Sample records for nail care products

  1. Nail Care Products

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to products used at professional establishments or samples distributed free of charge. However, the requirement does apply ... Nail primers that contain MAA are most commonly distributed through wholesale suppliers to nail salons and retail ...

  2. Primary care of nail traumas.

    PubMed

    Loréa, P

    2013-06-01

    Injuries to the nail complex are common in adults and children. These complex injuries often involve the paraungueal tissues, fingertip and bone. Specialized primary care is essential to limiting the sequelea that are typically difficult to repair secondarily. The current state of knowledge on nail bed lacerations and defects is reviewed and compared to our own experience. Special attention is paid to nail restoration in distal amputation cases and we propose an original technique to restore nail length. PMID:23706592

  3. Nail care for newborns

    MedlinePLUS

    ... others. It is important to keep your baby's nails clean and trimmed. Newborns do not yet have ... their face. Clean the baby's hands, feet, and nails during regular bathing. Use a nail file or ...

  4. Artificial Nails Require Care to Keep Nails Healthy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... see a dermatologist. References: - Dahdah MJ, Scher RK. “Nail diseases related to nail cosmetics.” Dermatol Clin. 2006 Apr; ... M, Piraccini BM, Tosti A. “Nail cosmetics in nail disorders.” J Cosmet Dermatol. 2007 Mar;6(1):53- ...

  5. Nail cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Madnani, Nina A; Khan, Kaleem J

    2012-01-01

    The nail as an anatomic structure protects the terminal phalanx of the digit from injury. Historically, it has served as a tool for protection and for survival. As civilizations developed, it attained the additional function of adornment. Nail beautification is a big industry today, with various nail cosmetics available, ranging from nail hardeners, polishes, extensions, artificial/sculpted nails, and nail decorations. Adverse events may occur either during the nail-grooming procedure or as a reaction to the individual components of the nail cosmetics. This holds true for both the client and the nail technician. Typically, any of the procedures involves several steps and a series of products. Separate "nail-bars" have been set up dedicated to serve women and men interested in nail beautification. This article attempts to comprehensively inform and educate the dermatologist on the services offered, the products used, and the possible/potential adverse effects related to nail-grooming and nail cosmetics. PMID:22565430

  6. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePLUS

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... of the nail bed from the nail plate (onycholysis). Severe illness or surgery may cause horizontal depressions ...

  7. Nail-Gun Injuries to the Hand

    PubMed Central

    Pierpont, Yvonne N.; Pappas-Politis, Effie; Naidu, Deepak K.; Salas, R. Emerick; Johnson, Erika L.; Payne, Wyatt G.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The nail gun is a commonly utilized tool in carpentry and construction. When used properly with appropriate safety precautions, it can facilitate production and boost efficiency; however, this powerful tool also has the potential to cause serious injury. The most common site of nail-gun injuries in both industrial and nonoccupational settings is the hand. Materials and Methods: We report on two patients with nail-gun injuries to the hand. A review of the literature and discussion of clinical evaluation and treatment of nail-gun injuries to the hand are presented. Results: Two patients present with soft tissue injuries to the hand with the nail embedded and intact at the injury site. Operative removal of the nail and wound care resulted in successful treatment in both cases. Nail-gun injuries to the hand vary in severity on the basis of the extent of structural damage. Treatment is based on the severity of injury and the presence and location of barbs on the penetrating nail. Conclusion: Healthcare providers must understand and educate patients on the prevention mechanics of nail-gun injuries. Nail-gun injuries to the hand necessitate appropriate evaluation techniques, understanding of surgical management versus nonsurgical management, and awareness of potential pitfalls in treatment. PMID:19079574

  8. Cosmetic treatment of nails.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2013-01-01

    Nail cosmetics are an important part of personal expression. Although their use can result in a variety of dermatologic issues, the popularity of nail cosmetics is huge. Dermatologists must recognize problems associated with nail cosmetics and understand the process for using these cosmetics. Many problems can be avoided through careful use or a change in the application procedure. PMID:24079586

  9. Onychomycosis nailed.

    PubMed

    Leelavathi, M; Noorlaily, Mn

    2014-01-01

    Fungal infection of the nail is a common condition that causes much concern because of its disfiguring appearance. Although specific treatment is available for this condition, treatment outcome is variable and persistent nail dystrophy post-treatment may cause distress to both the patient and the physician. This article describes the current available treatment options for onychomycosis, management approach and the expected treatment outcome to enhance primary care physicians' confidence in managing this condition. Oral antifungal agents such as terbinafine and itraconazole are good treatment options for onychomycosis. Combination therapy using oral antifungal agents with topical lacquer preparations may provide added benefits. Evaluation of patient's expectations, providing information on treatment outcome, clinical cure and recurrence rates are essential in the management of onychomycosis. This article is intended to guide primary care physicians to achieve realistic treatment goals and for a satisfactory experience in the overall management of this challenging condition. PMID:25606290

  10. Nail cosmetics in nail disorders.

    PubMed

    Iorizzo, Matilde; Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Tosti, Antonella

