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1

Characterization and genotoxicity evaluation of particulate matter collected from industrial atmosphere in Tamil Nadu state, India.  

PubMed

Ambient particulate matter (PM) collected in the vicinity of five industries (Cement, Chemical, Thermal power plant, Sponge-iron and Steel) in Tamil Nadu state, India was characterized for size distribution, metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content. Genotoxicity of PM and organic matter (OM) extracted from PM was measured in human lung cancer cell-line, A549 and in human liver carcinoma cell-line, HepG2, respectively, using the comet assay. PM values varied from 57.0 ?g/m(3) of air at Cement industry upstream to 561.0 ?g/m(3) of air at Sponge iron industry downstream samples. Their metal content varied from 5.758 ?g/m(3) of air at Chemical industry to 46.144 ?g/m(3) of air at Sponge iron industry and PAH concentration varied from 0.5 ng/m(3) air in upstream Thermal power plant to 3302.4 ng/m(3) air in downstream Sponge iron industry samples. While all PM samples induced DNA strand breaks at higher dose levels, downstream samples of Steel and Sponge iron industries which contained relatively higher concentrations of PAHs and metals and exhibited higher levels of pro-oxidant activity as measured by DTT activity induced significantly higher levels of DNA damage in HepG2 and A549 cells. Pretreatment of A549 cells with vitamin C or quercetin significantly reduced PM induced DNA strand breaks. PMID:24797908

Senthilkumar, S; Manju, A; Muthuselvam, P; Shalini, D; Indhumathi, V; Kalaiselvi, K; Palanivel, M; Chandrasekar, P P; Rajaguru, P

2014-06-15

2

Examination of Recovery from Salinization of Agricultural Area in Tamil Nadu State, INDIA due to the December 2004 Tsunami  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined salinization and desalinization in an agricultural area of Nagapatttinam district, Tamil Nadu state, India due to the December 2004 tsunami. To examine the damage and recovery of agricultural environment from the tsunami, we observed and collected soil, groundwater and vegetation data. Soil electrical conductivity steeply increased after the tsunami and soil pH slightly increased, but returned to pre-tsunami levels in the following year. Groundwater salinity might return to pre-tsunami levels by 2006. MODIS EVI values measured before and after the tsunami showed that vegetation damaged by the tsunami recovered to its pre-tsunami state by the next rice cropping season, called samba, which continues from August to February. These rapid rates of recovery were due to leaching salt from the highly permeable soils in the area by the monsoon rainfall. From these results, we conclude that agricultural environment of the district has mostly recovered one year after the tsunami.

Kume, Takashi; Umetsu, Chieko; Palanisami, K.

3

An Orthopedic-, Surgical-, and Epidemiological-Based Investigation of Leprosy, in the Tamil Nadu State of India  

PubMed Central

No other research paper has ever been written about leprosy in this manner. The orthopedic and surgical implications, as well as the functional debility caused by the disease, have not been previously explained by past research as they have in such a comprehensive manner in this paper. The results of this study have regional and global implications as they pertain to disease pathology, risk factor recognition/disease prevention, and treatment. This paper is a unique, in that it also serves as a combination of a review of the current medical literature, as well as an epidemiological survey of the disease in a region of the world which has never been researched in the past. Clinical data points to the possibility of a new strain of the disease. This information is of significance because it effects prevention and improved treatment of the disease, which leads to devastating sequela. This was a cross-sectional study involving subjects diagnosed with leprosy in the Chengalpet region of the Kancheepuram District, of the Tamil Nadu state of India. The study was performed at the Tamil Nadu Medical College Teaching Hospital and Research Center. This study included various physical examinations, observation and survey of lesions, questionnaires in regard the debilitating orthopedic and medical effects of the disease, as well as treatment options. PMID:22666605

Samona, Jason; Samona, Scott; Samona, Cameron; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Shekhar, P.; Kubern, D.; Mohan Kumar, P. S.; Nassiri, Reza

2012-01-01

4

Remote sensing based agricultural drought assessment in Palar basin of Tamil Nadu state, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural drought has been a recurrent phenomenon in many parts of India. Remote sensing plays a vital role in real time\\u000a monitoring of the agricultural drought conditions over large area, there by effectively supplementing the ground mechanism.\\u000a Conventional drought monitoring is based on subjective data. The satellite based monitoring such as National Agricultural\\u000a Drought Assessment and Monitoring System (NADAMS) is

T. Murali Krishna; G. Ravikumar; M. Krishnaveni

2009-01-01

5

Local Knowledge and Conservation of Seagrasses in the Tamil Nadu State of India  

PubMed Central

Local knowledge systems are not considered in the conservation of fragile seagrass marine ecosystems. In fact, little is known about the utility of seagrasses in local coastal communities. This is intriguing given that some local communities rely on seagrasses to sustain their livelihoods and have relocated their villages to areas with a rich diversity and abundance of seagrasses. The purpose of this study is to assist in conservation efforts regarding seagrasses through identifying Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) from local knowledge systems of seagrasses from 40 coastal communities along the eastern coast of India. We explore the assemblage of scientific and local traditional knowledge concerning the 1. classification of seagrasses (comparing scientific and traditional classification systems), 2. utility of seagrasses, 3. Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) of seagrasses, and 4. current conservation efforts for seagrass ecosystems. Our results indicate that local knowledge systems consist of a complex classification of seagrass diversity that considers the role of seagrasses in the marine ecosystem. This fine-scaled ethno-classification gives rise to five times the number of taxa (10 species = 50 local ethnotaxa), each with a unique role in the ecosystem and utility within coastal communities, including the use of seagrasses for medicine (e.g., treatment of heart conditions, seasickness, etc.), food (nutritious seeds), fertilizer (nutrient rich biomass) and livestock feed (goats and sheep). Local communities are concerned about the loss of seagrass diversity and have considerable local knowledge that is valuable for conservation and restoration plans. This study serves as a case study example of the depth and breadth of local knowledge systems for a particular ecosystem that is in peril. Key words: local health and nutrition, traditional ecological knowledge (TEK), conservation and natural resources management, consensus, ethnomedicine, ethnotaxa, cultural heritage PMID:22112297

2011-01-01

6

Bureaucratic Activism and Radical School Change in Tamil Nadu, India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2007, Activity Based Learning (ABL), a child-centered, activity-based method of pedagogical practice, transformed classrooms in all of the over 37,000 primary-level government schools in Tamil Nadu, India. The large scale, rapid pace, and radical nature of educational change sets the ABL initiative apart from most school reform efforts.…

Niesz, Tricia; Krishnamurthy, Ramchandar

2013-01-01

7

POTENTIAL HYDROCARBON PRODUCING SPECIES OF WESTERN GHATS, TAMIL, NADU, INDIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The decline in the world supplies of hydrocarbons has lead to the search for alternate sources of fuel and chemicals. Plant species are potential sources of hydrocarbons. Large-scale screening of plants growing in the Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India was conducted to assess the hydrocarbon productio...

8

Test Anxiety Levels of Board Exam Going Students in Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

The latest report by the National Crime Records Bureau has positioned Tamil Nadu as the Indian state with highest suicide rate. At least in part, this is happening due to exam pressure among adolescents, emphasizing the imperative need to understand the pattern of anxiety and various factors contributing to it among students. The present study was conducted to analyze the level of state anxiety among board exam attending school students in Tamil Nadu, India. A group of 100 students containing 50 boys and 50 girls from 10th and 12th grades participated in the study and their state anxiety before board exams was measured by Westside Test Anxiety Scale. We found that all board exam going students had increased level of anxiety, which was particularly higher among boys and 12th standard board exam going students. Analysis of various demographic variables showed that students from nuclear families presented higher anxiety levels compared to their desired competitive group. Overall, our results showing the prevalence of state anxiety among board exam going students in Tamil Nadu, India, support the recent attempt taken by Tamil Nadu government to improve student's academic performance in a healthier manner by appointing psychologists in all government schools. PMID:25143938

Ann Mary, Revina; Marslin, Gregory; Franklin, Gregory; Sheeba, Caroline J.

2014-01-01

9

Molecular characterization of wild-type measles viruses in Tamil Nadu, India, during 2005-2006: relationship of genotype D8 strains from Tamil Nadu to global strains.  

PubMed

Molecular characterization of measles viruses is a valuable tool for measuring the effectiveness of measles control and elimination programmes. WHO recommends that virological surveillance be conducted during all phases of measles control to document circulation of indigenous strains and trace future importation. This report describes the genetic characterization of wild type measles viruses from Tamil Nadu, India isolated between January 2005 and January 2006. In the study, 304 suspected measles cases (292 from 56 outbreaks and 12 sporadic cases) were investigated. Blood samples were collected from suspected measles outbreaks and 11 suspected sporadic cases and tested for the presence of measles and rubella specific IgM. Based on serological results, 53 outbreaks were confirmed as measles, 2 as a combination of measles and rubella, and 1 negative for both. Eight sporadic cases were confirmed as measles and one as rubella. Throat swab and urine samples were collected for virus isolation and 28 isolates were obtained. Sequencing and analysis showed that 3 isolates belonged to genotype D4 and 25 to genotype D8. Comparison of the genotype D8 sequences from Tamil Nadu with previously reported genotype D8 sequences from India and abroad showed six distinct clusters with Tamil Nadu strains forming two clusters. This study has established baseline molecular data and is the first report that describes genetic diversity of circulating measles strains in Tamil Nadu, a state in India. D8 has multiple lineages and this has been linked with importation of measles into the USA and UK. PMID:22170558

Duraisamy, Raja; Rota, Paul A; Palani, Gunasekaran; Elango, Varalakshmi; Sambasivam, Mohana; Lowe, Luis; Lopareva, Elena; Ramamurty, Nalini

2012-02-01

10

Occurrence of iron deficiency in important crops in maharashtra and tamil nadu states in India: A report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron deficiency has become a serious problem in many parts of India and is one of the major factors limiting yields of many crops. The list of crop species affected by this disease is long, and includes those which were hitherto not known to be susceptible. While sugarcane, groundnut and sorghum are affected in both Maharashtra, rhizome crops like turmeric

Seshadri Kannan

1988-01-01

11

Innovations and Challenges in Reducing Maternal Mortality in Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Although India has made slow progress in reducing maternal mortality, progress in Tamil Nadu has been rapid. This case study documents how Tamil Nadu has taken initiatives to improve maternal health services leading to reduction in maternal morality from 380 in 1993 to 90 in 2007. Various initiatives include establishment of maternal death registration and audit, establishment and certification of comprehensive emergency obstetric and newborn-care centres, 24-hour x 7-day delivery services through posting of three staff nurses at the primary health centre level, and attracting medical officers to rural areas through incentives in terms of reserved seats in postgraduate studies and others. This is supported by the better management capacity at the state and district levels through dedicated public-health officers. Despite substantial progress, there is some scope for further improvement of quality of infrastructure and services. The paper draws out lessons for other states and countries in the region. PMID:19489416

Padmanaban, P.; Mavalankar, Dileep V.

2009-01-01

12

Antibacterial activity of some actinomycetes from Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Objective To isolate novel actinomycetes and to evaluate their antibacterial activity. Methods Three soil samples were collected from Vengodu (village) in Kanchipuram district, Tamil Nadu, India. Actinomycetes were isolated using serial dilution and plating method on actinomycetes isolation agar. Results Totally 35 isolates were obtained on the basis of colony characteristics on actinomycetes isolation agar. All the isolates were screened for antibacterial activity by cross streak method. Medium and optimization of day were done for the potent strains using Nathan's agar well diffusion method. Isolation of bioactive compounds from significant active isolates was done by using different media. The most active isolate VAS 10 was identified as Actinobacterium Loyola PBT VAS 10 (accession No. JF501398) using 16s rRNA sequence method. The hexane, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and butanol extracts of VAS 10 were tested against bacteria. The maximum antibacterial activity was observed in dichloromethane and ethyl acetate; maximum zones of inhibition were observed against Enterococcus durans. The rRNA secondary structure and the restriction sites of Actinobacterium Loyola VAS 10 were predicted using Genebee and NEBCutter online tools respectively. Conclusions The present study showed that among the isolated actinomycetes, Actinobacterium Loyola PBT VAS 10 (accession No. JF501398) showed good antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria. PMID:23593572

Kumar, Pachaiyappan Saravana; Raj, John Poonga Preetam; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

2012-01-01

13

Assessment of groundwater quality and hydrogeochemistry of Manimuktha River basin, Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

Groundwater quality assessment study was carried out around Manimuktha river basin, Tamil Nadu, India. Twenty six bore well samples were analyzed for geochemical variations and quality of groundwater. Four major hydrochemical facies (Ca-HCO(3), Na-Cl, Mixed CaNaHCO(3), and mixed CaMgCl) were identified using a Piper trilinear diagram. Comparison of geochemical results with World Health Organization, United States Environmental Protection Agency, and Indian Standard Institution drinking water standards shows that all groundwater samples except few are suitable for drinking and irrigation purposes. The major groundwater pollutions are nitrate and phosphate ions due to sewage effluents and fertilizer applications. The study reveals that the groundwater quality changed due to anthropogenic and natural influence such as agricultural, natural weathering process. PMID:19089596

Kumar, S Krishna; Rammohan, V; Sahayam, J Dajkumar; Jeevanandam, M

2009-12-01

14

Metal Contamination in Select Species of Birds in Nilgiris District, Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in metal contamination in six species of birds, namely the Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo), Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis), Little Egret (Egretta garzetta), Pond Heron (Ardeola grayii), Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) and Jungle Babbler (Turdoides striatus) in Nilgiris district, Tamil Nadu, India. The accumulation of heavy metals differed among the species studied. On an average,\\u000a Little Egret accumulated high concentrations of

R. Jayakumar; S. Muralidharan

2011-01-01

15

Detection and genotyping of high-risk HPV and evaluation of anti-oxidant status in cervical carcinoma patients in Tamil Nadu State, India--a case control study.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer is the second common type of cancer among women worldwide, with the human papillomavirus (HPV) recognized as the major causative agent. The HPV 16/18 prevalance in cervical cancer patients from the Trichy and Coimbatore districts of Tamil Nadu state, India, was evaluated in addition to an assessment of oxidative stress and antioxidant status. MDA, GSH, GPx, GST, SOD, vitamin C and vitamin E were estimated in the plasma and erythrocytes of the twenty patients and an equal number of age matched normal subjects as controls. 119 paraffin embedded tissue samples were collected to perform DNA extraction and genotyping of HPV 16/18 using specific primers. Plasma and erythrocyte TBARS level was significantly elevated in the cervical cancer patients compared to normal. It was observed that SOD, GPx, GSH levels in the erythrocyte and plasma was significantly lower in cervical cancer patients, as well as GST and Vitamins E and C levels in the plasma and catalase enzyme levels in the erythrocytes. Genotyping showed 57% positive for HPV16 and 18% for HPV18, indicating that vaccination against these two will effectively reduce the burden associated with the disease. These findings suggest possible use of antioxidant supplementation as prophylactic agents for prevention and treatment of cervical cancer. PMID:22320976

Grace Nirmala, J; Narendhirakannan, R T

2011-01-01

16

Forest Dynamics in the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary deciduous forests in the Eastern Ghats (EG) of Tamil Nadu (TN) India have undergone many changes owing to various need-based forest managements, such as timber extraction for industry, railway sleepers, charcoal, and forest clearance for hydroelectric projects and agriculture, during preindependence and postindependence periods (i.e., from 1800 to 1980). The enactment of a forest conservation act during the 1980s changed the perception of forest managers from utilization to conservation. This study was taken up to assess the forests dynamics in the EG of TN spatially between 1990 and 2003 and nonspatially between 1900 and the 1980s. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Indian Remote Sensing satellite (IRS) 1D Linear Imaging and Self Scanning (LISS III) data were used to assess forests during 1990 and 2003, respectively. Field floristic survey and secondary data (such as published literature, floras, books, and forest working plans) were used to assess the forest dynamics in terms of forest type and species composition among the preindependence period, the postindependence period, and the present (i.e., before and after 1980). The satellite data analysis revealed a considerable amount of changes in all forest types during the 13 years. The comparison of species composition and forest types between the past and present revealed that need-based forest management along with anthropogenic activity have altered the primary deciduous forest in to secondary and postextraction secondary forests such as southern thorn and southern thorn scrub forests in the middle [400-900 m above mean sea level (MSL)] and lower slopes (<400 m MSL). However, the evergreen forests present at the upper slope (>900 m MSL) and plateau seemed not to be much affected by the forest management. The changes estimated by the satellite data processing in the major forest types such as evergreen, deciduous, southern thorn, and southern thorn scrub are really alarming because these changes have occurred after the implementation of a forest conservation act. The dependence of local people on forests for various purposes in this region is also considerably high, which might be a key factor for the changes in the forests. The results of this study not only provide an outlook on the present status of the forests and the change trends but also provide the basis for further studies on forests in the EG of TN.

Jayakumar, S.; Ramachandran, A.; Bhaskaran, G.; Heo, J.

2009-02-01

17

Rates and Factors Associated with Suicide in Kaniyambadi Block, Tamil Nadu, South India, 2000–2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Inefficient civil registration systems, non-report of deaths, variable standards in certifying death and the legal and social consequences of suicide are major obstacles to investigating suicide in the developing world.Objective: The aim of this study was to prospectively determine the suicide rate in Kaniyambadi Block, Tamil Nadu, South India, for the years 2000–2002 using verbal autopsies.Method: The setting for

J. Prasad; V. J. Abraham; S. Minz; S. Abraham; A. Joseph; J. P. Muliyil; K. George; K. S. Jacob

2006-01-01

18

Female work participation and child health: an investigation in rural Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to examine the linkage between mothers' work and child health. The data are from a survey of 75 working and 75 non-working women in a village in Tamil Nadu, India. The results show that the working women spend on an average 1.7 hours less than the non-working women on child care. The duration of breastfeeding also is

M. Sivakami

19

Metamorphism of the Oddanchatram anorthosite, Tamil Nadu, South India  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Oddanchatram anorthosite is located in the Madurai District of Tamil Nadu, near the town of Palni. It is emplaced into a granulite facies terrain commonly presumed to have undergone its last regional metamorphism in the late Archean about 2600 m.y. The surrounding country rock consists of basic granulites, charnockites and metasedimentary rocks including quartzites, pelites and calc-silicates. The anorthosite is clearly intrusive into the country rock and contains many large inclusions of previously deformed basic granulite and quartzite within 100 meters of its contact. Both this intrusion and the nearby Kaduvar anorthosite show evidence of having been affected by later metamorphism and deformation.

Wiebe, R. A.; Janardhan, A. S.

1988-01-01

20

Synthetic Pyrethroid Resistance in Field Strains of Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Tamil Nadu, South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistance to synthetic pyrethroids was diagnosed in the field population of American bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) from Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, South India during 2003-2004 cropping seasons. A Discriminating Dose (DD) bioassay technique was used to monitor fortnightly changes in resistance at Coimbatore where number of crops served as host plants for this pest. The resistance level of various synthetic pyrethroids

P. Duraimurugan; A. Regupathy

2005-01-01

21

Lead ingots from a shipwreck off Poompuhar, Tamil Nadu, East Coast of India: evidence for overseas trade and their significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various types of lead ingots have been reported from a number of shipwrecks from different parts of the world. In 1991 exploration of a wreck off Poompuhar, Tamil Nadu, East Coast of India, at a depth of 19m yielded a gun, rudder gudgeon, gunpowder boxes and a variety of lead ingots. The most significant ingots are those marked W: Blackett

Sila Tripati; G. Parthiban; K. H. Vora; Sundaresh; S. N. Bandodker

2003-01-01

22

Costs analysis of a population level rabies control programme in Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

The study aimed to determine costs to the state government of implementing different interventions for controlling rabies among the entire human and animal populations of Tamil Nadu. This built upon an earlier assessment of Tamil Nadu's efforts to control rabies. Anti-rabies vaccines were made available at all health facilities. Costs were estimated for five different combinations of animal and human interventions using an activity-based costing approach from the provider perspective. Disease and population data were sourced from the state surveillance data, human census and livestock census. Program costs were extrapolated from official documents. All capital costs were depreciated to estimate annualized costs. All costs were inflated to 2012 Rupees. Sensitivity analysis was conducted across all major cost centres to assess their relative impact on program costs. It was found that the annual costs of providing Anti-rabies vaccine alone and in combination with Immunoglobulins was $0.7 million (Rs 36 million) and $2.2 million (Rs 119 million), respectively. For animal sector interventions, the annualised costs of rolling out surgical sterilisation-immunization, injectable immunization and oral immunizations were estimated to be $ 44 million (Rs 2,350 million), $23 million (Rs 1,230 million) and $ 11 million (Rs 590 million), respectively. Dog bite incidence, health systems coverage and cost of rabies biologicals were found to be important drivers of costs for human interventions. For the animal sector interventions, the size of dog catching team, dog population and vaccine costs were found to be driving the costs. Rabies control in Tamil Nadu seems a costly proposition the way it is currently structured. Policy makers in Tamil Nadu and other similar settings should consider the long-term financial sustainability before embarking upon a state or nation-wide rabies control programme. PMID:24587471

Abbas, Syed Shahid; Kakkar, Manish; Rogawski, Elizabeth Tacket

2014-02-01

23

Costs Analysis of a Population Level Rabies Control Programme in Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

The study aimed to determine costs to the state government of implementing different interventions for controlling rabies among the entire human and animal populations of Tamil Nadu. This built upon an earlier assessment of Tamil Nadu's efforts to control rabies. Anti-rabies vaccines were made available at all health facilities. Costs were estimated for five different combinations of animal and human interventions using an activity-based costing approach from the provider perspective. Disease and population data were sourced from the state surveillance data, human census and livestock census. Program costs were extrapolated from official documents. All capital costs were depreciated to estimate annualized costs. All costs were inflated to 2012 Rupees. Sensitivity analysis was conducted across all major cost centres to assess their relative impact on program costs. It was found that the annual costs of providing Anti-rabies vaccine alone and in combination with Immunoglobulins was $0.7 million (Rs 36 million) and $2.2 million (Rs 119 million), respectively. For animal sector interventions, the annualised costs of rolling out surgical sterilisation-immunization, injectable immunization and oral immunizations were estimated to be $ 44 million (Rs 2,350 million), $23 million (Rs 1,230 million) and $ 11 million (Rs 590 million), respectively. Dog bite incidence, health systems coverage and cost of rabies biologicals were found to be important drivers of costs for human interventions. For the animal sector interventions, the size of dog catching team, dog population and vaccine costs were found to be driving the costs. Rabies control in Tamil Nadu seems a costly proposition the way it is currently structured. Policy makers in Tamil Nadu and other similar settings should consider the long-term financial sustainability before embarking upon a state or nation-wide rabies control programme. PMID:24587471

Abbas, Syed Shahid; Kakkar, Manish; Rogawski, Elizabeth Tacket

2014-01-01

24

Physicochemical parameters and their sources in groundwater in the Thirupathur region, Tamil Nadu, South India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study reports physicochemical characteristics and their sources in groundwater in Thirupathur region in Tamil Nadu, India. For this purpose, groundwater samples were collected and analysed using standard methods. A wide seasonal variation was showed for the majority of the samples; higher concentration was observed in the pre-monsoon season. Concentration of fluoride was quite alarming in many locations. Groundwater is found to be dominated by Na+, Ca+, HCO3 and Cl-. Gibbs plot showed the dominance of rock-water interaction. Geology of the area in comparison with the results obtained in the chemical cross plots showed the dominance of silicate weathering, with a minor contribution from the cation exchange. Other processes such as evaporation dissolution of carbonate and gypsum were proved to be ineffective. However, dissolution of fluoride minerals present in the geological formation is the major source of fluoride in groundwater.

Sajil Kumar, P. J.; James, E. J.

2013-03-01

25

Medico - botanical study of Yercaud hills in the eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

The study reports medicinal plant survey was conceded in Yercaud hills ranges of Eastern Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. The study primarily based on field surveys conducted throughout the hills, where dwellers provided information on plant species used as medicine, plant parts used to prepare the remedies and ailments to which the remedies were prescribed. The study resulted about 48- plant species belonging to 45- genera and 29- families of medicinal plants related to folk medicine used by the local people. Among them the most common plants viz., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Cissus quadrangularis L., Gymnema sylvestre R. Br., Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br., Justisia adhatoda L., Ocimum sanctum L., Phyllanthes amarus Schum. & Thonn., Piper nigrum L., Solanum nigrum L., Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers, Tridax procumbens L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe which are used in their daily life to cure various ailments. PMID:22557438

Parthipan, M; Aravindhan, V; Rajendran, A

2011-01-01

26

Metal contamination in select species of birds in Nilgiris district, Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

Variation in metal contamination in six species of birds, namely the Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo), Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis), Little Egret (Egretta garzetta), Pond Heron (Ardeola grayii), Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) and Jungle Babbler (Turdoides striatus) in Nilgiris district, Tamil Nadu, India. The accumulation of heavy metals differed among the species studied. On an average, Little Egret accumulated high concentrations of copper (53.31 ± 23.19 ppm) followed by Cattle Egret (16.27 ± 9.83 ppm) in liver. Of all the species, Jungle Babbler recorded the maximum concentrations (20.59 ± 9.07 ppm) in muscle. The Pond Heron recorded the maximum concentration (35.38 ± 11.14 ppm) in brain. On an average the maximum level was in the kidney of Common Myna (7.76 ± 1.80 ppm). PMID:21656294

Jayakumar, R; Muralidharan, S

2011-08-01

27

Medico-botanical study of Yercaud hills in the eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

The study reports medicinal plant survey was conceded in Yercaud hills ranges of Eastern Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. The study primarily based on field surveys conducted throughout the hills, where dwellers provided information on plant species used as medicine, plant parts used to prepare the remedies and ailments to which the remedies were prescribed. The study resulted about 48- plant species belonging to 45- genera and 29- families of medicinal plants related to folk medicine used by the local people. Among them the most common plants viz., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Cissus quadrangularis L., Gymnema sylvestre R. Br., Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br., Justisia adhatoda L., Ocimum sanctum L., Phyllanthes amarus Schum. & Thonn., Piper nigrum L., Solanum nigrum L., Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers, Tridax procumbens L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe which are used in their daily life to cure various ailments. PMID:22557438

Parthipan, M; Aravindhan, V; Rajendran, A

2011-04-01

28

Assessment of indoor radiation dose received by the residents of natural high background radiation areas of coastal villages of Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation exposure and effective dose received through two routes of exposure, viz. external and internal, via inhalation, by residents of 10 villages belonging to Natural High Background Radiation Areas (NHBRA) of coastal regions of Kanyakumari District and Tamil Nadu in India were studied. While the indoor gamma radiation levels were monitored using Thermo Luminescent Dosimeters (TLDs), the indoor radon and thoron gas concentrations were measured using twin chamber dosimeters employing Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs, LR-115-II). The average total annual effective dose was estimated and found to be varying from 2.59 to 8.76 mSv.

Deva Jayanthi, D.; Maniyan, C. G.; Perumal, S.

2011-07-01

29

High Rates of Ofloxacin Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis among Both New and Previously Treated Patients in Tamil Nadu, South India  

PubMed Central

Periodic drug resistance surveillance provides useful information on trends of drug resistance and effectiveness of tuberculosis (TB) control measures. The present study determines the prevalence of drug resistance among new sputum smear positive (NSP) and previously treated (PT) pulmonary TB patients, diagnosed at public sector designated microscopy centers (DMCs) in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. In this single-stage cluster-sampling prevalence survey, 70 of 700 DMCs were randomly selected using a probability-proportional to size method. A cluster size of 24 for NSP and a varying size of 0 to 99 for PT cases were fixed for each selected DMC. Culture and drug susceptibility testing was done on Lowenstein-Jensen medium using the economic variant of proportion sensitivity test for isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RMP), ofloxacin (OFX) and kanamycin (KAN). Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) status was collected from patient records. From June 2011 to August 2012, 1524 NSP and 901 PT patients were enrolled. Any RMP resistance and any INH resistance were observed in 2.6% and 15.1%, and in 10.4% and 30% respectively in NSP and PT cases. Among PT patients, multi drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) was highest in the treatment failure (35%) group, followed by relapse (13%) and treatment after default (10%) groups. Extensively drug resistant TB (XDRTB) was seen in 4.3% of MDR-TB cases. Any OFX resistance was seen in 10.4% of NSP, 13.9% of PT and 29% of PT MDR-TB patients. The HIV status of the patient had no impact on drug resistance levels. RMP resistance was present in 2.6% of new and 15.1% of previously treated patients in Tamil Nadu. Rates of OFX resistance were high among NSP and PT patients, especially among those with MDR-TB, a matter of concern for development of new treatment regimens for TB. PMID:25738956

Selvakumar, N.; Kumar, Vanaja; Balaji, S.; Prabuseenivasan, S.; Radhakrishnan, R.; Sekar, Gomathi; Chandrasekaran, V.; Kannan, T.; Thomas, Aleyamma; Arunagiri, S.; Dewan, Puneet; Swaminathan, Soumya

2015-01-01

30

High Rates of Ofloxacin Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis among Both New and Previously Treated Patients in Tamil Nadu, South India.  

PubMed

Periodic drug resistance surveillance provides useful information on trends of drug resistance and effectiveness of tuberculosis (TB) control measures. The present study determines the prevalence of drug resistance among new sputum smear positive (NSP) and previously treated (PT) pulmonary TB patients, diagnosed at public sector designated microscopy centers (DMCs) in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. In this single-stage cluster-sampling prevalence survey, 70 of 700 DMCs were randomly selected using a probability-proportional to size method. A cluster size of 24 for NSP and a varying size of 0 to 99 for PT cases were fixed for each selected DMC. Culture and drug susceptibility testing was done on Lowenstein-Jensen medium using the economic variant of proportion sensitivity test for isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RMP), ofloxacin (OFX) and kanamycin (KAN). Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) status was collected from patient records. From June 2011 to August 2012, 1524 NSP and 901 PT patients were enrolled. Any RMP resistance and any INH resistance were observed in 2.6% and 15.1%, and in 10.4% and 30% respectively in NSP and PT cases. Among PT patients, multi drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) was highest in the treatment failure (35%) group, followed by relapse (13%) and treatment after default (10%) groups. Extensively drug resistant TB (XDRTB) was seen in 4.3% of MDR-TB cases. Any OFX resistance was seen in 10.4% of NSP, 13.9% of PT and 29% of PT MDR-TB patients. The HIV status of the patient had no impact on drug resistance levels. RMP resistance was present in 2.6% of new and 15.1% of previously treated patients in Tamil Nadu. Rates of OFX resistance were high among NSP and PT patients, especially among those with MDR-TB, a matter of concern for development of new treatment regimens for TB. PMID:25738956

Selvakumar, N; Kumar, Vanaja; Balaji, S; Prabuseenivasan, S; Radhakrishnan, R; Sekar, Gomathi; Chandrasekaran, V; Kannan, T; Thomas, Aleyamma; Arunagiri, S; Dewan, Puneet; Swaminathan, Soumya

2015-01-01

31

Evolution of late Holocene coastal dunes in the Cauvery delta region of Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Widespread occurrences of coastal dunes are observed in the Cauvery delta region of Tamil Nadu in Vedaranniyam in the south east coast of India. These dunes were studied to establish the chronology of their formation and to understand their evolution using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating in combination with sedimentological studies (quartz grain surface morphology using scanning electron microscope, grain size and heavy mineral analysis). The study shows that on the south-east coast of India widespread periodic dune formation/reactivation has taken place during the late Holocene to very recent times due to a variety of reasons such as climatic variation and land use changes. The sand mobility index shows that the dunes in the area have been largely active during the past century in the southern part in Nagapattinam region and many of the crests were active in the northern Cauvery delta in Cuddalore region. The angularity and fresh appearance of sand in the inland dunes suggest a short distance of sand transport and a source proximal sand deposition was proposed for the dune formation. The study demonstrates the sensitivity of sand dunes on the south east coast of India to varying climatic conditions and changes in regional land use.

Alappat, L.; Frechen, M.; Ramesh, R.; Tsukamoto, S.; Srinivasalu, S.

2011-08-01

32

Snakebite and Its Socio-Economic Impact on the Rural Population of Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Background Snakebite represents a significant health issue worldwide, affecting several million people each year with as many as 95,000 deaths. India is considered to be the country most affected, but much remains unknown about snakebite incidence in this country, its socio-economic impact and how snakebite management could be improved. Methods/Principal Findings We conducted a study within rural villages in Tamil Nadu, India, which combines a household survey (28,494 people) of snakebite incidence with a more detailed survey of victims in order to understand the health and socio-economic effects of the bite, the treatments obtained and their views about future improvements. Our survey suggests that snakebite incidence is higher than previously reported. 3.9% of those surveyed had suffered from snakebite and the number of deaths corresponds to 0.45% of the population. The socio-economic impact of this is very considerable in terms of the treatment costs and the long-term effects on the health and ability of survivors to work. To reduce this, the victims recommended improvements to the accessibility and affordability of antivenom treatment. Conclusions Snakebite has a considerable and disproportionate impact on rural populations, particularly in South Asia. This study provides an incentive for researchers and the public to work together to reduce the incidence and improve the outcomes for snake bite victims and their families. PMID:24278244

Vaiyapuri, Sakthivel; Vaiyapuri, Rajendran; Ashokan, Rajesh; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan; Nattamaisundar, Kameshwaran; Jeyaraj, Anburaj; Chandran, Viswanathan; Gajjeraman, Prabu; Baksh, M. Fazil; Gibbins, Jonathan M.; Hutchinson, E. Gail

2013-01-01

33

Insect resistance in tomato accessions and their hybrid derivatives in Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

Host plant resistance offers a viable alternative to the use of chemical insecticides for managing insects Infesting tomato. Hence, a study was carried out in Tamil Nadu, India during 1996 to 2004. An exhaustive germplasm comprising 321 tomato accessions including cultivars, wild lines, land races, tribal/native tomatoes was gathered from various sources and screened for resistance against the major pest namely fruit worm, Helicoverpa armigera Hubner (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera). In the field screening, larval population and fruit damage was evaluated while in the glasshouse, foliage and fruit damage was assessed and ten promising accessions were selected. Based on further laboratory studies on the various mechanisms and bases of resistance, four accessions namely, Varushanadu Local, Seijima Jeisei, Ac 238 and Roma were selected and subjected to intercrossing by conventional hybridization, which yielded three viable hybrids. The resistance potentials of these hybrids against the fruit worm, H. armigera, leaf caterpillar, Spodoptera litura Fab. Noctuldae: Lepidoptera), leaf miner, Liriomyza trifolii Blanchard (Agromyzidae: Diptera) and whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Aleyrodidae: Hemiptera) were probed both in the field and glasshouse along with their respective parents. The hybrids exerted lesser feeding and ovipositional preference and higher antibiotic effects on insect stages. The density of three types of non-glandular and two types of glandular trichomes and phenol content in the foliage, lycopene and ascorbic acid content in the fruits were the major factors of resistance. Based on these studies, Hybrid 3 (Ac 238 x Roma) and its derivatives were adjudged as potential accessions possessing insect tolerance. PMID:16628895

Selvanarayanan, V; Muthukumaran, N

2005-01-01

34

A Different Type of Medicine: Women's Experiences With Ophthalmic Diseases in Rural and Urban Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

I conducted a study to understand how urban and rural women conceptualized eye diseases in Tamil Nadu state. I chose to examine eye diseases because ailments such as cataracts, glaucoma, refractive error, and diabetic retinopathy rank among the most serious diseases of Indian women. I collected observational, survey, and interview data to compare women from rural and urban areas. In

Keerthika Melissa Subramanian

2008-01-01

35

Molecular characterization of mosquitocidal Bacillus sphaericus isolated from Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

Forty-two Bacillus sphaericus strains were isolated from soil around Tamil Nadu, India. The phylogenetic relationship among the B. sphaericus isolates was analysed by REP-PCR and multiplex PCR was performed for the detection of mosquito larvicidal genes binA, binB, mtx1, mtx2 and mtx3 in B. sphaericus isolates. According to the REP-PCR band pattern, B. sphaericus isolates were divided into group A comprising I-XI clusters and group B comprising cluster XII. Three of the isolates BSTN01, 23 and 24 were gathered under cluster XII showed a high level of larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles stephensi, the other 39 isolates grouped under I-XI clusters were non-toxic or weak or moderately toxic to mosquito larvae. Even though BSTN23 and 24 were isolated from the same location and both contained all the five mosquito larvicidal genes, their intraspecies difference was clearly elucidated by REP-PCR analysis. Among high toxic isolates, BSTN23 and 24 were observed to contain all the five toxin genes and BSTN01 showed the presence of binary toxin and Mtx1 toxin genes. The isolates BSTN02, 03, 07, 14, 16, 19, 20, 21, 25, 31, 36 and 39 were found to contain mtx1 gene with combination of mtx2 and/or mtx3 showed moderate or low toxicity against mosquito larvae. binA, binB and mtx1 genes were not present in non-toxic isolates. The present study revealed the genetic heterogeneity between both toxic and non-toxic isolates and indicates that there is a good correlation between the presence of toxin genes and toxicity of the strains. These techniques could be developed in screening of novel highly toxic B. sphaericus strains from environment without bioassay on mosquito larvae. PMID:23648218

Prabhu, D Immanual Gilwax; Sankar, S Gowri; Vasan, P Thirumalai; Piriya, P Sobana; Selvan, B Karpanai; Vennison, S John

2013-09-01

36

Reproductive pattern, perinatal mortality, and sex preference in rural Tamil Nadu, south India: community based, cross sectional study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To study reproductive pattern and perinatal mortality in rural Tamil Nadu, South India. DESIGN: Community based, cross sectional questionnaire study of 30 randomly selected areas served by health subcentres. SETTING: Rural parts of Salem District, Tamil Nadu, South India. SUBJECTS: 1321 women and their offspring delivered in the 6 months before the interview. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of pregnancies, pregnancy outcome, spacing of pregnancies, sex of offspring, perinatal and neonatal mortality rates. RESULTS: 41% of the women (535) were primiparous; 7 women (0.5%) were grand multiparous (> 6 births). The women had a mean age of 22 years and a mean of 2.3 pregnancies and 1.8 live children. The sex ratio at birth of the index children was 107 boys per 100 girls. The stillbirth rate was 13.5/1000 births, the neonatal mortality rate was 35.3/1000, and the perinatal mortality rate was 42.0/1000. Girls had an excess neonatal mortality (rate ratio 3.42%; 95% confidence interval 1.68 to 6.98; this was most pronounced among girls born to multiparous women with no living sons (rate ratio 15.48 (2.04 to 177.73) v 1.87 (0.63 to 5.58) in multiparous women with at least one son alive). CONCLUSIONS: In this rural part of Tamil Nadu, women had a controlled reproductive pattern. The excess neonatal mortality among girls constitutes about one third of the perinatal mortality rate. It seems to be linked to a preference for sons and should therefore be addressed through a holistic societal approach rather than through specific healthcare measures. PMID:9169399

Nielsen, B. B.; Liljestrand, J.; Hedegaard, M.; Thilsted, S. H.; Joseph, A.

1997-01-01

37

Mate selection and its impact on female marriage age, pregnancy wastages, and first child survival in Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

Marriage in Indian society is a religious duty. Consanguineous marriage is common, where individuals prefer to marry within their clan (a unilateral kin group based on either matrilineal or patrilineal descent). Keeping in mind that this form of marriage has certain disadvantages for social and biological as well as demographic aspects of individuals and families, the present study examines the influence of mate selection (i.e., close relatives, distant relatives, not related) on female age at marriage, pregnancy wastages, and survival status of the first child. The study was designed based on the information collected on a sample size of 3,948 married women aged 13-49 in Tamil Nadu, India, by the National Family Health Survey (NFHS), 1992. Results suggest that 48 per cent of women in Tamil Nadu marry their relatives. This practice of marrying relatives is high in rural areas, among Hindus, Scheduled Castes/tribes, and illiterate women as compared to urban areas, among non-Hindus, non-SC/ST, and educated women, respectively. The bivariate analysis reveals that women marrying their close relatives had low age at marriage and experienced a higher per cent of pregnancy wastage and child loss (first child) as compared to those women marrying their distant relatives or nonrelatives. The result is found to be consistent even after controlling for selected background variables through multivariate techniques (applied separately for age at marriage, pregnancy wastages, and the survival status of first child). Hence, this study suggests that steps should be taken to inform people about the problems of marrying close relatives through appropriate IEC programs in Tamil Nadu. PMID:10085741

Sureender, S; Prabakaran, B; Khan, A G

1998-01-01

38

Folk-lore medicines for jaundice from Coimbatore and palghat districts of Tamil Nadu and kerala, India.  

PubMed

Ethno-botanical explorations with regard to the folk-lore medicine in Coimbatore district of Tamil Nadu and Palghat district of Kerala for jaundice was carried out. Out of twenty remedies thus gathered two are found to be new reports and a few others have got interesting combination. The specimens are identified at Botanical Survey of India, Coimbatore and deposited in the Herbarium of Ethnobiology department of International Institute of Ayurveda, Coimbatore. Two newly reported plants for Jaundice namely Alysicarpus vaginalis DC. and Justicia tranquebariensis L. f, have been taken for phytochemical screening and pharmacological studies. The botanical name of the plant, local name, Sanskrit name and the part of the plant employed are given in table I. PMID:22557611

Sankaranarayanan, A S

1988-01-01

39

Unpacking the psychiatric advance directive in low-resource settings: an exploratory qualitative study in Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Background Psychiatric advance directives, a tool to document preferences for care in advance of decisional incapacity, have been shown to benefit persons with mental illness in a number of countries through improving medication adherence, reducing symptoms from escalating in a crisis, accelerating recovery, and enhancing service user autonomy. While concepts such as autonomy are important in a number of high-income country settings, it remains unclear whether tools like psychiatric advance directives are suitable in a different context. The recent introduction of the psychiatric advance directive into draft legislation in India prompts the question as to how feasible psychiatric advance directives are in the Indian context. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility and utility of PADs in India, with a focus on the need for individual control over decision making and barriers to implementation, by exploring views of its central stakeholders, service users and carers. Methods Qualitative semi-structured interviews (n =?51) with clients (n =?39) and carers (n =?12) seeking mental health treatment at outpatient clinics in urban and rural settings provided by a non-profit organisation in Tamil Nadu, India. Results Clients engaged in a number of forms of decision-making (passive, active, and collaborative) depending on the situation and decision at hand, and had high levels of self-efficacy. Most clients and carers were unfamiliar with PADs, and while some clients felt it is important to have a say in treatment wishes, carers expressed concerns about service user capacity to make decisions. After completing PADs, clients reported an increase in self-efficacy and an increased desire to make decisions. Conclusions The introduction of psychiatric advance directives in India appears to be associated with positive outcomes for some service users, however, there is a need to better understand how this tool can be adapted to better suit the care context in India and hold meaning and value for service users to complete. PMID:24369909

2013-01-01

40

Coping with the Asian tsunami: perspectives from Tamil Nadu, India on the determinants of resilience in the face of adversity.  

PubMed

The Asian tsunami of December 26, 2004 wreaked havoc along the southeastern coast of India and resulted in devastating losses. The high rates of long-term mental health consequences in adult survivors predicted immediately after the disaster have not been borne out by recent surveys. This qualitative study explored the psychological impact of the tsunami on survivors with a view to gaining insights into the ethno-cultural coping mechanisms of affected communities and evaluating resilience in the face of incomprehensible adversity. We conducted focus group discussions 9 months after the tsunami with two groups of fishermen, two groups of housewives, a group of village leaders and a group of young men in four affected villages of Nagapattinam district in Tamil Nadu, India. In spite of incomplete reconstruction of their lives, participants reconstructed meaning for the causes and the aftermath of the disaster in their cultural idiom. Qualitative changes in their social structure, processes and attitudes towards different aspects of life were revealed. Survivors valued their unique individual, social and spiritual coping strategies more than formal mental health services. Their stories confirm the assertion that the collective response to massive trauma need not necessarily result in social collapse but also includes positive effects. The results of this study suggest that interventions after disaster should be grounded in ethno-cultural beliefs and practices and should be aimed at strengthening prevailing community coping strategies. PMID:18562066

Rajkumar, Anto P; Premkumar, Titus S; Tharyan, Prathap

2008-09-01

41

Developing climate change scenarios for Tamil Nadu, India using MAGICC/SCENGEN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the projection of climate change scenarios under increased greenhouse gas emissions, using the results of atmospheric-ocean general circulation models in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 dataset. A score is given to every model based on global and regional performance. Four out of 20 general circulation models (GCMs) were selected based on skill in predicting observed annual temperature and precipitation conditions. The ensemble of these four models shows superiority over the individual model scores. These models were subjected to increases in future anthropogenic radiative forcings for constructing climate change scenarios. Future climate scenarios for Tamil Nadu were developed with MAGICC/SCENGEN software. Model results show both temperature and precipitation increases under increased greenhouse gas scenarios. Northeast and northwest parts of Tamil Nadu show a greater increase in temperature and precipitation. Seasonally, the maximum rise in temperature occurred during the MAM season, followed by DJF, JJA, and SON. Decreasing trends of precipitation were observed during DJF and MAM.

Jeganathan, Anushiya; Andimuthu, Ramachandran

2013-11-01

42

Increasing condom use and declining STI prevalence in high-risk MSM and TGs: evaluation of a large-scale prevention program in Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Background This paper presents an evaluation of Avahan, a large scale HIV prevention program that was implemented using peer-mediated strategies, condom distribution and sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinical services among high-risk men who have sex with men (HR-MSM) and male to female transgender persons (TGs) in six high-prevalence state of Tamil Nadu, in southern India. Methods Two rounds of large scale cross-sectional bio-behavioural surveys among HR-MSM and TGs and routine program monitoring data were used to assess changes in program coverage, condom use and prevalence of STIs (including HIV) and their association to program exposure. Results The Avahan program for HR-MSM and TGs in Tamil Nadu was significantly scaled up and contacts by peer educators reached 77 percent of the estimated denominator by the end of the program’s fourth year. Exposure to the program increased between the two rounds of surveys for both HR-MSM (from 66 percent to 90 percent; AOR?=?4.6; p?Nadu achieved a high coverage, resulting in improved condom use by HR-MSM with their regular and commercial male partners. Declining STI prevalence and stable HIV prevalence reflect the positive effects of the prevention strategy. Outcomes from the program logic model indiacte the effectiveness of the program for HR-MSM and TGs in Tamil Nadu. PMID:24044766

2013-01-01

43

Seasonal impact on beach morphology and the status of heavy mineral deposition - central Tamil Nadu coast, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the present research was to investigate the seasonal impact on nearshore beach dynamics and the status of heavy mineral distribution along central Tamil Nadu coast, India. Beach profile measurements were made in 10 profiling sites between Thirukadaiyur and Velankanni on monthly and seasonal basis from January 2011 to July 2012. Using beach profile data, variation in beach width, slope and volumetric changes have been calculated. Beach slope and nearshore wave parameters were used to quantify the longshore sediment transport rate. Beaches between Thirukadaiyur and Karaikkal attained predominant transport rate in northern direction whereas, the rest of the beaches are in southern direction. The seasonal action of wind and wave currents create nearshore bar during northeast (NE) monsoon and frequent berms at tidal zone during southwest (SW) monsoon. Surface sediment samples were collected in each location for quantifying the heavy mineral weight percentage during the period of pre- and post-Thane cyclone. Sediments were also studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to evaluate the changes and occurrence of heavy minerals in beach sands. The XRD results show that sediments in the study area have enriched heavy mineral distribution even after strong cyclonic event. It confirms the redistribution of heavy mineral deposits present in the coast. The results suggested that monsoonal action has influenced the seasonal changes in beach morphology and it does not affect the heavy mineral distribution.

Joevivek, V.; Chandrasekar, N.

2014-02-01

44

Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) of some tree species growing near rail roads of Madurai, Tamil Nadu (India).  

PubMed

Biological monitoring and assessment studies due to urban--rail road pollutants were carried out using Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) of plants. Four plant (leaf) parameters--namely ascorbic acid, total chlorophyll, relative water content and leaf extract pH were combined together in a formulation signifying the APTI of plants. APTI was calculated for five different species such as Azadirachta indica, Delonix regia, Ficus religiosa, Pongamia pinnata and Polyalthia longifolia growing in two different areas, i.e. control area and along the railway track of Madurai, Tamil Nadu (India). The control site was selected in the college campus. None of the four plant parameters indicated a consistent response to pollutants. In the present study, Delonix regia and Pongamia pinnata lost the tolerance towards air pollutants and became more sensitive, but Azadirachta indica, Ficus religiosa, and Polyalthia longifolia indicated high APTI values over control area and hence considered as tolerant species. The APTI of plants showed a marked gradation as the pollutant load decreased from rail road to control area. The APTI can be used as a good indicator of impact of the air pollution on plants. PMID:22312796

Thambavani, D Sarala; Kamala, C

2010-10-01

45

Groundwater quality and its suitability for domestic and agricultural use in Tondiar river basin, Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

Assessment of suitability of groundwater for domestic and agricultural purposes was carried out in Tondiar river basin, Tamil Nadu, India. The study area covers an area of 315 km(2) and lies in a semiarid region. Groundwater is the major source for domestic and agricultural activity in this area. Groundwater samples were collected from 45 wells during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon period in the year 2006. The water samples were analysed for physical and chemical characteristics. Suitability of groundwater for irrigation was evaluated based on salinity hazard, sodium percent, sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate, US salinity diagram, Wilcox's diagram, Kelly's ratio and permeability index. Ca-HCO(3), mixed Ca-Mg-Cl and Na-Cl were the dominant groundwater types. High hardness and electrical conductivity in this area makes the groundwater unsuitable for drinking and agricultural purposes. Concentration of trace elements (Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni) did not exceed the permissible limit for drinking and agricultural purposes. Majority of the groundwater samples were unsuitable for domestic and agricultural purposes except for 31% and 36%, which were suitable for drinking and irrigation purposes, respectively. PMID:21850434

Ramesh, K; Elango, L

2012-06-01

46

Study on Entomological Surveillance and its Significance during a Dengue Outbreak in the District of Tirunelveli in Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Objectives To study the significance of entomological surveillance, the house index (HI), container index (CI), and Breteau index (BI) were determined to estimate the degree of a major dengue outbreak in Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu, India (Latitude: 8°42?N; Longitude: 77°42?E) in May 2012. Methods The HI, CI, and BI were determined in a primary health center (PHC) in the village of Maruthamputhur (Pappakudi taluk, Tirunelveli) by carrying out an antilarval (AL) work that involved door-to-door search for immature stages of Aedes spp. mosquitoes by trained field workers and volunteers. The work of field workers was evaluated by a junior and senior entomologist the following day. Results Before the AL work, the reported numbers of fever cases from Week 1 to 5 in Maruthamputhur were 211, 394, 244, 222, and 144 with two deaths. By contrast, after the AL work, these numbers were considerably reduced and there was no fever-related death (the HI was reduced from 48.2% to 1.6%, the CI from 28.6% to 0.4%, and the BI from 48.2 to 1.6). Conclusion Because no specific medicine and vaccines are available to treat dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever, entomological surveillance and its significance can be used to halt the outbreak of dengue as shown in this study. PMID:24159547

Basker, Parasuraman; Kannan, Pichai; Porkaipandian, Rajagopal Thirugnanasambandam; Saravanan, Sivsankaran; Sridharan, Subramaniam; Kadhiresan, Mahaligam

2013-01-01

47

Seven years of the field epidemiology training programme (FETP) at Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India: an internal evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background During 2001–2007, the National Institute of Epidemiology (NIE), Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India admitted 80 trainees in its two-year Field Epidemiology Training Programme (FETP). We evaluated the first seven years of the programme to identify strengths and weaknesses. Methods We identified core components of the programme and broke them down into input, process, output and outcome. We developed critical indicators to reflect the logic model. We reviewed documents including fieldwork reports, abstracts listed in proceedings and papers published in Medline-indexed journals. We conducted an anonymous online survey of the graduates to collect information on self-perceived competencies, learning activities, field assignments, supervision, curriculum, relevance to career goals, strengths and weaknesses. Results Of the 80 students recruited during 2001–2007, 69 (86%) acquired seven core competencies (epidemiology, surveillance, outbreaks, research, human subjects protection, communication and management) and graduated through completion of at least six field assignments. The faculty-to-student ratio ranged between 0.4 and 0.12 (expected: 0.25). The curriculum was continuously adapted with all resources available on-line. Fieldwork led to the production of 158 scientific communications presented at international meetings and to 29 manuscripts accepted in indexed, peer-reviewed journals. The online survey showed that while most graduates acquired competencies, unmet needs persisted in laboratory sciences, data analysis tools and faculty-to-student ratio. Conclusions NIE adapted the international FETP model to India. However, further efforts are required to scale up the programme and to develop career tracks for field epidemiologists in the country. PMID:23013473

2012-01-01

48

Report on the occurrence of synanthropic derived form of Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae) from Royapuram fishing harbour, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Abstract The occurrence of dipteran fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) is reported for the first time from Royapuram fishing harbour (Chennai), Tamil Nadu, South East India. The fully grown third instar larvae of Chrysomya megacephala were collected from decaying fishes near Royapuram fishing harbour. This site is found to be the regular breeding site for Chrysomya megacephala. Larvae were reared under laboratory condition and freshly emerged adult flies from pupae were collected and identified by morphological features and molecular tools. Molecular identification through generation of DNA barcoding using mitochondrial COI gene of Chrysomya megacephala is appended. PMID:25057250

Ramaraj, Paulchamy; Selvakumar, Chellappa; Ganesh, Arumugam

2014-01-01

49

Evaluating influence of active tectonics on spatial distribution pattern of floods along eastern Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flooding is a naturally recurrent phenomenon that causes severe damage to lives and property. Predictions on flood-prone zones are made based on intensity-duration of rainfall, carrying capacity of drainage, and natural or man-made obstructions. Particularly, the lower part of the drainage system and its adjacent geomorphic landforms like floodplains and deltaic plains are considered for analysis, but stagnation in parts of basins that are far away from major riverine systems is less unveiled. Similarly, uncharacteristic flooding in the upper and middle parts of drainage, especially in zones of an anomalous drainage pattern, is also least understood. Even though topographic differences are attributed for such anomalous spatial occurrence of floods, its genetic cause has to be identified for effective management practice. Added to structural and lithological variations, tectonic movements too impart micro-scale terrain undulations. Because active tectonic movements are slow-occurring, long-term geological processes, its resultant topographical variations and drainage anomalies are least correlated with floods. The recent floods of Tamil Nadu also exhibit a unique distribution pattern emphasizing the role of tectonics over it. Hence a detailed geoinformatics-based analysis was carried out to envisage the relationship between spatial distribution of flood and active tectonic elements such as regional arches and deeps, block faults, and graben and drainage anomalies such as deflected drainage, compressed meander, and eyed drainages. The analysis reveals that micro-scale topographic highs and lows imparted by active tectonic movements and its further induced drainage anomalies have substantially controlled the distribution pattern of flood.

