV3 cases declined from 794 in 2007 to 41 during January-May 2009. Simultaneously interrupting transmission in high-risk areas of western Uttar Pradesh and Bihar is the key to successful interruption of all WPV transmission in India. PMID:19590492

  18. India's Trade in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Shailendra

    2015-01-01

    India has had an extremely adverse balance of trade in education. Though only a minor education exporter through Mode 2, India is the world's second largest student-sending country. Nevertheless, given English as the medium of instruction especially in apex institutions, low tuition and cost of living, quite a few world-class institutions, and a…

  19. E-Learning in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Sanjaya

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the e-learning in India. It describes the historical developments of e-learning and identifies major stakeholders and institutions that have initiated e-learning programs after the creation of the National Task Force on Information Technology and Software Development constituted by the Prime Minister of India

  20. Science and Technology in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    Assesses the current status of science and technology in India, focusing on developments in agriculture, energy, medicine, space, basic sciences, and engineering. Indicates that although India has benefited in many fields from international collaboration during the last 30 years, the country's leaders have also placed particularly strong emphasis…

  1. Passages From India, Vol. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geils, Kenneth, Ed.

    This collection of articles from Indian newspapers is designed for use in the secondary classroom to assist with the study of India. There are 12 categories of articles: (1) Women: Like Avis, #2 But Trying Harder; (2) Calcutta: City of Joy; (3) India: Feeling Its Curry; (4) Us & Them: Misunderstandings; (5) Those Monsoon Showers May Come Your Way;…

  2. Passages from India, Vol. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geils, Kenneth, Ed.

    This is compendium of readings designed for use in the secondary classroom to assist with the study of India. There are seventeen categories of readings: (1) introduction to the subcontinent; (2) description of society; (3) caste and its continuing impact; (4) leadership roles; (5) women in India; (6) role playing in society; (7) marriage; (8)…

  3. Environment and Culture in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuthold, David

    India suffers from severe environmental problems with respect to deforestation, flooding, and pollution. These problems are associated with industrialization, lack of money to enforce anti-pollution practices, climatic and population pressures, and cultural factors. Half of India's forests have been cut in the last 40 years. Deforestation is the…

  4. Indigenisation of Psychology in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalal, Ajit K.

    2011-01-01

    Academic psychology which made a new beginning in India in the early part of 20th century was modelled on the Western scientific tradition. The teaching of psychology was very much on the British pattern since the colonial rule, whereas the research was mostly an extension of the Western work in India. Psychology went through massive expansion…

  5. Urban health in India: who is responsible?

    PubMed

    Gupta, Indrani; Mondal, Swadhin

    2015-01-01

    Urban health has received relatively less focus compared with rural health in India, especially the health of the urban poor. Rapid urbanization in India has been accompanied by an increase in population in urban slums and shanty towns, which are also very inadequately covered by basic amenities, including health services. The paper presents existing and new evidence that shows that health inequities exist between the poor and the non-poor in urban areas, even in better-off states in India. The lack of evidence-based policies that cut across sectors continues to be a main feature of the urban health scenario. Although the problems of urban health are more complex than those of rural health, the paper argues that it is possible to make a beginning fairly quickly by (i) collecting more evidence of health status and inequities in urban areas and (ii) correcting major inadequacies in infrastructure-both health and non-health-without waiting for major policy overhauls. PMID:24420558

  6. ISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, Technical Note, Vol. 42, No. 4, December 2005, pp. 219-225 ANALYTICAL STUDY OF LIVING ENVIRONMENT IN THE TSUNAMI-

    E-print Network

    Gupta, Vinay Kumar

    -225 ANALYTICAL STUDY OF LIVING ENVIRONMENT IN THE TSUNAMI- AFFECTED AREAS OF TAMIL NADU, INDIA Vasudha A. Gokhale of the Indian coastline was badly affected by the tsunami on 26th December 2004. The worst affected state Tamil to the tsunami victims in order to find out the appropriate approach for the development of a sustainable

  7. Interactive Multimedia Instruction versus Traditional Training Programmes: Analysis of Their Effectiveness and Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanthy, T. Rajula; Thiagarajan, R.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the practicability of introduction of computer multimedia as an educational tool was compared with the traditional approach for training sugarcane growers in ratoon management practices in three villages of Tamil Nadu state, India using pre-test, post-test control group experimental design. A CD-ROM was developed as a multimedia…

  8. Beginning Tamil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Kausalya; Hart, George L.

    An introductory textbook on Tamil grammar is presented. Tamil is spoken by the majority of the people who live in the State of Tamil Nadu in India. The 35 lessons cover the following: the Tamil alphabet, pronouns, morphophonemic rules, the plural, the imperative, the infinitive and negative imperative, oblique forms and uses, the dative and…

  9. Childlessness in India.

    PubMed

    Vemuri, M D; Manohar, D

    1986-12-01

    The 1981 Census data were analyzed to show the pattern of childlessness among ever-married women in India. 18.5% of the ever-married women in India are childless. In the younger age groups a large percentage of women are childless, but the percentage drops rapidly and stabilizes at a lower level above age 35. Rural and urban areas show similar age patterns, with rural areas having a slightly higher percentage at the beginning of the childbearing period. The higher percentage of childless women in younger ages is due primarily to shorter exposure to risk of pregnancy and most likely also in part to adolescent subfecundity. The age groups that are unlikely to be affected by these factors were examined further. In the data for 1981, median age at marriage ranges from 15-23 years for different subgroups of population, so women in the 30-49 age range were chosen. For comparison purposes, the percentage of childless women was standardized for age, but this made little difference. In India as a whole, there are 5.6% of women in the 30-49 age group who are childless, and the percentages in rural and urban areas are almost the same. There is little variation according to religious affiliation. The Hindu, who comprise nearly 84% of all married women, have the highest percentage of childless women, closely followed by the Muslim -- the 2nd largest religious group with approximately 11% of the population. The percentages of childless women are quite similar among those in the primary and middle educational categories, higher in women who are illiterate and in those who are more highly educated, and highest in those who had attended college. The distribution thus appears to be U-shaped, but this conclusion must be regarded as tentative because of the small number of married women who are in the secondary and college educational categories. PMID:12341024

  10. Clinical Consequences of Untreated Dental Caries Evaluated with the Pulpal Involvement-Roots-Sepsis Index in the Primary Dentition of School Children from the Raipur and Durg Districts, Chhattisgarh State, India.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Sansriti; Dubey, Alok; Singh, Bimaldeep; Avinash, Alok

    2014-11-26

    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of the clinical consequences of untreated dental caries in primary dentition among 6- to 8-year-old children using the prs [pulpal involvement (p), roots (r) and sepsis (s)] index and record the distribution of prs among boys and girls. Subjects and Methods: The study included a sample of 371 children aged 6-8 years with at least one carious primary molar tooth, who had been randomly selected from schools in the districts of Raipur and Durg, Chhattisgarh State, India. We recorded the presence of decayed, extracted and filled (i.e. def) teeth. The prevalence of the consequences of untreated dental caries was evaluated using the prs index. The data were statistically analyzed to express the prevalence of prs among boys and girls and the distribution of individual prs codes in the sample population. Results: The prevalence of carious lesions was very high (87%) and teeth with clinical consequences of untreated dental caries were found in 49.3% of the children. The prs distribution in children who were 8 years old (40.9%) was higher than in the 6-year-old children (25.6%). In the group of 8-year-olds, the occurrence of prs was greater among the boys whereas in the 6- and 7-year-old group, it was greater among the girls. Conclusion: The prs index is a valuable tool for measuring the clinical consequences of untreated dental caries. It could be useful for epidemiological studies and provide relevant information regarding treatment needs. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25428580

  11. Urban Rural Comparisons of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Burden among Adolescent Girls in a Hospital Setting in India

    PubMed Central

    Balaji, Swetha; Prasad, Satish; Bala Kasav, Jyoti; Upadhyay, Vandana; Singh, Awnish K.; Joshi, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Background. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a multifaceted disorder characterized by varying clinical presentations. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine urban and rural differences in the burden of polycystic ovarian syndrome among Indian adolescent females aged 12 to 19 years. Methods. A pilot cross-sectional study was conducted for a period of one month (August-September 2013) at Balaji Hospital, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India. The final sample included 126 study participants located in various urban (50%, n = 63) and rural (50%, n = 63) settings. Information was gathered on sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics, clinical history, occurrence of acne and hirsutism, serum testosterone levels, obstetric history, family history of chronic diseases, menstrual history, physical activity, and dietary intake. Results. Eighteen percent of the participants were confirmed of having PCOS by recent guidelines of Rotterdam Consensus for adolescent diagnosis of PCOS (presence of all three elements). Majority of the individuals with PCOS had an average age of 16 (SD = 2) (P = .02) years with an average age of menarche 12 years (SD = 1). Conclusion. The proportion of participants diagnosed with PCOS was higher among urban participants in comparison to rural participants. PMID:25629036

  12. Chemometric evaluation of nitrate contamination in the groundwater of a hard rock area in Dharapuram, south India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajil Kumar, P. J.; Jegathambal, P.; James, E. J.

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the results of investigations on groundwater nitrate contamination in the Dharapuram area of Tamil Nadu in south India as a primary step to initiate denitrification. Groundwater samples were collected from 26 selected locations during the pre-monsoon season in July 2010 and analysed for nitrate and other water quality parameters. Two important water types were identified, viz. Ca-Na-HCO3 and mixed Ca-Mg-Cl. It is found that the majority of samples possess high nitrate concentration; 57 % of samples exceeded the permissible limit of Indian (45 mg/L) and WHO (50 mg/L) drinking water standard. Spatial distribution map of NO3 suggested that major contamination was observed in the SW and NW parts of the study area. This result was in agreement with the corresponding land-use pattern in this study area. Denitrification process at greater depths was evident from the negative correlation between NO3 and well depth. The sources and controlling factors of high nitrate were investigated using cross plots of NO3 with other selected hydrochemical parameters. Positive correlation for NO3 was observed with EC, K, Cl and SO4. This analysis was capable of differentiating the various sources of nitrate in groundwater. The major sources of nitrate contamination are identified as areas of high fertilizer application, sewages and animal waste dumping yards. Regulation of these pollutant sources with appropriate and cost-effective denitrification process can restore the water quality in this area.

  13. Buddhist Art in India

    E-print Network

    Deva, Krishna

    stream_source_info bot_11_03_01.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 18788 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name bot_11_03_01.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 BUDDHIST ART IN INDIA Mauryan Art The animal... capitals of the Mauryan pillars mark the beginning of Buddhist art in Indiil. The pillars are tapering monolithic 5h3ft5 with an inverted lotus capital, crowned by an animal sculpture resting on an abacus, and are made of Chunar sandstone with a highly...

  14. Astronomical Instruments in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Sreeramula Rajeswara

    The earliest astronomical instruments used in India were the gnomon and the water clock. In the early seventh century, Brahmagupta described ten types of instruments, which were adopted by all subsequent writers with minor modifications. Contact with Islamic astronomy in the second millennium AD led to a radical change. Sanskrit texts began to lay emphasis on the importance of observational instruments. Exclusive texts on instruments were composed. Islamic instruments like the astrolabe were adopted and some new types of instruments were developed. Production and use of these traditional instruments continued, along with the cultivation of traditional astronomy, up to the end of the nineteenth century.

  15. India`s low-tech energy success

    SciTech Connect

    Sampat, P.

    1995-11-01

    This article describes a program by the Indian government which develops a inexpensive, readily available resource into electricity. A very simple method for converting cow dung into a flammable gase, biogas, has been used to improve the lives of over 10 million rural inhabitants of India. The dung provides cooking fuel, electric power, and as a by product an even better fertilizer than manure. Topics covered include the following: why biogas works in India; the economics of self-sufficiency in rural India; finding a strategy that works; tapping into the potential in the rural areas.

  16. Towards a transdisciplinary approach to rural electrification planning for universal access in India

    E-print Network

    Borofsky, Yael

    2015-01-01

    Around 30% of India's roughly 1.2 billion people lack access to electricity, largely in rural areas. National and state rural electrification efforts are predominantly focused on grid extension, but interest in off-grid ...

  17. 77 FR 33015 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding India-Measures Concerning the Importation of Certain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ...because of concerns related to avian influenza. That request may be found at www...by the United States India's avian influenza measures prohibit the importation of...countries reporting Notifiable Avian Influenza (both Highly Pathogenic Avian...

  18. Nuclear fuel cycle assessment of India: a technical study for U.S.-India cooperation 

    E-print Network

    Woddi, Taraknath Venkat Krishna

    2009-05-15

    The recent civil nuclear cooperation proposed by the Bush Administration and the Government of India has heightened the necessity of assessing India’s nuclear fuel cycle inclusive of nuclear materials and facilities. This ...