    2007-03-01

    The clinical features of nail dystrophies depend on the part of the nail that has been damaged. Due to the important functions of fingernails and toenails, any abnormality of the nail causes impaired function of the hand or foot. Moreover, the aesthetic aspect of the nail may affect employability, self-esteem, and interaction with other people. Because the nails are often difficult to treat, cosmetology may be an effective support to medical treatment. Nail cosmetics may help the patient to cope with his or her nail dystrophy while waiting for treatment to show its efficacy. It may also be the only choice to hide nail dystrophy where the nail is irreversibly damaged. Nail cosmetics may also function at treatment for onychtillomania, nail biting, and nail ingrowing. PMID:17348997

  11. Your Nails

    MedlinePLUS

    ... checking your blood circulation. By looking at your nails, a doctor may find changes that may be associated with skin problems, lung disease, anemia, and other medical conditions. Your nails are ...

  12. Nail anatomy.

    PubMed

    de Berker, David

    2013-01-01

    The nail unit comprises the nail plate, the surrounding soft tissues, and their vasculature and innervation based upon the distal phalanx. The nail plate is a laminated keratinized structure lying on the nail matrix (15-25%), the nail bed with its distal onychodermal band (75-85%), and the hyponychium at its free edge. The distal part of the matrix, the lunula characterized by its half-moon shape, can be observed in some digits. The nail plate is embedded by the proximal and lateral folds. From the proximal nail fold, the cuticle (also known as the eponychium), adheres to the superficial surface of the proximal nail plate. The nail unit possesses a complex and abundant vascular network to ensure adequate blood supply. Finally, both the periungual soft tissues and the nail folds are innervated. The shapes, structure, and inter-relationships of these tissues are factors in the way nails present with disease and how we understand and manage those diseases. In particular, an understanding of the surgical anatomy is important for those undertaking diagnostic or curative operations on the nail. With this knowledge, the most appropriate surgery can be planned and the patient can be provided with accurate and clear guidance to enable informed consent. PMID:24079579

  13. Green Nail Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the nail bed; this is also known as onycholysis. When the nail is detached from the nail ... to the area under the nail contributes to onycholysis. People at risk for separated nails are gardeners, ...

  14. Nail Detachment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonella Tosti; Ralph Daniel; Bianca Maria Piraccini; Matilde Iorizzo

    \\u000a Onycholysis describes detachment of the nail plate from the nail bed. It may be caused by traumatic, inflammatory, infective\\u000a or neoplastic nail disorders. Linking onycholysis to a specific cause is impossible in some cases (idiopathic onycholysis).\\u000a Onycholysis may affect the fi ngernails or the toenails. It generally starts distally due to disruption of the onychocorneal\\u000a band and moves proximally. Proximal

  15. Identifying and understanding the role of key stakeholders in promoting worker health and safety in nail salons.

    PubMed

    Quach, Thu; Tsoh, Janice Y; Le, Gem; Le, Minhthu; Pham, Alene; Fu, Lisa; Luu, Vinh; Ngo, Kim; Reynolds, Peggy

    2015-05-01

    The nail salon sector is booming, predominantly with Vietnamese immigrant workers who regularly handle nail care products containing harmful chemicals. Based on lessons learned from an ongoing randomized controlled trial, occupational interventions need to incorporate inputs from different stakeholders, including salon owners, workers, and customers as well as governmental regulatory agencies. PMID:25981092

  16. Urinary and air phthalate concentrations and self-reported use of personal care products among minority pregnant women in New York city

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allan C Just; Jennifer J Adibi; Andrew G Rundle; Antonia M Calafat; David E Camann; Russ Hauser; Manori J Silva; Robin M Whyatt

    2010-01-01

    Diethyl phthalate (DEP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) are used extensively in personal care products, including fragrances (DEP) and nail polish (DnBP). Between May 2003 and July 2006, we gathered questionnaire data on the use of seven product categories (deodorant, perfume, hair spray, hair gel, nail polish\\/polish remover, liquid soap\\/body wash, and lotion\\/mist) over 48 h during the third trimester of

  17. Nail Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... smooth and consistent in color. Specific types of nail discoloration and changes in growth rate can be signs of lung, heart, kidney, and liver diseases, as well as diabetes and anemia. White spots ...

  18. [The use of nails to diagnosis diseases].

    PubMed

    Baran, Robert

    2014-11-01

    For those interested in nails, a fairly good knowledge of the anatomy of the nail unit is indispensable. But nothing will replace a careful, clinical examination of the nail apparatus. The shape of the nail, surface abnormalities and coloration, with or without a magnifying glass, may well provide a medical diagnosis not only in dermatology but also for medicine in general. Pits on the surface of the nail plate may be enough to diagnose psoriasis on a limited area of scalp dandruff. Even partial detachment of the nail apparatus might lead to the suspicion of psoriatic arthritis. A triangular lunula is associated with the absence of patellas. Finally, no pulmonary examination of a smoker is complete without looking for clubbing. It is high time to pay tribute to the nail. PMID:25443634

  19. Nail Hygiene

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hangnail. Instead, clip it with a clean, sanitized nail trimmer. Print page Get email updates To receive email updates about this page, enter your email address: Enter Email Address Submit Button What's this? Contact Us: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1600 Clifton Rd Atlanta, GA ...