Selvakumar, R.; Ramasamy, SM.

2014-12-01

50

Conservation and education programmes on plants at Coimbatore Zoological Park Botanical Garden, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Coimbatore Zoological Park Society (CZP) was established in 1986 and is located at Anaikatty (1106' N, 76045'E), 30 km west of Coimbatore, South India occupying an area of 100 hectares at an altitude of 650 meters above mean sea level. The objectives of the CZP, stem from their members scientific and ethical concerns & interests. Originally, the Society had

B. Rathinasabapathy

51

Crop–weather model for turmeric yield forecasting for Coimbatore district, Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turmeric is native to India and its successful husbandry depends on the monsoon climate and the availability of irrigation. Yield forecasting in advance is required for export planning and policy decisions. A method to forecast turmeric yield from a time series of meteorological and yield data was developed and tested, using 20-year dataset of dry turmeric yield and monthly climatic

K Kandiannan; K. K Chandaragiri; N Sankaran; T. N Balasubramanian; C Kailasam

2002-01-01

52

Erosion and sedimentation in Kalpakkam (N Tamil Nadu, India) from the 26th December 2004 tsunami  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laterally extensive sand sheets deposited by the 26th December 2004 Asian tsunami provide a valuable modern analogue for comparison with wash over deposits of unknown origin. In many places on the east coast of India, distinct deposits of marine sand drape the landscape and overlie the muddy soils of the coastal plain. This paper discusses detailed measurements of coastal topography,

S. Srinivasalu; N. Thangadurai; Adam D. Switzer; V. Ram Mohan; T. Ayyamperumal

2007-01-01

53

Rock magnetism and palaeomagnetism of the Oddanchatram anorthosite, Tamil Nadu, South India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rock magnetic and palaeomagnetic data are reported on the Proterozoic massif-type anorthosite body from Oddanchatram, on the northern slopes of the Kodaikanal (Palani) Ranges, Tamil Nadu. Alternating field demagnetization treatment indicated a very stable direction of magnetization. Progressive heating revealed a remanence that became unblocked at 580°C. The demagnetization analysis yields a characteristic component with a mean direction: Dm= 97.3° Im =- 28.8° (k= 51, ?95= 7.2° and N= 9 sites). In addition to this characteristic component, specimens from a few sites show the presence of a low coercivity component with a mean palaeomagnetic direction of D= 36.7° I=-29.4° (k= 63, ?95= 4.4° and N= 18). The isothermal remanent magnetization acquisition curves indicate magnetite as the main carrier of the stable remanence. The direction of the characteristic component corresponds to a pole position at 9.7°N, 1.7°E (dp= 4.4°, dm= 7.9°). The location of this pole is comparable to palaeomagnetic poles reported for the period of 1100-1000 Ma for a range of formations from the Indian shield. The pole for the secondary component (45°S, 23°E) fits well with poles for 550 Ma, associated with the Pan-African thermal event that extensively caused granulite grade metamorphism in the Southern Granulite Terrain. Despite the high temperature (>700 °C) that prevailed during the Pan-African event, the remanence magnetization of 1100-1000 Ma is preserved in the Oddanchatram anorthosite. It is inferred that the northern boundary of the terrain affected by the dominant 550 Ma granulitic metamorphism lies close to the southern margin of the Oddanchatram anorthosite body. Thus Oddanchatram anorthosite escaped the high temperatures metamorphism. The weak secondary magnetization found in a few specimens is attributed to hydrothermal activity associated with the intrusion of pink granites, immediately south of the Oddanchatram anorthosite body. A mid-Proterozoic magnetization age of the Oddanchatram anorthosite supports the view that this body was emplaced/remobilized during the Eastern Ghat Orogeny (~1000 Ma) and this body can be seen as a western extension of the string of massif-type anorthosites in the Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt.

Satyanarayana, K. V. V.; Arora, Baldev R.; Janardhan, A. S.

2003-12-01

54

Genetic admixture studies on four in situ evolved, two migrant and twenty-one ethnic populations of Tamil Nadu, south India.  

PubMed

We analysed the genetic structure of ? 1000 samples representing 27 ethnic groups settled in Tamil Nadu, south India, derived from two linguistic families (Dravidians and Indo-Europeans) representing four religious groups (Hinduism, Islam, Christianity and Jainism) using 11 mtDNA markers. Out of 27 ethnic groups, four are in situ populations (Anglo-Indian, Labbai Muslim, Nadar Christian and south Indian Jain) and two are migrants (Gypsy and north Indian Jain) from north India to Tamil Nadu, and 21 are native ethnic groups. Six of the markers we used were monomorphic (HaeIII663, HpaI3592, AluI5176, AluI7025, AluI13262, 9-bp deletion) and five markers were polymorphic (DdeI10394, AluI10397, HinfI12308, HincII13259 and HaeIII16517). Haplogroup frequencies, genetic affinities and admixture analysis are based on the genotype data of polymorphic markers observed in these populations. Haplogroup frequencies indicate that various ethnic groups entered Tamil Nadu during different time periods. Genetic affinities and admixture estimates revealed that the ethnic groups possessing advanced knowledge of farming cluster in a branch (C), and could be the late arrived settlers as agriculture, was introduced to this region at about 5 to 3 thousand years ago. In situ ethnic groups appear to have arisen at various times as a result of the prevailing dominant socio-cultural forces. Hierarchical Hindu caste system created many ethnic groups in the history of its existence; some of them became isolated for considerable period of time. Over all, among Tamil ethnic groups, in spite of caste systems' rigidity, built in flexibility in the system in the form of hypergamy and hypogamy had allowed maternal gene flow between them. PMID:21869467

Suhasini, G; Sonaa, E; Shila, S; Srikumari, C R; Jayaraman, G; Ramesh, A

2011-08-01

55

Mapping of groundwater potential zones in Salem Chalk Hills, Tamil Nadu, India, using remote sensing and GIS techniques.  

PubMed

This study proposes to introduce the remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques in mapping the groundwater potential zones. Remote sensing and GIS techniques have been used to map the groundwater potential zones in Salem Chalk Hills, Tamil Nadu, India. Charnockites and fissile hornblende biotite gneiss are the major rock types in this region. Dunites and peridodites are the ultramafic rocks which cut across the foliation planes of the gneisses and are highly weathered. It comprises magnesite and chromite deposits which are excavated by five mining companies by adopting bench mining. The thickness of weathered and fracture zone varies from 2.2 to 50 m in gneissic formation and 5.8 to 55 m in charnockite. At the contacts of gneiss and charnockite, the thickness ranges from 9.0 to 90.8 m favoring good groundwater potential. The mine lease area is underlined by fractured and sheared hornblende biotite gneiss where groundwater potential is good. Water catchment tanks in this area of 5 km radius are small to moderate in size and are only seasonal. They remain dry during summer seasons. As perennial water resources are remote, the domestic and agricultural activities in this region depend mainly upon the groundwater resources. The mines are located in gently slope area, and accumulation of water is not observed except in mine pits even during the monsoon period. Therefore, it is essential to map the groundwater potential zones for proper management of the aquifer system. Satellite imageries were also used to extract lineaments, hydrogeomorphic landforms, drainage patterns, and land use, which are the major controlling factors for the occurrence of groundwater. Various thematic layers pertaining to groundwater existence such as geology, geomorphology, land use/land cover, lineament, lineament density, drainage, drainage density, slope, and soil were generated using GIS tools. By integrating all the above thematic layers based on the ranks and weightages, eventually groundwater potential zones were demarcated. The study indicates that groundwater potential is good to high in 22 villages and moderate in 13 villages. The good to high potential zone occupies an area of 128 km(2) and moderate potential zone occupies an area of 77 km(2). Groundwater occurrence is poor in five villages which need artificial recharge to augment groundwater. PMID:25740689

Thilagavathi, N; Subramani, T; Suresh, M; Karunanidhi, D

2015-04-01

56

Assessment of groundwater contamination from a hazardous dump site in Ranipet, Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tanneries located in an industrial development area of Ranipet (India) manufactured chromate chemicals during 1976-1996. A large quantity of associated hazardous solid wastes has been stacked about 5-m high above ground level, spread over 3.5 ha inside one of the factory premises. The study area receives an average annual rainfall of 1,100 mm. The granitic formation in the northern part of Palar River catchment has high infiltration rates and has resulted in fast migration of the contamination to the water table. Chromium levels in the groundwater were found up to 275 mg/l. The available hydrogeological, geophysical and groundwater quality data bases have been used to construct a groundwater flow and mass transport model for assessing the groundwater contamination and it has been calibrated for the next 30 years. The migration has been found to be very slow, with a groundwater velocity of 10 m/year. This is the first field-scale study of its kind in this industrial area. The findings are of relevance to addressing the groundwater pollution due to indiscriminate disposal practices of hazardous waste in areas located on the phreatic aquifer. Further, it has been reported that the untreated effluent discharge adjacent to the chromium dump site is most influential in the migration of contaminants.

Rao, G. Tamma; Rao, V. V. S. Gurunadha; Ranganathan, K.; Surinaidu, L.; Mahesh, J.; Ramesh, G.

2011-12-01

57

Hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality assessment of Ranipet industrial area, Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the highly polluted areas in India located at Ranipet occupies around 200 tanneries and other small scale chemical industries. Partially treated industrial effluents combined with sewage and other wastes discharged on the surface cause severe groundwater pollution in the industrial belt. This poses a problem of supply of safe drinking water in the rural parts of the country. A study was carried out to assess the groundwater pollution and identify major variables affecting the groundwater quality in Ranipet industrial area. Twenty five wells were monitored during pre- and post-monsoon in 2008 and analyzed for the major physico-chemical variables. The water quality variables such as total dissolved solids (TDS), Iron (Fe2 + ), Hexavalent Chromium (Cr6 + ), at most of the sampling locations exceeded the ISI and WHO guideline levels for drinking water. Multivariate statistical techniques such as factor analysis were applied to identify the major factors (variables) corresponding to the different source of variation in groundwater quality. The water quality of groundwater is influenced by both anthropogenic and chemical weathering. The most serious pollution threat to groundwater is from TDS, Cr6 + and Fe2 + , which are associated with sewage and pollution of tannery waste. The study reveals that the groundwater quality changed due to anthropogenic and natural influences such as agricultural, natural weathering process.

Rao, G. Tamma; Rao, V. V. S. Gurunadha; Ranganathan, K.

2013-06-01

58

Chromites from meta-anorthosites, Sittampundi layered igneous complex, Tamil Nadu, southern India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chrome-spinels of anorthosite-hosted chromitite bodies from Sittampundi layered igneous complex, southern India, metamorphosed under eclogite-facies condition have been studied. Besides anorthosites as the dominant rock type discontinuous layers of peridotite, pyroxenite and lenses of gabbroic granulite/eclogite occur at the bottom of the complex. Chromite grains are deformed exhibiting features of intracrystalline deformation and exsolved needle shaped rutile inclusions. Chrome-spinels are of refractory grade with Cr 2O 3 and Al 2O 3 contents varying between 34-40 wt.% and 23-28 wt.% respectively. In the bivariate Cr# (=Cr/[Cr + Al]) vs. Mg# (=Mg/[Mg + Fe 2+]) diagram, Sittampundi chromitites show close affinity with the Archean Fiskenaesset type deposit. The calculated Al 2O 3 values for the parental melt of Sittampundi chromitites are consistent with the Al 2O 3 content of mid-ocean ridge basalts whereas the values for FeO/MgO ratio are higher. It is suggested that an initial basic magma, similar to that of mafic granulite composition evolved in the magma chamber through fractionation of peridotite and pyroxenite to Fe,Al-rich basaltic melt, parental to the chromitite bands.

Ghosh, Biswajit; Konar, Ritam

2011-11-01

59

Hydrogeochemical Modelling for Groundwater in Neyveli Aquifer, Tamil Nadu, India, Using PHREEQC: A Case Study  

SciTech Connect

Sophisticated geochemical models have been used to describe and predict the chemical behaviour of complex natural waters and also to protect the groundwater resources from future contamination. One such model is used to study the hydrogeochemical complexity in a mine area. Extraction of groundwater from the coastal aquifer has been in progress for decades to mine lignite in Neyveli. This extraction has developed a cone of depression around the mine site. This cone of depression is well established by the geochemical nature of groundwater in the region. 42 groundwater samples were collected in a definite pattern and they were analysed for major cations, anions and trace elements. The saturation index (SI) of the groundwater for carbonate, sulphate and silica minerals was studied and it has been correlated with the recharge and the discharge regions. The SI of alumino silicates has been used to decipher the stage of weathering. The SI{sub Gibbsite} - SI{sub K-feldspar} has been spatially distributed and the regions of discharge and recharge were identified. Then two flow paths A1 and A2 were identified and inverse modelling using PHREEQC were carried out to delineate the geochemical process that has taken place from recharge to discharge. The initial and final solutions in both the flow paths were correlated with the thermodynamic silicate stability diagrams of groundwater and it was found that the state of thermodynamic stability of the end solutions along the flow path were approaching similar states of equilibrium at the discharge.

Chidambaram, S.; Anandhan, P. [Annamalai University, Department of Earth Sciences (India); Prasanna, M. V., E-mail: geoprasanna@gmail.com [Curtin University, Department of Applied Geology, School of Engineering and Science (Malaysia); Ramanathan, AL. [Jawaharlal Nehru University, School of Environmental Sciences (India); Srinivasamoorthy, K. [Pondicherry University, Department of Earth Sciences, School of Physical, Chemical and Applied Sciences (India); Senthil Kumar, G. [HNB Garwhal University, Department of Geology (India)

2012-09-15

60

Direct comparison of recent cyclone and tsunami deposits from the Tamil Nadu coastline, south-eastern India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Storm and tsunami deposits have been identified and described from many siliciclastic coastlines globally. However, as storm and tsunami deposits are both the result of inundation by ocean waves, they can have similar sedimentological and geomorphological signatures. To demarcate storm and tsunami deposits in the geological record, a number of criteria have been proposed to distinguish the two types of deposits. However, these criteria have been assembled from storm and tsunami deposits from coastlines of markedly different onshore and offshore geomorphologies, sedimentary characteristics and sediment sources. Thus, a primary goal for coastal hazard scientists is to define a suite of characteristics that can be used to discern storm from tsunami deposits. This can only be accomplished by identifying recent, known tsunami and storm deposits from the same coastline to directly compare the sedimentary characteristics deposited by these types of events. Here we compare the sedimentology, microfauna and sedimentary structures of two recent events, the 26th December 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami and the 31st December 2011 Cyclone Thane, from three sites along the Tamil Nadu coastline, south-east India and categorise the similarities and differences between the two deposits. Three sites were investigated, two (SB-1 and SB-2) at Silver Beach, Cuddalore and a third (Pit DPM-3a) at the now blocked Pennai River Mouth north of Cuddalore. At all sites the sedimentary deposits of Cyclone Thane overlie aeolian sands which in turn overly the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami deposits. In SB-1 the tsunami deposits have been partially reworked by mangroves that fringed the blocked river. The tsunami deposit found in pit SB-2 overlays a marine intertidal - beach sequence. Pit DPM-3a contains the upper part of the2004 tsunami. In each pit, heavy mineral-rich layers characterise the tsunami and the cyclone deposit, whereas the intervening aeolian sands have only a minor heavy mineral content. Also, the cyclone deposit overlies a buried vegetation surface in each pit which lies above the relatively clean aeolian sand. Both of the upper surfaces of the tsunami and cyclone deposits had been partially reworked by wind, rainfall washout and human interaction. A vertical profile from each pit was sampled at approximately 1 cm intervals for analysis of loss on ignition, sediment grainsize and the microfauna (ostracods and foraminifera). Loss on ignition showed very little variation within and between pits. The organic and carbonate contents for all three sites were consistently below 2%. Sediment grainsize did not vary markedly between the tsunami, aeolian and cyclone deposits with or between pits suggesting a similar sediment source. Preliminary microfaunal content (ostracod and foraminifera) of the tsunami and cyclone deposits are similar in terms of abundance and species composition in each pit, the pits from Silver Beach contain only slightly more shell hash from broken bivalves and gastropods. In the studied profiles the storm and tsunami deposits are not statistically different in composition, grain size or faunal content.

Gouramanis, C.; Karthikeyan, A.; Seshachalam, S.; Switzer, A.; Pham, D. T.

2013-12-01

61

First report of Dicopus longipes (Subba Rao) (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) from India with new distribution data on some species  

PubMed Central

Abstract Dicopus longipes (Subba Rao) (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Mymaridae) is recorded from India for the first time. New additional distribution records of Mymaridae from the southern Indian states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala are documented.

Anjana, M.

2015-01-01

62

Study on the Prevalence of Leptospirosis among Fever Cases Reported from Private Clinics in the Urban areas of Villupuram District, Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Objectives To know the prevalence of leptospirosis cases reported in private clinics among fever cases in Villupuram District, Tamil Nadu, India to know its real magnitude of the problem and to diagnose Leptospirosis among fever cases from differential diagnosis. Methods 1502 Blood serum samples collected from three urban towns namely Kallakurichi (Latitude: 11° 73? N; Longitude: 78° 97? E), Villupuram (Latitude: 11° 75? N; Longitude: 79° 92? E) and Thindivanam (Latitude: 12° 25? N; Longitude: 79° 65? E) in fifteen clinics based on case definition of leptospirosis delineated by the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP), Government of India. Samples were tested in the laboratory of the Zonal Entomological Team (ZET), Cuddalore with Macroscopic Slide Agglutination Test (MSAT) and Ig-M ELISA. Result There were 65 positive cases detected from 1502 blood serum samples in both MSAT and Ig-M ELISA. It could be known that there was 4% cases contributed from private clinics among fever cases. From this study, further it was known that all age groups of people affected irrespective of sexes based on their living condition associated with the environment prevailed of the disease. Conclusion From this study, it was quantified that 4% of cases reported in private clinics among fever cases and its findings ascertained both the importance of differential diagnosis as well as reports that should be included to the Government for knowing its real magnitude for planning. PMID:24955313

Basker, Parasuraman; Kannan, Pichai; Kolandaswamy, Karumana Gounder

2014-01-01

63

Distribution patterns of natural radioactivity and delineation of anomalous radioactive zones using in situ radiation observations in Southern Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

In situ radiation measurements in the beach sectors and adjacent hinterlands and along rivers in the interiors of southern peninsular India were carried out using a portable radiation survey meter. A very high intrinsic anomalous radioactivity >26microGy/h has been observed in the hinterlands within a fresh quarry and weathered boulders in the syenite rock body around Puttetti in the western Kanyakumari district of southern Tamil Nadu. Over the weathered hillocks in the hinterlands adjacent to the coast around Inayam, Kurumpanai and Midalam, the in situ radiation measurements have also exhibited high radioactivity ranging from 4 to 22microGy/h which is significantly higher than the radiation exposure rates (RER) observed along the beach sectors at various locations from Chavara to Tuticorin (1-14microGy/h). The observed radiation levels are presumably the highest concentration in southern India and it is the first time that such a high intrinsic radiogenic source in the hinterlands is reported in southwest coast of India. It is also observed based on the laboratory analysis of samples and in situ radiation data that the rivers/channels in this region contain insignificant level of radioactivity concentration and hence they do not contribute much to the placer deposits on the beaches. The placer deposits associated with significant RER (both in situ observations as well as laboratory estimates from samples) in the beach sectors from Kadiapattanam to Inayam are inferred to be derived through the country rocks/weathered hillocks in the immediate hinterlands. PMID:16904260

Singh, H N; Shanker, D; Neelakandan, V N; Singh, V P

2007-03-01

64

Determinants of Patient's Adherence to Hypertension Medications in a Rural Population of Kancheepuram District in Tamil Nadu, South India  

PubMed Central

Context: Non-communicable diseases, no longer a disease of the rich, impose a great threat in the developing nations due to demographic and epidemiological transition. This increasing burden of non-communicable diseases and their risk factors is worrisome. Adherence to hypertension (HT) medication is very important for improving the quality of life and preventing complications of HT. Aim: To study the factors determining adherence to HT medication. Settings and Design: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in a rural area of Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu, with a total population of around 16,005. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out over a period of 6 months (February-July) using a pre-structured and validated questionnaire. All eligible participants were selected by house-to-house survey and individuals not available on three consecutive visits were excluded from the study. The questionnaire included information on demographic characteristics, lifestyle habits, adherence to HT medication, blood pressure, and body mass index (BMI). Caste was classified based on Tamil Nadu Public Service commission. Statistical Analysis: Data were entered in MS Excel and analyzed in SPSS version 16. P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Ethical Consideration: Informed verbal consent was obtained prior to data collection. The patient's adherence to HT medication was assessed using the Morisky 4-Item Self-Report Measure of Medication-taking Behavior [MMAS-4]. Results: We studied 473 hypertensive patients of which 226 were males and 247 were females. The prevalence of adherence was 24.1% (n = 114) in the study population. Respondents with regular physical activity, non-smokers and non-alcoholics were more adherent to HT medication as compared with respondents with sedentary lifestyle, smoking and alcohol intake (P < 0.005). Based on health belief model, the respondents who perceived high susceptibility, severity, benefit had better adherence compared with moderate and low susceptibility, severity, benefit. PMID:25657510

Venkatachalam, J.; Abrahm, Sherin Billy; Singh, Zile; Stalin, P.; Sathya, G. R.

2015-01-01

65

Physico-chemical parameters of the SW and post NE monsoon (2009) seawater along the continental slope, Tamil Nadu, east coast of India, Bay of Bengal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations in sea water temperature, salinity, light intensity and availability of nutrients strongly influence the phytoplankton distribution that forms an important part of the coastal food chain. In this paper, we present the results of the physico-chemical parameters and nutrient concentrations in seawaters sampled during the 2009 South West (SW) and post North East (NE) monsoon periods along the continental shelf from Chennai to Nagapattinam, east coast, Tamil Nadu. This study was conducted to assess the status of the coastal biogeochemical environment and for this purpose, seawater samples were collected from the sea surface and also at varying depths (surface to 150 m depth) at six different locations. The nutrient analyses and the CTD data reveal a distinct variation with water depth along the continental slope and also the physico-chemical properties of seawater are not homogenous. The observed values of nutrients for the post NE monsoon period are low compared to the SW monsoon period. Contour plots indicate seasonal and spatial variations in physico-chemical parameters along the continental shelf of the east coast of India. The data suggests that during the 2009 SW monsoon period, a significant increase of freshwater input into the Bay of Bengal could have elevated nutrient concentration compared to that observed during the post 2009 NE monsoon.

Nisha, V.; Achyuthan, H.

2014-01-01

66

Impact of leachate on groundwater pollution due to non-engineered municipal solid waste landfill sites of erode city, Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Leachate and groundwater samples were collected from Vendipalayam, Semur and Vairapalayam landfill sites in Erode city, Tamil Nadu, India, to study the possible impact of leachate percolation on groundwater quality. Concentrations of various physicochemical parameters including heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Fe and Zn) were determined in leachate samples and are reported. The concentrations of Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, NH4+ were found to be in considerable levels in the groundwater samples particularly near to the landfill sites, likely indicating that groundwater quality is being significantly affected by leachate percolation. Further they were proved to be the tracers for groundwater contamination near Semur and Vendipalayam dumpyards. The presence of contaminants in groundwater particularly near the landfill sites warns its quality and thus renders the associated aquifer unreliable for domestic water supply and other uses. Although some remedial measures are suggested to reduce further groundwater contamination via leachate percolation, the present study demands for the proper management of waste in Erode city. PMID:23369323

2012-01-01

67

Psychological Morbidity Status Among the Rural Geriatric Population of Tamil Nadu, India: A Cross-sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Mental health problems like depression, cognitive impairment, anxiety, sleep disorders, and so on, arising out of senility, neurosis, and living conditions are common in the geriatric population. Aims: To study the psychiatric morbidity among the rural elderly. Settings and Design: A community-based, cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted on 800 rural elderly subjects, aged 60 years and more, living in ten randomly selected villages, served by the Rural Health Training Center (RHTC), Valadi, in Tamilnadu state, India. Cognitive functioning was assessed by the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE), and the depression by the Geriatric Depression Scale — Shorter version. Statistical Analysis: The data was analyzed with SPSS 16 version statistical software using proportions, and the chi-square. Results: A majority of the subjects were widows / widowers, illiterates, living with family, and showing economic dependency. The prevalence of cognitive impairment was 43.25%, with a mean MMSE score of 23.32±4.4, and the depression was 47.0% and 6.16±3.4. Cognitive impairment, depression, and a disturbed sleep pattern were associated with female sex, age, illiteracy, poverty, loneliness, and the low socioeconomic status of the family. Conclusions: The study showed a definite association between the sociodemographic factors and psychiatric morbidity. Encouraging the Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) working for the elderly, running of separate geriatric clinics, and effective implementation of schemes like old age pension are some of the measures to be taken. PMID:23441084

Reddy, N. Bayapa; Pallavi, M.; Reddy, N. Nagarjuna; Reddy, C. Sainarasimha; Singh, Rajiv Kumar; Pirabu, R. A.

2012-01-01

68

Hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality appraisal of part of south Chennai coastal aquifers, Tamil Nadu, India using WQI and fuzzy logic method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study was carried out to evaluate the groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking purposes in the urban coastal aquifers of part of south Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Twenty-three groundwater samples were collected during March 2012. The minimum and maximum values of pH (6.3-8 on scale), electrical conductivity (620-12,150 ?S/cm), total dissolved solids (399.28-7,824.6 mg/l), carbonate (0-30 mg/l), bicarbonate (0.9-58.9 mg/l), chloride (70.9-4,067.89 mg/l), sulphate (17.4-105 mg/l), nitrate (0.4-6.0 mg/l), calcium (30-200 mg/l), magnesium (1.2-164 mg/l), sodium (69-1,490 mg/l) and potassium (8-340 mg/l) were recorded in the coastal aquifers of Chennai city. The groundwater samples show that the majority of the sampling points clustered on the NaCl and mixed CaMgCl facies of the piper trilinear diagram. In the Gibbs diagram, the majority of the sampling points fall under rock water and evaporation dominance field. Fuzzy membership classification suggests that the majority of the samples fall under good water type followed by excellent water and poor water categories. Groundwater quality index showing the majority of the samples falls under excellent to poor category of water. A positive correlation was observed with Cl-, SO4 2-, Ca2+, Na+, K+, EC and TDS. The extracted results of the correlation matrix and geochemical analysis suggest that the dominant ions of groundwater (Na+, Ca2+, K+, Cl- and SO4 2-) were derived from seawater intrusion and gypsum dissolution process. Nitrate concentration is most significantly derived from anthropogenic sources.

Krishna Kumar, S.; Bharani, R.; Magesh, N. S.; Godson, Prince S.; Chandrasekar, N.

2014-12-01

69

Evaluation of Catrosat 1PAN Stereo and Resourcesat Liss 4 MSS Merged Data for Morphometric Analysis, Delineation of Drainage Basins and Codification in Tamil Nadu, India and Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Topographic maps and Aerial Photographs are used for morphometric analysis of drainage basins and mapping contours with drainage. The stereo pairs of 2.5 m resolution Cartosat 1, Indian satellite 2 and merged data with 5.5 m resolution P6 Resourcesat 1 LISS 4 Indian satellite of 2001 is used to map, rills, gullies, and streams of first order to evaluate part of drainage basin of Cooum and Poondi Reservoir in Thiruvallur taluk of Tamil Nadu state. The Geo Eye latest 2011data is also used with Catrosat 1Stereo data to study present morphology of tiny micro watersheds to study the use of High resolution data for delineation and codification of watersheds. This study area is in an inter fluvial drainage basin of Cooum and Kusasthalai rivers. Kusasthalai river drains in Poondi reservoir which is about 50 km from Chennai. The excess water from Kosasthalai is also diverted through Kesawaram weir to Cooum river which passes through Thiruvallur and Chennai city before it's confluence with Bay of Benegal in the east. As Cooum basin is at higher elevation, water for irrigation is again diverted through chain of tanks to Kusasthalai river basin to drain in Poondi reservoir. Delineation of water sheds in this fluvial basin is difficult by manual survey as man made irrigation channels, natural drainage streams etc., have to be clearly identified. The streams of various orders are identified based on Strahler stream order hierarchy of tributaries, slops and contours using large scale satellite data. The micro water sheds are delinated identifying the ridges from Catrosat data for this interfluves basin which has mild slop. To illustrate this research, parts of two micro watersheds which were delineated using 1:50000 data for Tamil Nadu watershed Atlas up to 7th order streams are taken up for a detailed study using high resolution data. 19 Micro watersheds with streams up to 10th order are mapped. The capability of high resolution satellite data for digital as well as visual interpretation in conjunction with village cadastral maps has been studied. This research will be useful to consider creation of digital micro watershed atlas for management and protecting area affected by floods as well as for water and land resource management of the River basins in Queensland, New South Wales, South Australia and Victoria states of Australia. The research explains the need of using stream orders, delineation and codification micro watersheds based the principles of Dr.A.N.Khosla. This methodology was used in creation of web site of Districts soil water sheds atlas of Tamil Nadu state. With this principal of codification and delineation of watersheds based on stream order using stereo data of Cartosat 1 PAN 2.5 m data merged with Resourcesat LISS 4 data of 5.5m resolution and updating latest changes as on 2011 with non stereo Geo eye data of 0.5m resolution it is possible to create Australian micro water sheds GIS with deatils of streams with various stream orders, drainage pattern, slope, micro water sheds boundary in 1:5000 scale to manage the flood prone drainage basin in Australia. The High resolution data of satellites data apart from creation Micro watersheds GIS can be used for creation of Urban and Argicultural land parcel owenership details in Micro watershed GIS.

Mohamed, G. S.; Srinivasan, S.; Pandian, R.; Gummidipoondi, R. J.; Venkatchalam, R. V.; Swaminathan. S, S.

2012-07-01

70

Monsoon Harvests: Assessing the Impact of Rainwater Harvesting Ponds on Subsistence-Level Agriculture in the Gundar Basin, Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lack of consistent water availability for irrigated agriculture is recognized as one of the primary constraints to meeting the UN Millennium Development Goals to alleviate hunger, and in semi-arid landscapes such as those of southern India, which are characterized by high intra-annual variability in rainfall, provision of capabilities for seasonal storage is recognized to be one of the key strategies towards alleviating water scarcity problems and ensuring food security. Although the issue of increased storage can be addressed by centralized infrastructure projects such as large-scale irrigation systems and dams, an alternative is the "soft path" approach, in which existing large-scale projects are complemented by small-scale, decentralized solutions. Such a decentralized approach has been utilized in southern India for thousands of years in the form of village rainwater harvesting tanks or ponds, providing a local and inherently sustainable approach to providing sufficient water for rice cultivation. Over the last century, however, large-scale canal projects and groundwater pumping have replaced rainwater harvesting as the primary source of irrigation water. But with groundwater withdrawals now exceeding recharge in many areas and water tables continuing to drop, many NGOs and government agencies are advocating for a revival of the older rainwater harvesting systems. Questions remain, however, regarding the limits to which rainwater harvesting can provide a solution to decades of water overexploitation. In the present work, we have utilized secondary data sources to analyze the linkages between the tank irrigation systems and the village communities that depend on them within the Gundar Basin of southern Tamil Nadu. Combining socioeconomic data with information regarding climate, land use, groundwater depletion, and tank density, we have developed indicators of sustainability for these systems. Using these indicators, we have attempted to unravel the close coupling that exists between tanks, the village communities, and the natural landscape within which they are embedded. Preliminary results suggest that groundwater over-extraction is in many cases negatively impacting the ability of the rainwater harvesting ponds to provide a reliable water supply. In addition, while the social and economic benefits provided by these ponds reduce community vulnerability to variations in the region's yearly monsoons, there can be negative environmental impacts. Large-scale rainwater harvesting, similar to groundwater extraction, can change the overall water balance of a watershed, leading to a tradeoff of water availability between socioeconomic and ecosystem demands. Although traditional rainwater harvesting practices may appear to be more sustainable than the current high levels of groundwater pumping, the two practices carried out in tandem can increase water consumption even further, pushing the system closer to a threshold beyond which a profound crisis may loom.

Steiff, M.; Van Meter, K. J.; Basu, N. B.

2013-12-01

71

PREVALENCE OF ERGOT OF SORGHUM IN INDIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

On-farm sorghum ergot surveys were conducted in India in 1999, 2000 and 2001. A seven state area was surveyed including 250 fields in Andhra Pradesh, 451 fields in Karnataka, 413 fields in Maharashtra, 127 fields in Tamil Nadu, 3 in Rajasthan, 10 in Uttar Pradesh, and 1 in Gujarat. Ergot incidence ...

72

Pathways of calcrete development on weathered silicate rocks in Tamil Nadu, India: Mineralogy, chemistry and paleoenvironmental implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poorly documented yet spectacularly thick and extensive outcrops of calcrete hardpan occur on gneiss in the semiarid region of Coimbatore, South India. The hardpan caps a series of residual plateaux forming the present-day continental divide and grades into large expanses of Vertisols. Characteristic calcrete and Vertisol profiles were logged along toposequences and sampled for macro- and micromorphological study, and for chemical and mineralogical composition. Strontium isotopic analyses revealed that the calcrete is derived from in situ weathering of Ca-bearing primary minerals of the saprolite, which is rich in ankerite, Ca-amphiboles and Ca-plagioclase. The macroscale analysis revealed a range of facies developed within the gneiss saprolite, but in terms of relative chronology the nodular hardpan has the longest history. Two evolutionary pathways leading to nodular hardpan formation have been established. The first occurs entirely within a vadose environment, whereas the second begins within a phreatic environment before continuing to develop in vadose conditions. The ability to identify and map these generic categories of calcrete constitutes a potential tool for reconstructing paleotopography and paleogroundwater levels. The bedrock-weathering-derived nodular hardpan is blanketed by a laminar facies that correlates with an eolian event with marine Sr signatures. This suggests influx of Ca dust from the Arabian Sea continental shelf during a Pleistocene sea-level low-stand. It defines an important benchmark in the chronology of the area and highlights the potential antiquity of the thick calcrete profiles.

Durand, N.; Gunnell, Y.; Curmi, P.; Ahmad, S. M.

2006-11-01

73

Solid waste, its health impairments and role of rag pickers in Tiruchirappalli city, Tamil Nadu, Southern India.  

PubMed

In India, the significant increase in the generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) during the last few decades is due to the rapid population and economic development. Though the appropriate attempts are made through the 3-'R' principles, waste management still needs to be envisaged seriously by everybody for a cleaner and greener environment. Rag-pickers, who contribute to solid waste management to some extent, are the people who rummage through garbage bins to pick out 'rags' for their livelihood. These rag-pickers usually collect the materials that have good re-sale value as these materials are mostly recycled or reused. In the present study, the collection and the management of solid waste and the level of microbial pollution generated through air, soil and solid waste were studied. A questionnaire survey based on age, sex, educational status, socio-economic status, habits and health effects was conducted from 65 randomly selected rag-pickers from various places of Tiruchirappalli city The results revealed that they can be properly educated and trained to protect themselves from unhygienic practices and addiction. Either the Government or non-governmental organizations (NGOs) should devise a suitable proposal to monitor and make use of these unorganized rag-pickers who are indispensable to the society. PMID:19910398

Chandramohan, A; Ravichandran, C; Sivasankar, V

2010-10-01

74

Retrospective Evaluation of Pediatric Oral Biopsies from A Dental and Maxillofacial Surgery Centre in Salem, Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the pediatric oral biopsies received between 2002-2011 from a dental and maxillofacial centre in Salem, Tamilnadu, India retrospectively based on age, sex, site and type of the pathologies. Materials and Methods: The records of dental and maxillofacial surgery centre were taken and a retrospective evaluation of the pediatric lesions biopsied over a period of ten years (2002-2011) was done. Patients aged 15 years and below were considered as pediatric patients and pathologies were grouped into 8 categories, according to age, gender, anatomic location and pathologic diagnosis. Results: A total of nine hundred twenty five biopsies were studied, of which 97 cases were from pediatric patients. The pathologies were predominant in mandible to maxilla (47:29).The distribution of the pathologies were 44 odontogenic pathologies, 18 connective tissue tumours, 3 salivary gland tumours, 5 fibro osseous lesions and 25 tumour like lesions. Out of this 44 odontogenic pathologies, 39 were odontogenic cysts, and 5 were odontogenic tumours. Conclusion: Unlike other studies, the lesions were more common in the mandible with a female predilection. The majority of oral and maxillofacial lesions detected in pediatric population were benign similar to the previous reports. PMID:24596780

Krishnan, Ramesh; Ramesh, Maya; Paul, George

2014-01-01

75

Safe, accessible medical abortion in a rural Tamil Nadu clinic, India, but what about sexual and reproductive rights?  

PubMed

Women's control over their own bodies and reproduction is a fundamental prerequisite to the achievement of sexual and reproductive health and rights. A woman's ability to terminate an unwanted pregnancy has been seen as the exercise of her reproductive rights. This study reports on interviews with 15 women in rural South India who had a medical abortion. It examines the circumstances under which they chose to have an abortion and their perspectives on medical abortion. Women in this study decided to have an abortion when multiple factors like lack of spousal support for child care or contraception, hostile in-laws, economic hardship, poor health of the woman herself, spousal violence, lack of access to suitable contraceptive methods, and societal norms regarding reproduction and sexuality converged to oppress them. The availability of an easy and affordable method like medical abortion pills helped the women get out of a difficult situation, albeit temporarily. Medical abortion also fulfilled their special needs by ensuring confidentiality, causing least disruption of their domestic schedule, and dispensing with the need for rest or a caregiver. The study concludes that medical abortion can help women in oppressive situations. However, this will not deliver gender equality or women's empowerment; social conditions need to change for that. PMID:25702077

B, Subha Sri; Ravindran, Tk Sundari

2015-02-01

76

Macrobenthic communities of the Vellar Estuary in the Bay of Bengal in Tamil-Nadu in South India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The macrobenthic fauna and communities of the Vellar Estuary located at the southeast cost of India (11°30' N, 79°45' E) and the adjacent marine and river habitats are described on the basis of original data (70 samples over 10 transects). The fauna consists of 115 macrobenthic species and 79 species in estuarine habitats. We described 14 types of macrobenthic communities with different compositions of the dominant species. The leading ecological factors of the distribution of the communities are the salinity, depth, and bottom type. The Vellar estuary consists of two longitudinal zones of macrobenthos. The polyhalinic area is populated by the marine species, but it is related not to a salinity decrease but to the protection from waves and silt on the bottom in this area. The polyhalinic communities are most abundant in terms of the biomass and species richness. The mesohalinic area is inhabited by brackish water species and communities with low abundance. The sublittoral estuarine area is dominated by filter-feeders—the bivalves Crassostrea madrasensis, Meretrix casta, Modiolus metcalfei, and Scapharca inaequivalves—and the littoral zone is dominated by the gastropods Cerithidea cingulata, some crabs, and polychaetes. The ecosystem function of the Vellar estuary can be defined as a filter for the fine organic particles transported by the river.

Chertoprud, M. V.; Chertoprud, E. S.; Saravanakumar, A.; Thangaradjou, T.; Mazei, Yu. A.

2013-03-01

77

Antibacterial activity of selected medicinal plants against multiple antibiotic resistant uropathogens: a study from Kolli Hills, Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

The increasing incidence of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens necessitates medicinal plants as an alternate therapy in restricting the resistant infectious organisms. In this primitive study, the antibiotic resistance of organisms isolated from urinary tract infected patients was evaluated using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) method and Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) index values, and the MAR values was also calculated for plant extracts. The 10 common medicinal plants collected from Kolli hills, Namakkal, south India were extracted using the chloroform, methanol, acetone, ethanol and saponification procedure. The efficacy of the extracts on the uropathogens was tested by agar disc diffusion method in order to analyse the inhibitory activity of plant extract on the organisms. Azadiracta indica A. Juss., Tinospora cordifolia (Wild.) and Euphorbia hirta Linn. exhibited high inhibitory activity against most of the 11 tested organisms followed by Cassia javanica Linn. and Phyllanthus niruri Linn. The maximum zone size of 46.3 mm was exhibited by methanol extract of P. niruri Linn. against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Asparagus racemosus Willd. and Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl had the least activity against resistant pathogens. Saponified lipids of most of the plants exhibited maximum antibacterial activity. Among the tested organisms, P. aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis were the most susceptible and Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter cloaceae, Citrobacter koseri, and Citrobacter freundii were the least inhibited by most of the extracts of medicinal plants. It is concluded that revised antibiotic policies and more importantly the development of herbal medicine as an alternative may be incorporated in urological practice. PMID:21986363

Narayanan, A S; Raja, S S S; Ponmurugan, K; Kandekar, S C; Natarajaseenivasan, K; Maripandi, A; Mandeel, Q A

2011-09-01

78

Dem Assessment Derived from Close Range Photogrammetry: a Case Study from Kadavur Area, Karur District, Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Close-Range Photogrammetry is an accurate, cost effective technique of collecting measurements of real world objects and conditions, directly from photographs. Photogrammetry utilizes digital images to obtain accurate measurements and geometric data of the object or area of interest, in order to provide spatial information for Engineering design, spatial surveys or 3D modeling. The benefits of close-range Photogrammetry over other field procedures are purported to be: Increased accuracy; complete as-built information; reduced costs; reduced on-site time; and effective for small and large projects. The same basic principle of traditional Aerial Photogrammetry can be applied to stereoscopic pictures taken from lower altitudes or from the ground. Terrestrial, ground-based, and close-range are all descriptive terms that refer to photos taken with an object-to-camera distance less than 300m (1000 feet). (Matthews, N.A, 2008). Close range Photogrammetry is a technique for obtaining the geometric information (e.g. position, distance, size and shape) of any object in 3D space that was imaged on the two dimensional (2D) photos, (Wolf, P.R, et.al, 2000) DEM Generation requires many processing and computation, such as camera calibration, stereo matching, editing, and interpolation. All the mentioned steps contribute to the quality of DEM. Image on close range Photogrammetry can be captured using three kind of camera: metric camera, semi-metric camera, and non-metric camera (Hanke, K., et.al, 2002). In this paper DEM quality assessed at Kadavur area, Karur district, Tamil Naudu, India using Close Range Photogrammetry technique, Commercial Digital Camera and Leica Photogrammetry Suite.

Anbarasan, S.; Sakthivel, R.

2012-07-01

79

Assessment of water contribution on total fluoride intake of various age groups of people in fluoride endemic and non-endemic areas of Dindigul District, Tamil Nadu, South India.  

PubMed

The prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the intake of large quantities of fluoride through water. It is necessary to determine the contribution of water used for drinking and food processing and other diet sources on daily fluoride intake for finding the ways to reduce the excess fluoride intake than the minimum safe level intake of 0.05 mg/kg/day. The main objectives of this study are to determine the quantitative impact of water through drinking and cooking of food and beverages on total fluoride intake as well as to estimate the contribution of commonly consumed diet sources on total fluoride intake. Contribution of water on daily fluoride intake and estimation of total fluoride intake through the diet sources were accomplished through analysis of fluoride in drinking water, solid and liquid food items, Infant formulae, tea and coffee infusions using fluoride ion selective electrode. Determination of incidence of fluorosis in different fluoride endemic areas in Dindigul District of Tamil Nadu, South India is achieved through clinical survey. The percentage of daily fluoride intake through water is significantly higher for infants than children, adults and old age groups of people. The percentile scores of fluoride intake through water from drinking and cooking increases with increase of water fluoride level. The rate of prevalence of fluorosis is higher in adolescent girls and females than adolescent boys and males residing in high fluoride endemic areas. More than 60% of the total fluoride intake per day derived from water used for drinking and food processing. Hence the people residing in the fluoride endemic areas in Dindigul District of Tamil Nadu, South India are advised to take serious concern about the fluoride level of water used for drinking and cooking to avoid further fluorosis risks. PMID:20728198

Viswanathan, Gopalan; Gopalakrishnan, S; Siva Ilango, S

2010-12-01

80

Rise of regions after reforms : late development strategies for the software industry in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, and Kerala in India  

E-print Network

Emergence of India as a major center in the world for software production since the early 1990s has been a remarkable success story of economic development. However, within the country, the growth in this industry has been ...

Kumar, Rajendra, 1967-

2007-01-01

81

Influence of behavioral biases on the assessment of multi-hazard risks and the implementation of multi-hazard risks mitigation measures: case study of multi-hazard cyclone shelters in Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In December 2004, a multiple hazards event devastated the Tamil Nadu province of India. The Sumatra -Andaman earthquake with a magnitude of Mw=9.1-9.3 caused the Indian Ocean tsunami with wave heights up to 30 m, and flooding that reached up to two kilometers inland in some locations. More than 7,790 persons were killed in the province of Tamil Nadu, with 206 in its capital Chennai. The time lag between the earthquake and the tsunami's arrival in India was over an hour, therefore, if a suitable early warning system existed, a proper means of communicating the warning and shelters existing for people would exist, than while this would not have prevented the destruction of infrastructure, several thousands of human lives would have been saved. India has over forty years of experience in the construction of cyclone shelters. With additional efforts and investment, these shelters could be adapted to other types of hazards such as tsunamis and flooding, as well as the construction of new multi-hazard cyclone shelters (MPCS). It would therefore be possible to mitigate one hazard such as cyclones by the construction of a network of shelters while at the same time adapting these shelters to also deal with, for example, tsunamis, with some additional investment. In this historical case, the failure to consider multiple hazards caused significant human losses. The current paper investigates the patterns of the national decision-making process with regards to multiple hazards mitigation measures and how the presence of behavioral and cognitive biases influenced the perceptions of the probabilities of multiple hazards and the choices made for their mitigation by the national decision-makers. Our methodology was based on the analysis of existing reports from national and international organizations as well as available scientific literature on behavioral economics and natural hazards. The results identified several biases in the national decision-making process when the construction of cyclone shelters was being undertaken. The availability heuristics caused a perception of low probability of tsunami following an earthquake, as the last large similar event happened over a hundred years ago. Another led to a situation when decisions were taken on the basis of experience and not statistical evidence, namely, experience showed that the so-called "Ring of Fire" generates underground earthquakes and tsunamis in the Pacific Ocean. This knowledge made decision-makers to neglect the numerical estimations about probability of underground earthquake in the Indian Ocean even though seismologists were warning about probability of a large underground earthquake in the Indian Ocean. The bounded rationality bias led to misperception of signals from the early warning center in the Pacific Ocean. The resulting limited concern resulted in risk mitigation measures that considered cyclone risks, but much less about tsunami. Under loss aversion considerations, the decision-makers perceived the losses connected with the necessary additional investment as being greater than benefits from mitigating a less probable hazard.

Komendantova, Nadejda; Patt, Anthony

2013-04-01

82

Understanding public drug procurement in India: a comparative qualitative study of five Indian states  

PubMed Central

Objective To perform an initial qualitative comparison of the different procurement models in India to frame questions for future research in this area; to capture the finer differences between the state models through 53 process and price parameters to determine their functional efficiencies. Design Qualitative analysis is performed for the study. Five states: Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Odisha, Punjab and Maharashtra were chosen to ensure heterogeneity in a number of factors such as procurement type (centralised, decentralised or mixed); autonomy of the procurement organisation; state of public health infrastructure; geography and availability of data through Right to Information Act (RTI). Data on procurement processes were collected through key informant analysis by way of semistructured interviews with leadership teams of procuring organisations. These process data were validated through interviews with field staff (stakeholders of district hospitals, taluk hospitals, community health centres and primary health centres) in each state. A total of 30 actors were interviewed in all five states. The data collected are analysed against 52 process and price parameters to determine the functional efficiency of the model. Results The analysis indicated that autonomous procurement organisations were more efficient in relation to payments to suppliers, had relatively lower drug procurement prices and managed their inventory more scientifically. Conclusions The authors highlight critical success factors that significantly influence the outcome of any procurement model. In a way, this study raises more questions and seeks the need for further research in this arena to aid policy makers. PMID:23388196

Singh, Prabal Vikram; Tatambhotla, Anand; Kalvakuntla, Rohini; Chokshi, Maulik

2013-01-01

83

Empowerment of Fisher Women of Siluvaipatti Fishing Village of Tuticorin, Southeast Coast of India through Adult Education and ICT Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on adult education and information and communication technologies (ICT) training to fisherwomen of Siluvaipatti fishing village in Tuticorin district of Tamil Nadu State, southeastern India. The total families in this village are 209 with population 899 (Male: 442; Female: 457). The education level is generally good in…

Patterson, Jamila; Linden, Eva; Bierbrier, Christin; Lofgren, Inger; Wilhelmsson, Dan; Edward, J. K. Patterson

2008-01-01

84

Study on quality of effluent discharge by the Tiruppur textile dyeing units and its impact on river Noyyal, Tamil Nadu (India).  

PubMed

In Tiruppur, 729 textile dyeing units are under operation and these units generate 96.1 MLD of wastewater. The untreated effluent was discharged into the Noyyal River till 1997. After the issuance of directions by Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board (TNPCB) in 1997, these units have installed 8 common effluent treatment plants (CETP) consisting of physical, chemical and biological treatment units. Some of the units have installed individual ETP (IETP). The treated effluent was finally discharged into the river. The dyeing units use sodium chloride in the dyeing process for efficient fixing of dye in the fabric efficiently. This contributes high total dissolved solids (TDS) and chlorides in the effluent. CETPs and IETPs failed to meet discharge standards of TDS and chlorides and thereby significantly affected the river water quality. TDS level in the river water was in the range of 900 - 6600 mg/L, and chloride was in the range of 230 - 2700 mg/L. Orathupalayam dam is located across Noyyal river at 32 km down stream of Tiruppur. The pollutants carried by the river were accumulated in the dam. TDS in the dam water was in the range of 4250 - 7900 mg/L and chloride was in the range of 1600 - 2700 mg/L. The dam sediments contain heavy metals of chromium, copper, zinc and lead. In 2006, the High Court has directed the dyeing units to install zero liquid discharge (ZLD) plant and to stop discharging of effluent into the river. Accordingly, the industries have installed and commissioned the ZLD plant consisting of RO plant and reject management system in 2010. The effluent after secondary treatment from the CETP is further treated in RO plant. The RO permeate is reused by the member units. The RO reject is concentrated in multiple effect evaporator (MEE)/ mechanical vacuum re-compressor (MVR). The concentrate is crystallized and centrifuged to recover salt. The salt recovered is reused. The liquid separated from the centrifuge is sent to solar evaporation pan. The salt collected in the solar pan is bagged and stored in secure land fill facility. Thus, the discharge into the river is now stopped. However, the damage caused to the groundwater and soil contamination in the river basin is yet to be restored. PMID:22312804

Rajkumar, A Samuel; Nagan, S

2010-10-01

85

POVERTY IN INDIA AND INDIAN STATES: AN UPDATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT A complete and updated series on poverty measures for India is presented spanning the period 1951–1994. The series are presented at the all-India level as well as for 15 major states, and for rural and urban sectors separately. Key features of the evolution of poverty in India are described. CONTENTS

Gaurav Datt

86

India.  

