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1

Nail Care Products  

MedlinePLUS

... with some nail products. As mentioned previously, some ingredients in nail products may be harmful if ingested. Some can easily catch fire if ... component of nail hardeners. Formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasing ... protect against harmful bacteria, and formaldehyde also has been used in ...

2

Artificial Nails Require Care to Keep Nails Healthy  

MedlinePLUS

... beauty Nail care Artificial nails Artificial nails require care to keep nails healthy Acrylic nails, gel nails, ... nails look flawless. With a little bit of care, you can keep these artificial nails looking healthy ...

3

Your Nails  

MedlinePLUS

... adult's help. Use special care with sharp tools, nail polish, or nail polish remover. These items can be especially dangerous if ... ahold of them! Also, the ingredients in some nail polishes and removers can be damaging and dry out ...

4

Irritant nail dermatitis of chemical depilatory product presenting with koilonychia.  

PubMed

Chemical hair removal products are available as creams, gels, powders, aerosols and roll-ons and all of these forms work in the same way by breaking chemical bonds between sulfur atoms in the protein. Currently, the common active ingredients of these products are calcium thioglycolate, potassium thioglycolate, arsenic and sulfur minerals. Sulfur and arsenic containing products are important toxic chemicals which are mainly used for removing hair in developing countries. Irritant contact dermatitis accounts for 80% of all contact dermatitis reactions which are often occupation-related. Toluene sulfonamide, formaldehyde resin, acrylates and ethylcyanoacrylate are the most common irritants. Irritant nail dermatitis with plants has been well defined with Lobelia richardii flower, Compositae family and garlic. Although allergic dermatitis, irritant dermatitis and irritant nail dermatitis have been well demonstrated with chemicals, koilonychia is unusual presentation of irritant dermatitis. Here we describe a case of nail irritant dermatitis due to application of chemical depilatory product for hair removal presented with koilonychias. To our knowledge this is the first case of such presentation with koilonychia in the English literature. PMID:23883334

Pancar, Gunseli Sefika; Kalkan, Goknur

2014-03-01

5

Nail-Gun Injuries to the Hand  

PubMed Central

Background: The nail gun is a commonly utilized tool in carpentry and construction. When used properly with appropriate safety precautions, it can facilitate production and boost efficiency; however, this powerful tool also has the potential to cause serious injury. The most common site of nail-gun injuries in both industrial and nonoccupational settings is the hand. Materials and Methods: We report on two patients with nail-gun injuries to the hand. A review of the literature and discussion of clinical evaluation and treatment of nail-gun injuries to the hand are presented. Results: Two patients present with soft tissue injuries to the hand with the nail embedded and intact at the injury site. Operative removal of the nail and wound care resulted in successful treatment in both cases. Nail-gun injuries to the hand vary in severity on the basis of the extent of structural damage. Treatment is based on the severity of injury and the presence and location of barbs on the penetrating nail. Conclusion: Healthcare providers must understand and educate patients on the prevention mechanics of nail-gun injuries. Nail-gun injuries to the hand necessitate appropriate evaluation techniques, understanding of surgical management versus nonsurgical management, and awareness of potential pitfalls in treatment. PMID:19079574

Pierpont, Yvonne N.; Pappas-Politis, Effie; Naidu, Deepak K.; Salas, R. Emerick; Johnson, Erika L.; Payne, Wyatt G.

2008-01-01

6

Cosmetic treatment of nails.  

PubMed

Nail cosmetics are an important part of personal expression. Although their use can result in a variety of dermatologic issues, the popularity of nail cosmetics is huge. Dermatologists must recognize problems associated with nail cosmetics and understand the process for using these cosmetics. Many problems can be avoided through careful use or a change in the application procedure. PMID:24079586

Draelos, Zoe Diana

2013-01-01

7

Tips for Healthy Nails  

MedlinePLUS

... A to Z Diseases and treatments Health and beauty For kids About dermatology A to Z: The ... For the public Diseases and treatments Health and beauty General skin care Hair care Nail care Artificial ...

8

[Products of nursing care].  

PubMed

The idea is to think about the knowledge and the learning involved in nursing care, its technologies, the health-disease process and its determinants, as well as the care as a product. From 1980 to 1992, 544.357 hospital beds were occupied and 19,6 million hospitalizations; therefore, 544,357 or 19.6 million of delivered care. This consideration emerged from the Research Group Care/Nursing Care from the Anna Nery Nursing School subsidized by Certeau's concepts of daily care and concepts of care practices, care, and client, for the analysis of the constitutive elements in nursing care. The knowledge and learning construction points to the creation of products such as books/chapters, protocols, new papers, agendas, DVDs, CDs, thesis, and dissertations. The way of caring contribute to the development of a series of products, built on a daily basis. PMID:20098886

Coelho, Maria José

2009-01-01

9

Fungal Nail Infection (Onychomycosis)  

MedlinePLUS

... disorders. In the most common form of fungal nail infections, fungus grows under the growing portion of the nail ... doctor may perform testing, such as scraping a nail to examine for fungi or clipping a nail to look for bacterial ...

10

Artificial nails: Are they putting patients at risk? A review of the research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of artificial nails has become a popular fashion trend, and many health care workers are following this trend. There is debate whether artificial nails are putting patients at risk of nosocomial infections. Researchers have shown that the colony counts on artificial nails are greater than the colony counts on native nails. Artificial nails have also been linked to

Angela Toles

2002-01-01

11

Household Products Database: Personal Care  

MedlinePLUS

Product, Manufacturer etc... Advanced Search Auto Products Inside the Home Pesticides Landscape/Yard Personal Care Home Maintenance Arts & Crafts Pet Care Home Office Commercial / Institutional Products Names Types of ...

12

[Nail diseases in cosmetology].  

PubMed

Clinical symptoms attributed to the nail apparatus and observed in cosmetology include atrophic or hypertrophic lesions, pathologic nail coloration, abnormalities of the nail surface, and disorders of the nail plate and bed junction. These symptoms may reflect pathologic processes limited to the nail apparatus or may be the consequence of a dermal or systemic disease. Even though the etiology of nail lesions is variegated, diseases of the nails are simply classified as infectious or non-infectious. The aim of this work was to present the most common diseases of the nail apparatus encountered in cosmetology. Often, nail diseases worsen the quality of life of the patient. In addition, the variegated symptomatology demonstrates that nail lesions should be viewed in a wider perspective because they often are important signs of pathologic processes taking place in the organism of the patient. PMID:21427814

Maleszka, Romuald; Ratajczak-Stefa?ska, Violetta; Boer, Magdalena; Kiedrowicz, Magdalena

2010-01-01

13

Investigation of Human Nail Microstructure with Ultrasound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigation of a human fingernail and the extraction of the data on its microstructure and elastic properties is important in three main aspects. First of all, various diseases of the nail can be differentiated more precisely; second of all, it is possible to non-invasively track during time the effects of a cosmetic product upon the nail; third of all, because various processes in the organism have a strong influence upon the nail plate growth, the monitoring of the nail morphology and its mechanical properties may be used as additional information for the diagnosis of a number of medical disorders, such as systemic sclerosis, psoriasis, chronic hand eczema, anemia etc. The aim of the present study was to carry out a detailed ultrasound investigation in the high-frequency range (25-50 MHz) of a human nail including micro-anatomical structure imaging and ultrasound velocity evaluation, using B-scans obtained with a scanning acoustic microscope. On the images, exact topology of the nail, nail matrix and the underlying bone have been revealed. Additionally, a certain type of inclined internal layering along the nails of some individuals has been found, which was not reported in previous ultrasonic studies of the nail.

Maeva, A. R.; Bakulin, E. Y.; Denisova, L. A.; Maev, R. Gr.

14

"Yellow nail syndrome" and rheumatoid arthritis.  

PubMed

A nail dystrophy characterized by the slow growth of nails and their yellowish discoloration, the so-called yellow nail syndrome (YNS), has been associated with various conditions including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We reviewed the histories of RA patients reported in the literature and our own cases. Most of the RA patients with YNS had been treated with the anti-rheumatic agents D-penicillamine and bucillamine. In non-treated patients, spontaneous YNS was very rare. However, pulmonary diseases, edema and other systemic complications were frequently observed in both drug-induced and spontaneous YNS associated with RA. Although the nail changes and systemic complications are probably due to different causes in drug-induced YNS, a careful search for systemic complications are necessary in patients who develop nail changes. The exact mechanism of nail growth retardation is not understood in patients with YNS, including those with drug-induced YNS. The nail changes in the latter were not associated with deficiencies of inorganic elements in either nails or sera. PMID:1820660

Ichikawa, Y; Shimizu, H; Arimori, S

1991-12-01

15

Home care: products and techniques.  

PubMed

Periodontal disease is common in dogs and cats. Prevention and treatment is important for general health and well-being of our pets. Both prevention and treatment of periodontal disease have two components, namely maintenance of oral hygiene and professional periodontal therapy. Maintenance of oral hygiene is performed by the owner and is, therefore, also called home care. The preventions and long-term control of periodontal disease requires adequate home care. This chapter details home care techniques and available products. PMID:11269998

Gorrel, C

2000-11-01

16

[Malignant nail tumors].  

PubMed

Because of the large number of different tissues making up the distal phalanx of fingers and toes, a large variety of malignant tumors can be found in and around the nail apparatus. Bowen disease is probably the most frequent nail malignancy. It is usually seen as a verrucous plaque of the nail fold and nail bed in persons above the age of 40 years. It slowly grows over a period of years or even decades before degenerating to an invasive squamous cell carcinoma. The latter may also occur primarily often as a weeping onycholysis. The next most frequent nail malignancy is ungual melanoma. Those arising from the matrix are usually pigmented and often start with a longitudinal melanonychia whereas those originating from the nail bed remain amelanotic, are often nodular and mistaken for an ingrown nail in an elderly person. The treatment of choice for in situ and early invasive subungual melanomas is generous extirpation of the nail apparatus whereas distal amputation is only indicated for advanced melanomas. In addition to these frequent nail malignancies, nail-specific carcinomas, malignant vascular and osseous tumors, other sarcomas, nail involvement in malignant systemic disorders and metastases may occur. In most cases, they cannot be diagnosed accurately on clinical grounds. Therefore, a high degree of suspicion is necessary in all isolated or single-digit proliferations that do not respond to conservative treatment. PMID:24718507

Haneke, E

2014-04-01

17

Utility of Gel Nails in Improving the Appearance of Cosmetically Disfigured Nails: Experience with 25 Cases  

PubMed Central

Background: Gel nails are a commonly used cosmetic procedure, though their use by dermatologists has not been evaluated. These can be used to improve the appearance of cosmetically disfigured nails where other treatment options have failed; the condition is self-limiting or irreversible; or to camouflage the dystrophy until healing. Materials and Methods: A prospective, uncontrolled, open-label study on 25 participants presenting with cosmetically disfigured nails was undertaken. Mycologically negative, consenting patients with various nail plate surface abnormalities like trachyonychia (n =8); superficial pitting (n =6); onychorrhexis (n =4); superficial pitting with onychoschizia (n =3); Beau's lines (n =3) and pterygium (n =1) were included. The patients received gel nail application using Ranara gel nail kit®. Extra care was taken to avoid any damage to cuticle. Standard pre- and post-treatment photographs were taken to assess improvement. Patient satisfaction score (1-10); Global assessment score of improvement (no improvement to excellent improvement) and any side effects reported were recorded. Results: The average age of treated patients was 30.44±11.39 years (range 18-60 years). A total of 69 nails were treated (average of 2.76 per patient). Post-procedure, the average patient satisfaction score was 9.08 ± 0.86 (range 7-10). The Global assessment showed excellent improvement (40% cases); good improvement (56% cases) and mild improvement in the single case of pterygium treated. Conclusions: The use of Gel nails in patients with cosmetically disfiguring nail plate surface abnormalities (like trachyonychia, onychoschizia, pitting, etc.) was found to produce good to excellent improvement in most of the cases. The patient satisfaction with the procedure was rated as high. This, coupled with absence of side effects, make gel nails a valuable tool in improving cosmesis and satisfaction among patients presenting with nail plate surface abnormalities. Further studies with larger number of patients are required to assess the impact these prostheses can have. PMID:24761096

Nanda, Soni; Grover, Chander

2014-01-01

18

Common nail changes and disorders in older people  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To present family physicians with common nail alterations and disorders occurring in the elderly population and their management options. Quality of evidence The evidence relating to different nail conditions is mostly derived from randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, and review articles. However, given the scarcity of evidence on some conditions, articles with weaker levels of evidence were also included in our review. Main message Given the growing elderly population and the associated demographic changes and longer lifespans, geriatric care is becoming more of a complicated and multidisciplinary effort in which the role of the family physician is increasingly important. Although common among the elderly, nail changes are often not brought to the attention of primary caregivers and are thus overlooked. These nail changes can affect various components of the nail unit and might represent normal age-related nail alterations or nail abnormalities that require immediate intervention. Knowledge and familiarity with these common nail abnormalities and their underlying causes is important for the family practitioner in order to effectively reach an accurate diagnosis and provide better care of this large and growing elderly population. Conclusion Nail changes are common in the elderly, and family physicians are best placed to diagnose and treat these common problems. It is important that family physicians also recognize less common but more serious nail problems that require immediate treatment. PMID:21321168

Abdullah, Lina; Abbas, Ossama

2011-01-01

19

Unreamed femoral nailing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty one femoral fractures treated with ACE unreamed titanium nail (AIM femoral nail, ACE Medical, Los Angeles, CA) were studied. Ten patients died before bony union and three were lost to follow up. Forty eight fractures were followed up for an average of 11.2 months (4–31 months). All fractures united except one in which plating and bone grafting was performed

Dawar Abbas; M. Faisal; M. S. Butt

2000-01-01

20

Nail Fungal Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... know where or how you got a fungal nail infection. A warm, wet place is a good place for a fungus to grow. If you often wear heavy work ... in locker rooms, you can pick up a fungus from the warm, wet floors. ... fungal infections in their nails at the same time. This can happen because ...

21

Capillary nail refill test  

MedlinePLUS

Nail blanch test; Capillary refill time ... Remove colored nail polish before this test. ... the body by the blood (vascular) system. This test measures how well the vascular system works in your hands and feet -- the parts of your body that are farthest from the heart.

22

[Dermoscopy of nails].  

PubMed

Pigmented and nonpigmented nail abnormalities often represent a challenge for clinicians because many, and sometimes potentially life-threatening differential diagnoses must be taken into consideration. Although many details of nail diseases can already be assessed with the naked eye, dermoscopy opens up a second microscopic level of inspection, which can be very useful for the diagnostic process. In the last 20 years dermoscopy has made rapid progress in the further development of criteria for the early recognition of melanoma. In addition, the use of dermoscopy has been extended to the examination of cutaneous adnexa, such as hairs (trichoscopy) and nails (onychoscopy). Many, sometimes highly specific criteria for the dermoscopic assessment of nail diseases have been described in a series of recently published articles. This review article provides important diagnostic aids for a well-founded dermoscopic assessment of nail diseases. PMID:24668319

Haenssle, H A; Brehmer, F; Zalaudek, I; Hofmann-Wellenhof, R; Kreusch, J; Stolz, W; Argenziano, G; Blum, A

2014-04-01

23

What is the health care product?  

PubMed

Because of the current competitive environment, health care providers (hospitals, HMOs, physicians, and others) are constantly searching for better products and better means for delivering them. The health care product is often loosely defined as a service. The authors develop a more precise definition of the health care product, product line, and product mix. A bundle-of-elements concept is presented for the health care product. These conceptualizations help to address how health care providers can segment their market and position, promote, and price their products. Though the authors focus on hospitals, the concepts and procedures developed are applicable to other health care organizations. PMID:10119211

France, K R; Grover, R

1992-06-01

24

Treating cosmetically induced nail problems.  

PubMed

Smooth, lustrous nails are a sign of health and beauty in our society and fuel the US$6-billion nail salon industry in the United States. Although many women can use nail cosmetics without adverse consequences, when problems occur it is important to recognize the causes and treat the problem condition. The cornerstone of management of nail cosmetic problems is prevention through education. In spite of efforts to that end, nail salon procedures and materials can cause nail disease that must be recognized and treated in order to restore the nails to health. PMID:17403260

Chang, Renee McLean; Hare, Anna Quinn; Rich, Phoebe

2007-01-01

25

Insights into drug delivery across the nail plate barrier.  

PubMed

Abstract Topical therapy is at the forefront in treating nail ailments (especially onychomycosis and nail psoriasis) due to its local effects, which circumvents systemic adverse events, improves patient compliance and reduces treatment cost. However, the success of topical therapy has been hindered due to poor penetration of topical therapeutics across densely keratinized nail plate barrier. For effective topical therapy across nail plate, ungual drug permeation must be enhanced. Present review is designed to provide an insight into prime aspects of transungual drug delivery viz. nail structure and physiology, various onychopathies, techniques of nail permeation enhancement and in vitro models for trans-nail drug permeation studies. Updated list of drug molecules studied across the nail plate and key commercial products have been furnished with sufficient depth. Patents pertinent to, and current clinical status of transungual drug delivery have also been comprehensively reviewed. This is the first systematic critique encompassing the detailed aspects of transungual drug delivery. In our opinion, transungual drug delivery is a promising avenue for researchers to develop novel formulations, augmenting pharmaceutical industries to commercialize the products for nail disorders. PMID:24964054

Saner, Manish V; Kulkarni, Abhijeet D; Pardeshi, Chandrakantsing V

2014-11-01

26

Painful nail lesions.  

PubMed

A man, 58 years of age, presented with a 4 year history of painful lesions of his nails. His previous history included hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidaemia. These were treated with enalapril, metformin and simvastatin respectively. He also had asymptomatic skin lesions for over 15 years that had worsened in the past 4 years. His father had similar nail lesions that had been diagnosed as onychomycosis. PMID:20369112

Vano-Galvan, Sergio; Garate, Teresa; Ma, Dong-Lai; Jaén, Pedro

2010-03-01

27

Women's exposure to phthalates in relation to use of personal care products  

PubMed Central

Background Several phthalates, particularly diethyl phthalate (DEP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), can be used in personal care products (PCPs) to fix fragrance and hold color. We investigated associations between women’s reported use of personal care products within the 24 hours prior to urine collection and concentrations of several urinary phthalate metabolites. Methods Between 2002–2005, 337 women provided spot urine samples and answered questions regarding their use of thirteen PCPs at a follow-up visit 3–36 months after pregnancy. We examined associations between urinary concentrations of several phthalate metabolites and use of PCPs using linear regression. Results Use of individual PCPs ranged from 7% (nail polish) to 91% (deodorant). After adjusting for age, education, and urinary creatinine, women reporting use of perfume had 2.92 times higher (95% CI: 2.20–3.89) concentration of monoethyl phthalate (MEP, the primary metabolite of diethyl phthalate) than other women. Other PCPs that were significantly associated with MEP included: hair spray, nail polish, and deodorant. MEP concentrations increased with the number of PCPs used. Conclusion PCP use was widespread in this group of recently pregnant women. Women’s use of PCPs, particularly of perfumes and fragranced products, was positively associated with urinary concentration of multiple phthalate metabolites. PMID:23168567

Parlett, Lauren E.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Swan, Shanna H.

2014-01-01

28

Nail gun injuries among construction workers.  

PubMed

Pneumatic nail guns greatly increase worker productivity and are extensively used in wood frame building construction, with especially high use in residential construction. One surveillance report of nail gun injuries in Washington State has been published; however, other literature consists largely of case reports and case series in trauma journals. The major objective of the current study was to investigate the occurrence of nail gun-associated injuries among construction workers and to identify preventable work-related factors associated with these injuries. Nail gun-related injuries occurring among a cohort of 13,347 carpenters in Ohio who worked union hours during the time period January 1, 1994, until September 30, 1997, were identified by matching the cohort with workers' compensation claims made to the Ohio Bureau of Workers' Compensation. We also analyzed workers' compensation claims for North Carolina Home Builders Association members for the period July 1996-November 1999 to identify nail gun-related injuries. Analyses included stratified analyses of claims by nature and body part injured, calculation of nail gun injury rates, and analyses of free text descriptions of injuries. Overall, nail gun injuries were responsible for 3.9 percent of workers' compensation claims with 8.3 percent to 25.5 percent of claims involving paid lost work time. The overall rate of nail gun injuries (cases per 200,000 work hours) was 0.33 in North Carolina and 0.26 in Ohio, reflecting the greater concentration of wood frame construction workers in the North Carolina population studied. Higher rates of injury were observed for carpenters in North Carolina and among residential carpenters in Ohio. The predominant body part injured was the hands/fingers, with 80 to 89 percent of injuries being nail punctures. Analyses of free text information for puncture injuries found approximately 70 percent of injuries to occur during the framing/sheathing stage of construction. Our data suggest that approximately 69 percent of puncture injuries may be due to an inadvertent gun discharge or misfire, preventable in large part by the use of sequential triggers. Worker training and education also are important components of nail gun injury prevention. PMID:12746081

Dement, John M; Lipscomb, Hester; Li, Leiming; Epling, Carol; Desai, Tejas

2003-05-01

29

Curvature Index of Pincer Nail  

PubMed Central

Summary: Pincer nails are a common problem, and various treatments have been reported. However, there is no simple assessment of severity. We designed a curvature index for the nail plate to assess the severity of pincer nail. Measurement of the curvature index was as follows. The apparent width of the nail tip was defined as A, and the traced length of the nail tip was defined as B. The curvature index was defined as B divided by A (B/A). With this curvature index, it is easy to describe the severity of the pincer nail and to compare the improvement before and after treatment.

2013-01-01

30

Diseases of the generative nail apparatus. Part I: Nail matrix.  

PubMed

Disorders of the generative structures of the nail produce a characteristic set of outcomes. The matrix is the seat of nail development and diseases or insults of this germinative epithelium will tell a story in the signs that unfold in the ensuing nail growth. This story will be influenced by the intensity, duration and extent of this pathology. A method of categorizing changes associated with the generative matrix of the nail will be presented. PMID:11982563

Nicolopoulos, Jenny; Goodman, Greg J; Howard, Anne

2002-05-01

31

Phthalates in cosmetic and personal care products: concentrations and possible dermal exposure.  

PubMed

Phthalates are multifunctional chemicals that are used in a variety of consumer products including cosmetic and personal care products. This study aims at determining phthalate levels in cosmetic and personal care products obtained from the Canadian market. Overall 252 products including 98 baby care products were collected at retail stores in several provinces across Canada in year 2007. These products included fragrances, hair care products (hair sprays, mousses, and gels), deodorants (including antiperspirants), nail polishes, lotions (body lotions and body creams), skin cleansers, and baby products (oils, lotions, shampoos and diaper creams). Samples were extracted with different organic solvents, depending on the types of the products, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Of the 18 investigated phthalates, diethyl phthalate (DEP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were detected. The detection frequencies were in the following order: DEP (103 out of 252 products)>DnBP (15/252)>DiBP (9/252)>DEHP (8/252)>DMP (1/252). DEP was detected in almost all types of surveyed products with the highest levels (25,542 ?g/g, equal to 2.6%) found in fragrances. DnBP was largely present in nail polish products with the highest concentration of 24,304 ?g/g (2.4%). DnBP was also found in other products such as hair sprays, hair mousses, skin cleansers and baby shampoos at much lower concentrations (36 ?g/g and less). Levels of other detected phthalates were generally low in the products. Based on these values, daily dermal exposure dosage to five phthalates was estimated for three age groups, female adults (60 kg); toddlers (0.5-4 years) and infants (0-6 months), through the use of cosmetic and personal care products. The exposure estimation, however, was based on existing products use pattern data, instead of probabilistic model based population use distribution. For female adults, the maximal daily exposure of 78 ?g/kg bw/d was determined for DEP. The maximal daily exposure was much lower for the other four phthalates (DEHP, 0.82 ?g/kg bw/d; DnBP, 0.36 ?g/kg bw/d; and DMP, 0.03 ?g/kg bw/d). The exposure for DiBP was not calculated due to its very low levels (<10 ?g/g) in products. Toddlers and infants in this case had a maximal daily exposure to DEP of 20 and 42 ?g/kg bw/d, respectively. PMID:21315328

Koniecki, Diane; Wang, Rong; Moody, Richard P; Zhu, Jiping

2011-04-01

32

Impact nailing arrangement  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An impact nailing arrangement having a nail with integral pointed target-penetration and securing forward section, rear hammer section, and medial compression shear section, the forward section having a threaded object-securing surface rearwardly of its pointed forward target-securing end. The nail is propelled into a target in the preferred embodiment by any one of several illustrated latent energy means, and the forward section is secured by initial point penetration and subsequent compression shear of the medial shear section to enable the hammer section to impart a secondary securing impact to the forward section. Various alternative propulsion arrangements including electrical actuation of a powder charge, spring actuation, and valved pressurized gas, are disclosed.

1979-06-26

33

Women's exposure to phthalates in relation to use of personal care products.  

PubMed

Several phthalates, particularly diethyl phthalate (DEP) and di-n-butyl phthalate, can be used in personal care products (PCPs) to fix fragrance and hold color. We investigated associations between women's reported use of PCPs within the 24 h before urine collection and concentrations of several urinary phthalate metabolites. Between 2002 and 2005, 337 women provided spot urine samples and answered questions regarding their use of 13 PCPs at a follow-up visit 3-36 months after pregnancy. We examined associations between urinary concentrations of several phthalate metabolites and use of PCPs using linear regression. Use of individual PCPs ranged from 7% (nail polish) to 91% (deodorant). After adjusting for age, education, and urinary creatinine, women reporting use of perfume had 2.92 times higher (95% CI: 2.20-3.89) concentration of monoethyl phthalate (MEP; the primary metabolite of DEP) than other women. Other PCPs that were significantly associated with MEP concentrations included: hair spray, nail polish, and deodorant. MEP concentrations increased with the number of PCPs used. PCP use was widespread in this group of recently pregnant women. Women's use of PCPs, particularly of perfumes and fragranced products, was positively associated with urinary concentration of multiple phthalate metabolites. PMID:23168567

Parlett, Lauren E; Calafat, Antonia M; Swan, Shanna H

2013-03-01

34

Dressings and Products in Pediatric Wound Care  

PubMed Central

Significance: The increasing complexity of medical and surgical care provided to pediatric patients has resulted in a population at significant risk for complications such as pressure ulcers, nonhealing surgical wounds, and moisture-associated skin damage. Wound care practices for neonatal and pediatric patients, including the choice of specific dressings or other wound care products, are currently based on a combination of provider experience and preference and a small number of published clinical guidelines based on expert opinion; rigorous evidence-based clinical guidelines for wound management in these populations is lacking. Recent Advances: Advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of wound healing have contributed to an ever-increasing number of specialized wound care products, most of which are predominantly marketed to adult patients and that have not been evaluated for safety and efficacy in the neonatal and pediatric populations. This review aims to discuss the available data on the use of both more traditional wound care products and newer wound care technologies in these populations, including medical-grade honey, nanocrystalline silver, and soft silicone-based adhesive technology. Critical Issues: Evidence-based wound care practices and demonstration of the safety, efficacy, and appropriate utilization of available wound care dressings and products in the neonatal and pediatric populations should be established to address specific concerns regarding wound management in these populations. Future Directions: The creation and implementation of evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of common wounds in the neonatal and pediatric populations is essential. In addition to an evaluation of currently marketed wound care dressings and products used in the adult population, newer wound care technologies should also be evaluated for use in neonates and children. In addition, further investigation of the specific pathophysiology of wound healing in neonates and children is indicated to promote the development of wound care dressings and products with specific applications in these populations. PMID:24761363

King, Alice; Stellar, Judith J.; Blevins, Anne; Shah, Kara Noelle

2014-01-01

35

Histologic features of nail cosmetics.  

PubMed

Nail cosmetics and adornments are widely used in today's society. However, their histologic features are not well characterized. Routine histologic examination and polarization of nail plate specimens in our academic dermatopathology practice at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania revealed 3 distinct histologic patterns of nail cosmetics: a hyperpigmented pattern with diffuse fine granular material, a layered pattern with a single linear band of polarizable material, and a hyperpigmented pattern with larger granules containing flecks of polarizable material. In our experience, submitting clinicians rarely indicate the patient's use of nail polish or other enhancements. Recognition of the histologic features of nail cosmetics is important to prevent confusion with dermatoses affecting the nail unit, and it will help dermatopathologists render more accurate diagnoses. PMID:22452953

Anolik, Rachel B; Elenitsas, Rosalie; Minakawa, Satoko; Nguyen, Jennifer; Rubin, Adam I

2012-06-01

36

The role of managed care "products" in managed care "plans".  

PubMed

This paper presents information about the form and structure of managed care products offered by group/staff health maintenance organizations (HMOs), network/independent practice association (IPA) HMOs, and preferred provider organizations (PPOs). The information comes from a 1994 national survey of managed care plans and their arrangements with physicians. The findings confirm that multiple product offerings are now common in managed care plans. The two reasons plans most often cite for including these expanded offerings are to respond to customer interest and to ease the transition to more traditional managed care. Though plans commonly use a consistent provider network for different products, they also vary some arrangements with physicians across their products and pay them in different ways. We discuss the implications of our findings-the most comprehensive study of these issues to date-to aid in understanding the evolution of markets and of managed care, and as a basis for the design of future research and the databases it will require. PMID:9146505

Gold, M; Hurley, R

1997-01-01

37

Pedal nail pathology: biomechanical implications.  

PubMed

Proper treatment of pedal nail disorders requires a thorough understanding of the underlying etiology. As a class, biomechanical abnormalities constitute an important cause of pedal nail dystrophy. These biomechanical etiologies have been presented with regard to the three body planes. Treatments using biomechanical and orthopedic principles were explored, with an emphasis on counteracting abnormal dynamic and static forces. Additionally, sports that have a high correlation of nail pathologies have been discussed with prevention as the key element to treatment. PMID:2650843

Rzonca, E C; Lupo, P J

1989-04-01

38

Heavy Metal Exposure from Personal Care Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies have described human exposure to heavy metals from diverse sources in Nigeria, but little is known about\\u000a the exposure from personal care products, and few or no report is available on the personal care product concentrations of\\u000a cadmium, chromium, copper and zinc, which have biotic effects. The levels of these elements were determined in 74 samples\\u000a of 5

J. G. AyenimoA; A. M. Yusuf; A. S. Adekunle; O. W. Makinde

2010-01-01

39

Ciclopirox vs amorolfine: in vitro penetration into and permeation through human healthy nails of commercial nail lacquers.  

PubMed

One of the pre-requisite for a successful topical antifungal drug indicated for onychomycosis is its bioavailability into the nail unit for achieving fungal eradication and clinical benefit. The aim of this study was to compare in vitro permeation/penetration through and into human nails of amorolfine (MRF) from a 5% anhydrous commercial formulation (Loceryl®) and ciclopirox (CPX) from the 8% aqueous formulation in hydroxypropyl chitosan (HPCH) technology (Onytec®). The ability of the active ingredient to reach efficacious concentrations to inhibit nail pathogens was also evaluated. The amounts of drug permeated and retained in human healthy nails were determined using a suitably modified diffusion apparatus. HPLC analysis of the samples was performed. The HPCH-based CPX formulation demonstrated an efficient penetration into and permeation through the nail plates. Conversely, Loceryl® produced an amount of MRF permeated through and penetrated into the human toenails significantly lower than CPX. The evaluation of the efficacy index showed a higher potential efficacy of Onytec® with respect to Loceryl® on nail pathogens. The present work not only reinforced the previous results on different experimental substrates, but pointed out the superiority of HPCH-based Onytec® formulation containing CPX with respect to Loceryl® commercial product with MRF, both in terms of higher permeation through and penetration into the human nail, and for the efficacy towards the most common ungual pathogens. PMID:24509963

Monti, Daniela; Tampucci, Silvia; Chetoni, Patrizia; Burgalassi, Susi; Mailland, Federico

2014-02-01

40

Urinary and air phthalate concentrations and self-reported use of personal care products among minority pregnant women in New York city.  

PubMed

Diethyl phthalate (DEP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) are used extensively in personal care products, including fragrances (DEP) and nail polish (DnBP). Between May 2003 and July 2006, we gathered questionnaire data on the use of seven product categories (deodorant, perfume, hair spray, hair gel, nail polish/polish remover, liquid soap/body wash, and lotion/mist) over 48?h during the third trimester of pregnancy from 186 inner-city women. A 48-h personal air sample was collected and analyzed for DEP and DnBP; a maternal spot urine sample was collected and analyzed for their monoester metabolites, monoethyl phthalate (MEP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), respectively. In all, 97% of air samples and 84% of urine samples were collected within ±2 days of the questionnaire. During the 48?h, 41% of women reported perfume use and 10% reported nail polish/polish remover use. In adjusted analyses, no association was seen between nail product use and air DnBP or urine MnBP concentrations. Women reporting perfume use had 2.3 times higher (95% CI 1.6, 3.3) urinary MEP concentrations. Personal air DEP increased by 7% for each 25% increase in a composite indicator of the six other product categories (P<0.05), but was not associated with perfume use. Air DEP was correlated with urine MEP concentrations only among non-perfume users (r=0.51, P<0.001). Results suggest that perfume use is a significant source of DEP exposure. PMID:20354564

Just, Allan C; Adibi, Jennifer J; Rundle, Andrew G; Calafat, Antonia M; Camann, David E; Hauser, Russ; Silva, Manori J; Whyatt, Robin M

2010-11-01

41

Urinary and air phthalate concentrations and self-reported use of personal care products among minority pregnant women in New York City  

PubMed Central

Diethyl phthalate (DEP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) are used extensively in personal care products, including fragrances (DEP) and nail polish (DnBP). Between May 2003 and July 2006, we gathered questionnaire data on use of 7 product categories (deodorant, perfume, hair spray, hair gel, nail polish/polish remover, liquid soap/body wash, lotion/mist) over 48 hours during the 3rd trimester of pregnancy from 186 inner-city women. A 48-hour personal air sample was collected and analyzed for DEP and DnBP; a maternal spot urine sample was collected and analyzed for their monoester metabolites, monoethyl phthalate (MEP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), respectively. Ninety-seven percent of air samples and 84% of urine samples were collected within ±2 days of the questionnaire. During the 48 hours, 41% of women reported perfume use and 10% reported nail polish/polish remover use. In adjusted analyses, no association was seen between nail product use and air DnBP or urine MnBP concentrations. Women reporting perfume use had 2.3 times higher (95% CI 1.6, 3.3) urinary MEP concentrations. Personal air DEP increased 7% for each 25% increase in a composite indicator of the 6 other product categories (p<0.05) but was not associated with perfume use. Air DEP was correlated with urine MEP concentrations only among non-perfume users (r=0.51, p<0.001). Results suggest that perfume use is a significant source of DEP exposure. PMID:20354564

Just, Allan C.; Adibi, Jennifer J.; Rundle, Andrew G.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Camann, David E.; Hauser, Russ; Silva, Manori J.; Whyatt, Robin M.

2011-01-01

42

Drug-related nail disease.  

PubMed

Drug-induced nail abnormalities can present with a wide variety of clinical manifestations that are often dose-related and that disappear after drug withdrawal. Some nail changes are asymptomatic and only cause cosmetic problems, whereas others cause pain and discomfort and impair manual activities or deambulation. New side effects have been recently observed with different groups of anticancer agents. These include painful onycholysis and subungual abscesses caused by taxanes and anthracyclines (eg, doxorubicin) in addition to ingrown nails, paronychia, and pyogenic granuloma associated with the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (eg, erlotinib, gefitinib). PMID:24079591

Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Alessandrini, Aurora

2013-01-01

43

Scopulariopsis brevicaulis in nails.  

PubMed

Scopulariopsis brevicaulis was demonstrated in 226 out of 5,600 patients examined for abnormal toe-nails. Among 3,700 patients without onychomycosis S. brevicaulis was demonstrated as a contaminant in 2%. Onychomycosis, present in 1,925 patients, was caused by S. brevicaulis in 6%, but 10% of these cases were mixed infections with dermatophytes. In the approximately 1,800 cases of onychomycosis due to other reasons, S. brevicaulis was a contaminant in 2%. A specific finding of S. brevicaulis on direct microscopy is diagnostic, and a number of colonies greater than or equal to 10 supports the diagnosis, while in the presence of less than or equal to 3 colonies and no S. brevicaulis on direct microscopy the diagnosis is unlikely. Onychomycosis due to S. brevicaulis was most often diagnosed in elderly persons, with equal frequency in men and women. PMID:6447633

Onsberg, P

1980-01-01

44

Randomized controlled trial of a water-soluble nail lacquer based on hydroxypropyl-chitosan (HPCH), in the management of nail psoriasis  

PubMed Central

Background Nail psoriasis occurs in up to 50% of patients affected by psoriasis, with a significant impact on quality of life that leads to a real clinical need for new therapeutic options. Aim To confirm whether the strengthening and hardening properties of the hydroxypropyl-chitosan (HPCH) nail lacquer could improve the structure of the nail plates on psoriatic nails. Materials and methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, parallel-group trial was carried out to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a hydrosoluble nail lacquer containing HPCH, Equisetum arvense, and methylsulfonylmethane on nail psoriasis. The test product or a placebo was applied once daily for 24 weeks to all fingernails. Efficacy assessments were performed on the target fingernail by means of the modified Nail Psoriasis Severity Index score. A cut-off score of 4 was considered to define the clinical cure rate (ie, Cure ?4, Failure >4). Results After 24 weeks, the clinical cure rate showed the statistically significant superiority of the HPCH nail lacquer compared to placebo in both the intention-to-treat (Fisher’s exact test, P=0.0445) and the per protocol population (Fisher’s exact test, P=0.0437). This superiority was already present after 16 weeks of treatment. Moreover, the analysis of the modified Nail Psoriasis Severity Index-50 showed a statistically significant clinical improvement after 12 weeks of treatment in comparison to the results obtained after 8 weeks (Fisher’s exact test, P<0.05). Conclusion The trial showed that HPCH nail lacquer could be a new, valid, effective, and safe option for decreasing the signs of nail dystrophy in psoriatic patients. PMID:24904219

Cantoresi, Franca; Caserini, Maurizio; Bidoli, Antonella; Maggio, Francesca; Marino, Raffaella; Carnevale, Claudia; Sorgi, Paola; Palmieri, Renata

2014-01-01

45

Micronutrients for Hair and Nails  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a As the appearance of hair and nails is a major concern for woman worldwide, we have tried to collect the most reliable therapeutic\\u000a sources with a particular interest for micronutrients. The latter is a term used to include trace elements found in minerals,\\u000a vitamins, amino acids, and herbs. Some of them may be used in both hair and nails, for

E. Haneke; Robert Baran

46

7 CFR 3201.97 - Sun care products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sun care products. 3201.97 Section 3201...PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.97 Sun care products. (a) Definition. Products including sunscreens, sun blocks, and suntan lotions that are...

2013-01-01

47

Harmonization of product information for child-care products  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives an overview of the prenormative research that has been conducted to achieve harmonization of product information for child-care products. This research supports the work of a project group of the European Committee for Standardization (CEN\\/TC 252\\/WG 6\\/PG 5). The project group is preparing a chapter on product information requirements for a CEN report on the safety of

Monica Trommelen

1996-01-01

48

Nail damage from gel polish manicure.  

PubMed

Manicures can result in nail damage via instrumentation, nail polish, nail polish removers, and artificial nails. We report nail weakness, brittleness, and thinning in five subjects after the application of a new manicure system called gel polish and removal with acetone and manual peeling. All subjects complained that the polish was very difficult to remove and that their nails became much thinner after the procedure. Pseudoleukonychia and onychoschizia lamellina were noted on examination. One subject underwent ultrasound and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) measurements of nail plate before and after the gel polish application, which showed thinned nail plate (0.063 vs. 0.050 cm and 0.059 vs. 0.030 cm, respectively). Overall, we call attention to the adverse effects of gel polish manicures in five subjects. In addition, our case illustrates potential utility of ultrasound and RCM in measuring nail plate thickness. PMID:22360331

Chen, Andrea F; Chimento, Stacy M; Hu, Shasa; Sanchez, Margaret; Zaiac, Martin; Tosti, Antonella

2012-03-01

49

Nail psoriasis as a severity indicator: results from the PsoReal study  

PubMed Central

Background: Although nail psoriasis affects a substantial proportion of psoriasis patients and causes significant psychologic distress, few epidemiologic data characterizing patients with nail involvement are available. The aim of this research was to elucidate differences between patients with nail psoriasis and those without any nail involvement, taking quality indicators of health care from the patient’s perspective into account. Methods: In total, 2449 patient members of the Deutscher Psoriasis Bund, the largest patient organization for psoriasis in Germany, were interviewed in this nationwide, noninterventional, cross-sectional study. Patients with nail psoriasis were compared with patients without any nail involvement with regard to gender, age, disease duration, affected body surface area, health-related quality of life (Dermatology Life Quality Index [DLQI] ED-5D), patient-defined treatment benefit, amount of inpatient treatments, disease duration, and numbers of work days lost. Results: Data from 2449 patients with psoriasis were analyzed. Overall, 44.8% (1078) of patients were female, mean age was 57.0 ± 11.7 years, and 72.8% had nail involvement and showed higher values for affected body surface area than those without nail involvement (8.3% versus 5.6%, respectively; P < 0.004). Health-related quality of life was significantly lower in patients with nail psoriasis (DLQI 7.2 versus 5.3; ED-5D 60.1 versus 67.3), who had more days off work (9.8 versus 3.3). Conclusion: Nail involvement is an important symptom of psoriasis and is associated with greater disease severity and quality of life impairment. Accordingly, management of psoriasis should include a special focus on nail involvement. PMID:22915964

Radtke, Marc A; Langenbruch, Anna K; Schafer, Ines; Herberger, Katharina; Reich, Kristian; Augustin, Matthias

2011-01-01

50

A Method to Modify Angle-Stable Intramedullary Nail Construct Compliance  

PubMed Central

Traditional interlocked intramedullary (IM) nails have recently been modified to provide enhanced angular stability. These so-called ‘angle-stable’ IM nails are designed to eliminate construct toggle and also provide increased axial, bending, and torsional stiffness. While this added stability is needed for small fracture gaps to heal, angle-stable nails may be too stiff for large fracture gaps to unite. Even though relative stability is recommended for large fracture gaps, recent in vivo data indicates that traditional nails may allow for too much motion for healing to occur. The current study evaluated a modified technique for implanting an angle-stable nail which allows for an intermediate amount of stability. The compliance of the nail construct was adjusted by over-drilling the near cortex interlocking hole. This led to increased construct motion in torsion, but less so in axial compression and bending. This modification creates stability which is partway between angle-stable and traditional IM nail designs. These findings were unchanged after 50,000 fatigue loading cycles. By carefully selecting the magnitude of over-drilling, the compliance of the construct can easily be modified as it is being implanted. This design modification may lead to more reliable fracture union since the surgeon can tailor the nail compliance to the injury and bone quality. PMID:25328462

Flanagan, B P; LeCronier, D; Kubacki, M R; Telehowski, P; Atkinson, P

2014-01-01

51

A method to modify angle-stable intramedullary nail construct compliance.  

PubMed

Traditional interlocked intramedullary (IM) nails have recently been modified to provide enhanced angular stability. These so-called 'angle-stable' IM nails are designed to eliminate construct toggle and also provide increased axial, bending, and torsional stiffness. While this added stability is needed for small fracture gaps to heal, angle-stable nails may be too stiff for large fracture gaps to unite. Even though relative stability is recommended for large fracture gaps, recent in vivo data indicates that traditional nails may allow for too much motion for healing to occur. The current study evaluated a modified technique for implanting an angle-stable nail which allows for an intermediate amount of stability. The compliance of the nail construct was adjusted by over-drilling the near cortex interlocking hole. This led to increased construct motion in torsion, but less so in axial compression and bending. This modification creates stability which is partway between angle-stable and traditional IM nail designs. These findings were unchanged after 50,000 fatigue loading cycles. By carefully selecting the magnitude of over-drilling, the compliance of the construct can easily be modified as it is being implanted. This design modification may lead to more reliable fracture union since the surgeon can tailor the nail compliance to the injury and bone quality. PMID:25328462

Flanagan, B P; LeCronier, D; Kubacki, M R; Telehowski, P; Atkinson, P

2014-01-01

52

Physics of nail conditions: why do ingrown nails always happen in the big toes?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although surgical treatment of nail conditions can be traced back centuries to the writings of Paul Aegineta (625–690 AC), little is known about the physical laws governing nail growth. Such a poor understanding together with the increasing number of nail salons in the high street should raise legitimate concerns regarding the different procedures applied to nails. An understanding of the physics of nail growth is therefore essential to engage with human medicine and to understand the aetiology of nail conditions. In this context, a theory of nail plate adhesion, including a physical description of nail growth can be used to determine the transverse and longitudinal curvatures of the nail plate that are so important in the physical diagnosis of some nail conditions. As a result physics sheds light on: (a) why/how nails/hooves adhere strongly, yet grow smoothly; (b) why hoof/claw/nail growth rates are similar across species; (c) potential nail damage incurred by poor trimming; (d) the connection between three previously unrelated nail conditions, i.e. spoon-shaped, pincer and ingrown nails and; last but not least, (e) why ingrown nails occur preferentially in the big toes.

Rauch, Cyril; Cherkaoui-Rbati, Mohammed

2014-12-01

53

Physics of nail conditions: why do ingrown nails always happen in the big toes?  

PubMed

Although surgical treatment of nail conditions can be traced back centuries to the writings of Paul Aegineta (625-690 AC), little is known about the physical laws governing nail growth. Such a poor understanding together with the increasing number of nail salons in the high street should raise legitimate concerns regarding the different procedures applied to nails. An understanding of the physics of nail growth is therefore essential to engage with human medicine and to understand the aetiology of nail conditions. In this context, a theory of nail plate adhesion, including a physical description of nail growth can be used to determine the transverse and longitudinal curvatures of the nail plate that are so important in the physical diagnosis of some nail conditions. As a result physics sheds light on: (a) why/how nails/hooves adhere strongly, yet grow smoothly; (b) why hoof/claw/nail growth rates are similar across species; (c) potential nail damage incurred by poor trimming; (d) the connection between three previously unrelated nail conditions, i.e. spoon-shaped, pincer and ingrown nails and; last but not least, (e) why ingrown nails occur preferentially in the big toes. PMID:25322083

Rauch, Cyril; Cherkaoui-Rbati, Mohammed

2014-12-01

54

Nail psoriasis: a review of the literature*  

PubMed Central

Nails are considered epidermal appendages, and as such, are commonly affected in patients with psoriasis, 80% of whom are likely to develop nail psoriasis as a result of their condition. Two patterns of nail disorders have been shown to be caused by psoriasis. Nail matrix involvement can result in features such as leukonychia, pitting (punctures or cupuliform depressions), red spots in the lunula and crumbling. Nail bed involvement, on the other hand, can cause onycholysis, salmon or oil-drop patches, subungual hyperkeratosis and splinter hemorrhages. Nail disease causes aesthetic and functional impairment, and is indicative of more severe forms of psoriasis as well as of joint involvement. The treatment for nail psoriasis involves behavioral interventions, topical medications, or systemic therapy in case of extensive skin or joint involvement. This article presents a review of the main features of nail psoriasis, its clinical presentation, diagnostic and assessment methods, clinical repercussions, and of its available treatment options. PMID:24770509

Schons, Karen Regina Rosso; Knob, Cristiane Faccin; Murussi, Nadia; Beber, Andre Avelino Costa; Neumaier, Walter; Monticielo, Odirlei Andre

2014-01-01

55

The repair of nail deformities with the nonvascularized nail bed graft: indications and results.  

PubMed

Twenty-four cases of nonvascularized nail bed grafting to correct nail deformities were reviewed. The highest success rate in improving the appearance of the deformed nail, 86%, was achieved when the split-thickness nail bed graft of sterile matrix was used to correct a nail deformity caused by a sterile matrix injury; the same procedure used to correct a nail deformity caused by a germinal matrix injury had a 0% success rate. Donor site morbidity occurred in 25% of split-thickness nail bed grafts and 100% of full-thickness nail bed grafts. The split-thickness nail bed graft of sterile matrix, if used in properly selected patients, will consistently improve the appearance of the deformed nail. PMID:2348067

Pessa, J E; Tsai, T M; Li, Y; Kleinert, H E

1990-05-01

56

The productivity of primary care research networks.  

PubMed Central

Primary care research networks are being publicly funded in the United Kingdom to promote a culture of research and development in primary care. This paper discusses the organisational form of these networks and how their productivity can be evaluated, drawing on evidence from management science. An evaluation of a research network has to take account of the complexity of the organisation, the influence of its local context, and its stage of development. Output measures, such as number of research papers, and process measures, such as number of research meetings, may contribute to an evaluation. However, as networking relies on the development of informal, trust-based relationships, the quality of interactions within a network is of paramount importance for its success. Networks can audit and reflect on their success in promoting such relationships and a more formal qualitative evaluation by an independent observer can document their success to those responsible for funding. PMID:11141879

Griffiths, F; Wild, A; Harvey, J; Fenton, E

2000-01-01

57

Glue-Nail: A Deductive Database System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glue is a procedural language for deductive databases.It is designed to complement the purely declarativeNAIL! language, firstly by performing system functionsimpossible to write in NAIL!, and secondly by allowingthe procedural specification of algorithms for criticalcode sections. The two languages together are sufficientto write a complete application. Glue was designed tobe as close to NAIL! as possible, hence minimizing theimpedance mismatch

Geoffrey Phipps; Marcia A. Derr; Kenneth A. Ross

1991-01-01

58

[Nail plate susceptibility to Scopulariopsis brevicaulis infection].  

PubMed

Nail plate susceptibility to Scopulariopsis brevicaulis infection. Experimental Scopulariopsis brevicaulis infection of toe and finger nails collected from 79 persons of both sexes and at various age is presented. Crumbled nail fragments were incubated with a S. brevicaulis strain isolated from toenail acauliosis. The culture was inspected and evaluated under light microscope after seven days of incubation. Hyphe intensively penetrating nail fragments were found in 67.1% of toenails and 38% of fingernails. The infection was most intensive in the nails collected from males and elderly persons. PMID:16894717

Macura, Anna B; Pawlik, Boles?aw; Perun, Magdalena; Król, Monika

2002-01-01

59

Hereditary brachydactyly with nail dysplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A family is described in which sometimes asymmetrical brachydactyly, with nail dysplasia of the involved fingers, has been transmitted through 6 generations affecting 6 males and 15 females. The thumbs and feet have been normal. This previously unreported condition is inherited as an autosomal disorder with full penetrance and variable expressivity, and causes only minor inconvenience.