  20. Common nail disorders.

    PubMed

    Shemer, Avner; Daniel, C Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Brittle nail, simple chronic paronychia, and onycholysis represent three of the most prevalent nail disorders. Brittle nails are characterized by increased fragility of the nail plate due to damage to the nail matrix or changes to nail plate cohesion, caused by internal and/or external factors. Simple chronic paronychia represents an inflammatory process of the lateral and/or proximal nail folds of the fingernails or toenails often preceded by damage to the cuticle. Onycholysis describes the detachment of the nail plate from its nail bed, often attributable to dermatologic conditions, infections, drug therapy, or trauma. PMID:24079587

  1. Pediatric nail conditions.

    PubMed

    Wulkan, Adam J; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric nail findings are plentiful and can range from benign processes to the initial signs of a systemic condition. The examination of the nail is an essential part of the pediatric physical examination. The nail unit consists of the nail plate, the nail matrix, the hyponychium, the nail bed, and the surrounding nail folds. Conditions that affect the nail unit have a variety of etiologies; these include inflammatory, congenital, and hereditary conditions as well as tumors and trauma. This review describes many of the nail conditions that are seen in the pediatric population. PMID:24079585

  2. Life-threatening nail gun injuries.

    PubMed

    Beaver, A C; Cheatham, M L

    1999-12-01

    The use of pneumatic and explosive cartridge-activated nail guns is common in the construction industry. The ease and speed of nailing these tools afford enhance productivity at the cost of increased potential for traumatic injury. Although extremity injuries are most common, life-threatening injuries to the head, neck, chest, or abdomen and pelvis may occur. During a 20-month period, eight potentially life-threatening nail gun injuries were admitted to a Level I trauma center, including injuries to the brain, eye, neck, heart, lung, and femoral artery. Mechanism of injury included nail ricochet, nail gun misuse due to inadequate training, and successful suicide. Nail guns have significant potential for causing severe debilitating injury and death. These findings indicate a need for improved safety features and user education. The various types of nail guns, their ballistic potential, and techniques for operative management are discussed. PMID:10597056

  3. Yellow nail syndrome (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Yellow nail syndrome is characterized by yellow nails that lack a cuticle, grow slowly, and are loose or detached (onycholysis). Yellow nail syndrome is most commonly associated with lung disorders, and ...

  4. Yellow nails (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Yellow nails are seen in the 'yellow nail syndrome' in which there is thickening and yellow to yellow-green discoloration of all nails. Lymphedema, especially of the ankles, and compromised respiration ...

  5. Investigation of Human Nail Microstructure with Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeva, A. R.; Bakulin, E. Y.; Denisova, L. A.; Maev, R. Gr.

    Investigation of a human fingernail and the extraction of the data on its microstructure and elastic properties is important in three main aspects. First of all, various diseases of the nail can be differentiated more precisely; second of all, it is possible to non-invasively track during time the effects of a cosmetic product upon the nail; third of all, because various processes in the organism have a strong influence upon the nail plate growth, the monitoring of the nail morphology and its mechanical properties may be used as additional information for the diagnosis of a number of medical disorders, such as systemic sclerosis, psoriasis, chronic hand eczema, anemia etc. The aim of the present study was to carry out a detailed ultrasound investigation in the high-frequency range (25-50 MHz) of a human nail including micro-anatomical structure imaging and ultrasound velocity evaluation, using B-scans obtained with a scanning acoustic microscope. On the images, exact topology of the nail, nail matrix and the underlying bone have been revealed. Additionally, a certain type of inclined internal layering along the nails of some individuals has been found, which was not reported in previous ultrasonic studies of the nail.

  6. Nail Gun Injuries Among Construction Workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. Dement; Hester Lipscomb; Leiming Li; Carol Epling; Tejas Desai

    2003-01-01

    Pneumatic nail guns greatly increase worker productivity and are extensively used in wood frame building construction, with especially high use in residential construction. One surveillance report of nail gun injuries in Washington State has been published; however, other literature consists largely of case reports and case series in trauma journals. The major objective of the current study was to investigate

  7. Nail psoriasis: a review.

    PubMed

    Tan, Eugene S T; Chong, Wei-Sheng; Tey, Hong Liang

    2012-12-01

    Nail psoriasis is common, occurring in up to half of patients with psoriasis and in 90% of patients with psoriatic arthritis. Left untreated, it may progress to debilitating nail disease, which leads to significant functional impairment. The most common clinical signs of nail psoriasis are nail plate pitting and onycholysis. Other classical signs include oil drop discoloration, subungual hyperkeratosis, and splinter hemorrhages. The modified Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (mNAPSI) can be used to grade the severity of nail psoriasis, while the Nail Psoriasis Quality of Life Scale (NPQ10) is a questionnaire that evaluates the impact of nail psoriasis on the patient's functional status and quality of life. Treatment of nail psoriasis should be individualized according to the patient's preferences, severity of nail changes, and presence of skin and/or joint involvement. Both topical and intralesional therapies are safe and effective treatment modalities for nail disease, but are limited by poor adherence and pain, respectively. Systemic therapy such as oral retinoids may be considered for widespread nail disease causing significant morbidity. Among biologic agents, tumor necrosis factor-? inhibitors and T-cell-targeted therapies such as ustekinumab may be useful for refractory severe nail psoriasis. PMID:22784035