PubMed

In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the exception of the 1977-79 period of Janta Party rule. Domestically, India has made much progress since independnece. A relatively sophisticated industrial base and a large pool of skilled labor have been created, but agriculture remains the crucial sector and supports 70% of the people. It contributes about 40% of gross national product (GNP). Only modest gains in per capita GNP have been achieved. Agricultural production has been increasing at an average annual rate of around 3%. Cotton and jute textile production continues to be the most important industry, but public sector firms in steel, heavy industry, and chemicals have become important since 1960. Supreme command of India's armed forces rests with the president but actual responsibility for national defense lies with the Cabinet Committee for Political Affairs. The US and India have aimed at cordial relations. The US is India's largest trading partner and has been an important source of foreign economic assistance. PMID:12178110

1985-05-01

87

Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) studies of Campanian-Maastrichtian sediments of Ariyalur Group, Cauvery Basin, Tamil Nadu, India: An appraisal to Paleocurrent directions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oriented samples of sediments from Ariyalur Group, Cauvery Basin, south India, were studied for low field anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) measurements to unravel the magnetic fabrics and paleocurrent directions. The results of AMS parameters of the sediments indicate primary depositional fabrics for Sillakkudi, Ottakovil and Kallamedu sandstone formations and secondary fabric for Kallankurichchi limestone formation. The obtained low degree of anisotropy ( P j ), oblate shape AMS ellipsoid and distribution of maximum ( K 1) and minimum ( K 3) susceptibility axes on equal area projection confirm the primary sedimentary fabric for Sillakkudi, Ottakovil and Kallamedu Formations. In the case of ferruginous, lower arenaceous, Gryphaea limestone and upper arenaceous limestone beds of Kallankurichchi Formation have recorded more than one fabric. The observed AMS parameters like shape factor ( T) (prolate to oblate), q value and random distribution of minimum ( K 3) and maximum ( K 1) susceptibility axes are supported for secondary fabrics in Kallankurichchi Formation as a result of post-depositional processes. Based on petrographic studies, it can be established that K 1 AMS axis of biotite mineral could represent the flow direction. The established paleocurrent direction for Sillakkudi is NW-SE direction while Ottakovil and Kallamedu Formations recorded NE-SW direction. Overall the paleoflow directions observed for Ariyalur Group is NE-SW to NW-SE.

Papanna, G.; Venkateshwarlu, M.; Periasamy, V.; Nagendra, R.

2014-03-01

88

Metabolic Variations, Antioxidant Potential, and Antiviral Activity of Different Extracts of Eugenia singampattiana (an Endangered Medicinal Plant Used by Kani Tribals, Tamil Nadu, India) Leaf  

PubMed Central

Eugenia singampattiana is an endangered medicinal plant used by the Kani tribals of South India. The plant had been studied for its antioxidant, antitumor, antihyperlipidemic, and antidiabetic activity. But its primary and secondary metabolites profile and its antiviral properties were unknown, and so this study sought to identify this aspect in Eugenia singampattiana plant through different extraction methods along with their activities against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The GC-MS analysis revealed that 11 primary metabolites showed significant variations among the extracts. Except for fructose all other metabolites were high with water extract. Among 12 secondary metabolites showing variations, the levels of 4-hydroxy benzoic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, ferulic acid, coumaric acid, epigallocatechin gallate, quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol were high with methanol extract. Since the flavonoid content of methanol extracts was high, the antioxidant potential, such as ABTS, and phosphomolybdenum activity increased. The plants antiviral activity against PRRSV was for the first time confirmed and the results revealed that methanol 25?µg and 75 to 100?µg in case of water extracts revealed antiviral activity. PMID:25133179

John, K. M. Maria; Jeeva, Subbiah; Suresh, Murugesan; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Kim, Doo Hwan

2014-01-01

89

Maxillofacial trauma in Tamil Nadu children and adolescents: A retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim of this retrospective study is to describe the incidence, aetiology, complexity and surgical indications of maxillofacial injuries in children and adolescents population of Tamil Nadu state of india during period of 4 years. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was conducted among 500 children and adolescents patients of age group 6 years to 16 years suffered or suffering with maxillofacial and skull fractures presenting to ten Level I trauma centers over a 4 year period.The data collected for this study included age, gender, etiology, associated maxillofacial trauma, anatomic site of fracture and treatment. Results and Conclusion: In our study the most common cause of trauma was traffic 35%, followed by falls 24% and sports 22%. Mandible was commenest bone prone to fracture, followed by maxilla and nasal bone. Mandible fractures accounted for 72% of all maxillofacial fractures. PMID:23946572

Arvind, Ramraj Jayabalan; Narendar, Ramesh; Kumar, Palanisamy Dinesh; Venkataraman, Sivasubramaniam; Gokulanathan, Subramanium

2013-01-01

90

The Gendered Nature of Disasters: Women Survivors in Post-Tsunami Tamil Nadu  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impacts of disasters rarely reveal themselves equally across an affected population. Rather, the extent of impact is determined by social constructs, such as religion, caste, socioeconomic status and most notably, gender, which cuts across all of these spheres. This article focuses on the variable of gender and the role it played in post-tsunami Tamil Nadu, India. In particular, gender

Luke Juran

2012-01-01

91

[India within World History.] Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997 (India).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents slide narration to accompany eight separate units on India to be used in World History classes or other areas across the curriculum. Units include: (1) "Religion: India's Diverse Temples and Sacred Places"; (2) "Styles of Dress: Shimla to Kerala"; (3) "Traditional Dance in India"; (4) "South India: Kerala & Tamil Nadu"; (5)…

Bragdon, Ann E.

92

Chinese ELT students in India 59 Chinese ELT students in India  

E-print Network

Chinese ELT students in India 59 Chinese ELT students in India: Some reflections on the use of instructionist and learner-centred activities K. Meenakshi Vellore Institute of Technology, Tamil Nadu, India the language and hence many Chinese students opt to pursue their higher education in India or in any other

Chaudhuri, Sanjay

93

ADDITIONS TO THE FLORA OF NILGIRIS DISTRICT, TAMIL NADU  

PubMed Central

Nilgiri District, Tamil Nadu is one of the most botanised areas of southern India. In spite of it a number of wild plants had been missed by previous collectors. In addition a number of exotics and ornamentals having importance in alternative systems of medicine like Homoeopathy and Unani have not been collected and preserved as herbarium records. The present paper lists 36 species of wild plants and 69 species of exotics. Their areas of occurrence, phonological data, accession numbers, and names of collectors have been given. PMID:22556568

Baburaj, D. Suresh; Nain, S. S.; Rajan, S.

1991-01-01

94

Population exposure to airborne thorium at the high natural radiation areas in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

High natural radiation areas in the coastal and peninsular India were studied for airborne thorium and resultant population exposure due to inhalation. Four locations covering three states viz., Ayiramthengu and Neendakara in Kerala, Kudiraimozhi in Tamil Nadu and Bhimilipatnam in Andhra Pradesh were investigated. External gamma radiation fields 1m above the monazite ore bodies ranged from 200 to 3000nGyh-1. Soil

A. C. Paul; P. M. B. Pillai; P. P. Haridasan; Sujatha Radhakrishnan; S. Krishnamony

1998-01-01

95

Broken People: Caste Violence Against India's "Untouchables"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Even though "the imposition of social disabilities on persons by reason of their birth in certain castes" was legally abolished under India's constitution in 1950, "untouchability" is still practiced today in much of rural India. The "untouchable" caste -- or Dalits, which literally means "broken people" -- comprises over one-sixth of India's population, or 160 million people. This 310-page report, recently issued by Human Rights Watch (HRW), documents the discrimination and violence suffered by Dalits under the societal rule of higher-caste groups in the Indian states of Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Gujarat. The report also examines the government's role in preserving the status quo by thwarting peaceful social activism and failing to abolish exploitative labor practices through appropriate legislation.

96

Impacts of Groundwater Contamination with Fluoride and ArsenicAffliction Severity, Medical Cost and Wage Loss in Some Villages of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In India, high fluoride concentration in groundwater (greater than 1 mg/l) is widespread in the arid to semi-arid western states of Rajasthan and Gujarat and in the southern states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. A field research study conducted at six areas severely affected by fluorosis shows that affordability of safer drinking water is related to higher income

Rajnarayan Indu; Sunderrajan Krishnan; Tushaar Shah

2007-01-01

97

Evidence for CO2-rich fluids in rocks from the type charnockite area near Pallavaram, Tamil Nadu  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fluid inclusion and mineral chemistry data was presented for samples from the type charnockite area near Pallavaram (Tamil Nadu, India). The results indicate the presence of a dense CO2 fluid phase, but the data cannot distinguish between influx of this fluid from elsewhere or localized migration of CO2-rich fluids associated with dehydration melting.

Hansen, E.; Hunt, W.; Jacob, S. C.; Morden, K.; Reddi, R.; Tacy, P.

1988-01-01

98

First Impressions on the State of Cellular Data Connectivity in India  

E-print Network

First Impressions on the State of Cellular Data Connectivity in India Zahir Koradia Goutham Mannava Triukose Dept. of Comp Sc IIT Bombay Mumbai, India Dept. of Comp Sc IIT Delhi§ New Delhi, India National ICT Australia Sydney, Australia ABSTRACT Cellular penetration in India has grown tremendously in re

Ribeiro, Vinay

99

78 FR 65290 - Request for Applicants for the Appointment to the United States-India CEO Forum  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Applicants for the Appointment to the United States- India CEO Forum AGENCY: Global Markets, International...2005, the Governments of the United States and India established the U.S.-India CEO Forum. On February 10, 2012, we...

2013-10-31

100

77 FR 7132 - Request for Applicants for the Appointment to the United States-India CEO Forum  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Applicants for the Appointment to the United States- India CEO Forum AGENCY: Market Access and Compliance...2005, the Governments of the United States and India established the U.S.-India CEO Forum. This notice announces membership...

2012-02-10

101

India  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

article title:  Aerosols over India     View Larger Image ... particulates, over the low-lying plains of northeastern India appear in dramatic contrast with the relatively pristine air of the ... October 15, 2001 - High concentrations of aerosols over India. project:  MISR category:  gallery ...

2013-04-16

102

3 CFR - Certifications Pursuant to Section 104 of the United States-India Nuclear Cooperation Approval...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Pursuant to Section 104 of the United States-India Nuclear Cooperation Approval and Nonproliferation...Regarding the Safeguards Agreement Between India and the International Atomic Energy Agency...Pursuant to Section 104 of the United States-India Nuclear Cooperation Approval and...

2011-01-01

103

India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Not only is India one of the oldest continuous civilizations in the world, it has also become one of the greatest industrial nations. This package explores India's heritage, its people, and the traumatic changes of the 20th century. Contents include: Introduction, Climate, The Land, Cities, Agriculture, Rural Life, History, Religions, Dress, Food,…

Semaan, Leslie; Lightman, Kathleen

104

India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This text examines India's rich and long history, then uses this perspective to focus on present day problems and aspirations. It forces students to reevaluate their stereotyped images of India by presenting a nation that has striven to recover from a past of colonial domination, is presently faced with regional ethnic discord and disparity, and…

Semaan, Leslie

105

Health Beliefs of College Students Born in the United States, China, and India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors surveyed 243 urban public university students who were born in the United States, China, and India to compare the health beliefs of the China-born, India-born, and US-born students. Although the China- and India-born students shared beliefs in many preventive and therapeutic practices of Western medicine with the US-born students, they…

Rothstein, William G.; Rajapaksa, Sushama

2003-01-01

106

Movement Actors in the Education Bureaucracy: The Figured World of Activity Based Learning in Tamil Nadu  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tamil Nadu has gained international recognition for reforming its government school classrooms into active, child-centered learning environments. Our exploration of the history of the Activity Based Learning movement suggests that this reform was achieved by social movement actors serving in and through the state's administration.…

Niesz, Tricia; Krishnamurthy, Ramchandar

2014-01-01

107

Empirical Analysis of the Variability of Wind Generation in India: Implications for Grid Integration  

SciTech Connect

We analyze variability in load and wind generation in India to assess its implications for grid integration of large scale wind projects using actual wind generation and load data from two states in India, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. We compare the largest variations in load and net load (load ?wind, i.e., load after integrating wind) that the generation fleet has to meet. In Tamil Nadu, where wind capacity is about 53percent of the peak demand, we find that the additional variation added due to wind over the current variation in load is modest; if wind penetration reaches 15percent and 30percent by energy, the additional hourly variation is less than 0.5percent and 4.5percent of the peak demand respectively for 99percent of the time. For wind penetration of 15percent by energy, Tamil Nadu system is found to be capable of meeting the additional ramping requirement for 98.8percent of the time. Potential higher uncertainty in net load compared to load is found to have limited impact on ramping capability requirements of the system if coal plants can me ramped down to 50percent of their capacity. Load and wind aggregation in Tamil Nadu and Karnataka is found to lower the variation by at least 20percent indicating the benefits geographic diversification. These findings suggest modest additional flexible capacity requirements and costs for absorbing variation in wind power and indicate that the potential capacity support (if wind does not generate enough during peak periods) may be the issue that has more bearing on the economics of integrating wind

Phadke, Amol; Abhyankar, NIkit; Rao, Poorvi

2014-06-17

108

India  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The fundamental ethical principles that govern the practice of genetic medicine are patient autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence,\\u000a and justice. In India and other developing countries the application of these principles is influenced by poverty and numerous\\u000a social factors. Table 1 compares the demographic indicators in India with those in Thailand, Japan, US, and UK (UNICEF, 1998). It emphasizes the huge population

I. C. Verma; Kusum Verma

109

Molecular prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in dairy calves in Southern states of India.  

PubMed

Dung samples were collected from dairy calves of south Indian states viz., Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and union territory, Puducherry and are subjected to nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting 18S rRNA gene for detection of Cryptosporidium infection. Of the 459 dung samples screened 182 were found positive with a prevalence of 39.65%. Highest prevalence of Cryptosporidium was observed in Puducherry (86.67%) and lowest in Kerala (17.65%). Genotyping by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequence analysis revealed the presence of all the four major Cryptosporidium species of cattle viz., Cryptosporidium andersoni, Cryptosporidium ryanae, Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium bovis. C. andersoni was widely distributed in calves of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Puducherry whereas in Andhra Pradesh C. ryanae was the major species. Of the 64 samples subjected to PCR-RFLP, 39 (60.94%) could be classified as C. andersoni, 18 (28.13%) as C. ryanae, 4 (6.25%) as C. parvum and 3 (4.69%) were confirmed as C. bovis. The results were also confirmed by sequencing of 19 Cryptosporidium DNA samples. PMID:22459107

Venu, R; Latha, B R; Basith, S Abdul; Raj, G Dhinakar; Sreekumar, C; Raman, M

2012-08-13

110

Rural women and irrigation: Patriarchy, class, and the modernizing state in South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irrigation is the major strategy used by ‘'modernizing'’ states in India and throughout the Third World to raise agricultural productivity and surpluses. This paper shows that irrigation is not gender?neutral, focusing on how canal irrigation affects women's work and lives in Andhra Pradesh, India. First, it delineates the particular consequences for women of state?sponsored irrigation. It then focuses on transformations

Priti Ramamurthy

1991-01-01

111

Jasminum sambac flower absolutes from India and China--geographic variations.  

PubMed

Seven Jasminum sambac flower absolutes from different locations in the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu were analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Focus was placed on 41 key ingredients to investigate geographic variations in this species. These seven absolutes were compared with an Indian bud absolute and commercially available J. sambac flower absolutes from India and China. All absolutes showed broad variations for the 10 main ingredients between 8% and 96%. In addition, the odor of Indian and Chinese J. sambac flower absolutes were assessed. PMID:22799098

Braun, Norbert A; Sim, Sherina

2012-05-01

112

Mending the seams of an Urban Patchwork Quilt : achieving an 'Ordered Chaos' in temple towns of Southern India  

E-print Network

Historically rich and culturally vibrant, the city of Mylapore (located in Tamil Nadu) is a prominent temple town of Southern India, in which the Kapaleeshwarar Temple is treasured. The analysis of this town, in relation ...

Rajaraman, Harini S

2007-01-01

113

Prevalence of and risk factors for hypertension in urban and rural India: the ICMR-INDIAB study.  

PubMed

The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of hypertension (HTN) and its risk factors in urban and rural India. In Phase I of the Indian Council of Medical Research-India Diabetes (ICMR-INDIAB) study, individuals aged ?20 years were surveyed using a stratified multistage sampling design, in three states (Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and Jharkhand) and one union territory (Chandigarh) of India. Blood pressure was measured in all study subjects (n=14?059). HTN was defined as systolic blood pressure ?140?mm?Hg, and/or DBP ?90?mm?Hg and/or use of antihypertensive drugs. Overall age-standardized prevalence of HTN was 26.3% (self-reported: 5.5%; newly detected: 20.8%). Urban residents of Tamil Nadu, Jharkhand, Chandigarh and Maharashtra (31.5, 28.9, 30.7 and 28.1%) had significantly higher prevalence of HTN compared with rural residents (26.2, 21.7, 19.8 and 24.0%, respectively). Multivariate regression analysis showed that age, male gender, urban residence, generalized obesity, diabetes, physical inactivity and alcohol consumption were significantly associated with HTN. Salt intake ?6.5?g per day, showed significantly higher risk for HTN (odds ratio: 1.4, 95% confidence interval: 1.0-1.9, P=0.042) even after adjusting for confounding variables. In conclusion, prevalence of undiagnosed HTN is high in India and this calls for regular screening. PMID:25078490

Bhansali, A; Dhandania, V K; Deepa, M; Anjana, R M; Joshi, S R; Joshi, P P; Madhu, S V; Rao, P V; Subashini, R; Sudha, V; Unnikrishnan, R; Das, A K; Shukla, D K; Kaur, T; Mohan, V; Pradeepa, R

2015-03-01

114

3 CFR - Delegation of Certain Functions Under Section 204(c) of the United States-India Nuclear...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Section 204(c) of the United States-India Nuclear Cooperation Approval and Nonproliferation...Section 204(c) of the United States-India Nuclear Cooperation Approval and Nonproliferation...section 204(c) of the United States-India Nuclear Cooperation Approval and...

2011-01-01

115

3 CFR - Delegation of Certain Functions Under Section 104(g) of the United States-India Peaceful Atomic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Section 104(g) of the United States-India Peaceful Atomic Energy Cooperation Act...Section 104(g) of the United States-India Peaceful Atomic Energy Cooperation Act...section 104(g) of the United States-India Peaceful Atomic Energy Cooperation...

2011-01-01

116

Mindset Challenges at Aluminum India Limited: Privatization of a State-Owned Enterprise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Central Government of India sold 49% equity and gave management control of Aluminum India Limited (AIL), an aluminum manufacturing state-owned enterprise (SOE), to the AlBright Group in 2002, as a move to attract capital investments for AIL and to make its operations financially viable. When Noorani, Chairperson of AlBright — a private company — took over AIL, she had

Anjula Gurtoo

2006-01-01

117

Private Provision of Elementary Education in India: Findings of a Survey in Eight States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Private sector growth in education is the new neo-liberal mantra. Based on data generated by a representative sample survey in eight states, six of which account for two-thirds of the children out of school in India, this paper examines the private sector in elementary education in India, and compares its characteristics with government schools.…

Mehrotra, Santosh; Panchamukhi, Parthasarthi R.

2006-01-01

118

Emotional Expression and Control in School-Age Children in India and the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study compared 6- to 9-year-old children's reports of their decisions to express anger, sadness, and physical pain; methods of controlling and communicating felt emotion; and reasons for doing so in response to hypothetical situations across three groups: old-city India (n = 60), suburban India (n = 60), and suburban United States (n =…

Wilson, Stephanie L.; Raval, Vaishali V.; Salvina, Jennifer; Raval, Pratiksha H.; Panchal, Ila N.

2012-01-01

119

ACUTE NON-ORGANIC PSYCHOTIC STATE IN INDIA: SYMPTOMATOLOGY  

PubMed Central

Patients with acute onset, non-organic psychotic states are frequently reported from India and certain other developing countries. This paper relates to an investigation of such cases in terms of their clinical history and their symptomatology examining the extent to which these are similar /dissimilar to schizophrenia and affective psychosis. 109 cases of acute psychosis fulfilling specified screening criteria were assessed on the Schedule for Clinical Assessment Acute Psychotic States (SCAAPS) and Present Slate Examination (PSE). Vie findings revealed that about 34% of all patients experienced significant strees before the onset of psychosis. About 40% of all cases presented with Catego subtype which was not indicative clearly of a specific diagnostic category. This subgroup of patients differed from the remaining 60% of patient in having greater frequency of stress before the onset of psychosis. On the whole the delusions were more commonly seen in patients from upper socioeconomic status & urban background. Limitations of classificatory provisions in the ICD-9 and catego in dealing with acute psychotic state are highlighted. PMID:21776107

Verma, Vijoy K.; Malhotra, Savita; Jiloha, Ram C.

1992-01-01

120

Reshaping the social contract: emerging relations between the state and informal labor in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

As states grapple with the forces of liberalization and globalization, they are increasingly pulling back on earlier levels\\u000a of welfare provision and rhetoric. This article examines how the eclipsing role of the state in labor protection has affected\\u000a state–labor relations. In particular, it analyzes collective action strategies among India’s growing mass of informally employed\\u000a workers, who do not receive secure

Rina Agarwala

2008-01-01

121

Issues and Challenges in Geomatics Education in Haryana State, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Haryana, the beginning of Geomatics may be traced back to the establishment of Haryana State Remote Sensing Application Centre (HARSAC) now renamed as Haryana Space Application Centre at Hisar under the aegis of Department of Science and Technology, Govt. of Haryana with the active support from Department of Space, Govt. of India in 1986. Though, Gurgaon has developed as Geomatics hub housing many national and international collaborators but mostly involved in RS& GIS applications and rarely as a training centre. Looking to the needs of the trained manpower in Geomatics, PG diploma course in remote sensing and GIS was started by MDU, Rohtak in 2005 followed by CRM, Jat College Hisar in 2007. GJU, Hisar came up with M. Tech. degree in Geoinformatics in collaboration with HARSAC, Hisar two years before i.e. in 2009. MDU, Rohtak has also come up the M. Tech. programme in Geoinformatics this year. The Geo-sciences disciplines including the department of Geophysics, Geology, Geography and Environmental Sciences in different universities in Haryana are also having a compulsory paper on RS, GIS and GPS emphasizing more on the fundamentals and applications specifically in their specific domains. The Department of Geophysics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra has also established Geoinformatics lab with funding from UGC to cater the training needs in this sector. The present paper discusses critical issues related to the present status, grey areas and future scenario of Geomatics education in Haryana.

Chaudhary, B. S.

2012-07-01

122

Building State Capacity: Evidence from Biometric Smartcards in India  

E-print Network

, India We thank Santosh Anagol, Abhijit Banerjee, Gordon Dahl, Rema Hanna, Gordon Hanson, Erzo Luttmer-PAL/IPA project team, including Vipin Awatramani, Kshitij Ba- tra, Prathap Kasina, Piali Mukhopadhyay, Michael

Johnson, Marcia K.

123

Current knowledge on the distribution of arsenic in groundwater in five states of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Testing of groundwater used for drinking for arsenic has been undertaken more widely by state governments in several states of India in recent years with the support of UNICEF. Available data for five states are collated in this paper and this provides the most up-to-date picture of areas known to be affected by arsenic in groundwater in the Indian portion

R. Nickson; C. Sengupta; P. Mitra; S. N. Dave; A. K. Banerjee; A. Bhattacharya; S. Basu; N. Kakoti; N. S. Moorthy; M. Wasuja; M. Kumar; D. S. Mishra; A. Ghosh; D. P. Vaish; A. K. Srivastava; R. M. Tripathi; S. N. Singh; R. Prasad; S. Bhattacharya; P. Deverill

2007-01-01

124

Effects of State-level Public Spending on Health on the mortality Probability in India  

PubMed Central

This study uses the second National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2) of India to estimate the effect of state-level public health spending on mortality across all age groups, controlling for individual, household, and state-level covariates. We use a state’s gross fiscal deficit as an instrument for its health spending. Our study shows a 10 % increase in public spending on health in India decreases the average probability of death by about 2%, with effects mainly on the young, the elderly, and women. Other major factors affecting mortality are rural residence, household poverty, and access to toilet facilities. PMID:19937613

Farahani, M; Subramanian, SV; Canning, D

2011-01-01

125

Women's Autonomy in India and Pakistan: The Influence of Religion and Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article compares the lives of women and explores dimensions of their autonomy in different regions of South Asia-Punjab in Pakistan, and Uttar Pradesh in north India and Tamil Nadu in south India. It explores the contextual factors underlying observed differences and assesses the extent to which these differences could be attributed to religion, nationality, or north-south cultural distinctions. Findings

Shireen J. Jejeebhoy; Zeba A. Sathar

2001-01-01

126

Transitional relief housing for tsunami victims of Tamil Nadu, India  

E-print Network

In the wake of the recent tsunami that swept across Asia, there is a dire need to salvage and rebuild the lives and livelihoods that were swept away. The aim of this thesis project is to design and model a transitional ...

Jin, Shauna

2006-01-01

127

Shoreline change analysis of Vedaranyam coast, Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

The coastal zone is one of the nation's greatest environmental and economic assets. The present research aims at studying the shoreline changes along Vedaranyam coast using conventional and modern techniques including field sampling, remote sensing, and geographical information system (GIS). The study area was divided into three zones. Dynamic Land/Sea polygon analysis was performed to obtain the shore line changes at different time periods between 1930 and 2005. From the multidate shoreline maps, the rate of shoreline change was computed using linear regression rate and end point rate. Further, the shoreline was classified into eroding, accreting, and stable regions through GIS analysis. The eroding, accreting, and stable coastal stretch along Vedaranyam is observed as 18 %, 80.5 %, and 1.5 %, respectively. Net shoreline movement is seaward, i.e., the coast is progressive with an average rate of 5 m/year. A maximum shoreline displacement of 1.3 km towards the sea is observed near Point Calimere. During the Asian Tsunami 2004, the eastern part of the study area showed high erosion. Sediment transport paths derived from the grain size analysis of beach sediments collected during different seasons help to identify the major sediment source and sinks. Point Calimere acts as the major sink for sediments whereas Agastiyampalli and Kodiakkarai are found to be the major sources for the sediment supply along the Vedaranyam coast. Shoreline change study from field and satellite data using GIS analysis confirms that Vedaranyam coast is accreting in nature. PMID:23054290

Natesan, Usha; Thulasiraman, N; Deepthi, K; Kathiravan, K

2013-06-01

128

Hot springs and the geothermal energy potential of Jammu & Kashmir State, N.W. Himalaya, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

India has an estimated geothermal power potential of 10,600 MWe, but this potential is entirely undeveloped at present. The 'Geothermal Atlas of India' prepared by the Geological Survey of India (GSI) in 1991 describes some 340 hot spring sites and identifies more than 300 sites with geothermal potential in at least seven key geothermal provinces throughout India. There are more than 20 hot spring sites in Jammu & Kashmir State, mainly in the Chenab Valley in the Lesser/Central Himalaya, the Kashmir Valley and in the High Himalaya region of Ladakh. At least three localities in the Ladakh region - Chamuthang and Puga in the Indus valley and Panamik in the Nubra Valley - are considered to have geothermal power generation potential of between 3 and > 20 MWe.

Craig, J.; Absar, A.; Bhat, G.; Cadel, G.; Hafiz, M.; Hakhoo, N.; Kashkari, R.; Moore, J.; Ricchiuto, T. E.; Thurow, J.; Thusu, B.

2013-11-01

129

Emissions from India's transport sector: Statewise synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A decentralized emission inventories are prepared for road transport sector of India in order to design and implement suitable technologies and policies for appropriate mitigation measures. Globalization and liberalization policies of the government in 90's have increased the number of road vehicles nearly 92.6% from 1980-1981 to 2003-2004. These vehicles mainly consume non-renewable fossil fuels, and are a major contributor of green house gases, particularly CO 2 emission. This paper focuses on the statewise road transport emissions (CO 2, CH 4, CO, NO x, N 2O, SO 2, PM and HC), using region specific mass emission factors for each type of vehicles. The country level emissions (CO 2, CH 4, CO, NO x, N 2O, SO 2 and NMVOC) are calculated for railways, shipping and airway, based on fuel types. In India, transport sector emits an estimated 258.10 Tg of CO 2, of which 94.5% was contributed by road transport (2003-2004). Among all the states and Union Territories, Maharashtra's contribution is the largest, 28.85 Tg (11.8%) of CO 2, followed by Tamil Nadu 26.41 Tg (10.8%), Gujarat 23.31 Tg (9.6%), Uttar Pradesh 17.42 Tg (7.1%), Rajasthan 15.17 Tg (6.22%) and, Karnataka 15.09 Tg (6.19%). These six states account for 51.8% of the CO 2 emissions from road transport.

Ramachandra, T. V.; Shwetmala

130

Enabling Efficient, Responsive, and Resilient Buildings: Collaboration Between the United States and India  

SciTech Connect

The United States and India have among the largest economies in the world, and they continue to work together to address current and future challenges in reliable electricity supply. The acceleration to efficient, grid-responsive, resilient buildings represents a key energy security objective for federal and state agencies in both countries. The weaknesses in the Indian grid system were manifest in 2012, in the country’s worst blackout, which jeopardized the lives of half of India’s 1.2 billion people. While both countries are investing significantly in power sector reform, India, by virtue of its colossal growth rate in commercial energy intensity and commercial floor space, is better placed than the United States to integrate and test state-of-art Smart Grid technologies in its future grid-responsive commercial buildings. This paper presents a roadmap of technical collaboration between the research organizations, and public-private stakeholders in both countries to accelerate the building-to-grid integration through pilot studies in India.

Basu, Chandrayee; Ghatikar, Girish

2013-09-25

131

Why has economic growth been more pro-poor in some states of India than others?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use 20 household surveys for India's 15 major states spanning 1960–1994 to study how the sectoral composition of economic growth and initial conditions interact to influence how much growth reduced consumption poverty. The elasticities of measured poverty to farm yields and development spending did not differ significantly across states. But the elasticities of poverty to (urban and rural) non-farm

Martin Ravallion; Gaurav Datt

2002-01-01

132

SOME RARE HOMOEOPATHIC MEDICINAL PLANTS OF SOUTH INDIA  

PubMed Central

This present study describes 11 species under 11 generate and 10 families of rare Homoeopathic Medicinal Plants introduced and cultivated in the Nilgiri district, Tamil Nadu, South India. The original citation, description, distribution and their medicinal uses are given. PMID:22556647

Rajan, S.

1993-01-01

133

Antibacterial activity of selected ethnomedicinal plants from South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo screen the antimicrobial potential of three ethnomedicinal plants Chassalia curviflora Thw. (C. curviflora), Cyclea peltata Hook. F. & Thomson (C. peltata) and Euphorbia hirta L (E. hirta) used in folk medicines in Aarukani hills Kani tribe, Tamil Nadu, India against human bacterial pathogens.

Rajendran Darling Anpin Raja; Solomon Jeeva; Juststella Wilfred Prakash; Johnson Marimuthu Antonisamy; Varaprasadham Irudayaraj

2011-01-01

134

Multiple personality in India: comparison with hysterical possession state.  

PubMed

This article reports probably the first case of multiple personality from India and compares and contrasts it with the hysterical possession syndrome. Attention is drawn to the apparent rarity of multiple personality in contrast to the great prevalence of the possession syndrome in India (and other underdeveloped societies), while the reverse applies to Western Europe and North America. It is postulated that the disparity of frequency between the two manifestations of personal-identity disturbance derives from certain basic cultural differences. It is argued that polytheism and belief in reincarnation and spirits may be related to the possession syndrome, whereas high social approval of deliberate role-playing may foster the multiple personality syndrome. PMID:7258407

Varma, V K; Bouri, M; Wig, N N

1981-01-01

135

Palatoscopy: An adjunct to forensic odontology: A comparative study among five different populations of India  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study was conducted to analyze and identify differences in the palatal rugae patterns and to identify gender wise changes in the palatal rugae shapes in populations of five different states of India. Study Design: Study was conducted in five different Indian states. 500 sample subjects from Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra were included. Rugae patterns with predominant shapes were analyzed and categorized according to different states and both genders, data was statistically analyzed using SPSS software 15.0 and the results were obtained by Chi-square analysis. Results: “Wavy” type of palatal rugae pattern is the most predominant variant in five different study groups in both the genders. Conclusion: This study could identify variations in distribution of various palatal rugae pattern in five different states and confirmed the “wavy” type of palatal rugae patterns to be the most predominant variant in five different study groups. PMID:24678197

Byatnal, Amit; Byatnal, Aditi; Kiran, A. Ravi; Samata, Y.; Guruprasad, Yadavalli; Telagi, Neethu

2014-01-01

136

Understanding Behavior Disorders: Their Perception, Acceptance, and Treatment--A Cross-Cultural Comparison between India and the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions, identification and treatment of students with behavior problems or disorders in India and the United States. Participants in the study were students and teachers in the United States and India. A qualitative approach included in-depth interviews and participant observations. These were…

Chakraborti-Ghosh, Sumita

2008-01-01

137

Indigenous Disseminated Penicillium marneffei Infection in the State of Manipur, India: Report of Four Autochthonous Cases  

PubMed Central

We describe four cases of disseminated infection caused by endemic Penicillium marneffei in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients from the Manipur state of India. The most common clinical features observed were fever, anorexia, weight loss, hepatosplenomegaly, and, more importantly, skin lesions resembling molluscum contagiosum. The diagnosis in each of the four cases was achieved by direct examination of smears, observance of intracellular yeast-like cells multiplying by fission in biopsied tissue from skin lesions, and isolation of the dimorphic P. marneffei in pure culture in each case. In one case, fluorescent antibody studies allowed specific diagnosis. This report documents a new area in which P. marneffei is endemic, located in eastern India, and describes the first occurrence in India of P. marneffei in HIV-infected patients as well as the extension of the areas of P. marneffei endemicity westward to the northeastern state of Manipur. PMID:10405425

Singh, P. Narendra; Ranjana, K.; Singh, Y. Indiver; Singh, K. Priyokumar; Sharma, S. Surchandra; Kulachandra, M.; Nabakumar, Y.; Chakrabarti, A.; Padhye, A. A.; Kaufman, L.; Ajello, L.

1999-01-01

138

Who killed Rambhor?: The state of emergency medical services in India  

PubMed Central

In India, the healthcare delivery system starts up from the sub-center at the village level and reaches up to super specialty medical centers providing state of the art emergency medical services (EMS). These highest centers, located in big cities, are considered the last referral points for the patients from nearby cities and states. As the incidents of rail and road accidents have increased in recent years, the role of EMS becomes critical in saving precious lives. But when the facilities and management of these emergency centers succumbs before the patient, then the question arises regarding the adequate availability and quality of EMS. The death of an unknown common man, Rambhor, for want of EMS in three big hospitals in the national capital of India put a big question on the “health” of the emergency health services in India. The emergency services infrastructure seems inadequate and quality and timely provision of EMS to critical patients appears unsatisfactory. There is lack of emergency medicine (EM) specialists in India and also the postgraduation courses in EM have not gained foot in our medical education system. Creation of a Centralized Medical Emergency Body, implementation of management techniques, modification of medical curriculum, and fixing accountability are some of the few steps which are required to improve the EMS in India. PMID:22416155

Garg, Rajesh H

2012-01-01

139

Cost and utilisation of hospital based delivery care in Empowered Action Group (EAG) states of India.  

PubMed

Large scale investment in the National Rural Health Mission is expected to increase the utilization and reduce the cost of maternal care in public health centres in India. The objective of this paper is to examine recent trends in the utilization and cost of hospital based delivery care in the Empowered Action Group (EAG) states of India. The unit data from the District Level Household Survey 3, 2007-2008 is used in the analyses. The coverage and the cost of hospital based delivery at constant price is analyzed for five consecutive years preceding the survey. Descriptive and multivariate analyses are used to understand the socio-economic differentials in cost and utilization of delivery care. During 2004-2008, the utilization of delivery care from public health centres has increased in all the eight EAG states. Adjusting for inflation, the household cost of delivery care has declined for the poor, less educated and in public health centres in the EAG states. The cost of delivery care in private health centres has not shown any significant changes across the states. Results of the multivariate analyses suggest that time, state, place of residence, economic status; educational attainment and delivery characteristics of mother are significant predictors of hospital based delivery care in India. The study demonstrates the utility of public spending on health care and provides a thrust to the ongoing debate on universal health coverage in India. PMID:23054455

Mohanty, Sanjay K; Srivastava, Akanksha

2013-10-01

140

Suicide Notes from India and the United States: A Thematic Comparison  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suicide is a global concern, hence, cross-cultural research ought to be important; yet, there is a paucity of cross-cultural study in suicidology. This study sought to investigate suicide notes drawn from India and the United States, as these countries have similar suicide rates but markedly different cultures. A thematic or theoretical-conceptual…

Leenaars, Antoon A.; Girdhar, Shalina; Dogra, T. D.; Wenckstern, Susanne; Leenaars, Lindsey

2010-01-01

141

COMPARISON OF MARITAL ATTITUDES BETWEEN COLLEGE STUDENTS FROM INDIA AND THE UNITED STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study compared the marital attitudes of college students from India and the United States. Of particular interest was the effect of student gender and type of family structure (nuclear, joint and extended) on the marital attitudes. The Inventory For Marriage Education (INFORMED), a 120 item scale with 12 content catagories was used to assess marital attitudes. The results suggest

RITA CHAUDHARY; DAVID G. FOURNIER

1990-01-01

142

Gender Roles, Obedience, and Chastity in India and the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most studies of gender roles in India have emphasized the subordinate roles of women, especially in comparison to the women in the United States. In contrast, the traditional dominant role of Indian women in the domestic aspects of family has not received as much attention. The present study compared the attitudes of college students in the United…

Rajagopalan, Vaidehi; And Others

143

Food Price Subsidies and Nutrition: Evidence from State Reforms to India's Public Distribution System1  

E-print Network

Food Price Subsidies and Nutrition: Evidence from State Reforms to India's Public Distribution food price subsidies affect household nutrition using a dramatic expansion of the availability. These results differ from recent studies suggesting that food subsidies have little effect on nutrition

Bandyopadhyay, Antar

144

Political contexts and maternal health policy: insights from a comparison of south Indian states.  

PubMed

Nearly 300,000 women die from pregnancy-related complications each year. One-fifth of these deaths occur in India. Maternal survival rose on India's national policy agenda in the mid-2000s, but responsibility for health policy and implementation in the federal system is largely devolved to the state level where priority for the issue and maternal health outcomes vary. This study investigates sources of variation in maternal health policy and implementation sub-nationally in India. The study is guided by four analytical categories drawn from policy process literature: constitutional, governing and social structures; political contexts; actors and ideas. The experiences of two south Indian states-Tamil Nadu a leader and Karnataka a relatively slow mover-are examined. Process-tracing, a case study methodology that helps to identify roles of complex historical events in causal processes, was employed to investigate the research question in each state. The study is informed by interviews with public health policy experts and service delivery professionals, observation of implementation sites and archival document analysis. Historical legacies-Tamil Nadu's non-Brahmin social movement and Karnataka's developmental disparities combined with decentralization-shape the states' political contexts, affecting variation in maternal health policy and implementation. Competition to advance consistent political priorities across regimes in Tamil Nadu offers fertile ground for policy entrepreneurship and strong public health system administration facilitates progress. Inconsistent political priorities and relatively weak public health system administration frustrate progress in Karnataka. These variations offer insights to the ways in which sub-national political and administrative contexts shape health policy and implementation. PMID:24444838

Smith, Stephanie L

2014-01-01

145

Evidence of State-Level Variability in the Economic and Demographic Well-Being of People with Disabilities in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among countries with comparable levels of income, India has one of the more progressive disability policy frameworks; however, people with disabilities in India are subject to multiple disadvantages. This paper focuses on state-level variations in outcomes for people with disabilities to provide one explanation for the stark contrast between the liberal laws on paper and the challenges faced by people

Nidhiya Menon; Susan L. Parish; Roderick A. Rose

2011-01-01

146

A Tale of 2 Countries: The Cost of My Mother’s Cardiac Care in the United States and India  

PubMed Central

When my mother fell ill while visiting me in the United States, I had the opportunity to compare costs of surgical cardiac care in the United States and India. I faced challenges in making well-informed decisions in the United States due to the lack of cost transparency and the minimal flexibility offered in choice of care, whereas in India costs are readily available and allow most people to freely choose their preferred type of care. PMID:25354412

Rao, Sowmya R.

2014-01-01

147

Under-Five Mortality in High Focus States in India: A District Level Geospatial Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background This paper examines if, when controlling for biophysical and geographical variables (including rainfall, productivity of agricultural lands, topography/temperature, and market access through road networks), socioeconomic and health care indicators help to explain variations in the under-five mortality rate across districts from nine high focus states in India. The literature on this subject is inconclusive because the survey data, upon which most studies of child mortality rely, rarely include variables that measure these factors. This paper introduces these variables into an analysis of 284 districts from nine high focus states in India. Methodology/Principal Findings Information on the mortality indicator was accessed from the recently conducted Annual Health Survey of 2011 and other socioeconomic and geographic variables from Census 2011, District Level Household and Facility Survey (2007–08), Department of Economics and Statistics Divisions of the concerned states. Displaying high spatial dependence (spatial autocorrelation) in the mortality indicator (outcome variable) and its possible predictors used in the analysis, the paper uses the Spatial-Error Model in an effort to negate or reduce the spatial dependence in model parameters. The results evince that the coverage gap index (a mixed indicator of district wise coverage of reproductive and child health services), female literacy, urbanization, economic status, the number of newborn care provided in Primary Health Centers in the district transpired as significant correlates of under-five mortality in the nine high focus states in India. The study identifies three clusters with high under-five mortality rate including 30 districts, and advocates urgent attention. Conclusion Even after controlling the possible biophysical and geographical variables, the study reveals that the health program initiatives have a major role to play in reducing under-five mortality rate in the high focus states in India. PMID:22629412

Kumar, Chandan; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Rai, Rajesh Kumar

2012-01-01

148

Students from India at a Major Research University in the United States: A Phenomenological Study of Transition, Adjustment, and Transformation  

E-print Network

The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the phenomena of transition, adjustment, and transformation among adult graduate students from India, who made the transition to Nurture University in the southwestern part of the United States...

Chennamsetti, Prashanti

2011-08-08

149

Application of wheat yield model to United States and India. [Great Plains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The wheat yield model was applied to the major wheat-growing areas of the US and India. In the US Great Plains, estimates from the winter and spring wheat models agreed closely with USDA-SRS values in years with the lowest yields, but underestimated in years with the highest yields. Application to the Eastern Plains and Northwest indicated the importance of cultural factors, as well as meteorological ones in the model. It also demonstrated that the model could be used, in conjunction with USDA-SRRS estimates, to estimate yield losses due to factors not included in the model, particularly diseases and freezes. A fixed crop calendar for India was built from a limited amount of available plot data from that country. Application of the yield model gave measurable evidence that yield variation from state to state was due to different mixes of levels of meteorological and cultural factors.

Feyerherm, A. M. (principal investigator)

1977-01-01

150

Self-Concepts Across Two CulturesIndia and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the self-concepts of college students in India to those in the United States by administering the Twenty Statements Test. Self-statements were analyzed in terms of five categories (social identity, ideological beliefs, interests, ambitions, and self-evaluations) and a numberof subcategories (e.g., self-identity, group identity, gender role identity). Results indicated differential use of the categories and subcategories in the

Nisha Dhawan; Ira J. Roseman; R. K. Naidu; Komilla Thapa; S. Ilsa Rettek

1995-01-01

151

India Today: The Jain Commission Report  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

_India Today_ has placed online the "Interim Report of The Jain Commission of Inquiry Headed by Justice M C Jain Former Chief Justice Delhi High Court on 'The Assassination of Shri Rajiv Gandhi Former Prime Minister of India on 21st May, 1991 at Sriperumbudur'." Sections of the Jain Commission Report have been withheld for security reasons and annexures have not been included because these constitute copies of press clippings, various affidavits, and letters. Volume titles include: "Commission and its proceedings," "Threats to Shri Rajiv Gandhi and his security," and "Growth of Sri Lankan Tamil Militancy in Tamil Nadu." The site can be search via a keyword search engine.

1997-01-01

152

Social determinants of health in India: progress and inequities across states.  

PubMed

IntroductionDespite the recognized importance of social determinants of health (SDH) in India, no compilation of the status of and inequities in SDH across India has been published. To address this gap, we assessed the levels and trends in major SDH in India from 1990 onwards and explored inequities by state, gender, caste, and urbanicity.MethodsHousehold- and individual-level SDH indicators were extracted from national household surveys conducted between 1990 and 2011 and means were computed across population subgroups and over time. The multidimensional poverty index (MPI), a composite measure of health, education, and standard of living, was calculated for all three rounds of the National Family Health Survey, adjusting the methodology to generate comparable findings from the three datasets. Data from government agencies were analyzed to assess voting patterns, political participation, and air and water pollution.ResultsChanges in the MPI demonstrate progress in each domain over time, but high rates persist in important areas: the majority of households in India use indoor biomass fuel and have unimproved sanitation, and over one-third of households with a child under the age of 3 years have undernourished children. There are large, but narrowing, gender gaps in education indicators, but no measurable change in womenżs participation in governance or the labor force. Less than 25% of workers have job security and fewer than 15% have any social security benefit. Alarming rates of air pollution are observed, with particulate matter concentrations persistently above the critical level at over 50% of monitoring stations.ConclusionsThis assessment indicates that air pollution (indoor and outdoor), child undernutrition, unimproved sanitation, employment conditions, and gender inequality are priority areas for public policy related to SDH in India. PMID:25294304

Cowling, Krycia; Dandona, Rakhi; Dandona, Lalit

2014-10-01

153

State of roads : public works as research, India circa 1960  

E-print Network

That the road is a symbol of the prowess of the nation-state seems tautological, a uni"ed phenomenon of political symbolism that manifests as an infrastructural network. When subjected to a close historical examination, ...

Khorakiwala, Ateya A

2009-01-01

154

URANIUM ORE DEPOSITS AT JADUGUDA IN BIHAR STATE, INDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the several prospects for uranium minerals under investigation in ; the copper belt of Singhbhum in the state of Bihar, two large continuous deposits ; of the order of two million tons each bave already been indicated by bore holes ; and partly proved by development work. One of them at Jaduguda is discussed. ; The surface ore consists

K. L. Bhola; G. R. Udas; N. R. Mehta; G. H. Sahasrabudhe

1959-01-01

155

Study of Blood-transfusion Services in Maharashtra and Gujarat States, India  

PubMed Central

Blood-transfusion services are vital to maternal health because haemorrhage and anaemia are major causes of maternal death in South Asia. Unfortunately, due to continued governmental negligence, blood-transfusion services in India are a highly-fragmented mix of competing independent and hospital-based blood-banks, serving the needs of urban populations. This paper aims to understand the existing systems of blood-transfusion services in India focusing on Maharashtra and Gujarat states. A mix of methodologies, including literature review (including government documents), analysis of management information system data, and interviews with key officials was used. Results of analysis showed that there are many managerial challenges in blood-transfusion services, which calls for strengthening the planning and monitoring of these services. Maharashtra provides a good model for improvement. Unless this is done, access to blood in rural areas may remain poor. PMID:19489420

Ramani, K.V.; Govil, Dipti

2009-01-01

156

Suicide notes from India and the United States: a thematic comparison.  

PubMed

Suicide is a global concern, hence, cross-cultural research ought to be important; yet, there is a paucity of cross-cultural study in suicidology. This study sought to investigate suicide notes drawn from India and the United States, as these countries have similar suicide rates but markedly different cultures. A thematic or theoretical-conceptual analysis of 72 suicide notes drawn from these countries, matched for age and gender, was undertaken, based on Leenaars' (1996) multidimensional model of suicide. The results suggested that there were more commonalities than differences; yet, not consistent with previous cross-cultural studies of suicide notes, Indian notes expressed more indirect expression including veiled aggression, or aggression turned inward, and unconscious dynamics. It was concluded that the model may be applicable to suicide in both countries, but also much greater study in India is warranted on collectivism and dissembling as a suicide risk factor. PMID:24479185

Leenaars, Antoon A; Girdhar, Shalina; Dogra, T D; Wenckstern, Susanne; Leenaars, Lindsey

2010-01-01

157

The political ecology of crop commercialization and dietary change in the Kolli Hills, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis presents an analysis of the intersections between access to food, agricultural decision-making and experiences with environmental change in three Malaiyali villages in the Kolli Hills, Tamil Nadu, India. Specifically, I examine why small farmers living in these villages might choose to shift from subsistence agriculture, to the cultivation of the cash crop tapioca (cassava). This entails examining agricultural

Elizabeth Finnis

2006-01-01

158

INSTITUTIONAL REACTIONS TO POLICY: A CASE STUDY OF RURAL BANKING IN SOUTH INDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since they were nationalised in 1969, the principal commercial banks in India have been subject to government policies intended to accelerate expansion of banking into rural areas and to meet social and developmental objectives. Drawing upon a study of rural bank branches in the Madurai region of Tamil Nadu, the paper examines the immediate results of this upon rural banking.

Steve Wiggins

1992-01-01

159

Prevention of Diabetes in Rural India with a Telemedicine Intervention  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes care is not presently available, accessible, or affordable to people living in rural areas in developing countries, such as India. The Chunampet Rural Diabetes Prevention Project (CRDPP) was conceived with the aim of implementing comprehensive diabetes screening, prevention, and treatment using a combination of telemedicine and personalized care in rural India. Methods This project was undertaken in a cluster of 42 villages in and around the Chunampet village in the state of Tamil Nadu in southern India. A telemedicine van was used to screen for diabetes and its complications using retinal photography, Doppler imaging, biothesiometry, and electrocardiography using standardized techniques. A rural diabetes center was set up to provide basic diabetes care. Results Of the total 27,014 adult population living in 42 villages, 23,380 (86.5%) were screened for diabetes, of which 1138 (4.9%) had diabetes and 3410 (14.6%) had prediabetes. A total of 1001 diabetes subjects were screened for complications (response rate of 88.0%). Diabetic retinopathy was detected in 18.2%, neuropathy in 30.9%, microalbuminuria in 24.3%, peripheral vascular disease in 7.3%, and coronary artery disease in 10.8%. The mean hemoglobin A1c levels among the diabetes subjects in the whole community decreased from 9.3 ± 2.6% to 8.5 ± 2.4% within 1 year. Less than 5% of patients needed referral for further management to the tertiary diabetes hospital in Chennai. Conclusions The Chunampet Rural Diabetes Prevention Project is a successful model for screening and for delivery of diabetes health care and prevention to underserved rural areas in developing countries such as India. PMID:23294780

Mohan, Viswanathan; Deepa, Mohan; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Prathiba, Venkat; Datta, Manjula; Sethuraman, Ravikumar; Rakesh, Hari; Sucharita, Yarlagadda; Webster, Premila; Allender, Steven; Kapur, Anil; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan

2012-01-01

160

The Karnataka Late Cretaceous Dykes as products of the Marion Hot Spot at the Madagascar - India Breakup Event: Evidence from 40Ar-39Ar geochronology and geochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two late Cretaceous mafic dykes with an ENE strike that is orthogonal to the west coast of India and located nearly 200 km inland around Huliyardurga, Karnataka state, yield 40Ar-39Ar plateau ages of 90.0±1.0 and 87.5±0.9 Ma. These Fe-Ti-enriched tholeiites are essentially co-eval with at least four other igneous suites widely scattered in southern India, namely; the south and north Kerala dykes, the Agali-Anaikatti dykes of central Kerala-Tamil Nadu and lavas of St Mary islands off the west coast of India. The Karnataka Cretaceous dykes are also co-eval and compositionally very similar to the Fe-Ti-enriched tholeiitic lavas and dykes around Mananjary, a major phase of Late Cretaceous magmatism along the eastern rifted margin of Madagascar which are believed to be products of the Marion hot spot that extruded at ?88 Ma, synchronous with the India-Madagascar break up event. The age and compositional similarities between these Late Cretaceous magmatic rocks from India and Madagascar constitute a clear evidence for extension of the thermal manifestations deep into the Indian peninsula.