  19. Holocene aridification of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponton, Camilo; Giosan, Liviu; Eglinton, Tim I.; Fuller, Dorian Q.; Johnson, Joel E.; Kumar, Pushpendra; Collett, Tim S.

    2012-02-01

    Spanning a latitudinal range typical for deserts, the Indian peninsula is fertile instead and sustains over a billion people through monsoonal rains. Despite the strong link between climate and society, our knowledge of the long-term monsoon variability is incomplete over the Indian subcontinent. Here we reconstruct the Holocene paleoclimate in the core monsoon zone (CMZ) of the Indian peninsula using a sediment core recovered offshore from the mouth of Godavari River. Carbon isotopes of sedimentary leaf waxes provide an integrated and regionally extensive record of the flora in the CMZ and document a gradual increase in aridity-adapted vegetation from ˜4,000 until 1,700 years ago followed by the persistence of aridity-adapted plants after that. The oxygen isotopic composition of planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber detects unprecedented high salinity events in the Bay of Bengal over the last 3,000 years, and especially after 1,700 years ago, which suggest that the CMZ aridification intensified in the late Holocene through a series of sub-millennial dry episodes. Cultural changes occurred across the Indian subcontinent as the climate became more arid after ˜4,000 years. Sedentary agriculture took hold in the drying central and south India, while the urban Harappan civilization collapsed in the already arid Indus basin. The establishment of a more variable hydroclimate over the last ca. 1,700 years may have led to the rapid proliferation of water-conservation technology in south India.

  20. The Charge of Neoliberal Brigade and Higher Education in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at the state of higher education in India--in terms of policies and the trajectory that it has taken in the aftermath of neoliberalisation of the economy. Through studying the discourses that construct the edifice of the educational complex in the country, it unravels the dynamics of how economy, politics and education interact.…

  1. Technology-Supported Learning Environments in Science Classrooms in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Adit; Fisher, Darrell

    2012-01-01

    The adoption of technology has created a major impact in the field of education at all levels. Technology-supported classroom learning environments, involving modern information and communication technologies, are also entering the Indian educational system in general and the schools in Jammu region (Jammu & Kashmir State, India) in particular.…

  2. SEROPREVALENCE OF NEOSPORA CANINUM ANTIBODIES IN DOGS IN INDIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neospora caninum is one of most important causes of abortion in cattle worldwide and dogs are an important risk factor for N. caninum infection in cattle. Antibodies to N. caninum were determined in 184 (126 rural, 58 urban) dogs from the Punjab State, India, by a commercial monoclonal antibody bas...

  3. Evaluation of a Pilot Project on Inclusive Education in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadha, Anupriya

    2007-01-01

    This evaluation study, conducted in 2005, examined the impact of the pilot Programme of Inclusive Education of the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment in two States of India: Karnataka and Uttar-Pradesh (U.P.). The dual objective of this evaluation was to assess the usefulness of the programme for children with disabilities and the…

  4. Sexual Harassment and Abuse of Adolescent Schoolgirls in South India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Fiona; Sitaram, Shashikala

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on a small exploratory study of adolescent girls' experiences of sexual harassment and abuse while attending secondary school in Karnataka State, South India. In South Asia, public discussion of sexual matters, especially relating to children, is largely taboo, and the study uncovers a hidden aspect of schooling, which…

  5. Anand Niketan Ashram, Rangpur, India: An Education for Meaningful Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desai, Prakash O.; Haggerson, Nelson L.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a visit to the Anand Niketan Ashram in the interior of the State of Gujarat India, an internationally known school with a model education for meaningful citizen participation. Explores the program's philosophy activities and describes how the authors came together to have this experience and write this article. (BSR)

  6. "Education for All" and the Rabaris of Kachchh, Western India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Caroline

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a pilot scheme for literacy education for the Rabaris of Gujarat State, India to suggest possible ways to meet the critical literacy needs of Indian nomadic pastoralists. Reviews tensions between the Rabaris' desire to "learn to talk" though sedentary education and the peripatetic teaching program. (SLD)

  7. Film Depicts China, India Besting U.S. in Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    U.S. students spend too little time and effort on academics in high school, compared with harder-working young people in China and India, according to a new documentary being shown to "thought leaders" in states holding presidential primaries this winter. The documentary, conceived and financed by high-tech entrepreneur Robert A. Compton, suggests…

  8. India's nuclear energy program and US policies today. revision. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlstetter, R.

    1980-02-01

    Contents include --From Indira to Morarji to Indira; On Desai's Vain Gandhism; Pakistan, India and the Afghanistan Crisis; Appendices - Letter to Congressman Ottinger; Licensing Requirements for Export of Heavy Water to India; Morarji Desai's Views in 1965; Prime Minister Desai's Comments on Nuclear Questions, Press Conference, January 12, 1978; and Excerpt of Address by Desai in the United Nations, June 9, 1978; Notice to Aircraft Contractors from the United States Department of State.

  9. Petrology and physical conditions of metamorphism of calcsilicate rocks from low- to high-grade transition area, Dharmapuri District, Tamil Nadu

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayana, B. L.; Natarajan, R.; Govil, P. K.

    1988-01-01

    Calc-silicate rocks comprising quartz, plagioclase, diopside, sphene, scapolite, grossularite-andradite and wollastonite occur as lensoid enclaves within the greasy migmatitic and charnockitic gneisses of the Archaean amphibolite- to granulite-facies transition zone in Dharmapuri district, Tamil Nadu. The calc-silicate rocks are characterized by the absence of K-feldspar and primary calcite, presence of large modal quartz and plagioclase and formation of secondary garnet and zoisite rims around scapolite and wollastonite. The mineral distributions suggest compositional layering. The chemical composition and mineralogy of the calc-silicate rocks indicate that they were derived from impure silica-rich calcareous sediments whose composition is similar to that of pelite-limestone mixtures. From the mineral assemblages the temperature, pressure and fluid composition during metamorphism were estimated. The observed mineral reaction sequences require a range of X sub CO2 values demonstrating that an initially CO2-rich metamorphic fluid evolved with time towards considerably more H2O-rich compositions. These variations in fluid composition suggest that there were sources of water-rich fluids external to the calc-silicate rocks and that mixing of these fluids with those of calc-silicate rocks was important in controlling fluid composition in calc-silicate rocks and some adjacent rock types as well.

  10. Detection of Nipah virus RNA in fruit bat (Pteropus giganteus) from India.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Pragya D; Raut, Chandrashekhar G; Shete, Anita M; Mishra, Akhilesh C; Towner, Jonathan S; Nichol, Stuart T; Mourya, Devendra T

    2012-09-01

    The study deals with the survey of different bat populations (Pteropus giganteus, Cynopterus sphinx, and Megaderma lyra) in India for highly pathogenic Nipah virus (NiV), Reston Ebola virus, and Marburg virus. Bats (n = 140) from two states in India (Maharashtra and West Bengal) were tested for IgG (serum samples) against these viruses and for virus RNAs. Only NiV RNA was detected in a liver homogenate of P. giganteus captured in Myanaguri, West Bengal. Partial sequence analysis of nucleocapsid, glycoprotein, fusion, and phosphoprotein genes showed similarity with the NiV sequences from earlier outbreaks in India. A serum sample of this bat was also positive by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for NiV-specific IgG. This is the first report on confirmation of Nipah viral RNA in Pteropus bat from India and suggests the possible role of this species in transmission of NiV in India. PMID:22802440

  11. Violence against female sex workers in Karnataka state, south India: impact on health, and reductions in violence following an intervention program

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Violence against female sex workers (FSWs) can impede HIV prevention efforts and contravenes their human rights. We developed a multi-layered violence intervention targeting policy makers, secondary stakeholders (police, lawyers, media), and primary stakeholders (FSWs), as part of wider HIV prevention programming involving >60,000 FSWs in Karnataka state. This study examined if violence against FSWs is associated with reduced condom use and increased STI/HIV risk, and if addressing violence against FSWs within a large-scale HIV prevention program can reduce levels of violence against them. Methods FSWs were randomly selected to participate in polling booth surveys (PBS 2006-2008; short behavioural questionnaires administered anonymously) and integrated behavioural-biological assessments (IBBAs 2005-2009; administered face-to-face). Results 3,852 FSWs participated in the IBBAs and 7,638 FSWs participated in the PBS. Overall, 11.0% of FSWs in the IBBAs and 26.4% of FSWs in the PBS reported being beaten or raped in the past year. FSWs who reported violence in the past year were significantly less likely to report condom use with clients (zero unprotected sex acts in previous month, 55.4% vs. 75.5%, adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.3 to 0.5, p < 0.001); to have accessed the HIV intervention program (ever contacted by peer educator, 84.9% vs. 89.6%, AOR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4 to 1.0, p = 0.04); or to have ever visited the project sexual health clinic (59.0% vs. 68.1%, AOR 0.7, 95% CI 0.6 to 1.0, p = 0.02); and were significantly more likely to be infected with gonorrhea (5.0% vs. 2.6%, AOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.3, p = 0.02). By the follow-up surveys, significant reductions were seen in the proportions of FSWs reporting violence compared with baseline (IBBA 13.0% vs. 9.0%, AOR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.9 p = 0.01; PBS 27.3% vs. 18.9%, crude OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.4 to 0.5, p < 0.001). Conclusions This program demonstrates that a structural approach to addressing violence can be effectively delivered at scale. Addressing violence against FSWs is important for the success of HIV prevention programs, and for protecting their basic human rights. PMID:20701791

  12. Advancing cervical cancer prevention in India: implementation science priorities.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Suneeta; Madsen, Emily; Porterfield, Deborah; Varghese, Beena

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in India, accounting for 17% of all cancer deaths among women aged 30 to 69 years. At current incidence rates, the annual burden of new cases in India is projected to increase to 225,000 by 2025, but there are few large-scale, organized cervical cancer prevention programs in the country. We conducted a review of the cervical cancer prevention research literature and programmatic experiences in India to summarize the current state of knowledge and practices and recommend research priorities to address the gap in services. We found that research and programs in India have demonstrated the feasibility and acceptability of cervical cancer prevention efforts and that screening strategies requiring minimal additional human resources and laboratory infrastructure can reduce morbidity and mortality. However, additional evidence generated through implementation science research is needed to ensure that cervical cancer prevention efforts have the desired impact and are cost-effective. Specifically, implementation science research is needed to understand individual- and community-level barriers to screening and diagnostic and treatment services; to improve health care worker performance; to strengthen links among screening, diagnosis, and treatment; and to determine optimal program design, outcomes, and costs. With a quarter of the global burden of cervical cancer in India, there is no better time than now to translate research findings to practice. Implementation science can help ensure that investments in cervical cancer prevention and control result in the greatest impact. PMID:24217555

  13. Fortification of Foods with Vitamin D in India

    PubMed Central

    G, Ritu; Gupta, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is widely prevalent in India, despite abundant sunshine. Fortification of staple foods with vitamin D is a viable strategy to target an entire population. Vitamin D fortification programs implemented in the United States and Canada have improved the vitamin D status in these countries, but a significant proportion of the population is still vitamin D deficient. Before fortification programs are designed and implemented in India, it is necessary to study the efficacy of the American and Canadian vitamin D fortification programs and then improve upon them to suit the Indian scenario. This review explores potential strategies that could be used for the fortification of foods in the Indian context. These strategies have been proposed considering the diverse dietary practices necessitated by social, economic, cultural and religious practices and the diverse climatic conditions in India. Fortification of staple foods, such as chapati flour, maida, rice flour and rice, may be more viable strategies. Targeted fortification strategies to meet the special nutritional needs of children in India are discussed separately in a review entitled, “Fortification of foods with vitamin D in India: Strategies targeted at children”. PMID:25221975

  14. Poppies for medicine in Afghanistan: lessons from India and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Windle, James

    2011-01-01

    This study examines India and Turkey as case studies relevant to the Senlis Council’s ‘poppies for medicine’ proposal. The proposal is that Afghan farmers are licensed to produce opium for medical and scientific purposes. Here it is posited that the Senlis proposal neglects at least three key lessons from the Turkish and Indian experiences. First, not enough weight has been given to diversion from licit markets, as experienced in India. Second, both India and Turkey had significantly more efficient state institutions with authority over the licensed growing areas. Third, the proposal appears to overlook the fact that Turkey’s successful transition was largely due to the use of the poppy straw method of opium production. It is concluded that, while innovative and creative policy proposals such as that of the Senlis proposal are required if Afghanistan is to move beyond its present problems, ‘poppies for medicine’ does not withstand evidence-based scrutiny. PMID:22213882

  15. Children and Television in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noorani, Hafeez

    1978-01-01

    Development and operation of the television industry in India is described with emphasis upon children's television. Matters related to advertising material considered unacceptable, and educational programing are addressed. (RAO)