G D Schott

1978-01-01

60

Comparative Anatomy of Mouse and Human Nail Units  

PubMed Central

Recent studies of mice with hair defects have resulted in major contributions to the understanding of hair disorders. To use mouse models as a tool to study nail diseases, a basic understanding of the similarities and differences between the human and mouse nail unit is required. In this study we compare the human and mouse nail unit at the macroscopic and microscopic level and use immunohistochemistry to determine the keratin expression patterns in the mouse nail unit. Both species have a proximal nail fold, cuticle, nail matrix, nail bed, nail plate, and hyponychium. Distinguishing features are the shape of the nail and the presence of an extended hyponychium in the mouse. Expression patterns of most keratins are similar. These findings indicate that the mouse nail unit shares major characteristics with the human nail unit and overall represents a very similar structure, useful for the investigation of nail diseases and nail biology. PMID:23408541

Fleckman, Philip; Jaeger, Karin; Silva, Kathleen A.; Sundberg, John P.

2013-01-01

61

Biodegradable interlocking nails for fracture fixation.  

PubMed

Serious problems such as stress shielding, allergic reactions, and corrosion are associated with the use of metallic fracture fixation devices in fractured long bones. Metal implants often are removed during a second retrieval operation after fracture healing has completed. A biocompatible implant that degrades slowly during implantation would obviate the need for a second operation and save the patient from considerable physical, psychologic, and financial discomfort. The biodegradable implant must provide the fractured limb sufficient support for a certain time, allowing early loading. A gradual transfer of load from the biodegradable implant to the bone would result in a better product of bone healing and avoid stress shielding. In an animal model using adult sheep, two types of biodegradable polymer interlocking nails were tested in comparison with a stainless steel interlocking nail. Fracture healing, mechanical properties of the bones, degradation behavior in vivo and in vitro, and tissue response were monitored during a 2 1/2-year followup study. To detect shifts in acid base relations caused by the release of acid compounds, pH measurements were performed. Fracture healing was unimpaired, and the mechanical test results of all three groups were excellent. Histologic analysis showed a mild inflammatory response, but no pH shifts were observed. The results of this study justify additional research on these promising materials. PMID:9917717

van der Elst, M; Bramer, J A; Klein, C P; de Lange, E S; Patka, P; Haarman, H J

1998-12-01

62

Randomized Trial of Reamed and Unreamed Intramedullary Nailing of Tibial Shaft Fractures  

PubMed Central

Background: There remains a compelling biological rationale for both reamed and unreamed intramedullary nailing for the treatment of tibial shaft fractures. Previous small trials have left the evidence for either approach inconclusive. We compared reamed and unreamed intramedullary nailing with regard to the rates of reoperations and complications in patients with tibial shaft fractures. Methods: We conducted a multicenter, blinded randomized trial of 1319 adults in whom a tibial shaft fracture was treated with either reamed or unreamed intramedullary nailing. Perioperative care was standardized, and reoperations for nonunion before six months were disallowed. The primary composite outcome measured at twelve months postoperatively included bone-grafting, implant exchange, and dynamization in patients with a fracture gap of <1 cm. Infection and fasciotomy were considered as part of the composite outcome, irrespective of the postoperative gap. Results: One thousand two hundred and twenty-six participants (93%) completed one year of follow-up. Of these, 622 patients were randomized to reamed nailing and 604 patients were randomized to unreamed nailing. Among all patients, fifty-seven (4.6%) required implant exchange or bone-grafting because of nonunion. Among all patients, 105 in the reamed nailing group and 114 in the unreamed nailing group experienced a primary outcome event (relative risk, 0.90; 95% confidence interval, 0.71 to 1.15). In patients with closed fractures, forty-five (11%) of 416 in the reamed nailing group and sixty-eight (17%) of 410 in the unreamed nailing group experienced a primary event (relative risk, 0.67; 95% confidence interval, 0.47 to 0.96; p = 0.03). This difference was largely due to differences in dynamization. In patients with open fractures, sixty of 206 in the reamed nailing group and forty-six of 194 in the unreamed nailing group experienced a primary event (relative risk, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 0.91 to 1.78; p = 0.16). Conclusions: The present study demonstrates a possible benefit for reamed intramedullary nailing in patients with closed fractures. We found no difference between approaches in patients with open fractures. Delaying reoperation for nonunion for at least six months may substantially decrease the need for reoperation. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions to Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:19047701

2008-01-01

63

A comparative study of trochanteric fractures treated with the Gamma nail or the proximal femoral nail  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present paper is to compare the results obtained using two osteosynthesis systems developed for the surgical treatment of fractures of the trochanteric region of the femur, based on the principles of closed intramedullary nailing: the Gamma nail and the proximal femoral nail (PFN). A prospective study is presented of 125 trochanteric fractures of the femur treated

A. Herrera; L. Domingo; A. Calvo; A. Martínez; J. Cuenca

2002-01-01

64

Probabilistic assessment of exposure to nail cosmetics in French consumers.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess probabilistic exposure to nail cosmetics in French consumers. The exposure assessment was performed with base coat, polish, top coat and remover. This work was done for adult and child consumers. Dermal, inhalation and oral routes were taken into account for varnishes. Exposure evaluation was performed for the inhalation route with polish remover. The main route of exposure to varnishes was the ungual route. Inhalation was the secondary route of exposure, followed by dermal and oral routes. Polish contributed most to exposure, regardless of the route of exposure. For this nail product, P50 and P95 values by ungual route were respectively equal to 1.74 mg(kg bw week)(-1) and 8.55 mg(kg bw week)(-1) for women aged 18-34 years. Exposure to polish by inhalation route was equal to 0.70 mg(kg bw week)(-1) (P50) and 5.27 mg(kg bw week)(-1) (P95). P50 and P95 values by inhalation route were respectively equal to 0.08 mg(kg bw week)(-1) and 1.14 mg(kg bw week)(-1) for consumers aged 18-34 years exposed to polish remover. This work provided current exposure data for nail cosmetics, and a basis for future toxicological studies of the uptake of substances contained in nail cosmetics in order to assess systemic exposure. PMID:24447976

Ficheux, A S; Morisset, T; Chevillotte, G; Postic, C; Roudot, A C

2014-04-01

65

Ethnic Differences in the Production of Informal Home Health Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used national data to examine family choices in production of informal care for elderly family members among African-, German-, Irish-, and English-Americans. Findings suggest unique factors associated with each ethnic group's decision to provide care. Health care service provision and policy research that ignores ethnic diversity will be less…

White-Means, Shelley I.; Thornton, Michael C.

1990-01-01

66

How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products  

MedlinePLUS

... cosmetic procedures to improve the health, function and beauty of skin through every stage of life. class=" ... so many over-the-counter products available, the beauty aisle can be overwhelming. Some skin care products ...

67

7 CFR 3201.82 - Foot care products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Foot care products. 3201.82 Section 3201...PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.82 Foot care products. (a) Definition. ...to be used in the soothing or cleaning of feet. (b) Minimum biobased...

2013-01-01

68

Opto-thermal radiometry for in-vivo nail measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a new method for in-vivo human nail characterization by using opto-thermal transient emission radiometry (OTTER) and condenser-chamber TEWL (trans-dermal water loss) method - AquaFlux. With OTTER, we can measure nail water content, nail water concentration depth profiles, as well as topically applied solvent penetration through nail. With AquaFlux, we can measure nail transonychial water loss (TOWL). Combining the water content results with TOWL results, we can get the water diffusion coefficient of nail. Measuring the water diffusion coefficients of nail at different nail water concentration levels can also yield information on how nail diffusion coefficients change with water content. We will present the theoretical background, and experimental results on water concentration depth profile in nail, as well as topically applied solvent penetration through nail.

Xiao, P.; Ciortea, L. I.; Singh, H.; Berg, E. P.; Imhof, R. E.

2010-03-01

69

Functional Analysis and Treatment of Nail Biting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study applied functional analysis methodology to nail biting exhibited by a 24-year-old female graduate student. Results from the brief functional analysis indicated variability in nail biting across assessment conditions. Functional analysis data were then used to guide treatment development and implementation. Treatment included a…

Dufrene, Brad A.; Watson, T. Steuart; Kazmerski, Jennifer S.

2008-01-01

70

Road Nail: Intelligent road marking system testbed  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present Road Nail, an intelligent road marking system with the wireless network of signaling devices that are mounted near the road edge. “Nails” or signaling devices are autonomous nodes with capability to accumulate electrical energy into battery which is obtained from solar panels. In addition, the nodes exchange wireless messages, detect approaching vehicles and emit signalization

Dragan Samardzija; Erne Kovac; Djordje Isailovic; Bojan Miladinovic; Nikola Teslic; Mihajlo Katona

2010-01-01

71

Methylisothiazolinone: An Emergent Allergen in Common Pediatric Skin Care Products  

PubMed Central

Recalcitrant dermatitis, such as that of the hands, face, or genitals, may be due to allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from ingredients in seemingly innocuous personal care products. Rising rates of allergy have been noted due to the preservative methylisothiazolinone (MI). This preservative is commonly found in skin and hair care products, especially wipes. This study evaluated the use of MI in products specifically marketed for babies and children and examined the associated marketing terms of such products. Ingredients of skin care products specifically marketed for babies and children were surveyed at two major retailers. Of 152 products surveyed, 30 products contained MI. Categories of products surveyed included facial or body wipes, antibacterial hand wipes, hair products, soaps, bubble baths, moisturizers, and sunscreens. Facial or body wipes and hair products were the categories with the greatest number of MI-containing products. MI-containing products were manufactured by a number of popular brands. Of note, products marketed as “gentle,” “sensitive,” “organic,” or “hypoallergenic” often contained MI, thus emphasizing the importance of consumer scrutiny of product choices. These findings reinforce the importance of educating parents and providing consumer decision-making advice regarding common skin care products, in order to help prevent ACD in children.

Schlichte, Megan J.

2014-01-01

72

Urinary incontinence products - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... have problems with urinary incontinence (leakage), wearing special products will keep you dry and help you avoid ... you can buy many types of urinary incontinence products. These products help keep your skin dry and ...

73

Design and Implementation of the Glue-Nail Database System  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the design and implementation of the Glue-Nail database system. The Nail language is a purely declarative query language; Glue is a procedural language used for non- query activities. The two languages combined are sufficient to write a complete application. Nail and Glue code both compile into the target language IGlue. The Nail compiler uses variants of the magic

Marcia A. Derr; Shinichi Morishita; Geoffrey Phipps

1993-01-01

74

Intra-articular risks of suprapatellar nailing.  

PubMed

To determine the risks to local anatomy near the starting point for tibial nailing during suprapatellar nailing, 15 fresh-frozen hemipelvis specimens were nailed using a suprapatellar technique. After nail passage, the menisci and articular surfaces, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) insertion, intermeniscal ligament, and fat pad were assessed for injury. The distance from the entry portal to the menisci, articular surfaces, and ACL insertion was determined. Medial meniscus injury occurred in 1 (6.7%) specimen and medial articular injury in 2 (13%). Nails passed through the fat pad in all specimens; intermeniscal ligament injury occurred in 3 (20%) specimens. The ACL insertion and lateral structures were not injured in any specimen. The distance from the entry portal margin to the lateral and medial menisci was 6.46±2.47 mm and 4.74±3.17 mm, respectively. The distances to the lateral and medial articular margins measured 10.33±3.62 mm and 6.54±3.57 mm, respectively. The distance to the ACL insertion averaged 5.80±3.94 mm. Suprapatellar nailing is associated with a risk of injury to anterior knee structures comparable to other nailing techniques. Additional clinical studies are warranted to further define the role of this technique in the management of tibial fractures. PMID:23550286

Beltran, Michael J; Collinge, Cory A; Patzkowski, Jeanne C; Masini, Brendan D; Blease, Robert E; Hsu, Joseph R

2012-12-01

75

Childhood nail alterations in Polish population.  

PubMed

The epidemiology and nature of childhood nail apparatus pathology is not well known. The aim of our study was to investigate the frequency and nature of nail alterations in Polish pediatric patients. Among 1588 patients diagnosed and treated at our clinic due to nail alterations, 82 (5.16%) patients under age 16 were selected. The most frequent (36.59%) diagnosis were variants of normal nails, which were observed in 30 patients. The most common pathology were viral warts (19.51%). Differences in the distribution of onychomycosis and viral warts in children and adults were statistically significant. Onychomycosis was more common in adults (60.39% vs. 9.76%), whereas viral warts were more common in children (19.51% vs. 5.86%; P<0.0001). Melanonychia was diagnosed in one (1.22%) case. Benign and malignant tumors were not observed. In conclusion, distribution of nail apparatus pathology in children is different comparing with adults. In the group of children under 6 years of age, there were mainly variants of normal nails, whereas in older children viral infection and acquired structural disorders were recorded. The risk of nail apparatus malignancy in childhood seems to be extremely low. PMID:22726282

Sobjanek, Micha?; Michaj?owski, Igor; Konczalska, Monika; W?odarkiewicz, Adam; Roszkiewicz, Jadwiga

2012-01-01

76

PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS: DIVERSE GALAXY OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as trace environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope of concerns continues to expand. PPCPs comprise thousands of distinct chemicals from numerous therapeutic and consumer classes. They typical...

77

PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS (PPCPS) AS ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as trace environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope of concerns continues to expand. PPCPs comprise thousands of distinct chemicals from numerous therapeutic and consumer classes. They typical...

78

Treatments for Nail Psoriasis: A Systematic Review by the GRAPPA Nail Psoriasis Work Group.  

PubMed

Nail involvement in psoriatic diseases causes significant physical and functional disabilities. Evaluating, measuring, and treating nail involvement is important in improving the health outcomes and quality of life among patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). We performed a systematic analysis of the literature on nail psoriasis to help inform an update of treatment recommendations by the Group for Research and Assessment of Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis (GRAPPA). PMID:25362716

Armstrong, April W; Tuong, William; Love, Thorvardur J; Carneiro, Sueli; Grynszpan, Rachel; Lee, Steve S; Kavanaugh, Arthur

2014-11-01

79

78 FR 49528 - Consolidation of Wound Care Products Containing Live Cells  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Wound Care Products Containing Live Cells AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...certain wound care products containing live cells from the Center for Devices and Radiological...more wound care products containing live cells are developed such consolidation is...

2013-08-14

80

21 CFR 886.5918 - Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products. 886.5918 Section...5918 Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products. (a) Identification. A rigid gas permeable contact lens care product is a device...

2011-04-01

81

21 CFR 886.5918 - Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products. 886.5918 Section...5918 Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products. (a) Identification. A rigid gas permeable contact lens care product is a device...

2010-04-01

82

A survey of phthalates and parabens in personal care products from the United States and its implications for human exposure.  

PubMed

Despite the widespread usage of phthalates and parabens in personal care products (PCPs), little is known about concentrations and profiles as well as human exposure to these compounds through the use of PCPs. In this study, nine phthalates and six parabens were determined in 170 PCPs (41 rinse-off and 109 leave-on), including 20 baby care products collected from Albany, New York. Phthalates were less frequently found in rinse-off PCPs but were more frequently found in perfumes (detection frequency of 100% for diethyl phthalate [DEP], 67% for dibutyl phthalate [DBP]), skin toners (90% for DEP), and nail polishes (90% for DBP). Parabens were found in ?40% of rinse-off products and ?60% of leave-on products. The highest concentrations of DEP, DBP, methyl- (MeP), ethyl- (EtP), propyl- (PrP), and butyl parabens (BuP) were on the order of 1000 ?g per gram of the product. On the basis of amount and frequency of use of PCPs and the measured median concentrations of target analytes, the total dermal intake doses (sum of all phthalates or parabens) were calculated to be 0.37 and 31.0 ?g/kg-bw/day for phthalates and parabens, respectively, for adult females. The calculated dermal intake of phthalates from PCPs was lower for infants and toddlers than for adult females. In contrast, dermal intake of parabens from PCPs by infants and toddlers was higher than that for adult females. The calculated maximum daily exposure dose of MeP, EtP, and PrP from PCPs ranged between 58.6 and 766 ?g/kg-bw/day for infants and toddlers, which was 3 times higher than that calculated for adult females. PCPs are an important source of human exposure to parabens; the contribution of PCPs to phthalate exposure is low, except for DEP. PMID:24261694

Guo, Ying; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

2013-12-17

83

Yellow nail syndrome: a rarity in Indians?  

PubMed

Reports of yellow nail syndrome have been few and far between. The classical triad of the syndrome has not been reported in Indian literature. We report a case of yellow nail syndrome in a forty-year-old male, who had yellowish-brown nails from birth. He developed lymphoedema of the legs at the age of twenty years and presented with pleural effusion at the age of forty years. Although a case of yellow nail syndrome has been reported from India, the classical triad of the syndrome is yet to be documented from our country. The condition may be missed because of the long time difference in presentation of different components of the syndrome and also because of the dark skin colour of Indians. PMID:16892747

Nair, V K; Sukumaran, P

1996-01-01

84

What's Wrong with Biting My Nails?  

MedlinePLUS

... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Movie: Nails Your ... Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and ...

85

The science and practice of intramedullary nailing  

SciTech Connect

Joining contributors from world authorities on specific closed nailing techniques, this book contains the facts, data, opinions and recommendations on each method. The introductory section outlines the conceptual basis for intramedullary nailing, with essays on basic rationale and scientific principles. The initial chapters trace the history of intramedullary nailing and assess its overall significance to fracture management. An important chapter on radiation protection has been included to specifically address the safety concerns that have arisen from the increased use of the image intensifier in closed nailing methods. The following sections, organized with a regional approach covering the proximal femur, middle and distal femur, tibia, and upper extremity are devoted to individual nailing techniques. Wherever possible, the chapters begin with discussion of the rationale for the design and use of the particular closed nailing system. Every system is then analyzed as to indications for surgery, practical techniques, possible complications and methods for avoiding complications. Special techniques are treated in an individual chapter on intramedullary osteotomies.

Browner, B.; Edwards, C.C.

1987-01-01

86

Heat profiles of laser-irradiated nails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Onychomycosis is a worldwide problem with no tendency for self-healing, and existing systemic treatments achieve disease-free nails in only 35 to 76% of cases. Recently, treatment of nail fungus with a near-infrared laser has been introduced. It is assumed that fungal eradication is mediated by local heat. To investigate if laser treatment has the potential to eradicate fungal hyphae and arthrospores, laser heat application and propagation needs to be studied in detail. This study aimed to measure nail temperatures using real-time videothermography during laser irradiation. Treatment was performed using 808- and 980-nm linear scanning diode lasers developed for hair removal, enabling contact-free homogeneous irradiation of a human nail plate in one pass. Average and peak temperatures increased pass by pass, while the laser beam moved along the nail plates. The achieved mean peak temperatures (808 nm: 74.1 to 112.4°C, 980 nm: 45.8 to 53.5°C), as well as the elevation of average temperatures (808 nm: 29.5 to 38.2°C, 980 nm: 27.1 to 32.6°C) were associated with pain that was equivalent to that of hair removal procedures and was not significantly different for various wavelengths. The linear scanning laser devices provide the benefits of contact-free homogeneous heating of the human nail while ensuring adequate temperature rises.

Paasch, Uwe; Nenoff, Pietro; Seitz, Anna-Theresa; Wagner, Justinus A.; Kendler, Michael; Simon, Jan C.; Grunewald, Sonja

2014-01-01

87

Safety of skin care products during pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Abstract Question Many of my female patients complain about acne, unwanted hair growth, and other skin problems that have only developed since they became pregnant. Are products used for these types of benign skin conditions safe to use in pregnancy, as it is understandable that women want to look their best at this important time in their lives? Answer With the exception of hydroquinone, which has a relatively high systemic absorption rate, and tretinoin, for which the evidence is controversial, these products act locally and therefore produce minimal systemic levels. Consequently, in most cases women can deal with these cosmetically unappealing skin conditions without compromising the safety of their unborn children. PMID:21673209

Bozzo, Pina; Chua-Gocheco, Angela; Einarson, Adrienne

2011-01-01

88

Transungual delivery of terbinafine by iontophoresis in onychomycotic nails.  

PubMed

Trans-nail permeability is limited due to the innate nature of the nail plate and the recent investigations indicated the potential of iontophoresis in enhancing the transungual drug delivery in normal nails. However, the onychomycotic nails differ from the normal nails with respect to the anatomical and biological features. The current study investigated the effect of iontophoresis (0.5 mA/cm(2) for 1 h) on the transungual delivery of terbinafine in onychomycotic finger and toe nails. The presence of fungi in the onychomycotic nails was diagnosed by potassium hydroxide (KOH) microscopy. Passive and iontophoretic delivery of terbinafine across the infected nail was studied in Franz diffusion cell. Further, the release profile of terbinafine from the drug-loaded nails was investigated by agar diffusion method. KOH microscopy confirmed the presence of fungi in all the nails used. The amount of drug permeated across the nail plate was enhanced significantly during iontophoresis over passive delivery, that is, by 21-fold in case of finger and 37-fold in case of toe nails. Further, the total drug load in the onychomycotic nail was enhanced by ~12-fold (in both finger and toe nails) due to iontophoresis. Release of terbinafine from the iontophoresis-loaded nails into agar plates exhibited two phases, a rapid phase followed by a steady release, which extended >2 months. This study concluded that the drug delivery in onychomycotic nails did not differ significantly when compared with normal nails, although the extent of drug permeation and drug load differs between finger and toe nails. PMID:21457120

Nair, Anroop B; Vaka, Siva Ram Kiran; Murthy, S Narasimha

2011-10-01

89

The fixion proximal femur nailing system: biomechanical properties of the nail and a cadaveric study.  

PubMed

The treatment of choice for early mobilization of hip fracture is surgery, which traditionally employs side plates and screws or intramedullary nails. We examined the biomechanical properties of a new proximal femoral nail system. The new expandable Fixion proximal femur nailing (PFN) system, made of stainless-steel alloy, consists of a nail, a peg and an anti-rotation pin. Upon positioning, the nail and peg are expanded to their maximal diameter. The current biomechanical study investigated: nail bending strength and stiffness, fatigue properties and hip peg strength. A cadaveric study that determined the effect of the expandable peg on the femoral head included subsidence testing, pull and torsion testing and intra-osseous pressure (IOP) measurements before and after expansion. Biomechanical properties of the new nail met ASTM F384 guideline requirements. The cadaver study yielded equivalent results for the pullout test between the peg and the hip screw, but found the peg superior in the torsion strength test. IOP during peg insertion and expansion was substantially lower than the threshold pressure that causes avascular necrosis. The biomechanical tests found the new system to be safe and able to provide good abutment of the nail to the bone. We conclude that the Fixion PFN system proved to be an effective proximal femur fracture fixation device. PMID:15519340

Steinberg, Ely L; Blumberg, Nehemia; Dekel, Shmuel

2005-01-01

90

Nailing treatment in bone transport complications.  

PubMed

A series of cases of reamed intramedullary nailings carried out after complications in regenerated bone and docking site had occurred in bone transport is presented here. Nine patients (femur = 5; tibia = 4) had treatment with resection after open fractures or infection and underwent bone transport. The mean length of regenerated bone was 9.5 cm (range 6-18 cm). After bone transport, the fixator remained in place for a mean period of 12.8 months (range 8-24 months). In six cases (femur 4; tibia 2), the thickness of the cortical wall of the regenerate column was insufficient, and in two of these, there was, in addition, nonunion of the docking site. In the two tibial cases, nailing was carried out shortly after the fixator had been removed and after refracture of the regenerated bone had occurred due to insufficient cortical thickness. In one femur, nailing was carried out for nonunion of the docking site. Follow-up involved clinical and X-ray checks. The mean follow-up was 3.9 years (range 2-6 years). In all cases, union and with complete corticalization of the regenerate column was observed at an average 6 months after nailing (range 4-11 months). Infection occurred in one tibia 4 months after nailing. The infection was treated with antibiotics, and the nail was subsequently removed. We conclude that nailing is a potential solution for regenerated bone and docking site problems but, if used after prolonged periods of external fixation, may necessitate antibiotic therapy for at least 10 days after the fixator has been removed. PMID:25056513

Biz, C; Iacobellis, C

2014-08-01

91

Ultrasonography reveals nail thickening in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis.  

PubMed

Nail psoriasis is usually investigated and diagnosed by clinical examination. Ultrasonography is a non-invasive imaging technique for studying soft tissue involvement. The objective of this study was to estimate nail involvement in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis by ultrasonography. Prevalence, clinical type and severity of nail involvement according to nail psoriasis and severity index (NAPSI) were investigated in 138 patients with psoriasis. The thickness of the plate and bed of the fingernails was measured in 54 patients with psoriasis, 46 healthy controls and 37 patients with chronic eczema, using an ultrasonographic system equipped with a frequency transducer of 18 MHz. The prevalence of nail psoriasis was 73 % (102 out of 138). Onycholysis and thickening of the nail plate were the most common clinical type affecting 56 and 50 % of patients, respectively; splinter haemorrhages was the less common involving 10 % of patients. The mean NAPSI score was 18.4 ± 17.5 (SD; range 0-107). The thickness of fingernail plate and bed was significantly higher in patients with psoriasis with nail disease compared to healthy controls and patients with chronic eczema (p < 0.001). There was a linear correlation between NAPSI and plate and bed nail thickness (r = 0.52 and r = 0.38, p = 0.001). Increased nail plate and bed thickness was observed also in patients with psoriasis without clinically apparent nail involvement. In conclusion, thickening of the nail is a common feature of nail psoriasis also in patients without clinically apparent nail involvement. PMID:23011659

Gisondi, P; Idolazzi, L; Girolomoni, G

2012-11-01

92

Phthalates in cosmetic and personal care products: Concentrations and possible dermal exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phthalates are multifunctional chemicals that are used in a variety of consumer products including cosmetic and personal care products. This study aims at determining phthalate levels in cosmetic and personal care products obtained from the Canadian market. Overall 252 products including 98 baby care products were collected at retail stores in several provinces across Canada in year 2007. These products

Diane Koniecki; Rong Wang; Richard P. Moody; Jiping Zhu

2011-01-01

93

[A woman with overlapping growth of nail plate fragments].  

PubMed

A 38-year-old woman presented with nail abnormalities on both of the halluces, consisting of overlapping growth of nail plate fragments, diagnosed as onychomadesis. The onychomadesis was provoked by trauma. PMID:25308227

Kranenburg, G G J; van der Meijden, W I; Pasch, M C

2014-01-01

94

Expanding nail or expanding femur? An adverse event with the expandable intramedullary nail.  

PubMed

The expandable intramedullary nail is self-locking and has the advantage of reducing operating time and exposure to ionizing radiation. The nail is recommended for simple diaphyseal fractures involving the middle third of long bones, where the nail can bypass the fracture site by at least 5 cm. We encountered a unique complication with the expandable nail in a simple transverse shaft fracture at the junction of the middle and distal third of the left femur in an otherwise healthy 57-year-old man. The fracture was reduced and a 12-mm expandable nail was inserted. Following full expansion, intraoperative radiographs were obtained prior to closure. After six postoperative weeks, it was noted that the nail expanded the femoral canal, converting a simple fracture to a distally progressing comminuted fracture with a butterfly fragment. A review of the intraoperative radiographs showed slight widening of the medullary canal at the level of the fracture. As the alignment was satisfactory and callus was present, no further surgical intervention was considered. The patient was advised not to bear weight and was provided with a locked knee brace in extension to wear for six weeks. Radiographs at 12 weeks demonstrated good progress of healing with adequate callus and the patient was permitted to bear weight as tolerated and commence knee flexion. The fracture united satisfactorily at four months. This adverse experience emphasizes that caution should be exercised when expanding the nail, with close observation of the medullary canal diameter during the later stages of expansion. PMID:20676021

Gangopadhyay, Soham; Riley, Nicholas D; Sivaji, Chellappan K

2010-01-01

95

A Clinical Trial to Investigate the Effect of Cynatine HNS on Hair and Nail Parameters  

PubMed Central

Objective. A new, novel product, Cynatine HNS, was evaluated for its effects as a supplement for improving various aspects of hair and nails in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Methods. A total of 50 females were included and randomized into two groups. The active group (n = 25) received 2 capsules containing Cynatine HNS, comprised of Cynatine brand keratin (500?mg) plus vitamins and minerals, per day, and the placebo group (n = 25) received 2 identical capsules of maltodextrin per day for 90 days. End points for hair loss, hair growth, hair strength, amino acid composition, and hair luster were measured. End points were also measured for nail strength and the appearance of nails. Results. The results show that subjects taking Cynatine HNS showed statistically significant improvements in their hair and nails when compared to placebo. Conclusion. Cynatine HNS is an effective supplement for improving hair and nails in 90 days or less. EudraCT number is 2014-002645-22. PMID:25386609

Veghte, Robert H.

2014-01-01

96

A Clinical Trial to Investigate the Effect of Cynatine HNS on Hair and Nail Parameters.  

PubMed

Objective. A new, novel product, Cynatine HNS, was evaluated for its effects as a supplement for improving various aspects of hair and nails in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Methods. A total of 50 females were included and randomized into two groups. The active group (n = 25) received 2 capsules containing Cynatine HNS, comprised of Cynatine brand keratin (500?mg) plus vitamins and minerals, per day, and the placebo group (n = 25) received 2 identical capsules of maltodextrin per day for 90 days. End points for hair loss, hair growth, hair strength, amino acid composition, and hair luster were measured. End points were also measured for nail strength and the appearance of nails. Results. The results show that subjects taking Cynatine HNS showed statistically significant improvements in their hair and nails when compared to placebo. Conclusion. Cynatine HNS is an effective supplement for improving hair and nails in 90 days or less. EudraCT number is 2014-002645-22. PMID:25386609

Beer, Christina; Wood, Simon; Veghte, Robert H

2014-01-01

97

Assimilation of nail keratin by Trichophyton mentagrophytes (Morphological study)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In the course of onychomycosis due toTrichophyton mentagrophytes histological studies of nail plate were carried out in order to study growth of the fungus in the nail. The tissue changes caused by assimilation of the nail keratin by the fungus were also studied. Three phases of this process have been described: 1) growth of the fungus in the intercellular

J. Alkiewicz

1965-01-01

98

Fatigue strength of common tibial intramedullary nail distal locking screws  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Premature failure of either the nail and\\/or locking screws with unstable fracture patterns may lead to angulation, shortening, malunion, and IM nail migration. Up to thirty percent of all unreamed nail locking screws can break after initial weight bearing is allowed at 8–10 weeks if union has not occurred. The primary problem this presents is hardware removal during revision

Lanny V. Griffin; Robert M Harris; Joseph J Zubak

2009-01-01

99

Fungal infections of the nails in Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1963 and 1972, 986 fungi were isolated from the nails of patients in Western Australia. Three clinical types of infections in both finger and toe nails were studied. All 3 types occurred more commonly in adults over the age of 20. Multiple infections were relatively frequent. Two hundred and fourteen of the nail infections were caused by dermatophyte fungi.Trichophyton

Rose McAleer

1981-01-01

100

Spectrophotometric determination of triclosan in personal care products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spectrophotometric method for the determination of triclosan in personal care products was proposed. It was based on the reaction of sodium nitrite with p-sulfanilic acid in an acidic medium to form diazonium ion, with which triclosan further formed an azo compound in an alkaline medium. The resulting yellow colored product has a maximum absorption at 452 nm. A good linear relationship ( r = 0.9999) was obtained in the range of 0-30 mg L -1 triclosan. A detection limit of 0.079 g L -1 was achieved and the relative standard deviation was 0.24% ( n = 11) at 14 mg L -1 triclosan. The proposed method has been applied to the analyses of triclosan in several personal care products and the results were in good agreement with those obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography.

Lu, Huihui; Ma, Hongbing; Tao, Guanhong

2009-09-01

101

Oat and wheat as contact allergens in personal care products.  

PubMed

Oat and wheat are used as ingredients in various cosmetics and personal care products because of their moisturizing properties. Impaired barrier functions in atopic dermatitis (AD) may increase the risks of sensitization to oat and wheat proteins via skin. Immediate- and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions to oat and wheat in personal care products have been reported in previous studies, and most of those cases were patients with AD. Patch testing with oat and wheat proteins should be performed more frequently, especially in atopic children. It may help identify contact dermatitis, which may be a cause of flares in patients with AD. Complete avoidance of oat- or wheat-derived products is suggested as we cannot conclude that some oat- or wheat-derived components such as oils are free of protein. PMID:24201466

Pootongkam, Suwimon; Nedorost, Susan

2013-01-01

102

Trace elements in nail polish as a source of contamination of nail clippings when used in epidemiological studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Trace elements were determined in 27 brands of nail polish using INAA so as to estimate the impact of nail polish remainders when using (finger, toe) nail clippings as a bioindicator for epidemiological studies. Fe was found to be present up to almost 1.7% in one brand. No unambiguous correlation between trace elements and color was established, though transparent polish

P. C. Favaro; P. Bode; E. A. De Nadai Fernandes

2005-01-01

103

Skin and nail mycoses in patients with diabetic foot.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus affects all socioeconomic and age groups and its incidence is rapidly increasing worldwide. The diabetic foot complication represents one of the most complex and serious complications in these patients. Fungal infections can also contribute to the severity of the diabetic foot. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of foot skin and toenail mycosis in a group of 75 patients with diabetic foot complication and in a matched control group. Diabetic patients showed onychomycosis in 53.3% and foot skin mycosis in 46.7% of the cases, with a prevalence of both fungal infections significantly higher than that observed in the control group. At least one type of these fungal infections was present in 69.3% of diabetic subjects with a highly significant difference compared to control group (P<0.001). Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale were the most common species responsible of both nail and skin infections. Candida spp, Fusarium spp, Aspergillus spp and other moulds. were found in about 1/3 onychomycosis. Previous toe amputation was significantly associated with both skin and nail mycosis. The present study confirms that both tinea pedis and onychomycosis have a high prevalence in subjects suffering from diabetic foot complication, and that the problem of fungal infections of the foot in diabetic subjects is still highly underestimated. Consequently, there is an important clinical rationale for careful mycological examination of diabetic foot and an adequate treatment tailored for each individual patient according to the fungal species involved. PMID:24442040

Papini, M; Cicoletti, M; Fabrizi, V; Landucci, P

2013-12-01

104

Fungal infections of the nails in Western Australia.  

PubMed

Between 1963 and 1972, 986 fungi were isolated from the nails of patients in Western Australia. Three clinical types of infections in both finger and toe nails were studied. All 3 types occurred more commonly in adults over the age of 20. Multiple infections were relatively frequent. Two hundred and fourteen of the nail infections were caused by dermatophyte fungi. Trichophyton rubrum was the predominant aetiologic agent isolated from both finger and toe nails, T. mentagrophytes and other dermatophytes were involved to a lesser degree. Paronychia of the finger nails was common and mainly caused by C. albicans. Aspergillus species were the most frequent fungi grown from superficial white onychomycosis. PMID:7219514

McAleer, R

1981-02-13

105

New Concepts in Median Nail Dystrophy, Onychomycosis, and Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Nail Pathology  

PubMed Central

Nails are underutilized as diagnostic tools, despite being involved in many dermatologic conditions. This paper explores new concepts in the treatment of median nail dystrophy (MND), onychomycosis, and the nail pathology of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). A Pubmed database literature search was conducted for MND treatment, onychomycosis treatment, and HFMD nail pathology. Only papers published after January 2008 were reviewed. The results showed that 0.1% tacrolimus ointment can be an effective treatment for MND. Early studies on laser therapy indicate that it is a safe and efficacious treatment option for onychomycosis, compared to conventional oral antifungal agents. Vicks VapoRub (The Proctor & Gamble Company, Cincinnati, OH) is effective against onychomycosis and is a reasonable option in patients who choose to forgo conventional treatments. Lastly, there is evidence to support a correlation between HFMD and onychomadesis. PMID:22462009

Hoy, Nathan Y.; Leung, Alexander K. C.; Metelitsa, Andrei I.; Adams, Stewart

2012-01-01

106

Diagnosis and misdiagnosis of poisoning with the cyanide precursor acetonitrile: nail polish remover or nail glue remover?  

PubMed

Accurate diagnosis of acetonitrile ingestion is critical to management. Often this involves differentiating nail polish remover (acetone) from nail glue remover (acetonitrile). Initial symptoms of acetonitrile ingestion are indistinguishable from those of acetone and common alcohols. However, acetonitrile is metabolized to cyanide, producing severe delayed toxicity. Acetonitrile produced increased serum osmolality and osmolal gap, but these findings are non-specific and normal values cannot rule out potentially fatal exposure. Acetone, but not acetonitrile, was detectable in urine or serum with Acetest tablets; both were unreactive with a ketone dipstick. Acetone and acetonitrile could be detected with routine gas chromatography methods for alcohols. Both substances had identical retention times on the widely used stationary phase, 5% Carbowax 20M on graphitized carbon, and with GasChrom 254. Three other systems afforded unique retention times, but acetonitrile was easily mistaken for ethanol in two. Physicians and laboratories must take care to avoid misdiagnosis of acetonitrile ingestion as exposure to acetone, ethanol or another alcohol. PMID:8476448

Rainey, P M; Roberts, W L

1993-03-01

107

The effect of nail polish and acrylic nails on pulse oximetry reading using the lifebox oximeter in Nigeria.  

PubMed

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES - Pulse oximetry is mandatory during anaesthesia, sedation and transfer of critically ill patients. The effect of nail polish and acrylic nails on the accuracy of saturation reading is inconsistent. The Lifebox pulse oximeter is reliable and recommended for low and middle income countries. We investigated its accuracy in the presence of 4 nail colours and acrylic nails SUBJECTS AND METHODS Fifty non-smoking volunteers had their fingers numbered from right to left (little finger of right hand =1 and little finger of left hand =10). Alternate fingers were nails painted with clear, red, brown and black nail polish and the 5th finger had acrylic nail applied. The corresponding finger on the other hand acted as control. The oxygen saturation was determined using the Lifebox pulse oximeter. Results All fingers (100%) with clear nail polish, red nail polish and acrylic nails recorded a saturation value. Each of the mean saturation value for clear nail polish, red nail polish and acrylic nails was not significantly different from the control mean (p= 0.378, 0.427 and 0.921). Only 12% and 64% of nails polished black and brown respectively recorded a saturation value. The mean SpO- for black and brown polish were significantly different from their control mean (p<0.001). CONCLUSION Black and brown polish resulted in a significant decrease in SpO with the Lifebox oximeter. Dark coloured nail polish should be removed prior to SpO2 determination to ensure that accurate readings can be obtained. PMID:24633278

Desalu, I; Diakparomre, O I; Salami, A O; Abiola, A O

2013-12-01

108

Treatment of Nail Psoriasis: Common Concepts and New Trends  

PubMed Central

The lifetime incidence of nail involvement in psoriatic patients is estimated to be 80–90%, and the nails can be affected in 10% to 55% of psoriatic patients. Psoriasis may also solely involve the nails, without any other skin findings, in which the treatment can be more challenging. Nail psoriasis may lead to considerable impairment in quality of life due to aesthetic concerns and more importantly limitations in daily activities resulting from the associated pain, which may be overlooked by the physicians. Several topical and systemic treatment modalities, as well as radiation and light systems, have been used in the treatment of nail psoriasis. In the last decade, the introduction of biologic agents and the utilization of laser systems have brought a new insight into the treatment of nail psoriasis. This paper focuses on the recent advances, as well as the conventional methods, in treating nail psoriasis in adults and children, in reference to an extensive literature search. PMID:23762032

Oram, Yasemin; Akkaya, A. Deniz

2013-01-01

109

Correction of Pincer Nail Deformity Using Dermal Grafting  

PubMed Central

Pincer nail deformity is characterized by excessive curvature and distortion of the nail in the transverse dimension, and particularly at the distal part of the nail plate. This deformity leads to pinching off and loss of soft tissue in the affected digit, causing severe pain. Many treatment methods have been proposed; however, an effective long-term method preserving the nail matrix has not yet been established. We present here a case of pincer nail in the left thumb in a 49-year-old woman who was treated successfully with dermal grafting under the nail bed. We describe the surgical method and the treatment results. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in the Korean medical literature on the use of dermal grafting for the treatment of pincer nail deformity. PMID:22346262

Nam, Hyun Min; Kim, Ui Kyung; Park, Seok Don; Kim, Jeong Hee

2011-01-01

110

Nail polish removers: are they harmful?  

PubMed

An 11-year-old girl developed blisters on her fingers after wiping up spilled nail polish remover. This reaction and other adverse effects and hazards of polish removers are reviewed. In addition to blister formation, polish removers may cause irritant and allergic contact dermatitis, onycholysis, paronychia, and brittleness. They represent a fire hazard and may cause systemic toxicity following excessive inhalation. PMID:2018716

Kechijian, P

1991-03-01

111

[Physiological metals in the serum, hair and nails of patients with head and neck cancer].  

PubMed

Cigarette smoking and excessive alcohol drinking result in the rise of numbers of patients suffering from the head and neck cancer. Addiction to any of these stimulants carry a risk of developing a cancerogenesis process. Using them simultaniously lead not to a summary of each of those risks but multiplies them. Scientific research also indicates the important difference in the incidence of cancer in people who have never smoked cigarettes or drunk alcohol in comparison to those, whose exposure to these stimulatns was longterm - in such case, the former group had a lower percentage of developing the disease. Human body burdened with the ongoing cancer shows disturbances on various levels of the system. One of such disturbances is change of the concetration levels of physiological metals, such as calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, zinc or mangenese. They play key roles in maintaing the hormonal and ionic stability, they act as cofactors in many enzymes in metabolic processes. Diagnostic research of any deviations in levels of those essential elements enables a full estimation of a patient condition. The aim of this study was physiological metal levels evaluation in different kinds of biological material in patients with tumors of larynx, salivary glands and oral cavity and tongue. Hair and nail samples were used as examples of alternative material, beside the serum samples, which is a standard material and often used. Subjects were patients of Otolaryngology and Laryngological Oncology Clinic of Poznan University of Medical Sciences (Samodzielny Publiczny Szpital Kliniczny nr 2 im. Heliodora Swiecickiego Uniwersytetu Medycznego im. Karola Marcinkowskiego w Poznaniu) and The Head and Neck Surgery Ward of The Greater Poland Cancer Centre in Poznan. Subjects were 41 men and 18 women with tumors of larynx, salivary glands and oral cavity and tongue. The control group consisted of patients from the Otolaryngology and Laryngological Oncology Clinic of Poznan University of Medical Sciences (Samodzielny Publiczny Szpital Kliniczny nr 2 im. Heliodora Swiecickiego Uniwersytetu Medycznego im. Karola Marcinkowskiego w Poznaniu), The Head and Neck Surgery Ward of The Greater Poland Cancer Centre in Poznan and patients of Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Internal Medicine of Poznan University of Medical Sciences (Samodzielny Publiczny Szpital Kliniczny nr 2 im. Heliodora Swiecickiego Uniwersytetu Medycznego im. Karola Marcinkowskiego w Poznaniu) and Department of Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology Pozna? University of Medical Sciences. They gave answers to the questionnaire concerning smoking habits, alcohol consumption and dietary habits, Then the samples of their serum, hair and nails were collected. After careful preparations the biological material has underwent the process of digestion, and then calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, zinc, mangenese were determined quantitatively using the method of ICP-MS. Profile of the patients who took part in the research displayed a strong correlation between tobacco smoking with alcohol drinking and appearance of larynx, salivary gland and oral cavity and tongue cancer as well as between exclusively tobacco smoking and appearance of these types of cancer. There is a higher incidence of larynx, salivary gland and oral cavity and tongue cancer when there is a deficiency of grain products or fibre in everyday diet. A higher level of calcium, magnesium, iron and manganese was found in patients' hair and nails who suffered from salivary gland cancer. According to applied Chemometric Analysis of Principal Component 1 - concentrations of iron, copper and manganese with magnesium and zinc in patients' nail samples showed strong correlation between measured variables. In patiens' hair samples measured correlation between variables was decreased - concentrations of calcium and magnesium as well as of iron and manganese were highlighted as two groups of variables which showed some correlation in this type of biological material. Further research is required to indicate which of alternativ

Wo?niak, Anna; Kujawa, Anita; Se?czuk-Przyby?owska, Monika; Kulza, Maksymilian; Gawecki, Wojciech; Szybiak, Bartosz; Herman, Ma?gorzata; Czarnywojtek, Agata; Kurha?ska-Flisykowska, Anna; Chesy, Paulina; Szyfter, Witold; Walas, Stanis?aw; Golusi?ski, Wojciech; Szyfter, Krzysztof; Krejpcio, Zbigniew; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Parczewski, Andrzej; Florek, Ewa

2012-01-01

112

Frequency and longitudinal trends of household care product use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of household cleaning products and air fresheners exposes people to a variety of chemicals, including some that have been shown to be irritants, potential carcinogens and endocrine disrupting compounds. In addition, some react with ambient ozone infiltrating to the indoor environment to form potentially toxic secondary pollutants. Although realistic estimates of usage patterns are necessary for modeling potential exposures in risk assessments, few studies have documented cleaning habits and product usage to characterize how they vary between households and over time. In addition, understanding within-household temporal variability of use is important to assess the reliability of exposure questionnaires used in epidemiological surveys and improve the cost-efficiency of data collection. In the SUPERB (Study of Use of Products and Exposure-Related Behavior) study, frequencies of use of eight types of household cleaning products and air fresheners and the performance of different types of cleaning tasks are collected in three annual telephone and six quarterly web-based surveys. All-purpose and glass cleaners were the products most frequently used among all products surveyed. Use frequencies differed by demographic and other household characteristics for some products. Product usage was internally consistent, with over 75% of pairwise cross-sectional correlations between product types statistically significantly different from zero. In addition, each product type was correlated with at least one cleaning habit. Frequency of cleaning product use and performing cleaning tasks did not vary by season. An examination of intra-household variability showed moderately to highly consistent usage patterns over time, with lower temporal consistency observed among products used more frequently, such as all-purpose cleaners. Frequency of household care product usage was consistent enough that in epidemiologic studies, participants can be classified, for example, into three categories on the basis of a single assessment, with only minimal misclassification.

Moran, Rebecca E.; Bennett, Deborah H.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Wu, Xiangmei (May); Ritz, Beate; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

2012-08-01

113

Bifunctional ectodermal stem cells around the nail display dual fate homeostasis and adaptive wounding response toward nail regeneration.  

PubMed

Regulation of adult stem cells (SCs) is fundamental for organ maintenance and tissue regeneration. On the body surface, different ectodermal organs exhibit distinctive modes of regeneration and the dynamics of their SC homeostasis remain to be unraveled. A slow cycling characteristic has been used to identify SCs in hair follicles and sweat glands; however, whether a quiescent population exists in continuously growing nails remains unknown. Using an in vivo label retaining cells (LRCs) system, we detected an unreported population of quiescent cells within the basal layer of the nail proximal fold, organized in a ring-like configuration around the nail root. These nail LRCs express the hair stem cell marker, keratin 15 (K15), and lineage tracing show that these K15-derived cells can contribute to both the nail structure and peri-nail epidermis, and more toward the latter. Thus, this stem cell population is bifunctional. Upon nail plucking injury, the homeostasis is tilted with these SCs dominantly delivering progeny to the nail matrix and differentiated nail plate, demonstrating their plasticity to adapt to wounding stimuli. Moreover, in vivo engraftment experiments established that transplanted nail LRCs can actively participate in functional nail regeneration. Transcriptional profiling of isolated nail LRCs revealed bone morphogenetic protein signaling favors nail differentiation over epidermal fate. Taken together, we have found a previously unidentified ring-configured population of bifunctional SCs, located at the interface between the nail appendage organ and adjacent epidermis, which physiologically display coordinated homeostatic dynamics but are capable of rediverting stem cell flow in response to injury. PMID:25277970

Leung, Yvonne; Kandyba, Eve; Chen, Yi-Bu; Ruffins, Seth; Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Kobielak, Krzysztof

2014-10-21

114

Clinical guidelines for the recognition of melanoma of the foot and nail unit  

PubMed Central

Malignant melanoma is a life threatening skin tumour which may arise on the foot. The prognosis for the condition is good when lesions are diagnosed and treated early. However, lesions arising on the soles and within the nail unit can be difficult to recognise leading to delays in diagnosis. These guidelines have been drafted to alert health care practitioners to the early signs of the disease so an early diagnosis can be sought. PMID:21040565

2010-01-01

115

Indoor air quality survey of nail salons in Boston.  

PubMed

Employees in nail salons, largely Vietnamese immigrant women in Boston, are exposed to a range of volatile organic chemicals from the products used in salons, including solvents, glues and polishes. Some of these chemicals have the potential to cause short and long-term adverse health effects. Only limited research has been performed on assessing occupational exposures. This project aimed to characterize total volatile organic compound (TVOC) and PM2.5 concentrations in nail salons as a function of ventilation, building characteristics, customer and employee occupancy, and type of services being performed. Students conducted sampling in 21 salons in Boston, MA from September to December, 2011. Study visits included: indoor environmental quality measurements (TVOCs, PM2.5 and carbon dioxide), site observations, and an interview. CO2 levels in 15 of 21 salons exceeded 800 ppm, suggesting that these salons may have insufficient ventilation. Higher TVOC and PM2.5 levels were found in salons with less ventilation (as estimated using CO2 concentrations). Contrary to our a priori hypothesis, average levels of TVOCs, CO2 and PM2.5 were consistent throughout salons, indicating that exposures may not be restricted to areas in the salon where work is being performed (e.g., at the manicure table). Higher TVOC concentrations were observed when tasks were being performed, yet were not dependent upon the number of tasks being performed. Improving ventilation conditions in salons to meet minimum outdoor air delivery requirements can reduce exposures to TVOCs. PMID:23765035

Goldin, Laura J; Ansher, Liza; Berlin, Ariana; Cheng, Jenny; Kanopkin, Deena; Khazan, Anna; Kisivuli, Meda; Lortie, Molly; Bunker Peterson, Emily; Pohl, Laura; Porter, Sam; Zeng, Vivian; Skogstrom, Tiffany; Fragala, Matt A; Myatt, Theodore A; Stewart, James H; Allen, Joseph G

2014-06-01

116

Primary amyloidosis-induced nail dystrophy.  