Kumar, Anil; Pande, K.; Venkatesan, T. R.; Rao, Y. J. Bhaskar

161

Going against the flow: A critical analysis of inter-state virtual water trade in the context of India’s National River Linking Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Virtual water trade has been promoted as a tool to address national and regional water scarcity. In the context of international (food) trade, this concept has been applied with a view to optimize the flow of commodities considering the water endowments of nations. The concept states that water rich countries should produce and export water intensive commodities (which indirectly carry embedded water needed for producing them) to water scarce countries, thereby enabling the water scarce countries to divert their precious water resources to alternative, higher value uses. While progress has been made on quantifying virtual water flows between countries, there exists little information on virtual water trade within large countries like India. This paper presents the results of two MSc theses which quantify and critically analyze inter-state virtual water flows in India in the context of a large inter-basin transfer plan of the Government of India. Our analysis shows that the existing pattern of inter-state virtual water trade is exacerbating scarcities in already water scarce states and that rather than being dictated by water endowments, virtual water flows are influenced by other factors such as “per capita gross cropped area” and “access to secure markets”. We therefore argue that in order to have a comprehensive understanding of virtual water trade, non-water factors of production need to be taken into consideration.

Verma, Shilp; Kampman, Doeke A.; van der Zaag, Pieter; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

162

Globalisation of birth markets: a case study of assisted reproductive technologies in India  

PubMed Central

The escalation of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs) in India into a veritable fertility industry is the result of a multitude of reasons. This paper places the bio-genetic industry within the larger political economy framework of globalisation and privatisation, thus employing a framework that is often omitted from discussions on ARTs, but has direct and significant bearings on the ART industry in India. As markets for human organs, tissues and reproductive body parts experience unprecedented growth, the limits of what can or should be bought and sold continue to be pushed. As such, bodies have emerged as sale-worthy economic capital. Commercial flows of reproductive material create and deploy the division of the body into parts over which ownership is claimed, in the process following 'modern routes of capital' and raising issues of structural inequality. This paper presents a brief picture of India's fertility industry with specific focus on its ground-level operation, nature and growth. It aims to explore the industry dimensions of ARTs, by highlighting the macro picture of health care markets and medical tourism in India, the proliferation of the ART industry, market features such as the social imperative to mother, costs, promotion and marketing, unverified claims, inflated success rates, deals and offers, actors and collaborations in the field, and finally, the absence of standards. This paper presents findings from the research 'Constructing Conceptions: The Mapping of Assisted Reproductive Technologies in India', by Sama, a Delhi-based resource group working on gender, health and rights. This research was conducted from 2008 to 2010 in the three states of Uttar Pradesh, Orissa and Tamil Nadu in India, and is one of the first of its kind, highlighting unethical medical practices and making a case for the regulation of the ART industry. As such, it forms a significant part of Sama's ongoing work on women and technologies, particularly policy-level advocacy. PMID:21838866

2011-01-01

163

India's population--what is being done?  

PubMed

Thus far, India's efforts to curtail population growth have consistently failed to meet official targets. The crude birthrate (per 1000 population per year) is highest in the belt of 6 Hindi-speaking states, which include Rajasthan (40), Madhya Pradesh (38.5), Uttar Pradesh (38.4), Bihar (37.2), and Haryana (35.9). The rates are slightly lower in the other large North Indian States. The rate is 33.6 for India as a whole according to 1983 data. 3 of the South Indian states have the lowest crude birthrates: Kamataka (28.7), Tamil Nadu (27.8), and Kerata (24.9). Each of India's successive Five Year Plans gave increasingly more emphasis to population control, but the key tactical features have stayed the same. Population control comes under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, with family planning services provided through the free health delivery system. The main strategy continues to be to persuade people on an individual basis to accept the small family norm by a wide range of advertising and educational efforts. As of 1986, the family planning establishment had grown to gigantic proportions, employing half a million people in the family planning and health services. The Five Year Plan initiated in July 1985 continues the same approach but with added features. "Green cards" are given to those who accept sterilization after 2 children, allowing them a wide range of benefits such as low interest housing loans, preference in getting housing plots and enterprise loans, and salary increases for government employees. Health workers and other government employees have quotas of persons to motivate for contraceptive acceptance. They receive a small monetary incentive, which they often give to the acceptors so they can maintain their quotas and keep their jobs. The 1986 Revised Strategy for Family Planning is essentially more of the same with family planning more integrated with the health delivery system. Foreign and international donor agencies frequently have placed contradictory pressures on the Indian government, according to their own ideological tendencies. The family planning program is essential despite its faults, which are: bypassing of the natural community; and excessive medicalization and linkage with the health delivery system. In India there is an increasing realization that the achievements of the rural development and family planning programs are marginal relative to the amount of resources committed to them. This is because of the bureaucratic, from-the-top-down bias in which the physical community is neglected. PMID:12315281

Maloney, C

1986-01-01

164

A comparative study of rural athletes of four states of India.  

PubMed Central

In the present study 22 rural athletes of four different states of India have been studied for 23 anthropometric parameters--weight, height, sitting height, six diameters, six circumferences and eight skin and subcutaneous tissue folds. Rural athletes of Punjab and Haryana have been found to be comparable pertaining to all the anthropometric variables. Athletes of Madhya Pradesh show minimum values for most of the variables. The order of best anthropometry is athletes of Punjab and Haryana followed by Assam and Madhya Pradesh. Athletes of Madhya Pradesh are lacking behind in all the parameters except skin and subcutaneous tissue folds as compared to athletes of Assam. PMID:6722422

Bhatnagar, D. P.; Grewal, R.

1984-01-01

165

Scaling up Primary Health Services in Rural Tamil Nadu: Public Investment Requirements and Health Sector Reform  

E-print Network

Scaling up Primary Health Services in Rural Tamil Nadu: Public Investment Requirements and Health, District Collector, Tiruvannamalai. #12;2 Scaling up Primary Health Services in Rural Tamil Nadu: Public Rs. 18 billion to medical & public health, Rs.3.5 billion to family welfare, and Rs.0.482 billion

166

Industrialization and the Processes of Stratification in Rural Societies: A Comparison of Rural India and Rural United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Status attainment processes of the experienced civilian labor force of rural India and rural United States were analyzed by using the Blau-Duncan model, for the first time employing that model to compare rural sectors of an agrarian society with those in an industrial society. United States data were obtained from the 1962 Occupational Changes in…

Sharda, Bam Dev; Elder, Joseph W.

167

Dengue Outbreak in a Hilly State of Arunachal Pradesh in Northeast India  

PubMed Central

Dengue has been reported from plains as well as hilly regions of India including some parts of Northeast India. In July-August 2012, outbreak of fever with unknown origin (FUO) indicative of Dengue was reported in Pasighat, East Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh (AP) state. Serum samples (n = 164) collected from patients from Health Training and Research Centre General Hospital, Pasighat, were tested for NS1 antigen and IgM antibodies. NS1-positive samples were analyzed by RT-PCR assay and entomological surveys were carried out. The majority of suspected cases reported NS1 antigen positivity. Females and young adults were mostly affected. The majority of the amplified NS1-positive samples showed Dengue serotype 3 infection. Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus, known as semiurban breeding mosquitoes, was the only potential vector species identified from the affected areas of Pasighat which single handedly contributed to the outbreak. Thus, the present work identifies Dengue as an emerging arboviral infection in hilly state of AP along with a looming risk of its spread to neighbouring areas. PMID:24587732

Khan, Siraj A.; Dutta, Prafulla; Topno, Rashmee; Soni, Monika; Mahanta, Jagadish

2014-01-01

168

Distribution of Recent Benthic Foraminifera and its Environmental Conditions of Karaikal, Central Coast of Tamil Nadu  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foraminifera have been successful inhabitants of every aquatic environment from deep oceans to brackish water lagoons, estuaries and even rarely in freshwater streams, lakes etc. offshore region of Karaikal the present study has been taken up to enhance the existing knowledge on foraminifera of central coast of Tamil Nadu, India. Totally 21 sediment and water samples were collected from the offshore region. The depth of sample collection in offshore area ranges from 1.5 m to 12 m. Standard procedures adopted for the evaluation of different environmental parameters are incorporated. A total of 33 foraminiferal taxa belonging to 17 genera, 12 subfamilies, 14 superfamilies, and 4 suborders have been identified. In Karaikal , the mean size of the sediments on the foreshore ranges from 1.51 to 2.95 ? indicating the predominance of fine sediments (80-85%) with an admixture of medium-grained sands. Calcium carbonate content is generally found to be directly proportional to the population size in both the estuary and shelf area. It clearly indicates that due to the erosional activities whatever sediments deposited near the Arasalar river in that region are transported to the marine region and were drifted towards northern direction by longshore current, hence the deposition of carbonate in the sediments shows negative correlation. Due to strong high energy environment the current action is more in this region the juvinile forms of A. beccarri, A.tepida, A. dendata, E. crispum, P. calar, and P. nipponica only withstand and the other species are absent. The Correlation between Living vs Dead, Dead Vs Calcium carbonate, Salinity Vs living, Organic matter Vs Living, Organic matter Vs Carbonate content shows positive correlation for all the samples like LT, HT, Beach, River, and Offshore. Even though, all the ecological parameters having good correlation with foraminifera, but the distribution are very less in the study area. M.RAJA Dept.of.Geology University of Madras Chennai,Tamilnadu, INDIA.

Murugan, R.; Gandhi, S.

2013-05-01

169

Decline in lymphatic filariasis transmission with annual mass drug administration using DEC with and without albendazole over a 10year period in India.  

PubMed

The National Programme for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis is underway in the endemic districts of Tamil Nadu State, South India, since 2001. Annual mass drug administration (MDA) was carried out by the state health department to all eligible individuals. The impact of MDAs on transmission parameters was evaluated in 2 revenue blocks, viz, one with DEC alone and the other with a combination of albendazole. After 10 years with 6 annual MDAs, the transmission indices reached low levels in both treatment arms, but still persisted. However, the DEC alone arm showed higher transmission rates, compared to the DEC+ALB arm. Few villages which demonstrated persistent transmission need to be targeted with an additional control measure viz, vector control, to achieve LF elimination. It is evident from the 10 year period of the study that inclusion of albendazole along with DEC has significantly reduced the transmission indices to almost nil level, as compared to DEC alone. PMID:25205435

Sunish, I P; Kalimuthu, M; Rajendran, R; Munirathinam, A; Ashok Kumar, V; Nagaraj, J; Tyagi, B K

2015-02-01

170

DHL invests USD10 Million in logistics infrastructure for fast growing supply and sourcing hub in India ? First global logistics company to set up a facility within the inaugural Free Trade Warehousing Zone in India ? DHL's facility will facilitate ease of trade in India for businesses across several industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chennai, May 27, 2010: DHL, the world's leading logistics company, today announced an investment of USD10 million by its freight forwarding division to strengthen its capabilities and infrastructure to provide world-class logistics and warehousing services in India. DHL Global Forwarding is setting up a logistics and warehousing facility in the upcoming Free Trade Warehousing Zone (FTWZ) in Tamil Nadu. With

Deutsche Post DHL; Lemuir Logistics

171

Along the Spectrum of Women's Rights Advocacy: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Sexual Harassment Law in the United States and India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Comment compares the development of sexual harassment law in the United States and India. It strives to contribute to this global feminist debate by highlighting the successes and failures of each country's respective anti-harassment protections. It also compares the United States' and India's legal approaches to the problem of workplace sexual harassment. The Comment also discusses the successes and

Louise Feld

2001-01-01

172

Monitoring urbanization dynamics in India using DMSP/OLS night time lights and SPOT-VGT data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

India is a rapidly urbanizing country and has experienced profound changes in the spatial structure of urban areas. This study endeavours to illuminate the process of urbanization in India using Defence Meteorological Satellites Program - Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) night time lights (NTLs) and SPOT vegetation (VGT) dataset for the period 1998-2008. Satellite imagery of NTLs provides an efficient way to map urban areas at global and national scales. DMSP/OLS dataset however lacks continuity and comparability; hence the dataset was first intercalibrated using second order polynomial regression equation. The intercalibrated dataset along with SPOT-VGT dataset for the year 1998 and 2008 were subjected to a support vector machine (SVM) method to extract urban areas. SVM is semi-automated technique that overcomes the problems associated with the thresholding methods for NTLs data and hence enables for regional and national scale assessment of urbanization. The extracted urban areas were validated with Google Earth images and global urban extent maps. Spatial metrics were calculated and analyzed state-wise to understand the dynamism of urban areas in India. Significant changes in urban proportion were observed in Tamil Nadu, Punjab and Kerala while other states also showed a high degree of changes in area wise urban proportion.

Pandey, Bhartendu; Joshi, P. K.; Seto, Karen C.

2013-08-01

173

Factors controlling January-April rainfall over southern India and Sri Lanka  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the annual rainfall over India occurs during the Southwest (June-September) and Northeast (October-December) monsoon periods. In March 2008, however, Southern peninsular India and Sri Lanka received the largest rainfall anomaly on record since 1979, with amplitude comparable to summer-monsoon interannual anomalies. This anomalous rainfall appeared to be modulated at intraseasonal timescale by the Madden Julian Oscillation, and was synchronous with a decaying La Nińa event in the Pacific Ocean. Was this a coincidence or indicative of a teleconnection pattern? In this paper, we explore factors controlling rainfall over southern India and Sri Lanka between January and April, i.e. outside of the southwest and northeast monsoons. This period accounts for 20% of annual precipitation over Sri Lanka and 10% over the southern Indian states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Interannual variability is strong (about 40% of the January-April climatology). Intraseasonal rainfall anomalies over southern India and Sri Lanka are significantly associated with equatorial eastward propagation, characteristic of the Madden Julian Oscillation. At the interannual timescale, we find a clear connection with El Nińo-Southern Oscillation (ENSO); with El Nińos being associated with decreased rainfall (correlation of -0.46 significant at the 98% level). There is also a significant link with local SST anomalies over the Indian Ocean, and in particular with the inter-hemispheric sea surface temperature (SST) gradient over the Indian Ocean (with colder SST south of the equator being conducive to more rainfall, correlation of 0.55 significant at the 99% level). La Nińas/cold SSTs south of the equator tend to have a larger impact than El Nińos. We discuss two possible mechanisms that could explain these statistical relationships: (1) subsidence over southern India remotely forced by Pacific SST anomalies; (2) impact of ENSO-forced regional Indian Ocean SST anomalies on convection. However, the length of the observational record does not allow distinguishing between these two mechanisms in a statistically significant manner.

Vialard, J.; Terray, P.; Duvel, J.-P.; Nanjundiah, R. S.; Shenoi, S. S. C.; Shankar, D.

2011-08-01

174

Role of Community Group Exposure in Reducing Sexually Transmitted Infection-Related Risk among Female Sex Workers in India  

PubMed Central

Background Empowering female sex workers (FSWs) to address structural barriers and forming community groups (CGs) through community mobilization are seen as essential components of HIV prevention programs in India. Taking the membership of a CG as an exposure intervention, we hypothesized whether participation in a CG lead to reduced sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and increased treatment-seeking behavior among FSWs in three selected states of India — Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. Methods and Findings The propensity score matching (PSM) approach examined the effect of CG membership, as against no membership, on STI-related risk, described as selected outcome measures — presence of any STI, self-reported STI symptoms, and treatment-seeking behavior among FSWs. A cross sectional bio-behavioral survey was administered in 2009–2010 and covered 7,806 FSWs through two-stage probability-based conventional and time location cluster sampling in 23 administrative districts of Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. Only 2,939 FSWs were reported to be members of a CG and among them 4.5% had any STIs. A majority of FSWs were aged above 24 years (86.4%), had ever been married (73%), operated from a public place for solicitation (81.5%), and had ever received HIV test results (75.6%). The average effect of CG exposure was reduction in STI prevalence by 4%, while self-reported STI symptom treatment-seeking behavior increased by 13.7%. Conclusion FSWs who were exposed to a CG were at a substantially lower risk of STIs than those who were unexposed. The FSWs exposed to a CG had a higher chance of seeking STI treatment from public and private health facilities. Collectivization related challenges must be overcome to provide access to tailored STI prevention and care services. PMID:24205210

Yadav, Diwakar; Ramanathan, Shreena; Goswami, Prabuddhagopal; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmi; Saggurti, Niranjan; Sen, Shrabanti; George, Bitra; Paranjape, Ramesh

2013-01-01

175

Prevalence of Dyslipidemia in Urban and Rural India: The ICMR–INDIAB Study  

PubMed Central

Aim To study the pattern and prevalence of dyslipidemia in a large representative sample of four selected regions in India. Methods Phase I of the Indian Council of Medical Research–India Diabetes (ICMR-INDIAB) study was conducted in a representative population of three states of India [Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and Jharkhand] and one Union Territory [Chandigarh], and covered a population of 213 million people using stratified multistage sampling design to recruit individuals ?20 years of age. All the study subjects (n?=?16,607) underwent anthropometric measurements and oral glucose tolerance tests were done using capillary blood (except in self-reported diabetes). In addition, in every 5th subject (n?=?2042), a fasting venous sample was collected and assayed for lipids. Dyslipidemia was diagnosed using National Cholesterol Education Programme (NCEP) guidelines. Results Of the subjects studied, 13.9% had hypercholesterolemia, 29.5% had hypertriglyceridemia, 72.3% had low HDL-C, 11.8% had high LDL-C levels and 79% had abnormalities in one of the lipid parameters. Regional disparity exists with the highest rates of hypercholesterolemia observed in Tamilnadu (18.3%), highest rates of hypertriglyceridemia in Chandigarh (38.6%), highest rates of low HDL-C in Jharkhand (76.8%) and highest rates of high LDL-C in Tamilnadu (15.8%). Except for low HDL-C and in the state of Maharashtra, in all other states, urban residents had the highest prevalence of lipid abnormalities compared to rural residents. Low HDL-C was the most common lipid abnormality (72.3%) in all the four regions studied; in 44.9% of subjects, it was present as an isolated abnormality. Common significant risk factors for dyslipidemia included obesity, diabetes, and dysglycemia. Conclusion The prevalence of dyslipidemia is very high in India, which calls for urgent lifestyle intervention strategies to prevent and manage this important cardiovascular risk factor. PMID:24817067

Joshi, Shashank R.; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Deepa, Mohan; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Bhansali, Anil; Dhandania, Vinay K.; Joshi, Prashant P.; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Nirmal, Elangovan; Subashini, Radhakrishnan; Madhu, Sri Venkata; Rao, Paturi Vishnupriya; Das, Ashok Kumar; Kaur, Tanvir; Shukla, Deepak Kumar; Mohan, Viswanathan

2014-01-01

176

The India Connection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even though lawmakers in India don't seem likely to pass any laws that would enable foreign universities to set up shop in India anytime soon, opportunities still abound for institutions of higher learning in the United States to collaborate with their Indian counterparts and to engage and recruit students in India as well. That's the consensus…

Abdul-Alim, Jamaal

2012-01-01

177

Ethnomedical and biomedical health care and healing practices among the Rathwa adivasi of Kadipani village, Gujarat State, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rathwa of Kadipani village are adivasi (original inhabitants, tribe) residing in a rural part of Gujarat State, India. Primarily farmers, the Rathwa live in an area where development-related projects, such as mineral mining and damming on the Narmada River, are increasingly impacting their livelihood, health status, and quality of life. The local economy is impacted by uncertainty regarding access

Margaret A Karnyski

2009-01-01

178

Diversity, Democracy, and Higher Education: A View from Three Nations--India, South Africa, the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication includes six essays that were presented at the first of three tri-national seminars on diversity issues in higher education. The seminars brought together representatives and observers of higher education from India, South Africa, and the United States to explore the role of higher education in promoting understanding of human…

Beckham, Edgar F., Ed.

179

State policies and women's autonomy in China, India, and the Republic of Korea, 1950-2000 : lessons from contrasting experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors compare changes in gender roles and women's empowerment in China, India, and the Republic of Korea. Around 1950, these newly formed states were largely poor and agrarian, with common cultural factors that placed similar severe constraints on women's autonomy. They adopted very different paths of development, which are well known to have profoundly affected development outcomes. These choices

Monica Das Gupta; Sunhwa Lee; Patricia Uberoi; Danning Wang; Lihong Wang; Xiaodan Zhang

2000-01-01

180

Physical Punishment in Childhood and Current Attitudes: An Exploratory Comparison of College Students in the United States and India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College students in the United States and India provided information on their childhood punishment, personal evaluation of the punishment, and other data. The majority of both national groups reported having been physically punished as children. Physical punishment was condoned more by U.S. than by Indian students. More physical punishment in…

Graziano, Anthony M.; And Others

1992-01-01

181

Solar still an appropriate technology for potable water need of remote villages of desert state of India — Rajasthan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rajasthan, the largest state of the India faces a grim scenario in relation to water availability resources. Rajasthan has two-third of its area as desert and it faces scanty rainfall, recurring droughts in 3–4 years in a cycle of 5 years. It would be seen from the present status of drinking water detailed out of 237 blocks in Rajasthan that

R. K. Khanna; R. S. Rathore; C. Sharma

2008-01-01

182

Is Value Added Tax (VAT) Reform in India Poverty Improving? An Analysis Of Data From Five Major States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Value Added Tax (VAT) as introduced in India at state level from April 1, 2005 is widely acclaimed to be a better system than the sales tax on grounds of efficiency. However policy makers did not consider its impact on the distribution of income. Considering both the distributive and efficiency criteria we search for a poverty reducing direction of VAT

POULOMI ROY; AJITAVA RAYCHAUDHURI; SUDIP KUMAR SINHA

2010-01-01

183

Is the Value Added Tax Reform in India Poverty-Improving? An Analysis of Data from Two Major States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Value Added Tax (VAT) was introduced in India in place of Sales Tax, taking effect in April 1, 2005. These taxes are in the domain of different state governments within the country's federal set up. Although VAT is widely acclaimed to be a better system than the sales tax on grounds of efficiency in tax collection, no study has

Ajitava Raychaudhuri; Sudip Kumar Sinha; Poulomi Roy

2007-01-01

184

Use of e-services by faculty members of business schools in a state of India: a study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to assess and evaluate quantitative and qualitative use of electronic resources in the academic ambience of business schools in Orissa (India) with a view to examining the level of electronic information services (EIS) offered to the faculty members of the state with an opinion pool of the faculty members of the respective

Dillip K. Swain; K. C. Panda

2009-01-01

185

Estimating Wealth Effects Without Expenditure Data—Or Tears: An Application To Educational Enrollments In States Of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from India, we estimate the relationship between household wealth and children's school enrollment. We proxy wealth by constructing a linear index from asset ownership indicators, us- ing principal-components analysis to derive weights. In Indian data this index is robust to the assets included, and produces internally coherent results. State-level results correspond well to independent data on per capita

Deon Filmer; Lant H. Pritchett

2001-01-01

186

A Comparative Study of Early Intervention in Zimbabwe, Poland, China, India, and the United States of America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper briefly introduces Early Intervention (EI) issues in five countries including Zimbabwe, Poland, People's Republic of China (PRC), India, and the United States of America (USA). In the overview section the national background, including religious, socio-economic development, and political systems, its policies, laws and acts, are…

Pang, Yanhui; Richey, Dean

2005-01-01

187

Claiming the state : citizen-state relations and service delivery in rural India  

E-print Network

Who makes claims on the state and how? This dissertation examines the processes through which citizens seek to secure public resources from the state and, by extension, the patterns of participation and citizen-state ...

Kruks-Wisner, Gabrielle K

2013-01-01

188

Use of polymerase chain reaction: Restriction fragment length polymorphism to detect acaricidal resistance to synthetic pyrethroids in Boophilus microplus ticks of South India  

PubMed Central

Background: Boophilus microplus is an important ectoparasite of livestock. Apart from transmitting diseases, heavy tick burden can decrease production and damage hides. The synthetic pyrethroids which are advantageous over other acaricides for treatment of this infestation are now losing their efficacy due to development of resistant strains of ticks. Materials and Methods: Boophilus microplus ticks with a previous history of acaricidal treatment especially synthetic pyrethroids (SP) such as cypermethrin, deltamethrin and flumethrin were randomly collected from different pockets of four Southern States of India namely Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, and Puducherry from cattle. Deoxyribonucleic acid extracted from pooled adult B. microplus tick from each State was subjected to polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism to detect point mutation in carboxyl esterase gene. Results: A product size of 372 bp was obtained for cattle tick samples collected from all over Southern States of India. Conclusions: B. microplus ticks found in Southern part of India are not resistant to commonly used SP. PMID:23961446

Cattavarayane, Mathivathani; Basith, Abdul; Latha, Bhaskaran Ravi

2013-01-01

189

Diversity among Clients of Female Sex Workers in India: Comparing Risk Profiles and Intervention Impact by Site of Solicitation. Implications for the Vulnerability of Less Visible Female Sex Workers  

PubMed Central

Background It seems generally accepted that targeted interventions in India have been successful in raising condom use between female sex workers (FSWs) and their clients. Data from clients of FSWs have been under-utilised to analyse the risk environments and vulnerability of both partners. Methods The 2009 Integrated Biological and Behavioural Assessment survey sampled clients of FSWs at hotspots in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu (n=5040). The risk profile of clients in terms of sexual networking and condom use are compared across usual pick-up place. We used propensity score matching (PSM) to estimate the average treatment effect on treated (ATT) of intervention messages on clients’ consistent condom use with FSW. Results Clients of the more hidden sex workers who solicit from home or via phone or agents had more extensive sexual networks, reporting casual female partners as well as anal intercourse with male partners and FSW. Clients of brothel-based sex workers, who were the least educated, reported the fewest number/categories of partners, least anal sex, and lowest condom use (41%). Consistent condom use varied widely by state: 65% in Andhra Pradesh, 36% in Maharashtra and 29% in Tamil Nadu. Exposure to intervention messages on sexually transmitted infections was lowest among men frequenting brothels (58%), and highest among men soliciting less visible sex workers (70%). Exposure had significant impact on consistent condom use, including among clients of home-based sex workers (ATT 21%; p=0.001) and among men soliciting other more hidden FSW (ATT 17%; p=0.001). In Tamil Nadu no impact could be demonstrated. Conclusion Commercial sex happens between two partners and both need to be, and can be, reached by intervention messages. Commercial sex is still largely unprotected and as the sex industry gets more diffuse a greater focus on reaching clients of sex workers seems important given their extensive sexual networks. PMID:24023877

Suryawanshi, Dipak; Bhatnagar, Tarun; Deshpande, Sucheta; Zhou, Weiwei; Singh, Pankaj; Collumbien, Martine

2013-01-01

190

Groundwater arsenic contamination in Manipur, one of the seven North-Eastern Hill states of India: a future danger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manipur State, with a population of 2.29 million, is one of the seven North-Eastern Hill states in India, and is severely\\u000a affected by groundwater arsenic contamination. Manipur has nine districts out of which four are in Manipur Valley where 59%\\u000a of the people live on 10% of the land. These four districts are all arsenic contaminated. We analysed water samples

Dipankar Chakraborti; E. Jayantakumar Singh; Bhaskar Das; Babar Ali Shah; M. Amir Hossain; Bishwajit Nayak; Sad Ahamed; N. Rajmuhon Singh

2008-01-01

191

The Cauvery river basin in southern India: major challenges and possible solutions in the 21st century.  

PubMed

India is facing major challenges in its water resources management (WRM) sector. Water shortages are attributed to issues such as an explosion in population, rapid urbanization and industrialization, environmental degradation and inefficient water use, all aggravated by changing climate and its impacts on demand, supply and water quality. This paper focuses on the contemporary and future situation in the Cauvery river basin in Southern India, shared by different states, predominantly Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. As water issues largely fall under the authority of the states, inter-state water disputes have a long tradition in the Cauvery river basin. Future changes in precipitation during the two monsoon seasons will only increase these tensions. Both states depend on the arrival of these monsoon rains to water their crops and to replenish the groundwater. The paper identifies the major challenges and general possible solutions for sustainable WRM within the river basin. It synthesises the relevant literature, describes practices that should be addressed in the scope of integrated WRM--including water availability increase and demand management--and stresses the need for further quantitative analyses. PMID:22053466

Vanham, D; Weingartner, R; Rauch, W

2011-01-01

192

PLANTS USED IN FOLK MEDICINE BY THE KOTAS OF NILGIRI DISTRICT, TAMIL NADU  

PubMed Central

The present report deals with 34 plants of ethno botanical significance used s food and medicine by the Kotas of Nilgiri District, Tamil Nadu. Dietary and medicinal applications of plants re briefly summarized and presented. PMID:22556537

Rajan, S.; Sethuraman, M.

1991-01-01

193

Differentiation of palaeomarine and modern seawater intruded salinities in coastal groundwaters (of Karaikal and Tanjavur, India) based on inorganic chemistry, organic biomarker fingerprints and radiocarbon dating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrosalinity evolution is examined in the Karaikal and Tanjavur coastal aquifers situated about 300 km south of Madras, Tamil Nadu, India. Ancient and modern sources of solutes in groundwaters have been differentiated using hydro-geochemical data, environmental radioisotope dates and organic biomarkers. Results from different techniques show consistently that the Pliocene aquifer possesses characteristic palmitoleic and oleic acid biomarkers, apparent 14C

B. S. Sukhija; V. N. Varma; P. Nagabhushanam; D. V. Reddy

1996-01-01

194

Capacity Building for collecting primary data through Crowdsourcing - An Example of Disaster affected Uttarakhand State (India)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uttarakhand State of India suffered a widespread devastation in June 2013 due to floods caused by excessive rain in the upper reaches of the Himalaya, glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) and landslides. Restoration process in this mountainous State calls for scientifically sound planning so that the vulnerabilities and risks to such natural hazards are minimised and developmental processes are sustainable in long run. Towards this, an understanding of the patterns and major controls of damage of the recent disaster is a key requirement which can be achieved only if the primary data on locations and types of damage along with other local site conditions are available. Considering widespread damage, tough nature of terrain and the need for collecting the primary data on damage in shortest possible time, crowdsourcing approach was considered to be the most viable solution. Accordingly, a multiinstitutional initiative called "Map the Neighbourhood in Uttarakhand" (MANU) was conceptualised with the main objective of collecting primary data on damage through participation of local people (mainly students) using state-of-art tools and technologies of data collection and a mechanism to integrate the same with Bhuvan geo-portal (www.bhuvan.nrsc.gov.in) in near real-time. Geospatial analysis of crowd-sourced points with different themes has been carried out subsequently for providing inputs to restoration planning and for future developmental activities. The present paper highlights the capacity building aspect in enabling the data collection process using crowdsourcing technology.

Krishna Murthy, Y. V. N.; Raju, P. L. N.; Srivastav, S. K.; Kumar, P.; Mitra, D.; Karnatak, H.; Saran, S.; Pandey, K.; Oberai, K.; Shiva Reddy, K.; Gupta, K.; Swamy, M.; Deshmukh, A.; Dadhwal, V. K.; Bothale, V.; Diwakar, P. G.; Ravikumar, M. V.; Leisely, A.; Arulraj, M.; Kumar, S.; Rao, S. S.; Singh Rawat, R.; Pathak, D. M.; Dutt, V.; Negi, D.; Singh, J.; Shukla, K. K.; Tomar, A.; Ahmed, N.; Singh, B.; Singh, A. K.; Shiva Kumar, R.

2014-11-01

195

PLANTATION AND HORTICULTURE SCHEME IN TAMIL NADU: REFINANCING PRACTICES OF NABARD  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the trend in refinance assistance rendered by the National Bank of Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) under the Plantation and Horticulture scheme in Tamil Nadu during 1996-97 to 2001-02. The financial assistance provided by different financial institutions in Tamil Nadu under the scheme, stood at Rs. 6,291.87 lakh. Against this, these institutions received an amount of Rs.

K Prabakkar Rajkumar

2007-01-01

196

The zone of social abandonment in cultural geography: on the street in the United States, inside the family in India.  

PubMed

This essay examines the spaces across societies in which persons with severe mental illness lose meaningful social roles and are reduced to "bare life." Comparing ethnographic and interview data from the United States and India, we suggest that these processes of exclusion take place differently: on the street in the United States, and in the family household in India. We argue that cultural, historical, and economic factors determine which spaces become zones of social abandonment across societies. We compare strategies for managing and treating persons with psychosis across the United States and India, and demonstrate that the relative efficiency of state surveillance of populations and availability of public social and psychiatric services, the relative importance of family honor, the extent to which a culture of psychopharmaceutical use has penetrated social life, and other historical features, contribute to circumstances in which disordered Indian persons are more likely to be forcefully "hidden" in domestic space, whereas mentally ill persons in the United States are more likely to be expelled to the street. However, in all locations, social marginalization takes place by stripping away the subject's efficacy in social communication. That is, the socially "dead" lose communicative efficacy, a predicament, following Agamben, we describe as "bare voice." PMID:22547245

Marrow, Jocelyn; Luhrmann, Tanya Marie

2012-09-01

197

Distribution and insecticide resistance of the plague flea Xenopsylla cheopis in Maharashtra State, India.  

PubMed

Distributions are reported for commensal rat fleas, predominantly Xenopsylla cheopis (Rothschild), in the State of Maharashtra, India, including the city of Bombay, during 1965-80. The X.cheopis flea index was high in most parts of Maharashtra, but low in Bombay. Rattus rattus Linnaeus is the principal host of X.cheopis, but the host range includes Bandicota bengalensis Gray, Golunda ellioti Gray, Mus musculus Linnaeus, Rattus blandfordi Thomas, R. norvegicus Berkenhout, Suncus caerulaeus Lerr, S. murinus Linnaeus and Tatera indica Hardwicke. X.cheopis was found to have high degrees of resistance to DDT, malathion and fenthion, tolerance to gamma HCH (= gamma BCH) but susceptibility to dieldrin. This insecticide resistance situation may contribute to the high flea indices prevailing in the state, with consequent risks of plague outbreaks. Two other species of rat flea, X.astia Rothschild and X.brasiliensis (Baker) were found to be less common than previously recorded. Their apparent replacement by X.cheopis is tentatively attributed, at least partly, to the selective advantage of insecticide resistance in the latter species. PMID:2132973

Renapurkar, D M

1990-01-01

198

Uncertainty in Resilience to Climate Change in India and Indian States  

SciTech Connect

This study builds on an earlier analysis of resilience of India and Indian states to climate change. The previous study (Brenkert and Malone 2005) assessed current resilience; this research uses the Vulnerability-Resilience Indicators Model (VRIM) to project resilience to 2095 and to perform an uncertainty analysis on the deterministic results. Projections utilized two SRES-based scenarios, one with fast-and-high growth, one with delayed growth. A detailed comparison of two states, the Punjab and Orissa, points to the kinds of insights that can be obtained using the VRIM. The scenarios differ most significantly in the timing of the uncertainty in economic prosperity (represented by GDP per capita) as a major factor in explaining the uncertainty in the resilience index. In the fast-and-high growth scenario the states differ most markedly regarding the role of ecosystem sensitivity, land use and water availability. The uncertainty analysis shows, for example, that resilience in the Punjab might be enhanced, especially in the delayed growth scenario, if early attention is paid to the impact of ecosystems sensitivity on environmental well-being of the state. By the same token, later in the century land-use pressures might be avoided if land is managed through intensification rather than extensification of agricultural land. Thus, this methodology illustrates how a policy maker can be informed about where to focus attention on specific issues, by understanding the potential changes at a specific location and time – and, thus, what might yield desired outcomes. Model results can point to further analyses of the potential for resilience-building.

Malone, Elizabeth L.; Brenkert, Antoinette L.

2008-10-03

199

Barriers to Improving Patient Safety in India: Focus Groups with Providers in the Southern State of Kerala  

PubMed Central

Objective: To understand the perceptions of health care providers about barriers to improved patient safety in the Indian state of Kerala. Materials and Methods: Five focus group discussions were held with 16 doctors and 20 nurses across three institutions (primary, secondary and tertiary care centers) in Kerala, India. Transcripts were analyzed by thematic analysis. Setting: One rural primary care clinic, one secondary care hospital and one tertiary care center in Kerala, India. Participants: 16 doctors and 20 nurses participated in five focus groups. Results: Overall, there were 129 unique mentions of barriers to patient safety; these barriers were categorized into five major themes. ‘Limited resources’ was the most prominent theme, followed by barriers related to health systems issues, the medical culture, provider training and patient education/awareness. Conclusions: Although inadequate resources are likely a substantial challenge to the improvement of patient safety in India, other patient safety barriers such as health systems changes, training, and education, could be addressed with fewer resources. While initial approaches to improving patient safety in India and other low- and middle-income countries have focused on implementing processes that represent best practices, this study suggests that multifaceted interventions to also address more structural problems (such as resource constraints, systems issues, and medical culture) may be important.

Landefeld, John; Sivaraman, Remadevi; Arora, Narendra Kumar

2015-01-01

200

Primary Schooling in China and India: Understanding How Socio-Contextual Factors Moderate the Role of the State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper considers how state educational policy and other sociocontextual factors influence primary schooling in two large developing countries. In the late 1940s, national statistics for primary school enrolment and other human development indicators were comparable between China and India. Both countries then experienced major political transitions and embraced similar economic development priorities. Half a century later, reports prepared for the 2000 World Education Forum indicate that China had far outperformed India in terms of school enrolment ratios and on indices of the efficiency of primary education. This article considers the reasons for these differences. It discusses the role of the state, educational policy and its implementation, linkages among educational, economic and social policies, cultural belief systems that are relevant to education, classroom teaching and learning, teacher characteristics, and the physical conditions of schools.

Rao, Nirmala; Cheng, Kai-Ming; Narain, Kirti

2003-03-01

201

Using Third-Party Inspectors in Building Energy Codes Enforcement in India  

SciTech Connect

India is experiencing fast income growth and urbanization, and this leads to unprecedented increases in demand for building energy services and resulting energy consumption. In response to rapid growth in building energy use, the Government of India issued the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) in 2007, which is consistent with and based on the 2001 Energy Conservation Act. ECBC implementation has been voluntary since its enactment and a few states have started to make progress towards mandatory implementation. Rajasthan is the first state in India to adopt ECBC as a mandatory code. The State adopted ECBC with minor additions on March 28, 2011 through a stakeholder process; it became mandatory in Rajasthan on September 28, 2011. Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, and Andhra Pradesh have started to draft an implementation roadmap and build capacity for its implementation. The Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) plans to encourage more states to adopt ECBC in the near future, including Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, West Bengal, and Delhi. Since its inception, India has applied the code on a voluntary basis, but the Government of India is developing a strategy to mandate compliance. Implementing ECBC requires coordination between the Ministry of Power and the Ministry of Urban Development at the national level as well as interdepartmental coordination at the state level. One challenge is that the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs), the enforcement entities of building by-laws, lack capacity to implement ECBC effectively. For example, ULBs in some states might find the building permitting procedures to be too complex; in other cases, lack of awareness and technical knowledge on ECBC slows down the amendment of local building by-laws as well as ECBC implementation. The intent of this white paper is to share with Indian decision-makers code enforcement approaches: through code officials, third-party inspectors, or a hybrid approach. Given the limited capacity and human resources available in the state and local governments, involving third-party inspectors could rapidly expand the capacity for plan reviews and broad implementation. However, the procedures of involving third-parties need to be carefully designed in order to guarantee a fair process. For example, there should be multiple checks and certification requirements for third-party inspectors, and the government should have the final approval when third-party inspectors are used in a project. This paper discusses different approaches of involving third-parties in ECBC enforcement; the Indian states may choose the approaches that work best in their given circumstances.

Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Kumar, Pradeep; Van Wie, Laura; Bhatt, Vatsal

2013-01-31

202

Prevalence and Molecular Epidemiological Data on Dirofilaria immitis in Dogs from Northeastern States of India  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis in stray, pet, and working dogs (n = 413, 266, and 103, resp.) from Guwahati (Assam) and Aizawl (Mizoram), areas located in two Northeastern States of India. Diagnostic methods applied were microscopy (wet film and Knott's concentration technique), immunological test (Ag ELISA by SNAP 4Dx ELISA kit), and molecular tools (polymerase chain reaction and sequencing), which evidenced 11.38, 18.03, and 13.93% of positive animals, respectively. No significant differences were observed by area (18.23% versus 17.68%) nor by sex (18.1% versus 17.9%), whereas stray dogs proved more infected than other groups (P < 0.05). ELISA test evidenced an overall 22.69% of occult infections, mainly in working dogs (60%), and molecular techniques detected Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens in 4 stray dogs from Guwahati. Characterization of D. immitis isolates for ITS-2 region showed close identity with South Asian isolates. PMID:25685835

Borthakur, Sonjoy Kumar; Deka, Dilip Kumar; Islam, Saidul; Sarma, Dilip Kumar; Sarmah, Prabhat Chandra

2015-01-01

203

Prevalence and Molecular Epidemiological Data on Dirofilaria immitis in Dogs from Northeastern States of India.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis in stray, pet, and working dogs (n = 413, 266, and 103, resp.) from Guwahati (Assam) and Aizawl (Mizoram), areas located in two Northeastern States of India. Diagnostic methods applied were microscopy (wet film and Knott's concentration technique), immunological test (Ag ELISA by SNAP 4Dx ELISA kit), and molecular tools (polymerase chain reaction and sequencing), which evidenced 11.38, 18.03, and 13.93% of positive animals, respectively. No significant differences were observed by area (18.23% versus 17.68%) nor by sex (18.1% versus 17.9%), whereas stray dogs proved more infected than other groups (P < 0.05). ELISA test evidenced an overall 22.69% of occult infections, mainly in working dogs (60%), and molecular techniques detected Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens in 4 stray dogs from Guwahati. Characterization of D. immitis isolates for ITS-2 region showed close identity with South Asian isolates. PMID:25685835

Borthakur, Sonjoy Kumar; Deka, Dilip Kumar; Islam, Saidul; Sarma, Dilip Kumar; Sarmah, Prabhat Chandra

2015-01-01

204

Grass pea consumption & present scenario of neurolathyrism in Maharashtra State of India  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Neurolathyrism is a non progressive motor neuron disorder engendered by the prolonged over-consumption of Lathyrus sativus (grass pea) seeds which contain a neurotoxic amino acid, ?-N oxalyl- L-?, ?-diaminopropionic acid (?-ODAP). It is characterized by spastic paraparesis in the hind limbs. The present study was conducted in 105 households (HHs) of Gondia district in Maharashtra, India, where grass pea is cultivated and consumed to assess the health implication of its consumption. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 105 HHS in five villages and grass pea samples were collected for ?-ODAP estimation. Amino acid analysis was also done, neurolathyrism cases were identified by snowball sampling method and neurological examination was carried out. Results: The study revealed that 61 per cent of population was consuming this pulse as a part of diet. ?-ODAP concentration in grass pea was high in Bora village (1254.5 ± 528.21 mg %) and less in Malgaon village (413.6±415.79 mg %). The nutritional status of the people was within the normal range (BMI 18± 3.40 kg/m2) in the surveyed households. Consumption of grass pea was observed to be less than 25g. Conclusions: The cases of neurolathyrism declined in all the studied villages due to reduced ?-ODAP exposure through Lathyrus sativus consumption, however, the grass pea was cultivated and consumed in Gondia district of Maharashtra State. PMID:25222783

Khandare, Arjun L.; Babu, J.J; Ankulu, M.; Aparna, N.; Shirfule, Amol; Rao, G. Shankar

2014-01-01

205

Deviations from the O3-NO-NO2 photo-stationary state in Delhi, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A network of air quality and weather monitoring stations was set-up across Delhi, India, under the System of Air quality Forecasting And Research (SAFAR) project. The objective of this network was to enable better understanding of air quality in terms of atmospheric chemistry, emissions and forecasting in Delhi, one of the largest metropolises in the world. In this study, we focus on the O3-NO-NO2-triad Photo Stationary State (PSS), and investigate site-specific deviations in the Leighton Ratio (?) during a short period in 2012 (1-31 December). Large variations were observed in the NO (<1 ppbv to a peak of 295 ppbv), NO2 (<2 ppbv-47 ppbv) and O3 (4 ppbv-95 ppbv) mixing ratios, all of which showed strong diurnal variation. The ? values showed large deviations from unity over the measurement period, with mostly negative deviations (? < 1), showing that the air masses were dominated by local sources of NOx and that the PSS was not achieved. Positive deviations (? > 1) were also observed occasionally, and these data were used to estimate the total peroxy radical (PO2) mixing ratios. This is the first estimate of PO2 reported for the city of Delhi and compares well with the results in the literature.

Chate, Dilip M.; Ghude, Sachin D.; Beig, Gurfan; Mahajan, Anoop S.; Jena, Chinmay; Srinivas, Reka; Dahiya, Anita; Kumar, Nandini

2014-10-01

206

Aboriginal uses and management of ethnobotanical species in deciduous forests of Chhattisgarh state in India  

PubMed Central

A study on the native uses of ethnobotanical species was carried out in the south Surguja district of Chhattisgarh state in India with the major objective of identifying different food and medicinal plant species and also to understand their ongoing management and conservation. Through questionnaire and personal interviews, a total of 73 ethnobotanical species used by tribal and non-tribal communities were documented, of these 36 species were used in curing different types of diseases and 22 were used as edible food plants. This rich traditional knowledge of local people has an immense potential for pharmacological studies. The outside forces, at present, were mainly blamed to change the traditional system of harvesting and management of ethnobotanical species. The destructive harvesting practices have damaged the existing populations of many ethnobotanical species viz., Asparagus racemosus, Dioscorea bulbifera, Boswellia serrata, Buchnania lanzan, Sterculia urens and Anogeissus latifolia. The sustainable harvesting and management issues of ethnobotanical species are discussed in view of their conservation and management. PMID:19653889

Kala, Chandra Prakash

2009-01-01

207

Prevalence of undernutrition, its determinants, and seasonal variation among tribal preschool children of Odisha state, India.  

PubMed

A community-based cross-sectional study was undertaken in the tribal areas of Odisha state, India, covering 1951 preschool children to assess their nutritional status in terms of underweight, stunting, and wasting; its correlates; and seasonal variation in nutritional status. ?(2) Test, one-way analysis of variance, and unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios were used for data analysis. The prevalence of underweight, stunting, and wasting was 58%, 65%, and 20%, respectively. The risk of underweight and stunting was, respectively, 1.9 and 2.4 times higher among children of illiterate mothers, whereas underweight and wasting was 1.4 times higher among children who had morbidities during the preceding fortnight. The prevalence of undernutrition was significantly (P < .01) higher during monsoon as compared with winter season. Undernutrition is an important public health problem and is associated with literacy of mother, morbidity, and season. Thus, improving socioeconomic condition, literacy, and sanitation along with insuring food security during monsoon season might improve nutritional status. PMID:22500042

Meshram, Indrapal I; Balakrishna, N; Arlappa, N; Mallikarjun Rao, K; Laxmaiah, A; Brahmam, G N V

2014-09-01

208

Modeling Winter Rainfall in Northwest India using a Hidden Markov Model: Understanding Occurrence of Different States and their Dynamical Connections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multiscale-modeling framework for daily rainfall is considered and diagnostic results are presented for an application to the winter season in Northwest India. The daily rainfall process is considered to follow a Hidden Markov Model (HMM), with the hidden states assumed to be an unknown random function of slowly varying climatic modulation of the winter jet stream and moisture transport dynamics. The data used are from 14 stations over the Satluj River basin in northwest India in winter (Dec-Jan-Feb-Mar). The period considered is 1977/78-2005/06. The HMM identifies four discrete weather states, which are used to describe daily rainfall variability over the study region. The first hidden state has low rainfall occurrence and intensity, the second has modest occurrence and low intensity, the third has high occurrence but low to modest intensity and the fourth has high frequency and intensity of daily rainfall. Each state was found to be associated with a distinct atmospheric circulation pattern, with States 3 and 4 characterized by a zonally oriented wave train extending across Eurasia between 20N-40N, identified with ';Western Disturbances'. State 1, by contrast, is characterized by a lack of synoptic wave activity. The occurrence of State 4 is strongly conditioned by the El Nino and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) phenomena in winter, which is demonstrated using large-scale correlation maps based on mean sea level pressure (MSLP) and sea surface temperature (SST). This suggests that there is a tendency of higher frequency of the wet days and intense Western Disturbances in winter during El Nino and positive IOD years. These findings, derived from daily rainfall station records, help clarify the sequence of Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude storms bringing winter rainfall over Northwest India, and their association with potentially predictable low frequency modes on seasonal time scales and longer.

Pal, I.; Robertson, A. W.; Lall, U.; Cane, M. A.

2013-12-01

209

The state of e-commerce laws in India: a review of Information Technology Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to critically examine the Indian IT Act 2000 and IT (Amendment) Act 2008 in the light of e-commerce perspective to identify the present status of e-commerce laws in India. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper presents a critical reflection on the current e-commerce laws in India. The paper is based on the Indian IT

2010-01-01

210

Current knowledge on the distribution of arsenic in groundwater in five states of India.  

PubMed

Testing of groundwater used for drinking for arsenic has been undertaken more widely by state governments in several states of India in recent years with the support of UNICEF. Available data for five states are collated in this paper and this provides the most up-to-date picture of areas known to be affected by arsenic in groundwater in the Indian portion of the Ganges-Brahmaputra river basin. In West Bengal, water from 132,262 government installed handpumps in 8 districts has been tested and overall 25.5% of samples were found to contain arsenic at concentrations greater than 50 microgL(-1) and 57.9% at concentrations greater than 10 microgL(-1). On the banks of the Brahmaputra in Assam, to date, samples from 5,729 government handpump sources in 22 districts have been tested for arsenic. Overall, samples from 6.3% of sources were found to contain arsenic at concentrations greater than 50 microgL(-1) and 26.1% at concentrations greater than 10 microgL(-1). In Bihar, on the River Ganges upstream of West Bengal, 66,623 sources from 11 districts have been tested and water samples from 10.8% of sources were found to contain arsenic at concentrations greater than 50 microgL(-1) and 28.9% at concentrations greater than 10 microgL(-1). Upstream of Bihar in Uttar Pradesh, home of the Taj Mahal, to date water samples from 20,126 government-installed handpump sources have been tested. As a result 2.4% of the samples tested were found to contain arsenic at concentrations greater than 50 microgL(-1) and 21.5% at concentrations greater than 10 microgL(-1). Finally in one district of Jharkhand, lying on the Ganges alluvial plain between Bihar and West Bengal, 9,007 sources have been tested and water samples from 3.7% of sources were found to contain arsenic at concentrations greater than 50 microgL(-1) and 7.5% at concentrations greater than 10 microgL(-1). State governments have adopted different sampling strategies and these are described in this paper. Testing is ongoing in several states and the complete picture is yet to emerge in some areas. PMID:17952772

Nickson, R; Sengupta, C; Mitra, P; Dave, S N; Banerjee, A K; Bhattacharya, A; Basu, S; Kakoti, N; Moorthy, N S; Wasuja, M; Kumar, M; Mishra, D S; Ghosh, A; Vaish, D P; Srivastava, A K; Tripathi, R M; Singh, S N; Prasad, R; Bhattacharya, S; Deverill, P

2007-10-01

211

Genesis of wollastonite- and grandite-rich skarns in a suite of marble-calc-silicate rocks from Sittampundi, Tamil Nadu: constraints on the P-T-fluid regime in parts of the Pan-African mobile belt of South India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pan-African tectonothermal activities in areas near Sittampundi, south India, are characterized by metamorphic changes in an interlayered sequence of migmatitic metapelites, marble and calc-silicate rocks. This rock sequence underwent multiple episodes of folding, and was intruded by granite batholiths during and subsequent to these folding events. The marble and the calc-silicate rocks develop a variety of skarns, which on the basis of mineralogy; can be divided into the following types: Type I: wollastonite + clinopyroxene (mg# = 71-73) + grandite (16-21 mol% Adr) + quartz ± calcite, Type II: grandite (25-29 mol% Adr ) + clinopyroxene (mg# = 70) + calcite + quartz, and Type III: grandite (36-38 mol% Adr) + clinopyroxene (mg# = 55-65) + epidote + scapolite + calcite + quartz. Type I skarn is 2-10 cm thick, and is dominated by wollastonite ( >70 vol%) and commonly occurs as boudinaged layers parallel to the regional foliation Sn1 related to the Fn1 folds. Locally, thin discontinuous lenses and stringers of this skarn develop along the axial planes of Fn2 folds. The Type II skarn, on the other hand, is devoid of wollastonite, rich in grandite garnet (40-70 vol%) and developed preferentially at the interface of clinopyroxene-rich calc-silicates layers and host marble during the later folding event. Reaction textures and the phase compositional data suggest the following reactions in the skarns: 1. calcite + SiO2 ? wollastonite + V, 2. calcite + clinopyroxene + O2 ? grandite + SiO2 + V, 3. scapolite + calcite + quartz + clinopyroxene + O2 ? grandite + V and 4. epidote + calcite + quartz + clinopyroxene + O2 ? grandite + V Textural relations and composition of phases demonstrate that (a) silica metasomatism of the host marble by infiltration of aqueous fluids (XCO2 < 0.15) led to production of large volumes of wollastonite in the wollastonite-rich skarn whereas mobility of FeO, SiO2 and CaO across the interface of marble and calc-silicate and infiltration of aqueous fluids (XCO2 < 0.35) were instrumental for the formation of grandite skarns. Composition of minerals in type II skarn indicates that Al2O3 was introduced in the host marble by the infiltrating fluid. Interpretation of mineral assemblages observed in the interlayered metapelites and the calcareous rocks in pseudosections, isothermal P-XCO2 and isobaric T-XCO2 diagrams tightly bracket the “peak” metamorphic conditions at c.9 ± 1 kbar and 750° ± 30°C. Subsequent to ‘peak’ metamorphic conditions, the rocks were exhumed on a steeply decompressive P-T path. The estimated ‘peak’ P-T estimates are inconsistent with the “extreme” metamorphic conditions (>11 kbar and >950°C) inferred for the Pan-African tectonothermal events from the neighboring areas. Field and petrological attributes of these skarn rocks are consistent with the infiltration of aqueous fluid predominantly during the Fn1 folding event at or close to the ‘peak’ metamorphic conditions. Petrological features indicate that the buffering capacity of the rocks was lost during the formation of type I and II skarns. However, the host rock could buffer the composition of the permeated fluids during the formation of type III skarn. Aqueous fluids derived from prograde metamorphism of the metapelites seem to be the likely source for the metasomatic fluids that led to the formation of the skarn rocks.