  16. Country watch: India.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, S D; Dhoundiyal, N C

    1997-01-01

    This article describes the activities of the "Universities Talk AIDS" (UTA) program in India. The program is run by the Indian government as a strategy to prevent HIV/AIDS by informing students and encouraging discussion about healthy human sexuality. UTA works through the National Service Scheme (NSS), Department of Youth Affairs and Sports, which has a student network of 1.25 million volunteers operating in nearly all India's universities. UTA began on an experimental basis in 1991 in 59 universities. Each college campus received US$90/year. UTA has trained 7000 educator-facilitators who are active in 7500 colleges affiliated with 158 universities. Almost 75,000 peer educators (PEs) have been trained. About 10 million students were made aware of the causes, consequences, and prevention of HIV infection. UTA maintains a campus-to-community link called "Concerted Action by Universities upon Silent Emergencies" (CAUSE-2000). UTA developed knowledge, attitudes, and practices surveys, evaluation reports, IEC, training manuals, modules, and documentary films. Training camps are conducted on campuses, followed by intensive orientation workshops for field officers and selected PEs from various colleges. Discussion topics include medical facts, global scenarios, human sexuality and development processes, responsible sexual behavior, values, misconceptions/beliefs, prejudice and its impact, attitudes toward condom use, and the cultural impact of HIV/AIDS counseling. Workshop participants prepared education messages in local dialects for the larger community. NSS will be withdrawing support at the end of the 3-year period, which creates the need for sustainably trained facilitators. PMID:12293321

  17. Profile of Diseases Prevalent in a Tribal Locality in Jharkhand, India: A Family Medicine Practitioner's Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    Background: Majority of Indian population is dependent on general practitioners (GPs) for medical services at primary care level in India. They are most preferred and considered to be first contact person for medical services at primary care level. But advances in medical science has put more emphasis on specialist culture and average Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) graduates who are working as general physician are gradually feeling themselves less competent because they are less exposed to latest advances in treatment of diseases. Amidst such scenario, Christian Medical College (CMC) has come up with an idea: “The refer less and resolve more initiative”. It has started a decentralized 2-year family medicine distance diploma course (Postgraduate Diploma in Family Medicine (PGDFM)) now accredited by Dr. MGR Medical University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, that trains the GPs to become family medicine specialist. Materials and Methods: As component of PGDFM course, this study was conducted to provide better understanding of prevalent ailments and common treatment provided by the GPs in the community at present giving key insight of current practice in rural area by a registered family medicine practitioner. Results: As part of study, among 500 patients evaluated, three most common diagnosis were upper respiratory infections (URIs; 18%), acute gastroenteritis including water-borne diseases (15.8%), and anemia (10.4%). Treatment given to these patients comprised of mostly of antipyretic, analgesic, and antimicrobial agents. Most common drug prescribed was paracetamol for fever. Other common drugs prescribed were amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, chloroquine, artemisin derivative, doxycycline, co-trimoxazole, miltefosine, cephalexin, ceftriaxone sodium, cefixime, oral rehydration salts, ranitidine, omeprazole, pantoprazole, metronidazole, albendazole, ondansetron, diclofenac sodium, piroxicam, ibuprofen, diphenhydramine, codeine-sulfate, amlodipine, ramipril, hydrochlorothiazide, atenolol, salbutamol, etophyline, metformin, glimepiride, fluoxetine, flavoxate, tamsulosin, iron-folic acid, etc. The fact that three or more drugs are given in most of the prescriptions, can be justified due to multiple morbidity and the severity of disease than to irresponsible prescribing. PMID:25811000

  18. Computation of groundwater resources and recharge in Chithar River Basin, South India.

    PubMed

    Subramani, T; Babu, Savithri; Elango, L

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater recharge and available groundwater resources in Chithar River basin, Tamil Nadu, India spread over an area of 1,722 km(2) have been estimated by considering various hydrological, geological, and hydrogeological parameters, such as rainfall infiltration, drainage, geomorphic units, land use, rock types, depth of weathered and fractured zones, nature of soil, water level fluctuation, saturated thickness of aquifer, and groundwater abstraction. The digital ground elevation models indicate that the regional slope of the basin is towards east. The Proterozoic (Post-Archaean) basement of the study area consists of quartzite, calc-granulite, crystalline limestone, charnockite, and biotite gneiss with or without garnet. Three major soil types were identified namely, black cotton, deep red, and red sandy soils. The rainfall intensity gradually decreases from west to east. Groundwater occurs under water table conditions in the weathered zone and fluctuates between 0 and 25 m. The water table gains maximum during January after northeast monsoon and attains low during October. Groundwater abstraction for domestic/stock and irrigational needs in Chithar River basin has been estimated as 148.84 MCM (million m(3)). Groundwater recharge due to monsoon rainfall infiltration has been estimated as 170.05 MCM based on the water level rise during monsoon period. It is also estimated as 173.9 MCM using rainfall infiltration factor. An amount of 53.8 MCM of water is contributed to groundwater from surface water bodies. Recharge of groundwater due to return flow from irrigation has been computed as 147.6 MCM. The static groundwater reserve in Chithar River basin is estimated as 466.66 MCM and the dynamic reserve is about 187.7 MCM. In the present scenario, the aquifer is under safe condition for extraction of groundwater for domestic and irrigation purposes. If the existing water bodies are maintained properly, the extraction rate can be increased in future about 10% to 15%. PMID:22961326

  19. Fetal Protection : The Roles of Social Learning and Innate Food Aversions in South India.

    PubMed

    Placek, Caitlyn D; Hagen, Edward H

    2015-09-01

    Pregnancy involves puzzling aversions to nutritious foods. Although studies generally support the hypotheses that such aversions are evolved mechanisms to protect the fetus from toxins and/or pathogens, other factors, such as resource scarcity and psychological distress, have not been investigated as often. In addition, many studies have focused on populations with high-quality diets and low infectious disease burden, conditions that diverge from the putative evolutionary environment favoring fetal protection mechanisms. This study tests the fetal protection, resource scarcity, and psychological distress hypotheses of food aversions in a resource-constrained population with high infectious disease burden. The role of culture is also explored. In the first of two studies in Tamil Nadu, India, we investigated cultural explanations of pregnancy diet among non-pregnant women (N?=?54). In the second study, we conducted structured interviews with pregnant women (N?=?94) to determine their cravings and aversions, resource scarcity, indices of pathogen exposure, immune activation, psychological distress, and emic causes of aversions. Study 1 found that fruits were the most commonly reported food that pregnant women should avoid because of their harmful effects on infants. Study 2 found modest support for the fetal protection hypothesis for food aversions. It also found that pregnant women most commonly avoided fruits as well as "black" and "hot" foods. Aversions were primarily acquired through learning and focused on protecting the infant from harm. Our findings provide modest support for the fetal protection hypothesis and surprisingly strong support for the influence of cultural norms and learning on dietary aversions in pregnancy. PMID:26286435

  20. Association between Early Marriage and Intimate Partner Violence in India: A Focus on Youth from Bihar and Rajasthan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speizer, Ilene S.; Pearson, Erin

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and early marriage is explored using the 2005-2006 India National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3). The NFHS-3 collected data from a representative sample of women and men in India with a large enough sample size to have a representative sample at the state level. The focus is on youth from…

  1. 76 FR 8772 - Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan and Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... interested party group response to its notice of institution (75 FR 67108, November 1, 2010) was adequate... Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan and Korea AGENCY: United States... concerning the countervailing duty orders on cut-to-length carbon steel plate from India, Indonesia,...

  2. Nuclear fuel cycle assessment of India: A technical study for U.S.-India cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, Taraknath Woddi Venkat

    The recent civil nuclear cooperation proposed by the Bush Administration and the Government of India has heightened the necessity of assessing India's nuclear fuel cycle inclusive of nuclear materials and facilities. This agreement proposes to change the long-standing U.S. policy of preventing the spread of nuclear weapons by denying nuclear technology transfer to non-NPT signatory states. The nuclear tests in 1998 have convinced the world community that India would never relinquish its nuclear arsenal. This has driven the desire to engage India through civilian nuclear cooperation. The cornerstone of any civilian nuclear technological support necessitates the separation of military and civilian facilities. A complete nuclear fuel cycle assessment of India emphasizes the entwinment of the military and civilian facilities and would aid in moving forward with the separation plan. To estimate the existing uranium reserves in India, a complete historical assessment of ore production, conversion, and processing capabilities was performed using open source information and compared to independent reports. Nuclear energy and plutonium production (reactor- and weapons-grade) was simulated using declared capacity factors and modern simulation tools. The three-stage nuclear power program entities and all the components of civilian and military significance were assembled into a flowsheet to allow for a macroscopic vision of the Indian fuel cycle. A detailed view of the nuclear fuel cycle opens avenues for technological collaboration. The fuel cycle that grows from this study exploits domestic thorium reserves with advanced international technology and optimized for the existing system. To utilize any appreciable fraction of the world's supply of thorium, nuclear breeding is necessary. The two known possibilities for production of more fissionable material in the reactor than is consumed as fuel are fast breeders or thermal breeders. This dissertation analyzes a thermal breeder core concept involving the CANDU core design. The end-of-life fuel characteristics evolved from the designed fuel composition is proliferation resistant and economical in integrating this technology into the Indian nuclear fuel cycle. Furthermore, it is shown that the separation of the military and civilian components of the Indian fuel cycle can be facilitated through the implementation of such a system.

  3. India Culture Trunk. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doeksen, Peggy

    This unit is intended to provide students with a general knowledge of the history and culture of India. Activities include: (1) "What Do You Know about India?"; (2) "What Is All This Stuff For?"; (3) "Name That Spice and Why It's Nice"; (4) "Where and How Are These Elephants Marching?"; (5) "Why Is India What It Is?"; (6) "Why is India the Cover…

  4. Phylogeographic analysis of Japanese encephalitis virus in India (1956-2012).

    PubMed

    Cherian, Sarah S; Walimbe, A M

    2015-12-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) isolates from India phylogenetically belong to two genotypes, III and I. We used envelope gene sequences from GenBank, representing different states of India and other countries, to study the spatiotemporal transmission histories of these two JEV genotypes separately. Genotype III was found to have been successively introduced in the 1930s, 1950s and 1960s, followed by genotype I twice around 2003-2006. Changes in JEV disease patterns in India over the last five decades could thus be attributed to multiple introductions of JEV strains from neighboring Asian countries along with increased transmission potential due to altered ecological settings. PMID:26362532

  5. Limits to Economic Growth: Why Direct Investments Are Needed to Address Child Undernutrition in India

    PubMed Central

    Subramanyam, Malavika A

    2015-01-01

    About two of every five undernourished young children of the world live in India. These high levels of child undernutrition have persisted in India for several years, even in its relatively well-developed states. Moreover, this pattern was observed during a period of rapid economic growth. Evidence from India and other developing countries suggests that economic growth has little to no impact on reducing child undernutrition. We argue that a growth-mediated strategy is unlikely to be effective in tackling child undernutrition unless growth is pro-poor and leads to investment in programs addressing the root causes of this persistent challenge. PMID:26617445

  6. Limits to Economic Growth: Why Direct Investments Are Needed to Address Child Undernutrition in India.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, S V; Subramanyam, Malavika A

    2015-11-01

    About two of every five undernourished young children of the world live in India. These high levels of child undernutrition have persisted in India for several years, even in its relatively well-developed states. Moreover, this pattern was observed during a period of rapid economic growth. Evidence from India and other developing countries suggests that economic growth has little to no impact on reducing child undernutrition. We argue that a growth-mediated strategy is unlikely to be effective in tackling child undernutrition unless growth is pro-poor and leads to investment in programs addressing the root causes of this persistent challenge. PMID:26617445

  7. India Solar Resource Data: Enhanced Data for Accelerated Deployment (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-08-01

    Identifying potential locations for solar photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) projects requires an understanding of the underlying solar resource. Under a bilateral partnership between the United States and India - the U.S.-India Energy Dialogue - the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has updated Indian solar data and maps using data provided by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) and the National Institute for Solar Energy (NISE). This fact sheet overviews the updated maps and data, which help identify high-quality solar energy projects. This can help accelerate the deployment of solar energy in India.