PubMed

Primary amyloidosis is caused by a monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells and is capable of producing cutaneous lesions. A 56-year-old male was admitted to the hospital for evaluation of chronic back pain and acute lower extremity weakness. On examination, he was noted to have subungual verrucous plaques with overlying nail dystrophy on his bilateral thumbs. A biopsy of one subungual lesion showed a deposition of amorphous material in the dermis that stained with Congo red and crystal violet. These cutaneous lesions ultimately led to the diagnosis of plasma cell dyscrasia and primary amyloidosis. Based on the literature search, primary amyloidosis presenting with this degree of subungual thickening and overlying nail dystrophy has not been previously reported. PMID:24456950

Tausend, William; Neill, Megan; Kelly, Brent

2014-01-01

117

Kidney disease in nail–patella syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nail–patella syndrome (NPS) is a pleiotropic autosomal-dominant disorder due to mutations in the gene LMX1B. It has traditionally\\u000a been characterized by a tetrad of dermatologic and musculoskeletal abnormalities. However, one of the most serious manifestations\\u000a of NPS is kidney disease, which may be present in up to 40% of affected individuals. Although LMX1B is a developmental LIM-homeodomain\\u000a transcription factor, it

Kevin V. Lemley

2009-01-01

118

[A woman with polyneuropathy and white nails].  

PubMed

A 69-year-old woman had a progressive demyelinating and axonal polyneuropathy and a monoclonal gammopathy. Physical examination showed hyperpigmentation, acrocyanosis, white nails and pitting oedema. Additional tests showed polycythemia, thrombocytosis, a high serum VEGF-level, clonal plasma cells on bone marrow biopsy and sclerotic lesions of a cervical rib and the cervical and thoracal spine. POEMS-syndrome was diagnosed. PMID:24642120

van der Meijden, Wilbert A G; Alsma, Jelmer; van Doorn, Pieter A

2014-01-01

119

Additives for water-based nail polish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-based nail polish systems are reviewed. These may be described as complex mixed colloidal disper- sions of polymer(s) and pigment in water. These frequently also contain water-soluble polymers. Polymers are used as both binders and additives for water-based coatings. Typical of their role as additives is their use as thickeners and pigment dispersants. The many polymer types used are discussed

MITCHELL SCHLOSSMAN

120

[Complications after intramedullary nailing of the tibia].  

PubMed

As demonstrated by the experience, treatment of fractures of the tibial intramedullary nail proved to be the most advantageous method of operating as: put the rod runs in the biomechanical axis of the limb, is inside of the bone, is a minimally invasive procedure (carried out with small cuts). Initially, the method of intramedullary nailing was used for the treatment of fractures of the shaft center of the tibia. However, the development of surgical techniques has meant that the method can also be used to treat fractures of the proximal and distal tibia. The most common complications of surgical treatment by this method, apart from infection include: changing the limb axis, rotation of the factions against each other, and degenerative changes in the knee depend on the introduction of nail art. The aim of this study is to analyze in order to treat patients with lower leg fractures using intramedullary nailing. It was carried out based on the collected medical records and clinical examination, which included 45 patients. It was found that the most common complication observed after treatment was varus tibial fragments (5 cases - 11% of respondents). Less commonly observed disorder in the form of the axis of rotation of the limb (1 case) and anteflexion -1 case. During the test showed that the axis of the limb abnormalities were associated with the initial surgery. There was no significant progression of the axis of the limb abnormalities in the period from the date of surgery to complete primary union. Complications in the form of secondary osteoarthritis of the knee reported in studies of other authors, did not occur in any of the analyzed in the work cases. PMID:22420180

Pob?ocki, Krzysztof; Domaradzki, Marcin; Gawdzik, Jerzy; Prochacki, Pawe?; Rajewski, Rajmund

2011-01-01

121

Pompholyx of the nail organ and the true onychomycosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pompholyx is one clinical form of the endoparasitic-hematogenous skin eruptions. It is characterized by sago-grain-like, deeply embedded blisters or pustules within the normal, primarily non-inflamed skin, localized to the palms, soles, fingers, toes and interdigital webs, and in the nail organ. The blisters may be located in the nail wall causing paronychia, and\\/or beneath the nail plate causing onychia. The

Tibor Benedek

1972-01-01

122

Post-Traumatic Cerebral Infarction Following Low-Energy Penetrating Craniocerebral Injury Caused by a Nail  

PubMed Central

Post-traumatic cerebral infarction (PTCI) is a secondary insult which causes global cerebral hypoxia or hypoperfusion after traumatic brain injury, and carries a remarkable high mortality rate. PTCI is usually caused by blunt brain injury with gross hematoma and/or brain herniation. Herein, we present the case of a 91-year-old male who had sustained PTCI following a low-energy penetrating craniocerebral injury due to a nail without evidence of hematoma. The patient survived after a decompressive craniectomy, but permanent neurological damage occurred. This is the first case of profound PTCI following a low-energy penetrating craniocerebral nail injury and reminds clinicians of possibility this rare dreadful complication for care of head-injured patients. PMID:25132939

Chen, Po-Chuan; Tsai, Shih-Hung; Chen, Yu-Long

2014-01-01

123

Using flexible nails to improve stabilization of proximal femur fractures in adolescents.  

PubMed

Intramedullary fixation as a treatment for adolescent femur fractures has increased in popularity. We investigated the varus stability of 3 fixation techniques--the standard 2-nail configuration (2 retrograde nails), a 3-nail configuration (standard 2-nail configuration plus 1 antegrade nail), and a retrograde/antegrade 2-nail configuration--in synthetic femurs with 2 simulated fracture patterns (transverse, butterfly). A varus moment was applied to the specimens until 20 degrees of varus angulation was obtained. The varus angular stiffness of the construct defined varus stability. The 3-nail configuration had the most varus angular stiffness with both fracture patterns. The varus stability of the 3-nail configuration was statistically higher than that of the standard 2-nail configuration with the transverse fracture pattern only. Adding 1 antegrade nail to 2 retrograde nails significantly increased resistance to varus deformity of reduced proximal-third transverse femur fractures in the synthetic femur model. PMID:16475423

Crist, Brett D; Dart, Bradley R; Czuwala, Peter J; Olney, Brad W; Pence, Charles D

2006-01-01

124

Indoor Air Quality Survey of Boston Nail Salons  

E-print Network

Indoor Air Quality Survey of Boston Nail Salons JBS Environmental Health and Justice Program #12-Aid Objectives Assess indoor air quality in Boston nail salons Assess factors that may influence exposure #12 Institutional Review Board (IRB) Each salon visit had three components: air quality measurements, observations

Fraden, Seth

125

Computational investigation of the relative efficacies of nail-and  

E-print Network

fracture-fixation and bone-healing promotion efficacies of an intramedullary (IM) nail-type and an external a large range of scenarios involving relative importance of the bone-healing promotion and fractureComputational investigation of the relative efficacies of nail- and plate-type proximal femoral-fracture

Grujicic, Mica

126

Introduction Nail-patella syndrome (also called hereditary onycho-  

E-print Network

Introduction Nail-patella syndrome (also called hereditary onycho- osteodysplasia) is a relatively patellae. One-third to one-half of the patients, however, also suffer from hematuria and proteinuria- type remains unclear. In 1998 the first mutations that lead to the develop- ment of nail-patella

Witzgall, Ralph - Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät III

127

TOXIC TRACE METALS IN MAMMALIAN HAIR AND NAILS  

EPA Science Inventory

Data have been compiled from the available world literature on the accumulation and bioconcentration of selected toxic trace metals in human hair and nails and other mammalian hair, fur, nails, claws, and hoofs. The toxic trace metals and metalloids include antimony, arsenic, bor...

128

Onychophagia (Nail biting), anxiety, and malocclusion.  

PubMed

Nail biting is a stress removing habit adopted by many children and adults. People usually do it when they are nervous, stressed, hungry, or bored. All of these situations are having a common phenomenon between them is anxiety. Onychophagia is also a sign of other emotional or mental disorders. It is a habit that is not easy to quit and reflection of extreme nervousness or inability to handle stressful conditions. This abnormal habit may cause various malocclusions associated with dentoalveolar segment of the oral cavity. Crowding and rotations of incisors are common with this habit. PMID:23422619

Sachan, Avesh; Chaturvedi, T P

2012-01-01

129

Prognostic Factors for Predicting Outcomes After Intramedullary Nailing of the Tibia  

PubMed Central

Background: Prediction of negative postoperative outcomes after long-bone fracture treatment may help to optimize patient care. We recently completed the Study to Prospectively Evaluate Reamed Intramedullary Nails in Patients with Tibial Fractures (SPRINT), a large, multicenter trial of reamed and unreamed intramedullary nailing of tibial shaft fractures in 1226 patients. Using the SPRINT data, we conducted an investigation of baseline and surgical factors to determine any associations with an increased risk of adverse events within one year of intramedullary nailing. Methods: Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, we investigated fifteen baseline and surgical factors for any associations with an increased risk of negative outcomes. Results: There was an increased risk of negative events in patients with a high-energy mechanism of injury (odds ratio [OR] = 1.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05 to 2.35), a stainless steel compared with a titanium nail (OR = 1.52; 95% CI, 1.10 to 2.13), a fracture gap (OR = 2.40; 95% CI, 1.47 to 3.94), and full weight-bearing status after surgery (OR = 1.63; 95% CI, 1.00 to 2.64). There was no increased risk with the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, late or early time to surgery, or smoking status. Open fractures had a higher risk of events among patients treated with reamed nailing (OR = 3.26; 95% CI, 2.01 to 5.28) but not in patients treated with unreamed nailing (OR = 1.50; 95% CI, 0.92 to 2.47). Patients with open fractures who had wound management either without any additional procedures or with delayed primary closure had a decreased risk of events compared with patients who required subsequent, more complex reconstruction (OR = 0.18 [95% CI, 0.09 to 0.35] and 0.29 [95% CI, 0.14 to 0.62], respectively). Conclusions: We identified several baseline fracture and surgical characteristics that may increase the risk of adverse events in patients with tibial shaft fractures. Surgeons should consider the predictors identified in our analysis to inform patients treated for tibial shaft fractures. Level of Evidence: Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:23032589

Schemitsch, Emil H.; Bhandari, Mohit; Guyatt, Gordon; Sanders, David W.; Swiontkowski, Marc; Tornetta, Paul; Walter, Stephen D.; Zdero, Rad; Goslings, J.C.; Teague, David; Jeray, Kyle; McKee, Michael D.; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Bhandari, Mohit; Guyatt, Gordon; Sanders, David W.; Swiontkowski, Marc; Tornetta, Paul; Walter, Stephen D.; Zdero, Rad; Goslings, J.C.; Teague, David; Jeray, Kyle; McKee, Michael D.

2012-01-01

130

Multiple self-inflicted nail gun head injury.  

PubMed

Penetrating brain injury resulting from nail-gun use is a well-characterized entity, one that is increasing in frequency as nail guns become more powerful and more readily available to the public. We present a case and offer management strategies for a 50-year-old male with two intracranial penetrating nail gun injuries. Nail gun brain injuries are commonly intentionally self-inflicted. Suicide should be considered when straight nails cause wounds to the chest, head, or abdomen. The primary preoperative concern is formation of a traumatic pseudoaneurism, which prompts both preoperative and follow-up cerebral angiography. Surgery for combined intracranial and extracranial injury may require the collaborative expertise of colleagues from the fields of ophthalmology, otolaryngology, and oral maxillofacial surgery. A rational management strategy should permit these patients to be discharged with no additional injury. PMID:17591316

Testerman, George M; Dacks, Laura M

2007-06-01

131

Characterization of indoor air contaminants in a randomly selected set of commercial nail salons in Salt Lake County, Utah, USA.  

PubMed

Air samples were collected in 12 randomly selected commercial nail salons in Salt Lake County, Utah. Measurements of salon physical/chemical parameters (room volume, CO2 levels) were obtained. Volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations were collected using summa air canisters and sorbent media tubes for an 8-h period. Multivariate analyses were used to identify relationships between salon physical/chemical characteristics and the VOCs found in the air samples. The ACGIH(®) additive mixing formula was also applied to determine if there were potential overexposures to the combined airborne concentrations of chemicals monitored. Methyl methacrylate was detected in 58% of the establishments despite having been banned for use in nail products by the state of Utah. Formaldehyde was found above the NIOSH REL(®) (0.016 ppm) in 58% of the establishments. Given the assortment of VOCs to which nail salon workers are potentially exposed, a combination of engineering as well as personal protective equipment is recommended. PMID:23286453

Alaves, Victor M; Sleeth, Darrah K; Thiese, Matthew S; Larson, Rodney R

2013-01-01

132

Green Nail Syndrome (Pseudomonas aeruginosa Nail Infection): Two Cases Successfully Treated with Topical Nadifloxacin, an Acne Medication  

PubMed Central

Green nail syndrome (GNS) caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common bacterial nail infection. The treatment of GNS is challenging in many cases and recommendations based on clinical trials are lacking. We report two cases with GNS successfully treated with off-label use of topical nadifloxacin, a fluoroquinolone approved for acne and bacterial skin infections in some countries.

Muller, Simon; Ebnother, Myriam; Itin, Peter

2014-01-01

133

Impact of a Healthy Nails Program on Nail-Biting in Turkish Schoolchildren: A Controlled Pretest-Posttest Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to examine the effect of a healthy nails program on nail-biting in Turkish schoolchildren. This quasi-experimental study was of pretest-posttest control group design. A total of 50 students of a primary school formed the intervention group, while 53 students from the same school formed the control group. Data were…

Ergun, Ayse; Toprak, Rumeysa; Sisman, Fatma Nevin

2013-01-01

134

Limb lengthening over a nail can safely reduce the duration of external fixation  

PubMed Central

Background: Limb lengthening using Ilizarov external fixation is safe, but the consolidation phase tends to take too long. A method that can safely reduce the time spent in external fixation would help increase patient tolerance and comfort. We report our results of lengthening over nails (LON) method in which an interlocking nail was used along with an Ilizarov external fixator to reduce external fixation duration in limb lengthening. This is a retrospective study. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven lengthening surgeries were done with the LON method in 23 patients with 22 tibiae and five femora during the last 12 years. Length gain ranged from 1.5 cm to a maximum of 9.8 cm with a mean of 4.6 cm. The mean modified Paley difficulty score was 7.6 points. Fourteen associated procedures were performed in these patients, including equinus contracture releases, supracondylar osteotomies, ilizarov hip reonstruction and ankle fusion. We had a 29% rate of complications which included one problem, three obstacles and four complications with no serious deep intramedullary infections. Our rate of complications compares favorably with series reported in the literature. External fixation duration was reduced significantly to a mean of 17.8 days per cm. Conclusions: A combination of intramedullary nailing along with external fixation significantly reduces external fixation time while maintaining low rate of complications. Great care needs to be taken to prevent pin track infection and deep intramedullary sepsis. PMID:19753160

Chaudhary, Milind

2008-01-01

135

Malignant melanoma masqueraded as ingrown toe nail.  

PubMed

We report a case in a 62-year-old female who presented with a year history of dull aching pain of the left big toe, which was aggravated by pressure on the nail and relieved by analgesia. Tissue biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of malignant melanoma. There was a black colour swelling about 3x8 mm in size over the medial side of the dorsum of left big toe with a scar of previous operation. Histopathological examination showed on gross section of 2 blackish area one infiltrate the bone the other the tumour not infiltrate the proximal interphalangial joint with another satellite lesion 20mm from main tumour area was found. Malignant cells were large with abundant cytoplasm, hyperchromatic nuclei and some prominent eosinophilic nucleoli. Melanin pigment was markedly seen. The big toe was amputated. We here highlight a case where the patient was diagnosed and managed as having ingrown nail of the left big toe while in actual fact she had a subungual amelanotic melanoma. PMID:24589950

Adnan, A; Bajuri, M Y; Shukur, M H; Subanesh, S; Das, S

2014-01-01

136

Skin and nail changes in children with sickle cell anemia receiving hydroxyurea therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin and nail changes from long-term hydroxyurea therapy are reported in adults. Skin and nail changes, including nail hyperpigmentation, longitudinal bands, and hyperpigmentation of the palms and other skin surfaces, developed in 7 children with sickle cell anemia after 6 to 16 weeks of hydroxyurea therapy. Cutaneous and nail changes may occur in children receiving hydroxyurea. (J Am Acad Dermatol

Erin E. O'Branski; Russell E. Ware; Neil S. Prose; Thomas R. Kinney

2001-01-01

137

Nail incorporation kinetics of terbinafine in onychomycosis patients.  

PubMed

Patients with toe-nail onychomycosis were treated with terbinafine (250 mg daily, n = 20) for either 6 or 12 weeks in a randomized double-blind study. Plasma and distal nail clippings were taken before initiation of therapy and 1, 6, 12, 18, 24, 36 and 48 weeks thereafter. Analytical data of terbinafine extracted from nail clippings or plasma were obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Nail extracts and isolated HPLC terbinafine peaks were analysed using a combined gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy system (GC-MS) for unequivocal identification of the drug. Terbinafine could be detected in the distal nail in the majority of the patients within 1 week of starting therapy. Maximum terbinafine levels of 0.52 and 1.01 micrograms/g were measured after 18 weeks in the 6- and 12-week treatment groups, respectively. While plasma levels decreased rapidly after termination of therapy terbinafine was detected in the nails as long as 30 weeks (6 weeks treatment) and 36 weeks (12 weeks treatment) after termination of therapy at a range of 0.28-0.19 microgram/g. The drug concentrations measured at all time points are well above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for dermatophytes and other fungi. These data suggest that the drug reaches the nail plate rapidly and persists there for several months after cessation of active treatment. PMID:8593713

Schatz, F; Bräutigam, M; Dobrowolski, E; Effendy, I; Haberl, H; Mensing, H; Weidinger, G; Stütz, A

1995-09-01

138

Use of health care resources and loss of productivity in patients with depressive disorders seen in Primary Care: INTERDEP Study.  

PubMed

Introduction. The InterDep Study analyzes the characteristics of patients with a depressive disorder who, in the last years, have received health services at Primary Care in an specific health care area. The InterDep Study evaluates the use of heath care resources attributable to depression (direct costs) and loss of productivity (indirect costs). It also analyzes these patients’ referral to the specialist. Methods. A retrospective, multicenter observational study was conducted using computerized medical records collected in an anonymized database of 22,795 patients who received health care services between 2005 and 2009 for a new episode of depressive disorder in a specific Primary Care Area of the Madrid Health Service (Community of Madrid) (former Area 6). Results. A 74.5% of the patients with depressive disorders were women, mean age 54 years (SD 17.7). According to the ICPC classification, depression was the most frequently diagnosed disorder (48.4%), followed by anxiety (35.4%) and adjustment disorder (16.2%). A 88.5% were treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) (N06AB). The average total annual cost (both direct and indirect costs) was 725.2 Euros. Loss of productivity was the major cost in depressed patients treated in primary care (501.0 Euros), especially among those patients on disability. A 29.7% of the patients were referred to specialized care. Conclusions. The prevalence and the socio-sanitary impact of depressive disorders in primary care require adequate clinical competence from the physician to guarantee proper disease management thus, minimizing the significant direct (health care resources) and indirect (loss of productivity) cost. PMID:25388770

Caballero-Martínez, Fernando; León-Vázquez, Fernando; Payá-Pardo, Alfredo; Díaz-Holgado, Antonio

2014-11-01

139

Fungal infections of the skin and nail: new treatment options.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the currently available antifungal agents, along with clinical, microbiologic and histopathologic methods, can help the medical professional optimally manage skin and nail fungal infections. With regards to treatment of fungal disease of the skin or nail, there are a variety of systemic antifungal agents, including several newer agents that have different formulations, tolerability, adverse effect profiles and spectrum of activity. This review will highlight the clinically important fungal infections of the skin and nail and describe the activity and role of antifungal treatment. PMID:25241767

Eldridge, Matthew L; Chambers, Cindy J; Sharon, Victoria R; Thompson, George R

2014-11-01

140

[Yellow nail syndrome in a patient with membranous glomerulonephritis].  

PubMed

Yellow nail syndrome (YNS) is a condition characterized by yellow-green coloration of nails, respiratory manifestations and lymphoedema. This article presents 52-year-old patient with membranous glomerulonephritis, hospitalized at the National Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases Research Institute in Warsaw, because of suspected allergic aspergillosis. Based on clinical and radiological evaluation the diagnosis of YNS was established. Treatment of renal disease did not affect the course of yellow nail syndrome. During the two-year follow-up, despite stable renal parameters we observed the progression of respiratory manifestations (bronchiectasis, pleural effusions). PMID:22370985

Modrzewska, Katarzyna; Fijo?ek, Justyna; Ptak, Jakub; Wiatr, El?bieta

2012-01-01

141

Late nail lesions rejection in a stable bilateral forearm allograft at 60 months posttransplantation.  

PubMed

We present a case of late nail lesions rejection in a stable and compliant bilateral forearm allograft at 60 months posttransplantation, confirming that rejection features in vascularized composite tissue allotransplantation are more heterogeneous with multiple clinical implications, despite apparently appropriate immunosuppressive treatment. Our observations may help to better characterize and to fully understand the onset and dynamics of skin rejection after human hand allotransplantation; nevertheless, further investigations are required, and careful monitoring of the grafts by direct inspection is advisable in all patients to start rapidly appropriate and effective treatment. PMID:25305186

Thione, Alessandro; Cavadas, Pedro C; Lorca-García, Concepción; Pérez-García, Alberto; Alfaro, Luis

2014-11-01

142

Student Productivity Under Requirement and Comprehensive Care Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Columbia University (New York) dental-school study examined educational/patient care effects of changing from a numerical requirements-driven clinical curriculum to a comprehensive-care model driven by patient needs and led by faculty group leaders. Results suggest a significant increase in number of treatment plans completed by students, with no…

Evangelidis-Sakellson, Vicky

1999-01-01

143

Lectitis purulenta et granulomatosa (granulomatous purulent nail bed inflammation).  

PubMed

A granulomatous purulent nail bed inflammation of the great toenails in a 69-year-old female patient is described. The successful treatment consisted of intra- and perilesional corticosteroide injections in addition to systemic antibiotic treatment. PMID:9621149

Eichmann, A; Baran, R

1998-01-01

144

Delayed manifestations of the “Nail-Slipper injury”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Penetrating injuries of the foot are a common presenting complaint in the emergency department. The residents of the underdeveloped\\u000a world are especially prone to suffer such injuries as barefoot walking is still common. However, a relatively common injury\\u000a that occurs in the shod feet is the “Nail-Slipper injury”. A metal nail penetrates through the rubber sole of the footwear\\u000a introducing

Shabir Ahmed Dhar; Tahir Ahmed Dar; Asif Sultan; Mohammed Farooq Butt; Mohammed Ramzan Mir; Altaf Ahmed Kawoosa; Shaika Farooq

2009-01-01

145

[Common disorders and diseases of the nails. Anatomy, physiology, disorders, clarification and therapy].  

PubMed

Disorders of anatomical variants of the nails are often seen in clinical practice. Their correction identification and interpretation are essential dermatological skills. The increasing emphasis on aesthetic considerations in dermatology means that even the slightest nail changes may assume significance for their patients. In order to skillfully evaluate nails, one must be familiar with the terminology and classification of nail disorders. The nail plate, nail bed and periungual tissue may also be affected. Longitudinal melanonychia is especially important as a possible clue to subungual melanoma. PMID:15274247

Mainusch, O M

2004-06-01

146

The productivity of mental health care: an instrumental variable approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Like many other medical technologies and treatments, there is a lack of reliable evidence on treatment effectiveness of mental health care. Increasingly, data from non-experimental settings are being used to study the effect of treatment. However, as in a number of studies using non-experimental data, a simple regression of outcome on treatment shows a puzzling negative and significant impact

Mingshan Lu

1999-01-01

147

International scientists’ priorities for research on pharmaceutical and personal care products in the environment  

EPA Science Inventory

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are widely discharged into the environment via diverse pathways. The effects of PPCPs in the environment have potentially important human and ecosystem health implications, so credible, salient, and legitimate scientific evidence...

148

POLLUTION FROM PERSONAL ACTIONS, ACTIVITIES, AND BEHAVIORS: PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS IN THE ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Perhaps more so than with any other class of pollutants, the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPS) in the environment highlights the immediate, intimate, and inseparable connection between the personal activities of individual citizens and their environ...

149

PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS (PPCP'S) AS ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS: POLLUTION FROM PERSONAL ACTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as trace environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope of concerns continues to expand. PPCPs comprise thousands of distinct chemicals from numerous therapeutic and consumer classes. They typical...

150

POLLUTION FROM PERSONAL ACTIONS AND ACTIVITIES - PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS (PPCPS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as trace environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope of concerns continues to expand. PPCPs comprise thousands of distinct chemicals from numerous therapeutic and consumer classes. They typical...

151

PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS (PPCPS) AS ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS: POLLUTION FROM PERSONAL ACTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as trace environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope of concerns continues to expand. PPCPs comprise thousands of distinct chemicals from numerous therapeutic and consumer classes. They typicall...

152

Genetics Home Reference: T-cell immunodeficiency, congenital alopecia, and nail dystrophy  

MedlinePLUS

... Genetic testing OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > T-cell immunodeficiency, congenital alopecia, and nail dystrophy On this ... Glossary definitions Reviewed August 2014 What is T-cell immunodeficiency, congenital alopecia, and nail dystrophy? T-cell ...

153

Early events in the invasion of the human nail plate by Trichophyton mentagrophytes.  

PubMed

A new in vitro model for the study of nail invasion by dermatophyte fungi was developed. The dermatophyte Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and fragments of finger-nails and toe-nails were used. Arthroconidia were inoculated on the ventral surface of the nails. After 6 h, adherence and germination of arthroconidia was observed. By 16 h, small germ tubes with side branches were evident. At about 24 h, micro-colonies had become established. At 48 h, a mycelium had formed, and at about 72 h most of the nail fragment was covered with fungal growth. Nail penetration occurred from the ventral surface through the intercellular spaces, and with longer incubation all three layers were invaded by arthroconidia growing through channels. Nail invasion occurred in the absence of added nutrients. Dermatophyte fungi appeared to invade the nail by a combination of mechanical and chemical factors. The model provides a substrate to study the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of new antifungal agents in situ. PMID:8547048

Rashid, A; Scott, E; Richardson, M D

1995-12-01

154

Green nail syndrome treated with the application of tobramycin eye drop.  

PubMed

Green nail syndrome (chromonychia) is a nail disorder characterized by onycholysis and green-black discoloration of the nail bed. This condition is often associated with chronic paronychia. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most commonly identified organism in cultures from the affected area. Despite the various treatment options available, removal of the nail is still necessary in many cases. A 35-year-old man presented with dark-greenish discoloration of the nail plate and onycholysis on the left thumbnail. He had been treated with oral antifungal and antibiotic agents for several months; however, the lesion showed no improvement. The diagnosis of green nail syndrome was established after a positive bacterial culture, and on the basis of the antibiotic sensitivity test result, tobramycin eye drop (Tobrex®) was then prescribed. Three weeks later, the nail discoloration almost vanished but the onycholysis remained. Herein, we recommend the application of tobramycin eye drop as an easy and safe treatment option for green nail syndrome. PMID:25143684

Bae, Youin; Lee, Gang Mo; Sim, Ji Hoon; Lee, Sanghoon; Lee, Sung Yul; Park, Young Lip

2014-08-01

155

Unlocked and locked elastic stable intramedullary nailing in an ovine tibia fracture model: a biomechanical study.  

PubMed

In the present study, four different systems of elastic stable intramedullary nails (unlocked, Ender stainless steel nails locked with 3-mm screws, titanium nails locked with end caps, titanium nails locked with plugs and 3-mm screws) were implanted in cadaveric ovine tibiae. Fractures were simulated by a transverse diaphyseal osteotomy. The specimens were subjected to simultaneous axial and torsional fatigue loading of 5000 and 1000 cycles, respectively. The unlocked systems failed at an axial load of 200 N peak amplitude. End caps systems withstood axial loads up to 800 N for 1000 cycles, and ender nails and plugs lasted up to 1000 N for 1000 cycles. All systems showed a decrease of axial stiffness with higher loads and endured cycles. Ender nails and nails locked with plugs failed by penetration of the distal epiphysis rather than by loosening of the interlocking system. Overall, the titanium nails locked with plugs and 3-mm screws exhibited superior test results. PMID:24857493

Berger, Leopold; Fischerauer, Stefan; Weiß, Barbara; Celarek, Anna; Castellani, Christoph; Weinberg, Annelie-Martina; Tschegg, Elmar

2014-07-01

156

Green Nail Syndrome Treated with the Application of Tobramycin Eye Drop  

PubMed Central

Green nail syndrome (chromonychia) is a nail disorder characterized by onycholysis and green-black discoloration of the nail bed. This condition is often associated with chronic paronychia. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most commonly identified organism in cultures from the affected area. Despite the various treatment options available, removal of the nail is still necessary in many cases. A 35-year-old man presented with dark-greenish discoloration of the nail plate and onycholysis on the left thumbnail. He had been treated with oral antifungal and antibiotic agents for several months; however, the lesion showed no improvement. The diagnosis of green nail syndrome was established after a positive bacterial culture, and on the basis of the antibiotic sensitivity test result, tobramycin eye drop (Tobrex®) was then prescribed. Three weeks later, the nail discoloration almost vanished but the onycholysis remained. Herein, we recommend the application of tobramycin eye drop as an easy and safe treatment option for green nail syndrome. PMID:25143684

Bae, Youin; Lee, Gang Mo; Sim, Ji Hoon; Lee, Sanghoon; Lee, Sung Yul

2014-01-01

157

The Huckstep intramedullary compression nail. Indications, technique, and results.  

PubMed

A four-sided, intramedullary compression nail of solid titanium alloy has been developed since 1967. This nail is 12.5 mm in diameter with 4.5-mm transverse holes at 15-mm intervals, for 4-mm fine threaded screws. It has four oblique holes in the proximal end to allow 4.5-mm lag screws to be inserted up the femoral neck. A compressor over the trochanter can be used for compression in transverse fractures. Advantages include inert titanium alloy, which is stronger than the average femoral shaft, a recessed end of the nail, reaming to only 13 mm, and a quadrilateral shape. No operative roentgenograms are usually required. Comminuted, oblique, and infected fractures of the entire length of the femoral shaft down to the supracondylar region can be held rigidly, usually allowing for immediate weight-bearing. The femur can be lengthened or shortened with compression and the knee can be arthrodesed with a 60-cm nail. One hundred twenty-two nails inserted since 1974 included 32 comminuted or oblique acute femoral fractures. Forty-two patients had had failure of other implants. Among these, 34 had nonunion for one year and 17 nonunion for more than three years. Fifty-one bones in 47 patients were stabilized for pathologic fractures and other conditions. Complications were minimal. PMID:3769297

Huckstep, R L

1986-11-01

158

Preliminary study on durability of nail as xenograft.  

PubMed

In reconstructive surgery, many autograft/allograft/xenograft and synthetic materials are being used for repairing congenital or acquired tissue and skeletal deformities. Compatibility of the graft or the material to the tissue, the risk or rejection, toxicity, and morbidity affect the preference. With the aim of searching the usability of human cadaver nail being used as xenograft instead of cartilage graft on small and composite defects, 60 rats were separated into 3 groups, each of which was composed of 20 rats. One hundred twenty nail samples of 1 × 1-cm size, whose epithelium tissue was shaved 2-sided, were prepared for the purpose of placing 2 of them into the back of rats. They were placed under the dorsal skin of rats as naked in the first group, as fascia-wrapped in the second group, and as amnion membrane-wrapped in the third group. It has been stated as a result of the pathologic surveys performed in 2, 4, 12, and 24 weeks from rats in all groups that all the nails were available; acute and chronic inflammatory signs that were observed in early stages regressed, and in late stages, histopathologic signs of all groups were similar. Nail has some advantages such as being cost-effective, being easy to obtain, and having less rejection risk for being composed of dead cells. Application of nail xenograft eroded 2-sided can be taken into account instead of cartilage graft in small-size areas needing support tissue. PMID:21119437

Karsidag, Semra; Özkaya, Özay; Kayal?, Mahmut Ulvi; Do?an, Hülya; Kaur, Ahmet Cemil; Ugurlu, Kemal

2010-11-01

159

Subtrochanteric Femoral Fracture during Trochanteric Nailing for the Treatment of Femoral Shaft Fracture  

PubMed Central

We report on three cases of subtrochanteric femoral fractures during trochanteric intramedullary nailing for the treatment of femoral shaft fractures. Trochanteric intramedullary nails, which have a proximal lateral bend, are specifically designed for trochanteric insertion. When combined with the modified insertion technique, trochanteric intramedullary nails reduce iatrogenic fracture comminution and varus malalignment. We herein describe technical aspects of trochanteric intramedullary nailing for femoral shaft fractures to improve its application and prevent implant-derived complications. PMID:24009910

Oh, Chi Hun; Yi, Ju Won

2013-01-01

160

Nail Polish Does Not Significantly Affect Pulse Oximetry Measurements in Mildly Hypoxic Subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The effect of nail polish on pulse oximetry measurements in non-hypoxic subjects has been studied extensively. Some studies found that nail polish decreased pulse-oximetry (SpO2) values, whereas others found no effects from nail polish. OBJECTIVE: To determine if nail polish affects SpO2 measurements in mildly hypoxic subjects. METHODS: At high altitude, 5 investigators, whose mean oxygen saturation was 91.3%

Loren G Yamamoto; Julienne A Yamamoto; Joelle B Yamamoto; Brennan E Yamamoto

161

Palmoplantar keratoderma, nail dystrophy, and hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy: an autosomal dominant trait  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autosomal dominant inheritance of a syndrome comprising palmoplantar keratoderma, nail dystrophy, and hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) was observed in three generations of one family. Nail dystrophy affected the toe and fingernails; it was present at birth or developed during early childhood. Palmoplantar keratoderma became apparent in later childhood. Each subject with nail dystrophy and keratoderma also had clinical

J L Tolmie; D E Wilcox; R McWilliam; A Assindi; J B Stephenson

1988-01-01

162

Congenital curved nail of the fourth toe--three different clinical presentations.  

PubMed

A congenital curved nail of the fourth toe (NIM 219070) is a rare nail deformity with no other associated abnormalities. Three patients with this congenital anomaly are reported here. Radiologic examination in all three revealed distal symphalangism of the fourth toes bilaterally. The clinical manifestations in these patients included white discoloration of the proximal nails and hyperkeratotic tylosis. PMID:17845160

Lin, Yang-Chih; Wu, Yu-Hung; Scher, Richard K

2007-01-01

163

NailDisplay: Bringing an Always-Available Visual Display to Fingertips  

E-print Network

- ond application, NailDisplay is complementary to an imagi- nary interface, helping users to learn.2 [Information interfaces and presentation]: User Interfaces: Interaction Styles INTRODUCTION A finger nail can. (b) NailDisplay helps users learn imaginary interface and reassure a function (e.g., play music) when

Ouhyoung, Ming

164

Lateral resistance of ring-shank nail connections in Southern Pine lumber  

E-print Network

for derivation of allowable design values, for ring-shank nails. Inputs to the EYM include nail bending yield strength, dowel bearing strength, and connection geometry. These parameters as well as single-shear connection strength were determined for nine nail...

Theilen, Ross Dean

2012-06-07

165

A neurological phenotype in nail patella syndrome (NPS) patients illuminated by studies of murine  

E-print Network

ARTICLE A neurological phenotype in nail patella syndrome (NPS) patients illuminated by studies, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston TX, USA Nail patella syndrome (NPS) is an autosomal.ejhg.5201332 Published online 24 November 2004 Keywords: nail patella syndrome; LMX1B; neuronal migration

Kharasch, Evan

166

Infection of the finger-nail by Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis.  

PubMed

Infection of the finger-nail of an elderly woman by Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis is reported. The small lesion was extending slowly into the healthy nail plate. The fungus has been isolated from diseased toe-nails on two previous occasions but its extra-human habitat is unknown. PMID:7426409

English, M P

1980-07-01

167

Retrograde intramedullary nailing of supracondylar femur fractures above total knee arthroplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four supracondylar fractures of the femur in three patients with total knee arthroplasties were treated by retrograde intramedullary nailing using an interlocking reamed nail (GSH Nail, Smith and Nephew Richards, Memphis, TN) specifically designed for fractures of the distal femur. Three cases were acute fractures and one was a refracture through a screw hole of a previously plated supracondylar fracture.

Felix F. Jabczenski; Mark Crawford

1995-01-01

168

Detection of repeated arsenical poisoning by neutron activation analysis of foot nail segments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In one case of repeated ingestions of arsenic over a period of one year, the value of sectional toe nail analysis was investigated. The arsenic determinations were performed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. After subdividing the nail transversely into segments of 0.5 mm length, several maxima and minima of arsenic concentrations were found. Taking the nail growth into consideration, these

G. Henke; A. Nucci; L. S. Queiroz

1982-01-01

169

Antegrade versus retrograde intramedullary nailing of proximal third femur fractures.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to retrospectively review the results of proximal third femur fractures treated with retrograde nailing (RGN) and compare those results to a cohort from the same period treated with antegrade nailing (AGN). Adult patients with femur fractures within 10 cm of the lesser trochanter who were treated with intramedullary nails were reviewed. Two groups, patients treated with AGN (n = 35) and RGN (n = 34), were compiled. Demographic information, comorbidities, associated injuries, radiographic outcomes, complications, and secondary procedures were compared. There were two malunions in the AGN group and three in the RGN group. The AGN group had two nonunions while the RGN group had one. Subgroup analysis demonstrated that a higher body mass index (BMI) (p = .011) and a higher AO/OTA fracture classification (p = .019) were the only factors predictive of malunion. Regardless of starting point, there were no differences between groups in the number of secondary procedures, nonunions, malunions, or time until union. PMID:24393183

Kuhn, Kevin M; Ali, Ashley; Boudreau, John A; Cannada, Lisa K; Watson, John T

2013-01-01

170

Road Nail: Experimental Solar Powered Intelligent Road Marking System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Driving in low visibility conditions (night time, fog or heavy precipitation) is particularly challenging task with an increased probability of traffic accidents and possible injuries. Road Nail is a solar powered intelligent road marking system of wirelessly networked signaling devices that improve driver safety in low visibility conditions along hazardous roadways. Nails or signaling devices are autonomous nodes with capability to accumulate energy, exchange wireless messages, detect approaching vehicles and emit signalization light. We have built an experimental test-bed that consists of 20 nodes and a cellular gateway. Implementation details of the above system, including extensive measurements and performance evaluations in realistic field deployments are presented. A novel distributed network topology discovery scheme is proposed which integrates both sensor and wireless communication aspects, where nodes act autonomously. Finally, integration of the Road Nail system with the cellular network and the Internet is described.

Samardžija, Dragan; Tesli?, Nikola; Todorovi?, Branislav M.; Kova?, Erne; Isailovi?, ?or?e; Miladinovi?, Bojan

2012-03-01

171

Mechanical strength of McLaughlin hip nail-plates manufactured from 316 LVM stainless steel. A biomechanical study of unstable trochanteric fractures. V.  

PubMed

Mechanical testing of McLaughlin hip nail-plates manufactured from 316 LVM stainless steel was performed. The mode of failure is described and the results are compared with previous tests of McLaughlin implants manufactured from Cobalt-Chromium-Molybdenum alloy. As there was no significant difference between these two products as regards the basic mechanical problem of failure of the nail-plate junction, it is recommended that the design be changed to make the implant suitable for internal fixation of unstable trochanteric fractures. PMID:7446023

Jensen, J S

1980-06-01

172

Selenium Toxicity from a Misformulated Dietary Supplement, Adverse Health Effects, and the Temporal Response in the Nail Biologic Monitor  

PubMed Central

Use of dietary supplements in the U.S. has increased steadily over the last 25 years. While misformulation is uncommon, the consequences can be serious. A March 2008 voluntary market recall removed supplement products responsible for the most serious selenium toxicity outbreak that has occurred in the U.S. We quantified selenium concentrations in the misformulated supplement products, measured the temporal response in the nail biologic monitor, and associated exposure to self-reported selenosis symptoms. Subjects recruited through state health departments and referrals provided samples of the misformulated supplement products, exposure information, monthly toenail and or fingernail clippings or onycholysitic nail fragments, and listed their newly onset adverse health effects attributed to selenium toxicity. Ninety-seven subjects enrolled and submitted at least one test sample. Peak selenium concentrations (up to 18.3 and 44.1 ?g/g for toenails and fingernails, respectively) were measured. Multiple samples (52 total) of all six recalled supplement lots were analyzed ranging from 22,300 to 32,200 ?g selenium per daily dose. Average consumption was 30.9 ± 13.9 doses; 73 subjects provided follow-up data on selenosis symptoms at 2.50 ± 0.14 years. Nail samples accurately reflect exposure in this selenium toxicity outbreak, which resulted in long-term/permanent adverse health effects. PMID:23538937

Morris, John Steven; Crane, Stacy B.

2013-01-01

173

76 FR 51038 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Cell Selection Devices for Point of Care Production of Minimally...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2007D-0290] Draft Guidance for Industry: Cell Selection Devices for Point of Care Production...Manipulated Autologous Peripheral Blood Stem Cells; Withdrawal of Draft Guidance AGENCY...entitled ``Draft Guidance for Industry: Cell Selection Devices for Point of Care...

2011-08-17

174

Estrogenic personal care products in a greywater reuse system.  

PubMed

The occurrence and fate of parabens in a greywater system was assessed. The potential for removal of residual paraben concentrations in effluent greywater with chlorine dioxide was also investigated. The influent to the greywater plant was characterised by considerable variation, with concentrations from below the detection limit to 40 microg/L and the five commonly used parabens in consumer products were frequently detected. After the biological treatment only two paraben were detected with concentration from 65-120 ng/L. Chlorine dioxide treatment of the biologically treated effluent with dosages down to 0.75 mg/L resulted in more than 97% reduction of all parabens. Formation of the by-product chloroform was insignificant from the chlorine dioxide treatment. PMID:18075177

Andersen, H R; Lundsbye, M; Wedel, H V; Eriksson, E; Ledin, A

2007-01-01

175

Mucocutaneous manifestations and nail changes in patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis.  

PubMed

Mucocutaneous manifestations are common among patients on hemodialysis (HD). This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of mucocutaneous manifestations in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who are on HD. In this cross-sectional, descriptive and analytic study conducted in 2009, 100 patients on HD at the Five Azar Hospital in Gorgan city were randomly selected. All the patients underwent detailed examination by a dermatologist to look for lesions in the skin, hair, nail and mucous membranes; if felt necessary, biopsy was obtained from the lesions. The findings were statistically analyzed using SPSS-13 software. For evaluation of normality of distribution, Kolmogorov-Smirnov was used, for quantitative variables Mann-Whitney and T-test (abnormal distribution) were used and for qualitative variables, Chi-2 and Fisher were used. In this study, P-value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Fifty-one males and 49 females were enrolled. The mean age was 49 ± 12 years. Diabetes was the most common cause of ESRD. In 95% of the patients, at least one mucocutaneous manifestation was present. Xerosis (78.3%) was the most common lesion, followed by pruritus (39.1%), lentigo (34.8%), skin discoloration (32.6%), leukonychia (32%) and thinning of the nail bed (24%). Xerosis, scaling, lentigo, folliculitis, idiopathic guttate hypopigmentation, leukonychia and half and half nail were associated with age. A significant relationship was seen between duration on dialysis and skin discoloration and leukonychia. Clubbing had a significant association with calcium-phosphorus product (Ca × P). There was a significant association between serum ferritin level and pruritus and tinea versicolor lesions. Our study shows that mucocutaneous manifestations are common among patients with ESRD. Identification of these manifestations and their association with causative factors are useful for preventing the lesions. PMID:23354189

Tajbakhsh, Ramin; Dehghan, Mohammad; Azarhoosh, Ramin; Haghighi, Ali Nobakht; Sadani, Somayeh; Zadeh, Soheila Samad; Kabootari, Maryam; Qorbani, Mostafa

2013-01-01

176

Supracondylar nailing of distal femoral fractures after total Knee Arthroplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present results of supracondylar nailing in six patients who suffered distal femoral fractures above total knee arthroplasty. The average age of patients was 68 (42-92) years. All six fractures healed in a satisfactory alignment in an average duration of 14.6 weeks. There were no wound infection, loss of reduction or implant failure. All patients had regained their previous range

A. Kumar; A. Ali; M. S. Butt

177

Monitoring of soil nailed slopes and dams using innovative technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents (a) an integrated automatic real-time slope monitoring system using a conventional slope monitoring package and a multi-antenna Global Positioning System (GPS) package and the field monitoring results, (b) monitoring of soil nailed slopes by optical fiber strain sensors, and (c) moni- toring of a model dam by optical fiber sensing bars. The authors also introduce new developments

Jian-Hua Yin; Hong-Hu Zhu; Wei Jin

2008-01-01

178

Primary unreamed intramedullary nailing for open fractures of the tibia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-six open tibial fractures (42 patients) were treated by primary unreamed intramedullary nailing, with debridement of open wounds and treatment of soft tissue. According to Gustilo-Anderson classification there were 18 grade I cases, 18 grade II cases and 10 grade III cases. The incidence of infection was low with two cases of superficial infection and one of deep infection. The

Chang-Wug Oh; Byung-Chul Park; Joo-Chul Ihn; Hyung-Jin Park

2001-01-01

179

EXTERNAL FIXATION AND SECONDARY INTRAMEDULLARY NAILING OF OPEN TIBIAL FRACTURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed a prospective, randomised trial in 39 patients with open tibial fractures treated initially by external fixation to compare cast immobilisation (group A) and intramedullary nailing (group B) as a sequential protocol planned from the onset of treatment. The results showed that group B achieved faster union (p < 0.05) than group A with less malunion or shortening and

PEDRO ANTICH-ADROVER; DAVID MARTI-GARIN; JUAN MURIAS-ALVAREZ; CARLOS PUENTE-ALONSO

180

The isolation of Botryodiplodia theobromae from a nail lesion.  

PubMed

Botryodiplodia theobromae not known to produce onychomycosis was repeatedly recovered from a healthy woman with evident lesions in a toe nail. Mycelial fragments were observed in the scales and the fungus was isolated in cycloheximide-free culture media. The report indicates that many fungi, hitherto considered non-pathogens, may still be able to colonize a vaiety of human tissues. PMID:1265567

Restrepo, A; Arango, M; Velez, H; Uribe, L

1976-03-01

181

Study and Reduction of Noise from a Pneumatic Nail Gun  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the reduction of noise from a pneumatic 18 gauge nail gun. The objectives were to identify the major sources of noise, implement possible noise reduction measures, and evaluate the effectiveness of the modifications. Sound measurements were taken according to a procedure that was developed based on the ANSI S12.15-1992 standard for power tools. Results show that the

Daniel A. Hicks; Kha Vu; Mohan D. Rao

182

PRESERVATION OF SPECIFIC FLURESCENCE BY SEALING WITH NAIL POLISH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semipermanent mounting media and postfixation of immunofluorescence (IF) slides in alcohol have been effective in preserving specific fluorescence (SF). In the present study the efficacy of such mounting was compared with a simpler technique of sealing the routinely mounted IF slides with nail polish. Frozen sections of skin lesions of systemic lupus erythematosus and lichen planus, and patients' sera known

Keyoumars Soltani; Maureen E. M. Taylor; Rosa K. Choy

1976-01-01

183

Treatment of Midshaft Clavicular Fractures With Elastic Titanium Nails  

PubMed Central

Background: One of the modern techniques for the treatment of clavicle fracture (Fx) is elastic titanium intramedullary nailing. But, there are different opinions about this technique. We studied this technique in 12 patients with clavicle Fx and assessed its outcome. Objectives: We aimed to study the prognosis of midshaft clavicular Fx treated via minimally invasive stable elastic intramedullary nailing. Patients and Methods: We operated on 13 clavicle Fx in 12 patients from 2008 through 2012. We used a new technique called minimally invasive titanium elastic intramedullary nailing for operating patients with midshaft clavicular Fx. Results: Clinical union was achieved 3-5 weeks after the operation with no pain over Fx sites upon physical examination. Radiologic union appeared at 6 to 12 weeks .We did not encounter nonunion or infection, but one of the comminuted Fx united 1 cm shorter; however, it had a solid union with a good score. All but two patients had good scores. Conclusions: Although controversy exist regarding intramedullary nailing of clavicle Fx, our results using this technique for minimally comminuted midshaft clavicular Fx were very good.

Keihan Shokouh, Hassan; Naderi, Mohammad Nasir; Keihan Shokouh, Mahsa

2014-01-01

184

Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Skin and Nail Changes  

MedlinePLUS

... and Nail Changes Protect your skin from the sun. l Try to stay out of the sun. l When you are outside, always wear sunscreen ... me to use? 3. What should the SPF (sun protection factor) be in the sunscreen and lip ...

185

Acetone and Ethyl Acetate in Commercial Nail Polish Removers: A Quantitative NMR Experiment Using an Internal Standard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The qualitative and quantitative analysis of commercial nail polish removers is performed on a 60 MHz NMR spectrometer. After taking NMR spectra of the polish removers, students can make peak assignments for the known components of acetone and ethyl acetate. Using these spectra, students are also able to identify the unknown alcohol present in the remover as ethanol. Quantitative analysis of either the acetone or ethyl acetate in the nail polish removers is accomplished by comparing the analyte peak intensities with that of an internal standard. The system in which deuterated acetone is used as a solvent and methylene chloride as an internal standard gave precise results for both commercial removers and for standards prepared from pure acetone or an ethyl acetate/ethanol mixture. As recovery from the standards was approximately 96 - 98% of what was anticipated, the analysis of the commercial products is also believed to be accurate.

Clarke, David W.

1997-12-01

186

Telecommuting and health care: a potential for cost reductions and productivity gains.  

PubMed

Health care administrators are striving to maintain positive operating margins while remaining responsive to community needs. As they look for ways to reduce costs and improve productivity, they may consider the benefits associated with telecommuting. Telecommuting refers to the work performed by organizational employees who use computers and telecommunication equipment to work at home or at remote sites one or more days a week. Benefits to the health care industry include release of valuable hospital space, reduced employee turnover, and increased productivity. The time away from the institution may provide administrators with valuable planning time, free from interruptions. PMID:10153620

Jacobs, S M; Pelfrey, S; Van Sell, M

1995-12-01

187

Irradiation of advanced health care products - Tissues and biologics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation sterilization of tissues and biologics has become more common in recent years. As a result it has become critical to understand how to adapt the typical test methods and validation approaches to a tissue or biological product scenario. Also data evaluation sometimes becomes more critical than with traditional medical devices because for many tissues and biologics a low radiation dose is required. It is the intent behind this paper to provide information on adapting bioburden tests used in radiation validations such that the data can be most effectively used on tissues and biologics. In addition challenges with data evaluation are discussed, particularly the use of less-than values for bioburden results in radiation validation studies.