  8. Treatment of nail disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bianca Maria Piraccini; Matilde Iorizzo; Angela Antonucci; Antonella Tosti

    2004-01-01

    There are several reasons that make the nail unit difficult to treat. It is necessary to wait for several months before seeing the results of treatments in nail disorders, as the nail plate grows very slowly (average nail growth is 3 mm\\/month in fingernails and 1-1.5 mm\\/month in toenails). It is very important to give the patients this information, as

  9. [Ingrown nails or onychocryptosis].

    PubMed

    Blatière, Véronique

    2014-11-01

    Ingrown nails come down to a conflict between the nail plate and the periungual tissue, causing pain, morbidity and impairment. The feet are mainly affected. The treatments are numerous: medical, podiatric, or surgical. Surgical management has two approaches: the techniques focused on the periungual skin and those on the nail plate. Among the latter, partial nail avulsion followed by matrix phenolization, known as "Boll's technique", is still highly regarded. PMID:25448121

  10. Fungal nail infection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medicines. Laser treatments may get rid of the fungus in the nails. In some cases, you may need to have the nail removed. ... The fungal nail infection is cured by the growth of new, ... Medicines clear up fungus in about half of people who try them. ...

  11. Nutrition and nail disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael W. Cashman; Steven Brett Sloan

    2010-01-01

    The nail is a specialized keratinous skin appendage that grows approximately 2 to 3 mm per month, with complete replacement achieved in 6 to 9 months. Although this structure can be easily overlooked, nail disorders comprise approximately 10% of all dermatologic conditions. This contribution first provides an overview on the basic anatomy of the nail that will delineate between the

  12. Nail bed injuries and deformities of nail

    PubMed Central

    Bharathi, R. Ravindra; Bajantri, Babu

    2011-01-01

    Nail bed injuries are common and management of these requires good knowledge of the nail bed anatomy. Proper management of these injuries will ensure good healing and prevent late deformities. When loss occurs it is challenging to reconstruct which can be done by grafts or microsurgical reconstruction to restore aesthetic appearance of fingers. PMID:22022029

  13. [Malignant nail tumors].

    PubMed

    Haneke, E

    2014-04-01

    Because of the large number of different tissues making up the distal phalanx of fingers and toes, a large variety of malignant tumors can be found in and around the nail apparatus. Bowen disease is probably the most frequent nail malignancy. It is usually seen as a verrucous plaque of the nail fold and nail bed in persons above the age of 40 years. It slowly grows over a period of years or even decades before degenerating to an invasive squamous cell carcinoma. The latter may also occur primarily often as a weeping onycholysis. The next most frequent nail malignancy is ungual melanoma. Those arising from the matrix are usually pigmented and often start with a longitudinal melanonychia whereas those originating from the nail bed remain amelanotic, are often nodular and mistaken for an ingrown nail in an elderly person. The treatment of choice for in situ and early invasive subungual melanomas is generous extirpation of the nail apparatus whereas distal amputation is only indicated for advanced melanomas. In addition to these frequent nail malignancies, nail-specific carcinomas, malignant vascular and osseous tumors, other sarcomas, nail involvement in malignant systemic disorders and metastases may occur. In most cases, they cannot be diagnosed accurately on clinical grounds. Therefore, a high degree of suspicion is necessary in all isolated or single-digit proliferations that do not respond to conservative treatment. PMID:24718507

  14. Dosimetry during intramedullary nailing of the tibia

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Intramedullary nailing under fluoroscopic guidance is a common operation. We studied the intraoperative radiation dose received by both the patient and the personnel. Patients and methods 25 intramedullary nailing procedures of the tibia were studied. All patients suffered from tibial fractures and were treated using the Grosse-Kempf intramedullary nail, with free-hand technique for fixation of the distal screws, under fluoroscopic guidance. The exposure, at selected positions, was recorded using an ion chamber, while the dose area product (DAP) was measured with a DAP meter, attached to the tube head. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were used to derive the occupational dose to the personnel, and also to monitor the surface dose on the gonads of some of the patients. Results The mean operation time was 101 (48–240) min, with a mean fluoroscopic time of 72 seconds and a mean DAP value of 75 cGy·cm2. The surface dose to the gonads of the patients was less than 8.8 mGy during any procedure, and thus cannot be considered to be a contraindication for the use of this technique. Occupational dose differed substantially between members of the operating personnel, the maximum dose recorded being to the operator of the fluoroscopic equipment (0.11 mSv). Interpretation Our findings underscore the care required by the primary operator not to exceed the dose constraint of 10 mSv per year. The rest of the operating personnel, although they do not receive very high doses, should focus on the dose optimization of the technique. PMID:19916691

  15. Capillary nail refill test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... test is a quick test done on the nail beds. It is used to monitor dehydration and the ... Pressure is applied to the nail bed until it turns white. This indicates that the blood has been forced from the tissue. It is called blanching. Once the ...