  8. Cancer research in India: national priorities, global results.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Richard; Badwe, Rajendra A; Rath, Goura K; Pramesh, C S; Shanta, V; Digumarti, Raghunadharao; D'Cruz, Anil; Sharma, Suresh C; Viswanath, Lokesh; Shet, Arun; Vijayakumar, Manavalan; Lewison, Grant; Chandy, Mammen; Kulkarni, Priyadarshini; Bardia, M R; Kumar, Shaleen; Sarin, Rajiv; Sebastian, Paul; Dhillon, Preet K; Rajaraman, Preetha; Trimble, Edward L; Aggarwal, Ajay; Vijaykumar, D K; Purushotham, Arnie D

    2014-05-01

    Over the past 20 years, cancer research in India has grown in size and impact. Clinicians, scientists, and government and state policy makers in India have championed cancer research, from studies to achieve low-tech, large-scale health outcomes to some of the most advanced areas of fundamental cancer science. In this paper, we frame public policy discussions about cancer with use of an in-depth analysis of research publications from India. Cancer research in India is a complex environment that needs to balance public policy across many competing agendas. We identify major needs across these environments such as those for increased research capacity and training and protected time for clinical researchers; for more support from states and enhanced collaborative funding programmes from government; for development of national infrastructures across a range of domains (ie, clinical trials, tissue banking, registries, etc); and for a streamlined and rational regulatory environment. We also discuss improvements that should be made to translate research into improvements in cancer outcomes and public health. PMID:24731887

  9. India: 'brain drain' or the migration of talent?

    PubMed

    Oommen, T K

    1989-09-01

    2 views on "brain drain" exist: 1) LDCs lose their enormous investments on higher education when skilled people migrate to other countries and 2) LDCs are exaggerating the problem and only a few skilled people migrate at 1 time. India does not completely lose its investment in education when professionals migrate, since the migrants still contribute to knowledge and also send remittances to relatives in India. Unemployed educated people would cause a greater drain on India's resources than educated migrants. The author prefers the phrase migration of talent to brain drain, since the former indicates a 2-way movement. Most migrants from LDCs are students. About 11,000 university graduates leave India every year for advanced study and/or work. A conservative estimate is that 2500 will remain abroad permanently. Most professionals who migrate go to the US and Canada. Factors promoting migration include 1) unemployment, 2) immigration rules, 3) colonial links, 4) financial incentives and material benefits, 5) pursuit of higher education, 6) improvement of working conditions and facilities, 7) avoidance of excessive bureaucratic procedures, and 8) compensation for the mismatch between Indian education and employment. Reasons for returning to India include 1) deference to wives who were unable to adjust to a foreign way of life, 2) contributing to Indian development, and 3) racial discrimination. It will probably not be possible to lure back migrants who left for material reasons. Attractive job offers could entice back those who left for advanced training. To encourage the return of those who left to pursue high quality research, India must 1) increase expenditure on research and development, possibly through the private industrial sector, 2) promote travel to other countries for professional enrichment, and 3) improve conditions of research work. The article concludes with an analysis of migration of talent from 3 perspectives: 1) the individual, 2) the nation-state, and 3) the world as a whole. PMID:12282407

  10. [India: an expensive and dangerous drug].

    PubMed

    Astrup, N

    1992-12-16

    India has launched a liberalization of its economy with restructuring, privatization, and increased imports in order to achieve higher economic performance. This drive also affected the pharmaceutical industry and drug distribution, but in a negative manner. In the 1980s there were 9000 drug manufacturers that together produced up to 60,000 different preparations. In 1992, only 20,000 drugs were produced. The Voluntary Health Organization of India (VHAI) has fought for 10 years for a rational policy on medicines to halt the production of worthless or outright harmful products. For instance, anabolic steroids are sold as nutritional supplements to children, and the banned clioquinol is regularly used against diarrhea despite an international boycott. In recent years unscrupulous manufacturers have sold contaminated water as glucose for infusion bags and anti-D-immunoglobulin which was contaminated with HIV-infected blood. In northern India, a criminal organization bought up used cannulas from hospitals and repacked them for resale as new supplies. While a new medicine policy is formulated, there is a serious shortage of life-saving drugs such as insulin and rifampicin. In the last years, prices have exploded as some products have become six times more expensive. The whole national health system has undergone cost cuts to comply with an ultimatum from the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund; otherwise, sorely needed dollar loans would not be forthcoming. Funds for fighting tuberculosis and malaria have been trimmed, although AIDS and family planning budgets have been increased. One-fourth of the state health expenditures go to combat AIDS, since about 1 million people are infected with HIV. The pharmaceutical industry has also been embroiled in a patent protection wrangle with American drug exporters who claim that Retrovir or AZT (developed by Burroughs Wellcome) was pirated by the Cipla firm, whereas Cipla countered that it was ferreted out from scientific journals. PMID:1300663

  11. 3 CFR - Delegation of Authority Relating To Certain Functions Under Section 201 (B) of the United States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Section 201 (B) of the United States-india Nuclear Cooperation Approval And Nonproliferation...Section 201 (B) of the United States-india Nuclear Cooperation Approval And Nonproliferation...section 201 (b) of the United States-India Nuclear Cooperation Approval and...

  12. Association between Early Marriage and Intimate Partner Violence in India: A Focus on Youth from Bihar and Rajasthan

    PubMed Central

    Speizer, Ilene S.; Pearson, Erin

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and early marriage is explored using the 2005-2006 India National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3). The NFHS-3 collected data from a representative sample of women and men in India with a large enough sample size to have a representative sample at the state level. The focus is on youth from Bihar and Rajasthan, two states with high IPV and early marriage. Multivariate logistic regression analyses demonstrate that women ages 20-24 who married before age eighteen, the legal age at marriage in India, are more likely to have ever experienced IPV in their lifetime and recently experienced IPV (in the last 12 months) than their counterparts who married later. The results were significant in Rajasthan but not in Bihar. To reduce IPV, targeted efforts must be made to decrease the proportion of India’s girls who are married under the legal age of marriage. PMID:20587462

  13. Actinobacteriological research in India.

    PubMed

    Velho-Pereira, Sonashia; Kamat, Nandkumar M

    2013-08-01

    Actinobacteria are important sources of compounds for drug discovery and have attracted considerable pharmaceutical, chemical, agricultural and industrial interests. Actinobacteriological research is still in its infancy in India. Early work on actinobacteria started in the 20th century and mostly focused on studying the diversity, identification and screening for antibiotics, enzymes and enzyme inhibitors. Exploration of diverse habitats for the isolation of actinobacteria, have yielded till date 23 novel species. Screening of actinobacteria for antagonistic activity, has led to the discovery of four novel antibiotics. Research on enzymes mostly covered lipases, amylases, proteases, endoglucanases, a-galactosidases, pectin lyases, xylanases, L-asparaginases, L-glutaminase and cellulases. Research on exploiting actinobacteria for other purposes such as production of enzyme inhibitors, single cell protein, bioemulsifier and biosurfactants is still in the experimental stage. This review compiles the work done in last few years, with an emphasis on actinobacterial diversity and bioprospecting for pharmaceutically important compounds like antibiotics, enzymes and other important applications. The chemical creativity and biotechnological potential of Indian actinobacterial strains are yet to be fully explored. A national strategy is required consistent with the opportunities provided by CBD-Nagoya protocol. PMID:24228382

  14. Decriminalising homosexuality in India.

    PubMed

    Misra, Geetanjali

    2009-11-01

    This paper examines the successful fight against the provision in Section 377 of the Penal Code of India that criminalised private consensual sex between adults of the same sex. This law had led to serious discrimination against people engaging in homosexual acts, who were subjected to frequent beatings and blackmail attempts by police, who used the threat of prosecution against them. NGOs working with sexual minorities have also been harassed and sometimes charged under Section 377. By stigmatising homosexuality and threatening gay men with prison, the law is also likely to have impeded the battle against HIV. The provision was read down in July 2009 after an innovative, sustained, mass media campaign by activists. The Voices Against 377 coalition brought together sexuality and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) organisations, who were previously marginalised, with groups working in areas such as children's rights and feminist groups, showing that support for non-discrimination towards sexual minorities was broad-based. Further legal and social changes are needed for LGBT individuals to gain full acceptance and equality within Indian society. However, the judgement transcended the LGBT issue with the implication of protection for all minorities and introduced for the first time in South Asia the idea of sexual citizenship. PMID:19962634

  15. Polymorphism at fifteen hypervariable microsatellite loci in four populations of Maharashtra, India.

    PubMed

    Gaikwad, S; Kashyap, V K

    2002-05-23

    Polymorphism at 15 microsatellite loci was studied in four predominant, endogamous populations of Maharashtra state in India. The studied population included Marathas, Desasth Brahmins, Chitpavan Brahmins and Dhangars; all of whom belong to Marathi speaking linguistic group of India. The distribution of the allele pattern at 13 tetranucleotide repeat and two pentanucleotide repeat of Powerplex 16 System portrays that these markers are highly polymorphic and thus, informative in human identification and understanding diversity in the addressed populations. PMID:12380574

  16. Frequency of intimate partner violence and rural women's mental health in four Indian states.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Rob; Winter, Amy; Hindin, Michelle

    2013-09-01

    This study examines the association between self-reported frequency of verbal, physical, and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) and mental health among 6,303 rural married women (age 15-49), in four Indian states: Bihar, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu. Data are taken from the 2002-2003 National Family Health Survey-2 Follow-Up Survey. The results indicate that experiencing physical, verbal, or sexual IPV is associated with an increased risk of adverse mental health outcomes. Our results provide support for the importance of screening for IPV in mental health settings, especially in resource-poor settings where both IPV and mental health are often overlooked. PMID:24142954

  17. Lead content in household paints in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Abhay; Gottesfeld, Perry

    2008-12-15

    Lead and its compounds are used in paints not only to impart colour but also to make it durable, corrosion resistant and to improve drying. Adverse health impacts of lead especially on children have led countries to restrict or ban its use in paints. While U.S. and other developed countries instituted measures to limit the use of lead in paints, some developing countries including India have failed to regulate their lead content. The present study was undertaken to determine the levels of lead in new latex (water-based) and enamel paints (oil-based) intended for residential use in India. A total of 69 paint samples (38 latex and 31 enamel samples) from six of the most popular brands were analysed for lead concentrations. While all latex paint samples contained low levels of lead, (i.e., well below 600 ppm as regulated by United States' Consumer Products Safety Commission) the enamel paint samples of all but one brand contained significant concentrations of lead, ranging up to 140,000 ppm. In fact 84% of the enamel paints tested exceeded 600 ppm whereas only 38 % of all samples (including latex and enamel types) exceeded this regulatory level. PMID:18950834

  18. Past, present & future scenario of thalassaemic care & control in India

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Ishwar C.; Saxena, Renu; Kohli, Sudha

    2011-01-01

    The first case of thalassaemia, described in a non-Mediterranean person, was from India. Subsequently, cases of thalassaemia were documented in all parts of India. Centres for care of thalassaemics were started in the mid-1970s in Mumbai and Delhi, and then in other cities. The parent's associations, with the help of International Thalassemia Federation, greatly helped in improving the care of thalassaemics. Obtaining blood for transfusion was difficult, but the Indian Red Cross Society and the parent's associations played a crucial role in arranging voluntary donations of blood. Chelation with deferoxamine was used sparingly due to the high cost. The Indian physicians conducted trials with deferiprone, and the drug was first approved and marketed in India. Deferasirox is also now being administered. Studies of physical and pubertal growth documented significant retardation, suggesting that generally patients receive inadequate chelation and transfusions. Bone marrow transplantation is available at a number of centres, and cord blood stem cell storage facilities have been established. Information about mutations in different parts of India is available, and ThalInd, an Indian database has been set up. There is a need to set up preimplantation genetic diagnosis and non-invasive prenatal diagnosis. It is argued that too much emphasis should not be placed on premarital screening. The focus should be on screening pregnant women to yield immediate results in reducing the burden of this disorder. Care of thalassaemia has been included in the 12th 5-year Plan of the Government of India. Many States now provide blood transfusions and chelation free of cost. Although inadequacies in care of thalassaemia remain, but the outlook is bright, and the stage is set for initiating a control programme in the high risk States. PMID:22089615

  19. Mucormycosis in India: unique features.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Singh, Rachna

    2014-12-01

    Mucormycosis remains a devastating invasive fungal infection, with high mortality rates even after active management. The disease is being reported at an alarming frequency over the past decades from India. Indian mucormycosis has certain unique features. Rhino-orbito-cerebral presentation associated with uncontrolled diabetes is the predominant characteristic. Isolated renal mucormycosis has emerged as a new clinical entity. Apophysomyces elegans and Rhizopus homothallicus are emerging species in this region and uncommon agents such as Mucor irregularis and Thamnostylum lucknowense are also being reported. This review focuses on these distinct features of mucormycosis observed in India. PMID:25187095

  20. Sickle cell disease in tribal populations in India

    PubMed Central

    Colah, Roshan B.; Mukherjee, Malay B.; Martin, Snehal; Ghosh, Kanjaksha

    2015-01-01

    The sickle gene is widespread among many tribal population groups in India with prevalence of heterozygotes varying from 1-40 per cent. Co-inheritance of the sickle gene with ?-thalassaemia, HbD Punjab and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency has also been reported. Most of the screening programmes in India now use high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis although the solubility test is also sensitive and cheap. Sickle cell disease (SCD) among tribal populations is generally milder than among non-tribal groups with fewer episodes of painful crises, infections, acute chest syndrome and need for hospitalization. This has partly been attributed to the very high prevalence of ?-thalassaemia among these tribes as well as higher foetal haemoglobin levels. However, the clinical presentation is variable with many cases having a severe presentation. There is not much information available on maternal and perinatal outcome in tribal women with sickle cell disease. Newborn screening programmes for SCD have recently been initiated in Maharashtra, Gujarat, Odisha and Chattisgarh and monitoring these birth cohorts will help to understand the natural history of SCD in India. Prenatal diagnosis is acceptable by tribal families in India. The Indian Council of Medical Research and the National Rural Health Mission in different States are undertaking outreach programmes for better management and control of the disease. PMID:26139766