Winters, Martell

2014-12-01

188

The history and global market of oral home-care products.  

PubMed

This literature review reports the history and the current market of oral home-care products. It provides information extending from the products used by our ancestors to those currently available, as well as on the changes in the supply and consumption of these products. Although the scientific knowledge about oral diseases has improved greatly in recent years, our ancestors had already been concerned with cleaning their teeth. A variety of rudimentary products and devices were used since before recorded history, like chewing sticks, tree twigs, bird feathers, animal bones, tooth powder and home-made mouth rinses. Today, due to technological improvements of the cosmetic industry and market competition, home-use oral care products available in the marketplace offer a great variety of options. An increase in the consumption of oral care products has been observed in the last decades. Estimates show that Latin America observed a 12% increase in hygiene and beauty products sales between 2002 and 2003, whereas the observed global rate was approximately 2%. A significant increase in the per capita consumption of toothpaste, toothbrush, mouthrinse and dental floss has been estimated from 1992 to 2002, respectively at rates of 38.3%, 138.3%, 618.8% and 177.2%. Pertaining to this increased supply and consumption of oral care products, some related questions remain unanswered, like the occurrence of changes in disease behavior due to the use of new compounds, their actual efficacy and correct indications, and the extent of the benefits to oral health derived from consuming more products. PMID:19838554

Jardim, Juliana Jobim; Alves, Luana Severo; Maltz, Marisa

2009-01-01

189

Clinical Evidence for the Relationship between Nail Configuration and Mechanical Forces  

PubMed Central

Summary: Mechanobiology is an emerging field of science that focuses on the way physical forces and changes in cell or tissue mechanics contribute to development, physiology, and disease. As nails are always exposed to physical stimulation, mechanical forces may have a particularly pronounced effect on nail configuration and could be involved in the development of nail deformities. However, the role of mechanobiology in nail configuration and deformities has rarely been assessed. This review describes what is currently understood regarding the effect of mechanical force on nail configuration and deformities. On the basis of these observations, we hypothesize that nails have an automatic curvature function that allows them to adapt to the daily upward mechanical forces. Under normal conditions, the upward daily mechanical force and the automatic curvature force are well balanced. However, an imbalance between these 2 forces may cause nail deformation. For example, pincer nails may be caused by the absence of upward mechanical forces or a genetic propensity increase in the automatic curvature force, whereas koilonychias may occur when the upward mechanical force exceeds the automatic curvature force, thereby causing the nail to curve outward. This hypothesis is a new concept that could aid the development of innovative methods to prevent and treat nail deformities.

Ogawa, Rei

2014-01-01

190

Personal care product use and urinary levels of phthalate metabolites in Mexican women.  

PubMed

Sources of phthalates other than Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) related products are scarcely documented in Mexico. The objective of our study was to explore the association between urinary levels of nine phthalate metabolites and the use of personal care products. Subjects included 108 women who participated as controls in an ongoing population-based case-control study of environmental factors and genetic susceptibility to breast cancer in northern Mexico. Direct interviews were performed to inquire about sociodemographic characteristics, reproductive history, use of personal care products, and diet. Phthalate metabolites measured in urine by high performance liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry were monoethyl phthalate (MEP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate (MCPP) as well as mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate (MEOHP), mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate (MEHHP), mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate (MECPP) that are metabolites of di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). Detectable urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites varied from 75% (MEHP) to 100% (MEP, MBP, MEOHP, MEHHP and MECPP). Medians of urinary concentrations of some phthalate metabolites were significantly higher among users of the following personal care products compared to nonusers: body lotion (MEHHP, MECPP and sum of DEHP metabolites (?DEHP)), deodorant (MEHP and ?DEHP), perfume (MiBP), anti-aging facial cream (MEP, MBP and MCPP) and bottled water (MCPP, MEHHP and MEOHP). Urinary concentrations of MEP showed a positive relationship with the number of personal care products used. Our results suggest that the use of some personal care products contributes to phthalate body burden that deserves attention due to its potential health impact. PMID:21429583

Romero-Franco, Michelle; Hernández-Ramírez, Raúl U; Calafat, Antonia M; Cebrián, Mariano E; Needham, Larry L; Teitelbaum, Susan; Wolff, Mary S; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth

2011-07-01

191

Personal care product use and urinary levels of phthalate metabolites in Mexican women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sources of phthalates other than Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) related products are scarcely documented in Mexico. The objective of our study was to explore the association between urinary levels of nine phthalate metabolites and the use of personal care products.Subjects included 108 women who participated as controls in an ongoing population-based case-control study of environmental factors and genetic susceptibility to breast

Michelle Romero-Franco; Raúl U. Hernández-Ramírez; Antonia M. Calafat; Mariano E. Cebrián; Larry L. Needham; Susan Teitelbaum; Mary S. Wolff; Lizbeth López-Carrillo

2011-01-01

192

Characterizing Workplace Exposures in Vietnamese Women Working in California Nail Salons  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We engaged Vietnamese nail salon workers in a community-based participatory research (CBPR) study to measure personal and area concentrations of solvents in their workplace. Methods. We measured average work-shift concentrations of toluene, ethyl acetate, and isopropyl acetate among 80 workers from 20 salons using personal air monitors. We also collected area samples from 3 salons using summa canisters. Results. For personal measurements, the arithmetic mean was 0.53 parts per million (range = 0.02–5.50) for ethyl acetate, 0.04 parts per million (range = 0.02–0.15) for isopropyl acetate, and 0.15 parts per million (range = 0.02–1.0) for toluene. Area measurements were lower in comparison, but we detected notable levels of methyl methacrylate, a compound long banned from nail products. Predictors of solvent levels included different forms of ventilation and whether the salon was located in an enclosed building. Conclusions. Using a CBPR approach that engaged community members in the research process contributed to the successful recruitment of salon workers. Measured levels of toluene, methyl methacrylate, and total volatile organic compounds were higher than recommended guidelines to prevent health symptoms such as headaches, irritations, and breathing problems, which were frequently reported in this workforce. PMID:21551383

Gunier, Robert; Tran, Alisha; Von Behren, Julie; Doan-Billings, Phuong-An; Nguyen, Kim-Dung; Okahara, Linda; Lui, Benjamin Yee-Bun; Nguyen, Mychi; Huynh, Jessica; Reynolds, Peggy

2011-01-01

193

Fatigue strength of common tibial intramedullary nail distal locking screws  

PubMed Central

Background Premature failure of either the nail and/or locking screws with unstable fracture patterns may lead to angulation, shortening, malunion, and IM nail migration. Up to thirty percent of all unreamed nail locking screws can break after initial weight bearing is allowed at 8–10 weeks if union has not occurred. The primary problem this presents is hardware removal during revision surgery. The purposes of our study was to evaluate the relative fatigue resistance of distal locking screws and bolts from representative manufacturers of tibial IM nail systems, and develop a relative risk assessment of screws and materials used. Evaluations included quantitative and qualitative measures of the relative performance of these screws. Methods Fatigue tests were conducted to simulate a comminuted fracture that was treated by IM nailing assuming that all load was carried by the screws. Each screw type was tested ten times in a single screw configuration. One screw type was tested an additional ten times in a two-screw parallel configuration. Fatigue tests were performed using a servohydraulic materials testing system and custom fixturing that simulated screws placed in the distal region of an appropriately sized tibial IM nail. Fatigue loads were estimated based on a seventy-five kilogram individual at full weight bearing. The test duration was one million cycles (roughly one year), or screw fracture, whichever occurred first. Failure analysis of a representative sample of titanium alloy and stainless steel screws included scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and quantitative metallography. Results The average fatigue life of a single screw with a diameter of 4.0 mm was 1200 cycles, which would correspond roughly to half a day of full weight bearing. Single screws with a diameter of 4.5 mm or larger have approximately a 50 percent probability of withstanding a week of weight bearing, whereas a single 5.0 mm diameter screw has greater than 90 percent probability of withstanding more than a week of weight bearing. If two small diameter screws are used, our tests showed that the probability of withstanding a week of weight bearing increases from zero to about 20 percent, which is similar to having a single 4.5 mm diameter screw providing fixation. Conclusion Our results show that selecting the system that uses the largest distal locking screws would offer the best fatigue resistance for an unstable fracture pattern subjected to full weight bearing. Furthermore, using multiple screws will substantially reduce the risk of premature hardware failure. PMID:19371438

Griffin, Lanny V; Harris, Robert M; Zubak, Joseph J

2009-01-01

194

Occurrence of Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) in Surface Water from Mankyung River, South Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study demonstrates the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in sur- face water from the Mankyung River, South Korea. Samples collected at 5 Sites along the Mankyung River were as- sayed using a liquid chromatograph coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer (LC\\/MS\\/MS) for 13 PPCPs. Overall, 11 out of the 13 selected PPCPs, which span a

Joon-Woo Kim; Hyo-Sang Jang; Jong-Gu Kim; Hiroshi Ishibashi; Masashi Hirano; Kazuaki Nasu; Nobuhiro Ichikawa; Yuji Takao; Ryota Shinohara; Koji Arizono

2009-01-01

195

Ocular irritation reversibility assessment for personal care products using a porcine corneal culture assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personal care product manufacturers have used a broad spectrum of alternative ocular irritation assays during the past two decades because these tests do not require the use of live animals, they provide reliable predictive data, and they are relatively inexpensive to conduct. To complement these assays, the ex vivo Porcine Corneal Opacity Reversibility Assay (PorCORA) was recently developed using a

Douglas A. Donahue; Javier Avalos; Lewis E. Kaufman; F. Anthony Simion; Daniel R. Cerven

2011-01-01

196

Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in the Environment: What are the Big Questions?  

EPA Science Inventory

Over the past 10-15 years, a significant amount of work has been done by the scientific, regulatory and business communities into effects and risks of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the environment. It is now timely to review the current knowledge and to...

197

DOES PROCESS QUALITY PREDICT PRODUCT QUALITY IN HEALTH CARE: A CASE STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. ABSTRACT The importance of quality in health care has been widely recognized and analyzed in recent years. Medication errors and other errors are beginning to be noticed and addressed. The study explores the fact that process quality leads to product quality. The objective of this study was to do an in depth statistical analysis on patient satisfaction survey data

John Kalblinger; R. Ram

198

Productivity and patient satisfaction in primary care--conflicting or compatible goals?  

PubMed

Following recent reforms in Swedish primary care, providers are accountable to both citizens and county councils, in their role as payers. Productivity and quality measurement is fundamental for ensuring health care providers accountability to payers and that resources are spent as intended. The purpose was to study productivity and patient satisfaction in Swedish primary care. One measure of productivity capturing volume of visits and one measure capturing individual's judgment about the quality of services in relation to allocated resources was estimated. The potential conflict between the two measures and variation with respect to different factors was analyzed. There was a great variation in both measures of productivity. No conflict between the two measures of productivity was found. Thus, most providers could increase their volume of services without adverse effects for the quality and vice versa. Providers are however faced with different conditions. Traditional productivity measures are not enough to assess whether allocated resources are used according to set priorities and generates value for money. Information about the length and content of visits and the distribution of services produced is also needed, in particular to assess if resources allocated based on expected great needs among certain groups actually benefits those individuals. Effects of services produced are also needed. This is particularly important to assess if resources allocated based on expected great needs among certain groups actually benefits those individuals. PMID:23664300

Glenngård, Anna Häger

2013-07-01

199

Cosmetics, skin care, and appearance in teenagers.  

PubMed

Adolescence is a period of tremendous transformation in the appearance of the body and the evolution of the mind that will eventually lead to adulthood. "Yesterday's child" will need to assume and exert control over these changes. Therefore his/her appearance becomes a means of communication, a language to express his/her pursuit of self-identity. The cosmetic industry has identified teenagers as "powerful" consumers, and offers them various toiletry and skin care products that should fulfill their needs, such as cleansing, hydrating, and photoprotective agents. Certain decorative cosmetics, especially for hair and nails, are attractive to them also. For some teenagers, the expression of individualism is through body art such as tattooing and body piercing. Areas of concern are the lack of motivation for sun protection and the risky behavior associated with body piercing and tattooing. PMID:10468044

Marcoux, D

1999-09-01

200

Management of simple nail bed lacerations and subungual hematomas in the emergency department.  

PubMed

Fingertip crush injuries are common hand injuries in children and often are evaluated initially in an emergency department. Nail bed injuries can be classified into subungual hematomas, simple or stellate lacerations, crush injuries, and avulsions. Emergency department physicians with good knowledge of fingertip anatomy can appropriately manage these injuries so as to prevent long-term fingertip deformities and functional deficits. The management of simple nail bed lacerations and subungual hematomas has remained somewhat controversial with much debate surrounding the necessity of removing the nail plate for repair of a nail bed laceration versus trephination alone of a large subungual hematoma. This article will discuss the management and evaluation of simple nail bed injuries by emergency department physicians to prevent chronic nail and fingertip deformities. PMID:25275357

Patel, Lina

2014-10-01

201

Propagation of Bisphosphonate-Related Femoral Stress Fractures Despite Femoral Nailing  

PubMed Central

We report 2 cases of atypical femoral fracture displacement despite treatment with intramedullary (IM) nailing. Both patients had received more than 3 years of bisphosphonates. One patient had prophylactic fixation of an atypical femur fracture due to intractable pain. The other had undergone nailing previously for a traumatic shaft fracture. The patient then received bisphosphonate later and sustained an atypical fracture with the nail in place. Both femoral nails were slotted, cannulated stainless steel piriformis entry designs. These 2 cases are among the first reported failures of IM fixation in preventing displacement of a bisphosphonate stress fracture. We advice caution when using slotted nails in prophylaxis of atypical femur fractures because of its significantly reduced torsional stiffness compared to modern nonopen sectioned nails. PMID:24660094

Fang, Christian; Chau, Jackie Yee-Man; Woo, Siu-Bon; Lau, Tak-Wing; Kwan, Kenny; Leung, Frankie

2014-01-01

202

The new diagnosing method basing on the frequency analysis of human's nails in T-RAY  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been reported that many kinds of sickness can be reflected in one's nails. And because of the special composition and structure of nails, they are very suitable for T-ray detecting. Therefore we want to see whether we can diagnose some sickness by only analyzing the transmission of the nails. The experiments consist of three parts. In the first part, we took 200 samples which came from about 20 years old people. By that way, we got that the peak transmission wavelengths of human's nail is about 1.7THz and we almost acknowledged the characteristics of nails. Then we changed our samples coming from different ages, and some interesting phenomenon were coming out. Lastly, by detecting the nails which are taken from special patients, we discovered some sickness can be detected using T-ray.

Ma, Pengcheng; Xiao, Long

2011-02-01

203

How are podocytes affected in nail–patella syndrome?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nail–patella syndrome is an autosomal-dominant hereditary disease named for dysplastic fingernails and toenails and hypoplastic\\u000a or absent kneecaps evident in patients with the syndrome. Prognosis is determined by the nephropathy that develops in many\\u000a such patients. Besides podocyte foot-process effacement, pathognomonic changes in the kidney comprise electron-lucent areas\\u000a and fibrillar inclusions in the glomerular basement membrane. These characteristic symptoms are

Ralph Witzgall

2008-01-01

204

Unreamed intramedullary locking nailing for open tibial fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. We reviewed the results of the treatment of 24 cases of open tibial fractures using unreamed intramedullary locking nailing.\\u000a The fractures were classified, following the Gustilo system as grade I-7, grade II-7 and grade III-10. The average time to\\u000a achieve bony union was 22 weeks with a 26% incidence of pseudoarthrosis. There were no cases of deep infection. Five

A. García-López; F. Marco; L. López-Durán

1998-01-01

205

Plasma concentrations of parabens in postmenopausal women and self-reported use of personal care products: the NOWAC postgenome study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parabens are used extensively in personal care products; however, their estrogenic properties have raised concern over risks to human health. High levels of total parabens, mainly as conjugates, have been reported in human plasma\\/serum, with limited data on native parabens. Our objective was to assess and link plasma concentrations of native common parabens to self-reported use of personal care products

Torkjel M Sandanger; Sandra Huber; Morten K Moe; Tonje Braathen; Henriette Leknes; Eiliv Lund

2011-01-01

206

Influence of antioxidants on the sun protection properties of hair care products.  

PubMed

Aim of this study was to determine the influence of commercially available antioxidants on sun protection properties of hair care products. To evaluate changes of human hair L*a*b-color measurements, tensile strength measurements and high pressure dynamic scanning calorimetry (HPDSC) measurements were carried out. To have a measure for the concentration of the activity of the reactive species, causing hair or color damage, chemiluminescence measurements were carried out. Before the test with the antioxidants experiments were carried out to evaluate effects of varied artificial weathering conditions on physical properties of hair. Here high relative humidity (85%) and low radiant flux (600W/m2) exhibited the biggest changes in natural hair color but the lowest changes in the in tensile strength and HPDSC measurements. All of the tested antioxidants reduced the chemiluminescence level when used in a pre-sun or after-sun formulation. According to the HPDSC measurements the antioxidants showed a slight increase of the peak temperature and therewith a hint towards a protection effect when used in a pre-sun or after-sun product. In contrast thereto some of the antioxidants reduced the tensile strength of sun care products for hair when added. A slight reduction in the lightening of natural hair color could be observed when antioxidants were present in the sun care formulations. The effect of antioxidants in sun care formulations used on dyed hair was strongly dependent on the shade of hair. The addition of some antioxidants yielded significant improvements of the protection properties of the used sun care product in some measurement methods. PMID:15645086

Meinert, Knut; Springob, Christian; Schmidt, Carl U; Kripp, Thomas C

2004-01-01

207

When all you have is a dermatoscope— start looking at the nails  

PubMed Central

Pigmented and non-pigmented nail alterations are a frequent challenge for dermatologists. A profound knowledge of clinical and dermatoscopic features of nail disorders is crucial because a range of differential diagnoses and even potentially life-threatening diseases are possible underlying causes. Nail matrix melanocytes of unaffected individuals are in a dormant state, and, therefore, fingernails and toenails physiologically are non-pigmented. The formation of continuous, longitudinal pigmented streaks (longitudinal melanonychia) may either be caused by a benign activation of matrix melanocytes (e.g., as a result of trauma, inflammation, or adverse drug reactions) or by a true melanocytic proliferation (e.g., in a nevus or melanoma). In general, non-continuous nail alterations, affecting only limited parts of the nail apparatus, are most frequently of non-melanocytic origin. Important and common differential diagnoses in these cases are subungual hemorrhage or onychomycosis. In addition, foreign bodies, bacterial infections, traumatic injuries, or artificial discolorations of the nail unit may less frequently cause non-continuous nail alterations. Many systemic diseases that may also show involvement of the nails (e.g., psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, lichen planus, alopecia areata) tend to induce alterations in numerous if not all nails of the hands and feet. A similar extensive and generalized alteration of nails has been reported after treatment with a number of systemic drugs, especially antibiotics and cytostatics. Benign or malignant neoplasms that may also affect the nail unit include glomus tumor, Bowen’s disease, squamous cell carcinoma, and rare collision tumors. This review aims to assist clinicians in correctly evaluating and diagnosing nail disorders with the help of dermatoscopy. PMID:25396079

Haenssle, Holger A.; Blum, Andreas; Hofmann-Wellenhof, Rainer; Kreusch, Juergen; Stolz, Wilhelm; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Zalaudek, Iris; Brehmer, Franziska

2014-01-01

208

Two synchronous periungual BCC treated with Mohs surgery. Nail polish related?  

PubMed

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most frequent malignant skin tumor observed in Caucasian adults, especially males, occurs mainly in sun-exposed areas of the body. BCC in the periungual tissues, such as proximal nail fold, nail matrix, nail bed and hyponychium, is rarely reported. We report a patient with two synchronous BCC of the periungual tissue localized in the IV and V fingernail, effectively treated with Mohs micrographic surgery. PMID:22849570

Dika, Emi; Patrizi, Annalisa; Fanti, Pier Alessandro; Alessandrini, Aurora; Sorci, Rita; Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Vaccari, Sabina; Misciali, Cosimo; Maibach, Howard I

2013-06-01

209

Unreamed nailing of tibial fractures — a prospective study of the routine use of the unreamed tibial nail  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prospectively studied 44 patients treated with the AO Unreamed Tibial Nail (UTN) at two orthopaedic trauma units. There\\u000a were 15 open fractures: eight type I, four type II, one type IIIA, and two IIIB (Gustilo). The mean follow-up time was 13\\u000a months (range 6–24 months). There were 14 type A, 26 type B and four type C fractures (AO

P. Harrington; I. Sharif; H. Smyth; G. C. Fenelon; D. Mulcahy; M. Pegum

1996-01-01

210

The intelligent clinical laboratory as a tool to increase cancer care management productivity.  

PubMed

Studies of the causes of cancer, early detection, prevention or treatment need accurate, comprehensive, and timely cancer data. The clinical laboratory provides important cancer information needed for physicians which influence clinical decisions regarding treatment, diagnosis and patient monitoring. Poor communication between health care providers and clinical laboratory personnel can lead to medical errors and wrong decisions in providing cancer care. Because of the key impact of laboratory information on cancer diagnosis and treatment the quality of the tests, lab reports, and appropriate lab management are very important. A laboratory information management system (LIMS) can have an important role in diagnosis, fast and effective access to cancer data, decrease redundancy and costs, and facilitate the integration and collection of data from different types of instruments and systems. In spite of significant advantages LIMS is limited by factors such as problems in adaption to new instruments that may change existing work processes. Applications of intelligent software simultaneously with existing information systems, in addition to remove these restrictions, have important benefits including adding additional non-laboratory-generated information to the reports, facilitating decision making, and improving quality and productivity of cancer care services. Laboratory systems must have flexibility to change and have the capability to develop and benefit from intelligent devices. Intelligent laboratory information management systems need to benefit from informatics tools and latest technologies like open sources. The aim of this commentary is to survey application, opportunities and necessity of intelligent clinical laboratory as a tool to increase cancer care management productivity. PMID:24761839

Mohammadzadeh, Niloofar; Safdari, Reza

2014-01-01

211

Nanofiltration and ultrafiltration of endocrine disrupting compounds, pharmaceuticals and personal care products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have raised substantial concern among important potable drinking water and reclaimed wastewater quality issues. Our study investigates the removal of EDC\\/PPCPs of 52 compounds having different physico-chemical properties (e.g., size, hydrophobicity, and polarity) by nanofiltration (NF) and ultrafiltration (UF) membranes using a dead-end stirred-cell filtration system. EDC\\/PPCPs

Yeomin Yoon; Paul Westerhoff; Shane A. Snyder; Eric C. Wert

2006-01-01

212

Degradation of selected pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) by white-rot fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, more than 3,000 pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) are used and released into the environment at low\\u000a doses but they are barely degraded in wastewater treatment plants. One of the potential alternatives to effectively degrade\\u000a PPCPs is based on the use of white-rot fungi (WRF) and involves the oxidative action of extracellular fungal enzymes. The\\u000a aim of this

A. I. Rodarte-Morales; G. Feijoo; M. T. Moreira; J. M. Lema

213

Biological Degradation of Common Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in Soils with High Water Content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological degradation rates of six pharmaceuticals and personal care products were examined in soil from a land application\\u000a site and in adjacent soil with no prior history of effluent exposure. Microbial degradation rates were compared over 2 weeks\\u000a under standing water or saturated conditions and draining conditions after having been saturated for 3 days. Biological degradation\\u000a of 17?-estradiol exhibited rapid rates of

Deborah L. Carr; Audra N. Morse; John C. Zak; Todd A. Anderson

2011-01-01

214

Separation and determination of basic dyes formulated in hair care products by capillary electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A capillary electrophoretic (CE) method for analyzing five basic dyes (Basic Red 76, Basic Brown 16, Basic Yellow 57, Basic Brown 17 and Basic Blue 99) sold under the trade name Arianor, which are commonly used in hair care products, has been established. A buffer of 100mM acetic acid–ammonium acetate (50:50) containing 90% (v\\/v) methanol was employed in a fused-silica

Yoshinori Masukawa

2006-01-01

215

Penetration of ((14)C)-Efinaconazole Topical Solution, 10%, Does Not Appear to be Influenced by Nail Polish.  

PubMed

Onychomycosis is a common nail disorder with significant medical impacts and aesthetic consequences. Patients seek treatment for several reasons, including the unsightliness of the nail(s). Even with successful management, it takes months for the diseased nail to appear cosmetically normal. Patients commonly apply nail polish to mask the appearance of the dystrophic nail, though it is contraindicated with the currently available topical lacquers for onychomycosis. The authors' nonclinical study using a cadaver nail model showed that penetration of efinaconazole topical solution, 10%, a new antifungal being developed for the treatment of mild-to-moderate toenail onychomycosis, was not influenced by application of nail polish. Polishes showed an increase in surface tackiness with repeated efinaconazole topical solution, 10% application. The medical and aesthetic significance of the authors' findings have yet to be assessed clinically. PMID:25276275

Zeichner, Joshua A; Stein Gold, Linda; Korotzer, Andrew

2014-09-01

216

Penetration of (14C)-Efinaconazole Topical Solution, 10%, Does Not Appear to be Influenced by Nail Polish  

PubMed Central

Onychomycosis is a common nail disorder with significant medical impacts and aesthetic consequences. Patients seek treatment for several reasons, including the unsightliness of the nail(s). Even with successful management, it takes months for the diseased nail to appear cosmetically normal. Patients commonly apply nail polish to mask the appearance of the dystrophic nail, though it is contraindicated with the currently available topical lacquers for onychomycosis. The authors’ nonclinical study using a cadaver nail model showed that penetration of efinaconazole topical solution, 10%, a new antifungal being developed for the treatment of mild-to-moderate toenail onychomycosis, was not influenced by application of nail polish. Polishes showed an increase in surface tackiness with repeated efinaconazole topical solution, 10% application. The medical and aesthetic significance of the authors’ findings have yet to be assessed clinically.

Gold, Linda Stein; Korotzer, Andrew

2014-01-01

217

Economic Evaluation of Reamed versus Unreamed Intramedullary Nailing in Patients with Closed and Open Tibial Fractures: Results from the Study to Prospectively Evaluate Reamed Intramedullary Nails in Patients with Tibial Fractures (SPRINT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionRecently, results from the large, randomized study to prospectively evaluate reamed intramedullary nails in patients with tibial fractures (SPRINT) trial suggested a benefit for reamed intramedullary nail insertion in patients with closed tibial shaft fractures largely based on cost-neutral autodynamizations and a potential advantage for unreamed intramedullary nailing in open fractures. We performed an economic evaluation to compare resource use

Matthias Briel; Sheila Sprague; Diane Heels-Ansdell; Gordon Guyatt; Mohit Bhandari; Gordon Blackhouse; David Sanders; Emil Schemitsch; Marc Swiontkowski; Paul Tornetta; Stephen D. Walter; Ron Goeree

2011-01-01

218

Tolerance of natural baby skin-care products on healthy, full-term infants and toddlers  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the tolerance of baby skin-care products with at least 95% naturally derived ingredients on infants and toddlers. Materials and methods Healthy, full-term infants and toddlers aged 1–36 months were enrolled. In study 1, a lightly fragranced natural baby hair and body wash (n=30), a lightly fragranced natural baby shampoo (n=30), or a lightly fragranced natural baby lotion (n=32) were assessed over 2 weeks. In study 2, a lightly fragranced natural baby hair and body wash and a lightly fragranced natural baby lotion (n=33) were assessed as a regimen over 4 weeks. The wash and shampoo were used three or more times per week, but not more than once daily. Lotions were applied in the morning or after a bath. Clinicians assessed the arms, legs, torso, or scalp for erythema, dryness, peeling/flakiness (study 1 only), tactile roughness, edema (study 1 only), rash/irritation (study 2 only), and overall skin condition (study 2 only) at baseline, week 1, and weeks 2 or 4. Parents completed skin assessment questionnaires. In study 2, stratum corneum hydration was measured. Subjects were monitored for adverse events. Results No significant changes in clinical grading scores were observed, indicating that all products were well tolerated. By the end of each study, >90% of parents/caregivers believed each product was mild and gentle. In study 2, improvement in stratum corneum hydration was observed (+37% at week 1 and +48% at week 4, P<0.05 for both). In study 1, one baby experienced mild erythema on the neck and scalp after using the shampoo (possibly related to treatment). In study 2, there were no product-related adverse events. Conclusion The natural baby skin-care products were well tolerated by infants and toddlers when used alone or as part of a skin-care regimen. PMID:24523593

Coret, Catherine D; Suero, Michael B; Tierney, Neena K

2014-01-01

219

Hereditary Leukonychia, or Porcelain Nails, Resulting from Mutations in PLCD1  

PubMed Central

Hereditary leukonychia (porcelain nails or white nails) is a rare nail disorder with an unknown genetic basis. To identify variants in a gene underlying this phenotype, we identified four families of Pakistani origin showing features of hereditary leukonychia. All 20 nails of each affected individual were chalky and white in appearance, consistent with total leukonychia, with no other cutaneous, appendageal, or systemic findings. By using Affymetrix 10K chip, we established linkage to chromosome 3p21.3-p22 with a LOD score (Z) of 5.1. We identified pathogenic mutations in PLCD1 in all four families, which encodes phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C delta 1 subunit, a key enzyme in phosphoinositide metabolism. We then identified localization of PLCD1 in the nail matrix. It was recently shown that PLCD1 is a component of the human nail plate by proteomic analysis and is localized in the matrix of human nails. Furthermore, mutations detected in PLCD1 resulted in reduced enzymatic activity in vitro. Our data show that mutations in PLCD1 underlie hereditary leukonychia, revealing a gene involved in molecular control of nail growth. PMID:21665001

Kiuru, Maija; Kurban, Mazen; Itoh, Munenari; Petukhova, Lynn; Shimomura, Yutaka; Wajid, Muhammad; Christiano, Angela M.

2011-01-01

220

Management of distal femoral fractures in elderly patients using retrograde titanium supracondylar nails  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present our experience with a retrograde supracondylar nail used for the management of fractures of the distal femur in elderly patients. Eighteen fractures of the distal femur in 18 patients were treated with AIM titanium supracondylar nails. Sixteen patients with a median age of 83 years (62–100 years) were finally available for review. All 16 fractures were classified as

A. Kumar; V. Jasani; M. S. Butt

2000-01-01

221

Robust identification and localization of intramedullary nail holes for distal locking using CBCT: A simulation study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Closed intramedullary nailing is a common technique for treatment of femur and tibia fractures. The most challenging step in this procedure is the precise placement of the lateral screws that stabilize the fragmented bone.The present work concerns the development and the evaluation of a method to accurately identify in the 3D space the axes of the nail hole canals. A

Z. Kamarianakis; I. Buliev; N. Pallikarakis

2011-01-01

222

Treatment and Management of Psoriasis with Nail Involvement: A Focus on Biologic Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nail involvement in psoriasis is typically overlooked, although it can affect up to 50% of patients with psoriasis and cause functional impact as well as psychological stress that can significantly affect quality of life. In addition, psoriatic patients with nail disease tend to have a more severe skin condition, a higher rate of unremitting and progressive arthritis and more associated

Richard G. Langley; Esteban Daudén

2010-01-01

223

Open tibial fractures: faster union after unreamed nailing than external fixation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unreamed intramedullary nailing is an alternative to external fixation in the treatment of open tibial fractures. We compared a prospective series of thirty-one patients managed with a solid nail with static interlocking without intramedullary reaming, with a retrospective series of thirty-one patients managed by external fixation. The protocol for soft tissue treatment was the same throughout the study period. Most

Karl Akke Alberts; Georg Loohagen; Hildur Einarsdottir

1999-01-01

224

Intramedullary nailing in open tibia fractures: a comparison of two techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed 51 patients with open tibial fractures treated with intramedullary nailing. In 29 patients the nailing was performed without reaming and in 22 after the “reamed-to-fit” technique. There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of union. The nonreamed group required a greater number of secondary procedures to achieve union and had a higher but not statistically significant

Bruce H. Ziran; M. Darowish; B. A. Klatt; J. F. Agudelo; W. R. Smith

2004-01-01

225

[Tibio-talo-calcaneal arthrodesis by retrograde intramedullary nail--a case report].  

PubMed

We described a case of 64 year old overweight women, who was treated with revision tibio-talo-calcaneal artrodesis with the use of retrograde intramedullary nail. The procedure was performed after failed primary arthrodesis with the use of lateral approach and fibula osteotomy. Stabilization with intramedullary nail gave good clinical and functional result with a good bone healing. PMID:22235644

Lipi?ski, ?ukasz; Synder, Marek; Sibi?ski, Marcin

2011-01-01

226

The Fixion® nailing system for stabilising diaphyseal fractures of the humerus : A two-year clinical experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown that the expandable nail system (Fixion®) can provide rapid stabilisation of long bone fractures with reduced operative time and low complication rates. Patients with humeral shaft fracture were treated consecutively over a two-year period in our institution with the Fixion® nail. Nineteen Fixion® nailings were performed in 16 patients over a 2 year period. All fractures

Emad MALLICK; Sharif HAZARIKA; Seif ASSAD; Malcolm SCOTT

227

Comparison of unreamed nailing and external fixation of tibial diastases––mechanical conditions during healing and biological outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Locked intramedullary nailing and external fixation are alternatives for the stabilization of tibial shaft fractures. The goal of this study was to determine to what extent the mechanical conditions at the fracture site influence the healing process after unreamed tibial nailing compared to external fixation. A standardized tibial diastasis was stabilized with either a locked unreamed tibial nail or a

P. Klein; M. Opitz; H. Schell; W. R. Taylor; M. O. Heller; J.-P. Kassi; F. Kandziora; G. N. Duda

2004-01-01

228

Comparison of a New Braid Fixation System to an Interlocking Intramedullary Nail for Tibial Osteotomy Repair in an Ovine Model  

E-print Network

alignment, tibial shaft fractures can be treated by external fixation with a cast, intramedullary (IM) nail) and polymethylmethacrylate bone cement with an interlocking intramedullary (IM) nail fixation in an ovine model. Study DesignComparison of a New Braid Fixation System to an Interlocking Intramedullary Nail for Tibial

Scharer, John E.

229

The Cortical Step Sign Fails to Prevent Malrotation of a Nailed Femoral Shaft Fracture: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Intramedullary nailing has become the treatment of choice for diaphyseal femur fractures. Malrotation is a well-recognized complication of femoral nailing. Various techniques including the cortical step sign (CSS) have been described to minimize iatrogenic rotational deformity during femoral nailing. We present a case in which the use of the CSS resulted in a clinically significant malrotation requiring revision. PMID:24592344

Tung, Taranjit; Tufescu, Ted

2014-01-01

230

Automated screening method for determining optimum preservative systems for personal and home care products.  

PubMed

A procedure was designed to determine the minimum preservative level (MPL) for personal and home care products. A highly preserved sample and an unpreserved sample were combined at different concentrations within a 96-well microtiter plate by using an autodilutor. A unique tip design made it possible to accurately deliver viscous test materials that cannot be dispensed using vacuum- or fluid-filled systems. After inoculation, the sample was evaluated at a specified time interval for the presence of surviving bacteria, yeast, and mold. The lowest concentration of preservative with no microbial growth is the recommended level of preservative for the product. Because sample turbidity may interfere with determination of the endpoint, a colorimetric endpoint was used to indicate growth of microorganisms and to differentiate product from growth. The predicted levels were tested with a modified Cosmetic, Toiletry, and Fragrance Association method. The method successfully predicted effective preservative levels in many personal and home care products with a broad range of viscosities. PMID:9606917

Lenczewski, M E; Kananen, L L

1998-01-01

231

Nail-like targets for laser plasma interaction experiments  

SciTech Connect

The interaction of ultra-high power picosecond laser pulses with solid targets is of interest both for benchmarking the results of hybrid particle in cell (PIC) codes and also for applications to re-entrant cone guided fast ignition. We describe the construction of novel targets in which copper/titanium wires are formed into 'nail-like' objects by a process of melting and micromachining, so that energy can be reliably coupled to a 24 {micro}m diameter wire. An extreme-ultraviolet image of the interaction of the Titan laser with such a target is shown.

Pasley, J; Wei, M; Shipton, E; Chen, S; Ma, T; Beg, F N; Alexander, N; Stephens, R B; MacPhee, A G; Hey, D; Pape, S L; Patel, P; Mackinnon, A J; Key, M H; Offermann, D; Link, A; Chowdhury, E; Van-Woerkom, L D; Freeman, R R

2007-12-18

232

Contaminants in human nail dust: an occupational hazard in podiatry?  

PubMed Central

Background There has been limited literature indicating that podiatrists’ health may be at risk from exposure to human nail dust. Previous studies carried out in the UK have shown that large amounts of dust become airborne during the human nail drilling procedure and are present in the air up to 10 hours after a clinical session. This increases the risk of Respiratory Tract (RT) infection for the practitioner. Methods This study used a nasal swabbing technique and fungal culture to determine whether podiatrists (n = 50) had the same microbes present in their nasal cavities as non-podiatry health professional control group (n = 45). All swabs were cultured, counted and identified for each subject. Survey data of use and type of nail drill, type of mask used and frequency of change over a two week period. Results The results showed podiatrists had a greater range of microbes in their nasal cavities although the controls had greater overall numbers of organisms. The known pathogen and common mould, Aspergillus fumigatus was ost commonly found fungus within the podiatric group with 44% of the group having the fungus present. All nail drills used by the podiatrists had some form of dust extraction (except one). Of concern was 17% (n = 8) of the podiatrists did not use a mask at all whilst drilling and seemed unaware of any infection control issues. Simple disposable masks were the most frequently worn with only half being changed after each patient further increasing the cross infection risk Conclusion The high levels of Aspergilus contamination is a significant finding in the podiatry group as this fungus is small enough to enter the tissue of the nasal cavity and as a small particle will stay airborne in the room for up to 16 hours. Aspergilus has been shown to cause brain and soft tissue tumours in extreme cases. The high levels of upper respiratory track problems reported in the literature may well be caused by this fungal agent. The non use and use of inappropriate masks by podiatrists is clearly an occupational hazard to their health and well being. PMID:24552311

2014-01-01

233

Statistical reappraisal of the clinical significance of nail beading in rheumatoid arthritis.  

PubMed Central

Nail beading has previously been reported as an accompaniment of rheumatoid arthritis. In order to assess the clinical significance of this form of nychodystrophy the fingernails and toenails of 119 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and an equal number of control subjects were studied. Analysis of data based on 4642 nails indicates that the presence of a global pattern of beading (i.e. greater than or equal to 50% involvement of the nail area) on the surface of at least six fingernails or four toenails is highly suggestive of underlying rheumatoid disease. The positive predictive value of these configurations is in the order of 95%. Nail beading, however, is infrequent in early disease and therefore its diagnostic value is limited. Although there is a strong association between nail beading and rheumatoid arthritis, the aetiology and prognostic implications of this clinical sign remain obscure. Images PMID:4051588

Grant, E N; Bellamy, N; Buchanan, W W; Grace, E M; O'Leary, S

1985-01-01

234

The biomechanical evaluation of intramedullary nails in distal femoral shaft fractures.  

PubMed

The biomechanical parameters (torsional rigidity and compressive strength) for three different intramedullary femoral nails, Küntscher (K), Brooker-Wills (BW), and Küntscher Interlocking (KI) were compared in this study. Fractures were created in the femoral shaft distal to the isthmus with sections removed so that pure torsional rigidity and resistance to compression could be measured. The standard K nail provided no torsional rigidity and only minimal resistance to longitudinal compression. The KI was significantly more rigid under compression than either the BW or the K. In torsional resistance the K nail was significantly weaker than either the BW or KI. The K nail does not provide significant resistance to compression or torsion for use in oblique or comminuted fractures. The BW nail probably provides enough resistance to rotation for use in distal fractures, but probably does not provide enough resistance to compression for use in fractures that are prone to shortening. PMID:1537167

Bankston, A B; Keating, E M; Saha, S

1992-03-01

235

Analysis of human nails by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is applied to analyze human fingernails using nanosecond laser pulses. Measurements on 45 nail samples are carried out and 14 key species are identified. The elements detected with the present system are: Al, C, Ca, Fe, H, K, Mg, N, Na, O, Si, Sr, Ti as well as CN molecule. Sixty three emission lines have been identified in the spectrum that are dominated by calcium lines. A discriminant function analysis is used to discriminate among different genders and age groups. This analysis demonstrates efficient discrimination among these groups. The mean concentration of each element is compared between different groups. Correlation between concentrations of elements in fingernails is calculated. A strong correlation is found between sodium and potassium while calcium and magnesium levels are inversely correlated. A case report on high levels of sodium and potassium in patients with hyperthyroidism is presented. It is shown that LIBS could be a promising technique for the analysis of nails and therefore identification of health problems.

Hosseinimakarem, Zahra; Tavassoli, Seyed Hassan

2011-05-01

236

Linkage analysis of the Nail-patella syndrome  

SciTech Connect

Nail-patella syndrome (NPS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by dysplasia of nails and patella, decreased mobility of the elbow, iliac horns, and, in some cases, nephropathy. The disorder has been mapped to the long arm of chromosome 9, but the precise localization and identity of the NPS gene are unknown. Linkage analysis in three NPS families, using highly informative dinucleotide repeat polymorphisms on 9q33-q34, confirmed linkage of NPS to this chromosome. Recombinations were detected, by two-point linkage analysis, between NPS and the centromeric markers D9S60 and the gelsolin gene and the telomeric markers D9S64 and D9S66, in one of the families. Haplotype analysis suggested an additional recombination between NPS and the argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) gene. These results localize the NPS gene to an interval on 9q34.1, distal to D9S60 an proximal to ASS, comprising a genetic distance of {approximately}9 cM. This represents a significant refinement in the localization of the NPS gene. 25 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Campeau, E.; Watkins, D.; Rouleau, G.A. [Montreal General Hospital, Quebec (Canada); Babul, R.; Der Kaloustian, V.M. [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada); Buchanan, J.A.; Meschino, W. [North York General Hospital (Canada)

1995-01-01

237

Experiments on the Adsorption of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) to Nano-Scale Oxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have been detected in sediment-freshwater systems, where nanometer-size (10-9 m) oxides are important in contaminant transport. To investigate interactions between PPCPs and oxide nanoparticles (NPs), experiments were performed using six NPs (TiO2, Fe2O3, MgO, SiO2, Al2O3, and CaO) and seven PPCPs: salicylic acid, propanolol, carbamazepine, bisphenol-a, diclofenac, caffeine, and ibuprofen. Composite PPCP solutions (1-10ppm)

Nicholas Powers

2011-01-01

238

Ocular irritation reversibility assessment for personal care products using a porcine corneal culture assay.  

PubMed

Personal care product manufacturers have used a broad spectrum of alternative ocular irritation assays during the past two decades because these tests do not require the use of live animals, they provide reliable predictive data, and they are relatively inexpensive to conduct. To complement these assays, the ex vivo Porcine Corneal Opacity Reversibility Assay (PorCORA) was recently developed using a corneal culture model to predict reversibility of ocular irritants. Three commercially available consumer products (a shampoo, a hair color glaze, and a hair colorant system containing 12% hydrogen peroxide) were each tested in two PorCORA study replicates in order to assess potential ocular damage reversibility for surfactant-, propylene carbonate-, and peroxide-based formulations, respectively. Under the exaggerated, in vitro study conditions, the surfactant-based shampoo may cause irreversible porcine corneal damage (histological changes in the epithelial squamous cell and/or basal cell layers), whereas the hair color glaze and 12% hydrogen peroxide product caused fully reversible ocular irritation (microscopic changes only in the superficial squamous cell layer). The hair color glaze and peroxide product results correlate with established in vivo data for similar compounds, but the shampoo results contradicted previous BCOP results (expected to be only a mild irritant). Therefore, although the PorCORA protocol shows promise in predicting the extent and reversibility of potential ocular damage caused by accidental consumer eye exposure to personal care products, the contradictory results for the surfactant-based shampoo indicate that more extensive validation testing of the PorCORA is necessary to definitively establish the protocol's reliability as a Draize test replacement. PMID:21172418

Donahue, Douglas A; Avalos, Javier; Kaufman, Lewis E; Simion, F Anthony; Cerven, Daniel R

2011-04-01

239

Oral carriage of enterobacteriaceae among school children with chronic nail-biting habit  

PubMed Central

Context: Onychophagia or habitual nail-biting is widespread among children and adolescents, between 10 and 18 years. Prevalence estimates range from 30% during childhood to 45% in adolescence. Nail-biting habit can result in autoinoculation of pathogens and transmission of infection between body parts. Aims: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the differences in prevalence of Enterobacteriaceae (E. coli and Enterobacter spp) in saliva samples from subjects with and without chronic nail-biting habit. Subjects and Methods: One hundred and twenty-two subjects with chronic nail-biting habit and 122 subjects with no oral habit were enrolled in the study. All subjects were aged 11-15 years. The saliva samples were collected by oral rinse technique, samples were studied microbiologically. Statistical Analysis Used: Two-tailed Student's t-test and Chi-square/Fisher's exact test were used to find the significance of study parameters between the groups. Results: Enterobacteriaceae were detected in the saliva samples of 80 of the 122 nail-biting subjects, whereas Enterobacteriaceae were detected in the saliva samples of only 10 of the 122 subjects who were not nail-biters. This difference in prevalence was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Our results suggest a higher carriage of Enterobacteriaceae in the individuals having nail-biting habits when compared to individuals with no habits. Further studies need to be done to know the prevalence of Enterobacteriaceae species in different age groups. PMID:24250072

Reddy, Sushma; Sanjai, Karpagaselvi; Kumaraswamy, Jayalakshmi; Papaiah, Lokesh; Jeevan, MB

2013-01-01

240

Nail gun injuries in residential carpentry: lessons from active injury surveillance  

PubMed Central

Objective: To describe circumstances surrounding injuries involving nail guns among carpenters, calculate injury rates, identify high risk groups and preventive measures. Methods and setting: Active injury surveillance was used to identify causes of injury among a large cohort of union residential and drywall carpenters. Injured carpenters were interviewed by experienced journeymen; enumeration of workers and hourworked were provided by the union. The combined data allowed definition of a cohort of carpenters, their hours worked, detailed information on the circumstances surrounding injuries, and identification of preventive measures from the perspectives of the injured worker and an experienced investigator. Results: Nail guns were involved in 14% of injuries investigated. Ninety percent of these injuries were the result of the carpenter being struck, most commonly by a nail puncturing a hand or fingers. The injury rate among apprentices was 3.7 per 200 000 hours worked (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.7 to 4.9) compared with a rate of 1.2 among journeymen (95% CI 0.80 to 1.7). While not always the sole contributing factor, a sequential trigger would have likely prevented 65% of the injuries from tools with contact trip triggers. Conclusions: Training, engineering, and policy changes in the workplace and manufacturing arena are all appropriate targets for prevention of these injuries. Use of sequential triggers would likely decrease acute injury rates markedly. Over 70% of injuries among residential carpenters were associated with through nailing tasks (such as nailing studs or blocks, trusses or joists) or toe nailing (angled, corner nailing) as opposed to flat nailing used for sheathing activities; this provides some indication that contact trip tools could be used solely for flat nailing. PMID:12642553

Lipscomb, H; Dement, J; Nolan, J; Patterson, D; Li, L

2003-01-01

241

[Infections of finger and toe nails due to fungi and bacteria].  

PubMed

Infections of the finger and the toe nails are most frequently caused by fungi, primarily dermatophytes. Causative agents of tinea unguium are mostly anthropophilic dermatophytes. Both in Germany, and worldwide, Trichophyton rubrum represents the main important causative agent of onychomycoses. Yeasts are isolated from fungal nail infections, both paronychia and onychomycosis far more often than generally expected. This can represent either saprophytic colonization as well as acute or chronic infection of the nail organ. The main yeasts causing nail infections are Candida parapsilosis, and Candida guilliermondii; Candida albicans is only in third place. Onychomycosis due to molds, or so called non-dermatophyte molds (NDM), are being increasingly detected. Molds as cause of an onychomycosis are considered as emerging pathogens. Fusarium species are the most common cause of NDM onychomycosis; however, rare molds like Onychocola canadensis may be found. Bacterial infections of the nails are caused by gram negative bacteria, usually Pseudomonas aeruginosa (recognizable because of green or black coloration of the nails) but also Klebsiella spp. and gram positive bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus. Treatment of onychomycosis includes application of topical antifungal agents (amorolfine, ciclopirox). If more than 50?% of the nail plate is affected or if more than three out of ten nails are affected by the fungal infection, oral treatment using terbinafine (in case of dermatophyte infection), fluconazole (for yeast infections), or alternatively itraconazole are recommended. Bacterial infections are treated topically with antiseptic agents (octenidine), and in some cases with topical antibiotics (nadifloxacin, gentamicin). Pseudomonas infections of the nail organ are treated by ciprofloxacin; other bacteria are treated according to the results of culture and sensitivity testing. PMID:24718510

Nenoff, P; Paasch, U; Handrick, W

2014-04-01

242

Care robots for the supermarket shelf: a product gap in assistive technologies.  

PubMed

The literature on the development of assistive robots is dominated by technological papers with little consideration of how such devices might be commercialised for a mass market at a price that is affordable for older people and their families as well as public services and care insurers. This article argues that the focus of technical development in this field is too ambitious, neglecting the potential market for an affordable device that is aleady in the realm of the 'adjacent possible' given current technology capabilities. It also questions on both ethical and marketing grounds the current effort to develop assistive robots with pet-like or human-like features. The marketing literature on 'really new products' has so far not appeared to inform the development of assistive robots but has some important lessons. These include using analogies with existing products and giving particular attention to the role of early adopters. Relevant analogies for care robots are not animals or humans but useful domestic appliances and personal technologies with attractive designs, engaging functionality and intuitive usability. This points to a strategy for enabling mass adoption - which has so far eluded even conventional telecare - of emphasising how such an appliance is part of older people's contemporary lifestyles rather than a sign of age-related decline and loss of independence. PMID:23729915

Blackman, Tim

2013-07-01

243

Intertemporal analysis of organizational productivity in residential aged care networks: scenario analyses for setting policy targets.  