  16. Treatment of inflammatory nail disorders.

    PubMed

    Dehesa, Luis; Tosti, Antonella

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an updated review on diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory nail disorders including psoriasis, lichen planus, trachyonychia, and autoimmune bullous disorders. Despite the significant negative repercussion of the nail psoriasis in the quality of life of patients, treatment is often not sufficiently effective. The efficacy of topical therapies is limited to nail bed psoriasis. Intralesional corticosteroid injections are extensively utilized in nail matrix psoriasis. Systemic immunosuppressant drugs such as methotrexate and cyclosporine have shown efficacy. Biologics, particularly infliximab and etanercept, have also demonstrated high efficacy in the treatment of severe nail disease. Nail matrix lichen planus can cause nail atrophy and irreversible nail scarring and requires prompt treatment with systemic steroids. There is not gold standard therapy for trachyonychia, but in most cases the nail signs improve spontaneously and treatment is not necessary. Nail changes in pemphigus and other autoimmune disorders respond promptly to systemic therapy with steroids and immunosuppressants. PMID:23210751

  17. Insights into drug delivery across the nail plate barrier.

    PubMed

    Saner, Manish V; Kulkarni, Abhijeet D; Pardeshi, Chandrakantsing V

    2014-11-01

    Topical therapy is at the forefront in treating nail ailments (especially onychomycosis and nail psoriasis) due to its local effects, which circumvents systemic adverse events, improves patient compliance and reduces treatment cost. However, the success of topical therapy has been hindered due to poor penetration of topical therapeutics across densely keratinized nail plate barrier. For effective topical therapy across nail plate, ungual drug permeation must be enhanced. Present review is designed to provide an insight into prime aspects of transungual drug delivery viz. nail structure and physiology, various onychopathies, techniques of nail permeation enhancement and in vitro models for trans-nail drug permeation studies. Updated list of drug molecules studied across the nail plate and key commercial products have been furnished with sufficient depth. Patents pertinent to, and current clinical status of transungual drug delivery have also been comprehensively reviewed. This is the first systematic critique encompassing the detailed aspects of transungual drug delivery. In our opinion, transungual drug delivery is a promising avenue for researchers to develop novel formulations, augmenting pharmaceutical industries to commercialize the products for nail disorders. PMID:24964054

  18. The microvasculature of the nail bed, nail matrix, and nail fold of a normal human fingertip

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenjiro Hasegawa; Barry P Pereira; Robert W. H Pho

    2001-01-01

    The organization of the microvasculature of the dorsal human fingertip based on a vascular corrosion cast was examined using a stereoscopic microscope. The variations of the superficial capillary network of the 3 specialized areas of skin of the dorsal fingertip (the nail bed, the nail matrix, and the nail fold) are described. In the nail bed numerous capillary loops were

  19. Treatment of Nail Psoriasis with a Two-Compound Formulation of Calcipotriol plus Betamethasone Dipropionate Ointment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Rigopoulos; S. Gregoriou; C. R. Daniel; III; H. Belyayeva; G. Larios; P. Verra; C. Stamou; G. Kontochristopoulos; G. Avgerinou; A. Katsambas

    2009-01-01

    Background: Treatment of nail psoriasis remains a challenge. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a two-compound product of calcipotriol plus betamethasone dipropionate ointment on nail psoriasis in an open-label study. Methods: Twenty-five psoriatic patients with nail involvement and mild cutaneous psoriasis were instructed to apply a calcipotriol-betamethasone valerate ointment formulation once daily for 12 weeks on affected nails. Outcome measures

  20. Incidence of brittle nails.

    PubMed

    Lubach, D; Cohrs, W; Wurzinger, R

    1986-01-01

    Only few reports exist about the occurrence of brittle nails. We examined 1,584 persons with respect to the incidence of this anomaly. The patients were from five different groups: outpatients of a dental clinic, blood donors, residents of an old people's home, patients of a clinic for internal diseases and patients of a general practice. Approximately 20% of the subjects examined had brittle nails. Women suffered from brittleness of nails much more frequently than men (27 vs. 13%) with a ratio of men to women from 1:1.6 to 1:7 depending on age. 44% of the subjects affected (75% of the females, 25% of the males) had tried one or several treatments but only 26% believed in their curative effect. The market for the therapy of brittle nails in the FRG is estimated to be between 2 and 4 million people. PMID:3699216

  1. [Nail involvement in leprosy].