  1. Incidence of Burkholderia mallei infection among indigenous equines in India

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Praveen; Singha, Harisankar; Goyal, Sachin K; Khurana, Sandip K; Tripathi, Badri Naryan; Dutt, Abha; Singh, Dabal; Sharma, Neeraj; Jain, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia mallei is the causative agent of glanders which is a highly contagious and fatal disease of equines. Considering the nature and severity of the disease in equines, and potential of transmission to human beings, glanders is recognised as a ‘notifiable’ disease in many countries. An increasing number of glanders outbreaks throughout the Asian continents, including India, have been noticed recently. In view of the recent re-emergence of the disease, the present study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of glanders among indigenous equines from different parts of India. Serum samples were analysed by complement fixation test (CFT) and ELISA for the detection of B mallei specific antibodies. A total of 7794 equines, which included 4720 horses, 1881 donkeys and 1193 mules were sampled from April 2011 to December 2014 from 10 states of India. Serologically, 36 equines (pony=7, mules=10, horses=19) were found to be positive for glanders by CFT and indirect-ELISA. The highest number of cases were detected in Uttar Pradesh (n=31) followed by Himachal Pradesh (n=4) and Chhattisgarh (n=1). Isolation of B mallei was attempted from nasal and abscess swabs collected from seropositive equines. Four isolates of B mallei were cultured from nasal swabs of two mules and two ponies. Identity of the isolates was confirmed by PCR and sequencing of fliP gene fragment. The study revealed circulation of B mallei in northern India and the need for continued surveillance to support the eradication. PMID:26457190

  2. Sickle cell disease in tribal populations in India.

    PubMed

    Colah, Roshan B; Mukherjee, Malay B; Martin, Snehal; Ghosh, Kanjaksha

    2015-05-01

    The sickle gene is widespread among many tribal population groups in India with prevalence of heterozygotes varying from 1-40 per cent. Co-inheritance of the sickle gene with ?-thalassaemia, HbD Punjab and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency has also been reported. Most of the screening programmes in India now use high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis although the solubility test is also sensitive and cheap. Sickle cell disease (SCD) among tribal populations is generally milder than among non-tribal groups with fewer episodes of painful crises, infections, acute chest syndrome and need for hospitalization. This has partly been attributed to the very high prevalence of ?-thalassaemia among these tribes as well as higher foetal haemoglobin levels. However, the clinical presentation is variable with many cases having a severe presentation. There is not much information available on maternal and perinatal outcome in tribal women with sickle cell disease. Newborn screening programmes for SCD have recently been initiated in Maharashtra, Gujarat, Orissa and Chattisgarh and monitoring these birth cohorts will help to understand the natural history of SCD in India. Prenatal diagnosis is acceptable by tribal families in India. The Indian Council of Medical Research and the National Rural Health Mission in different States are undertaking outreach programmes for better management and control of the disease. PMID:26139766

  3. Literature-Oriented Multicultural Education in India. Children's Experiences with a Task-Based Folklore Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Venu

    2013-01-01

    diversity" pattern. This includes the diversity of religious communities, languages, ethnicities, and the minority populations in each of the states and regions that comprise the nation. Thus, theories of multicultural accommodation are one of India's…

  4. 76 FR 56797 - Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate From India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, and Korea; Revised...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ...701-TA-388-391 and 731-TA-817-821 ;Second Review] Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate From India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, and Korea; Revised schedule for the subject reviews. AGENCY: United States International Trade...

  5. Designing Citizens in Transnational India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irani, Lilly Christine

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the politics of design practice in urban India through an ethnography of a Delhi-based design and innovation studio. The dissertation focuses on the ideological continuities between the profession of design and middle class Indian citizenship post-liberalization, twinning arts of governance through the shaping of the…

  6. India and Tibet: Historical Considerations

    E-print Network

    Sinha, Nirmal Chandra

    obedience to the incarnation of A valokitesvara-the Dalai Lama­ as the Sole God of the Land of Snow. III LANGUAGE OF INDIA IN TIBET "The waters of Ganga made fertile the arid steppes of Inner Asia". That is how a German scholar had described the great...

  7. Preparing for Travel in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, James M.

    The complexity of the Indian society can be overwhelming, and preparation for travel in India requires careful and detailed advance planning. Practical suggestions are provided for travelers to help them understand cultural differences, avoid illnesses, and select appropriate clothing for the intense heat. Explanations are given about the monetary…

  8. India: From SITE to INSAT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhri, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    Identifies core of India's illiteracy problem and describes use of educational technology to educate rural children. Highlights include descriptions of the Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) project; motivation behind low-cost educational aids development in rural areas; an educational radio pilot project; and development and…

  9. Understanding Child Rights in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grewal, Imandeep Kaur; Singh, Nandita Shukla

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: This article traces the status of child rights in India, with special attention to traditional beliefs that have shaped and sustain gender discrimination. The article examines the possibilities and limitations of the newly implemented Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act of 2009 for operating as an equalizing…

  10. Tanjore: Mystical Painting of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    Tanjore (or Thanjavur or Thanlavoor) paintings are one of the most popular traditional art forms in Southern India. These ornate religious paintings involve Hindu mythology. The paintings are noted for their adornment of gold and semiprecious stones such as rubies, emeralds, and pearls. Currently, the semiprecious stones are often substituted…

  11. Pediatric Melioidosis in Southern India.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay; Eshwara, Vandana K; Kini, Pushpa; Bhat, Vinod

    2015-08-01

    Melioidosis in children is increasingly detected from the coastal region of Southern India during monsoon. We present 11 cases of melioidosis, ranging from localized to disseminated, treated successfully, barring one death. It calls for awareness and upgrading laboratory facilities for better diagnosis and management of pediatric melioidosis. PMID:26388638

  12. Poverty among Elderly in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srivastava, Akanksha; Mohanty, Sanjay K.

    2012-01-01

    Using consumption expenditure data of the National Sample Survey 2004-2005, this paper estimates the size of elderly poor and tests the hypotheses that elderly households are not economically better-off compared to non-elderly households in India. Poverty estimates are derived under three scenarios--by applying the official cut-off point of the…

  13. History of Cardiology in India.

    PubMed

    Das, Mrinal Kanti; Kumar, Soumitra; Deb, Pradip Kumar; Mishra, Sundeep

    2015-01-01

    History as a science revolves around memories, travellers' tales, fables and chroniclers' stories, gossip and trans-telephonic conversations. Medicine itself as per the puritan's definition is a non-exact science because of the probability-predictability-sensitivity-specificity factors. Howsoever, the chronicles of Cardiology in India is quite interesting and intriguing. Heart and circulation was known to humankind from pre-Vedic era. Various therapeutics measures including the role of Yoga and transcendental meditation in curing cardiovascular diseases were known in India. Only recently there has been resurgence of the same globally. There have been very few innovations in Cardiology in India. The cause of this paucity possibly lie in the limited resources. This has a vicious effect on the research mentality of the population who are busy in meeting their daily requirements. This socio-scientific aspect needs a thorough study and is beyond the scope of the present documentation. Present is the future of past and so one must not forget the history which is essentially past that give the present generation the necessary fulcrum to stand in good stead. The present article essentially aims to pay tribute to all the workers and pioneers in the field of Cardiology in India, who in spite of limited resources ventured in an unchartered arena. PMID:26071301

  14. Cultural characteristics, morphology, and variation within Claviceps africana and C. sorghi from India.

    PubMed

    Muthusubramanian, Venkateshwaran; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Rajaram Reddy, Daram; Tooley, Paul W

    2006-04-01

    Sorghum ergot in India is caused by Claviceps africana and C. sorghi. The distributions of these two species in India is not known. Eighty-nine sorghum ergot isolates were cultured from young sphacelia obtained from male sterile sorghum plants artificially inoculated using inoculum collected in the field. Based on cultural characteristics, the isolates were separated into two groups which differed distinctly in the morphology of their sphacelia, conidia, and sclerotia. Marked differences also were observed in rates of secondary conidial production and disease spread between the groups. In combination with molecular evidence, our results confirm that the isolates placed in Group I represent C. africana and Group II isolates represent C. sorghi. C. africana was found to be widely distributed in all sorghum growing areas of India. The species first described as occuring in India, C. sorghi, appears to be restricted to a few locations in the states of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, and Karnataka. PMID:16556494

  15. Geospatial Approach on Landslide Hazard Zonation Mapping Using Multicriteria Decision Analysis: A Study on Coonoor and Ooty, Part of Kallar Watershed, The Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahamana, S. Abdul; Aruchamy, S.; Jegankumar, R.

    2014-12-01

    Landslides are one of the critical natural phenomena that frequently lead to serious problems in hilly area, resulting to loss of human life and property, as well as causing severe damage to natural resources. The local geology with high degree of slope coupled with high intensity of rainfall along with unplanned human activities of the study area causes many landslides in this region. The present study area is more attracted by tourist throughout the year, so this area must be considered for preventive measures. Geospatial based Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) technique is increasingly used for landslide vulnerability and hazard zonation mapping. It enables the integration of different data layers with different levels of uncertainty. In this present study, it is used analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method to prepare landslide hazard zones of the Coonoor and Ooty, part of Kallar watershed, The Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu. The study was carried out using remote sensing data, field surveys and geographic information system (GIS) tools. The ten factors that influence landslide occurrence, such as elevation, slope aspect, slope angle, drainage density, lineament density, soil, precipitation, land use/land cover (LULC), distance from road and NDVI were considered. These factors layers were extracted from the various related spatial data's. These factors were evaluated, and then, the individual factor weight and class weight were assigned to each of the related factors. The Landslide Hazard Zone Index (LHZI) was calculated using Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) the technique based on the assigned weight and the rating is given by the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. The final cumulative map of the study area was categorized into four hazard zones and classified as zone I to IV. There are 3.56% of the area comes under the hazard zone IV fallowed by 48.19% of the area comes under zone III, 43.63 % of the area in zone II and 4.61% of the area comes hazard zone I. Further resulted hazard zone map and landuse/landcover map are overlaid to check the hazard status, and existing inventory of known landslides within the present study area was compared with the resulting vulnerable and hazard zone maps. The landslide hazard zonation map is useful for landslide hazard prevention, mitigation, and improvement to society, and proper planning for land use and construction in the future.

  16. Administrative issues involved in disaster management in India.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jagdish

    2006-12-01

    India as a country is vulnerable to a number of disasters, from earthquakes to floods. Poor and weaker members of the society have always been more vulnerable to various types of disasters. Disasters result in unacceptably high morbidity and mortality amongst the affected population. Damage to infrastructure and reduction in revenues from the affected region due to low yield add to the economic losses. Poor co-ordination at the local level, lack of early-warning systems, often very slow responses, paucity of trained dedicated clinicians, lack of search and rescue facilities and poor community empowerment are some of the factors, which have been contributing to poor response following disasters in the past. The first formal step towards development of policies relating to disaster care in India was the formulation of the National Disaster Response Plan (NDRP) which was formulated initially by the Government of India for managing natural disasters only. However, this was subsequently amended to include man-made disasters as well. It sets the scene for formulating state and district level plans in all states to bring cohesiveness and a degree of uniform management in dealing with disasters. A National Disaster Management Authority has been constituted which aims to provide national guidelines and is headed by the Prime Minister of India. It is the highest decision-making body for the management of disasters in the country. The authority has the responsibility for co-ordinating response and post-disaster relief and rehabilitation. Each state is required to set up Disaster Management Authorities and District Disaster Management Committees for co-ordination and close supervision of activities and efforts related to the management of disasters. PMID:17162696

  17. Class Divided: Global Pressures, Domestic Pulls and a Fractured Education Policy in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tukdeo, Shivali

    2015-01-01

    Interdisciplinary scholarship in recent years has begun to pay attention to the state (re) formation in India under neoliberal conditions. The particularities of this transformation have arisen from the points of re-imagination of the relationship between the post-colonial state and global capital. Working through the contradictions and conflicts…

  18. The Sex Education Debates: Teaching "Life Style" in West Bengal, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakravarti, Paromita

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the recent controversies surrounding the decision to introduce sex education in secondary schools in India to combat the rapid spread of HIV and AIDS in the country. While 11 Indian states have banned it, the Left-ruled state of West Bengal has designed a teachers' manual to impart sex education. However, a close analysis of…

  19. Accessing groundwater quality in lower part of Nagapattinam district, Southern India: using hydrogeochemistry and GIS interpolation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnanachandrasamy, G.; Ramkumar, T.; Venkatramanan, S.; Vasudevan, S.; Chung, S. Y.; Bagyaraj, M.