PubMed

With an increasing ageing population, there is a growing concern about how the elderly would be looked after. The primary purpose of this paper is to develop scenario analysis using simulated data where various criteria are incorporated into modeling policy targets, and apply an intertemporal productivity analysis to observe inefficiencies as reform unfolds. The study demonstrates how dynamic network data envelopment analysis (DN-DEA) can be used to evaluate the changing productivity of residential aged care (RAC) networks over time. Results indicate that it takes 9 years for 90 % of the RAC networks to have 85 % or more of the total beds in high-level care, and an optimal bed capacity is reached by the end of year 7. Number of beds and registered nurses employed are the main sources of inefficiency. The common core inefficient cohort identified with the paper's method represents a sub-group of RAC networks more deserving of closer managerial attention because of their constantly inefficient operations over time. PMID:24293078

Avkiran, Necmi Kemal; McCrystal, Alan

2014-06-01

244

Self-Administered Behavior Modification to Reduce Nail Biting: Incorporating Simple Technology to Ensure Treatment Integrity  

PubMed Central

Habitual behaviors, such as problematic nail biting, are a common target for self-managed behavior-modification programs. The current self-experiment used self-monitoring in conjunction with a self-managed differential-reinforcement procedure for the treatment of problematic nail biting. A simple picture-comparison procedure allowed an independent observer to assist in monitoring treatment progress and outcomes and to ensure treatment integrity. Results provide support that the overall treatment package was successful in decreasing the occurrence of nail biting. Moreover, the treatment-integrity procedure enabled full-day monitoring to take place with limited requirement of a secondary observer. PMID:22532892

Craig, Andrew R

2010-01-01

245

Use of inherent anteversion of an intramedullary nail to avoid malrotation in femur fractures.  

PubMed

Rotational malalignment after intramedullary (IM) nailing of femoral fractures remains a significant problem. A technique using intraoperative fluoroscopy and the anteversion inherent to the IM nail for obtaining appropriate femoral rotational alignment is presented. The technique is advocated as a simple alternative to more complex methods for estimation of femoral anteversion during placement of femoral IM nails. This method is simple and requires intraoperative fluoroscopy on the injured extremity alone. It reliably sets the femoral anteversion within a normal physiologic range with minimal additional intraoperative steps and without preoperative measurements. PMID:23689227

Espinoza, Chris; Sathy, Ashoke K; Moore, Daniel S; Starr, Adam J; Reinert, Charles M

2014-02-01

246

Modification of elastic stable intramedullary nailing with a 3rd nail in a femoral spiral fracture model - results of biomechanical testing and a prospective clinical study  

PubMed Central

Background Elastic stable intramedullary nailing (ESIN) is the standard treatment for displaced diaphyseal femoral fractures in children. However, high complication rates (10-50%) are reported in complex fractures. This biomechanical study compares the stiffness with a 3rd nail implanted to that in the classical 2C-shaped configuration and presents the application into clinical practice. Methods For each of the 3 configurations of ESIN-osteosynthesis with titanium nails eight composite femoral grafts (Sawbones®) with an identical spiral fracture were used: 2C configuration (2C-shaped nails, 2 × 3.5 mm), 3CM configuration (3rd nail from medial) and 3CL configuration (3rd nail from lateral). Each group underwent biomechanical testing in 4-point bending, internal/external rotation and axial compression. Results 2C and 3CM configurations showed no significant differences in this spiroid type fracture model. 3CL had a significantly higher stiffness during anterior-posterior bending, internal rotation and 9° compression than 2C, and was stiffer in the lateral-medial direction than 3CM. The 3CL was less stable during p-a bending and external rotation than both the others. As biomechanical testing showed a higher stability for the 3CL configuration in two (a-p corresponding to recurvation and 9° compression to shortening) of three directions associated with the most important clinical problems, we added a 3rd nail in ESIN-osteosynthesis for femoral fractures. 11 boys and 6 girls (2.5-15 years) were treated with modified ESIN of whom 12 were ‘3CL’; due to the individual character of the fractures 4 patients were treated with ‘3CM’ (third nail from medial) and as an exception 1 adolescent with 4 nails and one boy with plate osteosynthesis. No additional stabilizations or re-operations were necessary. All patients achieved full points in the Harris-Score at follow-up; no limb length discrepancy occurred. Conclusion The 3CL configuration provided a significantly higher stiffness than 2C and 3CM configurations in this biomechanical model. These results were successfully transmitted into clinical practice. All children, treated by 3CL or 3CM according to the individual character of each fracture, needed no additional stabilization and had no Re-Do operations. As a consequence, at our hospital all children with femoral diaphyseal fractures with open physis are treated with this modified ESIN-technique. PMID:24397612

2014-01-01

247

Keratinophilic and saprophytic fungi isolated from students' nails in Egypt.  

PubMed

In order to determine the presence of dermatophytes and saprophytes in healthy toe and finger nails, 120 students (60 male and 60 female) from preparatory schools at Sohag Governorate (Upper Egypt) were studied. 54 species in addition to 3 varieties belonging to 17 genera were isolated. Six species of true dermatophytes were collected: Microsporum audouinii var. rivalieri, M. cookei, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. simii, T. terrestre and T. verrucosum. Chrysosporium, a well-known keratinophilic genus, was prevalent and represented by 7 species (C. asperatum, C. indicum, C. keratinophilum, C. luteum, C. pannorum, C. tropicum and Chrysosporium state of Thielavia sepedonium). The commonest saprophytes in order of frequency were members of the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria, Scopulariopsis, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, Chaetomium, Syncephalastrum, Mucor, Rhizopus and Acremonium. PMID:2338622

Abdel-Hafez, A I; el-Sharouny, H M

1990-01-01

248

Fusarium Solani: A Causative Agent of Skin and Nail Infections  

PubMed Central

Fusarium spp are non-dermatophytic hyaline moulds found as saprophytes and plant pathogens. Human infections are probably a result of various precipitating predisposing factors of impaired immune status. Immunocompetent individuals of late are also vulnerable to various unassuming saprophytic and plant pathogens. To stress the need to identify correctly and institute appropriate antifungal therapy in newly emerging human fungal infectious agents. Repeated mycological sampling of the skin and nails of the suspected fungal infection were processed as per the standard format including direct microscopy and fungal culture on Sabouraud's dextrose agar. The fungus was isolated as Fusarium solani. Fusarium is an important plant pathogen and soil saprophyte. Infection is acquired by direct inoculation or inhalation of spores. It is associated with a variety of diseases like keratitis, onychomycosis, eumycetoma, skin lesions and disseminated diseases. PMID:22837572

Kuruvilla, Thomas S; Dias, Meena

2012-01-01

249

Withdrawal resistance of ring-shank nails embedded in Southern pine lumber  

E-print Network

The overall goal of this research was to was to gain a better understanding of ringshank nail connections, and to critically evaluate allowable design values for withdrawal. Specific goals ]Included: 1) measuring and comparing withdrawal...

Skulteti, Matthew John

2012-06-07

250

Controversies in the intramedullary nailing of proximal and distal tibia fractures.  

PubMed

Management of tibia fractures by internal fixation, particularly intramedullary nails, has become the standard for diaphyseal fractures. However, for metaphyseal fractures or those at the metaphyseal-diaphyseal junction, choice of fixation device and technique is controversial. For distal tibia fractures, nailing and plating techniques may be used, the primary goal of each being to achieve acceptable alignment with minimal complications. Different techniques for reduction of these fractures are available and can be applied with either fixation device. Overall outcomes appear to be nearly equivalent, with minor differences in complications. Proximal tibia fractures can be fixed using nailing, which is associated with deformity of the proximal short segment. A newer technique-suprapatellar nailing-may minimize these problems, and use of this method has been increasing in trauma centers. However, most of the data are still largely based on case series. PMID:25281261

Tejwani, Nirmal; Polonet, David; Wolinsky, Philip R

2014-10-01

251

Anaerobic-aerobic sequencing bioreactors improve energy efficiency for treatment of personal care product industry wastes.  

PubMed

Personal care product (PCP) industry liquid wastes contain shampoo residues, which are usually treated by aerobic activated sludge (AS). Unfortunately, AS is expensive for PCP wastes because of high aeration and energy demands, whereas potentially energy-positive anaerobic designs cannot meet effluent targets. Therefore, combined anaerobic-aerobic systems may be the best solution. Seven treatment systems were assessed in terms of energy and treatment performance for shampoo wastes, including one aerobic, three anaerobic (HUASB, AHR and AnCSTR) and three anaerobic-aerobic reactor designs. COD removals were highest in the HUASB-aerobic (87.9 ± 0.4%) and AHR-aerobic (86.8±0.5%) systems, which used 69.2% and 62.5% less energy than aerobic AS. However, actual methane production rates were low relative to theoretical in the UASB and AHR units (?10% methane/COD removed) compared with the AnCSTR unit (?70%). Anaerobic-aerobic sequence reactors show promise for treating shampoo wastes, but optimal designs depend upon whether methane production or COD removal is most important to operations. PMID:23639409

Ahammad, S Z; Bereslawski, J L; Dolfing, J; Mota, C; Graham, D W

2013-07-01

252

Silicone oil emulsions: strategies to improve their stability and applications in hair care products.  

PubMed

Silicone oils have wide range of applications in personal care products due to their unique properties of high lubricity, non-toxicity, excessive spreading and film formation. They are usually employed in the form of emulsions due to their inert nature. Until now, different conventional emulsification techniques have been developed and applied to prepare silicone oil emulsions. The size and uniformity of emulsions showed important influence on stability of droplets, which further affect the application performance. Therefore, various strategies were developed to improve the stability as well as application performance of silicone oil emulsions. In this review, we highlight different factors influencing the stability of silicone oil emulsions and explain various strategies to overcome the stability problems. In addition, the silicone deposition on the surface of hair substrates and different approaches to increase their deposition are also discussed in detail. PMID:24279388

Nazir, H; Zhang, W; Liu, Y; Chen, X; Wang, L; Naseer, M M; Ma, G

2014-04-01

253

Removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in aquatic plant-based systems: a review.  

PubMed

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the aquatic environment are regarded as emerging contaminants and have attracted increasing concern. The use of aquatic plant-based systems such as constructed wetlands (CWs) for treatment of conventional pollutants has been well documented. However, available research studies on aquatic plant-based systems for PPCP removal are still limited. The removal of PPCPs in CWs often involves a diverse and complex set of physical, chemical and biological processes, which can be affected by the design and operational parameters selected for treatment. This review summarizes the PPCP removal performance in different aquatic plant-based systems. We also review the recent progress made towards a better understanding of the various mechanisms and pathways of PPCP attenuation during such phytoremediation. Additionally, the effect of key CW design characteristics and their interaction with the physico-chemical parameters that may influence the removal of PPCPs in functioning aquatic plant-based systems is discussed. PMID:24080393

Zhang, Dongqing; Gersberg, Richard M; Ng, Wun Jern; Tan, Soon Keat

2014-01-01

254

Phase distribution and removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products during anaerobic sludge digestion.  

PubMed

The fate and removal of 48 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) during anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge were investigated in four full-scale sewage treatment plants (STPs). We measured concentrations in both the liquid and solid phases of the sludge to compare the distribution ratios (Kd) between phases before and after digestion. The results showed changes in Kd values of PPCPs with carboxyl or amino functional groups, probably due to a shift of dissociation equilibrium with the increase in pH. Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim were almost completely degraded (>90%); triclosan, triclocarban, and ofloxacin were moderately degraded (around 30-50%); but carbamazepine was not eliminated. To our knowledge, this is the first report that shows (i) the occurrence and removal of several tens of PPCPs by anaerobic sludge digestion in full-scale municipal STPs and (ii) the change of distribution between the liquid and solid phases during digestion. PMID:23774781

Narumiya, Masanori; Nakada, Norihide; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki

2013-09-15

255

[Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the effluent of sewage treatment plants].  

PubMed

In recent years, there is an increasing concern about pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), newly identified as micro-pollutants, due to their potential ecological risks. Sewage treatment plant (STP) is well demonstrated as the most significant way for PPCPs to enter into the environment. Therefore, PPCPs' discharge control from STPs' effluents is the key to reduce their ecological risks. Based on the therapeutic classes of PPCPs, this paper individually reviews the pharmacology, function, application and ecotoxicology of antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, psychiatric drugs, beta-blockers, environmental estrogen, lipid regulators, musk fragrances and other PPCPs. A great attention is paid to typical PPCPs frequently detected in STPs' effluents worldwide and their maximum concentrations were reported during 1998-2012, which provides important information for PPCPs' discharge control in STPs. Finally, the potential research fields on this topic are proposed. PMID:24191585

Zheng, Shao-Kui; Li, Xiao-Feng

2013-08-01

256

Steroid-responsive nephrotic syndrome in a patient with nail-patella syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nail-patella syndrome (NPS) is a rare disorder with autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. We report a child with NPS and steroid-responsive, frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome. The child had dystrophic nails, flexion contractures of both elbows and normal renal functions. X-rays of the knees and pelvis showed hypoplastic patellae and iliac horns. Renal histology was unremarkable with mild focal increase in

Pankaj Hari; Mukta Mantan; Amit Dinda; Smriti Hari; Arvind Bagga

2006-01-01

257

Femoral fractures in the elderly treated with an unreamed titanium nail  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a review of 28 femoral fractures in 28 elderly patients treated with an unreamed titanium intramedullary nail (AIM femoral nail, ACE medical, Figure 1). The series included 11 male and 17 female patients with an average age of 74.5 yr (range 63.5–93 yr). One fracture was open and the rest, closed (six pathological). Average follow up was 6

S. H. Zaki; S. Shamsi; M. S. Butt

1998-01-01

258

Docetaxel-induced palmoplantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome and long-lasting multiple nail changes.  

PubMed

Palmoplantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome (PPES) and nail changes are common presentations of cutaneous toxicity of docetaxel chemotherapy, which deteriorate the quality of life of patients. Herein, we describe a female patient who developed PPES and multiple nail changes due to docetaxel treatment for infiltrative ductal carcinoma. Cold application and elevation of extremities during docetaxel infusion, potent topical steroids and oral pyridoxine increased the tolerance to chemotherapy and provided regression of painful cutaneous lesions without cessation of the treatment. PMID:24741199

Akoglu, Gulsen

2014-01-01

259

Possible new autosomal recessive syndrome of congenital lymphoedema, nail dystrophy and esotropia in a Saudi family.  

PubMed

This paper presents a family case of two brothers and two sisters with congenital lower limb lymphoedema, nail dystrophy, and with esotropia in two of them. They are offspring of healthy parents who are first cousins. This combination of congenital lymphoedema, nail dystrophy and esotropia in this sibship differs from other reported cases of congenital lymphoedema and most likely constitutes a previously unrecognized autosomal recessive syndrome. PMID:11236043

Fatinni, Y; Asindi, A; Al Falki, Y; Al Harthi, A; Al Fifi, S; Al-Daama, S

2001-02-01

260

Permanent antibiotic impregnated intramedullary nail in diabetic limb salvage: a case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Managing complications after attempted hind foot and ankle arthrodesis with intramedullary nail fixation is a challenge. This situation becomes more problematic in the patient with diabetes mellitus and multiple comorbidities. Infection and subsequent osteomyelitis can be a devastating, limb threatening complication associated with these procedures. The surgeon must manage both the infectious process and the skeletal instability concurrently. This article provides a literature review and detailed management strategies for a modified technique of employing antibiotic impregnated polymethylmethacrylate-coated intramedullary nailing. PMID:22396833

Woods, Jason B.; Lowery, Nicholas J.; Burns, Patrick R.

2012-01-01

261

Enamel Nail Polish Does Not Interfere With Pulse Oximetry Among Normoxic Volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective.To determine if enamel nail polish interferes withpulse oximetry. Design. Laboratory investigation.Participants. 12 healthy nonsmoking volunteers. Methods.Spectrophotometry was performed on polystyrene cuvettes painted with 3uniform layers of nail polish enamel in triplicate. Absorbances werecompared at 660 and 940 nm for 10 colors across the visible spectrum anddocumented by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers colorcode against Pantone™ matches on

Thomas M. Brand; Mary E. Brand; Gregory D. Jay

2002-01-01

262

Successful intervention in a child with toxic methemoglobinemia due to nail polish remover poisoning.  

PubMed

Children are most susceptible to accidental exposure of common household substances and one of the common household substances is nail polish remover. We are presenting a case of accidental ingestion of nail polish remover with lethal methemoglobinemia (serum methemoglobin level-72%). This patient was treated successfully with injection methylene blue. However, even small amounts can be dangerous to children, so it is important to keep this and all household chemicals in a safe place. PMID:22412293

Patra, Soumya; Sikka, Gurleen; Khaowas, Ajoy Kumar; Kumar, Virender

2011-09-01

263

Successful intervention in a child with toxic methemoglobinemia due to nail polish remover poisoning  

PubMed Central

Children are most susceptible to accidental exposure of common household substances and one of the common household substances is nail polish remover. We are presenting a case of accidental ingestion of nail polish remover with lethal methemoglobinemia (serum methemoglobin level-72%). This patient was treated successfully with injection methylene blue. However, even small amounts can be dangerous to children, so it is important to keep this and all household chemicals in a safe place PMID:22412293

Patra, Soumya; Sikka, Gurleen; Khaowas, Ajoy Kumar; Kumar, Virender

2011-01-01

264

Tibial shaft malunion treated with reamed intramedullary nailing: a revised technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-seven consecutive adult tibial shaft malunions which had not undergone surgical treatment were prospectively treated\\u000a with reamed intramedullary nailing. Indications for this treatment modality included a malunion of a tibial shaft which had\\u000a only been conservatively treated, lesion level fitting for traditional or locked reamed intramedullary nail fixation, less\\u000a than 2 cm shortening, and without evidence of deep infection at

C. C. Wu; W. J. Chen; C. H. Shih

2000-01-01

265

A calibration method for proposed XRF measurements of arsenic and selenium in nail clippings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A calibration method for proposed x-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements of arsenic and selenium in nail clippings is demonstrated. Phantom nail clippings were produced from a whole nail phantom (0.7 mm thickness, 25 × 25 mm2 area) and contained equal concentrations of arsenic and selenium ranging from 0 to 20 µg g-1 in increments of 5 µg g-1. The phantom nail clippings were then grouped in samples of five different masses: 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg for each concentration. Experimental x-ray spectra were acquired for each of the sample masses using a portable x-ray tube and a detector unit. Calibration lines (XRF signal in a number of counts versus stoichiometric elemental concentration) were produced for each of the two elements. A semi-empirical relationship between the mass of the nail phantoms (m) and the slope of the calibration line (s) was determined separately for arsenic and selenium. Using this calibration method, one can estimate elemental concentrations and their uncertainties from the XRF spectra of human nail clippings.

Gherase, Mihai R.; Fleming, David E. B.

2011-10-01

266

Nonreamed nailing of closed and minor open tibial fractures in patients with blunt polytrauma.  

PubMed

A retrospective comparison of dynamic and static locking mode nonreamed nails in 88 closed, Grades I and II open tibial fractures is presented. Amount of time and number of reoperations required to unite fractures were compared for dynamic (Group 1, n = 31) and static locked (Group 2, n = 13) Winquist I and II fractures, and dynamic (Group 3, n = 14) and static locked (Group 4, n = 30) Winquist III, IV, and segmental fractures. Total reoperations also were compared; Tibias treated with dynamic nails united in an average of 20 weeks, with 3 reoperations; tibias treated with static locked nails united in an average of 30 weeks, with 21 reoperations. Group 1 fractures united in an average of 20 weeks, with 1 reoperation; Group 2 fractures united in an average of 32 weeks, with 4 reoperations. Group 3 fractures united in an average of 20 weeks; Group 4 fractures united in an average of 29 weeks, with 11 reoperations. In the group of tibias treated with dynamic nails, 3 additional operations were done; in the group of tibias treated with static locked nails, 7 additional operations were done. There was 1 infection and 3 deformities. Static locking mode appeared to delay union, especially when Groups 1 and 2 are compared; these fractures can be nailed without locking screws. PMID:7586814

Riemer, B L; Miranda, M A; Butterfield, S L; Burke, C J

1995-11-01

267

Propagation of bisphosphonate-related femoral stress fractures despite femoral nailing: a cautionary tale from 2 cases.  

PubMed

We report 2 cases of atypical femoral fracture displacement despite treatment with intramedullary (IM) nailing. Both patients had received more than 3 years of bisphosphonates. One patient had prophylactic fixation of an atypical femur fracture due to intractable pain. The other had undergone nailing previously for a traumatic shaft fracture. The patient then received bisphosphonate later and sustained an atypical fracture with the nail in place. Both femoral nails were slotted, cannulated stainless steel piriformis entry designs. These 2 cases are among the first reported failures of IM fixation in preventing displacement of a bisphosphonate stress fracture. We advice caution when using slotted nails in prophylaxis of atypical femur fractures because of its significantly reduced torsional stiffness compared to modern nonopen sectioned nails. PMID:24660094

Fang, Christian; Chau, Jackie Yee-Man; Woo, Siu-Bon; Lau, Tak-Wing; Kwan, Kenny; Leung, Frankie

2014-03-01

268

Study of the transformation of two salicylates used in personal care products in chlorinated water.  

PubMed

Disinfection of swimming pool water is essential to inactivate pathogenic microorganisms. However chlorine based disinfectants, the most commonly used, are known to lead to the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs), some of which have been associated with adverse health effects. Precursors of DBPs include the organic matter present in the water used to fill the swimming pool, human body fluids and personal care products (PCPs) used by swimmers and bathers. The increased use, in the last years, of PCPs lead to an increased concern about the fate of PCPs in swimming pool waters and potential health risks of formed DBPs. In this study, the chemical transformations of two salicylates, benzyl salicylate (BzS) and phenyl salicylate (PS), incorporated in several PCPs, in chlorinated water were investigated. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV-diode-array detection (HPLC-UV-DAD) was used to follow the reaction kinetics and HPLC with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) was used to tentatively identify the major transformation by-products. Under the experimental conditions used in this work both salicylates reacted with chlorine following pseudo-first order kinetics: rate constant k = (0.0038 ± 0.0002) min(-1) and half-life t1/2 = (182 ± 10) min for BzS and rate constant k = (0.0088 ± 0.0005) min(-1) and half-life t1/2 = (79 ± 4) min for PS (mean ± standard deviation). The reactions of the two salicylates in chlorinated water led to the formation of DBPs that were tentatively identified as mono- and dichloro- substituted compounds. Most probably they result from an electrophilic substitution of one or two hydrogen atoms in the phenolic ring of both salicylates by one or two chlorine atoms. PMID:25086797

de Oliveira e Sá, Mariana M; Miranda, Margarida S; da Silva, Joaquim C G Esteves

2014-11-15

269

Key Issues for Long-Term Care Insurance: Ensuring Quality Products, Increasing Access to Coverage, and Enabling Consumer Choice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is an examination of the long term care insurance market. It describes the evolution of the market, provides an indepth review of the current products and choices. It also discusses underwriting, premiums and the regulations that govern the ma...

C. Sullivan, D. Kennell, J. Weiner, L. M. Alecxih, S. Carothers, S. Lutzky

1993-01-01

270

Supply-Side Effect of Health Care Facilities on Productivity Amongst the Female Workers in the Readymade Garment Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted in 4 selected garment factories within Dhaka city. The objectives of this study were to find out health care access (Supply-side effect) in the garments factory for the women workers and their relation to the productivity. A total of 300 women garment workers were included in this study. Most (60.0%) of the respondents were adolescents, unmarried

Housne Ara Begum; Homayra Fahmida

2009-01-01

271

Product environmental care, a praxis-based system uniting ISO 14001, ISO 14062, IPP, EEE and ecolabel elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approaches, addressing environmental care in products have been assessed according to requirements which were derived on the basis of practical experiences when implementing Ecodesign\\/Design for Environment in the electronic industry. Systems examined include ISO standard 14001, ISO technical report (draft) 14062, the European EEE (Environmental conformity initiative) and IPP approaches and ecolabels. None of the approaches as such fulfils all

Ab Stevels

2001-01-01

272

Occurrence and reductions of pharmaceuticals and personal care products and estrogens by municipal wastewater treatment plants in Ontario, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last ten years there have been reports of pharmaceuticals and personal care product (PPCP) residuals in municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. The principle goal of this study was specifically to expand and in some cases establish a Canadian database for the presence of selected acidic drugs, triclosan, polycyclic musks, and selected estrogens in MWWTP influent and effluent.

Lori Lishman; Shirley Anne Smyth; Kurtis Sarafin; Sonya Kleywegt; John Toito; Thomas Peart; Bill Lee; Mark Servos; Michel Beland; Peter Seto

2006-01-01

273

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in surface and treated waters of Louisiana, USA and Ontario, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

A newly developed analytical method was used to measure concentrations of nine pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in samples from two surface water bodies, a sewage treatment plant effluent and various stages of a drinking water treatment plant in Louisiana, USA, and from one surface water body, a drinking water treatment plant and a pilot plant in Ontario, Canada.

Glen R. Boyd; Helge Reemtsma; Deborah A. Grimm; Siddhartha Mitra

2003-01-01

274

Arthropathy and proteinuria: nail-patella syndrome revisited  

PubMed Central

Nail-patella syndrome (NPS) is a pleiotropic autosomal-dominant disorder due to mutations in the gene LMX1B. It has traditionally been characterized by a tetrad of dermatologic and musculoskeletal abnormalities. However, one of the most serious manifestations of NPS is kidney disease, which may be present in up to 40% of affected individuals. Although diagnosis can be made at birth, it is often missed, presumably due to the rarity of the condition. A 35-year-old female presented to our clinic with history of small joint pain of 6 months duration. In addition she complained of pedal edema off and on for the last 12 years. Prior to her current presentation she had been managed by a local doctor symptomatically. On evaluation, a nephrotic syndrome was obvious, but no secondary cause could be found. However, her physical examination was characteristic of NPS and keeping in view the autosomal dominant nature of the disorder all her three siblings were screened who too showed classical features of NPS. This rare syndrome as a cause of nephrotic range proteinuria is discussed in this report. The report underlines the importance of a good physical examination in a given clinical setting. PMID:25408626

Albishri, Jamal

2014-01-01

275

Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in fish: results of a national pilot study in the United States.  

PubMed

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products are being increasingly reported in a variety of biological matrices, including fish tissue; however, screening studies have presently not encompassed broad geographical areas. A national pilot study was initiated in the United States to assess the accumulation of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in fish sampled from five effluent-dominated rivers that receive direct discharge from wastewater treatment facilities in Chicago, Illinois; Dallas, Texas; Orlando, Florida; Phoenix, Arizona; and West Chester, Pennsylvania, USA. Fish were also collected from the Gila River, New Mexico, USA, as a reference condition expected to be minimally impacted by anthropogenic influence. High performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of pharmaceuticals revealed the presence of norfluoxetine, sertraline, diphenhydramine, diltiazem, and carbamazepine at nanogram-per-gram concentrations in fillet composites from effluent-dominated sampling locations; the additional presence of fluoxetine and gemfibrozil was confirmed in liver tissue. Sertraline was detected at concentrations as high as 19 and 545 ng/g in fillet and liver tissue, respectively. Gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of personal care products in fillet composites revealed the presence of galaxolide and tonalide at maximum concentrations of 2,100 and 290 ng/g, respectively, and trace levels of triclosan. In general, more pharmaceuticals were detected at higher concentrations and with greater frequency in liver than in fillet tissues. Higher lipid content in liver tissue could not account for this discrepancy as no significant positive correlations were found between accumulated pharmaceutical concentrations and lipid content for either tissue type from any sampling site. In contrast, accumulation of the personal care products galaxolide and tonalide was significantly related to lipid content. Results suggest that the detection of pharmaceuticals and personal care products was dependent on the degree of wastewater treatment employed. PMID:19320536

Ramirez, Alejandro J; Brain, Richard A; Usenko, Sascha; Mottaleb, Mohammad A; O'Donnell, John G; Stahl, Leanne L; Wathen, John B; Snyder, Blaine D; Pitt, Jennifer L; Perez-Hurtado, Pilar; Dobbins, Laura L; Brooks, Bryan W; Chambliss, C Kevin

2009-12-01

276

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the aquatic environment in China: a review.  

PubMed

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have been detected as contaminants of emerging concern ubiquitously in the aquatic environment in China and worldwide. A clear picture of PPCP contamination in the Chinese aquatic environment is needed to gain insight for both research and regulatory needs (e.g. monitoring, control and management). The occurrence data of 112 PPCPs in waters and sediments in China has been reviewed. In most cases, the detected concentration of these PPCPs in waters and sediments were at ng/L and ng/g levels, which were lower than or comparable to those reported worldwide. A screening level risk assessment (SLERA) identified six priority PPCPs in surface waters, namely erythromycin, roxithromycin, diclofenac, ibuprofen, salicylic acid and sulfamethoxazole. The results of SLERA also revealed that the hot spots for PPCP pollution were those river waters affected by the megacities with high density of population, such as Beijing, Tianjin, Guangzhou and Shanghai. Limitations of current researches and implications for future research in China were discussed. Some regulatory issues were also addressed. PMID:24036145

Bu, Qingwei; Wang, Bin; Huang, Jun; Deng, Shubo; Yu, Gang

2013-11-15

277

Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in the Environment: What Are the Big Questions?  

PubMed Central

Background: Over the past 10–15 years, a substantial amount of work has been done by the scientific, regulatory, and business communities to elucidate the effects and risks of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the environment. Objective: This review was undertaken to identify key outstanding issues regarding the effects of PPCPs on human and ecological health in order to ensure that future resources will be focused on the most important areas. Data sources: To better understand and manage the risks of PPCPs in the environment, we used the “key question” approach to identify the principle issues that need to be addressed. Initially, questions were solicited from academic, government, and business communities around the world. A list of 101 questions was then discussed at an international expert workshop, and a top-20 list was developed. Following the workshop, workshop attendees ranked the 20 questions by importance. Data synthesis: The top 20 priority questions fell into seven categories: a) prioritization of substances for assessment, b) pathways of exposure, c) bioavailability and uptake, d) effects characterization, e) risk and relative risk, f?) antibiotic resistance, and g) risk management. Conclusions: A large body of information is now available on PPCPs in the environment. This exercise prioritized the most critical questions to aid in development of future research programs on the topic. PMID:22647657

Rudd, Murray A.; Brooks, Bryan W.; Caldwell, Daniel J.; Choi, Kyungho; Hickmann, Silke; Innes, Elizabeth; Ostapyk, Kim; Staveley, Jane P.; Verslycke, Tim; Ankley, Gerald T.; Beazley, Karen F.; Belanger, Scott E.; Berninger, Jason P.; Carriquiriborde, Pedro; Coors, Anja; DeLeo, Paul C.; Dyer, Scott D.; Ericson, Jon F.; Gagne, Francois; Giesy, John P.; Gouin, Todd; Hallstrom, Lars; Karlsson, Maja V.; Larsson, D. G. Joakim; Lazorchak, James M.; Mastrocco, Frank; McLaughlin, Alison; McMaster, Mark E.; Meyerhoff, Roger D.; Moore, Roberta; Parrott, Joanne L.; Snape, Jason R.; Murray-Smith, Richard; Servos, Mark R.; Sibley, Paul K.; Straub, Jurg Oliver; Szabo, Nora D.; Topp, Edward; Tetreault, Gerald R.; Trudeau, Vance L.; Van Der Kraak, Glen

2012-01-01

278

Removal of pharmaceutical and personal care products from reverse osmosis retentate using advanced oxidation processes.  

PubMed

The application of reverse osmosis (RO) in water intended for reuse is promising for assuring high water quality. However, one significant disadvantage is the need to dispose of the RO retentate (or reject water). Studies focusing on Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) have raised questions concerning their concentrations in the RO retentate. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are alternatives for destroying these compounds in retentate that contains high concentration of effluent organic matter (EfOM) and other inorganic constituents. Twenty-seven PPCPs were screened in a RO retentate using solid phase extraction (SPE) and UPLC-MS/MS, and detailed degradation studies for 14 of the compounds were obtained. Based on the absolute hydroxyl radical (HO•) reaction rate constants for individual pharmaceutical compounds, and that of the RO retentate (EfOM and inorganic constituents), it was possible to model their destruction. Using excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy, the HO• oxidation of the EfOM could be observed through decreases in the retentate fluorescence. The decrease in the peak normally associated with proteins correlated well with the removal of the pharmaceutical compounds. These results suggest that fluorescence may be a suitable parameter for monitoring the degradation of PPCPs by AOPs in RO retentates. PMID:21384915

Abdelmelek, Sihem Ben; Greaves, John; Ishida, Kenneth P; Cooper, William J; Song, Weihua

2011-04-15

279

Field dissipation of four personal care products in biosolids-amended soils in North China.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the dissipation behaviors of 4 typical personal care products (PCPs)-triclocarban (TCC), triclosan (TCS), tonalide (AHTN), and galaxolide (HHCB)- in soils amended with biosolids under field conditions in North China. The results showed that the 4 target compounds were detected in all biosolids-amended soils at levels of a few nanograms per gram to thousands of nanograms per gram (dry wt). The residual concentrations of the 4 PCPs were found in the following order: TCC?>?TCS?>?AHTN?>?HHCB. Significant dissipation of the 4 PCPs was observed in the biosolids-amended soils, with half-lives ranging from 26 d to 133 d. Furthermore, repeated biosolids applications and a higher biosolids application rate could lead to higher accumulation of the 4 PCPs in the agricultural soils. Based on the detected concentrations in the field trial and limited ecotoxicity data, high risks to soil organisms are expected for TCC, whereas low to medium risks are expected in most cases for AHTN, HHCB, and TCS. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:2413-2421. © 2014 SETAC. PMID:25044513

Chen, Feng; Ying, Guang-Guo; Ma, Yi-Bing; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Lai, Hua-Jie

2014-11-01

280

Analytical methods for the determination of personal care products in human samples: an overview.  

PubMed

Personal care products (PCPs) are organic chemicals widely used in everyday human life. Nowadays, preservatives, UV-filters, antimicrobials and musk fragrances are widely used PCPs. Different studies have shown that some of these compounds can cause adverse health effects, such as genotoxicity, which could even lead to mutagenic or carcinogenic effects, or estrogenicity because of their endocrine disruption activity. Due to the absence of official monitoring protocols, there is an increasing demand of analytical methods that allow the determination of those compounds in human samples in order to obtain more information regarding their behavior and fate in the human body. The complexity of the biological matrices and the low concentration levels of these compounds make necessary the use of advanced sample treatment procedures that afford both, sample clean-up, to remove potentially interfering matrix components, as well as the concentration of analytes. In the present work, a review of the more recent analytical methods published in the scientific literature for the determination of PCPs in human fluids and tissue samples, is presented. The work focused on sample preparation and the analytical techniques employed. PMID:25127618

Jiménez-Díaz, I; Zafra-Gómez, A; Ballesteros, O; Navalón, A

2014-11-01

281

Treated Wastewater Irrigation: Uptake of Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products by Common Vegetables under Field Conditions.  

PubMed

Global water shortage is placing an unprecedented pressure on water supplies. Treated wastewater is a valuable water resource, but its reuse for agricultural irrigation faces a roadblock: the public concern over the potential accumulation of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) into human diet. In the present study, we measured the levels of 19 commonly occurring pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in 8 vegetables irrigated with treated wastewater under field conditions. Tertiary treated wastewater without or with a fortification of each PPCP at 250 ng/L, was used to irrigate crops until harvest. Plant samples at premature and mature stages were collected. Analysis of edible tissues showed a detection frequency of 64% and 91% in all vegetables from the treated wastewater and fortified water treatments, respectively. The edible samples from the two treatments contained the same PPCPs, including caffeine, meprobamate, primidone, DEET, carbamazepine, dilantin, naproxen, and triclosan. The total concentrations of PPCPs detected in edible tissues from the treated wastewater and fortified irrigation treatments were in the range of 0.01-3.87 and 0.15-7.3 ng/g (dry weight), respectively. Annual exposure of PPCPs from the consumption of mature vegetables irrigated with the fortified water was estimated to be only 3.69 ?g per capita. Results from the present study showed that the accumulation of PPCPs in vegetables irrigated with treated wastewater was likely limited under field conditions. PMID:25211705

Wu, Xiaoqin; Conkle, Jeremy L; Ernst, Frederick; Gan, Jay

2014-10-01

282

Transfer of wastewater associated pharmaceuticals and personal care products to crop plants from biosolids treated soil.  

PubMed

The plant uptake of emerging organic contaminants such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) is receiving increased attention. Biosolids from municipal wastewater treatment have been previously identified as a major source for PPCPs. Thus, plant uptake of PPCPs from biosolids applied soils needs to be understood. In the present study, the uptake of carbamazepine, diphenhydramine, and triclocarban by five vegetable crop plants was examined in a field experiment. At the time of harvest, three compounds were detected in all plants grown in biosolids-treated soils. Calculated root concentration factor (RCF) and shoot concentration factor (SCF) are the highest for carbamazepine followed by triclocarban and diphenhydramine. Positive correlation between RCF and root lipid content was observed for carbamazepine but not for diphenhydramine and triclocarban. The results demonstrate the ability of crop plants to accumulate PPCPs from contaminated soils. The plant uptake processes of PPCPs are likely affected by their physico-chemical properties, and their interaction with soil. The difference uptake behavior between plant species could not solely be attributed to the root lipid content. PMID:22921256

Wu, Chenxi; Spongberg, Alison L; Witter, Jason D; Sridhar, B B Maruthi

2012-11-01

283

Self-assembly of palmitoyl lipopeptides used in skin care products.  

PubMed

The self-assembly of three cosmetically active peptide amphiphiles C16-GHK, C16-KT, and C16-KTTKS (C16 denotes a hexadecyl, palmitoyl chain) used in commercial skin care products is examined. A range of spectroscopic, microscopic, and X-ray scattering methods is used to probe the secondary structure, aggregate morphology, and the nanostructure. Peptide amphiphile (PA) C16-KTTKS forms flat tapes and extended fibrillar structures with high ?-sheet content. In contrast, C16-KT and C16-GHK exhibit crystal-like aggregates with, in the case of the latter PA, lower ?-sheet content. All three PA samples show spacings from bilayer structures in small-angle X-ray scattering profiles, and all three have similar critical aggregation concentrations, this being governed by the lipid chain length. However, only C16-KTTKS is stained by Congo red, a diagnostic dye used to detect amyloid formation, and this PA also shows a highly aligned cross-? X-ray diffraction pattern consistent with the high ?-sheet content in the self-assembled aggregates. These findings may provide important insights relevant to the role of self-assembled aggregates on the reported collagen-stimulating properties of these PAs. PMID:23822110

Castelletto, Valeria; Hamley, Ian W; Whitehouse, Conor; Matts, Paul J; Osborne, Rosemarie; Baker, Ellen S

2013-07-23

284

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in a mesoscale subtropical watershed and their application as sewage markers.  

PubMed

This study comprehensively analyzed 23 classes of 51 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the two major prongs of Jiulong River and its estuary in southeast China, where the levels of the targeted PPCPs were mostly unknown. For both Jiulong River and its estuary, nine PPCPs were detected with 100% detection frequencies including two anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs (ketoprofen and diclofenac acid), a stimulant (caffeine), a plasticizer (bisphenol A), two preservatives (methyl paraben and propyl paraben), two antimicrobials (triclosan and triclocarban) and a ?-blocks (metoprolol), among which bisphenol A and caffeine accounted for more than 60% in concentrations. PPCPs generally had higher concentrations in dry season than normal season and wet season, while certain PPCPs, such as UV filters, showed higher concentrations in wet season, which were presumed to be related to their usage patterns. The concentrations of PPCPs were significantly correlated to several quality parameters of the surface water. The selected sewage markers were also used to track sewage in the studied river and the ratios of easily removed markers and conservative markers were used to identify the contribution of raw or treated sewage input. From our result, Jiulong River and its estuary were likely polluted by potential discharge of raw sewage. PMID:25232652

Lv, Min; Sun, Qian; Hu, Anyi; Hou, Liyuan; Li, Jiangwei; Cai, Xiang; Yu, Chang-Ping

2014-09-15

285

The Association of Reamed Intramedullary Nailing and Long-Term Cognitive Impairment  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the association of reamed intramedullary nailing (IMN) and long-term cognitive impairment in trauma intensive care unit (TICU) survivors. Design Prospective observational cohort. Setting Academic Level-1 Trauma Center. Patients 173 patients with multiple trauma (Injury Severity Score (ISS) >15) who presented to a Level I TICU from July 2006 to July 2007 without evidence of intrancranial hemorrhage (ICH) Intervention None Main Outcome Measure Twelve-month cognitive impairment defined a priori as 2 neuropsychological test scores 1.5 SD below the mean or 1 neuropsychological test score 2 SD below the mean. Results 108/173 patients (62.4%) were evaluated 12-months after injury with a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests. There were 18 patients who received a reamed IMN and 14/18 (78%) of these patients had cognitive deficit at follow-up. Fracture treatment with a reamed IMN was associated with long-term impairment (27.4% vs. 8.2%, p= 0.03). Multivariable logistic regression found that a reamed IMN (OR: 3.2, 95% CI: 0.95-10.9; p=0.06) was a moderate risk factor for the development of cognitive impairment 12-months after injury, after controlling for ISS, level of education, intra-operative hypotension, and duration of mechanical ventilation. Conclusions Fracture fixation with a reamed IMN is moderately associated with cognitive impairment in this cohort of multiple trauma patients without ICH at 1-year post-injury. Orthopaedic trauma research should continue to investigate a potential association of acute fracture management and long-term cognitive outcome. PMID:22089759

Richards, Justin E; Guillamondegui, Oscar D; Archer, Kristin R; Jackson, James C; Ely, E Wesley; Obremskey, William T

2013-01-01

286

The potential application of functionally graded material for proximal femoral nail antirotation device.  

PubMed

Proximal femoral nail antirotation (PFNA) device is an intramedullary nail system designing for the treatment of trochanteric fractures. It is composed of a helical neck blade, a nail and a distal locking bolt. There were some reports of femoral shaft fractures even after the fractures were healed. The stress shielding effects of the PFNA device made of stiff titanium alloy on the bone-remodeling behavior of the host femur and the uneven distribution of interface shear stress may contribute to this complication. Recently, a new class of composite called functionally graded material (FGM) was developed, that consisted a gradual pattern of material composition and/or microstructures, and was introduced in dental implant and cementless hip stem. Accordingly, in this paper, we hypothesized that FGM might be used as the material of the nail in PFNA device with the material composition of the nail gradually shifting from more stiff at the proximal side of the femur to more flexible 'iso-elastic' towards the distal side. This hypothesis can be evaluated from the long-term remodeling behavior of host femur and the stress distributions in the PFNA device and bone. PMID:22781926

Gong, He; Wang, Lizhen; Zheng, Dong; Fan, Yubo

2012-09-01

287

Numerical investigation of mechanical effects caused by various fixation positions on a new radius intramedullary nail.  

PubMed

Fracture of the radius diaphysis is an unusual injury in adults. Open reduction and plate osteosynthesis has been recommended by most of the authors. However, this trend has started to change with the recent introduction of newly designed interlocking intramedullary (IM) nails. New generation of IM nails are developed in order to utilise the advantages of IM nails against plates. Because of its anatomical structure, the radius bone has a complex geometry. Therefore, the callus structure, which forms during the healing period, should not be affected from external effects, such as excessive loads or motion. In this study, effects of radial styloid process (RSP), dorsal side and ulnar notch edge fixations of a new design radius IM nail on the healing period were numerically investigated. A three-dimensional solid model of radius was obtained from computed tomography images of a volunteer and callus structure model, was placed accordingly and different fixations of implants were performed. The models were analysed under axial loads transferring from the wrist to the radius bone using finite element method. As a result of the analysis, fixation of IM nail from RSP was found to be beneficial on healing period in terms of both callus motion and emerging stresses. PMID:23682815

Celik, A; Kovac?, H; Saka, G; Kaymaz, I

2015-02-01

288

Personal care product use and urinary phthalate metabolite and paraben concentrations during pregnancy among women from a fertility clinic  

PubMed Central

Parabens and phthalates are potential endocrine disruptors frequently used in personal care/beauty products, and the developing fetus may be sensitive to these chemicals. We measured urinary butyl-paraben (BP), methyl-paraben (MP), propyl-paraben (PP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), and monoethyl phthalate (MEP) concentrations up to three times in 177 pregnant women from a fertility clinic in Boston MA. Using linear mixed models, we examined the relationship between self-reported personal care product use in the previous 24 hours and urinary paraben and phthalate metabolite concentrations. Lotion, cosmetic, and cologne/perfume use were associated with the greatest increases in the molar sum of phthalate metabolite and paraben concentrations, although the magnitude of individual biomarker increases varied by product used. For example, women who used lotion had BP concentrations 111% higher (95% confidence interval [CI]:41%, 216%) than non-users, while their MBP concentrations were only 28% higher (CI:2%, 62%). Women using/cologne/perfume had MEP concentrations 167% (CI:98%, 261%) higher than non-users, but BP concentrations were similar. We observed a monotonic dose-response relationship between the total number of products used and urinary paraben and phthalate metabolite concentrations. These results suggest that questionnaire data may be useful for assessing exposure to a mixture of chemicals from personal care products during pregnancy. PMID:24149971

Braun, Joe M.; Just, Allan C.; Williams, Paige L.; Smith, Kristen W.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Hauser, Russ

2014-01-01

289

Personal care product use and urinary phthalate metabolite and paraben concentrations during pregnancy among women from a fertility clinic.  

PubMed

Parabens and phthalates are potential endocrine disruptors frequently used in personal care/beauty products, and the developing fetus may be sensitive to these chemicals. We measured urinary butyl-paraben (BP), methyl-paraben, propyl-paraben, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), and monoethyl phthalate (MEP) concentrations up to three times in 177 pregnant women from a fertility clinic in Boston, MA. Using linear mixed models, we examined the relationship between self-reported personal care product use in the previous 24?h and urinary paraben and phthalate metabolite concentrations. Lotion, cosmetic, and cologne/perfume use were associated with the greatest increases in the molar sum of phthalate metabolite and paraben concentrations, although the magnitude of individual biomarker increases varied by product used. For example, women who used lotion had BP concentrations 111% higher (95% confidence interval (CI): 41%, 216%) than non-users, whereas their MBP concentrations were only 28% higher (CI: 2%, 62%). Women using cologne/perfume had MEP concentrations 167% (CI: 98%, 261%) higher than non-users, but BP concentrations were similar. We observed a monotonic dose-response relationship between the total number of products used and urinary paraben and phthalate metabolite concentrations. These results suggest that questionnaire data may be useful for assessing exposure to a mixture of chemicals from personal care products during pregnancy. PMID:24149971

Braun, Joe M; Just, Allan C; Williams, Paige L; Smith, Kristen W; Calafat, Antonia M; Hauser, Russ

2014-01-01

290

Men's Skin Care  

MedlinePLUS

... tones. Athlete's foot, jock itch and nail fungus Tinea fungus can cause three common fungal infections: athlete's foot, jock itch, and nail fungus. Tinea fungus can easily spread from one area of ...

291

Safety assessment of personal care products/cosmetics and their ingredients  

SciTech Connect

We attempt to review the safety assessment of personal care products (PCP) and ingredients that are representative and pose complex safety issues. PCP are generally applied to human skin and mainly produce local exposure, although skin penetration or use in the oral cavity, on the face, lips, eyes and mucosa may also produce human systemic exposure. In the EU, US and Japan, the safety of PCP is regulated under cosmetic and/or drug regulations. Oxidative hair dyes contain arylamines, the most chemically reactive ingredients of PCP. Although arylamines have an allergic potential, taking into account the high number of consumers exposed, the incidence and prevalence of hair dye allergy appears to be low and stable. A recent (2001) epidemiology study suggested an association of oxidative hair dye use and increased bladder cancer risk in consumers, although this was not confirmed by subsequent or previous epidemiologic investigations. The results of genetic toxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity studies suggest that modern hair dyes and their ingredients pose no genotoxic, carcinogenic or reproductive risk. Recent reports suggest that arylamines contained in oxidative hair dyes are N-acetylated in human or mammalian skin resulting in systemic exposure to traces of detoxified, i.e. non-genotoxic, metabolites, whereas human hepatocytes were unable to transform hair dye arylamines to potentially carcinogenic metabolites. An expert panel of the International Agency on Research of Cancer (IARC) concluded that there is no evidence for a causal association of hair dye exposure with an elevated cancer risk in consumers. Ultraviolet filters have important benefits by protecting the consumer against adverse effects of UV radiation; these substances undergo a stringent safety evaluation under current international regulations prior to their marketing. Concerns were also raised about the safety of solid nanoparticles in PCP, mainly TiO{sub 2} and ZnO in sunscreens. However, current evidence suggests that these particles are non-toxic, do not penetrate into or through normal or compromised human skin and, therefore, pose no risk to human health. The increasing use of natural plant ingredients in personal care products raised new safety issues that require novel approaches to their safety evaluation similar to those of plant-derived food ingredients. For example, the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) is a promising tool to assess the safety of substances present at trace levels as well as minor ingredients of plant-derived substances. The potential human systemic exposure to PCP ingredients is increasingly estimated on the basis of in vitro skin penetration data. However, new evidence suggests that the in vitro test may overestimate human systemic exposure to PCP ingredients due to the absence of metabolism in cadaver skin or misclassification of skin residues that, in vivo, remain in the stratum corneum or hair follicle openings, i.e. outside the living skin. Overall, today's safety assessment of PCP and their ingredients is not only based on science, but also on their respective regulatory status as well as other issues, such as the ethics of animal testing. Nevertheless, the record shows that today's PCP are safe and offer multiple benefits to quality of life and health of the consumer. In the interest of all stakeholders, consumers, regulatory bodies and producers, there is an urgent need for an international harmonization on the status and safety requirements of these products and their ingredients.

Nohynek, Gerhard J., E-mail: gnohynec@rd.loreal.co [L'OREAL R and D, Global Safety Evaluation, 92600 Asnieres (France); Antignac, Eric [L'OREAL R and D, Global Safety Evaluation, 92600 Asnieres (France); Re, Thomas [L'Oreal USA, Research and Development, Clark, NJ 07066 (United States); Toutain, Herve [L'OREAL R and D, Global Safety Evaluation, 92600 Asnieres (France)

2010-03-01

292

Employer-incurred health care costs and productivity losses associated with influenza.  