Sengupta, P.; Dutta, U.; Bhui, Uttam K.; Mukhopadhyay, D.

2009-03-01

212

Modernity as a “Rain of Words”: Tracing the Flows of “Rain” between Dalit Women and Intellectuals in Tamil Nadu  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I investigate the ways in which modernity in contemporary Tamil Nadu may be understood as something other than a purely exclusionary category. I enquire into the flow of language, imagery, music, resonant phrases and film dialogues that has allowed the values of the Self Respect movement in Tamil Nadu to move as a “Rain of Words” across

Kalpana Ram

2009-01-01

213

Impact of occupational health hazards on serum markers of bone formation in spray painters of Chennai region in Tamil Nadu  

PubMed Central

Context: The association between spray paint exposure and bone remodeling received little attention despite the high usage of spray paints in automobile industries, steel furniture workshops etc. Aim: The present study was aimed at investigating the level of serum markers of bone formation in spray painters. The spray painting subjects were selected from automobile body repair workshops in Chennai region of TamilNadu which constitutes 30% of India's automobile industry. Setting and Design: All the study subjects, exposed to spray paint were working in a workshop without standard spraying room and did not wore any aerosol removing respirator. The controls were selected from random population irrespective of occupation. Data relevant to the socioeconomic features and personal history was collected using a questionnaire. The current study included 50 spray painters and 25 control subjects of same age group. Materials and Methods: We examined the level of serum calcium, serum phosphorus, serum differentiation markers of bone such as alkaline phosphatase (bone specific) and serum osteocalcin in which these levels were found to be high in serum of spray painters. Conclusion: The current study concludes dysregulation in bone remodeling of spray painters exposed to chronic solvents and paint pigments. PMID:23580840

Muthaiah, Vijaya Prakash Krishnan; Nathan, Abel Arul; Balakrishnan, Anandan; Rose, Rajiv; Gopalsamy, Jayaraman

2012-01-01

214

Temporal change in land use by irrigation source in Tamil Nadu and management implications.  

PubMed

Interannual variation in rainfall throughout Tamil Nadu has been causing frequent and noticeable land use changes despite the rapid development in groundwater irrigation. Identifying periodically water-stressed areas is the first and crucial step to minimizing negative effects on crop production. Such analysis must be conducted at the basin level as it is an independent water accounting unit. This paper investigates the temporal variation in irrigated area between 2000-2001 and 2010-2011 due to rainfall variation at the state and sub-basin level by mapping and classifying Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 8-day composite satellite imagery using spectral matching techniques. A land use/land cover map was drawn with an overall classification accuracy of 87.2%. Area estimates between the MODIS-derived net irrigated area and district-level statistics (2000-2001 to 2007-2008) were in 95% agreement. A significant decrease in irrigated area (30-40%) was observed during the water-stressed years of 2002-2003, 2003-2004, and 2009-2010. Major land use changes occurred three times during 2000 to 2010. This study demonstrates how remote sensing can identify areas that are prone to repeated land use changes and pin-point key target areas for the promotion of drought-tolerant varieties, alternative water management practices, and new cropping patterns to ensure sustainable agriculture for food security and livelihoods. PMID:25481120

Gumma, Murali Krishna; Kajisa, Kei; Mohammed, Irshad A; Whitbread, Anthony M; Nelson, Andrew; Rala, Arnel; Palanisami, K

2015-01-01

215

State of municipal solid waste management in Delhi, the capital of India.  

PubMed

Delhi is the most densely populated and urbanized city of India. The annual growth rate in population during the last decade (1991-2001) was 3.85%, almost double the national average. Delhi is also a commercial hub, providing employment opportunities and accelerating the pace of urbanization, resulting in a corresponding increase in municipal solid waste (MSW) generation. Presently the inhabitants of Delhi generate about 7000tonnes/day of MSW, which is projected to rise to 17,000-25,000tonnes/day by the year 2021. MSW management has remained one of the most neglected areas of the municipal system in Delhi. About 70-80% of generated MSW is collected and the rest remains unattended on streets or in small open dumps. Only 9% of the collected MSW is treated through composting, the only treatment option, and rest is disposed in uncontrolled open landfills at the outskirts of the city. The existing composting plants are unable to operate to their intended treatment capacity due to several operational problems. Therefore, along with residue from the composting process, the majority of MSW is disposed in landfills. In absence of leachate and landfill gas collection systems, these landfills are a major source of groundwater contamination and air pollution (including generation of greenhouse gases). This study describes and evaluates the present state of municipal solid waste management in Delhi. The paper also summarizes the proposed policies and initiatives of the Government of Delhi and the Municipal Corporation of Delhi to improve the existing MSW management system. PMID:17692510

Talyan, Vikash; Dahiya, R P; Sreekrishnan, T R

2008-01-01

216

State of municipal solid waste management in Delhi, the capital of India  

SciTech Connect

Delhi is the most densely populated and urbanized city of India. The annual growth rate in population during the last decade (1991-2001) was 3.85%, almost double the national average. Delhi is also a commercial hub, providing employment opportunities and accelerating the pace of urbanization, resulting in a corresponding increase in municipal solid waste (MSW) generation. Presently the inhabitants of Delhi generate about 7000 tonnes/day of MSW, which is projected to rise to 17,000-25,000 tonnes/day by the year 2021. MSW management has remained one of the most neglected areas of the municipal system in Delhi. About 70-80% of generated MSW is collected and the rest remains unattended on streets or in small open dumps. Only 9% of the collected MSW is treated through composting, the only treatment option, and rest is disposed in uncontrolled open landfills at the outskirts of the city. The existing composting plants are unable to operate to their intended treatment capacity due to several operational problems. Therefore, along with residue from the composting process, the majority of MSW is disposed in landfills. In absence of leachate and landfill gas collection systems, these landfills are a major source of groundwater contamination and air pollution (including generation of greenhouse gases). This study describes and evaluates the present state of municipal solid waste management in Delhi. The paper also summarizes the proposed policies and initiatives of the Government of Delhi and the Municipal Corporation of Delhi to improve the existing MSW management system.

Talyan, Vikash [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016 (India)], E-mail: talyan.vikas@gmail.com; Dahiya, R.P. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016 (India); Sreekrishnan, T.R. [Department of Biochemical and Biotechnology Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016 (India)

2008-07-01

217

Role of Directorates in Promoting Nursing and Midwifery Across the Various States of India: Call for Leadership for Reforms  

PubMed Central

Background: While the roles and responsibilities of nursing professionals have multiplied over the years, but there are huge concerns with regard to the development of the nursing workforce and human resources (HR) issues for their career growth. The major lacuna is in not involving the nursing professionals in policy framing and decision-making. As a result, there is a leadership crisis of the nursing workforce across India. Objectives: The paper, is part of the WHO supported study, entitled “Study on Nursing and Midwifery in India: a critical review”, is developed with the objective to review the current organizational and management structure for the nursing positions at the State Directorates in India and obtain a Leadership perspective to strengthen nursing management capacities to address maternal health issues. Materials and Methods: The study descriptive and qualitative in nature and the sources of information were both primary and secondary collected from 16 states of India. Results: Since none of the states have neither a Nursing Cell nor the post of Director Nursing, final decision-making powers rest with state health secretaries and medical directors. The nursing management structure majorly managed by senior policy makers from the medical fraternity, and provides very little scope for nursing professionals to participate in policy decision making to bring about reforms. There is no uniformity on HR issues concerning career graphs and pay structures across the states. Conclusions: In order to strengthen nursing as a profession and for facilitating their role at the policy level, more powers and autonomy needs to be given to them and this requires HR policy guidelines for nurses. Setting up a separate nursing directorate, to be headed by a senior nursing professional, is suggested in every state along with a strong nursing division at the National level. This total paradigm shift will empower nursing professionals to take up the leadership role at the policy level to bring about necessary reforms. Across the country, nursing professionals repeatedly echoed one requirement: To reframe nursing leadership at all levels. PMID:25861169

Bagga, Rajni; Jaiswal, Vaishali; Tiwari, Ritika

2015-01-01

218

Molecular characterization of peste-des-petits ruminants virus (PPRV) isolated from an outbreak in the Indo-Bangladesh border of Tripura state of North-East India.  

PubMed

Peste-des-petits- ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious and devastating disease of goats and sheep. Although India is endemic for PPR, Tripura, a state in North East India has never been reported confirmed PPR outbreaks. Recently, an outbreak of PPR occurred in non-descript goats at the Sabroom town of Tripura state in North-East India in June, 2013. The causative agent, PPR virus (PPRV) was confirmed by sandwich ELISA, virus isolation and N gene based RT-PCR and sequencing. The sequence and phylogenetic analysis confirmed the involvement of lineage IV PPR virus in the outbreak. The outbreak viruses from Tripura state were clustered mainly with circulating viruses from Bangladesh, India, China, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Dubai and Kurdistan. However, the nucleotide sequence homology ranged from 99.2 to 99.6% with the PPR strains circulating in Bangladesh during 2011 and 2012 whereas 95.5-98% homology has been observed with the viruses from India and other countries. These findings suggest the transboundary circulation of PPR virus between India and Bangladesh border, which warrant immediate vaccination across the international border to create an immune belt. PMID:25465184

Muthuchelvan, Dhanavelu; De, Ankan; Debnath, Bikas; Choudhary, Dheeraj; Venkatesan, Gnanavel; Rajak, Kaushal Kishore; Sudhakar, Shashi Bhusan; Himadri, Divakar; Pandey, Awadh Bihari; Parida, Satya

2014-12-01

219

Public health system readiness to treat malaria in Odisha State of India  

PubMed Central

Background Early diagnosis and prompt treatment is a cornerstone of malaria control. In India, artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) became the first-line treatment for falciparum malaria and rapid diagnostic test (RDTs) kits were recommended for use at the grass-root level in the new malaria treatment policy (2010). Odisha State contributes about one-fourth of the total Indian malaria burden and 40% of falciparum infection. The present study assessed the health system readiness to deploy RDTs and ACT for malaria control across the State. Methods Data collection was carried out from February to July 2012. Five of Odisha’s 30 districts were selected through stratified random sampling, with stratification based on the phased roll-out of ACT and RDT. Two administrative 'blocks’ were selected randomly in each district and data collected through health facility, auxiliary nurse midwives (ANMs) and accredited social health activist (ASHAs) assessments. Key informant interviews were conducted with individuals involved in the implementation of the malaria control programme. Results Of the 220 ANMs interviewed, 51.4% had been trained in malaria case management, including the use of ACT and RDT. A high proportion of ANM (80%) and AHSA (77%) had the necessary level of knowledge to be able to use RDT for malaria diagnosis. The proportion of ASHAs trained on malaria case management was 88.9% (209/235). However, 71% of ANM and 55% of ASHAs usually referred falciparum-positive patients to the health facility for treatment, the major reason for referral being the non-availability of drugs at the ANM and ASHA level. Conclusion The relatively high level of knowledge about how to diagnose and treat malaria at the grass-root level was undermined by the poor availability of RDTs, ACT and primaquine tablets. This was associated with an unnecessarily high referral rate and potential delays in the treatment of this potentially life-threatening infection. Improvements in the supply chain for RDTs and ACT could dramatically enhance the effectiveness of malaria control in Odisha. PMID:24088525

2013-01-01

220

Freshwater greenhouse gas emissions and their implications on landscape level carbon balances in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from global freshwaters are important sources of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. It has been estimated that about 0.65 Pg of C (CO2 equiv.) yr-1 in the form of CH4 and 1.4 Pg C yr -1 in the form of CO2 is being emitted from global freshwaters. Therefore, including freshwater emissions in the greenhouse gas budgets in the national or global levels could significantly reduce the estimated land carbon sink, but present estimates suffer from lack of data, in particular from tropical freshwaters. Hence, we attempted to test the validity of the land carbon sink estimate in India, a tropical country with a large number of natural and man-made water bodies. We measured the CH4 and CO2 fluxes and surface water concentrations from a wide variety of inland freshwaters like lakes, ponds, rivers, reservoirs, open wells, canals and springs in three South Indian states, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh. We observed that almost all of these freshwater systems emitted varied amounts of CH4 and a majority of them emitted CO2, similar to other tropical locations in South America. We extrapolated the measured fluxes for the whole of Indian inland waters by using the total area of different categories of inland waters in the national wetland atlas of India. By comparing our estimates of aquatic fluxes with the national greenhouse gas budget, we show that the land carbon sink of India is substantially overestimated. Thus, freshwater emissions are important components of greenhouse gas budgets on a landscape level and it is necessary to incorporate them in national and global greenhouse gas budgets to accurately quantify the land carbon sink.

Panneer Selvam, B.; Natchimuthu, S.; Arunachalam, L.; Bastviken, D.

2012-04-01

221

The Myths of India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stating that superficial stereotypes hinder the understanding of people and places, Day presents several well-known over-generalizations about India. Attempts to update readers about recent changes within the country while dispelling some popular myths. Discusses India's large population, poverty, economic growth, women's roles, and culture, along…

Day, Frederick A.

1988-01-01

222

Modeling winter rainfall in Northwest India using a hidden Markov model: understanding occurrence of different states and their dynamical connections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multiscale-modeling framework for daily rainfall is considered and diagnostic results are presented for an application to the winter season in Northwest India. The daily rainfall process is considered to follow a hidden Markov model (HMM), with the hidden states assumed to be an unknown random function of slowly varying climatic modulation of the winter jet stream and moisture transport dynamics. The data used are from 14 stations over Satluj River basin in winter (December-January-February-March). The period considered is 1977/78-2005/06. The HMM identifies four discrete weather states, which are used to describe daily rainfall variability over study region. Each state was found to be associated with a distinct atmospheric circulation pattern, with the driest and drier states, State 1 and 2 respectively, characterized by a lack of synoptic wave activity. In contrast, the wetter and wettest states, States 3 and 4 respectively, are characterized by a zonally oriented wave train extending across Eurasia between 20N and 40N, identified with `western disturbances' (WD). The occurrence of State 4 is strongly conditioned by the El Nino and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) phenomena in winter, which is demonstrated using large-scale correlation maps based on mean sea level pressure and sea surface temperature. This suggests that there is a tendency of higher frequency of the wet days and intense WD activities in winter during El Nino and positive IOD years. These findings, derived from daily rainfall station records, help clarify the sequence of Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude storms bringing winter rainfall over Northwest India, and their association with potentially predictable low frequency modes on seasonal time scales and longer.

Pal, Indrani; Robertson, Andrew W.; Lall, Upmanu; Cane, Mark A.

2015-02-01

223

Communication Behavior of Village Level Workers in Surat and Mehsana Districts, Gujarat State, India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated communication patterns, procedures, and background characteristics associated with effectiveness in village level workers (VLWs) in two districts of Gujarat, India. Questionnaire interviews were held with 222 VLWs who had induced farmers to adopt one or more farm practices. An appraisal form was used to measure the…

Patel, Ishwarlal Chaturdas

224

State Security and Elite Capture: The Implementation of Antiterrorist Legislation in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the wake of the terrorist attacks on Mumbai in November 2008, India enacted new and tougher anti-terrorism laws that took effect in 2009—the Unlawful Activities (Prevention Amendment Act of 2008 (UAPA), and the National Investigation Agency Act of 2008 (NIA). This paper examines the current challenges facing the Indian Government in the implementation of these laws, in light of

Manoj Mate; Adnan Naseemullah

2010-01-01

225

Role of Crop Diversification in Output Growth in India: A State-Level Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diversification, as one of the major tools of policy, drew widespread attention in India in the recent past in the face of stagnant growth, incomplete agricultural transformation and low productivity. There are four dimensions of diversification—number of crops, spread of cropping pattern, proportion of high value crop in the cropping pattern and shift in cropping pattern mix. This paper examines

Pradeep Kumar Mehta

2009-01-01

226

Paths to the future for science and technology in China, India and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

China and India are frequently referred to as emerging superpowers. First, we present evidence that by virtue of their economic strength, their ability to absorb and adapt to repeated foreign intrusions, and their cultural reach, both countries should be more properly regarded as re-emerging superpowers. They qualified for that status even when the Roman Empire was at its peak, and

J. Thomas Ratchford; William A. Blanpied

2008-01-01

227

Climate variables as predictors for seasonal forecast of dengue occurrence in Chennai, Tamil Nadu  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background Dengue is a recently emerging vector borne diseases in Chennai. As per the WHO report in 2011 dengue is one of eight climate sensitive disease of this century. Objective Therefore an attempt has been made to explore the influence of climate parameters on dengue occurrence and use for forecasting. Methodology Time series analysis has been applied to predict the number of dengue cases in Chennai, a metropolitan city which is the capital of Tamil Nadu, India. Cross correlation of the climate variables with dengue cases revealed that the most influential parameters were monthly relative humidity, minimum temperature at 4 months lag and rainfall at one month lag (Table 1). However due to intercorrelation of relative humidity and rainfall was high and therefore for predictive purpose the rainfall at one month lag was used for the model development. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models have been applied to forecast the occurrence of dengue. Results and Discussion The best fit model was ARIMA (1,0,1). It was seen that the monthly minimum temperature at four months lag (?= 3.612, p = 0.02) and rainfall at one month lag (?= 0.032, p = 0.017) were associated with dengue occurrence and they had a very significant effect. Mean Relative Humidity had a directly significant positive correlation at 99% confidence level, but the lagged effect was not prominent. The model predicted dengue cases showed significantly high correlation of 0.814(Figure 1) with the observed cases. The RMSE of the model was 18.564 and MAE was 12.114. The model is limited by the scarcity of the dataset. Inclusion of socioeconomic conditions and population offset are further needed to be incorporated for effective results. Conclusion Thus it could be claimed that the change in climatic parameters is definitely influential in increasing the number of dengue occurrence in Chennai. The climate variables therefore can be used for seasonal forecasting of dengue with rise in minimum temperature and rainfall at a city level. Table 1. Cross correlation of climate variables with dengue cases in Chennai ** p<0.01,*p<0.05

Subash Kumar, D. D.; Andimuthu, R.

2013-12-01

228

Census of India  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

India's richly diverse population of more than 975 million people, growing at a rate of over 43,000 persons per day, provides a wealth of fascinating data when its decennial census is taken by the Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner. Although the last Indian census was conducted in 1991, new data are still being released every month. This Website provides access to Census Publications; India and State Maps; State Publications; District Census Handbooks; Special Studies; India at a Glance; Key Population Statistics; Vital Statistics; State Census Directorates; and New Book Releases.

229

Spatial and temporal responses of different crop?growing environments to agricultural drought: a study in Haryana state, India using NOAA AVHRR data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial and temporal responses to agricultural drought of different districts with different crop?growing environments were assessed using National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)?derived monthly time composite Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) images of a drought year (2002) and a normal year (2004) in Haryana state, one of the most prolific agricultural states of India.

C. S. Murthy; M. V. R. Sesha Sai; K. Chandrasekar; P. S. Roy

2009-01-01

230

State Policies and Women's Autonomy in China, the Republic of Korea, and India, 1950-2000: Lessons from Contrasting Experiences. Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper compares the influence of state policies on gender roles and women's empowerment in China, India, and South Korea. In 1950, these newly formed states were largely poor and agrarian, with common cultural factors that placed similar severe constraints on women's autonomy. The three countries followed very different paths of development,…

Das Gupta, Monica; Lee, Sunhwa; Uberoi, Patricia; Wang, Danning; Wang, Lihong; Zhang, Xiaodan

231

Regional Disparities in Household Consumption in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the distributions of persons by per capita household consumer expenditure on all items estimated from the 13th Round (Sept. 1957-May 1958) of the Indian National Sample Survey (NSS) separately for the rural and urban sectors of the different states of India [19]. For rural India, urban India and all-India, the disparities in consumption are analysed into between

N. Bhattacharya; B. Mahalanobis

1967-01-01

232

The state of health services in China and India: a larger context.  

PubMed

In this paper the problems of health services in China and India are related to some structural features of the two economies. Some similarities and differences exist across these two countries in terms of political economy, with differential results. Both countries have experienced remarkable economic growth during the past quarter-century, but this has not always translated into improvements in health for the poor. Although China used to have an egalitarian basic public health service, the system has become quite inegalitarian during the past quarter-century, with the disintegration of the communes and adoption of fee-based services under a system of decentralized public finance. India's health system has remained inegalitarian throughout. PMID:18607025

Bardhan, Pranab

2008-01-01

233

Infection control in delivery care units, Gujarat state, India: A needs assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Increasingly, women in India attend health facilities for childbirth, partly due to incentives paid under government programs.\\u000a Increased use of health facilities can alleviate the risks of infections contracted in unhygienic home deliveries, but poor\\u000a infection control practices in labour and delivery units also cause puerperal sepsis and other infections of childbirth. A\\u000a needs assessment was conducted to provide information

Rajesh Mehta; Dileep V Mavalankar; KV Ramani; Sheetal Sharma; Julia Hussein

2011-01-01

234

Modern India's Strategic Advantage to the United States: Her Twin Strengths in Himsa and Ahimsa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The notions of just war (jus-in-bello) and just peace (jus-in-pace), with himsa (the use of force) and ahimsa (nonviolence) are not new. They were conceptualized in Eastern Philosophy in early Hindu texts like the Vedas and the Bhagavad Gita. The theoretical concept of himsa and the Gandhian principle of ahimsa has been actualized in modern India. Both streams of thinking

Breena E. Coates

2008-01-01

235

Phytochemicals of selected plant species of the Apocynaceae and Asclepiadaceae from Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A concern about the declining supply of petroleum products has led to a renewed interest in evaluating plant species as potential alternate sources of energy. Five species of the Apocynaceae and three species of the Asclepiadaceae from the Western Ghats were evaluated as alternative sources of energ...

236

Hydrochemical characteristics and groundwater quality assessment in Tirupur Region, Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater samples from 62 locations have been collected from Tirupur region viz. Avinashi, Tirupur and Palladam taluks of Coimbatore District. The extensive agricultural industrial activities and urbanization resulted in the contamination of the aquifer. To study the contamination of groundwater, water samples were collected in an area of 180 km2 and analysed for major cations and anions. Most of the locations are contaminated by higher concentration of EC, TDS, K and NO3. Major hydro chemical facies were identified using Piper trilinear diagram. Based on US salinity diagram, most of the samples fall in the field of C3S1, indicating high salinity and low sodium water, which can be used for almost all types of soil with little danger of exchangeable sodium. Majority of the samples are not suitable for domestic purposes and far from drinking water standards. However, PI values indicates that groundwater is suitable for irrigation.

Arumugam, K.; Elangovan, K.

2009-10-01

237

Keratinophilic fungi of poultry farm and feather dumping soil in Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soils of 10 poultry farms from Namakkal and 12 feather dumping sites from Chennai were studied for the presence of keratinophilic\\u000a fungi. A total of 34 species belonging to 19 genera and one non-sporulating fungus were recovered. Sixteen species of fungi\\u000a and one non-sporulating fungi were common to both sites, eight species were specific to Namakkal and nine species were

Periasamy Anbu; A. Hilda; Subash Chandra Bose Gopinath

2004-01-01

238

GPR studies over the tsunami affected Karaikal beach, Tamil Nadu, south India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, results of GPR profiling related to mapping of subsurface sedimentary layers at tsunami affected Karaikal beach are presented . A 400 MHz antenna was used for profiling along 262 m stretch of transect from beach to backshore areas with penetration of about 2.0 m depth (50 ns two-way travel time). The velocity analysis was carried out to estimate the depth information along the GPR profile. Based on the significant changes in the reflection amplitude, three different zones are marked and the upper zone is noticed with less moisture compared to other two (saturated) zones. The water table is noticed to vary from 0.5 to 0.75 m depth (12-15 ns) as moving away from the coastline. Buried erosional surface is observed at 1.5 m depth (40-42 ns), which represents the limit up to which the extreme event acted upon. In other words, it is the depth to which the tsunami sediments have been piled up to about 1.5 m thickness. Three field test pits were made along the transect and sedimentary sequences were recorded. The sand layers, especially, heavy mineral layers, recorded in the test pits indicate a positive correlation with the amplitude and velocity changes in the GPR profile. Such interpretation seems to be difficult in the middle zone due to its water saturation condition. But it is fairly clear in the lower zone located just below the erosional surface where the strata is comparatively more compact. The inferences from the GPR profile thus provide a lucid insight to the subsurface sediment sequences of the tsunami sediments in the Karaikal beach.

Loveson, V. J.; Gujar, A. R.; Barnwal, R.; Khare, Richa; Rajamanickam, G. V.

2014-08-01

239

Origin and evolution of Gneiss-Charnockite rocks of Dharmapuri District, Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low- to high-grade transition area in Dharmapuri district was investigated petrologically and geochemically. The investigation confirmed the presence of a continuous section through a former lower crust, with felsic charnockites predominating the lower part and felsic gneisses the upper part. The structure of original gneisses is preserved in charnockites and the latter show petrographic evidence for prograde metamorphism. The prograde metamorphism is of isochemical nature as revealed by the similarity of compositions of tonalitic gneisses and tonalitic charnockites. However, the depletion of LIL elements particularly Rb, caused variation in K/Rb ratios from low values (345) in the gneisses in upper part to higher values (1775) in the charnockites in the lower crust. This variation in K/Rb ratio in a north to south traverse is related to the progressive break-down of hydrous minerals under decreasing H2O and increasing CO2 fluid conditions. Metasomatism and partial melting has also taken place to a limited extent along shear planes and weak zones. During cooling the H2O circulation affected substantial auto-regression in the transition zone resulting in the formation of second generation biotite.

Rao, D. Rameshwar; Narayana, B. L.

1988-01-01

240

Hydrogeochemical analysis and evaluation of groundwater quality in the Gadilam river basin, Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water samples were collected from different formations of Gadilam river basin and analyzed to assess the major ion chemistry and suitability of water for domestic and drinking purposes. Chemical parameters of groundwater such as pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), Sodium (Na + ), Potassium (K + ), Calcium (Ca + ), Magnesium (Mg + ), Bicarbonate (HCO3^{ -}), Sulphate (SO4^{ -}), Phosphate (PO4^{ -}) and Silica (H4SiO4) were determined. The geochemical study of the aquatic systems of the Gadilam river basin show that the groundwater is near-acidic to alkaline and mostly oxidizing in nature. Higher concentration of Sodium and Chloride indicates leaching of secondary salts and anthropogenic impact by industry and salt water intrusion. Spatial distribution of EC indicates anthropogenic impact in the downstream side of the basin. The concentration levels of trace metals such as Iron (Fe), Lead (Pb), Nickel (Ni), Bromide (Br), Iodide (I) and Aluminium (Al) have been compared with the world standard. Interpretation of data shows that some trace metals such as Al, Ni and Pb exceed the acceptable limit of world standard. Geophysical study was carried out to identify the weathered zone in the hard rock and contaminated zone by anthropogenic impact in the downstream of river Gadilam. A few of the groundwater samples in the study area were found to be unsuitable for domestic and drinking purposes.

Prasanna, M. V.; Chidambaram, S.; Hameed, A. Shahul; Srinivasamoorthy, K.

2011-02-01

241

Landscape Heterogeneity mapping for Access to Tribal health care in Nilgiris District of Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nilgiris district in Tamilnadu has a rich biodiversity in terms of flora, fauna and ethnic population. The district is basically a mountainous region, situated at an elevation of 2000 to 2,600 meters above MSL and constituting of several hill and Steep Mountain valleys. This region houses six tribes who are mainly forest dwellers and live in close settlements depending on the forest resources for their livelihood. The Tribes of Nilgiris have been diagnosed and monitored for Sickle cell Anemia which is a disease of major concern among these ethnic populations. This genetic disorder developed due to the sickling of Red Blood Cells has increased during the past few decades. The Tribes, as they live in close encounter with the forest regions and have strict social cultural barriers, face difficulty in availing treatment or counseling from the Sickle Cell Research Center (SCRC) and other NGOs like NAWA and AHWINI in the region. It was observed that many factors such as landscape terrain, climatic conditions and improper roads tend to hinder the access to appropriate health care. The SCRC in Gudalur region is a facility established to monitor the disease cases inspite of these influencing factors. On analyzing the year bound age wise classification among male and female patients, certain dropouts in cases were observed which may be due to inaccessible condition or migration of the patient. In our study, Landscape heterogeneity mapping for different climatic seasons was done in ArcGIS 10.1. For this, contour and terrain maps, road networks and villages were prepared and factors that determine Terrain Difficulty were assessed. Vegetation mapping using IRS satellite images for the study region was attempted and associated with the landscape map. A risk analysis was proposed based on terrain difficulty and access to the nearest Health care Center. Based on this, the above factors alternate routes were suggested to access the difficult areas.

Brindha, B.; Prashanthi Devi, M.

2014-11-01

242

Natural radioactivity in soil samples of Yelagiri Hills, Tamil Nadu, India and the associated radiation hazards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The natural radioactivity of soils at Yelagiri hills has been studied in this paper. The radioactivities of 25 samples have been measured with a NaI(Tl) detector. The radioactivity concentrations of 238U, 232Th and 40K ranged from ?2.17 to 53.23, 13.54 to 89.89 and from 625.09 to 2207.3 Bq kg-1, respectively. The measured activity concentrations for these radionuclides were compared with world average activity of soil. The average activity concentration of 232Th in the present study is 1.19 times higher than world median value while the activity of 238U and 40K is found to be lower. In order to evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity Raeq, the absorbed dose rate DR, the annual effective dose rate and the external hazard index (Hex) have been calculated and compared with the internationally approved values. The study provides background radioactivity concentrations in Yelagiri hills.

Ravisankar, R.; Chandrasekaran, A.; Vijayagopal, P.; Venkatraman, B.; Senthilkumar, G.; Eswaran, P.; Rajalakshmi, A.

2012-12-01

243

A Note on the Identity of Carnivorous Plants of Karungalakudi, Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Karungalakudi is blessed with rich herbaceous flora including two carnivorous plant groups, viz. fly traps and bladder worts. In the present communication, a total of 6 insectivorous plants are reported, and it is confirmed that the reported occurrence of Drosera brevifolia Pursh, Utricularia minor L., U. resupinata Greene ex Bigelow and U. uniflora R. Br. in Karungalakudi is due to

2008-01-01

244

Alternative energy sources from plants of Western Ghats (Tamil Nadu, India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-two taxa of Western Ghats plants were screened as potential alternative crops for renewable energy, oil, hydrocarbon and phytochemicals. The highest hydrocarbon yields were observed in Carissa carandas (1.7%), and Jatropha gossypifolia (1.7%). The highest polyphenol fraction was observed in Dodonaea viscosa (17.1%), Carissa carandas (7.7%), Swietenia mahagoni (6.6%), and Jatropha glandulifera (6.2%). The highest oil content was observed in

G. D. P. S Augustus; M Jayabalan; G. J Seiler

2003-01-01

245

An investigation on the pollution status of holy aquifers of Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

The Study area is the sacred Ramanathasamy temple and selected for the characterization of physico-chemical parameters viz., pH, EC, TDS, Salinity, TA, TH, Ca( + 2), Mg( + 2), Chloride and Fluoride for 22 groundwater samples and the impact of pre- and post-monsoon on the groundwater quality was also studied. The study area is well known for the chronic fresh water shortage and the locals depend mostly on springs for their fresh water needs. The Water Quality Index (WQI) computed shows the transfer of samples under unacceptable quality to acceptable quality. The Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) reflected that majority of the samples have the tendency to form scale. The Karl Pearson correlation matrix has approved the maximum relationship of calcium and chloride with respect to the total dissolved solids (TDS). It is interesting to conclude that the groundwater in the study area has very hard nature, especially of non-carbonate type. PMID:18716889

Sivasankar, V; Ramachandramoorthy, T

2009-09-01

246

The local climate–development nexus: jatropha and smallholder adaptation in Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kyoto Protocol has initiated Clean Development Mechanism projects in developing countries as one means to offset carbon emitted in developed nations. Biofuels may be a viable solution, but we argue here that it may also compete with local smallholder farming systems and labour resources. This study assesses the integration of tree bio-diesel crop Jatropha curcas into smallholder agriculture in

Rebecca A. Rittenburg; Miroslav Kummel; Eric P. Perramond

2011-01-01

247

ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES FROM PLANTS OF WESTERN GHATS (TAMIL NADU, INDIA)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Twenty-two taxa of Western Ghats plants were screened as potential alternative crops for renewable energy, oil, hydrocarbon and phytochemicals. The highest hydrocarbon yields were observed in Carissa carandas (1.7%), and Jatropha gossypifolia (1.7%). The highest polyphenol fraction was observed in D...

248

The transformation of amphibolite facies gneiss to charnockite in southern Karnataka and northern Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amphibolite facies metamorphic grade gives way southward to the granulite grade in southern Karnataka, as acid gneisses develop charnockite patches and streaks and basic enclaves develop pyroxenes. Petrologic investigations in the transitional zone south of Mysore have established the following points:1)The transition is prograde. Amphibole-bearing gneisses intimately associated with charnockite at Kabbal and several similar localities are not retrogressive after

A. S. Janardhan; R. C. Newton; E. C. Hansen

1982-01-01

249

From "Time Pass" to Transformative Force: School-Based Human Rights Education in Tamil Nadu, India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents data collected at the level of practice to highlight one non-governmental organization's approach to human rights education and how household-, school-, and community-level factors mediated student impact. Findings suggest that a variety of factors at the three levels contribute to the program's successful implementation in…

Bajaj, Monisha

2012-01-01

250

The Rhetoric of Participation Re-examined: The State, NGOs and Water Users at Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the rhetoric of popular participation in the implementation of the Ganga Action Plan (GAP) at Varanasi, India, first major attempt to systematically control and monitor the pollution of a significant river in India. (Contains 42 references.) (MDH)

Ahmed, Sara

1994-01-01

251

Relative Roles of Weather Variables and Change in Human Population in Malaria: Comparison over Different States of India  

PubMed Central

Background Pro-active and effective control as well as quantitative assessment of impact of climate change on malaria requires identification of the major drivers of the epidemic. Malaria depends on vector abundance which, in turn, depends on a combination of weather variables. However, there remain several gaps in our understanding and assessment of malaria in a changing climate. Most of the studies have considered weekly or even monthly mean values of weather variables, while the malaria vector is sensitive to daily variations. Secondly, rarely all the relevant meteorological variables have been considered together. An important question is the relative roles of weather variables (vector abundance) and change in host (human) population, in the change in disease load. Method We consider the 28 states of India, characterized by diverse climatic zones and changing population as well as complex variability in malaria, as a natural test bed. An annual vector load for each of the 28 states is defined based on the number of vector genesis days computed using daily values of temperature, rainfall and humidity from NCEP daily Reanalysis; a prediction of potential malaria load is defined by taking into consideration changes in the human population and compared with the reported number of malaria cases. Results For most states, the number of malaria cases is very well correlated with the vector load calculated with the combined conditions of daily values of temperature, rainfall and humidity; no single weather variable has any significant association with the observed disease prevalence. Conclusion The association between vector-load and daily values of weather variables is robust and holds for different climatic regions (states of India). Thus use of all the three weather variables provides a reliable means of pro-active and efficient vector sanitation and control as well as assessment of impact of climate change on malaria. PMID:24971510

Goswami, Prashant; Murty, Upadhayula Suryanarayana; Mutheneni, Srinivasa Rao; Krishnan, Swathi Trithala

2014-01-01

252

India Votes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The world's largest democracy goes to the polls in Mid-February for parliamentary elections. India Today (discussed in the August 29, 1997 Scout Report), a weekly news magazine with a circulation of over 11 million, provides this site for interested Internauts to follow the elections. It provides ongoing daily news, an election calendar, and election information organized by state, constituency, party, and leaders. In addition, there are links to IT articles of interest. Newcomers to the Indian electoral process are advised to consult the Reference section first.

253

Is Hemoglobin E Gene Widely Spread in the State of Madhya Pradesh in Central India? Evidence from Five Typical Families  

PubMed Central

Background Red cell inherited hemoglobin (Hb) anomalies are commonly encountered in the central region of India. These cause a public health concern due to high level of morbidity, mortality, and fetal loss in the backward, underprivileged, and vulnerable people. Purpose To report five typical families of Hb E disorders for the first time detected and identified from various districts of the state of Madhya Pradesh in central India. Methods Out of a total of 447 couples/families referred from a tertiary hospital in central India for investigations of anemia/hemoglobinopathies during the period from March 2010 to February 2014, we came across five typical rare couples/families of Hb E disorders (1.1%) worthy of detailed investigations that we have reported here. Laboratory investigations were carried out following the standard procedures after cross checking for quality control from time to time. Results For the first time, out of total 27 cases studied, we have encountered nine cases of heterozygous Hb E trait (33.3%), two members (7.4%) with Hb E-?-thalassemia (double heterozygosity), two cases (7.4%) of sickle cell-Hb E disease (double heterozygosity), two ?-thalassemia traits (7.4%), three sickle cell traits (11.1%), 9 normal (33.3%), and none with homozygous Hb E disease. Cases of Hb E trait, Hb E-?-thalassemia, and sickle cell-E disease showed moderate to severe anemia, and target cells, and reduced values of red cell indices like red blood cell count, Hb level, hematocrit, mean cell volume, mean cell Hb and mean cell Hb cencentration, describing abnormal hematological profile and clinical manifestations before blood transfusion. Conclusions Double heterozygosity of ?-thalassemia with Hb S and Hb E is a rare entity, but occurs with severe clinical manifestations, testifying either migrations and/or genetic admixture. Co-occurrence of Hb E/?-thalassemia in different districts indicates that these anomalies along with other hemoglobinopathies are wide spread in Madhya Pradesh and posing a major genetic burden on vulnerable people of central India. PMID:25237473

Balgir, R.S.

2014-01-01

254

Perchlorate contamination of groundwater from fireworks manufacturing area in South India.  

PubMed

Perchlorate contamination was investigated in groundwater and surface water from Sivakasi and Madurai in the Tamil Nadu State of South India. Sensitive determination of perchlorate (LOQ?=?0.005 ?g/L) was achieved by large-volume (500 ?L) injection ion chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Concentrations of perchlorate were <0.005-7,690 ?g/L in groundwater (n?=?60), <0.005-30.2 ?g/L in surface water (n?=?11), and 0.063-0.393 ?g/L in tap water (n?=?3). Levels in groundwater were significantly higher in the fireworks factory area than in the other locations, indicating that the fireworks and safety match industries are principal sources of perchlorate pollution. This is the first study that reports the contamination status of perchlorate in this area and reveals firework manufacture to be the pollution source. Since perchlorate levels in 17 out of 57 groundwater samples from Sivakasi, and none from Madurai, exceeded the drinking water guideline level proposed by USEPA (15 ?g/L), further investigation on human health is warranted. PMID:23108714

Isobe, Tomohiko; Ogawa, Shohei P; Sugimoto, Rina; Ramu, Karri; Sudaryanto, Agus; Malarvannan, Govindan; Devanathan, Gnanasekaran; Ramaswamy, Babu Rajendran; Munuswamy, Natesan; Ganesh, Deavaraj Sankar; Sivakumar, Jeyaraj; Sethuraman, A; Parthasarathy, V; Subramanian, Annamalai; Field, Jennifer; Tanabe, Shinsuke

2013-07-01

255

Complex Behaviour of Glaciers in Ladakh Mountains (J & K State, India) : Case Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ladakh Mountains house approximately 4500 glaciers in its two major basins, namely Indus (1800 glaciers) and Shyok (2700 glaciers).Glaciers in Indian Himalaya have been under monitor for past about five decades. Monitoring of scores of glaciers have been both in terms of documentary record and field studies of the glaciers in northwest Himalaya. The studies suggest that glaciers of Ladakh mountains show an extremely different behavior as compared to the glaciers of rest of northwest Himalaya. Four glaciers, namely Durung Drung, Kangriz, Machoi and Siachen, representing the Indus and Shyok basin are dealt herein. Sufficient documentary and field evidences of these four glaciers support the view that glaciers housed in Ladakh mountains contradict the commonly accepted concept of fast melting glaciers in Himalaya (Ganjoo and Koul 2009; Ganjoo et al. 2010). The studies further suggest that the secular movement of glaciers in Ladakh mountains is a complex phenomena of several micro and macro-climatic factors, terrain morphology, and tectonics (Ganjoo 2009, Koul and Ganjoo 2010). The change in the morphology of glaciers is not necessarily related with the change in climate as commonly believed and hyped. Ganjoo, R.K. (2009) Holocene Tectonics and Climate of Durung Drung Glacier Basin, Zanskar Himalaya, India (Abstract). The 5th International Symposium on Tibetan Plateau and 24th Himalaya- Karakorum-Tibet Workshop, Aug. 11-14, Beijing, China. Ganjoo, R.K. and Koul, M.N. (2009) Is the Siachen glacier melting? Current Science, 97(3), 309-310. Ganjoo, RK; Koul, MN; Ajai; Bahuguna, IM (2010) Glaciers of Nubra valley, Karakorum mountains, Ladakh (India) vis-ŕ-vis climate change (abstract). 7th Annual Meeting of Asia Oceania Geosciences Society, Hyderabad. Koul, M.N. and Ganjoo, R.K. (2010) Impact of inter- and intra-annual variation in weather parameters on mass balance and equilibrium line altitude of Naradu glacier (Himachal Pradesh), NW Himalaya, India. Climatic Change, 99, 119-139.

Ganjoo, R. K.

2011-12-01

256

Diet and nutritional status of adolescent tribal population in nine states of India.  

PubMed

Tribal population constitutes about 8% of the total population in India. They are particularly vulnerable to undernutrition, because of their geographical isolation, socio-economic disadvantage and inadequate health facilities. Recognizing the problem, Government of India launched different programmes for their welfare. Adolescence is a significant period of growth and maturation. The nutritional status of adolescent girls, the future mothers, contributes significantly to the nutritional status of the community. Therefore an attempt was made to assess the diet and nutritional status of adolescent population from the different tribal areas of India. The available database collected by National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau (1998-99) was utilized for this purpose. Data on a total of 12,789 adolescents (10-17 yrs) was included for the analysis. Four percent of the adolescent girls were married and less than 1% were either pregnant (0.4%) or lactating (0.7%) at the time of the survey. The mean intake of all the foodstuffs, especially the income elastic foods such as Pulses, Milk & Milk products, Oils & fats and Sugar & Jaggery were lower than the recommended levels of ICMR. The intake of all the foodstuffs except green leafy vegetables was lower than that of their rural counterparts. The intake of all the nutrients were below the recommended level, while that of micronutrients such as iron, vitamin A and riboflavin were grossly inadequate in all the age and sex groups. About 63% of adolescent boys and 42% of girls were undernourished (< 5th BMI age percentiles of NHANES). A significant association between undernutrition and socio-economic parameters like type of family, size of land holding and occupation of head of household was observed. Therefore, there is a need to evolve comprehensive programmes for the overall development of tribal population with special focus on adolescents. PMID:16500880

Rao, Kodavanti Mallikharjuna; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Laxmaiah, Avula; Venkaiah, Kodali; Brahmam, G N V

2006-01-01

257

Burden of Complicated Malaria in a Densely Forested Bastar Region of Chhattisgarh State (Central India)  

PubMed Central

Background A prospective study on severe and complicated malaria was undertaken in the tribal dominated area of Bastar division, Chhattisgarh (CG), Central India, with an objective to understand the clinical epidemiology of complicated malaria in patients attending at a referral hospital. Methods Blood smears, collected from the general medicine and pediatric wards of a government tertiary health care facility located in Jagdalpur, CG, were microscopically examined for malaria parasite from July 2010 to December 2013. The Plasmodium falciparum positive malaria cases who met enrollment criteria and provided written informed consent were enrolled under different malaria categories following WHO guidelines. PCR was performed to reconfirm the presence of P.falciparum mono infection among enrolled cases. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to identify different risk factors using STATA 11.0. Results A total of 40,924 cases were screened for malaria. The prevalence of malaria and P.falciparum associated complicated malaria (severe and cerebral both) in the hospital was 6% and 0.81%, respectively. P.falciparum malaria prevalence, severity and associated mortality in this region peaked at the age of>4–5 years and declined with increasing age. P.falciparum malaria was significantly more prevalent in children than adults (P<0.00001). Among adults, males had significantly more P.falciparum malaria than females (P<0.00001). Case fatality rate due to cerebral malaria and severe malaria was, respectively, 32% and 9% among PCR confirmed mono P.falciparum cases. Coma was the only independent predictor of mortality in multivariate regression analysis. Mortality was significantly associated with multi-organ complication score (P?=?0.0003). Conclusion This study has revealed that the pattern of morbidity and mortality in this part of India is very different from earlier reported studies from India. We find that the peak morbidity and mortality in younger children regardless of seasonality. This suggests that this age group needs special care for control and clinical management. PMID:25531373

Jain, Vidhan; Basak, Sanjay; Bhandari, Sneha; Bharti, Praveen K.; Thomas, Trilok; Singh, Mrigendra P.; Singh, Neeru

2014-01-01

258

Universal health coverage for India by 2022: a utopia or reality?  

PubMed

It is the obligation of the state to provide free and universal access to quality health-care services to its citizens. India continues to be among the countries of the world that have a high burden of diseases. The various health program and policies in the past have not been able to achieve the desired goals and objectives. 65(th) World Health Assembly in Geneva identified universal health coverage (UHC) as the key imperative for all countries to consolidate the public health advances. Accordingly, Planning Commission of India constituted a high level expert group (HLEG) on UHC in October 2010. HLEG submitted its report in Nov 2011 to Planning Commission on UHC for India by 2022. The recommendations for the provision of UHC pertain to the critical areas such as health financing, health infrastructure, health services norms, skilled human resources, access to medicines and vaccines, management and institutional reforms, and community participation. India faces enormous challenges to achieve UHC by 2022 such as high disease prevalence, issues of gender equality, unregulated and fragmented health-care delivery system, non-availability of adequate skilled human resource, vast social determinants of health, inadequate finances, lack of inter-sectoral co-ordination and various political pull and push of different forces, and interests. These challenges can be met by a paradigm shift in health policies and programs in favor of vulnerable population groups, restructuring of public health cadres, reorientation of undergraduate medical education, more emphasis on public health research, and extensive education campaigns. There are still areas of concern in fulfilling the objectives of achieving UHC by 2022 regarding financing model for health-care delivery, entitlement package, cost of health-care interventions and declining state budgets. However, the Government's commitment to provide adequate finances, recent bold social policy initiatives and enactments such as food security bill, enhanced participation by civil society in all health matters, major initiative by some states such as Tamil Nadu to improve health, water, and sanitation services are good enough reasons for hope that UHC can be achieved by 2022. However, in the absence of sustained financial support, strong political will and leadership, dedicated involvement of all stakeholders and community participation, attainment of UHC by 2022 will remain a Utopia. PMID:23878417

Singh, Zile

2013-04-01

259

WOMEN'S MOVEMENTS AND STATE POLICY REFORM AIMED AT DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN:A Comparison of the Consequences of Movement Mobilization in the U.S. and India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article compares the social movement mobilization that led to reforms in police and judicial handling of battering in the United States to the movement ideology, organization, and tactics that resulted in analogous policy reform in the processing of dowry burnings and beatings in India. Using field notes and secondary sources from both countries, the article examines how both movements

DIANE MITSCH BUSH

1992-01-01

260

Based on the paper presented at `First Farmers in Global Perspective,' seminar of Uttar Pradesh State Department of Archaeology, Lucknow, India, 18-20 January 2006. For  

E-print Network

State Department of Archaeology, Lucknow, India, 18-20 January 2006. For publication in a special issue, Washington, U.S.A. 2. Institute of Archaeology, University College London, London WC1H 0PY, U. K. While archaeological sites throughout the globe, yet rarely are they found in large numbers or perceived as a primary

261

Empowerment and continuous improvement in the United States, Mexico, Poland, and India: Predicting fit on the basis of the dimensions of power distance and individualism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although variations in national cultures predominate as explanations for the belief that universal approaches to management do not exist, there have been few reports of systematic studies. Data from employees of a single firm with operations in the United States, Mexico, Poland, and India were used to test the fit of empowerment and continuous improvement practices with national culture. Using

Christopher Robert; Tahira M. Probst; Joseph J. Martocchio; Fritz Drasgow; John J. Lawler

2000-01-01

262

Development of Multi Objective Plan Using Fuzzytechnique for Optimal Cropping Pattern Incommand Area of Aundha Minor Irrigationproject of Maharashtra State (India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to consider the importance of efficient and judicious use of available resources, a case study was undertaken to allocate the land under selected crops in command area of Aundha Minor irrigation project, of Maharashtra State, India so as to maximize the net benefit and production. A linear programming allocation model was formulated by considering the four objectives viz.

K. P. Gore; R. K. Panda

2009-01-01

263

Developing a sustainable phytomanagement strategy for excessive selenium in western United States and India.  

PubMed

Phytomanagement technology is recognized as an inexpensive and environmental friendly strategy for managing natural-occurring selenium (Se) in soils and in poor quality waters. Multi-year field and greenhouse studies were conducted with different plant species in California, USA and Punjab, India under high Se growing conditions. Some of the plant species included; canola (Brassica napus), mustard (B. juncea), broccoli (B. oleracea), spearmint (Mentha viridis), sugarcane (Saccharum officcinarum), guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and poplar (Populus deltoides). California soils had a sodium-sulfate-dominated salinity between 6-10 dS m(-1), while Indian soils had a calcium carbonate salinity less than 1 dS m(-1). Results demonstrated that high sulfate conditions reduced plant Se accumulation more than 100 x in Californian grown plants compared to Se accumulation in Indian grown plants. Tissue concentrations generally did not exceed 10 and 200 mg kg DM(-1) in leaves of plants grown in California and India, respectively. At these plant concentrations, Se phytomanagement is more effective in Indian soils than in California soils. Successful management of Se by plants requires selecting crops or crop rotations that are tolerant of the soil condition and identifying and creating new viable Se-enriched products. PMID:22046761

Bańuelos, G S; Dhillon, K S

2011-01-01

264

Peer-to-Peer Consultations: Ancillary Services Peer Exchange with India: Experience from South Africa, Europe & the United States (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

In support of national and subnational decision makers, the 21st Century Power Partnership regularly works with country partners to organize peer-to-peer consultations on critical issues. In March 2014, 21CPP collaborated with the Regulatory Assistance Project - India to host two peer-to-peer exchanges among experts from India, South Africa, Europe, and the United States to discuss the provision of ancillary services, particularly in the context of added variability and uncertainty from renewable energy. This factsheet provides a high level summary of the peer-to-peer consultation.