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this present study was to evaluate groundwater quality in the lower part of Nagapattinam district, Tamil Nadu, Southern India. A detailed geochemical study of groundwater region is described, and the origin of the chemical composition of groundwater has been qualitatively evaluated, using observations over a period of two seasons premonsoon (June) and monsoon (November) in the year of 2010. To attempt this goal, samples were analysed for various physico-chemical parameters such as temperature, pH, salinity, Na+, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, Cl-, HCO3 - and SO4 2-. The abundance of major cations concentration in groundwater is as Na > Ca > Mg > K, while that of anions is Cl > SO4 > HCO3. The Piper trilinear diagram indicates Ca-Cl2 facies, and according to USSL diagram, most of the sample exhibits high salinity hazard (C3S1) type in both seasons. It indicates that high salinity (C3) and low sodium (S1) are moderately suitable for irrigation purposes. Gibbs boomerang exhibits most of the samples mainly controlled by evaporation and weathering process sector in both seasons. Irrigation status of the groundwater samples indicates that it was moderately suitable for agricultural purpose. ArcGIS 9.3 software was used for the generation of various thematic maps and the final groundwater quality map. An interpolation technique inverse distance weighting was used to obtain the spatial distribution of groundwater quality parameters. The final map classified the ground quality in the study area. The results of this research show that the development of the management strategies for the aquifer system is vitally necessary.

  20. 76 FR 17622 - U.S. Education Mission to India

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ...Administration U.S. Education Mission to India AGENCY: International Trade Administration...an education industry trade mission to India (New Delhi, Chennai, and Mumbai) from...institution partners and education consultants in India. The mission will include...

  1. Mid Holocene Evidence of High Energy Events in the Geological Record: Sedimentary Deposits from Cauvery Delta Coast, SE Coast of India.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthikeyan, A.; Seshachalam, S.; Jonathan, M. P.; Roy, P. D.

    2014-12-01

    The Cauvery Basin is one of the important sedimentary basins of southern India and provides information on geological processes since the Cretaceous. Most of the studies in the basin have been carried out on the sediments representing Cretaceous with less emphasis on the Quaternary period with marine high energy event. In the present study, we present the sedimentological and micro fauna assemblages in the 150 cm long trench from the Kameshwaram village, Nagapattinam District, South East Coast of India, in order to reconstruct the past event. OSL and Carbon dating of sand layer sediments from the Cauvery Basin provide the first proxy-record of marine event from the region over the Mid Holocene. A multi proxy approach using trench sediments from Cauvery Delta Coast, East coast of Tamil Nadu provides a high resolution record of high energy event. The dating of the event layer indicates 6 and 8 kyrs also below the layer shell layer was preserved, the radio carbon date of the shell layer was 6545 BC. A combination of sedimentological parameters of grain size, sorting, geochemical analysis (XRF) of Fe, Mn, Ti, Cr, Cu, Ni, Sr, Zr and foraminifera species like Ammonia beccarri, Ammonia dentate and Asterorotalia trispinosa were identified. The sediment layers have thinning-up sequences and it starts from 130 cm to the bottom of the layer 150 cm which included shell debris, and rip-up clasts. In addition, characteristic variations in elemental content at the bottom units of Zr, Ti, Ca is showing higher concentration, which is an indicator of high-energy depositional event often associated with an increase in Ti (2.08 % to 16.016 %) and Sr (116 ppm to 275 ppm). Ca on the other hand suggests a marine influence and Fe, Mn, Cr, Ni values are showing lower concentration indicating that the high marine energy event had inundated the Nagapattinam district in SE coast of India. Based on the multiproxy evidences, we conclude that this could be a major marine event during the Mid Holocene period in this region, which is being studied in detail in other parts of the coastal region in SE coast of India.

  2. Banning smokeless tobacco in India: policy analysis.

    PubMed

    Arora, M; Madhu, R

    2012-01-01

    India is the second largest producer and third largest consumer of tobacco. According to GATS India Report (2009-10), the users of only smokeless tobacco (SLT) are more than double than that of smokers. SLT use is an imminent public health problem, which is contributing to high disease burden in India. It is a "unique" tobacco product due to its availability in myriad varieties, easy access, and affordability especially for adolescents. It has been studied to be a gateway product and facilitates initiation. Currently, the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) have prohibited the use of tobacco and nicotine in any food products; yet, the implementation of a permanent ban on SLT across India is still pending. This paper examines how multiple legislations have failed to effectively control or regulate SLT in India and regionally; thus, there is need to strengthen SLT control efforts as "no ordinary product." PMID:23442395

  3. Molecular biology research in neuropsychiatry: India’s contribution

    PubMed Central

    Sathyanarayana Rao, T. S.; Ramesh, B. N.; Vasudevaraju, P.; Rao, K. S. J.

    2010-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorders represent the second largest cause of morbidity worldwide. These disorders have complex etiology and patho-physiology. The major lacunae in the biology of the psychiatric disorders include genomics, biomarkers and drug discovery, for the early detection of the disease, and have great application in the clinical management of disease. Indian psychiatrists and scientists played a significant role in filling the gaps. The present annotation provides in depth information related to research contributions on the molecular biology research in neuropsychiatric disorders in India. There is a great need for further research in this direction as to understand the genetic association of the neuropsychiatric disorders; molecular biology has a tremendous role to play. The alterations in gene expression are implicated in the pathogenesis of several neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug addiction and depression. The development of transgenic neuropsychiatric animal models is of great thrust areas. No studies from India in this direction. Biomarkers in neuropsychiatric disorders are of great help to the clinicians for the early diagnosis of the disorders. The studies related to gene-environment interactions, DNA instability, oxidative stress are less studied in neuropsychiatric disorders and making efforts in this direction will lead to pioneers in these areas of research in India. In conclusion, we provided an insight for future research direction in molecular understanding of neuropsychiatry disorders. PMID:21836667

  4. ANALYSIS OF CLAVICEPS AFRICANA AND C. SORGHI FROM INDIA USING AFLPS, EF-1ALPHA GENE INTRON 4, AND BETA-TUBULIN GENE INTRON 3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isolates of Claviceps causing ergot on sorghum in India were analyzed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, and by analysis of DNA sequences of the EF-1 alpha gene intron 4 and the beta-tubulin gene intron 3 region. Of ninety isolates assayed from six states in India, five iso...

  5. Increasing Choice or Inequality? Pathways through Early Education in Andhra Pradesh, India. Working Papers in Early Childhood Development, No. 58. Studies in Early Childhood Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streuli, Natalia; Vennam, Uma; Woodhead, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This working paper is part of the Studies in Early Transitions series emerging from "Young Lives", a 15-year longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam. It explores recent trends for children growing up in Andhra Pradesh, one of India's most populous states, based on Young Lives survey data collected for a sample…

  6. Contract Teachers in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goyal, Sangeeta; Pandey, Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we use non-experimental data from government schools in Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, two of the largest Indian states, to present average school outcomes by contract status of teachers. We find that contract teachers are associated with higher effort than civil service teachers with permanent tenures, before as well as after…

  7. India Models New Institute on NCI

    Cancer.gov

    Health officials in India recently announced that the country of 1.25 billion is establishing a national cancer institute, which will be modeled after the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI). A delegation of leading health officials from the Government of India visited the U.S. in March to discuss plans for the new establishment in India and to learn more about NCI’s intramural research and clinical care operations.

  8. Power steering: The politics of utility privatization in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kale, Sunila Sharatkumar

    In this dissertation I offer an explanation for why Indian states are undertaking economic liberalization at different rates, focusing on reforms to the electricity sector. In the period between 1991 and 2003, India's states restructured their electricity systems to vastly different degrees. The dissertation evaluates three variables that feature prominently in the literature on economic policy change: ideological predilections of governing elites, external pressures like those coming from international financial institutions, and state-society interactions. I argue that it is the last explanation, focusing on the degree to which the potential "losers" from reform dominate state politics---that most compellingly accounts for the unevenness in state-level reforms. In my work, I lay greater analytic weight on the role of rural actors than much of the existing literature on the political economy of market reforms. The primary independent variable that explains this variation in reform outcomes is the organization and political strength of societal actors in each state, particularly rural and industrial constituencies, and middle class interests. In some parts of India, the advent of Green Revolution technologies in the late 1960s meant that farmers---chiefly larger landowners---became the primary beneficiaries of extensive development subsidies, including those for electricity. During India's period of economic liberalization in the 1990s, these beneficiaries constituted the main opponents of privatization, which today threatens to change the rules of the game by allocating resources according to market logics. Given these dynamics, where farm sectors are large or well-organized, reform has not proceeded. In the absence of rural political clout, state elites elected to privatize in order to satisfy industrial and urban constituents and signal the state's openness to private capital inflows. By comparing outcomes across states within the single country of India, the research design can control for some variables that are proposed as determinative of government policy, like electoral institutions and macroeconomic shock. I have selected cases to both capture variation of the dependent variable and control for other plausible explanations, such as ideology, financial crisis, and external pressure.

  9. Current Status of Herbal Drugs in India: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, Ashok D.B.; Devasagayam, Thomas P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Herbal drugs constitute a major share of all the officially recognised systems of health in India viz. Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy and Naturopathy, except Allopathy. More than 70% of India’s 1.1 billion population still use these non-allopathic systems of medicine. Currently, there is no separate category of herbal drugs or dietary supplements, as per the Indian Drugs Act. However, there is a vast experiential-evidence base for many of the natural drugs. This offers immense opportunities for Observational Therapeutics and Reverse Pharmacology. Evidence-based herbals are widely used in the diverse systems and manufactured, as per the pharmacopoeial guidelines, by a well-organised industry. Significant basic and clinical research has been carried out on the medicinal plants and their formulations, with the state-of-the-art methods in a number of Institutes/Universities. There are some good examples. Indian medicinal plants also provide a rich source for antioxidants that are known to prevent/delay different diseased states. The antioxidant protection is observed at different levels. The medicinal plants also contain other beneficial compounds like ingredients for functional foods. Hence, the global knowledge about Ayurveda and Indian herbals will hopefully be enhanced by information on the evidence-base of these plants. This will yield rich dividends in the coming years. PMID:18392106

  10. Primary cutaneous zygomycosis in India.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Robin

    2012-12-01

    Cutaneous zygomycosis remains underdiagnosed despite being frequently encountered. Delay in the diagnosis contributes to delay in treatment, and a resultant high morbidity and mortality. A retrospective analysis of the reported cases of cutaneous zygomycosis from India was made using various search engines and cross-referencing from available manuscripts. A total of 42 publications from India on the topic were identified, since the first reported case of primary cutaneous zygomycosis by Veliath et al. (1976). There are 130 described cases of cutaneous zygomycosis with an overall mortality of 35 %. The commonest zygomycete identified was Apophysomyces elegans, and the commonest predisposing factor was breach of the skin. Surprisingly, diabetes was reported only in 36 cases (27.69 %). It is important to be aware of this unusual but fatal infection in order to manage it properly and have a good outcome. PMID:24293901

  11. Precipitation Across India's Ghats Mountains (IMERG) - Duration: 13 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Animation of precipitation rates across India and surrounding countries. Notice the heavy rains throughout the Ghats Mountain range which resulted in devastating landslides along India's west coast...

  12. 77 FR 26600 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Countervailing Measures on Certain Hot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... on Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From India AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...'') concerning countervailing measures regarding certain hot-rolled carbon steel flat products from India. That... April 24, 2012, India requested consultations concerning countervailing measures regarding certain...

  13. Tropical endomyocardial fibrosis in India: A vanishing disease!

    PubMed Central

    Vijayaraghavan, G.; Sivasankaran, S.