PubMed

The primary objective of this study was to assess trends in employer expenditures for both direct medical costs and indirect productivity losses associated with influenza. A retrospective analysis was performed using two of the MarketScan family of databases for 2005-2009. Patients with at least one diagnosis claim for influenza during an influenza season were selected. We estimated seasonal incidence of influenza in the employed population from the MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters database. Health care utilization and costs and productivity losses were assessed during the 21-d period following the influenza diagnosis date. Compared with the 2005-2006 season (493 per 100,000 plan members), influenza incidence increased during the 2006-2007 (598 per 100,000 plan members) and 2007-2008 (1,142 per 100,000 plan members) seasons and had a dramatic increase during the pandemic season of 2008-2009 (1,715 per 100,000 plan members) . The total influenza-related employer spending per 100,000 plan members also increased by over 400% during the 2008-2009 influenza season [$623,248; confidence interval (CI]):$601,518-$644,991], compared with 2005-2006 ($145,834; 95% CI: $135,067-$156,603). The primary drivers of the increased costs were emergency room, outpatient and inpatient visits. Total costs associated with influenza-related missed work time per 100,000 plan members increased over 4-fold from $26,479 in the 2005-2006 influenza season to $122,811 in 2008-2009. Overall, as expected, considerably higher direct and indirect costs were observed during the 2008-2009 influenza pandemic season than during other influenza seasons. In recent years, the influenza-related employer burden has increased considerably. In future, employers may need efficient resource allocation in order to address the productivity losses and increasing direct medical costs associated with increased influenza incidence. One of the strategies that employers may consider is increasing influenza vaccination rates among employees, which likely will help lower the influenza incidence and the associated downstream direct and indirect costs. PMID:23321849

Karve, Sudeep; Misurski, Derek A; Meier, Genevieve; Davis, Keith L

2013-04-01

293

Employer-incurred health care costs and productivity losses associated with influenza  

PubMed Central

The primary objective of this study was to assess trends in employer expenditures for both direct medical costs and indirect productivity losses associated with influenza. A retrospective analysis was performed using two of the MarketScan family of databases for 2005–2009. Patients with at least one diagnosis claim for influenza during an influenza season were selected. We estimated seasonal incidence of influenza in the employed population from the MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters database. Health care utilization and costs and productivity losses were assessed during the 21-d period following the influenza diagnosis date. Compared with the 2005–2006 season (493 per 100,000 plan members), influenza incidence increased during the 2006–2007 (598 per 100,000 plan members) and 2007–2008 (1,142 per 100,000 plan members) seasons and had a dramatic increase during the pandemic season of 2008–2009 (1,715 per 100,000 plan members) . The total influenza-related employer spending per 100,000 plan members also increased by over 400% during the 2008–2009 influenza season [$623,248; confidence interval (CI]):$601,518-$644,991], compared with 2005–2006 ($145,834; 95% CI: $135,067-$156,603). The primary drivers of the increased costs were emergency room, outpatient and inpatient visits. Total costs associated with influenza-related missed work time per 100,000 plan members increased over 4-fold from $26,479 in the 2005–2006 influenza season to $122,811 in 2008–2009. Overall, as expected, considerably higher direct and indirect costs were observed during the 2008–2009 influenza pandemic season than during other influenza seasons. In recent years, the influenza-related employer burden has increased considerably. In future, employers may need efficient resource allocation in order to address the productivity losses and increasing direct medical costs associated with increased influenza incidence. One of the strategies that employers may consider is increasing influenza vaccination rates among employees, which likely will help lower the influenza incidence and the associated downstream direct and indirect costs. PMID:23321849

Karve, Sudeep; Misurski, Derek A.; Meier, Genevieve; Davis, Keith L.

2013-01-01

294

Frecuencia de micosis en la quinta uña distrófica del pie Frequency of onichomycosis in the dystrophic fifth toes nail  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Onychomycoses are infectious diseases caused by fungus in the nails of hands and feet which are produced by dermatophytes, yeasts and or molds. Dystrophy refers to the degeneration or misdevelopement of any part of the body —in this article we refer to lesions of the nails— caused by various reasons, amongst them those of traumatic and\\/or fungal origin. We

Cristina Balderrama Vargas; Jorge Mayorga Rodríguez; J. Antonio; Barba Borrego; Víctor M. Tarango Martínez

295

Titanium elastic nailing radius and ulna fractures in adolescents.  

PubMed

Over the last 40 years, anatomic reduction with plate stabilization has become the standard in adult patients with diaphyseal fractures of the radius and ulna. When operative fixation has been indicated in skeletally immature patients with these fractures, a variety of techniques have been reported, with intramedullary fixation becoming increasingly accepted. There is currently significant variability in the treatment of adolescents with forearm fractures. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical and radiographic outcomes in the adolescent population after intramedullary fixation of both bone forearm fractures. A retrospective review identified 32 patients 12-18 years of age who had undergone intramedullary fixation of both forearm bones in the past 20 years at our institution. Galeazzi, Monteggia, radial head, and distal metaphyseal fractures were excluded. Radiographic evaluation was performed to determine union and postoperative radial bow. Clinical follow-up was carried out for postoperative complications and range of motion of the wrist, forearm, and elbow. The mean age of the patients was 14.1 years. A total of 19 fractures were closed injuries, nine were grade 1, three were grade 2, and one fracture was a grade 3b. Of the patients, 15.6% had limited postoperative range of motion. All patients in the older age group, 15-18 years of age, had a normal range of motion. A decrease in radial bow was not associated with limitation in motion. There was a 98% union rate, and all unions occurred by 7.5 months. Only three major complications occurred, two refractures and one ulnar hardware migration, and subsequent radius nonunion occurred in the one grade 3b injury. Flexible intramedullary nailing of both bone forearm fractures provides reliable bony union and excellent postoperative clinical results in adolescents. Level of evidence, IV. PMID:22415404

Wall, Lindley; O'Donnell, June C; Schoenecker, Perry L; Keeler, Kathryn A; Dobbs, Matthew B; Luhmann, Scott J; Gordon, J Eric

2012-09-01

296

Elastic stable intramedullary nailing of midclavicular fractures in athletes  

PubMed Central

Background: Intramedullary fixation of midclavicular fractures may be a better option than non-operative treatment for high performance/professional athletes because of the potential reduction in recovery time. Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of intramedullary fixation in high performance athletes and the time required to return to sporting activity. Methods: Data were taken from a prospective study on intramedullary fixation techniques using the elastic stable Ti nail (TEN, Synthes) for the treatment of displaced midclavicular fractures, initiated in 1996. The patients in 12 cases were classified as high performance/professional athletes. These cases were used to evaluate the technique specifically in this population. Fractures were classified according to the Orthopaedic Trauma Association (OTA) system. Patients were evaluated before and after surgery for shoulder function and subjective pain. After the operation, radiological assessments documented fracture healing, and clinical outcomes scores were obtained. Time required to return to training and competition was documented. Results: All fractures were transverse or oblique. Mean (SD) shoulder abduction increased from 36.3 (8)° before surgery to 154.2 (17)° afterwards (p<0.001). Mean subjective pain score using a visual analogue scale (0–100) decreased from 71.7 (18) points before surgery to 19.2 (6) points (p<0.001) three days after. There were no complications. Hospital stay averaged 2.9 (1) days. Mean delay to resumption of training was 5.9 (1) days, and to resumption of competition it was 16.8 (5) days. The mean Constant clinical outcomes score one year after hardware removal was 98.3 (2) points. Conclusions: Intramedullary fixation of displaced midclavicular fracture was successful in terms of clinical outcome and rapid resumption of sporting activities. This treatment should be offered to athletes as an alternative to non-operative treatment. PMID:14665582

Jubel, A; Andemahr, J; Bergmann, H; Prokop, A; Rehm, K; Fay, M

2003-01-01

297

Pediatric femoral shaft fractures treated with titanium elastic nailing.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to prospectively compare intraoperative fluoroscopy time and clinical and radiological results in pediatric femoral shaft fractures treated with titanium elastic nailing (TEN) using a small-incision, blind-hand reduction vs closed reduction. From February 2008 to December 2009, sixty-eight children were enrolled in the study. Patients were divided into 2 groups: group A comprised 34 patients treated with a small-incision, blind-hand reduction technique and group B comprised 34 patients treated with a closed reduction technique. Operative time, intraoperative fluoroscopy time, fracture union time, and complications were recorded in both groups. Clinical and radiological results were assessed using the TEN scoring system. Mean operative time was 30.5±8.5 in group A and 53.0±15.0 minutes in group B, and mean fluoroscopy time was 28.4±18.5 seconds in group A and 65.0±28.5 seconds in group B. Operative time and fluoroscopy time were significantly longer in group B (P<.001). According to the TEN scoring system, the results were excellent in 31 patients and good in 3 patients in group A and excellent in 29 patients and good in 5 patients in group B. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in terms of clinical and radiological results. There was also no significant difference in terms of fracture healing time, weight-bearing time, and complications. The small-incision, blind-hand reduction technique provided similar clinical results as closed reduction. This technique could be an alternative to closed reduction because it significantly reduced intraoperative radiation exposure and operative time. PMID:25361364

Sun, Liao-Jun; Yang, Jie; Tian, Nai-Feng; Wu, Yao-Sen; Yu, Xian-Bin; Hu, Wei; Guo, Xiao-Shan; Chen, Hua

2014-11-01

298

Patellar tendon rupture post reamed intra-medullary tibial nail in a patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. A case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patellar tendon rupture is a rare complication of intra-medullary nailing in tibial fractures. We report such a case in a patient with type III Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. We recommend the use of unreamed nails and a parapatellar entry point for tibial nailing in patients with connective tissue disorders.

P. Moroney; T. McCarthy; D. Borton

2004-01-01

299

Density determination of nail polishes and paint chips using magnetic levitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trace evidence is often small, easily overlooked, and difficult to analyze. This study describes a nondestructive method to separate and accurately determine the density of trace evidence samples, specifically nail polish and paint chip using magnetic levitation (MagLev). By determining the levitation height of each sample in the MagLev device, the density of the sample is back extrapolated using a standard density bead linear regression line. The results show that MagLev distinguishes among eight clear nail polishes, including samples from the same manufacturer; separates select colored nail polishes from the same manufacturer; can determine the density range of household paint chips; and shows limited levitation for unknown paint chips. MagLev provides a simple, affordable, and nondestructive means of determining density. The addition of co-solutes to the paramagnetic solution to expand the density range may result in greater discriminatory power and separation and lead to further applications of this technique.

Huang, Peggy P.

300

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment: agents of subtle change?  

PubMed Central

During the last three decades, the impact of chemical pollution has focused almost exclusively on the conventional "priority" pollutants, especially those acutely toxic/carcinogenic pesticides and industrial intermediates displaying persistence in the environment. This spectrum of chemicals, however, is only one piece of the larger puzzle in "holistic" risk assessment. Another diverse group of bioactive chemicals receiving comparatively little attention as potential environmental pollutants includes the pharmaceuticals and active ingredients in personal care products (in this review collectively termed PPCPs), both human and veterinary, including not just prescription drugs and biologics, but also diagnostic agents, "nutraceuticals," fragrances, sun-screen agents, and numerous others. These compounds and their bioactive metabolites can be continually introduced to the aquatic environment as complex mixtures via a number of routes but primarily by both untreated and treated sewage. Aquatic pollution is particularly troublesome because aquatic organisms are captive to continual life-cycle, multigenerational exposure. The possibility for continual but undetectable or unnoticed effects on aquatic organisms is particularly worrisome because effects could accumulate so slowly that major change goes undetected until the cumulative level of these effects finally cascades to irreversible change--change that would otherwise be attributed to natural adaptation or ecologic succession. As opposed to the conventional, persistent priority pollutants, PPCPs need not be persistent if they are continually introduced to surface waters, even at low parts-per-trillion/parts-per-billion concentrations (ng-microg/L). Even though some PPCPs are extremely persistent and introduced to the environment in very high quantities and perhaps have already gained ubiquity worldwide, others could act as if they were persistent, simply because their continual infusion into the aquatic environment serves to sustain perpetual life-cycle exposures for aquatic organisms. This review attempts to synthesize the literature on environmental origin, distribution/occurrence, and effects and to catalyze a more focused discussion in the environmental science community. PMID:10592150

Daughton, C G; Ternes, T A

1999-01-01

301

Evaluation of a model for the removal of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and hormones from wastewater.  

PubMed

Current wastewater treatment processes are insufficient at removing many pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) from wastewater and it is necessary to identify the chemical characteristics that determine their fate. Models that predict the fate of various chemicals lack verification using in situ data, particularly for PPCPs. BIOWIN4 is a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model that has been proposed to estimate the removal of PPCPs from wastewater, but data verifying the accuracy of its predictions is limited. In this study, the in situ soluble and suspended solid concentrations were assessed from raw influent, primary effluent, secondary effluent, and final effluent for 54 PPCPs and hormones over six dates. When assessing the removal efficiency across the different stages of the WWTP, the majority of the removal occurred across the secondary treatment process for the majority of the compounds. The primary treatment and disinfection process had limited impacts on the removal of most PPCPs. Sorption to solids was found to influence the removal for compounds with a log octanol-water partitioning coefficient greater than 4.5 across the secondary treatment process. For other compounds, the removal of PPCPs across the secondary treatment process was significantly correlated with the biodegradation predicted by BIOWIN4. Removal efficiencies across the aerobic secondary treatment process were predicted by integrating BIOWIN4 into pseudo-first order kinetics of PPCPs and these predicted values were compared to the in situ data. This study determines that under a certain set of operating conditions, two chemical characteristics - the expected hydrophobic interaction and the modeled biological degradation from BIOWIN4 - were found to predict the removal of highly degradable and recalcitrant PPCPs from a wastewater secondary treatment process. PMID:23295178

Blair, Benjamin D; Crago, Jordan P; Hedman, Curtis J; Treguer, Ronan J F; Magruder, Christopher; Royer, L Scott; Klaper, Rebecca D

2013-02-01

302

Comparative uptake and translocation of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) by common vegetables.  

PubMed

Reuse of treated wastewater to irrigate agricultural crops is increasing in many arid and semi-arid areas around the world. The presence of numerous pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in treated wastewater and their potential transfer into food produce such as vegetables poses an unknown human health risk. The goal of this study was to identify PPCPs that have a comparatively high potential for plant uptake and translocation. A total of 20 frequently-occurring PPCPs were compared for their accumulation into four staple vegetables (lettuce, spinach, cucumber, and pepper) grown in nutrient solutions containing PPCPs at 0.5 or 5?gL(-1). Triclocarban, fluoxetine, triclosan, and diazepam were found at high levels in roots, while meprobamate, primidone, carbamazepine, dilantin, and diuron exhibited more active translocation from roots to leaves. Root uptake of neutral PPCPs was positively correlated with the pH adjusted log Kow(i.e., log Dow), and was likely driven by chemical adsorption onto the root surfaces. In contrast, translocation from roots to leaves was negatively related to log Dow, suggesting hydrophilicity-regulated transport via xylems. Compounds preferentially sorbed to roots should be further evaluated for their uptake in tuber vegetables (e.g., carrot, radish) under field conditions, while those easily translocated into leaves (e.g., carbamazepine, dilantin) merit focused consideration for leafy and other vegetables (e.g., lettuce, cucumber). However, estimation of dietary intake by humans suggested the implied risks from exposure to PPCPs via wastewater irrigation to be negligible. PMID:23973619

Wu, Xiaoqin; Ernst, Frederick; Conkle, Jeremy L; Gan, Jay

2013-10-01

303

Radiation-free Insertion of Distal Interlocking Screw in Tibial and Femur Nailing: A Simple Technique  

PubMed Central

Background: Distal interlocking screw insertion in intramedullary nailing of long-bone fracture is a challenging task for orthopedic surgeons. It is difficult particularly when the surgeon is in his learning stage or when image intensifier is not available. We describe a radiation-free technique of distal interlocking screw insertion which is easy and practicable. Materials and Methods: In this technique, a same length nail is placed over the skin (outer nail) and through its distal-most screw hole, a 3.2 mm drill bit is inserted to drill the distal locking screw hole of the intramedullary nail (inner nail). With a small skin incision over the distal screw holes, the distal-most screw hole is identified; the bone window overlying the screw hole is widened with an awl and a locking bolt is inserted with a washer under direct visualization. The other distal interlocking screw is simply drilled by matching the other three holes of the outer and inner nails. We have operated 86 patients (39 femoral shaft fracture and 47 tibial shaft fracture) in 1 year where this technique was used. There were 41 open fracture and 45 closed fracture. Results: Within 6 months of follow-up, bony union was achieved in 36 of 39 femur fractures and 45 of 47 tibial fractures. No unwanted complications were observed during the postoperative period and in follow-up. Conclusion: This method of radiation-free distal interlocking screw insertion is simple and can be used in third world country where image intensifier facility is not available. However, surgeons are encouraged to use image intensifier facility where the facility is available. PMID:23066456

Soni, Ritesh Kumar; Mehta, Surender Mohan; Awasthi, Bhanu; Singh, Janith Lal; Kumar, Amit; Thakur, Lokesh; Tripathy, Sujit Kumar

2012-01-01

304

Speckle-correlation analysis of the microcapillary blood circulation in nail bed  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of the experimental studies of the possibility of monitoring the blood microcirculation in human finger nail bed with application of speckle-correlation analysis, based on estimating the contrast of time-averaged dynamic speckles. The hemodynamics at normal blood circulation and under conditions of partially suppressed blood circulation is analysed. A microscopic analysis is performed to visualise the structural changes in capillaries that are caused by suppressing blood circulation. The problems and prospects of speckle-correlation monitoring of the nail bed microhemodynamics under laboratory and clinical conditions are discussed. (optical technologies in biophysics and medicine)

Vilenskii, M A; Agafonov, D N; Zimnyakov, D A; Tuchin, Valerii V; Zdrazhevskii, R A

2011-04-30

305

Microbially Mediated Degradation of Common Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in Soil Under Aerobic and Reduced Oxygen Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological degradation rates of estrogen compounds and common pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) were examined\\u000a in soils with a long history of exposure to these compounds through wastewater effluent and in soil not previously exposed.\\u000a Biological degradation rates over 14 days were compared under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Estrogen compounds including\\u000a estrone, 17?-estradiol, estriol, and 17?-ethinylestradiol exhibited rapid degradation by

Deborah L. Carr; Audra N. Morse; John C. Zak; Todd A. Anderson

2011-01-01

306

Assessing Occupational Exposure in Nail Salons Margaret Back, Katherine Chin, Morgan Dashko, Alisa Feinswog, Aliza Heeren, Tasneem Islam, Benjamin Krause, Molly Pearlman, Maia Rodriguez-Semp, Madeline Rosenberg, Emily Scharf, Shanlai Shangguan, Emily Weis  

E-print Network

in polishes, removers, gels and acrylic nails. Some examples of VOC's in nails salons are acetone toxic methyl methacrylate that was banned from use in Boston. EMA, contained in nail polishes, is knownAssessing Occupational Exposure in Nail Salons Margaret Back, Katherine Chin, Morgan Dashko, Alisa

Fraden, Seth

307

Fate and removal of typical pharmaceuticals and personal care products by three different treatment processes.  

PubMed

The presence and distribution of typical of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), which comprise two types of polycyclic musks (PCMs) including Galaxolide (HHCB) and Tonalide (AHTN) as well as six types of estrogens containing estrone (E1), 17?-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), 17?-ethynylestradiol (EE2), diethylstilbestrol (DES), and bisphenol A (BPA), were investigated at two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Jiangsu, China. Only raw wastewater was treated in WWTP A while WWTP B was serving an urban-industrialized area. In the influent, the concentrations of EE2 (2193-4437ngL(-1)), E2 (1126-1170ngL(-1)), and DES (268-421ngL(-1)) were generally higher than the previously reported values, whereas the concentrations of HHCB (306-316ngL(-1)), E1 (29-129ngL(-1)), E3 (53ngL(-1)), and BPA (26-176ngL(-1)) were much lower than those reported in other previous studies. In addition, AHTN was not detected in either WWTP and E3 was not found in WWTP B. The detected processes including anaerobic/oxic process (A/O), combined orbal oxidation ditch process (C-orbal OD) and anaerobic/anoxic/anoxic/oxic membrane biological reactor (A/A/A/O-MBR) showed higher removal efficiencies for HHCB (67-71%) and EE2 (87%) than those in other previous studies. Besides, the total hydraulic retention time (HRT) ranged between 6.7 and 20.0h, sludge retention time (SRT) ranged between 8 and 23d, and water temperature ranged from 24.8 to 28.2°C. The removal efficiencies for estrogens in biological processes were related to the following factors: the level of hydrophobic estrogens, the type of removal process (C-orbal OD was consistently less efficient in removing estrogens than A/O and A/A/A/O-MBR), and a high SRT or HRT (A/A/A/O-MBR with higher SRT and HRT showed higher and more stable removal of hydrophobic estrogens). PMID:23384648

He, Yu-Jie; Chen, Wei; Zheng, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Xing-Nan; Huang, Xi

2013-03-01

308

The Productivity and Cost-Efficiency of Models for Involving Nurse Practitioners in Primary Care: A Perspective from Queueing Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective To develop simple stylized models for evaluating the productivity and cost-efficiencies of different practice models to involve nurse practitioners (NPs) in primary care, and in particular to generate insights on what affects the performance of these models and how. Data Sources and Study Design The productivity of a practice model is defined as the maximum number of patients that can be accounted for by the model under a given timeliness-to-care requirement; cost-efficiency is measured by the corresponding annual cost per patient in that model. Appropriate queueing analysis is conducted to generate formulas and values for these two performance measures. Model parameters for the analysis are extracted from the previous literature and survey reports. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to investigate the model performance under different scenarios and to verify the robustness of findings. Principal Findings Employing an NP, whose salary is usually lower than a primary care physician, may not be cost-efficient, in particular when the NP's capacity is underutilized. Besides provider service rates, workload allocation among providers is one of the most important determinants for the cost-efficiency of a practice model involving NPs. Capacity pooling among providers could be a helpful strategy to improve efficiency in care delivery. Conclusions The productivity and cost-efficiency of a practice model depend heavily on how providers organize their work and a variety of other factors related to the practice environment. Queueing theory provides useful tools to take into account these factors in making strategic decisions on staffing and panel size selection for a practice model. PMID:22092009

Liu, Nan; D'Aunno, Thomas

2012-01-01

309

International scientists' priorities for research on pharmaceutical and personal care products in the environment.  

PubMed

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are widely discharged into the environment via diverse pathways. The effects of PPCPs in the environment have potentially important human and ecosystem health implications, so credible, salient, and legitimate scientific evidence is needed to inform regulatory and policy responses that address potential risks. A recent "big questions" exercise with participants largely from North America identified 22 important research questions around the risks of PPCP in the environment that would help address the most pressing knowledge gaps over the next decade. To expand that analysis, we developed a survey that was completed by 535 environmental scientists from 57 countries, of whom 49% identified environmental or analytical chemistry as their primary disciplinary background. They ranked the 22 original research questions and submitted 171 additional candidate research questions they felt were also of high priority. Of the original questions, the 3 perceived to be of highest importance related to: 1) the effects of long-term exposure to low concentrations of PPCP mixtures on nontarget organisms, 2) effluent treatment methods that can reduce the effects of PPCPs in the environment while not increasing the toxicity of whole effluents, and 3) the assessment of the environmental risks of metabolites and environmental transformation products of PPCPs. A question regarding the role of cultural perspectives in PPCP risk assessment was ranked as the lowest priority. There were significant differences in research orientation between scientists who completed English and Chinese language versions of the survey. We found that the Chinese respondents were strongly orientated to issues of managing risk profiles, effluent treatment, residue bioavailability, and regional assessment. Among English language respondents, further differences in research orientation were associated with respondents' level of consistency when ranking the survey's 15 comparisons. There was increasing emphasis on the role of various other stressors relative to PPCPs and on risk prioritization as internal decision making consistency increased. Respondents' consistency in their ranking choices was significantly and positively correlated with SETAC membership, authors' number of publications, and longer survey completion times. Our research highlighted international scientists' research priorities and should help inform decisions about the type of hazard and risk-based research needed to best inform decisions regarding PPCPs in the environment. Disciplinary training of a scientist or engineer appears to strongly influence preferences for research priorities to understand PPCPs in the environment. Selection of participants and the depth and breadth of research prioritization efforts thus have potential effects on the outcomes of research prioritization exercises. Further elucidation of how patterns of research priority vary between academic and government scientists and between scientists and other government and stakeholders would be useful in the future and provide information that helps focus scientific effort on socially relevant challenges relating to PPCPs in the environment. It also suggests the potential for future collaborative research between industry, government, and academia on environmental contaminants beyond PPCPs. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2014;10:576-587. © 2014 SETAC. PMID:24954797

Rudd, Murray A; Ankley, Gerald T; Boxall, Alistair Ba; Brooks, Bryan W

2014-10-01

310

Optimization and Validation of RP-HPLC-UV/Vis Method for Determination Phenolic Compounds in Several Personal Care Products  

PubMed Central

An HPLC method with ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry detection has been optimized and validated for the simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds, such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as antioxidants, and octyl methyl cinnamate (OMC) as UVB-filter in several personal care products. The dynamic range was between 1 to 250?mg/L with relative standard deviation less than 0.25% (n = 4). Limits of detection for BHA, BHT, and OMC were 0.196, 0.170, and 0.478?mg/L, respectively. While limits of quantification for BHA, BHT, and OMC were 0.593, 0.515, and 1.448?mg/L, respectively. The recovery for BHA, BHT, and OMC was ranged from 92.1–105.9%, 83.2–108.9%, and 87.3–103.7%, respectively. The concentration ranges of BHA, BHT, and OMC in 12 commercial personal care samples were 0.13–4.85, 0.16–2.30, and 0.12–65.5?mg/g, respectively. The concentrations of phenolic compounds in these personal care samples were below than maximum allowable concentration in personal care formulation, that is, 0.0004–10?mg/g, 0.002–5?mg/g, and up to 100?mg/g for BHA, BHT, and OMC, respectively. PMID:21760792

Akkbik, Mohammed; Assim, Zaini Bin; Ahmad, Fasihuddin Badruddin

2011-01-01

311

Intramedullary nailing of the tibia without a fracture table: the transfixion pin distractor technique.  

PubMed

A series of 44 fractures of the tibia requiring operative stabilization were treated using an intraoperative external transfixion pin frame to correct angular deformity and maintain length in preparation for intramedullary (IM) nailing, eliminating the need for a fracture table. The technique requires a radiolucent operating room table; the injured extremity is draped free. A transfixion pin is inserted in the os calcis. Rotational deformity is manually corrected. Using fluoroscopic control, a second transfixion pin is inserted at a location just distal and parallel to the proximal tibial articular surface, paralleling the horizontal plane of the first pin. The transfixion pins are connected with carbon fiber rods, creating a rectangular frame. Manual fracture reduction is followed by "fine tuning" with compressor/distractor clamps as needed. Alternatively, for added reduction force, the carbon fiber rod on the concave side of the angular deformity may be replaced with the AO/ASIF universal distractor. IM nailing is then performed in the usual fashion. In this series, an acceptable reduction was obtained in all cases. This technique shortens setup time, provides complete access to the distal part of the tibia, and allows free manipulation of the limb, thereby facilitating nail insertion and placement of distal locking screws. Use of medial and lateral bars prevents the angular deformity often created or exacerbated with the use of the universal distractor alone. This technique is recommended for IM nailing of all fractures of the tibia that would otherwise require use of the fracture table or universal distractor. PMID:8027887

Moed, B R; Watson, J T

1994-01-01

312

Corrosion of nails in CCA and ACA-treated wood in two environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1973, nails of 11 different alloys and coatings were driven into southern pine treated with chromated copper arsenate or ammoniacal copper arsenate. One set of samples was exposed to 97 to 100 percent relative humidity at 80°F (27°0 for 14 years. Another set of samples was burled in soil for 17 years at the Valley View Exposure Site in

Andrew J. Baker

313

On the Value of Nonremovable Reminders for Behavior Modification: An Application to Nail-Biting (Onychophagia)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the effectiveness of a novel behavior modification method for dysfunctional and impulsive habits, based on nonremovable reminders (NrRs). NrRs were implemented by having participants wear nonremovable wristbands designated to constantly remind them of their resolution to quit the targeted habit (nail-biting). Participants were…

Koritzky, Gilly; Yechiam, Eldad

2011-01-01

314

MEASUREMENT OF MOLTEN STEEL SURFACE VELOCITY WITH SVC AND NAIL DIPPING  

E-print Network

MEASUREMENT OF MOLTEN STEEL SURFACE VELOCITY WITH SVC AND NAIL DIPPING DURING CONTINUOUS CASTING the continuous casting of steel. Plant experiments using two different new sensors, Sub-meniscus Velocity Control casting (CC) process, molten steel flow in molds cannot be directly observed or measured using

Thomas, Brian G.

315

Planar fuel cell utilizing nail current collectors for increased active surface area  

SciTech Connect

A plurality of nail current collector members are useful in the gas flow passages of an electrochemical device to optimize the active surfaces of the device and to provide structural support. In addition, the thicknesses of cathode and anode layers within the electrochemical device are varied according to current flow through the device to reduce resistance and increase operating efficiency.

George, Thomas J.; Meacham, G.B. Kirby

1999-11-26

316

Effect of nail characteristics on slope stability based on limit equilibrium and numerical methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important phases in tunnel excavation in urban areas is to design and make a place for assembling and establishing excavation machines into the earth. Since providing stable trench walls in loose earth environment is very important, this paper tries to use a nailing method to make trench walls stable in the entrance of the 2nd subway

Mahdi Rasouli Maleki; Mohammad Mahyar

2012-01-01

317

Outcomes using titanium elastic nails for open and closed pediatric tibia fractures.  

PubMed

The authors conducted a retrospective review at their level I trauma center to assess the outcomes of closed vs open pediatric tibial fractures treated with titanium elastic nails. The study group included 38 pediatric patients (median age, 12 years) treated with titanium elastic nails for tibial fractures during a 5-year period. Patient demographics, closed or open injury, Gustilo-Anderson type for open fractures, fracture location, skeletal maturity, time to union, hospital length of stay, number of procedures performed per patient, and complications were recorded. The main outcome measures were time to union and complications. Average follow-up duration was 13 months. Mean time to union was 4 months for closed and 9 months for open fractures (P<.001). Average time to union for type IIIA and IIIB fractures was significantly increased (11 and 12 months, respectively; P=.02). Delayed union (>6 months postoperatively) occurred in 1 (6%) of 17 closed fractures compared with 11 (52%) of 21 open fractures. The average number of surgical procedures for closed fractures was fewer than for open fractures (2 vs 3 procedures, respectively; P=.03). Mean hospital length of stay was shorter for closed than open fractures (3 vs 6 days, respectively; P=.03). Two infections occurred in the open fracture group. Closed and open pediatric tibial shaft fractures can be successfully treated with titanium elastic nails. Open fractures treated with titanium elastic nails have a significantly longer time to union, require additional operative procedures, and result in longer hospital stays. PMID:24992056

Economedes, Demetri M; Abzug, Joshua M; Paryavi, Ebrahim; Herman, Martin J

2014-07-01

318

Intermittent therapy with terbinafine and nail abrasion for dermatophyte toe onychomycosis: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Onychomycosis constitutes up to 50% of all nail disorders. Toenails are generally affected, mostly due to dermatophytes. Terbinafine is the most potent antifungal agent in vitro against dermatophytes. There are few randomised controlled trials using a non-continuous dose of terbinafine. The aim of this open-label pilot study was to reduce the total drug amount, the collateral effects and, specially, the costs; albeit maintaining the same efficacy of the standard regimens. Compare the outcomes of two different intermittent regimens with the same total amount of the medication (42 tablets in 6?months). Forty-one patients were divided into the following groups: terbinafine 250?mg?day(-1) , for 7?days, monthly or terbinafine 500?mg?day(-1) , once daily, for 7?days, every 2?months, both plus nail abrasion during 6?months. The efficacy was evaluated at months 6, 12 and 18 using the disease free nail criteria. Total cure?=?group I: eight patients (44.4%) and group II: eight patients (44.4%). Partial cure?=?group I: five patients (27.8%) and group II: four patients (22.2%). Treatment failure?=?group I: five patients (27.8%) and group II: three patients (16.7%). Recurrence?=?group I: zero patients (0.0%) and group II: three patients (16.7%). Two intermittent dosing regimens of terbinafine plus nail abrasion proved to be an alternative statistically effective, safe and with reduced drug costs for dermatophytes toenail onychomycosis. PMID:23294342

Succi, Isabella B; Bernardes-Engemann, Andréa R; Orofino-Costa, Rosane

2013-05-01

319

Elastic intramedullary nailing and DBM-Bone marrow injection for the treatment of simple bone cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Simple or unicameral bone cysts are common benign fluid-filled lesions usually located at the long bones of children before skeletal maturity. METHODS: We performed demineralized bone matrix and iliac crest bone marrow injection combined with elastic intramedullary nailing for the treatment of simple bone cysts in long bones of 9 children with a mean age of 12.6 years (range,

Anastasios D Kanellopoulos; Andreas F Mavrogenis; Panayiotis J Papagelopoulos; Panayotis N Soucacos

2007-01-01

320

Planar fuel cell utilizing nail current collectors for increased active surface area  

DOEpatents

A plurality of nail current collector members are useful in the gas flow passages of an electrochemical device to optimize the active surfaces of the device and to provide structural support. In addition, the thicknesses of cathode and anode layers within the electrochemical device are varied according to current flow through the device to reduce resistance and increase operating efficiency.

George, Thomas J. (Star City, WV); Meacham, G. B. Kirby (Shaker Heights, OH)

2002-03-26

321

Element profiles in hair and nails of children reflect the uptake from food and the environment.  

PubMed

The present study evaluated if the element profiles in hair and nails of children from the Lake Victoria region in Kenya reflect uptake from food and the environment. To this purpose, the element concentrations in hair and nails were related to element concentrations measured in food items, water, and soil. The highest intake of most elements occurred via ingestion of the fish Rastrineobola argentea, which is consumed in higher quantities than other fish and food items. Element concentrations in hair and nails were correlated to food and soil in element-specific patterns. Multivariate analysis combining principal component analysis and multidimensional scaling enabled us to cluster individuals from specific sites and to relate differences between sites to food-consumption patterns and environmental exposures. Site-specific differences in macroelement concentrations among the children were attributed to patterns of food consumption, while those in microelement concentrations reflected differences in geochemical background. It is concluded that the simultaneous analysis of elements in human hair and nails allows separation of populations based on food consumption and geochemical background. PMID:22553000

Oyoo-Okoth, Elijah; Admiraal, Wim; Osano, Odipo; Kraak, Michiel H S

2012-07-01

322

Analysis of complications of intertrochanteric fracture treated with Gamma 3 intramedullary nail  

PubMed Central

Whether Gamma 3 fixation system is suitable for all intertrochanteric fractures is inconclusive. This paper analyzed the surgical complications of Gamma 3 intramedullary nail in the treatment of intertrochanteric fractures. Methods: A total of 186 cases were enrolled in the study including 115 males and 71 females. The surgical operations were performed in all cases and Gamma 3 intramedullary nail was inserted in medullary cavity. Results: Anti-rotation screw displacement into the intermuscular space of inner thigh occurred in 1 case, lateral femoral wall defect in 3 cases; refracture of proximal femur shaft during the Gamma 3 nail inserting into the medullary cavity occurred in 5 cases and fractures with a gap or malalignment in closed reduction of A3 type in occurred 6 cases. Fracture union occurred in 3-4 months postoperative. Recovery situations of all patients were evaluated based on Harris scoring system 6 with an average of 87 points. There are indications and shortcomings in the treatment of intertrochanteric fracture with Gamma 3 intramedullary nail. Conclusion: Understanding the surgical indications, standardizing the operation and upgrading skills are the key points to ensure operation successful, reduce complications and improve clinical outcomes.

Huang, Haijing; Xin, Jingyi; Ma, Baotong

2014-01-01

323

Automated evaluation system of dermoscopic images of longitudinal melanonychia: Proposition of a discrimination index for detecting early nail apparatus melanoma.  

PubMed

The prognosis of nail apparatus melanoma is generally poor because of difficulty in early stage diagnosis. Most nail apparatus melanomas occur as longitudinal melanonychia, and criteria and algorithms for dermoscopy diagnosis of longitudinal melanonychia have only recently been proposed. However, as with any clinical diagnosis, the diagnosis based on dermoscopy is to some extent subjective. Our goal is to develop an automated dermoscopic screening system for longitudinal melanonychia and to propose a novel objective and quantitative index for discriminating early nail apparatus melanoma from benign longitudinal melanonychia including melanocytic nevus. We propose an automatically calculated index representing degrees of color variegation in dermoscopic images of longitudinal melanonychia. Dermoscopy images of six cases of early stage nail apparatus melanoma and 25 cases of benign longitudinal melanonychia were analyzed with our screening system and a threshold of melanoma discrimination index was determined. This single melanoma discrimination index diagnosed early nail apparatus melanoma with 100% sensitivity and 92% specificity. The automatically calculated index proposed in the present study is valuable for managing longitudinal melanonychia. The results suggest that the degree of color variegation is essentially different between early nail apparatus melanoma and benign longitudinal melanonychia including melanocytic nevus of the nail apparatus. PMID:25200569

Koga, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Shunji; Sekiguchi, Akihito; Fujii, Jyuzo; Saida, Toshiaki; Sota, Takayuki

2014-10-01

324

Overall Well-Being as a Predictor of Health Care, Productivity, and Retention Outcomes in a Large Employer  

PubMed Central

Abstract Employers struggle with the high cost of health care, lost productivity, and turnover in their workforce. The present study aims to understand the association between overall well-being and these employer outcomes. In a sample of 11,700 employees who took the Well-being Assessment, the authors used multivariate linear and logistic regression to investigate overall well-being as a predictor of health care outcomes (total health care expenditure, emergency room visits, hospitalizations), productivity outcomes (unscheduled absence, short-term disability leave, presenteeism, job performance ratings), and retention outcomes (intention to stay, voluntary turnover, involuntary turnover). Testing this hypothesis both cross-sectionally and longitudinally, the authors investigated the association between baseline well-being and these outcomes in the following year, and the relationship between change in overall well-being and change in these outcomes over 1 year. The results demonstrated that baseline overall well-being was a significant predictor of all outcomes in the following year when holding baseline employee characteristics constant. Change in overall well-being over 1 year also was significantly associated with the change in employer outcomes, with the exception that the relationship to change in manager-rated job performance was marginally significant. The relationships between overall well-being and outcomes suggest that implementing a well-being improvement solution could have a significant bottom and top line impact on business performance. (Population Health Management 2013;16:397–405) PMID:23480368

Shi, Yuyan; Coberley, Carter R.; Pope, James E.

2013-01-01

325

Overall well-being as a predictor of health care, productivity, and retention outcomes in a large employer.  

PubMed

Employers struggle with the high cost of health care, lost productivity, and turnover in their workforce. The present study aims to understand the association between overall well-being and these employer outcomes. In a sample of 11,700 employees who took the Well-being Assessment, the authors used multivariate linear and logistic regression to investigate overall well-being as a predictor of health care outcomes (total health care expenditure, emergency room visits, hospitalizations), productivity outcomes (unscheduled absence, short-term disability leave, presenteeism, job performance ratings), and retention outcomes (intention to stay, voluntary turnover, involuntary turnover). Testing this hypothesis both cross-sectionally and longitudinally, the authors investigated the association between baseline well-being and these outcomes in the following year, and the relationship between change in overall well-being and change in these outcomes over 1 year. The results demonstrated that baseline overall well-being was a significant predictor of all outcomes in the following year when holding baseline employee characteristics constant. Change in overall well-being over 1 year also was significantly associated with the change in employer outcomes, with the exception that the relationship to change in manager-rated job performance was marginally significant. The relationships between overall well-being and outcomes suggest that implementing a well-being improvement solution could have a significant bottom and top line impact on business performance. PMID:23480368

Sears, Lindsay E; Shi, Yuyan; Coberley, Carter R; Pope, James E

2013-12-01

326

The reconstruction locked nail for complex fractures of the proximal femur.  

PubMed

Thirty-seven patients with 37 proximal femoral fractures were treated with a reconstruction locked femoral nail. There were four ipsilateral intracapsular femoral neck and shaft fractures, two intertrochanteric fractures, 18 intertrochanteric fractures with diaphyseal extension, eight subtrochanteric fractures with involvement of the lesser trochanter, and five subtrochanteric fractures without involvement of the lesser trochanter. The overall union rate was 92%. Twenty-one complications developed in 13 patients (35%) which included three of the four femoral neck and shaft fractures, and six of 18 intertrochanteric fractures with diaphyseal extension. Of the five intertrochanteric fractures with diaphyseal extension in which anatomic reduction was not achieved, four developed a complication. Of the nine proximal screws in nine fractures, which were placed short (below the subchondral bone of the femoral head), six fractures developed a complication. The complications included three nonunions, one delayed union, two leg-length discrepancies of > 2.5 cm, two cases of varus deformity of > 10 degrees, two varus deformities < 10 degrees, four instances of revision surgery including one broken 13-mm nail, four proximal screws that backed out and required removal, two cases of pudendal nerve palsy, and one case of heterotopic ossification. Seven patients developed more than one complication. Eleven of the 13 patients with complications required a second surgery to treat the complication. We conclude that the reconstruction locked femoral nail is not a good choice for ipsilateral intracapsular neck and shaft fractures. Our recommendation is that anatomic reduction should be achieved for all cases using the reconstruction femoral nail, but it is absolutely required when treating the intertrochanteric fracture with diaphyseal extension. Reconstruction femoral nails have a high rate of complication due to the complex nature of the fractures as well as the device. PMID:8592257

Kang, S; McAndrew, M P; Johnson, K D

1995-01-01

327

Manganese accumulation in nail clippings as a biomarker of welding fume exposure and neurotoxicity.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure to welding fumes (WF) is thought to cause Parkinson's disease (PD)-like neurological dysfunction. An apprehension that WF may accelerate the onset of PD also exists. Identifying reliable biomarkers of exposure and neurotoxicity are therefore critical for biomonitoring and neurological risk characterization of WF exposure. Manganese (Mn) in welding consumables is considered the causative factor for the neurological deficits seen in welders. Hence, we sought to determine if Mn accumulation in blood or nail clippings can be a marker for adverse exposure and neurotoxicity. To model this, rats were exposed by intratracheal instillation to dissolved or suspended fume components collected from gas metal arc-mild steel (GMA-MS) or manual metal arc-hard surfacing (MMA-HS) welding. Trace element analysis revealed selective Mn accumulation in dopaminergic brain areas, striatum (STR) and midbrain (MB), following exposure to the two fumes. This caused dopaminergic abnormality as evidenced by loss of striatal tyrosine hydroxylase (Th; 25-32% decrease) and Parkinson disease (autosomal recessive, early onset) 7 (Park7; 25-46% decrease) proteins. While blood Mn was not detectable, Mn levels in nails strongly correlated with the pattern of Mn accumulation in the striatum (R(2)=0.9386) and midbrain (R(2)=0.9332). Exposure to manganese chloride (MnCl(2)) caused similar Mn accumulation in STR, MB and nail. Our findings suggest that nail Mn has the potential to be a sensitive and reliable biomarker for long-term Mn exposure and associated neurotoxicity. The non-invasive means by which nail clippings can be collected, stored, and transported with relative ease, make it an attractive surrogate for biomonitoring WF exposures in occupational settings. PMID:22085607

Sriram, Krishnan; Lin, Gary X; Jefferson, Amy M; Roberts, Jenny R; Andrews, Ronnee N; Kashon, Michael L; Antonini, James M

2012-01-27

328

The Effects of Simultaneous Use of Careful Online Planning and Task Repetition on Accuracy, Complexity, and Fluency in EFL Learners' Oral Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a study that was primarily aimed at investigating the effects of simultaneous use of careful online planning and task repetition on accuracy, complexity, and fluency in the oral production of learners of English as a foreign language (EFL). The effects of four planning and task repetition conditions (i.e. careful online…

Ahmadian, Mohammad Javad; Tavakoli, Mansoor

2011-01-01

329

Sharps injury recordkeeping activities and safety product use in California health care facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In 1999, licensed health care facilities in California (N = 2532) were invited to participate in a survey about occupational bloodborne pathogens exposure surveillance activities, recordkeeping methods, and use of safety-enhanced sharps devices. Results: A total of 1274 facilities responded to the survey from January 1999 through August 1999 (response rate = 50%). Sharps-related injuries were recorded for multiple

Marion Gillen; Martha Davis; Jennifer McNary; Alisa Boyd; Julieann Lewis; Chris Curran; Carol A. Young; Mary Schuller; James Cone

2002-01-01

330

Constructing Men Who Teach: Research into Care and Gender as Productive of the Male Primary Teacher  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues that in order to begin loosening the ties that bind care and gender in primary education, we need to re-examine the knowledge sought and found by educational research about teachers. The focus is primarily on how we understand men who teach. Through an examination of two scholarly texts -- Ashley, M., and J. Lee [2003.…

Pulsford, Mark

2014-01-01

331

Celebrity Effect on Brand Positioning: A Study With Reference to Female Personal Care Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

India is a developing country that is flooded with different brands. With too many products floodingthe market, companies find it difficult to differentiate their products based on their inherent productfeatures. In fact, advertising is an effective marketing tool available to marketers to create andpromote awareness for their products. To make the advertisement more attractive and avoid themedia clutter, companies use

G. Muruganantham; S. Kaliyamoorthy

2009-01-01

332

Simulation of realistic EarthCARE spaceborne Doppler products from ARM ground-based, SPIDER airborne and CRM data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cloud-profiling radar on ESA and JAXA's future EarthCARE mission will be the first spaceborne Doppler radar to ever fly [1]. This W-band CPR, which operates at 94.05 GHz, should provide an unprecedented global coverage of vertical-velocity field distribution of the Earth's atmosphere, and therewith a better characterization of dynamic energy transfers in the atmosphere. Prior to EarthCARE's launch, one needs to simulate the Doppler products to be expected from such a CPR, viz. the radar reflectivity and the mean velocity. Our work addresses this need by using existing ground-based and airborne Doppler measurements to generate realistic EarthCARElike spaceborne data. The input to our algorithm consists of actual atmospheric Doppler measurements obtained either from ground-based ARM [2], or from an airborne platform such as SPIDER [3], the Japanese CPR from the National institute od Information and Communications Technologies (NICT). Several corrections are then applied to account for the spacecraft motion as well as the spaceborneantenna characteristics. The realism of the simulated products is also achieved in terms of spatial and temporal resolution. Further, the effects of random fluctuations, noise and finite temporal sampling are included. In addition to highlighting the peculiarities of the generation of Doppler products according to the source of the original input data, our paper will show the corrections that are applied to recover the mean-Doppler velocity, particularly in the presence of aliasing and non-uniform beam-filling contaminations. Several scenarii will be discussed to explore the added value of EarthCARE data at a finer spatial resolution.

Sy, O. O.; Tanelli, S.; Takahashi, N.; Ohno, Y.; Horie, H.; Kollias, P.

2011-12-01

333

Tapping into social resources to address occupational health : a network analysis of Vietnamese-owned nail salons  

E-print Network

Social networks in the Vietnamese nail salon industry were studied for their utility in addressing occupational health risks. Major findings include heavy reliance on family networks for fundamental needs, an extensive ...

Doan, Tam Minh-Thi, 1976-

2004-01-01

334

Dynamic osteosynthesis by modified Kuntscher nail for the treatment of tibial diaphyseal fractures  

PubMed Central

Background: We evaluated a series of diaphyseal fractures of the tibia using low-cost, Indian-made modified Kuntscher nail (Daga nail) with the provision of distal locking screw for the management of the tibial diaphyseal fractures. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty one consecutive patients with diaphyseal fractures of tibia with 151 fractures who were treated by Daga nail were enrolled. One of the patients who had died because of cancer, and the two patients who were lost to follow-up at 3 months were excluded from the study.Therefore data of 148 patients with one hundred and fortyeight fractures is described. One hundred twenty closed fractures, 20 open Grade I fractures, and eight open Grade II fractures as per Gustilo and Anderson classification were included in this study. One hundred fourteen men and 34 women, with a mean age of 38.4 years, were studied. The result were analysed for Surgical time, duration of hospitalisation, union time, union rate, complication rate, functional recovery and crutch walking time. The fractures were followed at least until the time of solid union. Results: The follow-up period averaged 15 months (range, 6–26 months). Union occurred in 140 cases (94.6%). The mean time to union was 13 weeks for closed fractures,17.8 weeks for Grade I open fractures, and 21.6 weeks for Grade II open fractures. Compartment syndrome occurred in two patients. Superficial infection occurred in five cases of Grade I and II compound fractures. Three closed fractures and one case of Grade I compound fracture required bone grafting for delayed union. Two cases of Grade II compound fracture with nonunion required revision surgery and bone grafting. Twelve cases resulted in acceptable malalignment due to operative technical error. In four cases, the distal screw breakage was seen, but none of these complications interfered with fracture healing. Recovery of joint motion was essentially normal in those patients without knee or ankle injury. Conclusion: Unreamed distally locked dynamic tibial nailing (modified Kuntscher nail/Daga nail) can produce excellent clinical results for diaphyseal tibial fractures. It has the advantages of technical simplicity, minimal cost, user-friendly instrumentation, and a short learning curve. PMID:19838368

Gadegone, Wasudeo M; Salphale, Yogesh S

2009-01-01

335

N-acetylcysteine versus placebo for treating nail biting, a double blind randomized placebo controlled clinical trial.  