Not Available

2014-05-01

265

Characterization of minerals in air dust particles in the state of Tamilnadu, India through FTIR, XRD and SEM analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abstract of this paper explains the presence of minerals in air which causes great concern regarding public health issues. The spectroscopic investigation of air dust particles of several samples in various locations in the state of Tamilnadu, India is reported. Qualitative analyses were carried out to determine the major and minor constituent minerals present in the samples based on the FTIR, XRD absorption peaks. This study also identified the minerals like quartz, asbestos, kaolinite, calcite, hematite, montmorillonite, nacrite and several other trace minerals in the air dust particles. The presents of quartz is mainly found in all the samples invariably. Hence the percentage of quartz and its crystalline nature were determined with the help of extinction co-efficient and crystallinity index respectively. The shape and size of the particulates are studied with SEM analysis.

Senthil Kumar, R.; Rajkumar, P.

2014-11-01

266

PREVALENCE OF MAJOR DISEASES OF SORGHUM IN DECCAN REGIONS OF INDIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Extensive on-farm disease surveys were conducted from August 1999 to March 2001 in four sorghum growing states of Indian Deccan plateau. A total of 965 fields were surveyed covering 228 fields in Andhra Pradesh (AP), 406 in Karnataka (KAR), 290 in Maharashtra (MH) and 41 in Tamil Nadu (TN). Among 14...

267

India: Bihar  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

... MISR Data Reveal Immense Pollution Pool over Bihar, India     View Larger Image ... a tongue of pollution extending across the middle of India. The MISR observations, however, show the pollution lies much farther ...

2013-04-16

268

Evidence of feline panleukopenia infection in cats in India.  

PubMed

The samples collected from cats showing clinical signs suspected for feline panleukopenia infection were confirmed using various molecular techniques and virus isolation. The suspected samples were confirmed using feline parvovirus specific primers. The partial VP2 gene was submitted to GenBank for the first time in India (Accession number JQ684660.1). The PCR positive samples were further amplified using full length FPV VP2 gene specific primers and sequenced. The blast analysis revealed that the local field isolates of FPV showed 99 % homology with other FPV sequences available in the GenBank. The evidence for occurrence of feline panleukopenia infection in cats in Tamil Nadu, India was further confirmed by host specific nucleotides present in the VP2 gene region as well as virus isolation in A72 cell line. PMID:25674629

Parthiban, Manoharan; Aarthi, Komandur Seshadri; Balagangatharathilagar, Mani; Kumanan, Kathaperumal

2014-12-01

269

Post-sterilization autonomy among young mothers in South India.  

PubMed

This study examined the post-sterilization autonomy of women in south India in the context of early sterilization and low fertility. Quantitative data were taken from the third round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) carried out in 2005-06, and qualitative data from one village each in Kerala and Tamil Nadu during 2010-11. The incident rate ratios and thematic analysis showed that among currently married women under the age of 30 years, those who had been sterilized had significantly higher autonomy in household decision-making and freedom of mobility compared with women who had never used any modern family planning method. Early age at sterilization and low fertility enables women to achieve the social status that is generally attained at later stages in the life-cycle. Policies to capitalize on women's autonomy and free time resulting from early sterilization and low fertility should be adopted in south India. PMID:25487194

Pallikadavath, Saseendran; Rajan, Irudaya; Singh, Abhishek; Ogollah, Reuben; Page, Samantha

2015-01-01

270

Madras pattern of motor neuron disease in South India.  

PubMed Central

This paper presents the clinical features in 12 patients with the Madras pattern of motor neuron disease (MMND) seen over a period of 10 years. Ten of the patients were from other parts of South India, outside Madras. Young age at onset, sporadic occurrence, sensorineural deafness, bulbar palsy, diffuse atrophy with weakness of limbs and progressive but benign course were the striking features. Electromyography revealed chronic partial denervation. MMND formed 3.7% of all forms of motor neuron disease. Although isolated cases have been seen elsewhere in India, this is the first report of a large number of patients of MMND seen outside Madras (Tamil Nadu). Recognition of this clinical syndrome is of importance for prognostication and as well for search of possible aetiological factors. Images PMID:3404185

Gourie-Devi, M; Suresh, T G

1988-01-01

271

POVERTY AND ECONOMIC POLICY (PEP) RESEARCH NETWORK Under Poverty Monitoring, Measurement & Analysis (PMMA) Network Submission of working paper Is the Value Added Tax Reform in India Poverty Improving? An Analysis of Data from Two Major States1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Value Added Tax (VAT) has been introduced in India in place of Sales Tax with effect from April 1, 2005. These taxes are in the domain of different state governments within the federal set up in India. Although VAT is widely acclaimed to be a better system than the sales tax on grounds of efficiency and tax collection, there is

Ajitava Raychaudhuri; Sudip Kumar Sinha; Poulomi Roy

272

Heterosexual Anal Sex among Female Sex Workers in High HIV Prevalence States of India: Need for Comprehensive Intervention  

PubMed Central

Introduction Role of vaginal sex in heterosexual transmission of HIV has been investigated but that of heterosexual anal sex (HAS) is not fully understood. This paper examines practice of HAS among Female Sex Workers (FSWs) and its correlates in India where the HIV epidemic is being primarily driven by core groups like FSWs. Methods Data for this paper are drawn from Round I survey of 9667 FSWs in the Integrated Biological and Behavioral Assessment (IBBA) from 23 districts of 4 high HIV prevalent states of India. Bivariate and multivariate analysis identified factors associated with HAS. Results Ever having anal sex was reported by 11.9% FSWs (95% CI: 11.3%–12.6%). Typology (AOR 2.20, 95% CI 1.64–2.95) and literacy (AOR 1.28, 95% CI 1.10–1.49) were positively associated with practice of HAS. Longer duration in sex trade (AOR 1.69, 95% CI 1.44–1.99), entertaining larger number of clients the previous week (AOR 1.78, 95% CI 1.47–2.15), alcohol consumption (AOR 1.21, 95% CI 1.03–1.42) and inability to negotiate condom use (AOR 1.53, 95% CI 1.28–1.83) were also correlated with HAS. Self-risk perception for HIV (AOR 1.46, 95% CI 1.25–1.71) did not impede HAS. Although symptoms of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the last 12 months were associated with anal sex (AOR 1.39, 95% CI 1.13–1.72) there was no significant association between laboratory confirmed HIV and other STIs with HAS. Conclusion Practice of HAS by FSWs might significantly contribute to HIV transmission in India. This study also shows that despite self-risk perception for HIV, even literate FSWs with longer duration in sex work report HAS. General messages on condom use may not influence safe HAS. FSWs need to be targeted with specific messages on HIV transmission during anal sex. Women controlled prevention methods, such as rectal microbicides and vaginal microbicides are needed. PMID:24586416

Alexander, Mallika; Mainkar, Mandar; Deshpande, Sucheta; Chidrawar, Shweta; Sane, Suvarna; Mehendale, Sanjay

2014-01-01

273

Comparison of some sediment-hosted, stratiform barite deposits in China, the United States, and India  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Shifts in world barite production since the 1980s have resulted in China becoming the world's largest barite-producing country followed by the US and India. Most barite produced for use in drilling fluids is derived from black shale- and chert-hosted, stratiform marine deposits. In China, Late Proterozoic to Early Cambrian marine barite deposits occur on the oceanic margins of the Yangtze platform, in the Qinling region in the north and the Jiangnan region in the south. Most US ore-grade deposits are in the Nevada barite belt; most commercial deposits occur in Ordovician and Devonian marine rocks along the western margin of the early Paleozoic North American continent. Production in India is predominantly from a single Middle Proterozoic deposit in a sedimentary basin located on Archean basement in Andrah Pradesh.The geologic and geochemical characteristics of the deposits are consistent with origins from a variety of sedimentary-exhalative processes, with biogenic processes contributing to the concentration of some seafloor barite. Linear distributions of clusters of lenticular deposits suggest a geographic relationship to syndepositional seafloor fault zones. Sulfur isotope data of the barite deposits range from values that are similar to coeval seawater sulfate to significantly higher ??34S values. Strontium isotope values of continental-margin-type deposits in Nevada and China are less radiogenic than those of cratonic-rift deposits (e.g. Meggen and Rammelsberg). Comparison of Lan/ Cen ratios of barite in the Qinling region of China with marine chert ratios suggests a relationship to hydrothermal fluids, whereas ratios from the Jiangnan region and Nevada can be interpreted as reflecting a biogenic influence.The California Borderland provides a potential modern analog where hydrothermal barium is being deposited on the seafloor in fault-block-bounded basins. Anoxic to dysaerobic conditions on some marine basin floors result from upwelling, nutrient-rich currents and high productivity in surface waters. In this setting, biogenic processes could contribute to the concentration of barium from hydrothermal sources. ?? 2003 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Clark, S.H.B.; Poole, F.G.; Wang, Z.

2004-01-01

274

Availability and Distribution of Emergency Obstetric Care Services in Karnataka State, South India: Access and Equity Considerations  

PubMed Central

Background As part of efforts to reduce maternal deaths in Karnataka state, India, there has been a concerted effort to increase institutional deliveries. However, little is known about the quality of care in these healthcare facilities. We investigated the availability and distribution of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) services in eight northern districts of Karnataka state in south India. Methods & Findings We undertook a cross-sectional study of 444 government and 422 private health facilities, functional 24-hours-a-day 7-days-a-week. EmOC availability and distribution were evaluated for 8 districts and 42 taluks (sub-districts) during the year 2010, based on a combination of self-reporting, record review and direct observation. Overall, the availability of EmOC services at the sub-state level [EmOC?=?5.9/500,000; comprehensive EmOC (CEmOC)?=?4.5/500,000 and basic EmOC (BEmOC)?=?1.4/500,000] was seen to meet the benchmark. These services however were largely located in the private sector (90% of CEmOC and 70% of BemOC facilities). Thirty six percent of private facilities and six percent of government facilities were EmOC centres. Although half of eight districts had a sufficient number of EmOC facilities and all eight districts had a sufficient number of CEmOC facilities, only two-fifths of the 42 taluks had a sufficient number of EmOC facilities. With the private facilities being largely located in select towns only, the ‘non-headquarter’ taluks and ‘backward’ taluks suffered from a marked lack of coverage of these services. Spatial mapping further helped identify the clustering of a large number of contiguous taluks without adequate government EmOC facilities in northeastern Karnataka. Conclusions In conclusion, disaggregating information on emergency obstetric care service availability at district and subdistrict levels is critical for health policy and planning in the Indian setting. Reducing maternal deaths will require greater attention by the government in addressing inequities in the distribution of emergency obstetric care services. PMID:23717547

Mony, Prem K.; Krishnamurthy, Jayanna; Thomas, Annamma; Sankar, Kiruba; Ramesh, B. M.; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James; Avery, Lisa

2013-01-01

275

Indoor concentration of radon, thoron and their progeny around granite regions in the state of Karnataka, India.  

PubMed

An extensive studies on the indoor activity concentrations of thoron, radon and their progeny in the granite region in the state of Karnataka, India, has been carried out since, 2007 in the scope of a lung cancer epidemiological study using solid-state nuclear track detector-based double-chamber dosemeters (LR-115, type II plastic track detector). Seventy-four dwellings of different types were selected for the measurement. The dosemeters containing SSNTD detectors were fixed 2 m above the floor. After an exposure time of 3 months (90 d), films were etched to reveal tracks. From the track density, the concentrations of radon and thoron were evaluated. The value of the indoor concentration of thoron and radon in the study area varies from 16 to 170 Bq m(-3) and 18 to 300 Bq m(-3) with medians of 66 and 82.3 Bq m(-3), respectively, and that of their progeny varies from 1.8 to 24 mWL with a median of 3.6 mWL and 1.6 to 19.6 mWL, respectively. The concentrations of indoor thoron, radon and their progeny and their equivalent effective doses are discussed. PMID:24106330

Sannappa, J; Ningappa, C

2014-03-01

276

Spatio-temporal analysis of rainfall trends over a maritime state (Kerala) of India during the last 100 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kerala, a maritime state of India is bestowed with abundant rainfall which is about three times the national average. This study is conducted to have a better understanding of rainfall variability and trend at regional level for this state during the last 100 years. It is found that the rainfall variation in northern and southern regions of Kerala is large and the deviation is on different timescales. There is a shifting of rainfall mean and variability during the seasons. The trend analysis on rainfall data over the last 100 years reveals that there is a significant (99%) decreasing trend in most of the regions of Kerala especially in the month of January, July and November. The annual and seasonal trends of rainfall in most regions of Kerala are also found to be decreasing significantly. This decreasing trend may be related to global anomalies as a result of anthropogenic green house gas (GHG) emissions due to increased fossil fuel use, land-use change due to urbanisation and deforestation, proliferation in transportation associated atmospheric pollutants. We have also conducted a study of the seasonality index (SI) and found that only one district in the northern region (Kasaragod) has seasonality index of more than 1 and that the distribution of monthly rainfall in this district is mostly attributed to 1 or 2 months. In rest of the districts, the rainfall is markedly seasonal. The trend in SI reveals that the rainfall distribution in these districts has become asymmetric with changes in rainfall distribution.

Nair, Archana; Ajith Joseph, K.; Nair, K. S.

2014-05-01

277

Use of contraceptives and unmet need for family planning among tribal women in India and selected hilly states.  

PubMed

The paper provides a comprehensive picture of knowledge and use of contraceptives among scheduled tribes of India and selected central hilly states where tribal population contributes more than 30% of the total tribal population of the country. An attempt is also made to know how far scheduled tribes differ from non-tribes in the states, namely Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, and Chhattisgarh, using information collected in the third round of District-level Household Survey (DLHS-RCH III: 2007-2008). Bivariate analysis was used for understanding the level of knowledge, use of and unmet need for contraception among different tribal and non-tribal groups. Binary logistic regression was used for understanding the factors associated with the use of contraception and unmet need for family planning among tribal women. Knowledge and use of temporary contraceptive methods are considerably lower among tribal women compared to their non-tribal counterparts in the three states under study. Low acceptance due to phobia of adverse health consequences, accessibility to and lack of sound knowledge of contraception are the leading reasons for not using contraceptives. The unmet need for family planning among them was quite high, especially in the state of Jharkhand. Multivariate analysis substantiated the role of women and husbands' education, age of women, and number of surviving boys in the use of any modem method of contraception. Educating women and their respective husbands about proper use and benefits of modem contraceptives is important to solve the problem of high unmet need for family planning among these tribal women. A simultaneous attention to the health systems strengthening component is crucial for ensuring sustained delivery of good-quality family planning services. PMID:25076671

Prusty, Ranjan Kumar

2014-06-01

278

Use of Contraceptives and Unmet Need for Family Planning among Tribal Women in India and Selected Hilly States  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The paper provides a comprehensive picture of knowledge and use of contraceptives among scheduled tribes of India and selected central hilly states where tribal population contributes more than 30% of the total tribal population of the country. An attempt is also made to know how far scheduled tribes differ from non-tribes in the states, namely Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, and Chhattisgarh, using information collected in the third round of District-level Household Survey (DLHS-RCH III: 2007-2008). Bivariate analysis was used for understanding the level of knowledge, use of and unmet need for contraception among different tribal and non-tribal groups. Binary logistic regression was used for understanding the factors associated with the use of contraception and unmet need for family planning among tribal women. Knowledge and use of temporary contraceptive methods are considerably lower among tribal women compared to their non-tribal counterparts in the three states under study. Low acceptance due to phobia of adverse health consequences, accessibility to and lack of sound knowledge of contraception are the leading reasons for not using contraceptives. The unmet need for family planning among them was quite high, especially in the state of Jharkhand. Multivariate analysis substantiated the role of women and husbands’ education, age of women, and number of surviving boys in the use of any modern method of contraception. Educating women and their respective husbands about proper use and benefits of modern contraceptives is important to solve the problem of high unmet need for family planning among these tribal women. A simultaneous attention to the health systems strengthening component is crucial for ensuring sustained delivery of good-quality family planning services. PMID:25076671

2014-01-01

279

A study on agricultural drought vulnerability at disaggregated level in a highly irrigated and intensely cropped state of India.  

PubMed

Drought is an important global hazard, challenging the sustainable agriculture and food security of nations. Measuring agricultural drought vulnerability is a prerequisite for targeting interventions to improve and sustain the agricultural performance of both irrigated and rain-fed agriculture. In this study, crop-generic agricultural drought vulnerability status is empirically measured through a composite index approach. The study area is Haryana state, India, a prime agriculture state of the country, characterised with low rainfall, high irrigation support and stable cropping pattern. By analysing the multiyear rainfall and crop condition data of kharif crop season (June-October) derived from satellite data and soil water holding capacity and groundwater quality, nine contributing indicators were generated for 120 blocks (sub-district administrative units). Composite indices for exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity components were generated after assigning variance-based weightages to the respective input indicators. Agricultural Drought Vulnerability Index (ADVI) was developed through a linear combination of the three component indices. ADVI-based vulnerability categorisation revealed that 51 blocks are with vulnerable to very highly vulnerable status. These blocks are located in the southern and western parts of the state, where groundwater quality is saline and water holding capacity of soils is less. The ADVI map has effectively captured the spatial pattern of agricultural drought vulnerability in the state. Districts with large number of vulnerable blocks showed considerably larger variability of de-trended crop yields. Correlation analysis reveals that crop condition variability, groundwater quality and soil factors are closely associated with ADVI. The vulnerability index is useful to prioritise the blocks for implementation of long-term drought management plans. There is scope for improving the methodology by adding/fine-tuning the indicators and by optimising the weights. PMID:25716524

Murthy, C S; Yadav, Manoj; Mohammed Ahamed, J; Laxman, B; Prawasi, R; Sesha Sai, M V R; Hooda, R S

2015-03-01

280

Factors associated with history of drug use among female sex workers (FSW) in a high HIV prevalence state of India  

PubMed Central

Background The intersection between illicit drug use and female commercial sex work has been identified as an important factor responsible for rising HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSW) in several northeastern states of India. But, little is know about the factors associated with the use of drugs among FSWs in this region. The objective of the paper was to describe the factors associated with history of drug use among FSWs in Dimapur, an important commercial hub of Nagaland, which is a high HIV prevalence state of India. Methods FSWs were recruited using respondent driven sampling (RDS), and were interviewed to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics and HIV risk behaviours. Biological samples were tested for HIV, syphilis gonorrhea and Chlamydia. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with drug use. Results Among the 426 FSWs in the study, about 25% (n?=?107) reported having ever used illicit drugs. Among 107 illicit drug users, 83 (77.6%) were non-injecting and 24 (22.4%) were injecting drug users. Drug-using FSWs were significantly more likely to test positive for one or more STIs (59% vs. 33.5%), active syphilis (27.1% vs. 11.4%) and Chlamydia infection (30% vs. 19.9%) compared to their non-drug using peers. Drug-using FSWs were also significantly more likely to be currently married, widowed or separated compared with non-drug-using FSWs. In multiple logistic regression analysis, being an alcohol user, being married, having a larger volume of clients, and having sexual partners who have ever used or shared injecting drugs were found to be independently associated with illicit drug use. Conclusions Drug-using FSWs were more vulnerable to STIs including HIV compared to their non-drug using peers. Several important factors associated with being an FSW who uses drugs were identified in this study and this knowledge can be used to plan more effectively targeted harm reduction strategies and programs. PMID:22480208

2012-01-01

281

U.S.-India tensions  

SciTech Connect

Relations between India and the United States have improved considerably since the end of the Cold War, but they are still punctuated by controversies over nuclear nonproliferation. To a significant extent, these conflicts seem to be the result of persisting American beliefs that India is obstinate about the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, that India is vulnerable to technology-denying efforts, and that it can be equated with its neighbor, Pakistan. These perceptions take on added import because of the assumption by American policymakers that South Asia is the most most dangerous nuclear hot spot. Implicitly, India`s image also continues to be that of a revisionist state destined to be at odds with the United States, a status quo global power. These are misperceptions that deserve attention, as only four months remain for constructive dialogue before the NPT conference convenes to review the expiring 30-year-old treaty.

Ramanna, R. [National Institute of Advanced Studies, Bangalore (India); Ollapally, D.

1995-01-01

282

Development of Multi Objective Plan Using Fuzzytechnique for Optimal Cropping Pattern Incommand Area of Aundha Minor Irrigationproject of Maharashtra State (India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In order to consider the importance of efficient and judicious use of available resources, a case study was undertaken to\\u000a allocate the land under selected crops in command area of Aundha Minor irrigation project, of Maharashtra State, India so\\u000a as to maximize the net benefit and production. A linear programming allocation model was formulated by considering the four\\u000a objectives viz.

K. P. Gore; R. K. Panda

283

State Policies and Women?s Autonomy in China, India, and the Republic of Korea, 1950?2000: Lessons from Contrasting Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

November 2000State policies can enormously influence gender equity. They can mitigate cultural constraints on women?s autonomy (as in China and India) or slow the pace of change in gender equity (as in the Republic of Korea). Policies to provide opportunities for women?s empowerment should be accompanied by communication efforts to alter cultural values that limit women?s access to those opportunities.Das

Monica Das Gupta; Sunhwa Lee; Patricia Uberoi; Danning Wang; Lihong Wang; Xiaodan Zhang

1999-01-01

284

Private Schooling Industry in North East India: A Trend Analysis of Nagaland State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study is an attempt to examine the intricacies of the growth of Private School industry in the North-Eastern Indian State of Nagaland. The study was carried out in Kohima, the capital city of Nagaland State. Data were obtained from field studies as well as from published reports of the Government. The main objective of the study was to…

Mishra, Biswambhara; Suresh, P. Srinivasa; Rio, K.

2006-01-01

285

Genetic diversity in three populations of Avicennia marina along the eastcoast of India by RAPD markers.  

PubMed

Genetic diversity was analysed in three populations of the mangrove species, Avicennia marina by using random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR). Ten random decamer primers were used to score the diversity from three locations of eastcoast of India: Parangipettai (Tamil Nadu), Kakkinada (Andhra Pradesh) and Sundarbans (West Bengal). These primers produced 388 scorable DNA fragments, of which 252 (64.98%) were polymorphic, 182 (46.90%) were monomorphic, and 14 (3.61%) were unique. RAPD banding patterns displayed variations between and within the populations, while, there was no morphological variation. PMID:24617156

Hazarika, Dimendra; Thangaraj, M; Sahu, Sunil Kumar; Kathiresan, K

2013-05-01

286

Application of a new methodology for coastal multi-hazard-assessment & management on the state of Karnataka, India.  

PubMed

This paper presents the application of a new methodology for coastal multi-hazard assessment & management under a changing global climate on the state of Karnataka, India. The recently published methodology termed the Coastal Hazard Wheel (CHW) is designed for local, regional and national hazard screening in areas with limited data availability, and covers the hazards of ecosystem disruption, gradual inundation, salt water intrusion, erosion and flooding. The application makes use of published geophysical data and remote sensing information and is showcasing how the CHW framework can be applied at a scale relevant for regional planning purposes. It uses a GIS approach to develop regional and sub-regional hazard maps as well as to produce relevant hazard risk data, and includes a discussion of uncertainties, limitations and management perspectives. The hazard assessment shows that 61 percent of Karnataka's coastline has a high or very high inherent hazard of erosion, making erosion the most prevalent coastal hazard. The hazards of flooding and salt water intrusion are also relatively widespread as 39 percent of Karnataka's coastline has a high or very high inherent hazard for both of these hazard types. PMID:25602921

Rosendahl Appelquist, Lars; Balstrřm, Thomas

2015-04-01

287

History of Nuclear India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

India emerged as a free and democratic country in 1947, and entered into the nuclear age in 1948 by establishing the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), with Homi Bhabha as the chairman. Later on the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was created under the Office of the Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru. Initially the AEC and DAE received international cooperation, and by 1963 India had two research reactors and four nuclear power reactors. In spite of the humiliating defeat in the border war by China in 1962 and China's nuclear testing in 1964, India continued to adhere to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. On May 18, 1974 India performed a 15 kt Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE). The western powers considered it nuclear weapons proliferation and cut off all financial and technical help, even for the production of nuclear power. However, India used existing infrastructure to build nuclear power reactors and exploded both fission and fusion devices on May 11 and 13, 1998. The international community viewed the later activity as a serious road block for the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; both deemed essential to stop the spread of nuclear weapons. India considers these treaties favoring nuclear states and is prepared to sign if genuine nuclear disarmament is included as an integral part of these treaties.

Chaturvedi, Ram

2000-04-01

288

International Funding of NGOs in India: Bringing the State Back In  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article seeks to understand how the Indian state exercises control over transnational ties between foreign and domestic\\u000a actors by examining the national legislative practices that determine receipt of foreign funds and the data on foreign funding\\u000a flows to NGOs (a database of more than 18,000 associations). The article shows how legislative practices of democratic states\\u000a serve to reduce foreign

Rita Jalali

2008-01-01

289

HIV in India: the Jogini culture.  

PubMed

Jogini is the name for a female sexually exploited temple attendant and is used interchangeably with Devadasi in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. Jogini are twice more likely than other women who are used for sexual intercourse in India to be HIV positive, and their rate of mortality from HIV is 10 times the total mortality rate for all women in India. The four states in India with the most Jogini also have the highest prevalence of HIV. The following case is unfortunately typical of the Jogini and sheds light on a potentially disastrous public health problem in rural South India. PMID:25015167

Borick, Joseph

2014-01-01

290

Vitamin A supplementation among children in India: Does their socioeconomic status and the economic and social development status of their State of residence make a difference?  

PubMed Central

Background India has the largest percentage/number of vitamin A deficient children in the world. However, the effectiveness of a program of vitamin A supplementation at the population level has been rarely examined. We aim to examine the status of vitamin A supplementation among preschool children in India and its association with their socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and the social and economic development level of the State in which they reside. Materials and Methods Data are from a cross-sectional study of 20,802 children aged 12-35 months whose mothers participated in the National Family Health Survey 3 (NFHS-3) conducted during 2005-2006. The association between the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of the children, the social and economic development status of the State in which they reside and vitamin A supplementation status was examined by means of unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models. Results Only 25% of the children in India received vitamin A supplementation, indicating a poor coverage, and the differences between the States were wide (<10% to >45%). Rural children (OR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.10-1.30; P < 0.0001) and children of educated mothers (OR: 2.40; 95% CI: 2.04-2.83; P < 0.0001) were more likely to receive vitamin A supplementation than others. Children born in a higher birth order (6+) (OR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.46-0.63; P < 0.0001) and those residing in states with low levels of social and economic development (OR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.46-0.57; P < 0.0001) were only about half as likely to receive vitamin A supplementation as their counterparts. Conclusion The national vitamin A supplementation program in India did not reach a majority of preschool children in 2005. Greater maternal formal education, higher household wealth status and high social development status of their State of residence appears to be an important determinant for receipt of a vitamin A supplementation by preschool children in India. PMID:25729705

Agrawal, Sutapa; Agrawal, Praween

2015-01-01

291

Tolerance of house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) to dichlorvos (76% EC) an insecticide used for fly control in the tsunami-hit coastal villages of southern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Directorate of Public Health (DPH), Tamil Nadu, in southern India employed spraying of dichlorvos (76% EC) for quick elimination of fly concentrations in the tsunami-hit coastal villages at the concentration of 304g (a.i.)\\/10,000m2. However, nuisance of house flies remained high particularly in temporary shelters and centralized relief kitchens. Susceptibility of house fly, Musca domestica to dichlorvos was determined in

R. Srinivasan; P. Jambulingam; K. Gunasekaran; P. S. Boopathidoss

2008-01-01

292

India's Food Security Strategy and its Impact on the Food Surplus State of Punjab  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based upon both primary data obtained from farmers and secondary data from government publications and Web sites this study examines the country's food security status, role of domestic food production to enhance national food security, and its impact upon the agricultural sector in the surplus agrarian region state of Punjab. Research indicates that the poverty level continues to be high

Veena Goel

2011-01-01

293

Probable mixing state of aerosols in the Indo-Gangetic Basin, northern India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate the probable mixing state of aerosols in the Indo-Gangetic Basin, six different mixing cases, viz. external mixing, internal mixing, and four combinations of core-shell type mixing (black carbon, BC over dust, water-soluble over dust, BC over water-soluble and water-soluble over BC) have been considered. Composite single scattering albedo (SSA) have been computed for six cases for post-monsoon, winter and pre-monsoon seasons and are compared with the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) retrieved SSA values. The most probable mixing state in the post-monsoon season seems either to be external mixing or water-soluble coating over dust and in the winter season, the external mixing seems to be the probable mixing state. However, in the pre-monsoon season, BC coating over dust seems to be the most probable mixing state. This type of mixing leads to enhanced absorption and needs future attention to better understand the aerosol radiative effect in this region.

Dey, Sagnik; Tripathi, S. N.; Mishra, S. K.

2008-02-01

294

Trace elements in scalp hair of manufacturers of fireworks from Sivakasi, Tamil Nadu.  

PubMed

The concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb were analysed by AAS in the hair of male and female, controls and workers from firework cottage industries from Sivakasi, Tamil Nadu. When compared with controls, significantly higher levels of Mn and Cr were found in male healthy workers and unhealthy workers with chronic headaches and dizziness. In the case of female workers, higher Mn and lower Pb levels were found, but the level of any element was not significantly different in the workers with ulcers and asthma. There is a possibility of occupational exposure of both male and female workers to the risk of Cr and Mn pollution. PMID:1594920

Sukumar, A; Subramanian, R

1992-04-01

295

Status of India's population education programme--the subject of tripartite projects review and annual country review.  

PubMed

A 3-step monitoring of India's population education program was undertaken in 1981 in order to determine the level of implementation and progress of the program. This monitoring program, conducted by the Unesco Mobile Team in collaboration with other institutions, followed 3 procedures: Project Progress Report (PPR); Tripartite Project Review (TPR); and Annual Country Review (ACR). The review meetings of the 10 state population education projects were organized at Chandigarh and Madras during August. The states covered in the review were Bihar, Haryana, Madhaya Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Chandigarh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu. The Tripartite Review identified the following as problems which were hindering the smooth implementation of the population education program: 1) difficulty in spending funds unless certain formalities were completed by the governments of the states; 2) administrative problems such as getting printing paper for instructional materials, waiving the sales tax for equipment to be purchased under the project, and uncertainty regarding the admissible rates of per diem to be paid to the participants in various training programs; 3) the lack of experience of project staff; 4) problems created by having more than 1 cell in a state such as Rajasthan; and 5) an inadequate time frame within which the project should complete all its activities and make population education an integral part of the school system. The following were among the recommendations made: 1) the Project should be made coterminous with the 6th Five-Year Plan up to March 31, 1985; and 2) there should be only 1 Population Education Cell in every state. Among the points discussed at the annual country review, held during October, were the following: rephasing of the program from a 3 to 5 year project to synchronize it with the 6th plan; and the need for additional funds in view of inflation. PMID:12264113

1981-12-01

296

Profiling ?-thalassaemia mutations in India at state and regional levels: implications for genetic education, screening and counselling programmes  

PubMed Central

Thalassaemia and sickle cell disease have been recognized by the World Health Organization as important inherited disorders principally impacting on the populations of low income countries. To create a national and regional profile of ?-thalassaemia mutations in the population of India, a meta-analysis was conducted on 17 selected studies comprising 8,505 alleles and offering near-national coverage for the disease. At the national level 52 mutations accounted for 97.5% of all ?-thalassaemia alleles, with IVSI-5(G>C) the most common disease allele (54.7%). Population stratification was apparent in the mutation profiles at regional level with, for example, the prevalence of IVSI-5(G>C) varying from 44.8% in the North to 71.4% in the East. A number of major mutations, such as Poly A(T>C), were apparently restricted to a particular region of the country, although these findings may in part reflect the variant test protocols adopted by different centres. Given the size and genetic complexity of the Indian population, and with specific mutations for ?-thalassaemia known to be strongly associated with individual communities, comprehensive disease registries need to be compiled at state, district and community levels to ensure the efficacy of genetic education, screening and counselling programmes. At the same, time appropriately designed community-based studies are required as a health priority to correct earlier sampling inequities which resulted in the under-representation of many communities, in particular rural and socioeconomically under-privileged groups. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11568-010-9132-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:21119755

Sinha, S.; Black, M. L.; Agarwal, S.; Colah, R.; Das, R.; Ryan, K.; Bellgard, M.

2010-01-01

297

Surface deformation monitored on the south eastern part of Uttarakhand State of India by the Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) is a useful tool in gathering the first basic information about the surface deformation, despite of different natural terrains, forested or mountainous region. This technique has been applied successfully by various worker in different field in extracting surface information in variety of terranes. The advantage of this techniques is that it has the ability of taking into account of only those return radar signal which are the brightest or the strongest in the surrounding background signal. Moreover, PS algorithms operate on a time series of interferograms all formed with respect to a single master SAR image that the noise terms of displacement for each PS pixel are much reduced. Keeping all these points in mind, we applied this technique in the Himalayan mountain, covering the south eastern part of the Uttarakhand state of India. So far lots of different work has been carried out in the Himalayan region, but less work has been done in regards to its surface deformation. The Himalayan mountain are well know for its segmented nature, different region undergoing different tectonic activity. In the similar manner, our PSI result in our study area also reveal two different set of deformation, with its eastern part revealing subsidence and the western part undergoing uplift, these two set of deformation is separated by a right later strike slip fault called, the Garampani-Kathgodam fault (G-KF). Apart from this obvious deformation, the western part also reveal differential deformation. Based on our result we have also tried to create a deformation model, to understand and to get better knowledge of the tectonic deformation setting.

Yhokha, A.; Chang, C.; Yen, J.; Goswami, P. K.; Ching, K.

2013-12-01

298

Estimation of perinatal mortality rate for institutional births in Rajasthan state, India, using capture–recapture technique  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of our investigation was to estimate the perinatal mortality rate among institutional births and to compare the sensitivities of different data collection methods. Setting A hospital-based prospective cohort study was undertaken during late-2012 in 21 public sector health facilities of 10 districts of the northern state of Rajasthan, India. Participants A total of 6872 births were included in this epidemiological study. Primary and secondary outcome measures Perinatal mortality rate of institutional births was the primary outcome. Sensitivities of ‘active’ and passive’ data collection methods were the secondary outcome measures. Methods All stillbirth data were from routine government records (‘passive system’); early neonatal outcome data from government records (‘passive’) were compared against the method of ‘phone-tracking’ of outcomes through the community health worker (‘active system’). The Lincoln-Petersen formula for capture-recapture method was used to calculate the probable missing number of early neonatal deaths and thereby estimate the institutional perinatal mortality rate. Results Ratio of births in district:subdistrict facilities was 55:45. The estimated perinatal mortality rate (95% CI) by capture–recapture method was 35.8 (34 to 37) per 1000 births. The sensitivity of the passive system was 87–89% while the sensitivity of the active system was 91%. Three-fourths of perinatal deaths were documented as stillbirths. However, for these reported intrauterine deaths or stillbirths, clinical classification by typologies (term vs preterm; intrapartum vs antepartum; macerated vs fresh; with or without congenital anomalies) was absent in the recording system. Conclusions Capture–recapture technique can be used to estimate the institutional perinatal mortality rate and also to assess the level of under-reporting by the ‘passive’ government reporting system. This can subsequently be used for monitoring of trends and studying the impact of health interventions. Accurate clinical categorisation of perinatal deaths is also recommended for improving quality of care. PMID:25783418

Mony, Prem K; Varghese, Beena; Thomas, Tinku

2015-01-01

299

Bacterial species associated with traditional starter cultures used for fermented bamboo shoot production in Manipur state of India.  

PubMed

Soidon is a non-salted acidic fermented food prepared from the succulent bamboo shoot tip of Schizostachyum capitatum Munro by using a traditional liquid starter called "soidon mahi" in Manipur state of India. In this study, 163 bacterial isolates associated with this starter samples were identified and their population distribution was investigated by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA), 16S rDNA sequencing and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. This acidic starter (pH 4.5+/-0.15) was dominated by a characteristic association of Bacillus and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) together. The population distribution of dominant species were Bacillus subtilis 29.3%, Bacillus cereus 35.7%, Bacillus pumilus 2.6%, Lactobacillus brevis 9.6%, Lactobacillus plantarum 5.1%, Carnobacterium sp. 11.9%, Enterococcus faecium 1.2% and Pseudomonas fluorescens 4.6%. Alarming population load (10(6)-10(7)cfu/ml) of B. cereus in 87% of starter samples studied should raise concern regarding biosafety of soidon consumption. PCR amplification of 16S-23S rDNA intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) region and ITS-RFLP profiles revealed a high diversity with eight subgroups in B. subtilis, five subgroups in B. cereus and three subgroups in L. brevis isolates. The most abundant B. subtilis subgroup IB.1 distributed in most of the samples showed very less clonal variability during RAPD analysis. The molecular methods used in this study identified the dominant strains of Bacillus and LAB distributed in most of the starter samples. These dominant strains of B. subtilis, L. brevis and L. plantarum would allow for developing a defined starter culture for the production of quality soidon. PMID:20696489

Jeyaram, K; Romi, W; Singh, Th Anand; Devi, A Ranjita; Devi, S Soni

2010-09-30

300

Socio-economic factors & longevity in a cohort of Kerala State, India  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives Even though Kerala State is well-known for its egalitarian policies in terms of healthcare, redistributive actions and social reforms, and its health indicators close to those of high-resource countries despite a poor per-capita income, it is not clear whether socio-economic disparities in terms of life expectancy are observed. This study was therefore carried out to study the impact of socio-economic level on life expectancy in individuals living in Kerala. Methods A cohort of 1,67,331 participants aged 34 years and above in Thiruvananthapuram district, having completed a lifestyle questionnaire at baseline in 1995, was followed up for mortality and cause of death until 2005. Survival estimates were based on the participants’ vital status and death rates were calculated separately for men and women and for several socio-economic factors, stratified by age. Results At 40 years, men and women were expected to live another 34 and 37 years, respectively. Life expectancy varied across the participants’ different socio-economic categories: those from high income households with good housing conditions, materially privileged households and small households, had a 2-3 years longer life expectancy as compared to the deprived persons. Also, those who went to college lived longer than the illiterates. The gaps between categories were wider in men than in women. Interpretation & conclusions Socio-economic disparity in longevity was observed: wealthy people from Kerala State presented a longer life expectancy. PMID:21623031

Sauvaget, Catherine; Ramadas, Kunnambath; Fayette, Jean-Marie; Thomas, Gigi; Thara, Somanathan; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy

2011-01-01

301

Planting Trees in India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reforestation is desperately needed in India. Three-fourths of the country's ground surface is experiencing desertification, and primitive forests are being destroyed. Reforestation would help moderate temperatures, increase ground water levels, improve soil fertility, and alleviate a wood shortage. In the past, people from the United States, such…

Oswald, James M.

302

Can India's "Literate" Read?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading Method…

Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata

2010-01-01

303

75 FR 67110 - Forged Stainless Steel Flanges From India and Taiwan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Forged Stainless Steel Flanges From India and Taiwan AGENCY: United States International...on forged stainless steel flanges from India and Taiwan...on forged stainless steel flanges from India and Taiwan would be likely to lead to...

2010-11-01

304

Black carbon aerosol mass concentrations over Ahmedabad, an urban location in western India: Comparison with urban sites in Asia, Europe, Canada, and the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black carbon (BC) aerosol mass concentrations measured using an aethalometer at Ahmedabad, an urban location in western India, from September 2003 to June 2005 are analyzed. BC mass concentrations are found to show diurnal and seasonal variations. Diurnal evolution in BC is marked with two peaks, one in the morning hours, just after the sunrise, and the other in the late evening hours. The peaks occur due to fumigation effect of boundary layer, gradual increase in the anthropogenic activities, and rush hour traffic. January BC values are about a factor of 5 higher than July mass concentrations. During winter the surface boundary layer is shallow resulting in trapping of pollutants in a lesser volume which leads to higher BC concentrations. In July an increase in boundary layer height, surface temperature, convective activity, and rainfall result in lower BC values. BC mass concentrations are about 0.8 ?g m-3 in July 2004 (southwest monsoon), while BC was higher than 5 ?g m-3 in January 2004 (northeast monsoon). Ahmedabad BC mass concentrations are higher than those measured over central, western India and Hyderabad, an urban city in south India during a land campaign in February 2004. BC values measured over Ahmedabad are found to be higher than those measured over various locations representing different environments in Europe. Seasonal variations are less pronounced in urban locations in Europe. BC mass concentrations at east St. Louis, Illinois, an urban site are found to be less than 2 ?g m-3 during September 2003 to June 2005, with less pronounced seasonal variations. BC mass concentrations at various land locations in India, Beijing, and Seoul are higher than those measured over various locations in Europe, Canada, and the United States.

Ramachandran, S.; Rajesh, T. A.

2007-03-01

305

Response of malaria vectors to conventional insecticides in the southern districts of Odisha State, India  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Updating information on response (susceptible / resistant status) of vectors to the insecticides in use is essential to formulate and introduce appropriate resistance management strategy. Therefore, a study was undertaken in the 10 southern districts of Odisha State, which are endemic for Plasmodium falciparum malaria, to determine the insecticide susceptibility/ resistance status of Anopheles fluviatilis and An. culicifacies, the vectors of malaria. Methods: Mosquitoes were collected during September 2010 - February 2012 from 60 randomly selected villages in the 10 districts and blood-fed females were exposed to the diagnostic dosage of DDT (4.0%), malathion (5.0%) and deltamethrin (0.05%) for one hour. Mortality was recorded at 24 h after the exposure. The test mortality was corrected to the control mortality. Results: An. fluviatilis was susceptible to the three insecticides tested while, An. culicifacies was resistant to DDT and malathion in all the 10 districts except in two, where its response against malathion was under ‘verification required’ category. Against deltamethrin, An. culicifacies was susceptible in two districts; while in the other eight districts its response was under ‘verification required’ category. Interpretation & conclusions: Since An. fluviatilis the vector species primarily associated with transmission of malaria, was still susceptible to DDT, indoor residual spraying with DDT could be continued in the 10 districts. Also, in view of the large scale implementation of long lasting insecticidal nets and the signs of development of resistance in An. culicifacies to deltamethrin, response of the vectors to synthetic pyrethroids needs to be periodically monitored. PMID:24718406

Sahu, S.S.; Gunasekaran, K.; Raju, H.K.; Vanamail, P.; Pradhan, M.M.; Jambulingam, P.

2014-01-01

306

Structural patterns in high grade terrain in parts of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed geological mapping in parts of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka has brought out vast areas occupied by highly deformed charnockite and high grade gneisses. These areas, similar to high grade shield terrains in other parts of the world have the impress of extensive tectonic reworking multideformation and polymetamorphism and are closely associated with layered ultramafics, shelf type sediments and different igneous events. In North Arcot and Charmapuri districts of Tamil Nadu and Kollegal taluk in Mysore district in Karnataka, charnockite is intensely cofolded with a supracrustal succession of layered ultramafics, pyroxene granulite, pink granolites, magnetite quartzite and khondalites. These areas have undergone five phases of deformation, five generations of basic dyke activities, four phases of migmatisation and two periods of metallogeny. Geochronological data ranges from 2900 m.y. to 750 m.y. In working out the tectanostratigraphy of the above areas the basic dykes of different generations have served as major time markers. In addition, the persistent strike continuity of linear bands of pyroxene granulite, pink granolite and magnetite quartzite has been of great utility in using them as structural markers for bringing out the complex structural history in these areas.

Sugavanam, E. B.; Vidyadharan, K. T.

1988-01-01

307

Factors associated with high-risk behaviour among migrants in the state of maharashtra, India.  

PubMed

Studies among migrants show that they are more susceptible to HIV infection than the general population and thereby spread the epidemic from high prevalence to low prevalence areas. It is therefore critical to enhance the body of knowledge on factors associated with condom use among migrants. This study, conducted in 2009 in the State of Maharashtra, covers 4595 single in-migrants aged 15-49 years and aims at understanding the factors associated with non-use of condoms consistently. Information was collected using a Structured Interview Schedule covering demographic, socioeconomic profile, sexual history, knowledge, behaviour and stigma and discrimination indicators. Logistic regression analysis was used to understand the association between unprotected sex and various socio-demographic and environmental factors. The models were run using the Enter method. The goodness-of-fit of the model was assessed using Hosmer and Lemeshow chi-squared statistics. A significant association is observed between sex with sex workers and older migrants (>24 years), the literate, those who are mobile, unmarried, employed in the textile, quarry and construction industries, who often consume alcohol and who watch pornographic films. The factors associated with unprotected sex are age between 30 and 34 years and no literacy. Migrants who are mobile and consume alcohol show a significant association with unprotected sex. The findings suggest a need for a comprehensive HIV prevention programme including strategies to address the stressful work conditions. The prevention programmes should focus not only on skills for safer sex practices, but also on alcohol use reduction. PMID:23458913

Rao, Neeta; Jeyaseelan, L; Joy, Anna; Kumar, V Sampath; Thenmozhi, M; Acharya, Smriti

2013-09-01

308

State Policies and Women's Autonomy in China, The Republic of Korea, and India 1950-2000: Lessons From Contrasting Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare changes in gender roles and women's empowerment in China, the Republic of Korea, and India. Around 1950, when all these countries had new governments following revolution or the end of colonial rule, they were largely poor and agrarian, with many cultural commonalities which placed similar severe constraints on women's autonomy. They adopted very different paths of development, which

Monica Das Gupta; Sunhwa Lee; Patricia Uberoi; Danning Wang; Lihong Wang; Xiaodan Zhang

309

Comparative study of economics of different models of family size biogas plants for state of Punjab, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogas, the end product of anaerobic digestion of cattle dung, can successfully supplement the cooking fuels in the countryside areas of India, where the raw material needed for its production is plentifully available. Because of the lack of awareness regarding selection of a suitable model and size of biogas plant, the full potential of the biogas producing material is not

K. Jatinder Singh; Sarbjit Singh Sooch

2004-01-01

310

Impact of a Community-Based Lymphedema Management Program on Episodes of Adenolymphangitis (ADLA) and Lymphedema Progression - Odisha State, India  

PubMed Central

Background Lymphedema management programs have been shown to decrease episodes of adenolymphangitis (ADLA), but the impact on lymphedema progression and of program compliance have not been thoroughly explored. Our objectives were to determine the rate of ADLA episodes and lymphedema progression over time for patients enrolled in a community-based lymphedema management program. We explored the association between program compliance and ADLA episodes as well as lymphedema progression. Methodology/Principal Findings A lymphedema management program was implemented in Odisha State, India from 2007–2010 by the non-governmental organization, Church's Auxiliary for Social Action, in consultation with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A cohort of patients was followed over 24 months. The crude 30-day rate of ADLA episodes decreased from 0.35 episodes per person-month at baseline to 0.23 at 24 months. Over the study period, the percentage of patients who progressed to more severe lymphedema decreased (P-value ?=?0.0004), while those whose lymphedema regressed increased over time (P-value<0.0001). Overall compliance to lymphedema management, lagged one time point, appeared to have little to no association with the frequency of ADLA episodes among those without entry lesions (RR?=?0.87 (0.69, 1.10)) and was associated with an increased rate (RR?=?1.44 (1.11, 1.86)) among those with entry lesions. Lagging compliance two time points, it was associated with a decrease in the rate of ADLA episodes among those with entry lesions (RR?=?0.77 (95% CI: 0.59, 0.99)) and was somewhat associated among those without entry lesions (RR?=?0.83 (95% CI: 0.64, 1.06)). Compliance to soap was associated with a decreased rate of ADLA episodes among those without inter-digital entry lesions. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that a community-based lymphedema management program is beneficial for lymphedema patients for both ADLA episodes and lymphedema. It is one of the first studies to demonstrate an association between program compliance and rate of ADLA episodes. PMID:25211334

Mues, Katherine E.; Deming, Michael; Kleinbaum, David G.; Budge, Philip J.; Klein, Mitch; Leon, Juan S.; Prakash, Aishya; Rout, Jonathan; Fox, LeAnne M.

2014-01-01

311

India Today for August 18, 1997  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1997 India elebrated its 50th anniversary of independence from Britain, and to honor the occasion, this well known weekly magazine devoted a special issue to the subject. This issue presents a state of the nation India Today-ORG-MARG poll of over 12,000 that discussed nine topics, including morality, India and Pakistan, and the economy. There is also a feature on three famous protest walks led by Ghandi, views of the New Delhi based Center for Policy Research on the shape of India in the year 2047, views of 35 people on what it means to be Indian, essays by Salman Rushdie, Shahid Amin, and Upamanyu Chatterjee, and a photo section. The India Today home page contains a connection to India Today, as well as six other Living Media India Limited publications.

1997-01-01

312

The biological sciences in India  

PubMed Central

India is gearing up to become an international player in the life sciences, powered by its recent economic growth and a desire to add biotechnology to its portfolio. In this article, we present the history, current state, and projected future growth of biological research in India. To fulfill its aspirations, India's greatest challenge will be in educating, recruiting, and supporting its next generation of scientists. Such challenges are faced by the US/Europe, but are particularly acute in developing countries that are racing to achieve scientific excellence, perhaps faster than their present educational and faculty support systems will allow. PMID:19204144

Dell, Karen

2009-01-01

313

76 FR 18248 - Sulfanilic Acid From China and India  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...731-TA-538 and 561 (Third Review)] Sulfanilic Acid From China and India AGENCY: United States...the countervailing duty order on sulfanilic acid from India and the antidumping duty orders on sulfanilic acid from China and...

2011-04-01

314

India Illustrated  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This remarkable collection from the University of Houston's Digital Library brings together over 210 black and white photographs from a rare book entitled, India Illustrated. This work was originally published around 1905 and it came from the publishers of the English language newspaper, Times of India. Visitors can get started with the Browse the Collection section which offers thumbnails of such photos as "A Bathing Fair on the Gangesâ?ť and "A Corner of Fort St. George.â?ť The collection contains some rather curious images of British colonialism, including shots of the Madras Cricket Club, the Adyar Club, and a range of polo matches.