    PubMed

    Belinchón Romero, I; Ramos Rincón, J M; Reyes Rabell, F

    2012-05-01

    Leprosy, a disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, primarily affects the skin and nerves, but the nails are also involved in as many as 3 out of 4 patients .The factors that trigger nail changes in leprosy are numerous and include repeated trauma, neuropathy, vascular impairment, infections, lepra reactions, and the drugs used to manage the disease. The changes most often reported include subungual hematomas, onycholysis, onychauxis, onychogryphosis, pterygium unguis, and onychoheterotopia, most of which can be attributed to nerve damage and trauma. Furthermore, the acro-osteolysis that occurs in the advanced stages of the disease may present with brachyonychia, racquet nails, or even anonychia. Infections of the nail bed leading to paronychia and onychomycosis should also be taken into account in leprosy. Other typical changes include longitudinal striae, pitting, macrolunula, Terry nails, leukonychia, hapalonychia, and Beau lines. In this review, we describe the principal nail changes associated with leprosy. These changes, which are highly varied and diverse in origin, are in fact a reflection of the significant morbidity caused by M. leprae infection. PMID:22056258

  2. Dressings and Products in Pediatric Wound Care

    PubMed Central

    King, Alice; Stellar, Judith J.; Blevins, Anne; Shah, Kara Noelle

    2014-01-01

    Significance: The increasing complexity of medical and surgical care provided to pediatric patients has resulted in a population at significant risk for complications such as pressure ulcers, nonhealing surgical wounds, and moisture-associated skin damage. Wound care practices for neonatal and pediatric patients, including the choice of specific dressings or other wound care products, are currently based on a combination of provider experience and preference and a small number of published clinical guidelines based on expert opinion; rigorous evidence-based clinical guidelines for wound management in these populations is lacking. Recent Advances: Advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of wound healing have contributed to an ever-increasing number of specialized wound care products, most of which are predominantly marketed to adult patients and that have not been evaluated for safety and efficacy in the neonatal and pediatric populations. This review aims to discuss the available data on the use of both more traditional wound care products and newer wound care technologies in these populations, including medical-grade honey, nanocrystalline silver, and soft silicone-based adhesive technology. Critical Issues: Evidence-based wound care practices and demonstration of the safety, efficacy, and appropriate utilization of available wound care dressings and products in the neonatal and pediatric populations should be established to address specific concerns regarding wound management in these populations. Future Directions: The creation and implementation of evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of common wounds in the neonatal and pediatric populations is essential. In addition to an evaluation of currently marketed wound care dressings and products used in the adult population, newer wound care technologies should also be evaluated for use in neonates and children. In addition, further investigation of the specific pathophysiology of wound healing in neonates and children is indicated to promote the development of wound care dressings and products with specific applications in these populations. PMID:24761363

  3. Diagnostic applications of nail clippings.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Sasha; Tosti, Antonella; Rubin, Adam I

    2015-04-01

    "Nail clipping is a simple technique for diagnosis of several nail unit dermatoses. This article summarizes the practical approach, utility, and histologic findings of a nail clipping in evaluation of onychomycosis, nail unit psoriasis, onychomatricoma, subungual hematoma, melanonychia, and nail cosmetics, and the forensic applications of this easily obtained specimen. It reviews important considerations in optimizing specimen collection, processing methods, and efficacy of special stains in several clinical contexts. Readers will develop a greater understanding and ease of application of this indispensable procedure in assessing nail unit dermatoses." PMID:25828720

  4. Drug-induced nail disorders.

    PubMed

    2014-07-01

    Nail disorders are defined according to their appearance and the part of the nail affected: the nail plate, the tissues that support or hold the nail plate in place, or the lunula. The consequences of most nail disorders are purely cosmetic. Other disorders, such as ingrown nails, inflammation, erythema, abscesses or tumours, cause functional impairment or pain. The appearance of the lesions is rarely indicative of their cause. Possible causes include physiological changes, local disorders or trauma, systemic conditions, toxic substances and drugs. Most drug-induced nail disorders resolve after discontinuation of the drug, although complete resolution sometimes takes several years. Drugs appear to induce nail disorders through a variety of mechanisms. Some drugs affect the nail matrix epithelium, the nail bed or the nail folds. Some alter nail colour. Other drugs induce photosensitivity. Yet others affect the blood supply to the nail unit. Nail abnormalities are common during treatment with certain cytotoxic drugs: taxanes, anthracyclines, fluorouracil, EGFR, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, etc. Some drugs are associated with a risk of serious and painful lesions, such as abscesses. When these disorders affect quality of life, the benefits of withdrawing the drug must be weighed against the severity of the condition being treated and the drug's efficacy, taking into account the harm-benefit balance of other options. Various anti-infective drugs, including tetracyclines, quinolones, clofazimine and zidovudine, cause the nail plate to detach from the nail bed after exposure to light, or cause nail discoloration. Psoralens and retinoids can also have the same effects. PMID:25162091

  5. 7 CFR 2902.26 - Lip care products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lip care products. 2902.26 Section 2902.26 Agriculture...PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.26 Lip care products. (a) Definition. Personal care products formulated to replenish the moisture...