PubMed

Nail biting is a common behavioral problem. While there are established behavioral interventions for management, they are of modest efficacy, and there is minimal evidence for effective pharmacotherapy. This study investigated the role of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) a potent glutathione and glutamate modulator for the treatment of pathological nail biting in children and adolescents. This pilot randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of NAC (800 mg/day) or placebo enrolled 42 children and adolescents with chronic nail biting. Nail length was the objective outcome. Evaluations were carried out three times; before treatment, one month after enrollment in the study, and two months after enrollment. The duration (chronicity) of nail biting in the NAC and placebo groups was 3.63(2.45) and 5.09(3.74) years (P=0.14). The mean nail length gradually increased in both the NAC and placebo groups during this trial. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups regarding increased nail length after the first month of trial [(5.21(5.75) and 1.18(3.02) millimeters], however no difference after two months was observed. Two patients in the NAC group discontinued medication due to adverse events. One patient experienced headache, agitation, and social withdrawal, and another patient expressed severe aggression after taking medication and was withdrawn from the study. This study supports the hypothesis that NAC decreases nail biting behavior in children and adolescents over the short term. NAC is relatively well tolerated and severe adverse effects are rare. However, there was a high rate of dropout. Further studies with longer durations that build on these preliminary data are recommended. This study is registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (Irct registration number: IRCT201103023930N3). PMID:23651231

Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Derakhshan, Nima; Berk, Michael

2013-01-01

336

X-ray fluorescence measurements of arsenic micro-distribution in human nail clippings using synchrotron radiation.  

PubMed

Arsenic (As) distribution in nail clippings from three healthy human subjects was investigated using the microbeam experimental setup of the hard x-ray micro-analysis (HXMA) beamline from the Canadian Light Source (CLS) synchrotron. A pair of toenail and fingernail clippings was collected from each of three subjects (one contributed two fingernail clippings). The fingernail and toenail clippings were embedded in polyester resin and cut in cross-sectional slices with an average thickness of 270 µm. Nine nail clipping cross sections were analyzed from the three subjects. The same method was used to produce five cross sections of nail phantom clippings with concentrations of As ranging from 0 to 20 µg g?1, in increments of 5 µg g?1. These samples were used to produce a calibration line for the As K? peak. The energy of the x-ray beam was set at 13 keV for optimal excitation of As and the beam size was 28 × 10 µm2. Each sample was analyzed using a point-by-point scanning technique in a 45° beam-sample and 90° beam-detector geometry. The dwelling time was set at 30 s for the human nail clippings and 20 s for the nail phantom clippings, using a step size of 50 µm in both the horizontal and vertical directions for all samples. As concentration for each point was calculated based on the calibration line parameters and the fitted amplitude of the observed As K? peak. As concentration maps were produced for each nail clipping cross section. The maps show that small regions (<0.1 mm2) with higher As concentrations (>1 µg g?1) are located predominantly in the ventral and dorsal layers of the nail. The results are in agreement with findings reported in a recent study and can be linked to nail histology and keratin structure. PMID:24137704

Gherase, Mihai R; Desouza, Elstan D; Farquharson, Michael J; McNeill, Fiona E; Kim, Chang-Yong; Fleming, David E B

2013-09-01

337

Multielement stable isotope analysis of H, C, N and S in hair and nails of contemporary human remains  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a comparison of the isotopic ratios of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and sulphur of three pairings of hair\\u000a and nail tissue taken from contemporary human remains. Our aim was to examine the possibility of a direct comparison of isotopic\\u000a data in hair with that of nail tissue for forensic purposes. The results indicate that stable isotope ratios of

Christine Lehn; Elisabeth Mützel; Andreas Rossmann

338

The low keratin affinity of efinaconazole contributes to its nail penetration and fungicidal activity in topical onychomycosis treatment.  

PubMed

Onychomycosis is a common fungal nail disease that is difficult to treat topically due to the deep location of the infection under the densely keratinized nail plate. Keratin affinity of topical drugs is an important physicochemical property impacting therapeutic efficacy. To be effective, topical drugs must penetrate the nail bed and retain their antifungal activity within the nail matrix, both of which are adversely affected by keratin binding. We investigated these properties for efinaconazole, a new topical antifungal for onychomycosis, compared with those of the existing topical drugs ciclopirox and amorolfine. The efinaconazole free-drug concentration in keratin suspensions was 14.3%, significantly higher than the concentrations of ciclopirox and amorolfine, which were 0.7% and 1.9%, respectively (P < 0.001). Efinaconazole was released from keratin at a higher proportion than in the reference drugs, with about half of the remaining keratin-bound efinaconazole removed after washing. In single-dose in vitro studies, efinaconazole penetrated full-thickness human nails into the receptor phase and also inhibited the growth of Trichophyton rubrum under the nail. In the presence of keratin, efinaconazole exhibited fungicidal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes comparable to that of amorolfine and superior to that of ciclopirox. In a guinea pig onychomycosis model with T. mentagrophytes infection, an efinaconazole solution significantly decreased nail fungal burden compared to that of ciclopirox and amorolfine lacquers (P < 0.01). These results suggest that the high nail permeability of efinaconazole and its potent fungicidal activity in the presence of keratin are related to its low keratin affinity, which may contribute to its efficacy in onychomycosis. PMID:24752277

Sugiura, Keita; Sugimoto, Noriaki; Hosaka, Shinya; Katafuchi-Nagashima, Maria; Arakawa, Yoshio; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki; Jo Siu, William; Pillai, Radhakrishnan

2014-07-01

339

Variations in mature market consumer behavior within a health care product: implications for marketing strategy.  

PubMed

America is undergoing a profound age shift in its demographic make-up with people 55 and over comprising an increasing proportion of the population. Marketers may need to increase their response rate to this shift, especially in refining the application of marketing theory and practice to older age consumers. To this end, a survey of older couple buying behavior for health insurance coverage is reported here. Results clarify evaluative criteria and the viability of multiple market segmentation for health care coverage among older consumers as couples. Commentary on the efficacy of present health coverage marketing programs is provided. PMID:10143892

Hopper, J A; Busbin, J W

1995-01-01

340

Part 3 of a 4-part series Lip and Common Dental Care Products: Trends and Alternatives  

PubMed Central

Objective: To provide updated data on the use of ingredients that are common potential contact allergens in several categories of lip and oral products. To identify useful alternative products with few or no common contact allergens. Design: In November 2009, the full ingredient lists of 5,416 skin, hair, and cosmetic products marketed by the CVS pharmacy chain was copied from CVS.com into Microsoft Word format for analysis. Computer searches were made in Microsoft Word using search/replace and sorting functions to accurately identify the presence of specific allergens in each website product. Measurements: Percentages of American Contact Dermatitis Society core series allergens (and other common preservatives) were calculated. Results: The use of American Contact Dermatitis Society core series allergens (and other preservatives) in various categories of lip and oral products are reported. Conclusion: Data on allergens and alternatives for lip and oral products is not widely published. This article reviews some of the common potential allergens in lip liners, lipsticks, lip moisturizers, mouthwashes, and toothpastes. Suitable available alternative products for patients with contact allergy are listed. PMID:21938270

Jacob, Sharon; Katta, Rajani; Nedorost, Susan; Warshaw, Erin; Zirwas, Matt; Kruk, Ann

2011-01-01

341

Uptake of pharmaceutical and personal care products by soybean plants from soils applied with biosolids and irrigated with contaminated water.  

PubMed

Many pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are commonly found in biosolids and effluents from wastewater treatment plants. Land application of these biosolids and the reclamation of treated wastewater can transfer those PPCPs into the terrestrial and aquatic environments, giving rise to potential accumulation in plants. In this work, a greenhouse experiment was used to study the uptake of three pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, diphenhydramine, and fluoxetine) and two personal care products (triclosan and triclocarban) by an agriculturally important species, soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Two treatments simulating biosolids application and wastewater irrigation were investigated. After growing for 60 and 110 days, plant tissues and soils were analyzed for target compounds. Carbamazepine, triclosan, and triclocarban were found to be concentrated in root tissues and translocated into above ground parts including beans, whereas accumulation and translocation for diphenhydramine and fluoxetine was limited. The uptake of selected compounds differed by treatment, with biosolids application resulting in higher plant concentrations, likely due to higher loading. However, compounds introduced by irrigation appeared to be more available for uptake and translocation. Degradation is the main mechanism for the dissipation of selected compounds in biosolids applied soils, and the presence of soybean plants had no significant effect on sorption. Data from two different harvests suggest that the uptake from soil to root and translocation from root to leaf may be rate limited for triclosan and triclocarban and metabolism may occur within the plant for carbamazepine. PMID:20704212

Wu, Chenxi; Spongberg, Alison L; Witter, Jason D; Fang, Min; Czajkowski, Kevin P

2010-08-15

342

Single-substance and mixture toxicity of five pharmaceuticals and personal care products to marine periphyton communities.  

PubMed

The single-substance and mixture toxicity of five pharmaceuticals and personal care products (fluoxetine, propranolol, triclosan, zinc-pyrithione, and clotrimazole) to marine microalgal communities (periphyton) was investigated. All compounds proved to be toxic, with median effective concentration values (EC50s) between 1,800 nmol/L (triclosan) and 7.2 nmol/L (Zn-pyrithione). With an EC50 of 356 nmol/L, the toxicity of the mixture falls into this span, indicating the absence of strong synergisms or antagonisms. In fact, a comparison with mixture toxicity predictions by the classical mixture concepts of concentration addition and independent action showed a good predictability in the upper effect range. However, the mixture provoked stimulating effects (hormesis) in the lower effect range, hampering the application of either concept. An independent repetition of the mixture experiment resulted in a principally similar concentration-response curve, again with clear hormesis effects in the lower range of test concentrations. However, the curve was shifted toward higher effect concentrations (EC50 1,070 nmol/L), which likely is due to changes in the initial species composition. Clear mixture effects were observed even when all five components were present only at their individual no-observed-effect concentrations (NOECs). These results show that, even with respect to mixtures of chemically and functionally dissimilar compounds, such as the five pharmaceuticals and personal care products investigated, environmental quality standards must take possible mixture effects from low-effect concentrations of individual compounds into consideration. PMID:21647943

Backhaus, Thomas; Porsbring, Tobias; Arrhenius, Asa; Brosche, Sara; Johansson, Per; Blanck, Hans

2011-09-01

343

Mom and Baby Skin Care  

MedlinePLUS

... and baby skin care Mom and baby skin care Skin care concerns during and after pregnancy Melasma Also known ... chilled product can help alleviate the itch. Hair care concerns during and after pregnancy Excessive hair growth ...

344

Five millennia of wound care products--what is new? A literature review.  

PubMed

The first wound an wound treatments were described five millennia ago. Since then, various principles of wound care have been passed on from generation to generation. In contrast to large numbers of general technological inventions over the last 100 years, progress beyond ancient wound care practices is a recent phenomenon. It is essential to know the historical aspects of wound treatment (both successes and failures) in order to continue this progress and provide future direction. A survey of the literature shows that concepts such as "laudable pus" persisted for hundreds of years and that lasting discoveries and meaningful progress did not occur until grand-scale manufacturing and marketing started. Landmarks such as understanding the principles of asepsis/antisepsis, fundamental cellular research findings, knowledge about antibiotics/antimicrobials, moist wound healing, and the chemical and physical processes of wound healing have provided the foundation to guide major developments in wound management, including available evidence-based guidelines. Although research regarding interaction of basic wound management principles remains limited, the combined efforts of global research and clinical groups predict a bright future for improved wound management. PMID:19359707

Mouës, Chantal M; Heule, Freerk; Legerstee, Ron; Hovius, Steven E R

2009-03-01

345

Management of large segmental tibial defects using locking IM nail and absorbable mesh.  

PubMed

Tibia accounts for the majority of open fractures with long segmental defects. The management of such defects imposes several challenges due to their associations with extensive soft tissue damage and high infection risk. In this report, we describe a new technique for the reconstruction of tibia in a young patient with 10 cm defect. The patient had a history of Gustilo Anderson type IIIB open fracture following a motorcycle accident. He was initially managed with multiple debridements and application of an external fixator. The defect was treated with the insertion of an antibiotic-coated intramedullary nail along with posterolateral bone grafting using an absorbable mesh. Six months postoperative, radiological assessment showed excellent callus formation diffusely around the intramedullary nail along with optimal alignment. The preliminary follow-up data are quite encouraging and the technique described in our case can be considered as a reasonable option in managing long segmental bone defects. PMID:23887993

Whately, Chris; Abdallah, Mohamed Attia; Alwatari, Yahya Ahmed

2013-01-01

346

Humeral Shaft Fracture Treatment in the Elite Throwing Athlete: A Unique Application of Flexible Intramedullary Nailing  

PubMed Central

Humeral shaft stress fractures are being increasingly recognized as injuries that can significantly impact throwing mechanics if residual malalignment exists. While minimally displaced and angulated injuries are treated nonoperatively in a fracture brace, the management of significantly displaced humeral shaft fractures in the throwing athlete is less clear. Currently described techniques such as open reduction and internal fixation with plate osteosynthesis and rigid antegrade/retrograde locked intramedullary nailing have significant morbidity due to soft tissue dissection and damage. We present a case report of a high-level baseball pitcher whose significantly displaced humeral shaft stress fracture failed to be nonoperatively managed and was subsequently treated successfully with unlocked, retrograde flexible intramedullary nailing. The athlete was able to return to pitching baseball in one year and is currently pitching in Major League Baseball. We were able to recently collect 10-year follow-up data. PMID:24369515

Lee, Christopher S.; Davis, Shane M.; Fronek, Jan

2013-01-01

347

Effect of oral terbinafine treatment on cyclosporin pharmacokinetics in organ transplant recipients with dermatophyte nail infection.  

PubMed

Eleven patients with either kidney, heart or lung transplants, immunosuppressed with cyclosporin A, and with culture-proven dermatophyte toe nail infection, were given 250 mg terbinafine orally daily for 12 weeks. No changes in cyclosporin A dosage were made. A statistically significant decrease in mean specific cyclosporin A blood trough levels was found at 4, 8 and 12 weeks. No other statistically significant changes in the pharmacokinetic profile of cyclosporin A were seen. Terbinafine possibly induces a cyclosporin A metabolic degradation, which, however, is of little clinical significance. Terbinafine treatment is a safe therapeutical option in cyclosporin A-treated patients with dermatophyte nail infection. Cyclosporin A levels should be controlled during treatment. PMID:8869684

Jensen, P; Lehne, G; Fauchald, P; Simonsen, S

1996-07-01

348

Effects of dynamization after interlocking tibial nailing: an experimental study in dogs.  

PubMed

Dynamization of statically locked tibial nails was studied in a canine model. Reamed static interlocking nails were inserted in 16 canine tibiae with unstable osteotomies. At 8 weeks, half were dynamized. At 20 weeks, the tibiae were harvested and studied radiographically, biomechanically, and histologically. Apparent clinical union was present in all tibiae. Complete radiographic bony union was achieved in 13 of 16, with residual radiolucent lines in two tibiae in the static and one in the dynamic group. Biomechanically, dynamization improved stiffness at the fracture site. Histological patterns were similar, but there were trends toward a denser trabecular callus pattern in the dynamized group. The results of this animal study indicate that although dynamization may have a beneficial effect on the quality of early bony healing, static interlocking does not decrease the rate of bony union. PMID:2231132

Georgiadis, G M; Minster, G J; Moed, B R

1990-01-01

349

Retrograde Intramedullary Nailing for Periprosthetic Supracondylar Fractures of the Femur after Total Knee Arthroplasty  

PubMed Central

Background Periprosthetic supracondylar fractures of the femur after total knee arthroplasty are not common but are usually difficult to treat due to the advanced age of patients and frequently accompanying osteoporosis. Retrograde intramedullary nailing can be effective in promoting healing of these fractures by providing sufficient stability, but the number of beneficiaries is small due to its limited applicability and the postoperative function has rarely been assessed. This study evaluated the efficacy of retrograde intramedullary nailing for the treatment of periprosthetic supracondylar fractures of the femur using the clinical outcomes. Methods Between January 2000 and May 2006, 9 patients (10 knees) with periprosthetic supracondylar fractures of the femur underwent retrograde intramedullary nailing. An open reduction and additional fixation using a shape memory alloy ring were used in 3 of them in whom a closed reduction was not successful. The clinical and radiographic findings were reviewed retrospectively in 7 patients (8 knees), excluding 2 who were unavailable for a follow-up assessment due to death. The mean follow-up period was 39 months (range, 24 to 82 months). The union and alignment of the fracture were assessed radiographically. The postoperative function was evaluated using Sanders' criteria. Results Radiographic union was obtained in all patients after an average of 13 weeks (range, 12 to 15 weeks) postoperatively. No postoperative infection, heterotopic ossification and component loosening were observed. After union, the coronal alignment averaged 0.1° valgus (range, 3.6° varus to 2.6° valgus) and the mean sagittal alignment was 1.9° of extension (range, 0.9° of flexion to 6.3° of extension). The mean range of motion was 103° (range, 90° to 120°) postoperatively. At the last follow up, there were 1 excellent, 5 good and 2 fair results according to Sanders' criteria. Conclusions With retrograde intramedullary nailing, excellent fracture union and good functional recovery were obtained in patients with periprosthetic supracondylar fractures. PMID:19956477

Han, Hyuk-Soo; Oh, Kyu-Won

2009-01-01

350

The unreamed intramedullary tibial nail in tibial shaft fractures of soccer players: a prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lower leg fractures are common and complex injuries in soccer players. Twenty-five mainly recreational soccer players who sustained a tibial shaft fracture were treated with the AO-UTN (Unreamed Tibial Nail). This prospective series included 25 males with a mean age of 28.1 years. These patients were prospectively followed for a mean period of 4.7 years. Clinical and radiographic data was

Florian Fankhauser; Franz J. Seibert; Christian Boldin; Bernd Schatz; Bradley Lamm

2004-01-01

351

Chronic Anterior Midtibial Stress Fractures in Athletes Treated With Reamed Intramedullary Nailing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A chronic anterior midtibial stress fracture is a serious, difficult-to-treat injury that can adversely affect an athlete’s career.Hypothesis: The use of a reamed intramedullary nail for a chronic anterior tibial stress fracture is a safe and effective treatment for an athlete.Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4.Methods: Seven collegiate-level athletes with 11 chronic anterior midtibial stress fractures were

Kevin E. Varner; Shiraz A. Younas; David M. Lintner; John V. Marymont

2005-01-01

352

Outcomes of Nails vs. Plates For Humeral Shaft Fractures: A Medicare Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study was performed to determine 1) the incidence of humeral shaft fractures within the Medicare non-cancer population, 2) the trends in utilization of humeral shaft fixation techniques by plate-and-screw devices and intramedullary nails, 3) differences in procedure times, and 4) the outcomes of individuals as measured by rate of secondary operations and one-year mortality. Design/Setting Retrospective comparative cohort analysis. A cancer-free Medicare Part B claims sample derived from a 5% sample from the years 1993-2007 was analyzed. Patients/Intervention Our cohorts were generated by diagnostic and procedural codes for humeral shaft fractures. Main Outcome Measurement The incidence of humeral shaft fracture and trend in operative fixation was evaluated for all years of data. Surgical times were assessed by anesthesia CPT codes. Outcomes and complications were assessed by CPT codes. The proportion of individuals experiencing complications and one-year mortality were compared by proportion hazards. Results We identified 1,385 claims for humeral shaft fractures over 15 years, with an adjusted rate of between 12.0 and 23.4 fractures per 100,000 beneficiaries. We identified 511 individuals who received surgical treatment for humeral shaft fractures, 451 of whom had complete one-year follow-up data. Nail fixation was more prevalent than plate fixation most years, and had shorter anesthesia time by 27.1 minutes (P<0.0001). There were no significant differences in the complication rates between the two groups as measured by incidence of secondary operations and one-year mortality. Conclusions Intramedullary nails are used for the majority of operative humeral shaft fractures among Medicare beneficiaries. Nailing has a shorter mean operative time. The two surgical techniques had no significant differences in terms of risk of secondary procedures and one-year mortality. PMID:23343827

Chen, Foster; Wang, Zhong; Bhattacharyya, Timothy

2012-01-01

353

Robust identification and localization of intramedullary nail holes for distal locking using CBCT: a simulation study.  

PubMed

Closed intramedullary nailing is a common technique for treatment of femur and tibia fractures. The most challenging step in this procedure is the precise placement of the lateral screws that stabilize the fragmented bone. The present work concerns the development and the evaluation of a method to accurately identify in the 3D space the axes of the nail hole canals. A limited number of projection images are acquired around the leg with the help of a C-arm. On two of them, the locking hole entries are interactively selected and a rough localization of the hole axes is performed. Perpendicularly to one of them, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) reconstructions are produced. The accurate identification and localization of the hole axes are done by an identification of the centers of the nail holes on the tomograms and a further 3D linear regression through principal component analysis (PCA). Various feature-based approaches (RANSAC, least-square fitting, Hough transform) have been compared for best matching the contours and the centers of the holes on the tomograms. The robustness of the suggested method was investigated using simulations. Programming is done in Matlab and C++. Results obtained on synthetic data confirm very good localization accuracy - mean translational error of 0.14 mm (std=0.08 mm) and mean angular error of 0.84° (std=0.35°) at no radiation excess. Successful localization can be further used to guide a surgeon or a robot for correct drilling the bone along the nail openings. PMID:21183392

Kamarianakis, Z; Buliev, I; Pallikarakis, N

2011-05-01

354

In vivo evaluation of Zr-based bulk metallic glass alloy intramedullary nails in rat femora.  

PubMed

Zr-based bulk metallic glasses (BMG) show high corrosion resistance in vitro and higher strength and lower Young's modulus than crystalline alloys with the similar composition. This study aimed to perform an in vivo evaluation of Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu17.5 BMG. Osteotomy of the femur was done in rats and stabilized with intramedullary nails made of Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu17.5 BMG, Ti-6Al-4V alloy, or 316L stainless steel. Systemic and local effects of each type of nail were evaluated by measuring the levels of Cu and Ni in the blood and the surrounding soft tissue. Changes of the surface of each nail were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Healing of the osteotomy was evaluated by peripheral quantitative computed tomography and mechanical testing. No increase of Cu and Ni levels was recognized. Surface of the BMG showed no noticeable change, while Ti-6Al-4V alloy showed Ca and P deposition and 316L stainless steel showed surface irregularities and pitting by SEM observation. The stress strain index, maximum torque, torsional stiffness, and energy absorption values were larger for the BMG than those for Ti-6Al-4V alloy, although there was no significant difference. The Zr-based BMG can promote osteotomy healing as fast as Ti-6Al-4V alloy, with the possible advantage of the Zr-based BMG that bone bonding is less likely, allowing easier nail removal compared with Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The Zr-based BMG is promising for the use in osteosynthetic devices that are eventually removed. PMID:24281655

Imai, Kazuhiro; Hiromoto, Sachiko

2014-03-01

355

Fragility fractures of the ankle in the frail elderly patient: treatment with a long calcaneotalotibial nail.  

PubMed

Conventional methods of treating ankle fractures in the elderly are associated with high rates of complication. We describe the results of treating these injuries in 48 frail elderly patients with a long calcaneotalotibial nail. The mean age of the group was 82 years (61 to 96) and 41 (85%) were women. All were frail, with multiple medical comorbidities and their mean American Society of Anaesthesiologists score was 3 (3 to 4). None could walk independently before their operation. All the fractures were displaced and unstable; the majority (94%, 45 of 48) were low-energy injuries and 40% (19 of 48) were open. The overall mortality at six months was 35%. Of the surviving patients, 90% returned to their pre-injury level of function. The mean pre- and post-operative Olerud and Molander questionnaire scores were 62 and 57 respectively. Complications included superficial infection (4%, two of 48); deep infection (2%, one of 48); a broken or loose distal locking screw (6%, three of 48); valgus malunion (4%, two of 48); and one below-knee amputation following an unsuccessful vascular operation. There were no cases of nonunion, nail breakage or peri-prosthetic fracture. A calcaneotalotibial nail is an excellent device for treating an unstable fracture of the ankle in the frail elderly patient. It allows the patient to mobilise immediately and minimises the risk of bone or wound problems. A long nail which crosses the isthmus of the tibia avoids the risk of peri-prosthetic fracture associated with shorter devices. PMID:24891584

Al-Nammari, S S; Dawson-Bowling, S; Amin, A; Nielsen, D

2014-06-01

356

Tibial lengthening using a reamed type intramedullary nail and an Ilizarov external fixator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of tibial lengthening using a reamed type intramedullary nail and an Ilizarov\\u000a external fixator for the treatment of leg length discrepancy or short stature. This retrospective study was performed on 18\\u000a tibiae (13 patients) in which attempts were made to reduce complications. We used an Ilizarov external fixator and a

Hayoung Kim; Sang Ki Lee; Kap Jung Kim; Jae Hoon Ahn; Won Sik Choy; Yong In Kim; Jea Yun Koo

2009-01-01

357

Fixation of proximal tibia fractures by a retrograde nail: a biomechanical investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surgical treatment of proximal tibial fractures requires open reduction and internal fixation. The operative exposure causes\\u000a additional soft-tissue injury and reduces the blood supply to the bone. A cephalograde tibial nail should offer comparable\\u000a mechanical stability without these disadvantages. We compared the stability of both osteosyntheses in a fracture model with\\u000a 12 fresh-frozen cadaver bones. While both implants exhibited comparable

A. Pommer; A. Wieser; M. P. Hahn; A. Dávid; G. Muhr

2000-01-01

358

Squamous cell carcinoma of the nail bed in three related giant schnauzers.  

PubMed

Three black giant schnauzers, mother, daughter and son, developed single or multiple primary squamous cell carcinomas of the nail bed between the ages of nine and 12 years. The clinicopathological findings are described. Radiographic evidence of osteolysis of the third phalanx, especially in a middle-aged to older large-breed, black dog would warrant the amputation and histopathological examination of the digit because of the likelihood of squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:2800263

Paradis, M; Scott, D W; Breton, L

1989-09-16

359

Skin/nail infections with the addition of pertuzumab to trastuzumab-based chemotherapy.  

PubMed

We report a series of breast cancer patients with invasive skin and nail infections with Staphylococcus species that we attribute to the addition of pertuzumab to trastuzumab-based therapy. With the suspicion of an increased incidence of cutaneous infection in patients treated with pertuzumab and trastuzumab-based chemotherapy, treating medical oncologists identified patients receiving therapy who experienced infection. Between March and October 2014, 18 patients treated with pertuzumab and trastuzumab-based chemotherapy were found to have 21 separate skin/nail infections. Treatment was administered as neoadjuvant therapy in 12 (67 %) patients, adjuvant therapy in four (22 %) patients, and for metastatic disease in two (11 %) patients. Granulocyte growth factors were administered in 11 (61 %) patients and no patients were documented to be neutropenic. New skin and nail lesions developed as early as cycle 1 and as late as 8 months from initial therapy. The 21 separate infections documented were folliculitis and "bite-like" lesions (10), abscess (6), paronychia (3), and cellulitis (2). The appearance of these lesions was distinct from typical EGFR-associated skin changes. When cultures were obtained, Staphylococcus species were isolated. Quantitative immunoglobulins were assessed in 14 (78 %) patients and were abnormally low in six (43 %) of these patients. The skin infections resulted in treatment delay in two (11 %) patients and premature discontinuation of therapy in one patient. We believe that the skin/nail infections reported here in patients treated with the combination of pertuzumab and trastuzumab represent a previously unrecognized toxicity of adding pertuzumab to trastuzumab-based therapies. PMID:25385180

Mortimer, Joanne; Jung, Jae; Yuan, Yuan; Kruper, Laura; Stewart, Daphne; Chung, Samuel; Yu, Kim Wai; Mendelsohn, Mary; D'Apuzzo, Massimo; Tegtmeier, Bernard; Dadwal, Sanjeet

2014-12-01

360

Influence of Urbanization Level and Gross Domestic Product of Counties in Croatia on Access to Health Care  

PubMed Central

Aim To examine the association of counties’ urbanization level and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita on the access to health care. Methods Counties were divided in two groups according to the urbanization level and GDP per capita in purchasing power standards. The number of physicians per 100?000 inhabitants, the number of physicians in hospitals in four basic specialties, physicians’ workload, average duration of working week, the average number of insurants per general practice (GP) team, and the number of inhabitants covered by one internal medicine outpatient clinic were compared between predominantly urban and predominantly rural counties, and between richer and poorer counties. Our study included only GP teams and outpatients’ clinics under the contract with the Croatian Institute for Health Insurance. Data on physicians were collected from the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, the Croatian Institute for Health Insurance, the Croatian Institute for Public Health, and the Croatian Medical Chamber. Data on the contracts with the Croatian Institute for Health Insurance and health care services provided under these contracts were obtained from the database of the Institute, while population and gross domestic product data were obtained from the Database of the Croatian Institute for Statistics. World Health Organization Health for All Database was used for the international comparison of physician’s data. Results There was no significant difference in the total number of physicians per 100?000 inhabitants between predominantly urban and predominantly rural counties (206.9?±?41.0 vs 175.4?±?30.3; P?=?0.067, t test) nor between richer and poorer counties (194.5?±?49.8 vs 187.7?±?25.3; P?=?0.703, t test). However, there were significantly fewer GPs per 100?000 inhabitants in rural than urban counties (49.0?±?5.5 vs 56.7?±?4.6; P?=?0.003, t test). GPs in rural counties had more insurants than those working in urban counties (1.749.8?±?172.8 vs 1.540.7?±?106.3; P?=?0.004, t test). The working week of specialists in the four observed specialties in hospitals was longer than the recommended 48 hours a week. Conclusion The lack of physicians, especially in primary health care can lead to a reduced access to health care and increased workload of physicians, predominantly in rural counties, regardless of the counties’ GDP. PMID:18581617

Bagat, Mario; Drakulic, Velibor; Sekelj Kauzlaric, Katarina; Vlahusic, Andro; Bilic, Ivica; Matanic, Dubravka

2008-01-01

361

Radius-only intramedullary nailing for both-bones diaphyseal forearm fractures in children.  

PubMed

Both-bones diaphyseal forearm fractures are common injuries in the paediatric age group and are potentially unstable. Both-bones intramedullary nailing for these fractures is a minimally invasive procedure that maintains alignment, and promotes rapid bony healing. Good results have also been shown with single-bone fixation. We report our experience in treating these common injuries with radius-only intramedullary nailing in 29 children. The clinical notes and radiographs were reviewed retrospectively. There were 9 girls and 20 boys; the mean age at the time of operation was 9 years (range: 5 to 17 years). Closed reduction was achieved in 21 patients, while eight patients required open reduction. Mean duration of follow-up was 6.8 months (range: 4 to 12 months). All fractures achieved clinical and radiological union at 6-8 weeks. Radius-only intramedullary nailing is a sufficient and effective option in treating both bones paediatric forearm displaced unstable type AO 22-A3 fractures, with excellent functional outcome and union rates. PMID:21954753

Alnaib, Mustafa; Taranu, Razvan; Lakkol, Sandesh; Aldlyami, Ehab; Alcelik, Ilhan; Tulloch, Christopher

2011-08-01

362

Temporary cavity created by free-flying projectiles propelled from a powder-actuated nail gun.  

PubMed

Nails and driving pins discharged from powder-actuated fastening tools bear some special ballistic characteristics. Compared to the usual pistol or revolver projectiles, the sectional density (S) of fastening pins is extremely high. The general prevailing opinion is that the kinetic energy delivered by fastening tools is not high enough to cause a temporary cavity. Therefore, it was the aim of this study to investigate the wound morphology due to fastening bolts discharged from a powder-actuated direct-acting nail gun (where, in contrast to modern piston-type tools, the expanding gases act directly on the fastener) using ballistic soap blocks as simulants. For test shots, a direct-acting powder-actuated nail gun which features three interchangeable barrels (caliber (cal.) 6, 8, and 10 mm) was used. The average kinetic energy was 537, 532, and 694 J for the 6-, 8-, and 10-mm cal. bolts, respectively. Test shots on the ballistic soap blocks demonstrated that free-flying projectiles discharged from direct-acting fastening tools are able to create a temporary cavity. PMID:22797891

Frank, Matthias; Schönekeß, Holger C; Jäger, Frank; Hertel, Heinz; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Bockholdt, Britta

2012-09-01

363

Analysis of gene expression profiles in healing rat fractures treated with nail and plate fixation.  

PubMed

To compare fracture healing therapies, the gene expression profiles of rat fracture samples treated with nail and plate fixation were analyzed at 1 day, 3 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 6 weeks after surgery. The gene expression profiles GSE1685, which include 19 samples, were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. After preprocessing, the gene expression profiles were subjected to time series analysis using the Short Time-series Expression Miner software, and the significantly differentially expressed gene (DEG) sets were selected. Further, the distributions of those DEG sets on the corresponding chromosomes were identified using the functional classification tool. Finally, the DEGs were subjected to function and pathway enrichment analysis. DEG analysis indicated that the number of DEGs (854 genes) from nail fixation was significantly lower than that of DEGs (1029 genes) from plate fixation. The DEGs were mainly enriched in cell proliferation, cellular localization, and response to wounding functions. Several critical DEGs expressed during the fracture healing process were screened, and 2 common pathways were enriched for the DEGs in the nail fixation and plate fixation. These DEGs and pathways may be potential targets or predictive markers during fracture healing. PMID:25366739

Wang, S D; Li, X L; Liu, H P

2014-01-01

364

Usage pattern of personal care products in California households Xiangmei (May) Wu a  

E-print Network

Consumer product Use frequency Exposure Risk assessment Children a b s t r a c t Given the concern over in three age groups, children (mostly preschoolers), their par- ents, and adults age 55 or older. Use in the same class (e.g., skincare) were moderately correlated, which may impact aggregate exposures. Use

Leistikow, Bruce N.

365

An adaptive approach to facilitating research productivity in a primary care clinical department.  

PubMed

Efforts to foster the growth of a department's or school's research mission can be informed by known correlates of research productivity, but the specific strategies to be adopted will be highly context-dependent, influenced by local, national, and discipline-specific needs and resources. The authors describe a multifaceted approach-informed by a working model of organizational research productivity-by which the University of Minnesota Department of Family Medicine and Community Health (Twin Cities campus) successfully increased its collective research productivity during a 10-year period (1997-2007) and maintained these increases over time.Facing barriers to recruitment of faculty investigators, the department focused instead on nurturing high-potential investigators among their current faculty via a new, centrally coordinated research program, with provision of training, protected time, technical resources, mentoring, and a scholarly culture to support faculty research productivity. Success of these initiatives is documented by the following: substantial increases in the department's external research funding, rise to a sustained top-five ranking based on National Institutes of Health funding to U.S. family medicine departments, later-stage growth in the faculty's publishing record, increased research capacity among the faculty, and a definitive maturation of the department's research mission. The authors offer their perspectives on three apparent drivers of success with broad applicability-namely, effective leadership, systemic culture change, and the self-awareness to adapt to changes in the local, institutional, and national research environment. PMID:23702527

Weber-Main, Anne Marie; Finstad, Deborah A; Center, Bruce A; Bland, Carole J

2013-07-01

366

Perishable Product Supply Chains in Health Care: Models, Analysis, and Computations  

E-print Network

Synergies Summary, Conclusions, and Suggestions for Future Research Anna Nagurney Perishable Product Supply and resiliency of supply chains, as well as their adaptability and responsiveness to events in a global conflicting criteria associated with optimization; interactions among the underlying networks themselves

Nagurney, Anna

367

Estimating fatty alcohol contributions to the environment from laundry and personal care products using a market forensics approach.  

PubMed

Fatty alcohol-based surfactants are widely used in detergents and personal care products; they are typically disposed of down-the-drain and are degraded or removed during wastewater treatment. Analytical data had shown concentration and profile differences between regions of the United States. Market sales data were purchased relevant to the sampling dates. In combination with analysis of the fatty alcohol profiles in the top selling products, the influent profiles were reconstructed and compared to the whole U.S. sales data. The per capita usage rate for fatty alcohols through these 4000+ top selling products was 4.9 g per day, with 88% arising from liquid laundry detergents and hand dish detergents. This extrapolates to a national usage of 185,000 tonnes per year. There were significant differences in the purchasing habits of the inhabitants across the four regions sampled, although this had minimal impact on the fatty alcohol profile which was dominated by the C12 moiety. The U.S. market was also dominated by petrochemically-sourced chemicals. This market forensics approach using purchased sales data was able to extend our knowledge of the fate of these chemicals without a major (expensive) sampling and analytical campaign. PMID:24220601

Mudge, Stephen M; DeLeo, Paul C

2014-01-01

368

Significance of the position of the proximal tip of the tibial nail: An important factor related to anterior knee pain  

PubMed Central

Background: Intramedullary nailing is the treatment of choice for the majority of tibial shaft fractures and anterior knee pain is the most common complication of this surgery; however, its etiology is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess the predicting factors related to anterior knee pain following tibial nailing. Materials and Methods: Patients with isolated, unilateral tibial shaft fracture who had undergone tibial nailing were identified retrospectively. Data including age, sex, type of fracture, technique of surgery and location of the nail were collected and finally the association between the above variables and knee pain were analyzed via SPSS software. Results: A total of 95 patients participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 33.52 ± 1.62, 87 (91.6%) of whom were male and 74 (77.9%) had close fractures respectively. The method of surgery in 60 (63.2%) patients was paratendinous approach and in 35 (36.8%) was transtendinous. Twenty six (27.4%) of the patients had anterior knee pain. There were no significant differences between the two groups of patients with and without knee pain by age, sex, type of fracture and type of surgery (P = 0.952, 0.502, 0.212 and 0.745, respectively). Patients with protrusion of the nail from the anterior cortex had higher risk of developing knee pain after surgery (odds ratio: 2.76, confidence interval: 1.08, 7.08, P = 0.031). Conclusion: The results revealed a higher risk of developing anterior knee pain after tibial nailing in patients with protrusion of the nail from the anterior cortex. PMID:24949290

Tahririan, Mohammad Ali; Ziaei, Ehsan; Osanloo, Reza

2014-01-01

369

Microstructure and thermal shock resistance of the peg-nail structured TBCs treated by selective laser modification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a peg-nail structured laser modification was implemented on thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The effects of the peg-nail structured laser modified units on microstructure and thermal shock resistance of the TBCs were investigated. The results indicated that the surface roughness of the peg-nail structured laser modified units was less than that of the as-sprayed coating. The laser modified region, which penetrated the whole YSZ top coating and the partial NiCoCrAlYTa bond coating, consisted of a network of segmented cracks perpendicular to surface and a dense dendritic columnar structure associating with a thin discontinuous equiaxed grains on its surface. The interface between the top coating and the bond coating exhibited a metallurgical bond to some degree after the peg-nail structured laser modification. XRD analysis revealed that the as-sprayed coating was composed of nonequilibrium tetragonal (T?) phase, cubic (C) phase and a small amount of monoclinic (M) phase, however, the last phase disappeared after laser modification. The thermal shock tests indicated that the cyclical lifetime of the as-sprayed TBCs were enhanced around 3-5 times by the peg-nail structured laser modification after 130 thermal shock cycles. The TBCs' failure was due to the oxide scale growth of bond coating and the thermal expansion mismatch stress during thermal shock cycles. Furthermore, both improvement on strain accommodation and delay of cracks propagation resulting from network segmented cracks perpendicular to the surface and dendritic columnar structure in the peg-nail structured units, formation of metallurgical bonding which enhances bonding strength, creating the lamellar and columnar alternate microstructure with toughness and rigidity hybrid characteristics for providing more compliance to the coating, were all considered as the main reasons of improving thermal shock lifetime of peg-nail structured laser modified TBCs.

Chang, Fa; Zhou, Kesong; Tong, Xin; Xu, Liping; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Min

2014-10-01

370

Development and mechanical testing of a short intramedullary nail for fixation of femoral rotational osteotomy in cerebral palsy patients  

PubMed Central

Background Rotational osteotomy is frequently indicated to correct excessive femoral anteversion in cerebral palsy patients. Angled blade plate is the standard fixation device used when performed in the proximal femur, but extensile exposure is required for plate accommodation. The authors developed a short locked intramedullary nail to be applied percutaneously in the fixation of femoral rotational osteotomies in children with cerebral palsy and evaluated its mechanical properties. Methods The study was divided into three stages. In the first part, a prototype was designed and made based on radiographic measurements of the femoral medullary canal of ten-year-old patients. In the second, synthetic femoral models based on rapid-prototyping of 3D reconstructed images of patients with cerebral palsy were obtained and were employed to adjust the nail prototype to the morphological changes observed in this disease. In the third, rotational osteotomies were simulated using synthetic femoral models stabilized by the nail and by the AO-ASIF fixed-angle blade plate. Mechanical testing was done comparing both devices in bending-compression and torsion. Results The authors observed proper adaptation of the nail to normal and morphologically altered femoral models, and during the simulated osteotomies. Stiffness in bending-compression was significantly higher in the group fixed by the plate (388.97 ± 57.25 N/mm) than in that fixed by the nail (268.26 ± 38.51 N/mm) as torsional relative stiffness was significantly higher in the group fixed by the plate (1.07 ± 0.36 Nm/°) than by the nail (0.35 ± 0.13 Nm/°). Conclusions Although the device presented adequate design and dimension to fit into the pediatric femur, mechanical tests indicated that the nail was less stable than the blade plate in bending-compression and torsion. This may be a beneficial property, and it can be attributed to the more flexible fixation found in intramedullary devices. PMID:21711560

2011-01-01

371

Sensitizing potential of triclosan and triclosan-based skin care products in patients with chronic eczema.  

PubMed

Triclosan is a lypophilic chlorophenol biocide with broad-spectrum antibacterial and antifungal activity. Triclosan-based topical products have been shown to be tolerated and beneficial in atopic dermatitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitizing potential of triclosan and triclosan-based creams in patients affected by eczematous dermatitis. Two hundred and seventy-five patients affected by chronic eczema (allergic contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, atopic eczema, nummular eczema, stasis dermatitis) were patch tested with standard patch test series as well as triclosan and triclosan-based products. Standard patch test series resulted positive in 164 patients (61%), with nickel sulfate, house dust mites, fragrance mix, propolis, thimerosal, myroxylon pereira, potassium dichromate, wool alcohols, and p-phenylenediamine the most common sensitizing haptens. Only two patients developed positive reactions to triclosan (0.7%) and four (1.4%) to triclosan-based products. The present study's results confirm that triclosan is well tolerated and has a very low sensitizing potential even in high-risk patients affected by eczema. PMID:18837732

Schena, Donatella; Papagrigoraki, Anastasia; Girolomoni, Giampiero

2008-10-01

372

Sources, distribution and potential risks of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in Qingshan Lake basin, Eastern China.  

PubMed

In this study, we examined the occurrence and distribution of 12 selected pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in Qingshan Lake basin and evaluated their potential ecological risks. Caffeine was the dominant compound among all selected PPCPs in the aqueous phase (23.8-344.7ng/L). Sediment release contributed minimally to caffeine levels found in the aqueous phase of Qingshan Lake. Concentrations of selected PPCPs in dry season water samples were generally higher than those in the water samples obtained during the wet or median water seasons. The risks of residual caffeine in water on aqueous organisms was minimal (risk quotient values below 0.01). Sulfamethoxazole and triclocarban posed the highest environmental risks despite their low concentrations (below 25ng/L in water and 10?g/kg in sediment) in Qingshan Lake basin. The risks produced by selected PPCPs in sediments were generally higher than in the aqueous phase. PMID:23871206

Zhu, Saichang; Chen, Hong; Li, Jianan

2013-10-01

373

Direct detection of pharmaceuticals and personal care products from aqueous samples with thermally-assisted desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

An ambient mass spectrometric method based on desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) has been developed to allow rapid, direct analysis of contaminated water samples, and the technique was evaluated through analysis of a wide array of pharmaceutical and personal care product (PPCP) contaminants. Incorporating direct infusion of aqueous sample and thermal assistance into the source design has allowed low ppt detection limits for the target analytes in drinking water matrices. With this methodology, mass spectral information can be collected in less than 1 min, consuming ~100 ?L of total sample. Quantitative ability was also demonstrated without the use of an internal standard, yielding decent linearity and reproducibility. Initial results suggest that this source configuration is resistant to carryover effects and robust towards multi-component samples. The rapid, continuous analysis afforded by this method offers advantages in terms of sample analysis time and throughput over traditional hyphenated mass spectrometric techniques. PMID:21953111

Campbell, Ian S; Ton, Alain T; Mulligan, Christopher C

2011-07-01

374

Ranking of concern, based on environmental indexes, for pharmaceutical and personal care products: an application to the Spanish case.  

PubMed

A wide range of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) are present in the environment, and many of their adverse effects are unknown. The emergence of new compounds or changes in regulations have led to dynamical studies of occurrence, impact and treatment, which consider geographical areas and trends in consumption and innovation in the pharmaceutical industry. A Quantitative study of Structure-Activity Relationship ((Q)SAR) was performed to assess the possible adverse effects of ninety six PPCPs and metabolites with negligible experimental data and establish a ranking of concern, which was supported by the EPA EPI Suite™ interface. The environmental and toxicological indexes, the persistence (P), the bioaccumulation (B), the toxicity (T) (extensive) and the occurrence in Spanish aquatic environments (O) (intensive) were evaluated. The most hazardous characteristics in the largest number of compounds were generated by the P index, followed by the T and B indexes. A high number of metabolites has a concern score equal to or greater than their parent compounds. Three PBT and OPBT rankings of concern were proposed using the total and partial ranking method (supported by a Hasse diagram) by the Decision Analysis by Ranking Techniques (DART) tool, which was recently recommended by the European Commission. An analysis of the sensibility of the relative weights of these indexes has been conducted. Hormones, antidepressants (and their metabolites), blood lipid regulators and all of the personal care products considered in this study were at the highest levels of risk according to the PBT and OPBT total rankings. Furthermore, when the OPBT partial ranking was performed, X-ray contrast media, H2 blockers and some antibiotics were included at the highest level of concern. It is important to improve and incorporate useful indexes for the predicted environmental impact of PPCPs and metabolites and thus focus experimental analysis on the compounds that require urgent attention. PMID:23995140

Ortiz de García, Sheyla; Pinto, Gilberto Pinto; García-Encina, Pedro A; Irusta Mata, Rubén I

2013-11-15

375

Characterisation and comparison of the uptake of ionizable and polar pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products by POCIS and Chemcatchers.  

PubMed

Growing concern about the environmental impact of ionizable and polar organic chemicals such as pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products has lead to the inclusion of some in legislative and regulatory frameworks. It is expected that future monitoring requirements for these chemicals in aquatic environments will increase, along with the need for low cost monitoring and risk assessment strategies. In this study the uptake of 13 neutral and 6 ionizable pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products by modified POCIS (with Strata™-X sorbent) and Chemcatchers™ (SDB-RPS or SDB-XC) was investigated under controlled conditions at pH = 6.5 for 26 days. The modified POCIS and Chemcatcher™ (SDB-RPS) samplers exhibited similar performance with the uptake of the majority of the 19 chemicals of interest categorised as linear over the 26 day deployment. Only a few ionized herbicides (picloram and dicamba) and triclosan showed negligible accumulation. Chemcatcher™ with SDB-XC sorbent performed relatively poorly with only carbamazepine having a linear accumulation profile, and 8 compounds showing no measurable accumulation. Differences in the uptake behavior of chemicals were not easily explained by their physico-chemical properties, strengthening the requirement for detailed calibration data. PES membranes accumulated significant amount of some compounds (i.e. triclosan and diuron), even after extended deployment (i.e. 26 days). At present there is no way to predict which compounds will demonstrate this behavior. Increasing membrane pore size from 0.2 to 0.45 ?m for Chemcatcher™ (SBD-RPS) caused an average increase in Rs of 24%. PMID:25208684

Kaserzon, S L; Hawker, D W; Kennedy, K; Bartkow, M; Carter, S; Booij, K; Mueller, J F

2014-10-20

376

Business oriented EU human cell and tissue product legislation will adversely impact Member States' health care systems.  

PubMed

The transplantation of conventional human cell and tissue grafts, such as heart valve replacements and skin for severely burnt patients, has saved many lives over the last decades. The late eighties saw the emergence of tissue engineering with the focus on the development of biological substitutes that restore or improve tissue function. In the nineties, at the height of the tissue engineering hype, industry incited policymakers to create a European regulatory environment, which would facilitate the emergence of a strong single market for tissue engineered products and their starting materials (human cells and tissues). In this paper we analyze the elaboration process of this new European Union (EU) human cell and tissue product regulatory regime-i.e. the EU Cell and Tissue Directives (EUCTDs) and the Advanced Therapy Medicinal Product (ATMP) Regulation and evaluate its impact on Member States' health care systems. We demonstrate that the successful lobbying on key areas of regulatory and policy processes by industry, in congruence with Europe's risk aversion and urge to promote growth and jobs, led to excessively business oriented legislation. Expensive industry oriented requirements were introduced and contentious social and ethical issues were excluded. We found indications that this new EU safety and health legislation will adversely impact Member States' health care systems; since 30 December 2012 (the end of the ATMP transitional period) there is a clear threat to the sustainability of some lifesaving and established ATMPs that were provided by public health institutions and small and medium-sized enterprises under the frame of the EUCTDs. In the light of the current economic crisis it is not clear how social security systems will cope with the inflation of costs associated with this new regulatory regime and how priorities will be set with regard to reimbursement decisions. We argue that the ATMP Regulation should urgently be revised to focus on delivering affordable therapies to all who are in need of them and this without necessarily going to the market. The most rapid and elegant way to achieve this would be for the European Commission to publish an interpretative document on "placing on the market of ATMPs," which keeps tailor-made and niche ATMPs outside of the scope of the medicinal product regulation. PMID:24052113

Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Vanderkelen, Alain; De Vos, Daniel; Draye, Jean-Pierre; Rose, Thomas; Ceulemans, Carl; Ectors, Nadine; Huys, Isabelle; Jennes, Serge; Verbeken, Gilbert

2013-12-01

377

Six Leading-Edge Deckboard Designs for Nailed Warehouse Pallets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Standardization in the field of warehouse pallets increases in importance with the increase in the production of such pallets. On the other hand, variations in design can be helpful to the pallet manufacturers, as they may be able to produce one variation...