    2012-01-01

    Tropical endomyocardial fibrosis in India was a common medical problem in the coastal districts of south India, especially the Kerala State. The clinical and autopsy studies have shown left and right ventricular apical fibrosis, with varying degree of atrioventricular valve regurgitation. Left ventricular endomyocardial fibrosis presents with severe pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular endomyocardial fibrosis presents very high systemic venous pressure and congestive cardiac failure. Surgical management improved the natural history of the disease to some extent. Various infectious and toxic factors were postulated regarding its aetiology. During the last few years, incidence of the disease has decreased considerably. The only explanation identified is the significant improvement in the living standards of the people with the corresponding decline in the childhood malnutrition, infections, worm infestation and associated eosinophilia. PMID:23287119

  14. Menstruation related myths in India: strategies for combating it

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Suneela; Anand, Tanu

    2015-01-01

    Menstruation is a phenomenon unique to girls. However, it has always been surrounded by taboos and myths that exclude women from many aspects of socio-cultural life. In India, the topic has been a taboo until date. Such taboos about menstruation present in many societies impact on girls’ and women's emotional state, mentality and lifestyle and most importantly, health. The challenge, of addressing the socio-cultural taboos and beliefs in menstruation, is further compounded by the low girls’ knowledge levels and understandings of puberty, menstruation, and reproductive health. Thus, there is the need to follow a strategic approach in combating these issues. The current paper aims to discuss menstruation related myths prevalent in India, their impact on women's life, relevance of addressing these issues in primary care and a brief description about various strategies to combat them. PMID:25949964

  15. Menstruation related myths in India: strategies for combating it.

    PubMed

    Garg, Suneela; Anand, Tanu

    2015-01-01

    Menstruation is a phenomenon unique to girls. However, it has always been surrounded by taboos and myths that exclude women from many aspects of socio-cultural life. In India, the topic has been a taboo until date. Such taboos about menstruation present in many societies impact on girls' and women's emotional state, mentality and lifestyle and most importantly, health. The challenge, of addressing the socio-cultural taboos and beliefs in menstruation, is further compounded by the low girls' knowledge levels and understandings of puberty, menstruation, and reproductive health. Thus, there is the need to follow a strategic approach in combating these issues. The current paper aims to discuss menstruation related myths prevalent in India, their impact on women's life, relevance of addressing these issues in primary care and a brief description about various strategies to combat them. PMID:25949964

  16. Psychiatric thoughts in ancient India.

    PubMed

    Abhyankar, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    A review of the literature regarding psychiatric thoughts in ancient India is attempted. Besides interesting reading, many of the concepts are still relevant and can be used in day-to-day practice especially towards healthy and happy living. Certain concepts are surprisingly contemporary and valid today. They can be used in psychotherapy and counselling and for promoting mental health. However, the description and classification of mental illness is not in tune with modern psychiatry. PMID:25838724

  17. Psychiatric Thoughts in Ancient India*

    PubMed Central

    Abhyankar, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    A review of the literature regarding psychiatric thoughts in ancient India is attempted. Besides interesting reading, many of the concepts are still relevant and can be used in day-to-day practice especially towards healthy and happy living. Certain concepts are surprisingly contemporary and valid today. They can be used in psychotherapy and counselling and for promoting mental health. However, the description and classification of mental illness is not in tune with modern psychiatry. PMID:25838724

  18. Rapid DOTS expansion in India.

    PubMed Central

    Khatri, G. R.; Frieden, Thomas R.

    2002-01-01

    Since late 1998 the coverage of the DOTS strategy in India has been expanded rapidly. In both 2000 and 2001 the country probably accounted for more than half the global increase in the number of patients treated under DOTS and by early 2002 more than a million patients were being treated in this way in India. As a result, nearly 200 000 lives were saved. The lessons learnt relate to the importance of the following elements of the programme: (1) getting the science right and ensuring technical excellence; (2) building commitment and ensuring the provision of funds and flexibility in their utilization; (3) maintaining focus and priorities; (4) systematically appraising each area before starting service delivery; (5) ensuring an uninterrupted drug supply; (6) strengthening the established infrastructure and providing support for staff; (7) supporting the infrastructure required in urban areas; (8) ensuring full-time independent technical support and supervision, particularly during the initial phases of implementation; (9) monitoring intensively and giving timely feedback; and (10) continuous supervision. Tuberculosis (TB) control still faces major challenges in India. To reach its potential, the control programme needs to: continue to expand so as to cover the remaining half of the country, much of which has a weaker health infrastructure than the areas already covered; increase its reach in the areas already covered so that a greater proportion of patients is treated; ensure sustainability; improve the patient-friendliness of services; confront TB associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It is expected that HIV will increase the number of TB cases by at least 10% and by a considerably higher percentage if HIV becomes much more widespread. India's experience shows that DOTS can achieve high case-detection and cure rates even with imperfect technology and often with an inadequate public health infrastructure. However, this can only happen if the delivery programme is appropriately designed and effectively managed. PMID:12132002

  19. Asbestos ban in India: challenges ahead.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Tushar Kant; Bhuva, Uttpal B; Katoch, Priyanka

    2006-09-01

    Rapidly industrializing India is described by the International Monetary Fund as a young, disciplined, and vibrant economy with a projected growth of 6.7% for 2005. The total workforce of 397 million has only 7% of workers employed in the organized sector with construction, where asbestos exposure is prevalent, employing 4.4%. The domestic production of asbestos declined from 20,111 tons in 1998-1999 to 14,340 tons in 2002-2003. The imports from Russia and Canada increased from 61,474 tons in 1997-1998 to 97,884 tons in 2001-2002. The production of asbestos cement products went up from 0.68 million tons in 1993-1994 to 1.38 million tons in 2002-2003. The asbestos industry has been delicensed since March 2003. The number of asbestos-based units stood at 32, with the western state of Maharashtra having the largest number. According to official figures, the industry employs 8000 workers. The occupational exposure standard is still 2 fibers/mL, worse still, mesothelioma is not recognized as an occupational disease. The latest cancer registry data have no information on mesothelioma. The health and safety legislation does not cover 93% of workers in the unorganized sector where asbestos exposures are extremely high. Workers remain uninformed and untrained in dealing with asbestos exposure. Enforcement agencies are not fully conscious of the risks of asbestos exposure. Industrial hygiene assessment is seldom carried out and pathologists do not receive training in identifying mesothelioma histopathologically. The lack of political will and powerful influence of the asbestos industry are pushing India toward a disaster of unimaginable proportion. PMID:17119210

  20. Associations Between the Macroeconomic Indicators and Suicide Rates in India: Two Ecological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, Anto P.; Senthilkumar, P.; Gayathri, K.; Shyamsundar, G.; Jacob, K. S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: While western studies have focused on the importance of psychiatric illnesses in the complex pathways leading to suicides, several Indian studies have highlighted the important contributions by economic, social, and cultural factors. Hence, we tested the hypothesis that annual national suicide rates and suicide rates of the different states in India were associated with macroeconomic indices. Materials and Methods: Data from the National crime records bureau, Ministry of finance, labour bureau, Government of India, population commission, and planning commission official portals, World Bank and the United Nations were accessed. We assessed the correlations of annual national and state-wise suicide rates with macroeconomic, health, and other indices using ecological study design for India, and for its different states and union territories. Results: We documented statistically significant associations between the suicide rates and per capita gross domestic product, consumer price index, foreign exchange, trade balance, total health expenditure as well as literacy rates. Conclusions: As recent economic growth in India is associated with increasing suicide rates, macroeconomic policies emphasizing equitable distribution of resources may help curtailing the population suicide rates in India.

  1. Selenium status in soils of northern districts of India.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sanjiv K; Singh, Ishwar; Singh, Devender; Han, Sang-Do

    2005-04-01

    The HG-AAS technique was used to estimate the soil selenium status of the agricultural lands of northern parts of India. The drier lands where lesser rains were received or where less irrigation water was available in Rajasthan and southern parts of the Haryana states had above normal soil selenium levels. These soils were also found to be alkaline. Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and northern parts of the Haryana states had normal levels of selenium in their soils, except with slightly lower selenium levels in a few areas that were affected by floods along the river Yamuna. The results were also confirmed using the ICP-OES technique. PMID:15763155

  2. Selenium status in food grains of northern districts of India.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sanjiv K; Singh, Ishwar; Sharma, Anita; Singh, Devender

    2008-09-01

    The selenium status in the food grains of the agricultural lands of northern parts of India was estimated by using the HG-AAS technique. The areas where lesser rains were received or less irrigation water was available in northern Indian states viz. Rajasthan and southern parts of the Haryana had higher selenium levels in food grains. Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and northern parts of the Haryana states had normal levels of selenium in their food grains, except for slightly lower selenium levels in a few areas that were affected by floods along the river Yamuna. PMID:17574725

  3. Maternal Mortality in India: Causes and Healthcare Service Use Based on a Nationally Representative Survey

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Ann L.; Ram, Usha; Kumar, Rajesh; Jha, Prabhat

    2014-01-01

    Background Data on cause-specific mortality, skilled birth attendance, and emergency obstetric care access are essential to plan maternity services. We present the distribution of India's 2001–2003 maternal mortality by cause and uptake of emergency obstetric care, in poorer and richer states. Methods and Findings The Registrar General of India surveyed all deaths occurring in 2001–2003 in 1.1 million nationally representative homes. Field staff interviewed household members about events that preceded the death. Two physicians independently assigned a cause of death. Narratives for all maternal deaths were coded for variables on healthcare uptake. Distribution of number of maternal deaths, cause-specific mortality and uptake of healthcare indicators were compared for poorer and richer states. There were 10 041 all-cause deaths in women age 15–49 years, of which 1096 (11.1%) were maternal deaths. Based on 2004–2006 SRS national MMR estimates of 254 deaths per 100 000 live births, we estimated rural areas of poorer states had the highest MMR (397, 95%CI 385–410) compared to the lowest MMR in urban areas of richer states (115, 95%CI 85–146). We estimated 69 400 maternal deaths in India in 2005. Three-quarters of maternal deaths were clustered in rural areas of poorer states, although these regions have only half the estimated live births in India. Most maternal deaths were attributed to direct obstetric causes (82%). There was no difference in the major causes of maternal deaths between poorer and richer states. Two-thirds of women died seeking some form of healthcare, most seeking care in a critical medical condition. Rural areas of poorer states had proportionately lower access and utilization to healthcare services than the urban areas; however this rural-urban difference was not seen in richer states. Conclusions Maternal mortality and poor access to healthcare is disproportionately higher in rural populations of the poorer states of India. PMID:24454701

  4. India's "nowhere" girls. Voices of girls 1: India.

    PubMed

    Joshi, S

    1998-01-01

    In India, a 12-year-old girl rises before dawn to complete household chores before heading off to work in the fields herding animals or plucking weeds. When this work is unavailable, she migrates to quarries or brick kilns with her landless parents. This scenario is not unusual, as millions of Indian girls are denied schooling so they can contribute to their family's income. Child agricultural laborers are invisible in official statistics, and girls have a harder life than their brothers who have no household duties and are given more to eat. A large number of girls work in factories or homes producing matches, incense, cigarettes, locks, or brassware or polishing gems. There are no statistics describing how many girls are domestic servants in Bombay or rag-pickers, fish-cleaners, or beggars, but an estimated 500,000 girls under age 15 work as prostitutes. Child labor is defined as work that is detrimental to a child's growth and development, and there are 20-100 million child laborers in India. In Bombay, most girl laborers live and work in conditions that threaten their health, and they experience malnutrition and its attendant diseases as well as occupational hazards. Girls also suffer from the son preference that reduces the amount of time girls are breast fed, the amount of health care they receive, their access to education, and their marriage age. Legislation against child labor has proved ineffectual and will continue to be useless until poverty is reduced in India, educational statutes are enforced, and other policy issues are addressed. PMID:12321765

  5. IMPACT OF LEATHER PROCESSING INDUSTRIES ON CHROMIUM CONCENTRATION IN GROUNDWATER SOUTH OF CHENNAI CITY, INDIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elango, L.; Brindha, K.; G. Rajesh, V.

    2009-12-01

    The groundwater quality is under threat due to disposal of effluents from a number of industries. Poor practice of treatment of wastes from tanning industries or leather processing industries lead to pollution of groundwater. This study was carried out with the objective of assessing the impact of tanneries on groundwater quality in Chromepet area which is a part of the metropolitan area of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. This area serves as the home town for a number of small and large scale tanning industries. People in certain parts of this area depend on the groundwater for their domestic needs as there is no piped drinking water supply system. Topographically this region is generally flat with gentle slope towards east and north east. The charnockite rocks occur as basement at the depth of about 15m from the surface of this area. Weathered charnockite rock occurs at the depth from 7m to 15m from the ground surface. The upper layer consists of loamy soil. Groundwater occurs in the unconfined condition at a depth from 0.5m to 5m. Thirty six groundwater samples were collected during March 2008 and the groundwater samples were analysed for their heavy metal (chromium) content using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) recommended the maximum permissible limit of chromium in drinking water as 0.05 mg/l. Considering this, it was found that 86% of the groundwater samples possessed concentration of chromium above the maximum permissible limit recommended by BIS. The tanneries use chrome sulphate to strengthen the leather and make it water repellent. The excess of chromium gets washed off and remains in the wastewater. This wastewater is disposed into open uncovered drains either untreated or after partial treatment. Thus the chromium leaches through the soil and reaches the groundwater table. Apart from this, there is also huge quantity of solid waste resulting from the hides and skins which are dumped off without suitable treatment. The percolation of the leachate rich in chromium will also add to chromium concentration in groundwater. The effluents from the tanning processes are sent to the common effluent treatment plant (CETP) by large scale industries. But small scale industries are not able to use such CETP for treating the wastewater generated by them. It is prominent from this study that the effluent from the tanning industries should be treated properly before disposing off into drains in order to prevent the pollution of groundwater. Reverse osmosis treatment of tanning effluent can be adopted for separation and recovery of chromium from the wastewater. For improving the already contaminated groundwater of this region, insitu bioremediation by the use of microorganisms isolated from the contaminated site will prove effective.