  6. Aging changes in nails (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The nails change with aging, growing more slowly, and becoming dull and brittle. The color may change from translucent to yellowed and opaque. Nails, especially toenails, may become hard and thick and ...

  7. Histopathology of the nail unit.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Flores, Angel; Saeb-Lima, Marcela; Martínez-Nova, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we review several inflammatory infectious and tumoral conditions of the nail unit. We emphasize the anatomic peculiarities of such pathologies of the nail unit and provide some required diagnostic criteria. PMID:24969971

  8. Nail Destruction in Pemphigus vulgaris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Kolivras; P. Gheeraert; J. André

    2003-01-01

    Involvement of the nails in pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is rare and is usually seen when the disease is severe. The most common clinical manifestations are chronic paronychia and onychomadesis. Finger nails are more frequently involved than toe nails. We report a case of severe and persistent PV in which an exacerbation was preceded by an erosive and destructive lesion of

  9. Erosive Potential of Oral Care Products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Lussi; E. Hellwig

    2001-01-01

    Seven oral care products and orange juice as a positive control were tested for the erosive potential by immersing each enamel specimen (10 per group) into solutions of the various products for 10 and 20 min. Before and after the experiment Knoop surface hardness (SMH) was measured. The enamel microstructure before and after immersion was assessed by scanning electron microscopy

  10. Diagnosis using the nail bed and hyponychium.

    PubMed

    Perera, Eshini; Sinclair, Rodney

    2015-04-01

    "Nails protect the fingertips and toes. Diseases affecting the nail can cause cosmetic disfigurement and social embarrassment. Physical functioning may be impaired. Disorders of the nail bed may cause pain or create difficulty grasping fine objects. The nail bed is the area beneath the nail plate between the lunula and the hyponychium. Disorders of the nail bed can cause onycholysis, subungual hyperkeratosis, and/or onychogryphosis. Ventral pterygium is less common. Tumors of the nail bed are rare and commonly missed." PMID:25828715

  11. Nail improvement during alitretinoin treatment: three case reports and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Milanesi, N; D'Erme, A M; Gola, M

    2015-07-01

    Alitretinoin is an endogenous vitamin A derivative, 9-cis-retinoic acid. Its anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory efficacy results from controlling leukocyte activity and cytokine production in keratinocytes. We describe three patients with severe chronic hand eczema accompanied by nail dystrophy, which was treated with alitretinoin 30 mg. Clinical evaluation at 6 months showed complete or almost complete clearing of the nail lesions. We also briefly review the literature reporting on nail dystrophy and alitretinoin treatment. There is some evidence of the clinical effect of retinoids on nail formation, owing to the presence of retinoid receptors on the nail matrix. Further studies are required to better understand the impact of alitretinoin in nail diseases. Our observation supports alitretinoin as a treatment option in retinoid-responsive dermatoses associated with nail involvement. PMID:25682921

  12. Cosmetics and Skin Care Products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan M. L. White; Anton C. Groot; Ian R. White

    \\u000a Contact allergy to ingredients of cosmetics is one of the most frequent causes of contact allergy. While patients may report\\u000a reactions to fragrance items, preservative allergy may not be suspected. The reaction typically resembles eczema on the face\\u000a or hands, although any body site may be affected. Products left on the skin are much more likely to cause allergic reactions

  13. Glycolic Acid Peels for Nail Rejuvenation

    PubMed Central

    Banga, Gurvinder; Patel, Kalpana

    2014-01-01

    Background: With the increasing use of nail paints, nail art, acetone, repeated manicures, cosmetic nail procedures and detergents, the nail plate undergoes regular damage resulting in rough, lusterless and pigmented nails. Besides that onychomycosis, nail lichen planus, nail pitting and ridging due to various diseases also cause cosmetically disfiguring nails. Objective: The study is directed toward use of 70% glycolic acid for controlled keratolysis of the nail-plate, resulting that could result in shinier, smoother and brighter nails. Materials and Methods: A prospective single-center open-label uncontrolled study of 31 patients, 22 with dry, rough, discolored nails and 9 with hyperkeratotic nails were included in the study group. After examination and ruling out any infection, petroleum jelly was applied on the cuticle margins of the nails for protection and 70% glycolic acid was applied over the nail plate for 45 minutes. In dry rough discolored nails, only a single sitting was done while in hyper-keratotic nail conditions multiple weekly sittings were done. Results: In 22 patients with dry rough nails, 80% showed good improvement, 10% showed average improvement, whereas 10% were non-responsive. Nine patients with thickened nail plate showed good improvement in 60% average improvement in 25% improvement and 15% were non-responsive, after multiple sessions. Conclusion: Controlled keratolysis of the nail plate with application of 70% glycolic acid can be a promising treatment for modality for thick, uneven, rough and pigmented nail-plate conditions with cosmetically pleasing results. PMID:25722596

  14. Injuries to the nail bed in childhood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Inglefield; M. D’ARCANGELO; P. S. Kolhe