E. G. Stern

1972-01-01

378

Ex Vivo Analysis of Irradiated Finger Nails: Chemical Yields and Properties of Radiation-Induced and Mechanically-Induced Radicals  

PubMed Central

A qualitative and quantitative analysis of the radicals underlying the radiation induced signal (RIS) in finger nails was conducted in an attempt to identify properties of these radicals that could be used for biodosimetry purposes. A qualitative analysis of RIS showed the presence of at least three components, two of which were observed at low doses (<50 gray) and the third required higher doses (>500 gray). The low dose signal, obtained by reconstruction, consists of a 10 gauss singlet at g = 2.0053 and an 18 gauss doublet centered at g = 2.0044. Based on the initial slope of the dose response curve, the chemical (radical) yields of the radicals giving rise to the singlet and doublet were 327 (±113) and 122 (±9) nmol J-1 (S.E.), respectively. At doses below 50 gray, the singlet signal is the dominant component. Above this dose range, the signal intensity of the singlet rapidly dose saturates. At doses < 50 gray, there is a small contribution of the doublet signal that increases in its proportion of the RIS as dose increases. A third component was revealed at high dose with a spectral extent of ?100 gauss and displayed peaks due to g anisotropy at g = 2.056, 2.026, and 1.996. The total radical yield calculated from the initial slope of the dose response curve averaged 458 ± (116) nmol J-1 (S.E.) in irradiated nail clipping obtained from six volunteers. Such high yields indicate that nails are a strong candidate for biodosimetry at low doses. In a comparison of relative stabilities of the radicals underlying the singlet and doublet signals, the stability of the doublet signal is more sensitive to the moisture content of the nail than the singlet. This differential in radical stabilities could provide a method for removing the doublet signal under controlled exposures to high humidities (>70% relative humidity). The decay of the singlet signal in RIS varies with exposure of a nail clipping to differing ambient humidities. However, long exposures (> 6 hr) to relative humidities of 72-94% results in singlet intensities that approach 7.0 ± (3.2)% (S.D.) of the original intensities in an irradiated nail. This result suggests the existence of a subpopulation of radicals underlying the singlet signal that are relatively insensitive to decay under exposure of nails to even high humidities. Therefore, exposures of an irradiated nail clipping under controlled humidities may provide a method for estimating the exposure dose of the nail that is based on the intensity of the signal of the humidity insensitive radical population underlying the singlet signal. PMID:20065698

Black, Paul J.; Swarts, Steven G.

2013-01-01

379

Occurrence of Scopulariopsis and Scedosporium in nails and keratinous skin. A 5-year retrospective multi-center study.  

PubMed

A 5-year retrospective multicenter study was performed for microascaceous moulds (Microascaceae, Ascomycetes) in Finnish clinical specimens. The files from 1993-1997 of six clinical mycology laboratories in Finland were searched for reports of these fungi, mainly Scopulariopsis and Scedosporium anamorphs in keratinous specimens. From the 521 primary findings, 165 cases were selected for further study based on direct microscopy, colony numbers and accompanying fungi. The clinical records of 148 cases (141 Scopulariopsis, 7 Scedosporium) were studied. Of the nail infections from which Scopulariopsis was recovered, 39 cases were further separated which showed clinical or laboratory-based evidence of dermatophytosis. In the remaining 90 'non-dermatophyte' nail cases, Scopulariopsis spp. were the only documented fungal agents (c. 6 cases/million/year). The patients were mainly elderly, 66% of whom had problems involving their big toe nails. For 74% of them, the nail problem was mentioned as their reason for visiting the physician. However, only 18% had documented benefit from treatment. The Scopulariopsis nail infections seem to be treatment-resistant and the pathogenesis and etiological role of Scopulariopsis remain poorly understood. PMID:17464841

Issakainen, Jouni; Heikkilä, Hannele; Vainio, Eeva; Koukila-Kähkölä, Pirkko; Castren, Mirja; Liimatainen, Oili; Ojanen, Tarja; Koskela, Markku; Meurman, Olli

2007-05-01

380

[Development of a method for estimation of citalopram and desmethylcitalopram in nails and hair and its usefulness in forensic toxicology].  

PubMed

The report presents the possibility of using an alternative material of determining citalopram and its metabolite (desmethylcitalopram) in hair and nails. Citalopram (Cipramil, Citaratio, Citaxin, Oropram, Cital, Cilon, Aurex) is an antidepressant drug of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class, employed in treatment of depression, prevention of depressive disorders recurrence and in some anxiety disorders. The investigations were performed using liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray-ionization mass spectrophotometry (LC-ESI-MS). In the course of the study, the authors developed a method for isolation and identification of Citaprolam and its metabolite (desmethylcitaprolam) from hair and nails. Determination were performed in hair and nail samples collected from individuals who had been administered citalopram in therapeutic doses at least for 12 months before sample collection. Hair and nail samples were obtained 4, 6, 9 and 15 months after discontinuing drug administration. The concentration of citalopram in nails was 0.40-10.49 ng/mg and the concentration of desmethylcitalopram was 0.32-3.70 ng/mg. In hair, citalopram concentration was 1.04-8.69 ng/mg and for desmethylcitalopram, the concentration range was 0.07-1.27 ng/mg. PMID:21863728

Pufal, Ewa; Sykutera, Marzena; Nowacka, Teresa; Stefanowicz, Anna; Sliwka, Karol

2010-01-01

381

Occurrence of herbicides and pharmaceutical and personal care products in surface water and groundwater around Liberty Bay, Puget Sound, Washington.  

PubMed

Organic contaminants, such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), pose a risk to water quality and the health of ecosystems. This study was designed to determine if a coastal community lacking point sources, such as waste water treatment plant effluent, could release PPCPs, herbicides, and plasticizers at detectable levels to their surface water and groundwater. Research was conducted in Liberty Bay, an embayment within Puget Sound, where 70% of the population (-10,000) uses septic systems. Sampling included collection of groundwater and surface water with grab samples and the use of polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS). We analyzed for a broad spectrum of 25 commonly used compounds, including PPCPs, herbicides, and a flame retardant. Twelve contaminants were detected at least once; only N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide, caffeine, and mecoprop, a herbicide not attributed to septic systems, were detected in more than one grab sample. The use of POCIS was essential because contaminants were present at very low levels (nanograms), which is common for PPCPs in general, but particularly so in such a small community. The use of POCIS allowed the detection of five compounds that were not present in grab samples. Data suggest that the community is contaminating local water with PPCPs; this effect is likely to increase as the population and product usage increase. The results presented here are a first step toward assessing the transport of herbicides and PPCPs into this coastal system. PMID:20830904

Dougherty, Jennifer A; Swarzenski, Peter W; Dinicola, Richard S; Reinhard, Martin

2010-01-01

382

Ecotoxicity and environmental risk assessment of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in aquatic environments and wastewater treatment plants.  

PubMed

A wide range of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are present in the environment, and many of their adverse effects are unknown. The environmental risk assessment of 26 PPCPs of relevant consumption and occurrence in the aquatic environment in Spain was accomplished in this research. Based on the ecotoxicity values obtained by bioluminescence and respirometry assays and by predictions using the US EPA ecological structure-activity relationship (ECOSAR™), the compounds were classified following the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals. According to the criteria of the European Medicines Agency, the real risk of impact of these compounds in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and in the aquatic environment was predicted. In at least two ecotoxicity tests, 65.4 % of the PPCPs under study showed high toxicity or were harmful to aquatic organisms. The global order of the species' sensitivity to the PPCPs considered was as follows: Vibrio fischeri (5 min) > Vibrio fischeri (15 min) > algae > crustaceans > fish > biomass of WWTP. Acetaminophen, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, clofibrate, ibuprofen, omeprazole, triclosan, parabens and 1,4-benzoquinone showed some type of risk for the aquatic environments and/or for the activated sludge of WWTPs. Development of acute and chronic ecotoxicity data, the determination of predicted and measured environmental concentrations of PPCPs, the inclusion of metabolites and transformation products and the evaluation of mixtures of these compounds will allow further improvements of the results of the ERAs and, finally, to efficiently identify the compounds that could affect the environment. PMID:25064485

Ortiz de García, Sheyla Andrea; Pinto Pinto, Gilberto; García-Encina, Pedro A; Irusta-Mata, Rubén

2014-10-01

383

"Make or buy" decisions in the production of health care goods and services: new insights from institutional economics and organizational theory.  

PubMed Central

A central theme of recent health care reforms has been a redefinition of the roles of the state and private providers. With a view to helping governments to arrive at more rational "make or buy" decisions on health care goods and services, we propose a conceptual framework in which a combination of institutional economics and organizational theory is used to examine the core production activities in the health sector. Empirical evidence from actual production modalities is also taken into consideration. We conclude that most inputs for the health sector, with the exception of human resources and knowledge, can be efficiently produced by and bought from the private sector. In the health services of low-income countries most dispersed production forms, e.g. ambulatory care, are already provided by the private sector (non-profit and for-profit). These valuable resources are often ignored by the public sector. The problems of measurability and contestability associated with expensive, complex and concentrated production forms such as hospital care require a stronger regulatory environment and skilled contracting mechanisms before governments can rely on obtaining these services from the private sector. Subsidiary activities within the production process can often be unbundled and outsourced. PMID:10916915

Preker, A. S.; Harding, A.; Travis, P.

2000-01-01

384

Aggregate exposure approaches for parabens in personal care products: a case assessment for children between 0 and 3 years old  

PubMed Central

In the risk assessment of chemical substances, aggregation of exposure to a substance from different sources via different pathways is not common practice. Focusing the exposure assessment on a substance from a single source can lead to a significant underestimation of the risk. To gain more insight on how to perform an aggregate exposure assessment, we applied a deterministic (tier 1) and a person-oriented probabilistic approach (tier 2) for exposure to the four most common parabens through personal care products in children between 0 and 3 years old. Following a deterministic approach, a worst-case exposure estimate is calculated for methyl-, ethyl-, propyl- and butylparaben. As an illustration for risk assessment, Margins of Exposure (MoE) are calculated. These are 991 and 4966 for methyl- and ethylparaben, and 8 and 10 for propyl- and butylparaben, respectively. In tier 2, more detailed information on product use has been obtained from a small survey on product use of consumers. A probabilistic exposure assessment is performed to estimate the variability and uncertainty of exposure in a population. Results show that the internal exposure for each paraben is below the level determined in tier 1. However, for propyl- and butylparaben, the percentile of the population with an exposure probability above the assumed “safe” MoE of 100, is 13% and 7%, respectively. In conclusion, a tier 1 approach can be performed using simple equations and default point estimates, and serves as a starting point for exposure and risk assessment. If refinement is warranted, the more data demanding person-oriented probabilistic approach should be used. This probabilistic approach results in a more realistic exposure estimate, including the uncertainty, and allows determining the main drivers of exposure. Furthermore, it allows to estimate the percentage of the population for which the exposure is likely to be above a specific value. PMID:23801276

Gosens, Ilse; Delmaar, Christiaan J E; ter Burg, Wouter; de Heer, Cees; Schuur, A Gerlienke

2014-01-01

385

Trace elements concentration in nails and association with airway inflammation in adolescents.  

PubMed

Asthma is a multifactorial disease and its severity varies with the inflammatory status of the patient. It has been hypothesized that deficiency of trace elements has an important role in the etiology of asthma. The aim of the study was to evaluate the concentration of trace elements in nails of adolescents with different degrees of airway inflammation. We assessed the prevalence of active and severe asthma in adolescents (n?=?106) through the ISAAC questionnaire. Subjects were allocated into two different groups according to the value of fraction exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measured. Also, nail specimens were collected in order to determine the concentration of accumulated trace elements (Cu, Zn, Mn, Se) by ICP-MS. It was performed Student's t test to evaluate statistical differences between inflammatory groups considering normally distributed data. On the other hand, when data presented non-normal distribution, Mann-Whitney U test was utilized. Spearman coefficients were calculated to investigate correlations between FeNO and mineral concentrations. Exhaled NO was increased in male subjects. We found association between active asthma and elevated exhaled NO. There was no significant difference in Cu (4.40 vs. 4.52), Zn (84.66 vs. 79.48), Mn (0.59 vs. 0.76), and Se (0.18 vs. 0.19) concentrations (?g/g) among distinct FeNO groups as well as was not observed correlation between exhaled NO levels and any element. Deficiency of trace elements in nails were not associated with increased FeNO. PMID:25119707

Moresco, Maurício Bianchini; Fleck, Alan da Silveira; Carneiro, Maria Fernanda Hornos; Barbosa Júnior, Fernando; Amantea, Sergio Luis; Rhoden, Claudia Ramos

2014-11-01

386

Advances on the Masquelet technique using a cage and nail construct.  

PubMed

Traumatic, cancerous or infectious loss of bone is treated by either amputation or reconstruction. With limb salvage always preferable, surgeons rely on already established techniques such as grafting and distraction osteogenesis to avoid amputation, and ideally restore structure and thus function. The Masquelet technique is an effective method of bone reconstruction and limb salvage which is underreported in the English literature, and we report a case with advances using a cage and nail construct, resulting in successful eradication of methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus infection and reconstitution of a 17 cm diaphyseal defect in the tibia. PMID:22072192

O'Malley, Natasha T; Kates, Stephen L

2012-02-01

387

Can Complications of Titanium Elastic Nailing With End Cap for Clavicular Fractures Be Reduced?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  We found treatment of clavicular midshaft fractures using titanium elastic nails (TENs) in combination with postoperative\\u000a free ROM was associated with a complication rate of 78%. The use of end caps reduced the rate to 60%, which we still considered\\u000a unacceptably high. Thus, we explored an alternative approach.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Questions\\/purposes  We investigated whether (1) the complication rate could be reduced by cautious

Arno Frigg; Paavo Rillmann; Christian Ryf; Richard Glaab; Lisa Reissner

388

Scytalidium hyalinum isolated from the toe nail of an Australian patient.  

PubMed

The isolation of Scytalidium hyalinum from the toe nail of a patient from Melbourne is reported. This is the first record of the isolation of this fungus from a clinical site in Australia. A brief history is given of the occurrence of Scytalidium hyalinum and the related fungus, Hendersonula toruloidea, in tinea pedis and tinea unguium in immigrants to the United Kingdom from tropical countries. Attention is drawn to the possible presence of these dermatophyte-like infections in patients in Australia. PMID:1303078

Maslen, M M; Hogg, G G

1992-01-01

389

Efalizumab in the Treatment of Scalp, Palmoplantar and Nail Psoriasis: Results of a 24-Week Latin American Study.  

PubMed

INTRODUCTION: Plaque-type psoriasis affecting the nails, scalp, hands or feet can often be difficult to treat; for example, topical treatments and phototherapy may not penetrate the nail plate or scalp. The objective of this large, international, multicentre study was to investigate the efficacy of efalizumab in a Latin American population of adult patients with moderate-to-severe chronic plaque psoriasis who were candidates for systemic therapy or phototherapy. METHODS: Eligible patients were enrolled in a 24-week, open-label, single-arm, Phase IIIb/IV study of continuous treatment with subcutaneous efalizumab, 1.0 mg/kg/wk. Involvement of the nails, scalp, or hands or feet was assessed using the Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (NAPSI), the Psoriasis Scalp Severity Index (PSSI), or the Palmoplantar Pustulosis Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PPPASI), respectively. Missing data were handled using a last observation carried forward or nonresponder imputation approach. RESULTS: Of the 189 patients who received treatment, 112 patients had nail involvement, 172 had scalp involvement, and 19 had palmoplantar disease at baseline. At Week 24, >/=50% improvement on the NAPSI, PSSI and PPPASI was observed in 31%, 71% and 68% of patients, respectively, whereas >/=75% improvement on these scores was observed in 17%, 52% and 63%, respectively. Descriptive statistics showed lower NAPSI-75 and higher PSSI-75 and -50 response rates among patients with higher baseline scores. CONCLUSIONS: This open-label, uncontrolled study provides supportive evidence of the potential of efalizumab as a treatment for nail, scalp and palmoplantar psoriasis. PMID:20428227

Takahashi, María Denise; Chouela, Edgardo Néstor; Dorantes, Gladys Leon; Roselino, Ana Maria; Santamaria, Jesùs; Allevato, Miguel Angel; Cestari, Tania; de Aillaud, Maria Eugenia Manzanera; Stengel, Fernando Miguel; Licu, Daiana

2010-03-01

390

Efalizumab in the Treatment of Scalp, Palmoplantar and Nail Psoriasis: Results of a 24-Week Latin American Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Plaque-type psoriasis affecting the nails, scalp, hands or feet can often be difficult to treat; for example, topical treatments and phototherapy may not penetrate the nail plate or scalp. The objective of this large, international, multicentre study was to investigate the efficacy of efalizumab in a Latin American population of adult patients with moderate-to-severe chronic plaque psoriasis who were candidates for systemic therapy or phototherapy. Methods Eligible patients were enrolled in a 24-week, open-label, single-arm, Phase IIIb/IV study of continuous treatment with subcutaneous efalizumab, 1.0 mg/kg/wk. Involvement of the nails, scalp, or hands or feet was assessed using the Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (NAPSI), the Psoriasis Scalp Severity Index (PSSI), or the Palmoplantar Pustulosis Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PPPASI), respectively. Missing data were handled using a last observation carried forward or nonresponder imputation approach. Results Of the 189 patients who received treatment, 112 patients had nail involvement, 172 had scalp involvement, and 19 had palmoplantar disease at baseline. At Week 24, ?50% improvement on the NAPSI, PSSI and PPPASI was observed in 31%, 71% and 68% of patients, respectively, whereas ?75% improvement on these scores was observed in 17%, 52% and 63%, respectively. Descriptive statistics showed lower NAPSI-75 and higher PSSI-75 and -50 response rates among patients with higher baseline scores. Conclusions This open-label, uncontrolled study provides supportive evidence of the potential of efalizumab as a treatment for nail, scalp and palmoplantar psoriasis. PMID:20428227

Takahashi, María Denise; Chouela, Edgardo Néstor; Dorantes, Gladys Leon; Roselino, Ana Maria; Santamaria, Jesùs; Allevato, Miguel Angel; Cestari, Tania; de Aillaud, Maria Eugenia Manzanera; Stengel, Fernando Miguel; Licu, Daiana

2010-01-01

391

The Effects of Graduated Exposure, Modeling, and Contingent Social Attention on Tolerance to Skin Care Products with Two Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with autism may display unusual or fearful responses to common stimuli, such as skin care products. Parents of children with autism have often reported that their children will not allow the application of these types of substances to their skin and if the parent persists, the children become extremely upset and anxious. Such responding…

Ellis, Ellyn M.; Ala'i-Rosales, Shahla S.; Glenn, Sigrid S.; Rosales-Ruiz, Jesus; Greenspoon, Joel

2006-01-01

392

Ozonation and advanced oxidation technologies to remove endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in water effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) constitute a promising technology for the treatment of wastewaters containing pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and especially endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Data concerning the degradation of PPCPs and EDCs by means of AOPs reported during the period January 2000–May 2007 are evaluated in this work. Ozonation was the oxidation process most studied, gives the best

Santiago Esplugas; Daniele M. Bila; Luiz Gustavo T. Krause; Márcia Dezotti

2007-01-01

393

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in stormwater canals and Bayou St. John in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples were collected from two stormwater canals and a recreational urban waterway known as Bayou St. John in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA and analyzed for a range of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Concentrations of 7 PPCPs and EDCs were measured by a method that provides for simultaneous extraction and quantification of the following

Glen R. Boyd; Jordan M. Palmeri; Shaoyuan Zhang; Deborah A. Grimm

2004-01-01

394

Simultaneous quantification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in Mississippi river water, in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effective analytical method for simultaneously determining 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 28 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs), and 12 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) has been developed to measure their concentrations in the Mississippi river waters in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. The method involves the simultaneous extraction of the selected PAHs, PCBs, and PPCPs, from the aqueous phase by solid

Shaoyuan Zhang; Qiang Zhang; Shameka Darisaw; Odi Ehie; Guangdi Wang

2007-01-01

395

APPLICATION OF US EPA METHODS TO THE ANALYSIS OF PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: DETERMINATION OF CLOFRIBIC ACID IN SEWAGE EFFLUENT BY GCMS  

EPA Science Inventory

An emerging area of research concerns pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment and their possible impact on biota and ecosystems. The long term effects of constant perfusion of PPCPs into the aquatic environment are presently unknown. Some compounds are known...

396

Quantification of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and perfluoroalkyl substances in the marine sediments of Puget Sound, Washington, USA.  

PubMed

Concentrations of 119 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and 13 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in marine sediments measured throughout Puget Sound (n?=?10) and Bellingham Bay (n?=?30), Washington, USA, are reported. These data are among the first measurements of PPCPs and PFASs in marine sediments from the Pacific Northwest and provide a comparison to previous measurements of these chemicals in influent, effluent, and biosolids from municipal wastewater treatment plants throughout the region. The concentrations of both PPCPs and PFASs in sediments from Puget Sound and Bellingham Bay ranged from very low to non-detectable for most compounds. Only 14 of the 119 PPCPs and 3 of 13 PFASs were quantifiable in sediments. Diphenhydramine (an antihistamine) was most frequently detected (87.5% of samples), with a maximum concentration of 4.81?ng/g dry weight and an estimated mean detected concentration of 1.68?ng/g. Triclocarban (an antibacterial) was detected in 35.0% of the samples, with a maximum concentration of 16.6?ng/g dry weight. Perfluoroalkyl substances were detected in 2.5% of analyses. Perfluorobutanoate, perfluorooctane sulfonate, and perfluorooctane sulfonamide were detected in 7, 5, and 1 sample(s) each, respectively, with the highest concentrations observed for perfluorooctane sulfonate (1.5?ng/g). Detected concentrations were often highest within the industrial harbor in Bellingham Bay and near the cities of Seattle and Bremerton. Environ Toxicol Chem 2013;32:1701-1710. © 2013 SETAC. PMID:23843318

Long, Edward R; Dutch, Margaret; Weakland, Sandra; Chandramouli, Bharat; Benskin, Jonathan P

2013-08-01

397

Seasonal variation in the occurrence and removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in different biological wastewater treatment processes.  

PubMed

The occurrence of 12 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in two wastewater treatment plants in Beijing was studied monthly over the course of one year. The removal of PPCPs by three biological treatment processes including conventional activated sludge (CAS), biological nutrient removal (BNR), and membrane bioreactor (MBR) was compared during different seasons. Seasonal variations of PPCPs in the wastewater influent were discrepant, while in the wastewater effluent, most PPCPs had lower concentrations in the summer than in the winter. For the easily biodegradable PPCPs, the performance of MBR was demonstrated to be more stable than CAS or BNR especially during winter months. Diclofenac, trimethoprim, metoprolol, and gemfibrozil could be moderately removed by MBR, while their removal by CAS and BNR was much lower or even negligible. Nevertheless, no removal was achieved regardless of the season or the treatment processes for the recalcitrant PPCPs. Studies on the contribution of each tank of the MBR process to the total removal of four biodegradable PPCPs indicated the oxic tank was the most important unit, whereas membrane filtration made a negligible contribution to their elimination. PMID:21428396

Sui, Qian; Huang, Jun; Deng, Shubo; Chen, Weiwei; Yu, Gang

2011-04-15

398

Use Patterns of Leave-on Personal Care Products among Swiss-German Children, Adolescents, and Adults  

PubMed Central

In order to model exposure to ingredients contained in personal care products (PCPs) and assess their potential risks to human health, access to reliable PCP use data, including co-use patterns, is essential. A postal questionnaire survey was conducted to determine the use patterns of eight leave-on PCP categories among the German-speaking population of Switzerland (N = 1,196; ages 0–97 years), providing for the first time in Europe PCP use data for children <12 years of age. The majority of respondents (99%) reported having used at least one of the investigated PCP categories in the past year. Co-use of two or more PCP categories at the same time was common and more complex amongst adults. Regular use of face cream and body lotion was very high in the youngest group of children aged 0–4 years (more than 79% respondents) who may be more vulnerable to certain adverse effects of some PCP ingredients. A comparison with previously collected information on PCP use patterns in Germany and the Netherlands indicates differences in PCP use patterns among European consumers and suggests that surrogate PCP use data from other countries must be used with caution. This work extends the existing knowledge of PCP use patterns and will be useful for new exposure assessments for ingredients contained in PCPs used by the young consumers. PMID:23823714

Manova, Eva; von Goetz, Natalie; Keller, Carmen; Siegrist, Michael; Hungerbuhler, Konrad

2013-01-01

399

Applications of biofilms in bioremediation and biotransformation of persistent organic pollutants, pharmaceuticals/personal care products, and heavy metals.  

PubMed

In this review, the strategies being employed to exploit the inherent durability of biofilms and the diverse nutrient cycling of the microbiome for bioremediation are explored. Focus will be given to halogenated compounds, hydrocarbons, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products as well as some heavy metals and toxic minerals, as these groups represent the majority of priority pollutants. For decades, industrial processes have been creating waste all around the world, resulting in contaminated sediments and subsequent, far-reaching dispersal into aquatic environments. As persistent pollutants have accumulated and are still being created and disposed, the incentive to find suitable and more efficient solutions to effectively detoxify the environment is even greater. Indigenous bacterial communities are capable of metabolizing persistent organic pollutants and oxidizing heavy metal contaminants. However, their low abundance and activity in the environment, difficulties accessing the contaminant or nutrient limitations in the environment all prevent the processes from occurring as quickly as desired and thus reaching the proposed clean-up goals. Biofilm communities provide among other things a beneficial structure, possibility for nutrient, and genetic exchange to participating microorganisms as well as protection from the surrounding environment concerning for instance predation and chemical and shear stresses. Biofilms can also be utilized in other ways as biomarkers for monitoring of stream water quality from for instance mine drainage. The durability and structure of biofilms together with the diverse array of structural and metabolic characteristics make these communities attractive actors in biofilm-mediated remediation solutions and ecosystem monitoring. PMID:24150788

Edwards, Sarah J; Kjellerup, Birthe V

2013-12-01

400

Individual and mixture effects of selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products on the marine phytoplankton species Dunaliella tertiolecta.  

PubMed

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) entering the environment may have detrimental effects on aquatic organisms. Simvastatin, clofibric acid, diclofenac, carbamazepine, fluoxetine, and triclosan represent some of the most commonly used and/or detected PPCPs in aquatic environments. This study analyzed the individual and mixture toxicity of these six PPCPs to the marine phytoplankton species Dunaliella tertiolecta using a standard 96-hour static algal bioassay protocol. All PPCPs tested had a significant effect on D. tertiolecta population cell density. However, of the six PPCPs tested, only triclosan yielded toxicity at typical environmental concentrations. The 96-hour EC(50) values for triclosan, fluoxetine, simvastatin, diclofenac, and clofibric acid were 3.55 microg/L, 169.81 microg/L, 22,800 microg/L, 185,690 microg/L, and 224,180 microg/L, respectively. An EC(50) value could not be determined for carbamazepine; however, the highest concentration tested (80,000 microg/L) reduced cell density by 42%. Both mixtures tested-simvastatin-clofibric acid and fluoxetine-triclosan-demonstrated additive toxicity. The presence of PPCP mixtures may decrease the toxicity threshold for phytoplankton populations. Detrimental effects on phytoplankton populations could ultimately impact nutrient cycling and food availability to higher trophic levels. The results of this study are a first step toward identifying the risk of PPCPs to estuarine organisms and may benefit environmental resource managers. PMID:17846821

DeLorenzo, Marie E; Fleming, Jessica

2008-02-01

401

Safety evaluations under the proposed US Safe Cosmetics and Personal Care Products Act of 2013: animal use and cost estimates.  

PubMed

The proposed Safe Cosmetics and Personal Care Products Act of 2013 calls for a new evaluation program for cosmetic ingredients in the US, with the new assessments initially dependent on expanded animal testing. This paper considers possible testing scenarios under the proposed Act and estimates the number of test animals and cost under each scenario. It focuses on the impact for the first 10 years of testing, the period of greatest impact on animals and costs. The analysis suggests the first 10 years of testing under the Act could evaluate, at most, about 50% of ingredients used in cosmetics. Testing during this period would cost about $ 1.7-$ 9 billion and 1-11.5 million animals. By test year 10, alternative, high-throughput test methods under development are expected to be available, replacing animal testing and allowing rapid evaluation of all ingredients. Given the high cost in dollars and animal lives of the first 10 years for only about half of ingredients, a better choice may be to accelerate development of high-throughput methods. This would allow evaluation of 100% of cosmetic ingredients before year 10 at lower cost and without animal testing. PMID:24468774

Knight, Jean; Rovida, Costanca

2014-01-01

402

Acute toxicity of pharmaceutical and personal care products on freshwater crustacean (Thamnocephalus platyurus) and fish (Oryzias latipes).  

PubMed

Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) enter aquatic environments via sewage treatment facilities and their potentially toxic effects on biota, particularly aquatic organisms, are of considerable concern. In this study, we investigated the acute toxicity of selected PPCPs on a freshwater crustacean (Thamnocephalus platyurus) and a fish species (Oryzias latipes). The 24-hr median lethal concentration (LC(50)) values of ibuprofen, mefenamic acid, indometacin, carbamazepine, propranolol, ifenprodil, clarithromycin and triclosan for T. platyurus were estimated to be 19.59, 3.95, 16.14, > 100, 10.31, 4.43, 94.23 and 0.47 mg/l respectively. Conversely, the 96-hr LC(50) values for these PPCPs were estimated at > 100, 8.04, 81.92, 45.87, 11.40, 8.71, > 100 and 0.60 mg/l for O. latipes, respectively. The toxic sensitivity of T. platyurus to these PPCPs, except for carbamazepine, was therefore higher than for O. latipes. No acute toxicity effects were associated with PPCPs, such as atenolol, disopyramide, famotidine, fluconazole, erythromycin and levofloxacin, in the two aquatic organisms at the concentrations tested in this study (> 100 mg/l). These findings may help us to understand the potential biological effects and risks associated with PPCP exposure in aquatic organisms. Further long-term studies are required to fully assess the growth and reproduction of these compounds on aquatic biota. PMID:19336980

Kim, Joon-Woo; Ishibashi, Hiroshi; Yamauchi, Ryoko; Ichikawa, Nobuhiro; Takao, Yuji; Hirano, Masashi; Koga, Minoru; Arizono, Koji

2009-04-01

403

Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products along the West Prong Little Pigeon River in east Tennessee, USA.  

PubMed

Presence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the environment has received a great attention due to their potential impacts on public health. This study examined the occurrence of PPCPs in West Prong Little Pigeon River in east Tennessee. As wastewater is a major source for environmental occurrence of PPCPs, both wastewater and river water samples were analyzed for nine target PPCPs and their estrogenicity. No estrogens were detected in influent, secondary effluent, and river samples. However, ibuprofen, caffeine, triclosan, bisphenol A, and bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) were detected in the influent. Ibuprofen, triclosan, and DEHP were detected in the secondary effluent samples. Only ibuprofen and triclosan were detected in river water collected near a wastewater outfall. Based on yeast estrogenic screening (YES) assays, estrogenic activities were observed in all influent, secondary effluent, and river water samples. Increased estrogenic activities were observed in river right after receiving effluent discharge, and the activities decreased as river water flowing away from the outfall. The estrogenicities of water samples measured from YES assays were much higher than those estimated from PPCP concentrations and their known estrogenicities, suggesting the presence of other unknown estrogenic compounds and/or additive effects of mixtures of estrogenic compounds at low concentrations. Results of this study demonstrated that wastewater contributed to environmental occurrence of PPCPs in the receiving water. As there is a myriad of known and unknown PPCPs in wastewater, in additional to chemical analysis, estrogenic bioassays are needed for assessing estrogenicity of environmental samples. PMID:19395062

Yu, Chang-Ping; Chu, Kung-Hui

2009-06-01

404

Modeling uptake of selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products into food crops from biosolids-amended soil.  

PubMed

Biosolids contain a variety of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). Studies have observed the uptake of PPCPs into plants grown in biosolids-amended soils. This study examined the ability of Dynamic Plant Uptake (DPU) model and Biosolids-amended Soil Level IV (BASL4) model to predict the concentration of eight PPCPs in the tissue of plants grown in biosolids-amended soil under a number of exposure scenarios. Concentrations in edible tissue predicted by the models were compared to concentrations reported in the literature by calculating estimated human daily intake values for both sets of data and comparing them to an acceptable daily intake value. The equilibrium partitioning (EqP) portion of BASL4 overpredicted the concentrations of triclosan, triclocarban, and miconazole in root and shoot tissue by two to three orders of magnitude, while the dynamic carrot root (DCR) portion overpredicted by a single order of magnitude. DPU predicted concentrations of triclosan, triclocarban, miconazole, carbamazepine, and diphenhydramine in plant tissues that were within an order of magnitude of concentrations reported in the literature. The study also found that more empirical data are needed on the uptake of cimetidine, fluoxetine, and gemfibrozil, and other ionizable PPCPs, to confirm the utility of both models. All hazard quotient values calculated from literature data were below 1, with 95.7% of hazard quotient values being below 0.1, indicating that consumption of the chosen PPCPs in plant tissue poses de minimus risk to human health. PMID:25207852

Prosser, Ryan S; Trapp, Stefan; Sibley, Paul K

2014-10-01

405

In Vivo Caprine Model for Osteomyelitis and Evaluation of Biofilm-Resistant Intramedullary Nails  

PubMed Central

Bone infection remains a formidable challenge to the medical field. The goal of the current study is to evaluate antibacterial coatings in vitro and to develop a large animal model to assess coated bone implants. A novel coating consisting of titanium oxide and siloxane polymer doped with silver was created by metal-organic methods. The coating was tested in vitro using rapid screening techniques to determine compositions which inhibited Staphylococcus aureus growth, while not affecting osteoblast viability. The coating was then applied to intramedullary nails and evaluated in vivo in a caprine model. In this pilot study, a fracture was created in the tibia of the goat, and Staphylococcus aureus was inoculated directly into the bone canal. The fractures were fixed by either coated (treated) or non-coated intramedullary nails (control) for 5 weeks. Clinical observations as well as microbiology, mechanical, radiology, and histology testing were used to compare the animals. The treated goat was able to walk using all four limbs after 5 weeks, while the control was unwilling to bear weight on the fixed leg. These results suggest the antimicrobial potential of the hybrid coating and the feasibility of the goat model for antimicrobial coated intramedullary implant evaluation. PMID:23841085

Tran, Nhiem; Tran, Phong A.; Jarrell, John D.; Engiles, Julie B.; Thomas, Nathan P.; Young, Matthew D.; Hayda, Roman A.; Born, Christopher T.

2013-01-01

406

Pugh nail system as a form of treatment for fractures of the proximal femur.  

PubMed

A retrospective study of the results of treatment of 177 patients who had sustained a fracture of the proximal femur was undertaken. The social background, type of injury, operation performed, duration of stay after operation, mortality and morbidity were recorded and compared with the results published by other workers. It is concluded that the Pugh sliding nail system adequately fixes most fractures of the proximal femur. It allows early postoperative mobilization and discharge to the home environment for most patients. The overall mortality and morbidity compares favourably with results published for the dynamic compression screw. Treatment of the elderly patient with a displaced subcapital fracture of the femoral neck remains a problem, due to the high incidence of failure of fixation. It may be that for this group of patients a primary hemiarthroplasty is the treatment of choice. A prospective study to resolve this issue is required. The cost of a Pugh nail is considerably less than that of a dynamic compression screw. PMID:2228190

Bryan, A S

1990-07-01

407

Optimal management of fungal infections of the skin, hair, and nails.  

PubMed

Superficial fungal infections are chronic and recurring conditions. Tinea capitis is a scalp infection, primarily affecting prepubescent children. Ringworm infections, such as tinea corporis and tinea cruris, involve the glabrous skin. Tinea nigra is a rare mycotic infection that may be related to travel abroad. Piedra, black or white, is limited to the hair shaft without involvement of the adjacent skin. Pityriasis (tinea) versicolor and seborrheic dermatitis are dermatoses associated with yeasts of the genus Malassezia that affect the lipid-rich areas of the body. The taxonomy of the Malassezia yeasts has been revised to include nine species, eight of which have been recovered from humans. Tinea pedis, an infection of the feet and toes, is one of the most common forms of dermatophytosis. Onychomycosis is a fungal infection affecting the nail bed and nail plate; it may be chronic and can be difficult to treat. In instances where the superficial fungal infection is severe or chronic, an oral antifungal agent should be considered. Terbinafine, itraconazole, and fluconazole are oral antifungals that are effective in the treatment of superficial mycoses. PMID:15301570

Gupta, Aditya K; Cooper, Elizabeth A; Ryder, Jennifer E; Nicol, Karyn A; Chow, Melody; Chaudhry, Maria M

2004-01-01

408

Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus lugdunensis Cause Pyogenic Osteomyelitis in an Intramedullary Nail Model in Rabbits  

PubMed Central

Propionibacterium acnes and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are opportunistic pathogens implicated in prosthetic joint and fracture fixation device-related infections. The purpose of this study was to determine whether P. acnes and the CoNS species Staphylococcus lugdunensis, isolated from an “aseptically failed” prosthetic hip joint and a united intramedullary nail-fixed tibial fracture, respectively, could cause osteomyelitis in an established implant-related osteomyelitis model in rabbits in the absence of wear debris from the implant material. The histological features of P. acnes infection in the in vivo rabbit model were consistent with localized pyogenic osteomyelitis, and a biofilm was present on all explanted intramedullary (IM) nails. The animals displayed no outward signs of infection, such as swelling, lameness, weight loss, or elevated white blood cell count. In contrast, infection with S. lugdunensis resulted in histological features consistent with both pyogenic osteomyelitis and septic arthritis, and all S. lugdunensis-infected animals displayed weight loss and an elevated white blood cell count despite biofilm detection in only two out of six rabbits. The differences in the histological and bacteriological profiles of the two species in this rabbit model of infection are reflective of their different clinical presentations: low-grade infection in the case of P. acnes and acute infection for S. lugdunensis. These results are especially important in light of the growing recognition of chronic P. acnes biofilm infections in prosthetic joint failure and nonunion of fracture fixations, which may be currently reported as “aseptic” failure. PMID:24599975

Gahukamble, Abhay Deodas; McDowell, Andrew; Post, Virginia; Salavarrieta Varela, Julian; Rochford, Edward Thomas James; Richards, Robert Geoff; Patrick, Sheila

2014-01-01

409

Ballistic parameters and trauma potential of direct-acting, powder-actuated fastening tools (nail guns).  

PubMed

Since their introduction in the 1950s in the construction and building trade, powder-actuated fastening tools (nail guns) are of forensic and traumatological importance. There are countless reports on both accidental and intentional injuries and fatalities caused by these tools in medical literature. While the ballistic parameters of so-called low-velocity fastening tools, where the expanding gases act on a captive piston that drives the fastener into the material, are well known, ballistic parameters of "high-velocity" tools, which operate like a firearm and release the energy of the propellant directly on the fastener, are unknown. Therefore, it was the aim of this work to investigate external ballistic parameters of cal. 9 and 6-mm fastening bolts discharged from four different direct-acting nail guns (Type Ideal, Record Piccolo S, Rapid Hammer R300, Titan Type 1). Average muzzle velocity ranged from 400 to 580 m/s, while average kinetic energy of the projectiles ranged from 385 to 547 J. Mean energy density of the projectiles ranged from 9 to 18 J/mm(2). To conclude, this work demonstrates that the muzzle velocity of direct-acting high-velocity tools is approximately five times higher than the muzzle velocity of piston-type tools. Hence, the much-cited comparison to the ballistic parameters of a cal. 22 handgun might be understated and a comparison to the widespread and well-known cal. 9 mm Luger might be more appropriate. PMID:21607714

Frank, Matthias; Franke, Ernst; Schönekess, Holger C; Jorczyk, Jörn; Bockholdt, Britta; Ekkernkamp, Axel

2012-03-01

410

Oral terbinafine (Lamisil) in the treatment of fungal infections of the skin and nails.  

PubMed

The efficacy and safety of antifungal drugs depend upon their mode of action, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and its relationship to the minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC), the spectrum of activity and drug kinetics at the involved site. Terbinafine acts at the fungal cell wall. Its MIC against dermatophytes is the lowest of all currently available systemic antifungal agents. It is the only one with an MIC:MFC ratio of 1:1 so that terbinafine should be effective over very short treatment durations in dermatophyte infections of the scalp, palms and soles, and nail, providing that drug penetration is adequate, as it appears to be. Therapeutic levels persist for a considerable period after the cessation of treatment, also favouring short-duration therapy. Terbinafine is effective against all varieties of dermatophyte. Terbinafine given over 4 weeks or less is effective against Trichophyton of the scalp in children and adults. Its efficacy in zoophilic ectrothrix infection is anecdotal, but it is likely on theoretical grounds. Terbinafine is also effective against pityriasis versicolor and vaginal candidosis, but only topically. As of March 1996, around 3,000,000 patients have been treated worldwide with terbinafine, mostly for 12 weeks for toe-nail onychomycosis. Gastro-intestinal disturbance and minor skin rashes are seen in 5 and 2% of patients, respectively. PMID:9154400

Roberts, D T

1997-01-01

411

75 FR 34425 - Certain Steel Nails from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the First New Shipper...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Republic of China: Final Results of the First New Shipper Review AGENCY: Import Administration...Analysis of the Final Results of the First New Shipper Review of Certain Steel Nails...Time Limit for the Final Results of the First New Shipper Review, 75 FR 14423...

2010-06-17

412

Characterisation of Late Bronze Age large size shield nails by EDXRF, micro-EDXRF and X-ray digital radiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study six exceptional large size metallic nails, a dagger and a sickle from the Late Bronze Age archaeological site of Figueiredo das Donas (Central Portugal) have been analysed by EDXRF, micro-EDXRF and X-ray digital radiography for the study of material composition and technology of fabrication. The combination of these analytical and examination techniques showed that all artefacts

E. Figueiredo; M. F. Araújo; R. J. C. Silva; J. C. Senna-Martinez; J. L. Inês Vaz

2011-01-01

413

Minimally invasive surgery of humeral metastasis using flexible nails and cement in high-risk patients with advanced cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to evaluate the preliminary outcome of palliative minimally invasive surgery for humeral metastasis in patients who have multiple advanced cancers with short life expectancy. Percutaneous Ender nailing and direct transcortical intramedullary cementing were performed on a total of 15 patients with metastatic disease of the humerus. The origins of the cancers were the lung (n=9), breast

June Hyuk Kim; Hyun Guy Kang; Jung Ryul Kim; Patrick P. Lin; Han Soo Kim

2011-01-01

414

Operative Treatment of Tibial Fractures in Children: Are Elastic Stable Intramedullary Nails an Improvement Over External Fixation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Operative treatment of tibial fractures in children requires implants that do not violate open physes while maintaining tibial length and alignment. Both elastic stable intramedullary nails and external fixation can be utilized. We retrospectively reviewed our experience with these two techniques to determine if one is superior to the other. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the operative records and trauma

ERIK N. KUBIAK; KENNETH A. EGOL; DAVID SCHER; BRADLEY WASSERMAN; DAVID FELDMAN; KENNETH J. KOVAL

415

Acetone and Ethyl Acetate in Commercial Nail Polish Removers: A Quantitative NMR Experiment Using an Internal Standard  

Microsoft Academic Search

The qualitative and quantitative analysis of commercial nail polish removers is performed on a 60 MHz NMR spectrometer. After taking NMR spectra of the polish removers, students can make peak assignments for the known components of acetone and ethyl acetate. Using these spectra, students are also able to identify the unknown alcohol present in the remover as ethanol. Quantitative analysis

David W. Clarke

1997-01-01

416

Comparative study of trace elements in blood, scalp hair and nails of prostate cancer patients in relation to healthy donors.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer is the most common fatal cancers in men, and exposure to toxic elements is the most important factor in the aetiology for prostate cancer. Selected elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were analyzed in the blood, scalp hair and nails of prostate cancer patients and counterpart healthy donors by atomic absorption spectrometry. Average concentrations of Cd, Mn, Ni and Pb were found to be significantly higher (p?nails of the patients compared with those of the healthy subjects who exhibited significantly higher concentrations of Zn. The correlation study revealed significantly diverse relationships of the elements in the blood, scalp hair and nails of the two donor groups. Variations in the elemental concentrations were also noted for various types of prostate cancer (adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma), as well as for different stages of the cancer. Multivariate apportionment of trace elements in the blood, scalp hair and nails of the patients was also significantly different than that in the healthy donors. The study evidenced considerably divergent variations in the elemental concentrations in prostate cancer patients in comparison with healthy subjects. PMID:25231348

Qayyum, Muhammad Abdul; Shah, Munir H

2014-12-01

417

Removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products during water recycling: microbial community structure and effects of substrate concentration.  

PubMed

Many pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have been shown to be biotransformed in water treatment systems. However, little research exists on the effect of initial PPCP concentration on PPCP biotransformation or on the microbial communities treating impacted water. In this study, biological PPCP removal at various concentrations was assessed using laboratory columns inoculated with wastewater treatment plant effluent. Pyrosequencing was used to examine microbial communities in the columns and in soil from a soil aquifer treatment (SAT; a method of water treatment prior to reuse) site. Laboratory columns were supplied with different concentrations (0.25, 10, 100, or 1,000 ?g liter(-1)) of each of 15 PPCPs. Five PPCPs (4-isopropyl-3-methylphenol [biosol], p-chloro-m-xylenol, gemfibrozil, ketoprofen, and phenytoin) were not removed at any tested concentrations. Two PPCPs (naproxen and triclosan) exhibited removals independent of PPCP concentration. PPCP removal efficiencies were dependent on initial concentrations for biphenylol, p-chloro-m-cresol, chlorophene, diclofenac, 5-fluorouracil, ibuprofen, and valproic acid, showing that PPCP concentration can affect biotransformation. Biofilms from sand samples collected from the 0.25- and 10-?g liter(-1) PPCP columns were pyrosequenced along with SAT soil samples collected on three consecutive days of a wetting and drying cycle to enable comparison of these two communities exposed to PPCPs. SAT communities were similar to column communities in taxonomy and phylotype composition, and both were found to contain close relatives of known PPCP degraders. The efficiency of biological removal of PPCPs was found to be dependent on the concentration at which the contamination occurs for some, but not all, PPCPs. PMID:24509919

Onesios-Barry, Kathryn M; Berry, David; Proescher, Jody B; Sivakumar, I K Ashok; Bouwer, Edward J

2014-04-01

418

A survey of alkylphenols, bisphenols, and triclosan in personal care products from China and the United States.  

PubMed

Exposure of humans to environmental phenolic compounds such as bisphenol A (BPA) and alkylphenols is a matter of concern, due to these compounds' ubiquitous occurrence and estrogenic potencies. Little is known about the levels of environmental phenolics in personal care products (PCPs). In this study, nonylphenol, two octylphenols, eight bisphenols (BPA and its analogs), and triclosan (TCS) were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in PCP samples (n = 231) collected from China and the United States (U.S.). The concentrations of 4-n-nonylphenol (4-NP), 4-n-octylphenol (4-OP), 4-tert-octylphenol (4-t-OP), and TCS were in the ranges of <0.5-39,100 [geometric mean (GM): 21.5], <0.5-315 (0.680), <1.0-10,100 (2.69), and <0.5-53,900 (3.03) ng/g, respectively. The GM concentrations of individual bisphenols, including BPA, bisphenol S (BPS), and bisphenol F (BPF), were generally at sub-nanogram per gram levels. No significant differences in concentrations of the target compounds were found among various PCP categories or between China and the U.S. The estimated GM daily intakes of 4-NP, ?OPs (sum of 4-OP and 4-t-OP), ?BPs (sum of eight bisphenols), and TCS through dermal absorption from the use of PCPs were 0.932, 0.093, 0.072, and 0.016 ?g/day, respectively, for adult Chinese women and 0.340, 0.054, 0.120, and 0.068 ?g/day, respectively, for adult U.S. women. Body lotions, face creams, and liquid foundations accounted for the majority (>85 %) of the dermal exposure doses of the target phenolics. PMID:24639116

Liao, Chunyang; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

2014-07-01

419

Effects of Solution Chemistry on Adsorption of Selected Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) by Graphenes and Carbon Nanotubes.  

PubMed

Adsorption of three selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) (ketoprofen (KEP), carbamazepine (CBZ), and bisphenol A (BPA)) by two reduced graphene oxides (rGO1 and rGO2) and one commercial graphene was examined under different solution conditions. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and powdered graphite were also investigated for comparison. All adsorption isotherms followed the order of SWCNTs > rGO1 > rGO2 > MWCNTs > graphene > graphite, consistent with the orders of their surface areas and micropore volumes. After surface area normalization, adsorption affinities of the three PPCPs onto graphenes were lower than onto graphite, suggesting incomplete occupation for adsorption sites because of the aggregation of graphene sheets and the presence of oxygen-containing functional groups. The observed pH effects on adsorption correlated well with the pH-regulated distribution of the protonated neutral species of the three PPCPs. Increasing ionic strength from 0 to 20 mM increased KEP adsorption due to the electrostatic screening by Na(+) and Ca(2+). Both humic acid (HA) and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) suppressed PPCPs adsorption to all adsorbents, but their impacts onto graphenes were lower than those onto CNTs because of their lower adsorption by graphenes. More severe HA (or SDBS) effect was found on negatively charged KEP at the tested solution pH 6.50 due to the electrostatic repulsion between the same charged KEP and HA (or SDBS). The findings of the present study may have significant implications for the environmental fate assessment of PPCPs and graphene. PMID:25353977

Liu, Fei-Fei; Zhao, Jian; Wang, Shuguang; Du, Peng; Xing, Baoshan

2014-11-18

420

Removal of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products during Water Recycling: Microbial Community Structure and Effects of Substrate Concentration  

PubMed Central

Many pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have been shown to be biotransformed in water treatment systems. However, little research exists on the effect of initial PPCP concentration on PPCP biotransformation or on the microbial communities treating impacted water. In this study, biological PPCP removal at various concentrations was assessed using laboratory columns inoculated with wastewater treatment plant effluent. Pyrosequencing was used to examine microbial communities in the columns and in soil from a soil aquifer treatment (SAT; a method of water treatment prior to reuse) site. Laboratory columns were supplied with different concentrations (0.25, 10, 100, or 1,000 ?g liter?1) of each of 15 PPCPs. Five PPCPs (4-isopropyl-3-methylphenol [biosol], p-chloro-m-xylenol, gemfibrozil, ketoprofen, and phenytoin) were not removed at any tested concentrations. Two PPCPs (naproxen and triclosan) exhibited removals independent of PPCP concentration. PPCP removal efficiencies were dependent on initial concentrations for biphenylol, p-chloro-m-cresol, chlorophene, diclofenac, 5-fluorouracil, ibuprofen, and valproic acid, showing that PPCP concentration can affect biotransformation. Biofilms from sand samples collected from the 0.25- and 10-?g liter?1 PPCP columns were pyrosequenced along with SAT soil samples collected on three consecutive days of a wetting and drying cycle to enable comparison of these two communities exposed to PPCPs. SAT communities were similar to column communities in taxonomy and phylotype composition, and both were found to contain close relatives of known PPCP degraders. The efficiency of biological removal of PPCPs was found to be dependent on the concentration at which the contamination occurs for some, but not all, PPCPs. PMID:24509919