  6. Case studies on heat stress related perceptions in different industrial sectors in southern India

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Ramalingam, Ayyappan; Dasu, Venkatesan; Stephen, Jeremiah Chinnadurai; Sivaperumal, Mohan Raj; Kumarasamy, Deepan; Mukhopadhyay, Krishnendu; Ghosh, Santu; Sambandam, Sankar

    2010-01-01

    Linkages between thermal loads and its physiological consequences have been widely studied in non-tropical developed country settings. In many developing countries like India, despite the widespread recognition of the problem, limited attempts have been made to estimate health impacts related to occupational heat stress and fewer yet to link heat stress with potential productivity losses. This is reflected in the ubiquity of workplaces with limited or no controls to reduce exposures. As a prelude to understanding the feasibility of alternative interventions in different industrial sectors, we present case studies from 10 different industrial units in Tamil Nadu, Chennai, which describe perceptions of occupational heat stress among the workers and supervisors/management. Units were selected from among those who had previously requested an assessment of workplace heat stress exposure at select locations as part of routine industrial hygiene services provided by the investigators. Since the earlier measurements were performed in response to a management request, all units were revisited to generate a simple job and process profile using checklists in order to understand the overall heat exposure situation in the concerned unit. This was followed by a simple questionnaire administration to a small subsample of employees to evaluate the perceptions of workers and supervisors/management. Finally, we retrieved available quantitative data from previous measurements of heat stress at these units to correlate prevalence of exposures with respective perceptions. Results indicate that the existing level of controls may not be sufficient for managing work-related heat stress in any of the sectors studied, with wide variations in perceived risks. There was a noticeable disconnect between worker's perceptions and their ability to secure workplace improvements related to heat stress from the management. Wider availability of engineering and administrative controls in the industries may be facilitated by monitoring worker discomfort, disability, and performance in more intensive ways so that the top management is able to justify the associated cost benefits. Given the potential implications of future climate change related increases in ambient heat stress that are likely to translate into workplace exposures in developing country settings, concerted efforts are needed to integrate exposure assessments with assessments of productivity as well as health impacts. This will likely build the momentum for much needed interventions for large worker populations in the developing world. PMID:21139999

  7. Powering the people: India's capacity expansion plans

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, S.

    2009-05-15

    India has become a global business power even though hundreds of millions of its citizens still live in poverty. To sustain economic growth and lift its people out of poverty, India needs more and more reliable power. Details of government plans for achieving those goals demonstrate that pragmatism may be in shorter supply than ambition and political will. 1 ref., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  8. RCUK India timeline Since 2008 RCUK India has facilitated over 80 million of UK-India research funding, with 7 different research funders in India.

    E-print Network

    Crowther, Paul

    , sustainable agriculture and bio pharmaceuticals. UK-India Impact Symposium Meeting of academia, industry to bring online education, healthcare and early warning weather/natural disaster systems to remote areas. Advanced Manufacturing and Impact Bringing together UK-India academic and private sector partners

  9. FEATURE ARTICLE 2 Midwifery in colonial India

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Chinese medicine Gender, hygiene and health FAREWELL TO BILL BYNUM 8 RESEARCH RESOURCES 15 Remedy booksFEATURE ARTICLE 2 Midwifery in colonial India WORK IN PROGRESS 4 Religion, medicine and gender of traditional birth attendants in colonial India. In 1902, the first Midwives Act was passed in England

  10. India's Higher Education Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    India, with the world's second largest higher education system and a rapidly growing economy as one of the BRIC nations, faces significant challenges in building both capacity and excellence in higher education. India's higher education system is characterized by "islands of excellence in a sea of mediocrity." The mainstream…

  11. PVWatts (R) Calculator India (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-01-01

    The PVWatts (R) Calculator for India was released by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in 2013. The online tool estimates electricity production and the monetary value of that production of grid-connected roof- or ground-mounted crystalline silicon photovoltaics systems based on a few simple inputs. This factsheet provides a broad overview of the PVWatts (R) Calculator for India.

  12. Introduction to Modern India History 310

    E-print Network

    Fletcher, Robin

    to British History (Online) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Online) New Cambridge History of India DS436 .N47 (Online via Cambridge Histories Online) Find Primary Sources For information about primary1 Introduction to Modern India History 310 Consider Resources Primary Resources: diaries, letters

  13. Jacob Mathew v. State of Punjab, the judgment stipulates the guidelines to be followed before launching a prosecution against a doctor for negligence

    PubMed Central

    Subrahmanyam, Bhattaram Visweswara

    2013-01-01

    In a landmark judgment, the supreme court of India laid down guidelines in cases of alleged negligence against medical practitioners in India. It clearly stated that there is a need for protecting doctors from frivolous or unjust prosecution. PMID:23546375

  14. Rheumatology in India--quo vadis?

    PubMed

    Handa, Rohini

    2015-03-01

    Rheumatology has been a neglected subspecialty in India. A staggering patient load, a severely inadequate number of trained rheumatology specialists, therapeutic nihilism and limited advocacy are some of the critical challenges that confront rheumatology care, and possibly explain the high rates of reliance on complementary and alternative medicines in India. Disease spectrum and treatment patterns are not remarkably different from those in other countries, but biologic agents have limited use and are administered for short periods only. Consequently, outcomes in India do not yet match those reported in developed countries. Furthermore, the high prevalence of infectious diseases continues to be a major contributor to mortality in patients with rheumatic disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus. Several tropical diseases with rheumatic manifestations are relevant in India, including chikungunya, brucellosis, leptospirosis, dengue and melioidosis. To address the many problems with rheumatology care in India, curricular reforms, capacity building, patient education and political support are sorely needed. PMID:25366186

  15. Present and Future Energy Scenario in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Bhattacharyya, B.; Gupta, V. K.

    2014-09-01

    India's energy sector is one of the most critical components of an infrastructure that affects India's economic growth and therefore is also one of the largest industries in India. India has the 5th largest electricity generating capacity and is the 6th largest energy consumer amounting for around 3.4 % of global energy consumption. India's energy demand has grown at 3.6 % pa over the past 30 years. The consumption of the energy is directly proportional to the progress of manpower with ever growing population, improvement in the living standard of the humanity and industrialization of the developing countries. Very recently smart grid technology can attribute important role in energy scenario. Smart grid refers to electric power system that enhances grid reliability and efficiency by automatically responding to system disturbances. This paper discusses the new communication infrastructure and scheme designed to integrate data.

  16. Priority strategies for India's family planning programme.

    PubMed

    Pachauri, Saroj

    2014-11-01

    Strategies to accelerate progress of India's family planning programme are discussed and the importance of improving the quality and reach of services to address unmet contraceptive need by providing method choice is emphasized. Although there is a growing demand for both limiting and spacing births, female sterilisation, is the dominant method in the national programme and use of spacing methods remains very limited. Fertility decline has been slower in the empowered action group (EAG) states which contribute about 40 per cent of population growth to the country and also depict gloomy statistics for other socio-development indicators. It is, therefore, important to intensify efforts to reduce both fertility and mortality in these states. arationale has been provided for implementing integrated programmes using a gender lens because the lack of women's autonomy in reproductive decision-making, compounded by poor male involvement in sexual and reproductive health matters, is a fundamental issue yet to be addressed. The need for collaboration between scientists developing contraceptive technologies and those implementing family planning services is underscored. If contraceptive technologies are developed with an understanding of the contexts in which they will be delivered and an appreciation of end-users' needs and perspectives, they are more likely to be accepted by service providers and used by clients. PMID:25673535

  17. SWOT Analysis of Dental Health Workforce in India: A Dental alarm

    PubMed Central

    B H, Naveen; Kumar, Santhosh; H, Sreenivasa

    2014-01-01

    Context: India faces an acute shortage of health personnel. Together with inequalities in distribution of health workers, dental health workers also become a part contributing to it impeding the progress towards achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. Aim: To assess dental health-workforce distribution, identify inequalities in dental health-workers provision and report the impact of this mal distribution in India. Materials and Methods: Situational analysis done by using the primary data from the records of Dental Council of India. Results: In India, 0.088% of dental health worker per 1000 population exists. Inequalities in the distribution of dentists exist in India. Certain states are experiencing an acute shortage of dental health personnel whereas certain cities are over fledged with dentists like Karnataka, Maharastra, Tamilnadu being states with high concentration & Jharkhand, Rajasthan, Uttaranchal being the least. Conclusion: Although the production of health workers has expanded greatly in recent years by increase in number of dental colleges the problems of imbalances in their distribution persist. In the race of increasing dentist population ratio in total, inequitable distribution of appropriately trained, motivated and supported dentists gives a mere feel of saturation in jobs making youngsters to not to choose dentistry as a career giving an alarm. PMID:25584341

  18. Medical device vigilance systems: India, US, UK, and Australia

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Pooja; Janodia, Manthan D; Jagadish, Puralea C; Udupa, Nayanabhirama

    2010-01-01

    The term medical device includes a wide category of products ranging from therapeutic medical devices exerting their effects locally such as tissue cutting, wound covering or propping open clogged arteries, to highly sophisticated computerized medical equipment and diagnostic medical devices. To achieve uniformity among the national medical device regulatory systems and increase the access to safe, effective, and clinically beneficial medical technologies, the Global Harmonization Task Force (GHTF) was conceived in 1992 by five members: European Union, United States, Australia, Japan, and Canada. All regulated countries have clearly defined medical devices, as has the GHTF. Although GHTF has tried to achieve harmonization with respect to medical devices, some differences still exist in the national laws of the countries of GHTF. Further, regulated countries have classified medical devices on the basis of their associated risk. In the Indian regulatory system, medical devices are still considered as drugs. In 2006, the Medical Device Regulation Bill was recommended to consolidate laws for medical devices and to establish the Medical Device Regulatory Authority of India. In addition, medical devices are not classified by any Indian regulatory authority. Although India has moved towards harmonizing its medical device regulations with those of regulated countries, this study aims to identify whether India should have a vigilance system in harmony with those of GHTF or develop its own system for medical devices. PMID:22915923

  19. World Bank will lend more money to India for AIDS.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, K S

    1998-07-01

    This article discusses the World Bank's plans to lend India money that will be used in part to fund HIV/AIDS prevention and control. The loan amounts to about US$200 million, of which 25% would be directed to research and development for HIV/AIDS. The loan is a 5-year extension of support that ended March 1999. The loan will cover the cost of blood safety programs, hospital and community care plans, and medical drugs for treating opportunistic infections. According to the Department of Biotechnology and the Indian Council of Medical Research, research and development money will be split between indigenous AIDS vaccine programs and assessment of local production of HIV diagnostic kits and development of vaginal microbicides. The government will support clinical trials of more than herbal medicines for treating tuberculosis. Funding will also support evaluation research on cost of patient care and the HIV/AIDS impact on the work force. A major focus will be on the high risk population of women and children. The World Bank requires that 50% of the loans go to nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). However, the National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) of India lost government financial funding and will not be able to fund NGO efforts directly. NACO must channel funding through state governments. There is fear that the AIDS control program will suffer due to the restructuring of operations and shortages of manpower. The AIDS program funding could be halted by the Bank due to India's nuclear testing. PMID:9662349

  20. Trends for nanotechnology development in China, Russia, and India

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pengzhu; Li, Xin; Chen, Hsinchun; Dang, Yan; Larson, Catherine; Roco, Mihail C.; Wang, Xianwen

    2009-01-01

    China, Russia, and India are playing an increasingly important role in global nanotechnology research and development (R&D). This paper comparatively inspects the paper and patent publications by these three countries in the Thomson Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI) database and United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) database (1976–2007). Bibliographic, content map, and citation network analyses are used to evaluate country productivity, dominant research topics, and knowledge diffusion patterns. Significant and consistent growth in nanotechnology papers are noted in the three countries. Between 2000 and 2007, the average annual growth rate was 31.43% in China, 11.88% in Russia, and 33.51% in India. During the same time, the growth patterns were less consistent in patent publications: the corresponding average rates are 31.13, 10.41, and 5.96%. The three countries’ paper impact measured by the average number of citations has been lower than the world average. However, from 2000 to 2007, it experienced rapid increases of about 12.8 times in China, 8 times in India, and 1.6 times in Russia. The Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), and the Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT) were the most productive institutions in paper publication, with 12,334, 6,773, and 1,831 papers, respectively. The three countries emphasized some common research topics such as “Quantum dots,” “Carbon nanotubes,” “Atomic force microscopy,” and “Scanning electron microscopy,” while Russia and India reported more research on nano-devices as compared with China. CAS, RAS, and IIT played key roles in the respective domestic knowledge diffusion. PMID:21170128