315

Are Female Sex Workers Able to Negotiate Condom Use with Male Clients? The Case of Mobile FSWs in Four High HIV Prevalence States of India  

PubMed Central

Introduction Condom promotion among female sex workers (FSWs) is a key intervention in India’s National AIDS Control Program. However, there is limited understanding of how FSWs negotiate condom use with male clients, particularly in the context of their mobility for sex work. The objective of this study is to examine the factors associated with the mobile FSWs’ ability to refuse unsafe sex and successfully negotiate condom use with unwilling male clients. Methods Data for 5498 mobile FSWs from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 22 districts of four states in southern India were analyzed. Questions assessed FSWs’ ability to refuse clients unprotected sex, convince unwilling clients for condom use and negotiate condom use in a new location. Logistic regression models were constructed to examine the association between socio-demographics, economic vulnerability, sex work practice, and program exposure and condom negotiation ability. Results A majority of FSWs (60%) reported the ability to refuse clients for unprotected sex, but less than one-fifth reported the ability to successfully convince an unwilling client to use a condom or to negotiate condom use in a new site. Younger and older mobile FSWs compared to those who were in the middle age group, those with longer sex work experience, with an income source other than sex work, with program exposure and who purchased condoms for use, reported the ability to refuse unprotected sex, to successfully negotiate condom use with unwilling clients and to do so at new sites. Conclusion FSWs need to be empowered to not only refuse unprotected sex but also to be able to motivate and convince unwilling clients for condom use, including those in new locations. In addition to focusing on condom promotion, interventions must address the factors that impact FSWs’ ability to negotiate condom use. PMID:23840806

Bharat, Shalini; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Roy, Suchismita; Saggurti, Niranjan

2013-01-01

316

Detection of multi-drug resistance & characterization of mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from North- Eastern States of India using GenoType MTBDRplus assay  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Information on drug resistance tuberculosis is sparse from North-East (N-E) States of India. We undertook this study to detect multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) among MDR-TB suspects, and common mutations among MDR-TB cases using GenoType MTBDRplus. Methods: All MDR suspect patients deposited sputum samples to peripheral designated microscopy centres (DMC) in North-East States. The district TB officers (DTOs) facilitated the transport of samples collected during January 2012 to August 2012 to our laboratory. The line probe assay to detect common mutations in the rpoB gene for rifampicin (RIF) and katG and inhA genes for isoniazid (INH), respectively was performed on 339 samples or cultures. Results: A total of 553 sputum samples from MDR suspects were received of which, 181 (32.7%) isolates were found to be multi-drug resistant. Missing WT8 along with mutation in codon S531L was commonest pattern for rifampicin resistant isolates (65.1%) and missing WT along with mutations in codon S315T1 of katG gene was commonest pattern for isoniazid resistant isolates (86.2%). Average turn-around time for dispatch of LPA result to these States from cultures and samples was 23.4 and 5.2 days, respectively. Interpretations & conclusions: The MDR-TB among MDR-TB suspects in North-Eastern States of India was found to be 32.7 per cent. The common mutations obtained for RIF and INH in the region were mostly similar to those reported earlier. PMID:25488443

Singhal, Ritu; Myneedu, Vithal Prasad; Arora, Jyoti; Singh, Niti; Sah, Girish Chander; Sarin, Rohit

2014-01-01

317

Operational aspects of remote sensing and gis for water resources conservation and management: few examples from Haryana state, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote Sensing as the term signifies is the technique of gathering information about an object or surface phenomenon without being in physical contact with it and essentially by using electromagnetic radiation. The principle of remote sensing is based on the solar radiation reflected or emitted from the surface of the earth. As different objects behave differently for the incoming solar radiation and have different thermal properties, the amount of solar radiation reflected, absorbed or emitted is also different. GIS is defined as an information system that is used to input, store, retrieve, manipulate, analyze and output geographically referenced data or geospatial data in order to support decision making for planning and management of natural resources. It has four essential components - hardware, software, geospatial data and the users. GIS is needed because of some inherent demerits in the manual methods. The conventional methods of surveying and mapping are time consuming, labour intensive and tedious. The techniques of Remote Sensing (RS) and GIS are effective in timely and efficient generation of database of various resources. The synoptic view and multi resolution satellite data is helpful in generating information at various scales. The mapping and monitoring of dynamic phenomenon such as floods, water logging, deforestation can be done very effectively with the aid of RS and GIS. The effective planning for water resources conservation and management at district level can be made if the data is generated on 1:50,000 scale. Hydrogeomorphological maps on 1:50,000 scale showing different ground water prospect zones have been prepared for different districts in Haryana State, India. This information has been supplemented with the available inputs from existing sources about the depth to water level and ground water quality. The other maps prepared under National (Natural) Resources Information System (NRIS) such as land use/ land cover, geomorphology, drainage/ canal network and soils etc have also been consulted for preparing water resources action plan. The maps thus prepared depict different units for further ground water prospecting. It is to mention here that some of the Palaeo-channels have been picked up first time. Various sites has been suggested for site specific water resources conservation measures such check dams/ gully plugging, earthen dams etc for recharging the ground water. The information thus developed has been submitted to PWD (Public Health) Department, Govt. of Haryana as well as other district agencies involved in the planning and management of natural resources, for further implementation of the activities suggested in different areas. During visit to different areas, it was found that the water resources action plans suggested are being implemented in the field to its maximum possibility both in the direction of fresh ground water areas exploration as well as water resources conservation. The ground water in the areas suggested is being recharged and the people are taking good crops.

Chaudhary, B. S.

318

Internet India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews a number of Internet sites containing information on every aspect of life in Modern India. The various sites provide information on such diverse topics as the Indian film industry, politics, the booming Indian computer industry, changing status of women, and financial and political issues. (MJP)

Pahl, Ronald H.

1997-01-01

319

Economic aspects of carbonatites of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the 20 carbonatite-alkaline rock associations known from India, eight contain economic deposits that are either being presently exploited or likely to become workable resources. These include deposits of fluorite (Ambadongar, Gujarat), apatite, (Newania, Rajasthan; Kutni and Beldih, West Bengal) and vermiculite (Sevattur, Tamil Nadu). Carbonatite complexes of Sevattur, Sung Valley and Samchampi hold considerable potential for Nb, P, and Fe. The Samchampi Complex, Assam contains an estimated reserve of some 300 million tons of hematite ore, besides Nb (10,970 tons), Ta (3740 tons), Y (1894 tons) and apatite (10 million tons of ore with 35% P 2O 5) and thus appears to be the most promising complex among the new discoveries. Recovery of pyrochlore±apatite, magnetite, zircon, and monazite have been evaluated for the soils at Sevattur, Sung Valley and Samchampi. A variety of elements either alone or in combination such as REE, Ba, Sr, V, Ti, Zr, Th, and U could become important co-products from these complexes.

Krishnamurthy, P.; Hoda, S. Q.; Sinha, R. P.; Banerjee, D. C.; Dwivedy, K. K.

2000-04-01

320

Groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and irrigational use in the Southern Tiruchirappalli district, Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A total of 20 groundwater samples were collected from both dug and bore wells of southern Tiruchirappalli district and analyzed for various hydrogeochemical parameters. The analyzed physicochemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, carbonate, sulfate, chloride, nitrate, and fluoride are used to characterize the groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and irrigational uses. The results of the chemical analysis indicates that the groundwater in the study area is slightly alkaline and mainly contains Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ cations as well as HCO3 2-, Cl-, SO4 2-and NO3 - anions. The total dissolved solids mainly depend on the concentration of major ions such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, HCO3, Cl, and SO4. Based on TDS, 55 % of the samples are suitable for drinking and rest of the samples are unsuitable for drinking. The total hardness indicates that majority of the groundwater samples are found within the permissible limit of WHO. The dominant hydrochemical facies for groundwater are Ca-Mg-Cl, Ca-HCO3, and Ca-Cl type. The USSL graphical geochemical representation of groundwater quality suggests that majority of the water samples belongs to high medium salinity with low alkali hazards. The Gibb's plot indicates that the groundwater chemistry of the study area is mainly controlled by evaporation and rock-water interaction. Spearman's correlation and factor analysis were used to distinguish the statistical relation between different ions and contamination source in the study area.

Selvakumar, S.; Ramkumar, K.; Chandrasekar, N.; Magesh, N. S.; Kaliraj, S.

2014-12-01

321

The home in the world: women, threshold designs and performative relations in contemporary Tamil Nadu, south India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article seeks to outline a performative reading of the Tamil version of the pan-Indian tradition of drawing threshold designs, an exclusively female practice seen as housework by the executing party. The argument put forward is that a reading of the practice in terms of a performative relation of ‘home’ and the ‘world’ as part of the Tamil cultural imaginary

Renate Dohmen

2004-01-01

322

A study on Remote Sensing on Coastal Geomorphological Landforms From Coleroon River Mouth to Cuddalore South Arcot, Tamil Nadu, India  

E-print Network

The present study area is the Coleroon river estuary to Cuddalore is located on the eastern part of the Cuddalore district of Tamilnadu. It is bound between the latitudes E 79 0 30’00 ” and E 80 0 00’00 ” and Longitudes N 11 0 45’00 ” and N 79 0 15’00 ” It is discuss the use of Remote Sensing data for coastal Geomorphological studies. Briefly describe the results or the study or the Geomorphology of the study area cuddalore Coast of Tamilnadu, using aerial photographs and LANDSAT images. Recording of various coastal and near shore geomorphological features and grouping them in different units. Development of offshore bars, beach ridges, spits, beach, sand dunes, tidal flats etc.Origin and development of cliffs, wavecut platforms and coastal platea.iv. Working out lithological and structural influence on the. Geomorphology of the area. On the basis of tone, texture, size shape, drainage pattern and associations, various geomorphic features like beach, beach ridges, sand dune, marine terraces, swales etc are identified from aerial photographs in the scale 1:50000. Using the data acquired from the primary source of aerial photos, to understand the geomorphic features of east coast of Cuddalore region. Rivers are under tidal influence for most of their length towards the coast. The rivers run mostly straight with sharp bends and meandering are a rare phenomenon. The area is mostly characterized by the dendritic type of drainage pattern Remote sensing data enlargely helps us to determine the Geomorphology of the study area. 1.

unknown authors

323

Distribution of Foraminifera in the Core Samples of Kollidam and Marakanam Mangrove Locations, Tamil Nadu, Southeast Coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to study the distribution of Foraminifera in the subsurface sediments of mangrove environment, two core samples have been collected i) near boating house, Pitchavaram, from Kollidam estuary (C2) and ii) backwaters of Marakanam (C2)with the help of PVC corer. The length of the core varies from a total of 25 samples from both cores were obtained and they were subjected to standard micropaleontological and sedimentological analyses for the evaluation of different sediment characteristics. The core sample No.C1 (Pitchavaram) yielded only foraminifera whereas the other one core no.C2 (Marakanam) has yielded discussed only the down core distribution of foraminifera. The widely utilized classification proposed by Loeblich and Tappan (1987) has been followed in the present study for Foraminiferal taxonomy and accordingly 23 foraminiferal species belonging to 18 genera, 10 families, 8 superfamilies and 4 suborders have been reported and illustrated. The foraminiferal species recorded are characteristic of shallow innershelf to marginal marine and tropical in nature. Sedimentological parameters such as CaCO3, Organic matter and sand-silt-clay ratio was estimated and their down core distribution is discussed. An attempt has been made to evaluate the favourable substrate for the Foraminifera population abundance in the present area of study. From the overall distribution of foraminifera in different samples of Kollidam estuary (Pitchavaram area), and Marakanam estuary it is observed that siltysand and sandysilt are more accommodative substrate for the population of foraminifera, respectively. The distribution of foraminifera in the core samples indicate that the sediments were deposited under normal oxygenated environment conditions.;

Nowshath, M.

2013-05-01

324

Significance of saturation index of certain clay minerals in shallow coastal groundwater, in and around Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The saturation index of clay minerals like Gibbsite, Kaolinite, Illite, Montmorillonite and Chlorite in groundwater were studied in detail by collecting 29 groundwater samples from the shallow coastal aquifers in and around Kalpakkam. The samples collected were analysed for major cations, anions and trace elements by using standard procedures. The study reveals that pH has a significant role in the saturation index (SI) of minerals. It also shows that the relationship of electrical conductivity to the SI of these minerals is not significant than that of the ionic strength, log pCO2 values, and alumina silica ratio have significant relation to the SI of these clay minerals. The SI of these clay minerals was spatially distributed to identify the areas of higher SI. Silica has good correlation to SI of Kaolinite, Gibbsite and Montmorillonite and Al has good correlation to SI of all the minerals except to that of Chlorite.

Chidambaram, S.; Karmegam, U.; Sasidhar, P.; Prasanna, M. V.; Manivannan, R.; Arunachalam, S.; Manikandan, S.; Anandhan, P.

2011-10-01

325

GIS based 3D visualization of subsurface and surface lineaments / faults and their geological significance, northern tamil nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study area falls in the southern part of the Indian Peninsular comprising hard crystalline rocks of Archaeozoic and Proterozoic Era. In the present study, the GIS based 3D visualizations of gravity, magnetic, resistivity and topographic datasets were made and therefrom the basement lineaments, shallow subsurface lineaments and surface lineaments/faults were interpreted. These lineaments were classified as category-1 i.e. exclusively surface lineaments, category-2 i.e. surface lineaments having connectivity with shallow subsurface lineaments and category-3 i.e. surface lineaments having connectivity with shallow subsurface lineaments and basement lineaments. These three classified lineaments were analyzed in conjunction with known mineral occurrences and historical seismicity of the study area in GIS environment. The study revealed that the category-3 NNE-SSW to NE-SW lineaments have greater control over the mineral occurrences and the N-S, NNE-SSW and NE-SW, faults/lineaments control the seismicities in the study area.

Saravanavel, J.; Ramasamy, S. M.

2014-11-01

326

Characterisation and quality assessment of groundwater with a special emphasis on irrigation utility: Thirumanimuttar sub-basin, Tamil Nadu, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirumanimuttar sub-basin is of particular importance in the study of groundwater quality due to the release of effluents\\u000a from industries, agricultural, sewage and urban runoff, brining considerable change in water quality. An investigation was\\u000a carried out by collecting a total of 194 groundwater samples for two seasons to decipher hydrogeochemistry and groundwater\\u000a quality for determining its suitability for agricultural purposes.

M. Vasanthavigar; K. Srinivasamoorthy; R. Rajiv Ganthi; K. Vijayaraghavan; V. S. Sarma

327

A six year (2006-2011) retrospective study of hemoprotozoan parasites affecting dogs in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

With the changing global scenario there is effect not only on the human survival but also on the prevalence of existing pathogens and appearance of new infectious agents among animal population. This paper emphasises the need for prevalence studies. A retrospective study for 6 years on prevalence of hemoprotozoans in dogs in Chennai showed Babesia gibsoni the predominant parasite of dogs. Details are discussed in this paper. PMID:24808651

Vairamuthu, S; Ranju, R S; Latha, Bhaskaran Ravi; Dhivya, B; Balachandran, C

2014-06-01

328

Geomatics Based Analysis of Predicted Sea Level Rise and its Impacts in Parts of Tamil Nadu Coast, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coastal zones around the world are very densely populated and hence heavily packed with related infrastructures. So, the\\u000a territorial nations have obvious apprehensions against the IPCC SRES (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Special Report\\u000a on Emission Scenario) predicted sea level rise, as it would cause flooding of the low lying coasts and also other related\\u000a chains of environmental endangers.

S. M. Ramasamy; C. J. Kumanan; J. Saravanavel; A. S. Rajawat; V. Tamilarasan; Ajay

2010-01-01

329

Major ion chemistry and hydrochemical studies of groundwater of parts of Palar river basin, Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

Groundwater is almost globally important for human consumption as well as for the support of habitat and for maintaining the quality of base flow to rivers, while its quality assessment is essential to ensure sustainable safe use of the resources for drinking, agricultural, and industrial purposes. In the current study, 50 groundwater samples were collected from parts of Palar river basin to assess water quality and investigate hydrochemical nature by analyzing the major cations (Ca, Mg, Na, K) and anions (HCO(3), Cl, F,SO(4), NO(3), PO(4),CO(3), HCO(3), and F) besides some physical and chemical parameters (pH, electrical conductivity, alkalinity, and total hardness). Also, geographic information system-based groundwater quality mapping in the form of visually communicating contour maps was developed using ArcGIS-9.2 to delineate spatial variation in physicochemical characteristics of groundwater samples. Wilcox classification and US Salinity Laboratory hazard diagram suggests that 52% of the groundwater fall in the field of C2-S1, indicating water of medium salinity and low sodium, which can be used for irrigation in almost all types of soil with little danger of exchangeable sodium. Remaining 48% is falling under C1-SI, indicating water of low salinity and low sodium. PMID:20886289

Dar, Mithas Ahmad; Sankar, K; Dar, Imran Ahmad

2011-05-01

330

Evaluation of groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and agricultural use in Thanjavur city, Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

As groundwater is a vital source of water for domestic and agricultural activities in Thanjavur city due to lack of surface water resources, groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and agricultural usage were evaluated. In this study, 102 groundwater samples were collected from dug wells and bore wells during March 2008 and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, temperature, major ions, and nitrate. Results suggest that, in 90% of groundwater samples, sodium and chloride are predominant cation and anion, respectively, and NaCl and CaMgCl are major water types in the study area. The groundwater quality in the study site is impaired by surface contamination sources, mineral dissolution, ion exchange, and evaporation. Nitrate, chloride, and sulfate concentrations strongly express the impact of surface contamination sources such as agricultural and domestic activities, on groundwater quality, and 13% of samples have elevated nitrate content (>45 mg/l as NO(3)). PHREEQC code and Gibbs plots were employed to evaluate the contribution of mineral dissolution and suggest that mineral dissolution, especially carbonate minerals, regulates water chemistry. Groundwater suitability for drinking usage was evaluated by the World Health Organization and Indian standards and suggests that 34% of samples are not suitable for drinking. Integrated groundwater suitability map for drinking purposes was created using drinking water standards based on a concept that if the groundwater sample exceeds any one of the standards, it is not suitable for drinking. This map illustrates that wells in zones 1, 2, 3, and 4 are not fit for drinking purpose. Likewise, irrigational suitability of groundwater in the study region was evaluated, and results suggest that 20% samples are not fit for irrigation. Groundwater suitability map for irrigation was also produced based on salinity and sodium hazards and denotes that wells mostly situated in zones 2 and 3 are not suitable for irrigation. Both integrated suitability maps for drinking and irrigation usage provide overall scenario about the groundwater quality in the study area. Finally, the study concluded that groundwater quality is impaired by man-made activities, and proper management plan is necessary to protect valuable groundwater resources in Thanjavur city. PMID:20072811

Nagarajan, R; Rajmohan, N; Mahendran, U; Senthamilkumar, S

2010-12-01

331

Prevalence of fluorosis and identification of fluoride endemic areas in Manur block of Tirunelveli District, Tamil Nadu, South India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the consumption of more fluoride through drinking water. It is necessary to identify the fluoride endemic areas to adopt remedial measures for the people under the risk of fluorosis. The objectives of this study were to identify the exact location of fluoride endemic areas in Manur block of Tirunelveli District and to estimate fluoride exposure level through drinking water for different age groups. Identification of fluoride endemic areas was performed through Isopleth and Google earth mapping techniques. Fluoride level in drinking water samples was estimated by fluoride ion selective electrode method. A systematic clinical survey conducted in 19 villages of Manur block revealed the rate of prevalence of fluorosis. From this study, it has been found that Alavanthankulam, Melapilliyarkulam, Keezhapilliyarkulam, Nadupilliyarkulam, Keezhathenkalam and Papankulam are the fluoride endemic villages, where the fluoride level in drinking water is above 1 mg/l. Consumption of maximum fluoride exposure levels of 0.30 mg/kg/day for infants, 0.27 mg/kg/day for children and 0.15 mg/kg/day for adults were found among the respective age group people residing in high fluoride endemic area. As compared with adequate intake level of fluoride of 0.01 mg/kg/day for infants and 0.05 mg/kg/day for other age groups, the health risk due to excess fluoride intake to the people of Alavanthankulam and nearby areas has become evident. Hence the people of these areas are advised to consume drinking water with optimal fluoride to avoid further fluorosis risks.

Gopalakrishnan, Subarayan Bothi; Viswanathan, Gopalan; Siva Ilango, S.

2012-12-01

332

Stratigraphy and paleobathymetric interpretation of the Cretaceous Karai shale formation of Uttatur Group, TamilNadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Karai shale Formation of the Uttatur Group is exposed in a bad land area at the western margin of the Cauvery Basin. This shale has been investigated based on foraminiferal fauna and clay minerals. The foraminiferal assemblages obtained contain predominantly calcareous benthic foraminifera, rare planktic and arenaceous foraminifera. The planktic foraminiferal index taxa Planomalina buxtorfi, Rotalipora reicheli, Praeglobotruncana stephani, and Hedbergella portsdownensis suggest the late Albian to middle Turonian age. The benthic assemblage dominated by Lenticulina, Gavelinella, Osangularia and Quadrimorphina, suggests an outer neritic (100-200 m) environment. The clay mineral content dominated by kaolinite-illite-montmorillonite indicates that the Karai shale was formed from weathering of igneous rocks.

Nagendra, R.; Sathiyamoorthy, P.; Pattanayak, S.; Nallapa Reddy, A.; Jaiprakash, B. C.

2013-12-01

333

Marketing Efficiency of Dairy Products for Cooperative and Private Dairy Plants in Tamil Nadu - A Comparative Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The marketing of milk and milk products by dairy plants of co-operative and private sectors in Tamil Nadu has been compared. The study is based on the data collected for toned milk, standardized milk, full cream milk, flavoured milk, butter and ghee from the selected co-operative and private dairy plants of the Coimbatore district for the financial year 2001-2002. It

N. Rangasamy

2008-01-01

334

Plant diseases in India and their control.  

PubMed

The concept of development is reviewed in terms of sustainability. Food production in India driven by pressure from an increasing human population uses 90,000 t per year of technical-grade pesticide: 12% of this is fungicide and a good part is insecticide for the control of vectors of plant viruses. A change in the cropping pattern and irrigation have provided a summer 'green bridge' along Tamil Nadu/Andhra Pradesh border areas for the tungro virus that affects rice and its vector. Epidemics occur along the coramandal coast, if the weather is suitable. Red rot disease of sugarcane is promoted by poor drainage, river widening, ratooning, contaminated planting material and variation in the pathogen throughout the Indo-Gangetic plain. Apple production uses large amounts of fungicide. For every 1000 t of apples produced 1t of fungicide is sprayed 8-10 times sequentially. Systemic application of fungicides has led to pesticide resistance and resurgence of other diseases. 70-80% of the Nagpur Mandrin produce reaches the market by trucks that have to traverse 1000 km. 10.6% of fruits are lost to post-harvest diseases; culling, sunburn and injuries account for another 11.6%. In the control of leaf rust of wheat in North India, the use of varietal mosaics, resistance genes and extra-late wheat sowings that do not coincide with favourable weather have all collectively contributed to loss reduction. The drop in the production of exportable crops such as peppers and coconuts because of diseases needs attention. The traditional wisdom on crop mixtures, organic manuring, shifting sowings, etc, needs scientific re-evaluation. PMID:8149823

Nagarajan, S

1993-01-01

335

Social Studies Education in India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews objectives, content, and problems of social studies education in India. Social studies is a relatively new component of the curriculum and there is little uniformity in its content and methods from state to state. Journal availability: see SO 506 831. (AV)

Susskind, Jacob L.

1978-01-01

336

7 CFR 319.56-46 - Mangoes from India.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 false Mangoes from India. 319.56-46 Section 319.56-46...Vegetables § 319.56-46 Mangoes from India. Mangoes (Mangifera indica ) may...into the continental United States from India only under the following...

2014-01-01

337

7 CFR 319.56-46 - Mangoes from India.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Mangoes from India. 319.56-46 Section 319.56-46...Vegetables § 319.56-46 Mangoes from India. Mangoes (Mangifera indica ) may...into the continental United States from India only under the following...

2010-01-01

338

7 CFR 319.56-46 - Mangoes from India.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Mangoes from India. 319.56-46 Section 319.56-46...Vegetables § 319.56-46 Mangoes from India. Mangoes (Mangifera indica ) may...into the continental United States from India only under the following...

2011-01-01

339

Indian Railways Backbone of Information Transport in India  

E-print Network

1 Indian Railways ­ Backbone of Information Transport in India Santosh Kumar, Ohio State University: Indian Railways is the backbone of public transport in India. With ever- increasing number of people to be the backbone of any country's economy. Indian Railways undoubtedly is the backbone of public transport in India

Kumar, Santosh

340

7 CFR 319.56-46 - Mangoes from India.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Mangoes from India. 319.56-46 Section 319.56-46...Vegetables § 319.56-46 Mangoes from India. Mangoes (Mangifera indica ) may...into the continental United States from India only under the following...

2013-01-01

341

India, EU to work towards blocking terror C R Jayachandran  

E-print Network

India, EU to work towards blocking terror funding C R Jayachandran New Delhi, September 7, 2005 s part of a joint effort to fight terrorism, India and the European Union on Wednesday decided of their motives," a political declaration signed during the Sixth India-EU summit here stated. It was also decided

342

7 CFR 319.56-46 - Mangoes from India.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Mangoes from India. 319.56-46 Section 319.56-46...Vegetables § 319.56-46 Mangoes from India. Mangoes (Mangifera indica ) may...into the continental United States from India only under the following...

2012-01-01

343

Dhaksha, the Unmanned Aircraft System in its New Avatar-Automated Aerial Inspection of INDIA'S Tallest Tower  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DHAKSHA, the unmanned aircraft system (UAS), developed after several years of research by Division of Avionics, Department of Aerospace Engineering, MIT Campus of Anna University has recently proved its capabilities during May 2012 Technology demonstration called UAVforge organised by Defence Research Project Agency, Department of Defence, USA. Team Dhaksha with its most stable design outperformed all the other contestants competing against some of the best engineers from prestigi ous institutions across the globe like Middlesex University from UK, NTU and NUS from Singapore, Tudelft Technical University, Netherlands and other UAV industry participants in the world's toughest UAV challenge. This has opened up an opportunity for Indian UAVs making a presence in the international scenario as well. In furtherance to the above effort at Fort Stewart military base at Georgia,USA, with suitable payloads, the Dhaksha team deployed the UAV in a religious temple festival during November 2012 at Thiruvannamalai District for Tamil Nadu Police to avail the instant aerial imagery services over the crowd of 10 lakhs pilgrims and also about the investigation of the structural strength of the India's tallest structure, the 300 m RCC tower during January 2013. The developed system consists of a custom-built Rotary Wing model with on-board navigation, guidance and control systems (NGC) and ground control station (GCS), for mission planning, remote access, manual overrides and imagery related computations. The mission is to fulfill the competition requirements by using an UAS capable of providing complete solution for the stated problem. In this work the effort to produce multirotor unmanned aerial systems (UAS) for civilian applications at the MIT, Avionics Laboratory is presented

Kumar, K. S.; Rasheed, A. Mohamed; Krishna Kumar, R.; Giridharan, M.; Ganesh

2013-08-01

344

The expanding host tree species spectrum of Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans and their isolations from surrounding soil in India.  

PubMed

This study reports the widespread prevalence of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii in decayed wood inside trunk hollows of 14 species representing 12 families of trees and from soil near the base of various host trees from Delhi and several places in the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Tamil Nadu and Chandigarh Union Territory. Of the 311 trees from which samples were obtained, 64 (20.5%) were found to contain strains of the C. neoformans species complex. The number of trees positive for C. neoformans var grubii (serotypeA) was 51 (16.3%), for C. gattii (serotype B) 24 (7.7%) and for both C. neoformans and C. gattii 11 (3.5%). The overall prevalence of C. neoformans species complex in decayed wood samples was 19.9% (111/556). There was no obvious correlation between the prevalence of these two yeast species and the species of host trees. The data on prevalence of C. gattii (24%) and C. neoformans (26%) in soil around the base of some host trees indicated that soil is another important ecologic niche for these two Cryptococcus species in India. Among our sampled tree species, eight and six were recorded for the first time as hosts for C. neoformans var grubii and C. gattii, respectively. A longitudinal surveillance of 8 host tree species over 0.7 to 2.5 years indicated long term colonization of Polyalthia longifolia, Mimusops elengi and Manilkara hexandra trees by C. gattii and/or C. neoformans. The mating type was determined for 153 of the isolates, including 98 strains of serotype A and 55 of serotype B and all proved to be mating type alpha (MAT alpha). Our observations document the rapidly expanding spectrum of host tree species for C. gattii and C. neoformans and indicate that decayed woods of many tree species are potentially suitable ecological niches for both pathogens. PMID:18608895

Randhawa, H S; Kowshik, T; Chowdhary, Anuradha; Preeti Sinha, K; Khan, Z U; Sun, Sheng; Xu, Jianping

2008-12-01

345

India-Pakistan Relations after Mumbai Attacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Paper makes a critical appraisal of India-Pakistan relations and explores their future trajector y in the aftermath of the Mumbai terrorist attack of November 2008. The rising tide of terrorism within Pakistan after 9\\/11 and the importance of South Asia to the United States made Pakistan selectively withdraw support to terrorist groups. This, in turn, helped India's efforts to

Wilson J; Kaustav Dhar

2009-01-01

346

Reimbursement for critical care services in India  

PubMed Central

There are significant variations in critical care practices, costs, and reimbursements in various countries. Of note, there is a paucity of reliable information on remuneration and reimbursement models for intensivists in India. This review article aims to analyze the existing reimbursement models in United States and United Kingdom and propose a frame-work model that may be applicable in India. PMID:23833469

Jayaram, Raja; Ramakrishnan, Nagarajan

2013-01-01

347

Teaching India. Footnotes. Volume 11, Number 2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On March 11-12, 2006 the FPRI's Marvin Wachman Fund for International Education hosted 44 teachers from 16 states across the country for a weekend of discussion on teaching about India. Sessions included: (1) Why It's Important to Know about India (Ainslie T. Embree); (2) Early Indian History (Richard H. Davis); (3) Modern Indian History (Marc…

Kuehner, Trudy

2006-01-01

348

Muse India  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started and run by a group of writers, Muse India is an online bimonthly journal which seeks to showcase Indian writings in both English and in English translation. Begun in early 2005, the journal has produced a number of thematic issues over the past several years, including those that have focused on Punjabi literature, modern Tamil poetry, and Indian aesthetics. Each issue contains a blend of literary commentaries, fiction pieces, book reviews, and poems. Visitors can read these pieces, and also search through the archive via a search engine. For those that are so inspired, they can also contact the editor about the possibility of having their own work included in a forthcoming issue of Muse India.

349

Geomorphic Environments of Tsunami Deposits, Southeastern India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As paleotsunami research progresses around the Indian Ocean, it is increasingly evident that tsunamis have occurred in this region in the past. The largest of these could have traversed the ocean and reached the southeastern coast of India, which highlights the importance of identifying key preservation sites in this potential repository of catastrophic basin-wide events. However, geologically enduring sites where tsunami deposits dependably survive are not yet well defined in India and other tropical environments. The purpose of this project was to identify the settings conducive to long-term preservation of tsunami deposits in tropical India and develop criteria for distinguishing them in the stratigraphic record. We documented the post- depositional fate of the tsunami deposits from the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake in various geomorphic environments along the southeastern coast of Tamil Nadu, India from 10.5-13° N. Latitude. Deposits from the 2004 tsunami were mapped, described and surveyed at locations where they had been described immediately after the event, as well as at previously unstudied sites. At many sites, the tsunami deposits were recognizable in the stratigraphic column by characteristic fine mafic laminations, debris and an organic layer at the lower boundary. Field observations and initial grain-size analysis indicated a distinct difference between tsunami deposits and underlying sedimentary layers. For example, at Mamallapuram (12.5° N. Lat.) the mean grain size of the tsunami deposits was 0.25 phi finer than that of the underlying layers. However, only three years after the event, deposits in some locations had already been altered significantly by erosion, bioturbation and incipient weathering and were not readily recognizable in the stratigraphy. Although the 2004 tsunami deposits were thicker and more extensive in the hard-hit southern half of the study area, the degree of bioturbation and weathering was greater there than in the drier northern portion, where some thin tsunami sand layers behind coastal dunes remained unaltered since the original post- tsunami surveys. To date, no conclusive evidence of paleotsunami deposits has been found at the sites included in this study, but the results will guide the search for key settings that best satisfy the balance between sediment volume and preservation.

Johnston, P.; Ely, L.; Achyuthan, H.; Srinivasalu, S.

2008-12-01

350

U.S.-India STEM Education and Research Collaboration: STEM Faculty Training at Higher Education Institutions in India  

E-print Network

U.S.-India STEM Education and Research Collaboration: STEM Faculty Training at Higher Education Institutions in India This AO is intended for OSU faculty in STEM disciplines as potential research advisors. The Ohio State University has been awarded a highly competitive grant from the US-India Education

Pradhan, Anil

351

Delhi, India  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Delhi is the second largest metropolis in India, with a population of 16 million. Located in northern India along the banks of the Yamuna River, Delhi has the status of a federally-administered union territory. Within it is the district of New Delhi, India's capital. Delhi is one of the oldest continually inhabited cites in the world, with traces of human occupation dating to the second millennium BC. The image was acquired September 22, 2003, covers an area of 30.6 x 34.8 km, and is located near 28.6 degrees north latitude, 77.2 degrees east longitude.

The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2008-01-01

352

PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON BARK OF COMMIPHORA BERRYI (ARN) ENGLLOR  

E-print Network

Commiphora berryi (Arn) Englor (Burseraceae) is a well known plant in Tamil nadu, India. It is used in several parts of the state for various medicinal properties. The present work summarizes preliminary phyto chemical study of bark of this plant.

N. L. Gowrishankar; K. Ch; R. Manavalan; Department Of Pharmacognosy

353

Post-tsunami changes in the littoral environment along the southeast coast of India.  

PubMed

The 26th December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami devastated coastal regions of the Indian subcontinent. Andaman and Nicobar Islands, coastal stretches of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala were the most affected regions of India. Changes in the beach profiles, long shore currents, breaking wave characteristics in the surf zone at selected locations along the Tamil Nadu coast were studied during January, April, October 2005 and January 2006. Long shore sediment transport rates were estimated from the observed parameters. Studies were carried out earlier (1995-1996 and 1998) to understand the coastal environment over a one-year cycle in the study region. The post-tsunami observations were compared with the earlier studies to establish the variations in the littoral environment and to ascertain the normalcy of the littoral environment in the post-tsunami scenario. From the changes in the beach profiles, the shoreline was observed to recede by about 20 m and built-up of backshore by about 0.5 m at most locations. Observations from the field investigations and comparisons with earlier studies along this stretch of the coastline indicate that the coastline is yet to return completely to normalcy. PMID:17499910

Jaya Kumar, S; Naik, K A; Ramanamurthy, M V; Ilangovan, D; Gowthaman, R; Jena, B K

2008-10-01

354

Race and bicultural socialization in the Netherlands, Norway, and the United States of America in the adoptions of children from India.  

PubMed

A cross-national sample of 622 internationally adopted children from India with White parents in The Netherlands (n = 409), Norway (n = 146), and the United States (n = 67) was used to contrast country-specific bicultural socialization (BCS) practices among families of transracial intercountry adoption. The 3 countries vary in their degrees of minority (US > Netherlands > Norway) and Indian populations (US > Norway > Netherlands). The current study examined parental survey trends among BCS practices, children's negative encounters about adoption, racial and positive discrimination, and parental worry about these issues. Country-specific differences were revealed: The United States and Norway (greatest Indian populations) reported the greatest similarity in BCS practices, classmates being a source of negative reactions/racial discrimination, and parental worry. The American sample encountered greater negative reactions to adoption from others; Dutch children experienced the least negative reactions from others overall, yet as in the United States (samples with the greatest minority heterogeneity) they still noted significant experiences of racial discrimination. Country-specific sociopolitical perceptions about adoption, ethnicity/race, and immigration are considered as factors that may have been used to inform parenting practices that facilitate children's biculturalism into family life (i.e., adoptive family stigma, percentages of Indian/minority populations, immigration policy trends). Concluding, cross-national research such as the current study may help intercountry adoption policymakers and practitioners to better understand and inform BCS practices in adoptive families. PMID:24773007

Riley-Behringer, Maureen; Groza, Victor; Tieman, Wendy; Juffer, Femmie

2014-04-01

355

Paragonimus & paragonimiasis in India  

PubMed Central

Ever since the discovery of the first indigenous case in 1981, paragonimiasis has gained recognition as a significant food borne parasitic zoonosis in India. The data available on the occurrence of paragonimiasis, until today, may be just the tip of an iceberg as the study areas covered were restricted to Northeast Indian States. Nevertheless, the results of research on paragonimiasis in India have revealed valuable information in epidemiology, life cycle, pathobiology and speciation of Indian Paragonimus. Potamiscus manipurensis, Alcomon superciliosum and Maydelliathelphusa lugubris were identified as the crab hosts of Paragonimus. Paragonimus miyazakii manipurinus n. sub sp., P. hueit’ungensis, P. skrjabini, P. heterotremus, P. compactus, and P. westermani have been described from India. P. heterotremus was found as the causative agent of human paragonimiasis. Ingestion of undercooked crabs and raw crab extract was the major mode of infection. Pulmonary paragonimiasis was the commonest clinical manifestation while pleural effusion and subcutaneous nodules were the common extra-pulmonary forms. Clinico-radiological features of pulmonary paragonimiasis simulated pulmonary tuberculosis. Intradermal test, ELISA and Dot-immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) were used for diagnosis and epidemiological survey of paragonimiasis. Phylogenitically, Indian Paragonimus species, although nested within the respective clade were distantly related to others within the clade. PMID:22960885

Singh, T. Shantikumar; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Rangsiruji, Achariya

2012-01-01

356

Bombay, India  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Formerly known as Bombay, the city of Mumbai is situated on India's west coast, on the Arabian Sea, roughly 500 km (310 miles) south of the Tropic of Cancer. Its large harbor and ideal location facing Africa, Europe, and the Middle East make it an excellent city for trade. Sometimes referred to as the 'Gateway of India,' Mumbai handles more than one third of the country's foreign trade. The city supports a population of more than 12 million people in an area of roughly 619 square km (239 square miles). The port was acquired in 1534 by Portugal, which named it Bom Bahia, meaning 'beautiful bay.' Originally, the city rested upon seven small islands, mostly basaltic bedrock from earlier lava flows. These islands are now connected to one another by reclaimed land, but each island, or neighborhood, still retains a distinct identity within the city. (For more details, visit Welcome to Bombay: The Gateway of India.) The blue-grey pixels in this false-color image are urban areas. The dark green areas are heavily vegetated surfaces while the light brown regions are more sparsely vegetated. This image of Mumbai was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+), flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. July 23, 2002, marks the 30th anniversary of the Landsat program. (Click to read the press release-Celebrating 30 Years of Imaging the Earth.) The Landsat program has been particularly instrumental in tracking land use and land cover changes-such as increased urban growth-over the last three decades. Image courtesy Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

2002-01-01

357

Diversity and community structure of butterfly of Arignar Anna Zoological Park, Chennai, Tamil Nadu.  

PubMed

Investigation was carried out on the diversity of butterfly fauna in selected localities of conservation and breeding center of Arignar Anna Zoological Park (AAZP), Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Atotal of 56 species were recorded, 15 of them belonged to Pieridae, 12 Nymphalidae, 9 Satyridae, 8 Papilionidae, 7 Danaidae, 3 Lycaenidae and 1 species each belonged to the families Acraeidae and Hesperidae. Qualitatively and quantitatively Pieridae family were comparatively dominant than that of other families. The notable addition to the 25 more species listed during this observation were compared to previous field survey. Comparison of butterfly species distribution between the different localities revealed that butterfly species richness was higher at mountain region with 52 species and lowest of 25 species at public visiting areas. Visitor's activities may be that reason for effects on butterfly distribution and lack of vegetation. Each five endemic and protected species (i.e. endangered) listed under the Wildlife (Protection)Act were highlighted greater conservation importances of the AAZP. It is suggest that butterfly species diversity generally increase with increase in vegetation and declines with the increase in disturbance. PMID:21882656

Rajagopal, T; Sekar, M; Manimozhi, A; Baskar, N; Archunan, G

2011-03-01

358

Silicosis in Coimbatore district of Tamil Nadu: A passive surveillance study  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Silicosis in Coimbatore district of Tamil Nadu: A passive surveillance study. Aim: This study was done to describe the level of preventive measures and level of awareness among the patients diagnosed with silicosis during a one-year period. Settings and Design: Coimbatore Medical College Hospital. Materials and Methods: This is a passive surveillance study based on patients diagnosed with silicosis in our outpatient facility for a one-year period between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2012. Results: Seventeen cases of silicosis were diagnosed based on history of exposure to silica and radiological features. The mean age was 55 years with 16 males and one female. The average duration of exposure was 22 years. A protective mask was used by 29% of the patients and one patient had awareness about the risks of exposure to silica. Active tuberculosis was found in 12% and old tuberculosis in 47% of patients; 59% of the patients were smokers. Spirometry showed a restrictive pattern in 59% of the patients. Radiologically nodular opacities with upper-zone predominance was found in majority of the cases. Conclusion: Most patients are exposed to silica in unorganized industries. Majority of the patients lack awareness about the disease and there is a low implementation of preventive and control measures. As this study was a passive surveillance, it represents only the tip of iceberg and an active field-level surveillance could reveal the true prevalence of this disease. PMID:24082645

Sivanmani, Keerthivasan; Rajathinakar, Vani

2013-01-01

359

India's Worsening Uranium Shortage  

SciTech Connect

As a result of NSG restrictions, India cannot import the natural uranium required to fuel its Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs); consequently, it is forced to rely on the expediency of domestic uranium production. However, domestic production from mines and byproduct sources has not kept pace with demand from commercial reactors. This shortage has been officially confirmed by the Indian Planning Commission’s Mid-Term Appraisal of the country’s current Five Year Plan. The report stresses that as a result of the uranium shortage, Indian PHWR load factors have been continually decreasing. The Uranium Corporation of India Ltd (UCIL) operates a number of underground mines in the Singhbhum Shear Zone of Jharkhand, and it is all processed at a single mill in Jaduguda. UCIL is attempting to aggrandize operations by establishing new mines and mills in other states, but the requisite permit-gathering and development time will defer production until at least 2009. A significant portion of India’s uranium comes from byproduct sources, but a number of these are derived from accumulated stores that are nearing exhaustion. A current maximum estimate of indigenous uranium production is 430t/yr (230t from mines and 200t from byproduct sources); whereas, the current uranium requirement for Indian PHWRs is 455t/yr (depending on plant capacity factor). This deficit is exacerbated by the additional requirements of the Indian weapons program. Present power generation capacity of Indian nuclear plants is 4350 MWe. The power generation target set by the Indian Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) is 20,000 MWe by the year 2020. It is expected that around half of this total will be provided by PHWRs using indigenously supplied uranium with the bulk of the remainder provided by breeder reactors or pressurized water reactors using imported low-enriched uranium.

Curtis, Michael M.

2007-01-15

360

Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction fingerprinting of Babesia bigemina isolates of India - short communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

This short communication describes the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting of B. bigemina from two geographically distant locations of the Indian subcontinent viz, Wayanad (Kerala state, Southern India) and Izatnagar (Uttar Pradesh State, Northern India). A total of four isolates, two each from Wayanad (Kerala, South India) and Izatnagar (North India) were used in the present study. RAPD-PCRs were carried

Reghu Ravindran; Ashok Kumar Mishra; Jammi Raghavendra Rao

2008-01-01

361

Willingness to Pay for Annual Health Care Services in Small Ruminants: The Case of South India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study was undertaken in southern peninsular State of India, the Tamil Nadu State, to assess the farmers Willingness To Pay` (WTP) for annual health care services in small ruminants. The districts of the State were categorized as Livestock Developed (LD) and Livestock Under Developed (LUD) based on initial base line developed. Contingent Valuation (CV) approach was used to study the farmers maximum WTP value for two types of health care services: (a) providing animal health care services at government veterinary centres, (b) extending animal health care services at farmers door steps. A Payment Card (PC) format was used to assess the farmers` maximum WTP for ensuring health care services to sheep and goat. The Maximum Likelihood technique was used on interval midpoints. The study revealed that the farmers were willing to pay a maximum of INR 56.34 and INR 61.61 for availing health services to their sheep and goat, respectively, by in-centre services, while they were ready to offer INR 87.49 and INR 95.27 for the animal health services delivered at doorsteps. The mean maximum WTP value was found to be more for goats than sheep, postulated both in-centre and home services. Of the factors incorporated in the in-centre service model for sheep, age of respondent, livelihood share of livestock, number of sheep and VLU owned and distance from nearest public veterinary centre were found to significantly influence the WTP values. Unlike sheep, age of respondent, VLU possession, distance of the public veterinary centre and district versatility had a significant role in determining WTP values for goats. WTP values in sheep for home service were found to be significantly predisposed by all the significant factors of in-centre services model, except number of sheep owned. Similarly, in goat, the age of respondent turned to be insignificant in home services model. The results indicated that the people were willing to pay more for getting their small ruminants adequately protected from diseases and treated at once with quality services.

Kathiravan, G.; Thirunavukkarasu, M.; Michealraj, P.

362

Mughal India  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As you enter a large room filled with various items, including a well-worn globe, a medium-sized file cabinet, and a wall of books, you wonder to yourself, Where am I?. It turns out that you have stumbled across the British Museum's fine interactive website on Mughal India. Designed for young people, the site is set up as an office where visitors may click on various items (such as a globe or a model of the Taj Mahal) in order to entire Flash-enabled learning environments that address various aspects of this most grand and productive period in India's history. While visitors will want to spend a good deal of time exploring the site, one particular representative area of the site is the coin cabinet. Clicking on the coin cabinet opens up a small chest that holds various pieces of currencies from the Mughal Empire. Visiting the different drawers in the chest allows users to learn what each type of coin can tell contemporary observers about the Empire's religious traditions, emperors, and politics. Thoroughly engaging and dynamic in its layout and content, this is a site that is worth a close look.

363

Socioeconomic, demographic study on substance abuse among students of professional college in a southern town, Berhampur of Odisha state (India).  

PubMed

Currently there is an increasing trend of substance abuse in developing countries like India. This study attempted to identify the different predisposing factors, associated psycho-social and medical problems, prevalence and types of substance abuse in students. The study covered a cross-section of 720 students with an overall male to female ratio of 4.1:1. The majority of the sufferers were from middle socioeconomic class, aged between 15 and 19 years. Common substances of abuse were chewable tobacco and cannabis. The risk of abuse was more in hostellers hailing from broken families (62.5%). Friends had the highest influence (59%). Most of them (49.4%) tried multiple times to give up, but peer pressure (53%) compelled them to restart. In 60.8% cases the parents were completely unaware about this behavior. The commonly associated problems were psychological (34.3%) and medical (29.5%). Our study at the end points out major risk factors and their remedial measures to curb substance abuse. PMID:24237819

Mohanty, Sachidananda; Tripathy, Radhamadhab; Palo, Subrat Kumar; Jena, Dhaneswari

2013-11-01

364

The political economy of farmers’ suicides in India: indebted cash-crop farmers with marginal landholdings explain state-level variation in suicide rates  

PubMed Central

Background A recent Lancet article reported the first reliable estimates of suicide rates in India. National-level suicide rates are among the highest in the world, but suicide rates vary sharply between states and the causes of these differences are disputed. We test whether differences in the structure of agricultural production explain inter-state variation in suicides rates. This hypothesis is supported by a large number of qualitative studies, which argue that the liberalization of the agricultural sector in the early-1990s led to an agrarian crisis and that consequently farmers with certain socioeconomic characteristics–cash crops cultivators, with marginal landholdings, and debts–are at particular risk of committing suicide. The recent Lancet study, however, contends that there is no evidence to support this hypothesis. Methods We report scatter diagrams and linear regression models that combine the new state-level suicide rate estimates and the proportion of marginal farmers, cash crop cultivation, and indebted farmers. Results When we include all variables in the regression equation there is a significant positive relationship between the percentage of marginal farmers, cash crop production, and indebted farmers, and suicide rates. This model accounts for almost 75% of inter-state variation in suicide rates. If the proportion of marginal farmers, cash crops, or indebted farmers were reduced by 1%, the suicide rate–suicides per 100,000 per year–would fall by 0?·?437, 0?·?518 or 0?·?549 respectively, when all other variables are held constant. Conclusions Even if the Indian state is unable to enact land reforms due to the power of local elites, interventions to stabilize the price of cash crops and relieve indebted farmers may be effective at reducing suicide rates. PMID:24669945

2014-01-01

365

Pre-hospital care among victims of road traffic accident in a rural area of Tamil Nadu: A cross-sectional descriptive study  

PubMed Central

Background: The World Health Organization has estimated that globally almost 1.24 million people die annually on the world's roads. The aim of the study was to assess the attributes of pre-hospital care in road traffic accidents (RTAs) victim brought to the health care establishment and to evaluate the pre-hospital trauma care provided in the rural areas of Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study of 3 months duration (June 2014 to August 2014) was conducted in the Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Kancheepuram. The method of sampling was universal sampling and all RTA victims satisfying the inclusion criteria were included in the study. During the entire study duration, total 200 RTA victims were included. A pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire was used to elicit the desired information after the victims of RTAs are stabilized. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Institutional Ethics Committee prior to the start of the study. Written informed consent was obtained from the study participants (patient/guardian of children) before obtaining any information from them. Data entry and statistical analysis were done using SPSS version 18. Frequency distributions and percentages were computed for all the variables. Results: Majority of the RTA victims 158 (79%) were from the age-group of 15-45 years. Most of the accidents were reported in night time [77 (38.5%)], on week-ends [113 (56.5%)], and involved two-wheelers [153 (76.5%)]. Almost 66 (33%) of the victims were not aware of the existence of emergency ambulance services. Also, only 15 (7.5%) victims were brought to the hospital in the emergency ambulance, of which only 3 victims were accompanied by a doctor. Conclusion: To conclude, the study indicates that a significant proportion of people were unaware about the emergency trauma ambulance services and the existing pre-hospital care services lack in multiple dimensions in a rural area of South India. PMID:25540536

Shrivastava, Saurabh R.; Pandian, Pradeep; Shrivastava, Prateek S.

2014-01-01

366

INDIA CONNECTION Sultana N. Nahar  

E-print Network

- ularly of women, such that, equal number of male and female students will be awarded fellowships Affairs, OSU Faculty Club, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH August 23, 2013 1 #12;India Connection with students and faculty members, which is also maintained with some other Indian universities - Founded

Nahar, Sultana Nurun

367

Elementary Education in Rural India: A Grassroots View. Strategies for Human Development in India, Volume 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are wide variations in educational attainment and literacy rates across the regions and social classes of India. A national project examined participation in and the quality of elementary education in nine states of India, focusing on rural areas and the situation of disadvantaged persons, especially girls and the scheduled castes and…

Vaidyanathan, A., Ed.; Nair, P. R. Gopinathan, Ed.

368

Assessment of prescribing practices among urban and rural general practitioners in Tamil Nadu  

PubMed Central

Background: Studying drug use pattern among medical practitioners is of vital importance in the present scenario where irrational drug use and development of drug resistance is becoming rampant. Objective: To assess, the pattern of prescribing practices among the general practitioners in a defined rural and urban area of Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: A community based descriptive study was conducted to collect 600 prescriptions from the catchment areas of rural and urban health training centers of a medical college using prescribing indicators as per the WHO “How to investigate drug use in health facilities” tool. Results: This prescription study revealed that multivitamins (19.5%), antibiotics (19.3%), drugs for gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) (18%), analgesic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs/ (NSAID's) (15.1%), and antihistaminic (12.5%) were prescribed frequently. Among the antibiotics, amoxicillin (49.2%) was the most commonly prescribed followed by gentamicin (31.7%). Percentage of prescriptions with an antibiotic was 55% and nearly 62% of the practitioners prescribed drugs by their generic names. As a practice of poly-pharmacy, it was observed that the average number of drugs prescribed in urban and rural area was nearly 5 and 4, respectively. Nearly 80% of the urban and rural practitioners were prescribing at least one injection. Study of the quality of prescriptions revealed that there was poor legibility, high usage of abbreviations, inadequate details of the drugs, and absence of signature by practitioners in the prescriptions. Conclusion: This study clearly highlights the practice of poly-pharmacy, low usage of generic drugs, injudicious usage of antibiotics and injections and low usage of drugs prescribed from essential drugs list. PMID:23833368

Gopalakrishnan, Sekharan; Ganeshkumar, Parasuraman; Katta, Ajitha

2013-01-01

369

Strengthening government management capacity to scale up HIV prevention programs through the use of Technical Support Units: lessons from Karnataka state, India.  

PubMed

Scaling up HIV prevention programming among key populations (female sex workers and men who have sex with men) has been a central strategy of the Government of India. However, state governments have lacked the technical and managerial capacity to oversee and scale up interventions or to absorb donor-funded programs. In response, the national government contracted Technical Support Units (TSUs), teams with expertise from the private and nongovernmental sectors, to collaborate with and assist state governments. In 2008, a TSU was established in Karnataka, one of 6 Indian states with the highest HIV prevalence in the country and where monitoring showed that its prevention programs were reaching only 5% of key populations. The TSU provided support to the state in 5 key areas: assisting in strategic planning, rolling out a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation system, providing supportive supervision to intervention units, facilitating training, and assisting with information, education, and communication activities. This collaborative management model helped to increase capacity of the state, enabling it to take over funding and oversight of HIV prevention programs previously funded through donors. With the combined efforts of the TSU and the state government, the number of intervention units statewide increased from 40 to 126 between 2009 and 2013. Monthly contacts with female sex workers increased from 5% in 2008 to 88% in 2012, and with men who have sex with men, from 36% in 2009 to 81% in 2012. There were also increases in the proportion of both populations who visited HIV testing and counseling centers (from 3% to 47% among female sex workers and from 6% to 33% among men who have sex with men) and sexually transmitted infection clinics (from 4% to 75% among female sex workers and from 7% to 67% among men who have sex with men). Changes in sexual behaviors among key populations were also documented. For example, between 2008 and 2010, the proportion of surveyed female sex workers in 9 districts reporting that they used a condom at last intercourse rose from 60% to 68%; in 6 districts, the proportion of surveyed men who have sex with men reporting that they used a condom at last anal sex increased from 89% to 97%. The Karnataka experience suggests that TSUs can help governments enhance managerial and technical resources and leverage funds more effectively. With careful management of the working and reporting relationships between the TSU and the state government, this additional capacity can pave the way for the government to improve and scale up programs and to absorb previously donor-funded programs. PMID:25611478

Sgaier, Sema K; Anthony, John; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Baer, James; Malve, Vidyacharan; Bhalla, Aparajita; Hugar, Vijaykumar S

2014-12-01

370

Soil gas radon-thoron monitoring in Dharamsala area of north-west Himalayas, India using solid state nuclear track detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study described here is based on the measurements of soil gas radon-thoron concentrations performed at Dharamsala region of north-west (NW) Himalayas, India. The study area is tectonically and environmentally significant and shows the features of ductile shear zone due to the presence of distinct thrust planes. Solid state nuclear track detectors (LR-115 films) have been used for the soil gas radon-thoron monitoring. Twenty five radon-thoron discriminators with LR-115 films were installed in the borehole of about 50 cm in the study areas. The recorded radon concentration varies from 1593 to 13570 Bq/m3 with an average value of 5292 Bq/m3. The recorded thoron concentration varies from 223 to 2920 Bq/m3 with an average value of 901 Bq/m3. The anomalous value of radon-thoron has been observed near to the faults like main boundary thrust (MBT and MBT2) as well as neotectonic lineaments in the region.

Kumar, Gulshan; Kumar, Arvind; Walia, Vivek; Kumar, Jitender; Gupta, Vikash; Yang, Tsanyao Frank; Singh, Surinder; Bajwa, Bikramjit Singh

2013-10-01

371

Babesia infection in naturally exposed pet dogs from a north-eastern state (Assam) of India: detection by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to detect Babesia infections in pet dogs of a north-eastern state of India. The diagnostic efficacy of Babesia infection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique has been compared with microscopy examination. For this, a total of 111 blood samples of pet dogs presented at clinical complex of the College of Veterinary Science, Guwahati, Assam with clinical signs suspected for Babesia infection subjected to the study. A total of 44 (39.63 %) dogs were diagnosed as positive for Babesia infections after microscopic examination. Among these, Babesia canis infection was diagnosed in 5 dogs (4.50 %) and B. gibsoni infection in 39 (35.13 %) dogs microscopically in Giemsa stained blood smears. Molecular diagnosis using PCR detected 63 (56.75 %) dogs positive for Babesia infection. Single infection with B. canis was found in 9 (8.10 %) dogs while B. gibsoni alone was detected in 3 (2.70 %) dogs. Mixed infections by both these species were detected in 51 (45.94 %) dogs. Overall, PCR detected 54 (48.64 %) dogs as B. gibsoni and 60 (54.05 %) dogs as B. canis positive. PMID:25320489

Laha, R; Bhattacharjee, K; Sarmah, P C; Das, M; Goswami, A; Sarma, D; Sen, A

2014-12-01

372

Changes in HIV and syphilis prevalence among female sex workers from three serial cross-sectional surveys in Karnataka state, South India  

PubMed Central

Objectives This paper examined trends over time in condom use, and the prevalences of HIV and syphilis, among female sex workers (FSWs) in South India. Design Data from three rounds of cross-sectional surveys were analysed, with HIV and high-titre syphilis prevalence as outcome variables. Multivariable analysis was applied to examine changes in prevalence over time. Setting Five districts in Karnataka state, India. Participants 7015 FSWs were interviewed over three rounds of surveys (round 1=2277; round 2=2387 and round 3=2351). Women who reported selling sex in exchange for money or gifts in the past month, and aged between 18 and 49?years, were included. Interventions The surveys were conducted to monitor a targeted HIV prevention programme during 2004–2012. The main interventions included peer-led community outreach, services for the treatment and prevention of sexually transmitted infections, and empowering FSWs through community mobilisation. Results HIV prevalence declined significantly from rounds 1 to 3, from 19.6% to 10.8% (adjusted OR (AOR)=0.48, p<0.001); high-titre syphilis prevalence declined from 5.9% to 2.4% (AOR=0.50, p<0.001). Reductions were observed in most substrata of FSWs, although reductions among new sex workers, and those soliciting clients using mobile phones or from home, were not statistically significant. Condom use ‘always’ with occasional clients increased from 73% to 91% (AOR=1.9, p<0.001), with repeat clients from 52% to 86% (AOR=5.0, p<0.001) and with regular partners from 12% to 30% (AOR=4.2, p<0.001). Increased condom use was associated with exposure to the programme. However, condom use with regular partners remained low. Conclusions The prevalences of HIV infection and high-titre syphilis among FSWs have steadily declined with increased condom use. Further reductions in prevalence will require intensification of prevention efforts for new FSWs and those soliciting clients using mobile phones or from home, as well as increasing condom use in the context of regular partnerships. PMID:25818275

Isac, Shajy; Ramesh, B M; Rajaram, S; Washington, Reynold; Bradley, Janet E; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Beattie, Tara S; Blanchard, James F; Moses, Stephen

2015-01-01

373

Avian influenza surveillance reveals presence of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in poultry during 2009-2011 in the West Bengal State, India  

PubMed Central

Introduction More than 70 outbreaks of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 have been reported in poultry in the western and north-eastern parts of India. Therefore, in view of the recent HPAI H5N1 outbreaks in poultry, active AI surveillance encompassing wild, resident, migratory birds and poultry was undertaken during 2009–2011 in the State of West Bengal. Methods A total of 5722 samples were collected from West Bengal; 3522 samples (2906 fecal droppings?+?616 other environmental samples) were from migratory birds and 2200 samples [1604 tracheal, cloacal swabs, environmental samples, tissue samples?+?596 blood (serum)] were from domestic ducks and poultry. All tracheal, cloacal and environmental samples were processed for virus isolation. Virus isolates were detected using hemagglutination assay and identified using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of partial region of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes was done. Intravenous pathogenicity index assays were performed in chickens to assess pathogenicity of AI virus isolates. Serum samples were tested for detection of antibodies against AI viruses using HI assay. Results A total of 57 AI H9N2, 15 AI H4N6 and 15 Newcastle Disease (NDV) viruses were isolated from chickens, from both backyard and wet poultry markets; AI H4N6 viruses were isolated from backyard chickens and domestic ducks. Characterization of AI H9N2 and H4N6 viruses revealed that they were of low pathogenicity. Domestic ducks were positive for antibodies against H5 and H7 viruses while chickens were positive for presence of antibodies against AI H9N2 and NDV. Conclusions In the current scenario of HPAI H5N1 outbreaks in West Bengal, this report shows presence of low pathogenic AI H9N2 and H4N6 viruses in chickens and domestic ducks during the period 2009–2011. This is the first report of isolation of H4N6 from India. Antibodies against AI H5 and H7 in ducks highlight the probable role of domestic ducks in the transmission of AI viruses. Human infections of H9N2 have been reported from China and Hong Kong. This necessitates implementation of prevention and control measures to limit the spread of AI viruses. PMID:22867041

2012-01-01

374

Economic Sanctions and the Arms Race in India & Pakistan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News explores the United States' response to nuclear tests in India and Pakistan through economic sanctions. The eight resources discussed provide background economic pictures of India and Pakistan as well as recent press releases from the United States, India, Pakistan, and beyond. On May 11, 1998 India declared itself a nuclear state and conducted the first of five underground nuclear tests in defiance of international law. Neighboring Pakistan responded with a similar test on May 28 causing President Clinton to enact economic sanctions against both nations. Although India's Minister of Finance, Yashwant Sinha, is confident that a financially strong "new India," will not be affected by US action, Pakistan's fragile economy is highly dependent on US support and may lead to an end to this dangerous arms race.

Waters, Megan.

1998-01-01

375

global warming's six indias  

E-print Network

global warming's six indias: An Audience Segmentation Analysis #12;Global Warming's Six Indias 1............................................................................................................................................20 2. Global Warming Beliefs and Attitudes................................................................................ 21 Knowledge about global warming varies widely by group

Haller, Gary L.

376

Utilization of a State Run Public Private Emergency Transportation Service Exclusively for Childbirth: The Janani (Maternal) Express Program in Madhya Pradesh, India  

PubMed Central

Background In 2009 the state government of Madhya Pradesh, India launched an emergency obstetric transportation service, Janani Express Yojana (JEY), to support the cash transfer program that promotes institutional delivery. JEY, a large scale public private partnership, lowers geographical access barriers to facility based care. The state contracts and pays private agencies to provide emergency transportation at no cost to the user. The objective was to study (a) the utilization of JEY among women delivering in health facilities, (b) factors associated with usage, (c) the timeliness of the service. Methods A cross sectional facility based study was conducted in facilities that carried out > ten deliveries a month. Researchers who spent five days in each facility administered a questionnaire to all women who gave birth there to elicit socio-demographic characteristics and transport related details. Results 35% of women utilised JEY to reach a facility, however utilization varied between study districts. Uptake was highest among women from rural areas (44%), scheduled tribes (55%), and poorly educated women (40%). Living in rural areas and belonging to scheduled tribes were significant predictors for JEY usage. Almost 1/3 of JEY users (n?=?104) experienced a transport related delay. Discussion The JEY service model complements the cash transfer program by providing transport to a facility to give birth. A study of the distribution of utilization in population subgroups suggests the intervention was successful in reaching the most vulnerable population, promoting equity in access. While 1/3 of women utilized the service and it saved them money; 30% experienced significant transport related delays in reaching a facility, which is comparable to women using public transportation. Further research is needed to understand why utilization is low, to explore if there is a need for service expansion at the community level and to improve the overall time efficiency of JEY. PMID:24828520

Sidney, Kristi; Ryan, Kayleigh; Diwan, Vishal; De Costa, Ayesha

2014-01-01

377

Inequalities in institutional delivery uptake and maternal mortality reduction in the context of cash incentive program, Janani Suraksha Yojana: results from nine states in India.  

PubMed

Proportion of women giving birth in health institutions has increased sharply in India since the introduction of cash incentive program, Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) in 2005. JSY was intended to benefit disadvantaged population who had poor access to institutional care for childbirth and who bore the brunt of maternal deaths. Increase in institutional deliveries following the implementation of JSY needs to be analysed from an equity perspective. We analysed data from nine Indian states to examine the change in socioeconomic inequality in institutional deliveries five years after the implementation of JSY using the concentration curve and concentration index (CI). The CI was then decomposed in order to understand pathways through which observed inequalities occurred. Disparities in access to emergency obstetric care (EmOC) and in maternal mortality reduction among different socioeconomic groups were also assessed. Slope and relative index of inequality were used to estimate absolute and relative inequalities in maternal mortality ratio (MMR). Results shows that although inequality in access to institutional delivery care persists, it has reduced since the introduction of JSY. Nearly 70% of the present inequality was explained by differences in male literacy, EmOC availability in public facilities and poverty. EmOC in public facilities was grossly unavailable. Compared to richest division in nine states, poorest division has 135 more maternal deaths per 100,000 live births in 2010. While MMR has decreased in all areas since JSY, it has declined four times faster in richest areas compared to the poorest, resulting in increased inequalities. These findings suggest that in order for the cash incentive to succeed in reducing the inequalities in maternal health outcomes, it needs to be supported by the provision of quality health care services including EmOC. Improved targeting of disadvantaged populations for the cash incentive program could be considered. PMID:25462599

Randive, Bharat; San Sebastian, Miguel; De Costa, Ayesha; Lindholm, Lars

2014-12-01

378

Enhancing innovation between scientific and indigenous knowledge: pioneer NGOs in India  

PubMed Central

Background Until recently, little attention has been paid to local innovation capacity as well as management practices and institutions developed by communities and other local actors based on their traditional knowledge. This paper doesn't focus on the results of scientific research into innovation systems, but rather on how local communities, in a network of supportive partnerships, draw knowledge for others, combine it with their own knowledge and then innovate in their local practices. Innovation, as discussed in this article, is the capacity of local stakeholders to play an active role in innovative knowledge creation in order to enhance local health practices and further environmental conservation. In this article, the innovative processes through which this capacity is created and reinforced will be defined as a process of "ethnomedicine capacity". Methods The field study undertaken by the first author took place in India, in the State of Tamil Nadu, over a period of four months in 2007. The data was collected through individual interviews and focus groups and was complemented by participant observations. Results The research highlights the innovation capacity related to ethnomedical knowledge. As seen, the integration of local and scientific knowledge is crucial to ensure the practices anchor themselves in daily practices. The networks created are clearly instrumental to enhancing the innovation capacity that allows the creation, dissemination and utilization of 'traditional' knowledge. However, these networks have evolved in very different forms and have become entities that can fit into global networks. The ways in which the social capital is enhanced at the village and network levels are thus important to understand how traditional knowledge can be used as an instrument for development and innovation. Conclusion The case study analyzed highlights examples of innovation systems in a developmental context. They demonstrate that networks comprised of several actors from different levels can synergistically forge linkages between local knowledge and formal sciences and generate positive and negative impacts. The positive impact is the revitalization of perceived traditions while the negative impacts pertain to the transformation of these traditions into health commodities controlled by new elites, due to unequal power relations. PMID:19849851

Torri, Maria-Costanza; Laplante, Julie

2009-01-01

379

Khamti Shan Buddhism And Culture In Arunachal Pradesh, India1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shan people live in Shan State, Myanmar; Dehong, Yunnan, China; Northern Thailand; and also in Assam and Arunachal Pradesh, India. Khamti Shan in Arunachal Pradesh, India are people who migrated from the northern part of Shan State, Myanmar at least 200 years ago. This paper provides field data about Khamti Shan Buddhist practice and way of life from a short

Siraporn Nathalang

2009-01-01

380

75 FR 14468 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From China and India  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From China and India AGENCY: United States International Trade...order on carbazole violet pigment 23 from India and the antidumping duty orders on carbazole violet pigment 23 from China and...

2010-03-25

381

The economic performance of four (agro-) forestry systems on alkaline soils in the state of Haryana in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates and compares the economic performance of four (agro-) forestry plantations on alkaline soils in semi-arid conditions in the North Indian state of Haryana. The plantations were located in the villages of Gudha, Kohand, Nain and Sutana. The plantations varied with respect to the plantation management, the tree species and the use of intercrops. The economic performance is

Leon Stille; Edward Smeets; Birka Wicke; Ranjay Singh; Gurbachan Singh

2011-01-01

382

VILLAGE SIZE IN INDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

India is predominantly a rural and agrarian society, and 72 percent of India's population lives in villages according to the 2001 census. Village size varies considerably in the country, with some villages having fewer than 50 residents and some having more than 10,000 residents. The study first examines the growth of villages in India using census data. It then establishes

Abhishek Singh; Sandip Chakraborty; Tarun K. Roy

2008-01-01

383

Pascale Hancart Petitet (CReCSS, Aix) & Vellore Pagathi (PILC, Pondichery) Ethnographical views on valaikppu. A pregnancy rite in Tamil Nadu In Indian Anthropologist. Special Issue on the Ethnography of Healing 37(1). 2007.  

E-print Network

, and to ensure the birth of a healthy child, preferably a boy. In Tamil Nadu, the end of the pregnancy is marked practices of matrimonial alliances have today evolved toward forms of conjugal union that fa

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

384

Study of Morbidity Profile of a Rural Population in Tamil Nadu  

PubMed Central

Objective: To identify the reported morbidity profile of people according to age, gender and organ system affected using International Classification of Diseases (ICD) coding, in a demographically defined area in Tamil Nadu in order to identify their health care needs and to plan appropriate interventions strategies. Materials and Methods: This is a-cross sectional study using a convenience sample of 12308 persons sceened from the 41 panchayat units of the Kattankulathur block, comprising 90 villages with a population of about 2,00,890, over a period of one year. Diagnosis made were coded using ICD 10 version and data collected was analysed by appropriate statistical methods to explain the distribution of morbidity profile among the study population. Result: Out of total, 38.1% screened were males and 61.9% were females. Underfives were 5.3%, school going children 43.3%, adults 39.2% and elderly 12.3%. Majority had illness affecting respiratory system (20%), ‘symptoms and signs’ (19%), musculo-skeletal system (16.1%) and digestive system(11.9%). ‘Symptoms and signs’ classification, is a group of conditions which is of nonspecific diseases, signs, symptoms, abnormal findings and complaints, apart from the system specific conditions diagnosed properly and not elsewhere classified, More males were affeced with respiratory, digestive and illnesses with ‘symptoms and signs’ while more women were affected with musculo-skeletal problems. Only 9.7 % of patients reported with non-communicable diseases. Among them, 55 % women and 42.3 % men had osteoarthritis and 15.7 % women and 21.3 % men had cataract. About 15.8 % women and 18.1 % men had hypertension and other heart diseases while 9.7 % women and 8.4 % men had diabetes and 10.0 % men and 3.9 % women had chronic respiratory diseases. Conclusion: School going children and adults have higher levels of morbidity when compared to elderly and under five children. More females reported with illness but morbidity was found to be higher among males. The burden of illness increased with age. Acute ailments were responsible for high morbidity among children, while chronic ailments caused high morbidity among the elderly.

Ganeshkumar, P.; Katta, Ajitha

2015-01-01

385

India Network Gopher  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The India Network Gopher: The network of the Asian Indian Community, the India Network of mailing lists and gopher and Web sites was established to discuss and provide information about issues related to India facing Indians living abroad. The India Network and Research Foundation was established in 1993 to provide stable network resources and to fund a graduate assistantship to work on network related chores. The 'welcome' file includes detailed information about joining their mailing lists, such as the India News Digest and the list for faculty of Indian origin.

386

A study of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs according to dental aesthetic index among school children of a hilly state of India  

PubMed Central

Background: The documentation of magnitude of malocclusion in terms of prevalence and severity has not been done till date in Himachal Pradesh, India. Aims: To assess the prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs (OTNs) among 9-and 12-year-old school children by using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) in the state. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1188 children from randomly selected schools. The survey was done according to the Oral Health Assessment Form (modified). DAI was used to assess the severity of malocclusion, along with collection of demographic data. Results: The overall prevalence of malocclusion was 12.5% and required orthodontic treatment, whereas 87.5% did not require treatment. A severe malocclusion for which treatment was highly desirable was recorded in 3.1%; 8% had a definite malocclusion for which treatment was elective. Only about 1.3% had a handicapping malocclusion that needed mandatory treatment. Almost equal proportions of males and females were affected with malocclusion with the means 20 ± 4.6 and 19.9 ± 4.9, respectively (P < 0.641). The prevalence and severity of malocclusion was more in 12-year age group than in 9-year age group (P = 0.002**). There was an increase in the proportion of malocclusion among older children: In 12-year age group, 15.7% with mean 20.5 ± 5.1 and in 9-year-old children, 8.9% with the mean 19.3 ± 4.1 were in the need of orthodontic treatment. Conclusion: Severity and treatment needs, both are important factors in public health planning. PMID:24478978

Chauhan, Deepak; Sachdev, Vinod; Chauhan, Tripti; Gupta, Kamal K.

2013-01-01

387

Effectiveness of Medicinal Plant Conservation Areas in Western Ghats, India  

E-print Network

Effectiveness of Medicinal Plant Conservation Areas in Western Ghats, India Narayani Barve Medicinal Plant Conservation Areas (MPCA) ? Designated by State Forest Department ? Established early 1990s ? Network of 200 sites all over India... ? Selection based on Plant diversity and known medicinal plant hotspots The Western Ghats (Sahyadri) Biodiversity Hotspot ? Less than 6% of the land area of India, but contains more than 30% of all plant, bird, and mammal species found in the country...

Barve, Narayani

2014-04-25

388

Spatial and temporal trends of mean and extreme rainfall and temperature for the 33 urban centers of the arid and semi-arid state of Rajasthan, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trend analysis of the mean (monsoon season, non-monsoon season and annual) and extreme annual daily rainfall and temperature at the spatial and temporal scales was carried out for all the 33 urban centers of the arid and semi-arid state of Rajasthan, India. Statistical trend analysis techniques, namely the Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope estimator, were used to examine trends (1971-2005) at the 10% level of significance. Both positive and negative trends were observed in mean and extreme events of rainfall and temperature in the urban centers of Rajasthan State. The magnitude of the significant trend of monsoon rainfall varied from (-) 6.00 mm/hydrologic year at Nagaur to (-) 8.56 mm/hydrologic year at Tonk. However, the magnitude of the significant negative trends of non-monsoon rainfall varied from (-) 0.66 mm/hydrologic year at Dungarpur to (-) 1.27 mm/hydrologic year at Chittorgarh. The magnitude of positive trends of non-monsoon rainfall varied from 0.93 mm/hydrologic year at Churu to 1.70 mm/hydrologic year at Hanumangarh. The magnitude of the significant negative trends of annual rainfall varied from (-) 6.47 mm/year at Nagaur to (-) 10.0 mm/year at Tonk. The minimum, average and maximum temperature showed significant increasing warming trends on an annual and seasonal scale in most of the urban centers in Rajasthan State. The magnitude of statistically significant annual extreme daily rainfall varied from 2.00 mm at Jhalawar to (-) 1.64 mm at Tonk, while the magnitude of statistically significant extreme annual daily minimum and maximum temperature varied from 0.03 °C at Ganganagar to 0.05 °C at Jhalawar, respectively. The spatial variations of the trends in mean (monsoon season, non-monsoon season and annual) and extreme annual daily rainfall and temperature were also determined using the inverse-distance-weighted (IDW) interpolation technique. IDW results are helpful to identify trends and variability in mean and extreme rainfall and temperature in space and time for the study locations where the data is not available and the quality of data is not good. These spatial maps of temperature and rainfall can help local stakeholders and water managers to understand the risks and vulnerabilities related to climate change in terms of mean and extreme events in the region.

Pingale, Santosh M.; Khare, Deepak; Jat, Mahesh K.; Adamowski, Jan

2014-03-01

389

Collaborative RESEARCH COUNCILS UK INDIA  

E-print Network

NEW HORIZONS UK-India Collaborative Research #12;RESEARCH COUNCILS UK INDIA Research Councils UK (RCUK) India, launched in 2008, brings together the best researchers in the UK and India through high-quality, high-impact research partnerships. RCUK India, based at the British High Commission in New Dehli, has

Berzins, M.

390

Can India's ``literate'' read?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading Method (RM) which required the same individuals to actually read a simple text at grade 2 level. The findings revealed a substantial difference between the reading literacy rates obtained by CM and RM. CM over-reported RM by 16%. The overestimation was higher for males. Decoding skills were found to erode in most cases after completion of primary schooling, assuming no further education. A minimum grade 8-9 education was required for decoding skills to not deteriorate after schooling.

Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata

2010-12-01

391

Dynamic Site Characterization and Correlation of Shear Wave Velocity with Standard Penetration Test ` N' Values for the City of Agartala, Tripura State, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic site characterization is the basic requirement for seismic microzonation and site response studies of an area. Site characterization helps to gauge the average dynamic properties of soil deposits and thus helps to evaluate the surface level response. This paper presents a seismic site characterization of Agartala city, the capital of Tripura state, in the northeast of India. Seismically, Agartala city is situated in the Bengal Basin zone which is classified as a highly active seismic zone, assigned by Indian seismic code BIS-1893, Indian Standard Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures, Part-1 General Provisions and Buildings. According to the Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi (2002), it is the highest seismic level (zone-V) in the country. The city is very close to the Sylhet fault (Bangladesh) where two major earthquakes ( M w > 7) have occurred in the past and affected severely this city and the whole of northeast India. In order to perform site response evaluation, a series of geophysical tests at 27 locations were conducted using the multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) technique, which is an advanced method for obtaining shear wave velocity ( V s) profiles from in situ measurements. Similarly, standard penetration test (SPT-N) bore log data sets have been obtained from the Urban Development Department, Govt. of Tripura. In the collected data sets, out of 50 bore logs, 27 were selected which are close to the MASW test locations and used for further study. Both the data sets ( V s profiles with depth and SPT-N bore log profiles) have been used to calculate the average shear wave velocity ( V s30) and average SPT-N values for the upper 30 m depth of the subsurface soil profiles. These were used for site classification of the study area recommended by the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP) manual. The average V s30 and SPT-N classified the study area as seismic site class D and E categories, indicating that the city is susceptible to site effects and liquefaction. Further, the different data set combinations between V s and SPT-N (corrected and uncorrected) values have been used to develop site-specific correlation equations by statistical regression, as ` V s' is a function of SPT- N value (corrected and uncorrected), considered with or without depth. However, after considering the data set pairs, a probabilistic approach has also been presented to develop a correlation using a quantile-quantile (Q-Q) plot. A comparison has also been made with the well known published correlations (for all soils) available in the literature. The present correlations closely agree with the other equations, but, comparatively, the correlation of shear wave velocity with the variation of depth and uncorrected SPT-N values provides a more suitable predicting model. Also the Q-Q plot agrees with all the other equations. In the absence of in situ measurements, the present correlations could be used to measure V s profiles of the study area for site response studies.

Sil, Arjun; Sitharam, T. G.

2014-08-01

392

State and national household concentrations of PM2.5 from solid cookfuel use: Results from measurements and modeling in India for estimation of the global burden of disease  

PubMed Central

Background Previous global burden of disease (GBD) estimates for household air pollution (HAP) from solid cookfuel use were based on categorical indicators of exposure. Recent progress in GBD methodologies that use integrated–exposure–response (IER) curves for combustion particles required the development of models to quantitatively estimate average HAP levels experienced by large populations. Such models can also serve to inform public health intervention efforts. Thus, we developed a model to estimate national household concentrations of PM2.5 from solid cookfuel use in India, together with estimates for 29 states. Methods We monitored 24-hr household concentrations of PM2.5, in 617 rural households from 4 states in India on a cross-sectional basis between November 2004 and March 2005. We then, developed log-linear regression models that predict household concentrations as a function of multiple, independent household level variables available in national household surveys and generated national / state estimates using The Indian National Family and Health Survey (NFHS 2005). Results The measured mean 24-hr concentration of PM2.5 in solid cookfuel using households ranged from 163 ?g/m3 (95% CI: 143,183; median 106; IQR: 191) in the living area to 609 ?g/m3 (95% CI: 547,671; median: 472; IQR: 734) in the kitchen area. Fuel type, kitchen type, ventilation, geographical location and cooking duration were found to be significant predictors of PM2.5 concentrations in the household model. k-fold cross validation showed a fair degree of correlation (r?=?0.56) between modeled and measured values. Extrapolation of the household results by state to all solid cookfuel-using households in India, covered by NFHS 2005, resulted in a modeled estimate of 450 ?g/m3 (95% CI: 318,640) and 113 ?g/m3 (95% CI: 102,127) , for national average 24-hr PM2.5 concentrations in the kitchen and living areas respectively. Conclusions The model affords substantial improvement over commonly used exposure indicators such as “percent solid cookfuel use” in HAP disease burden assessments, by providing some of the first estimates of national average HAP levels experienced in India. Model estimates also add considerable strength of evidence for framing and implementation of intervention efforts at the state and national levels. PMID:24020494

2013-01-01

393

Correlation between “ABO” blood group phenotypes and periodontal disease: Prevalence in south Kanara district, Karnataka state, India  

PubMed Central

Background: The correlation between certain systemic diseases and ABO blood group is a well-documented fact. The association between periodontal disease and ABO blood group is not studied in relation to a specific geographic location. Here is a study conducted on a group of patients belonging to South Kanara district of Karnataka state. Materials and Methods: A total of 750 subjects aged between 30and 38 years belonging to South Kanara district were selected on random basis. The study subjects were segregated into healthy/mild gingivitis, moderate/severe gingivitis, and periodontitis group, based on Loe and Silness index and clinical attachment loss as criteria. The study group was further categorized and graded using Ramfjord's periodontal disease index. Blood samples were collected to identify ABO blood group. Results: Prevalence of blood group O was more in South Kanara district, followed by blood groups B and A, and the least prevalent was AB. The percentage distribution of subjects with blood groups O and AB was more in healthy/mild gingivitis group (group I) and moderate/severe gingivitis group (group II), while subjects with blood groups B and A were more in periodontitis group III. There was increased prevalence of subjects with blood groups O and AB with healthy periodontium, while subjects with blood groups B and A showed inclination toward diseased periodontium. Conclusion: There is a correlation existing between periodontal disease and ABO blood group in this geographic location. This association can be due to various blood group antigens acting as receptors for infectious agents associated with periodontal disease. This broad correlation between periodontal disease and ABO blood group also points toward susceptibility ofthe subjects with certain blood groups to periodontal disease. PMID:23493096

Pai, Gurpur Prakash; Dayakar, Mundoor Manjunath; Shaila, Mulki; Dayakar, Anitha

2012-01-01

394

Epidemiology of Bluetongue in India.  

PubMed

Bluetongue (BT) is an insectborne endemic disease in India. Although infections are observed in domestic and wild ruminants, the clinical disease and mortality are observed only in sheep, especially in the southern states of the country. The difference in disease patterns in different parts of the country could be due to varied climatic conditions, sheep population density and susceptibility of the sheep breeds to BT. Over the five decades after the first report of BT in 1964, most of the known serotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV) have been reported from India either by virus isolation or by detection of serotype-specific antibodies. There have been no structured longitudinal studies to identify the circulating serotypes throughout the country. At least ten serotypes were isolated between 1967 and 2000 (BTV-1-4, 6, 9, 16-18, 23). Since 2001, the All-India Network Programme on Bluetongue and other laboratories have isolated eight different serotypes (BTV-1-3, 9, 10, 12, 16, 21). Genetic analysis of these viruses has revealed that some of them vary substantially from reference viruses, and some show high sequence identity with modified live virus vaccines used in different parts of the world. These observations have highlighted the need to develop diagnostic capabilities, especially as BT outbreaks are still declared based on clinical signs. Although virus isolation and serotyping are the gold standards, rapid methods based on the detection of viral nucleic acid may be more suitable for India. The epidemiological investigations also have implications for vaccine design. Although only a handful serotypes may be involved in causing outbreaks every year, the combination of serotypes may change from year to year. For effective control of BT in India, it may be pertinent to introduce sentinel and vector traps systems for identification of the circulating serotypes and to evaluate herd immunity against different serotypes, so that relevant strains can be included in vaccine formulations. PMID:25164573

Rao, P P; Hegde, N R; Reddy, Y N; Krishnajyothi, Y; Reddy, Y V; Susmitha, B; Gollapalli, S R; Putty, K; Reddy, G H

2014-08-28

395

Country Report on Building Energy Codes in India  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America. This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in India, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes in India, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial buildings in India.

Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Somasundaram, Sriram

2009-04-07

396

ICT Usage by Distance Learners in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Open Universities across the world are embracing ICT based teaching and learning process to disseminate quality education to their learners spread across the globe. In India availability and access of ICT and learner characteristics are uneven and vary from state to state. Hence it is important to establish the facts about ICT access among…

Awadhiya, Ashish Kumar; Gowthaman, K.

2014-01-01

397

Assessment of the status of municipal solid waste management in metro cities, state capitals, class I cities, and class II towns in India: An insight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid waste management is one of the most challenging issues in urban cities, which are facing a serious pollution problem due to the generation of huge quantities of solid waste. This paper presents an assessment of the existing situation of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in major cities in India. The quantity and composition of MSW vary from place to

Sunil Kumar; J. K. Bhattacharyya; A. N. Vaidya; Tapan Chakrabarti; Sukumar Devotta; A. B. Akolkar

2009-01-01

398

Inter-Generational Differences in Individualism/Collectivism Orientations: Implications for Outlook towards HRD/HRM Practices in India and the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article proposes a conceptual model to explore the effects of intergenerational transition in individualism/collectivism orientations on the outlook towards different human resource development (HRD) and management practices. It contributes to the existing cross-cultural research in HRD by defining three prominent generations in India and by…

Ghosh, Rajashi; Chaudhuri, Sanghamitra

2009-01-01

399

Mitochondrial DNA analysis reveals diverse histories of tribal populations from India  

E-print Network

ARTICLE Mitochondrial DNA analysis reveals diverse histories of tribal populations from India London, UK; 4 Department of Biological Anthropology, Cambridge, UK; 5 Anthropological Survey of India, Mysore, Karnataka State, India We analyzed 370 bp of the first hypervariable region of the mitochondrial

Cordaux, Richard

400

School of Art & Design Traditions and development of handloom weaving in India.  

E-print Network

School of Art & Design Traditions and development of handloom weaving in India. Lead: Dr Eiluned Edwards Handlooms have been at the core of the national psyche in India; Sanskrit texts compare with weavers in India as well as enquiries with organisations in both the state sector and non

Evans, Paul

401

Color-Coded Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interviews (C-ACASI) for Poorly Educated Men and Women in a Semi-rural Area of South India: “Good, Scary and Thrilling”  

PubMed Central

It is challenging to collect accurate and complete data on sensitive issues such as sexual behaviors. Our objective was to explore experience and perceptions regarding the use of a locally programmed color-coded audio computer-assisted self interview (C-ACASI) system among men and women in a semi-rural setting in south India. We conducted a mixed-methods cross-sectional survey using semi-structured interviews among 89 truck drivers and 101 truck driver wives who had participated earlier in the C-ACASI survey across a predominantly rural district in Tamil Nadu. To assess the color-coded format used, descriptive quantitative analysis was coupled with thematic content analysis of qualitative data. Only 10 % of participants had ever used a computer before. Nearly 75 % did not report any problem in using C-ACASI. The length of the C-ACASI survey was acceptable to 98 % of participants. Overall, 87 % of wives and 73 % of truck drivers stated that C-ACASI was user-friendly and felt comfortable in responding to the sensitive questions. Nearly all (97 %) participants reported that using C-ACASI encouraged them to respond honestly compared to face-to-face personal interviews. Both the drivers and wives expressed that C-ACASI provided confidentiality, privacy, anonymity, and an easy mechanism for responding truthfully to potentially embarrassing questions about their personal sexual relationships. It is feasible and acceptable to use C-ACASI for collecting sensitive data from poorly computer-literate, non-English-speaking, predominantly rural populations of women and men. Our findings support the implementation of effective and culturally sensitive C-ACASI for data collection, albeit with additional validation. PMID:23361948

Bhatnagar, Tarun; Brown, Joelle; Saravanamurthy, P. Sakthivel; Kumar, Raju Mohan; Detels, Roger

2013-01-01

402

India's Doctor Shortage Reflects Problems in Medical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports that India's medical profession is in a crisis. For every 10,000 people in India there are only six doctors, compared with nearly 55 in the United States and nearly 21 in Canada. The problem is likely to get worse before it gets better. Professors are leaving medical schools for better-paying jobs in private hospitals and in…

Neelakantan, Shailaja

2008-01-01

403

Emerging Economies: Operational Issues in China and India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the current state of the infrastructure and other factors within China and India to consider in making operation expansion decisions. We compare the logistics, telecommunication, and energy infrastructure of these two nations followed by a discussion of their labor productivity, economic growth, and political and cultural stability. We find that China is ahead of India in terms

Edmund Prater; Patricia M. Swafford; Srikanth Yellepeddi

2009-01-01

404

Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in India: Vulnerability and Scope for Remedy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic contamination in groundwater in the Ganga- Brahmaputra fluvial plains in India and Padma-Meghna fluvial plains in Bangladesh and its consequences to the human health have been reported as one of the world's biggest natural groundwater calamities to the mankind. In India, seven states namely- West Bengal, Jharkhand, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh in the flood plain of the Ganga River; Assam

N. C. Ghosh; R. D. Singh

405

Photocopy of sketch in India Ink on a quilt from ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of sketch in India Ink on a quilt from 1842 (quilt at the Chester County Historical Society, West Chester, Pennsylvania) Photocopy taken by Ned Goode, April 14, 1960 sketch of house in india ink on quilt from 1842 - Primitive Hall, State Route 841 (West Marlborough Township), Clonmell, Chester County, PA

406

Predictors of HIV prevalence among street-based female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh state of India: a district-level analysis  

PubMed Central

Background A decline in HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs) has been reported from the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh between the two rounds of integrated biological and behavioural assessment (IBBA) surveys in 2005–06 and 2009, the first of these around the time of start of the Avahan HIV prevention intervention. In order to facilitate further planning of FSW interventions, we report the factors associated with HIV prevalence among street-based FSWs. Methods Behavioural data from the two rounds of IBBA surveys, district-level FSW HIV prevention program data, and urbanisation data from the Census of India were utilized. A multilevel logistic model was used to investigate factors associated with inter-district variations in HIV positivity among street-based FSWs in the districts by fitting a two-level model. Results The estimated HIV prevalence among street-based FSWs changed from 16% (95% confidence interval [CI] 14.2 – 17.7%) to 12.9% (95% CI 11.5 – 14.2%) from 2005–06 to 2009. HIV positivity was significantly higher in districts with a high proportion of FSWs registered with targeted interventions (odds ratio [OR] 2.02; 95% CI 1.18-3.45), and in districts with medium (OR 2.54; 95% CI 1.58-4.08) or high (OR 1.55; 95% CI 1.05-2.29) proportion of urban population. Districts which had met the condom requirement targets for FSWs had significantly lower HIV positivity (OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.26-0.97). In round 2 survey, the districts with medium level urbanisation had significantly higher proportion of FSWs registered with HIV intervention programmes and also reported higher consistent condom use with regular partner (p?

2014-01-01

407

Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) control in India  

PubMed Central

Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) constitute the single largest cause of preventable brain damage worldwide. Majority of consequences of IDD are invisible and irreversible but at the same time these are preventable. In India, the entire population is prone to IDD due to deficiency of iodine in the soil of the subcontinent and consequently the food derived from it. To combat the risk of IDD, salt is fortified with iodine. However, an estimated 350 million people do not consume adequately iodized salt and, therefore, are at risk for IDD. Of the 325 districts surveyed in India so far, 263 are IDD-endemic. The current household level iodized salt coverage in India is 91 per cent with 71 per cent households consuming adequately iodized salt. The IDD control goal in India was to reduce the prevalence of IDD below 10 per cent in the entire country by 2012. What is required is a “mission approach” with greater coordination amongst all stakeholders of IDD control efforts in India. Mainstreaming of IDD control in policy making, devising State specific action plans to control IDD, strict implementation of Food Safety and Standards (FSS) Act, 2006, addressing inequities in iodized salt coverage (rural-urban, socio-economic), providing iodized salt in Public Distribution System, strengthening monitoring and evaluation of IDD programme and ensuring sustainability of IDD control activities are essential to achieve sustainable elimination of IDD in India. PMID:24135192

Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Yadav, Kapil; Srivastava, Rahul; Pandav, Rijuta; Karmarkar, M.G.

2013-01-01

408

Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future.

Mian, Zia [Program on Science and Global Security, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey (United States)

2014-05-09

409

Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future.

Mian, Zia

2014-05-01

410

A questionnaire study on the knowledge, attitude, and the practice of pharmacovigilance among the healthcare professionals in a teaching hospital in South India  

PubMed Central

Objective: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) of the healthcare professionals about pharmacovigilance in Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan Medical College and Hospital (DSMCH), Perambalur (Tamil Nadu), a tertiary care teaching hospital. The second primary objective was to assess the causation of underreporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) as it needs to be well-assessed in India. The secondary objective was to compare the findings of this study with the results of the published studies from India on evaluation of the KAP of pharmacovigilance among healthcare professional. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out using a pretested questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed to assess the KAP regarding pharmacovigilance. The healthcare professionals (doctors, nurses, and pharmacists) working in the DSMCH, Perambalur (Tamil Nadu) during the study period were included. Only those who gave their consent to participate were included in the study. The data was analyzed by using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) statistical software, version 16. Results: One hundred and fifty pretested questionnaires were distributed among the healthcare professionals and 101 responded. 62.4% healthcare workers gave correct response regarding the definition of pharmacovigilance. 75.2% of healthcare workers were aware regarding the existence of a National Pharmacovigilance Program of India. 69.3% healthcare professional agreed that ADR reporting is a professional obligation for them. Among the participants, 64.4% have experienced ADRs in patients, but only 22.8% have ever reported ADR to pharmacovigilance center. Unfortunately only 53.5% healthcare workers have been trained for reporting adverse reactions. But, 97% healthcare professionals agreed that reporting of ADR is necessary and 92.1% were of the view that pharmacovigilance should be taught in detail to healthcare professional. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that knowledge and attitude towards pharmacovigilance is gradually improving among healthcare professionals, but unfortunately the actual practice of ADR reporting is still deficient among them. PMID:25657902

Gupta, Sandeep Kumar; Nayak, Roopa P.; Shivaranjani, R.; Vidyarthi, Surendra Kumar

2015-01-01

411

Analysis of molecular genetic diversity in a representative collection of foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.] from different agro-ecological regions of India.  

PubMed

Foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.], an important crop of East Asia is known for its drought tolerance and was once an indispensible crop of vast rainfed areas in semi-arid regions in India. In India it is cultivated in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and north eastern states. The grain finds use in several local recipes such as roti (bread), jaula, singal, sirol. Foxtail millet grain contains 12.3 % protein, 4.7 % fat, 60.6 % carbohydrates, and 3.2 % ash. The present study was conducted to analyse the genetic diversity among foxtail accessions from different states of India and a few exotic accessions using RAPD and ISSR techniques and identify diverse accessions for use in variety improvement programmes. A set of 125 foxtail millet accessions selected from 11 different agro-ecological regions of India were analyzed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) marker techniques. A total of 146 (115 RAPD and 31 ISSR) scoreable markers were generated with 16 RAPD and four ISSR primers. The dendrogram generated using Nei's genetic distances and principal component analyses revealed presence of two clusters and two subclusters in group I. The accessions from Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Uttarakhand were more diverse since they were distributed in both the clusters. There was no clear geographical differentiation observable. The bootstrap support for the major groups identified was strong (above 80 %) indicating good statistical support. The average value of Nei and Li's genetic distance was lowest (0.081) for accessions from West Bengal while the collections from Karnataka showed highest dissimilarity (average genetic distance = 0.239). The average genetic distance for all 125 accessions together was 0.177 indicating presence of only moderate genetic diversity in the collections. The analysis of molecular variance indicated that only 2.76 % variation was explained by variations among the groups and 11.55 % among populations within groups. However the percentage of variation observed within populations was high (85.68). The value of Fst was observed to be very low (0.028) indicating low differentiation of the accessions analysed. The population genetic analysis carried out indicates that highest number of alleles per locus (1.745?±?0.438) was observed for Andhra Pradesh with 35 accessions. When four eco-geographic regions were considered, the southern region comprising AP, Karnataka and TN showed the highest number of alleles per locus (1.787?±?0.411). The value of Gst was lowest for south (0.123) and highest for central west (0.455). This indicated that all the landraces from south share common alleles. The gene flow between the accessions from different regions was also observed to be high with the highest migration (3.557) recorded for south. PMID:23573030

Kumari, Ratna; Dikshit, N; Sharma, Deepali; Bhat, K V

2011-10-01

412

76 FR 60450 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Pomegranate From India Into...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...for the Importation of Pomegranate From India Into the Continental United States AGENCY...States of fresh pomegranate fruit from India. Based on that analysis, we believe that...importation of fresh pomegranate fruit from India. We are making the pest risk...

2011-09-29

413

77 FR 7122 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Pomegranate From India Into the Continental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Authorize the Importation of Pomegranate From India Into the Continental United States AGENCY...States of fresh pomegranate fruit from India. Based on the findings of a pest risk...importation of fresh pomegranate fruit from India. DATES: Effective date: February...

2012-02-10

414

India's baseline plan for nuclear energy self-sufficiency.  

SciTech Connect

India's nuclear energy strategy has traditionally strived for energy self-sufficiency, driven largely by necessity following trade restrictions imposed by the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) following India's 'peaceful nuclear explosion' of 1974. On September 6, 2008, the NSG agreed to create an exception opening nuclear trade with India, which may create opportunities for India to modify its baseline strategy. The purpose of this document is to describe India's 'baseline plan,' which was developed under constrained trade conditions, as a basis for understanding changes in India's path as a result of the opening of nuclear commerce. Note that this treatise is based upon publicly available information. No attempt is made to judge whether India can meet specified goals either in scope or schedule. In fact, the reader is warned a priori that India's delivery of stated goals has often fallen short or taken a significantly longer period to accomplish. It has been evident since the early days of nuclear power that India's natural resources would determine the direction of its civil nuclear power program. It's modest uranium but vast thorium reserves dictated that the country's primary objective would be thorium utilization. Estimates of India's natural deposits vary appreciably, but its uranium reserves are known to be extremely limited, totaling approximately 80,000 tons, on the order of 1% of the world's deposits; and nominally one-third of this ore is of very low uranium concentration. However, India's roughly 300,000 tons of thorium reserves account for approximately 30% of the world's total. Confronted with this reality, the future of India's nuclear power industry is strongly dependent on the development of a thorium-based nuclear fuel cycle as the only way to insure a stable, sustainable, and autonomous program. The path to India's nuclear energy self-sufficiency was first outlined in a seminal paper by Drs. H. J. Bhabha and N. B. Prasad presented at the Second United Nations Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy in 1958. The paper described a three stage plan for a sustainable nuclear energy program consistent with India's limited uranium but abundant thorium natural resources. In the first stage, natural uranium would be used to fuel graphite or heavy water moderated reactors. Plutonium extracted from the spent fuel of these thermal reactors would drive fast reactors in the second stage that would contain thorium blankets for breeding uranium-233 (U-233). In the final stage, this U-233 would fuel thorium burning reactors that would breed and fission U-233 in situ. This three stage blueprint still reigns as the core of India's civil nuclear power program. India's progress in the development of nuclear power, however, has been impacted by its isolation from the international nuclear community for its development of nuclear weapons and consequent refusal to sign the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT). Initially, India was engaged in numerous cooperative research programs with foreign countries; for example, under the 'Atoms for Peace' program, India acquired the Cirus reactor, a 40 MWt research reactor from Canada moderated with heavy water from the United States. India was also actively engaged in negotiations for the NPT. But, on May 18, 1974, India conducted a 'peaceful nuclear explosion' at Pokharan using plutonium produced by the Cirus reactor, abruptly ending the era of international collaboration. India then refused to sign the NPT, which it viewed as discriminatory since it would be required to join as a non-nuclear weapons state. As a result of India's actions, the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) was created in 1975 to establish guidelines 'to apply to nuclear transfers for peaceful purposes to help ensure that such transfers would not be diverted to unsafeguarded nuclear fuel cycle or nuclear explosive activities. These nuclear export controls have forced India to be largely self-sufficient in all nuclear-related technologies.

Bucher, R .G.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2009-01-01

415

Spatial dynamics of deforestation and forest fragmentation (1930-2013) in Eastern Ghats, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tropical forests are the most unique ecosystems for their potential economic value. Eastern Ghats, a phytogeographical region of India has rugged hilly terrain distributed in parts of five states, viz. Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. The present study is mainly aimed to analyse the trends in deforestation and its role in forest fragmentation of Eastern Ghats. The long term changes in forest cover with its spatial pattern over time has been assessed by analyzing a set of topographical maps and satellite remote sensing datasets. The multi-source and multi-date mapping has been carried out using survey of India topographical maps (1930's), Landsat MSS (1975 and 1985), IRS 1B LISS-I (1995), IRS P6 AWiFS (2005) and Resourcesat-2 AWiFS (2013) satellite images. The classified spatial data for 1930, 1975, 1985, 1995, 2005 and 2013 showed that the forest cover for the mentioned years are 102213 km2 (45.6 %), 76630 (34.2 %), 73416 km2 (32.7 %), 71730 km2 (32 %), 71305 km2 (31.8 %) and 71186 km2 (31.7 %) of the geographical area of Eastern Ghats respectively. A spatial statistical analysis of the deforestation rates and forest cover change were carried out based on distinctive time phases, i.e. 1930-1975, 1975-1985, 1985-1995, 1995-2005 and 2005-2013. The spatial analysis was carried out first by segmenting the study area into grid cells of 5 km x 5 km for time series assessment and determining spatial changes in forests. The distribution of loss and gain of forest was calculated across six classes i.e. <1 km2, 1-5 km2, 5-10 km2, 10-15 km2, 15-20 km2 and >20 km2. Landscape metrics were used to quantify spatial variability of landscape structure and composition. The results of study on net rate of deforestation was found to be 0.64 during 1935 to 1975, 0.43 during 1975-1985, 0.23 during 1985-1995, 0.06 during 1995-2005 and 0.02 during 2005-2013. The number of forest patches increased from 2688 (1930) to 13009 (2013). The largest forest patch in 1930 represents area of 41669 km2 that has reduced to 27800 km2 by 2013. Thus, it is evident that there is a substantial reduction in the size of the very large forest patches due to deforestation. According to spatial analysis, among the different land use change drivers, agriculture occupies highest area, followed by degradation to scrub and conversion to orchards. The dominant forest type was dry deciduous which comprises 37192 km2 (52.2 %) of the total forest area of Eastern Ghats, followed by moist deciduous forest (39.2 %) and semievergreen forest (4.8 %) in 2013. The change analysis showed that the large scale negative changes occurred in deciduous forests and semi-evergreen forests compared to wet evergreen forests due to high economic potential and accessibility. This study has quantified the deforestation that has taken place over the last eight decades in the Eastern Ghats. The decline in overall rate of deforestation in recent years indicates increased measures of conservation. The change analysis of deforestation and forest fragmentation provides a decisive component for conservation and helpful in long term management of forests of Eastern Ghats.

Sudhakar Reddy, C.; Jha, C. S.; Dadhwal, V. K.

2014-11-01

416

76 FR 20954 - Certain Lined Paper Products From India: Amended Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration [A-533-843] Certain Lined Paper Products From India: Amended Final...duty investigation on certain lined paper products (``CLPP'') from India. See Association of American School Paper Suppliers v. United States,...

2011-04-14

417

Energy Usage Attitudes of Urban India IBM Research India  

E-print Network

Energy Usage Attitudes of Urban India Mohit Jain IBM Research India mohitjain@in.ibm.com Deepika@cs.cmu.edu Amarjeet Singh IIIT Delhi, India amarjeet@iiitd.ac.in Abstract-- Though rapid increase in energy factors affecting energy consumption in urban India. However, the small numbers of participants in those

Toronto, University of

418

Altruistic Suicide in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Altruistic suicide has a long history in India, even being noted in the Dharmashastras, an ancient religious text. In ancient India, two forms of altruistic suicide were practiced. One was Jauhar, a kind of mass suicide by women of a community when their menfolk suffered defeat in battle; the other was Sati, a suicide of a widow on the funeral

Lakshmi Vijayakumar

2004-01-01

419

Nuclear Tests in India  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Week's In the News discusses the recent nuclear tests in India and the world's reaction to those tests. The ten resources discussed offer analysis, commentary, and background information from a variety of perspectives. On May 11, 1998, India confirmed what the world already knew by conducting three underground nuclear tests in the Pokhran Mountain Range in the Rajasthan Province. On May 13 two more sub-kiloton devices were exploded and the government announced that the planned series of tests was complete. Although India has indicated it may now be ready to sign on to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), reaction from the world community has been extremely negative. In the vanguard of this chorus of dissaproval has been the US, which announced over $20 billion in economic sanctions against India on May 13. The strongest critic of the tests, however, has been India's neighbor and rival Pakistan, which has fought three wars with India since 1947. Domestic pressure on Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif to respond has been enormous and many commentators believe a Pakistani nuclear test is imminent. In India, however, the BJP-dominated government has been widely lauded. Many Indians have expressed pride and dismiss foreign criticism as a hypocritical holdover of colonial mentalities. While US sanctions are unlikely to have any large-scale effect on India, the end results of these tests on Indo-Pakistani relations and their ongoing missile race is yet to be seen.

de Nie, Michael Willem.

1998-01-01

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As India's Plates Collide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This winning entry in the museum's Young Naturalist Awards 1999 by Rikesh, a 12 year old student from New York, reports on the causes of earthquakes, using India as a focal point. He discusses the earthquakes that have hit India from 1737 to 1991 and their effects, including tsunamis, and the work engineers are doing to reduce the damage from earthquakes.

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Arsenic groundwater contamination and its health effects in the state of Uttar Pradesh (UP) in upper and middle Ganga plain, India: A severe danger  

Microsoft Academic Search

This communication presents results of our 2-year survey on groundwater arsenic contamination in three districts Ballia, Varanasi and Gazipur of Uttar Pradesh (UP) in the upper and middle Ganga plain, India. Analyses of 4780 tubewell water samples revealed that arsenic concentrations in 46.5% exceeded 10 ?g\\/L, in 26.7%, 50 ?g\\/L and in 10% 300 ?g\\/L limits. Arsenic concentrations up to 3192 ?g\\/\\/L were observed.

Sad Ahamed; Mrinal Kumar Sengupta; Amitava Mukherjee; M. Amir Hossain; Bhaskar Das; Bishwajit Nayak; Arup Pal; Subhas Chandra Mukherjee; Shyamapada Pati; Rathindra Nath Dutta; Garga Chatterjee; Adreesh Mukherjee; Rishiji Srivastava; Dipankar Chakraborti

2006-01-01