    1995-01-01

    Many fingertip injuries in childhood involve the nail bed. Deformities of the nail are a frequent result of failure to repair the nail bed at the time of injury. Secondary correction of nail deformities seldom achieves good results. We present the results of our experience in the management of 19 children with 22 injuries involving the nail bed. All achieved

  15. Nail psoriasis severity index: a useful tool for evaluation of nail psoriasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phoebe Rich; Richard K Scher

    2003-01-01

    The Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (NAPSI) is a numeric, reproducible, objective, simple tool for evaluation of nail psoriasis. This scale is used to evaluate the severity of nail bed psoriasis and nail matrix psoriasis by area of involvement in the nail unit. The NAPSI will be useful during clinical trials for evaluating response to treatment of psoriatic nails. The scale

  16. Cleanser, Detergent, Personal Care Product Pretreatment Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, Niklas

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the Cleanser, Detergent, Personal Care Product, and Pretreatment Evaluation & Selection task is to identify the optimal combination of personal hygiene products, crew activities, and pretreatment strategies to provide the crew with sustainable life support practices and a comfortable habitat. Minimal energy, mass, and crew time inputs are desired to recycle wastewater during long duration missions. This document will provide a brief background on the work this past year supporting the ELS Distillation Comparison Test, issues regarding use of the hygiene products originally chosen for the test, methods and results used to select alternative products, and lessons learned from testing.

  17. Morphopathological aspects of healthy nails and nails affected by onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Zaikovska, Olga; Pilmane, Mara; Kisis, Janis

    2014-09-01

    Patients of onychomycosis are common in the dermatology practice. Contemporary morphology creates opportunities to study the functional units of the nail when such infections occur from morphopathological point of view. There were 22 nails biopsies from onychomycosis patients taken for the research of morphopathological changes in the thickened nail plate affected by onychomycosis. Samples of cadaverous' nails were used as a control material. The material was stained with haematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical methods. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling reaction and periodic acid-Schiff reaction were also performed. We found patchy hypertrophy in the granulose layer of the epidermis, with focal acanthosis. In the horn layer, we identified nests of parakeratosis of various sizes, with incorporations of homogenous and eosinophil masses. We found high levels of interleukin 6 and interleukin 10 positive cells in the nail bed and in the bloodstream. Interleukin 1, however, was not a part of any of the functional units of any of the nails. Significant amount of fibres containing human beta defensin-2 were found in the bed and plate of the nail. Therefore one can conclude that as regards the nails affected by onychomycosis, the most effective morphopathogenical processes include cytokine and defensin excretion occurrence in the nail bed. PMID:24661598

  18. Tips for diagnosis and treatment of nail pigmentation with practical algorithm.

    PubMed

    Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Dika, Emi; Fanti, Pier Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    The observation of a black-brown pigmentation of the nail is often alarming for the patient and for the clinician, as they are aware that it can be a possible clinical manifestation of melanoma of the nail apparatus. Luckily, however, nail melanoma is a much less frequent cause of brown-black nail color than other melanocytic and nonmelanocytic pigmentations, which include subungual hematoma, exogenous pigmentations, and melanonychia due to benign conditions. A correct clinical history and careful examination help the clinician to distinguish the different conditions and to decide the correct management of melanonychia both in children and in adults. PMID:25828711

  19. Urinary and air phthalate concentrations and self-reported use of personal care products among minority pregnant women in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Just, Allan C.; Adibi, Jennifer J.; Rundle, Andrew G.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Camann, David E.; Hauser, Russ; Silva, Manori J.; Whyatt, Robin M.

    2011-01-01

    Diethyl phthalate (DEP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) are used extensively in personal care products, including fragrances (DEP) and nail polish (DnBP). Between May 2003 and July 2006, we gathered questionnaire data on use of 7 product categories (deodorant, perfume, hair spray, hair gel, nail polish/polish remover, liquid soap/body wash, lotion/mist) over 48 hours during the 3rd trimester of pregnancy from 186 inner-city women. A 48-hour personal air sample was collected and analyzed for DEP and DnBP; a maternal spot urine sample was collected and analyzed for their monoester metabolites, monoethyl phthalate (MEP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), respectively. Ninety-seven percent of air samples and 84% of urine samples were collected within ±2 days of the questionnaire. During the 48 hours, 41% of women reported perfume use and 10% reported nail polish/polish remover use. In adjusted analyses, no association was seen between nail product use and air DnBP or urine MnBP concentrations. Women reporting perfume use had 2.3 times higher (95% CI 1.6, 3.3) urinary MEP concentrations. Personal air DEP increased 7% for each 25% increase in a composite indicator of the 6 other product categories (p<0.05) but was not associated with perfume use. Air DEP was correlated with urine MEP concentrations only among non-perfume users (r=0.51, p<0.001). Results suggest that perfume use is a significant source of DEP exposure. PMID:20354564

  20. Use of softening agents to improve the production of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of nail tissue: an assessment.

    PubMed

    Orchard, G E; Torres, J; Sounthararajah, R

    2008-01-01

    The use of tissue softeners to enhance the quality of tissue sections of heavily keratotic tissue is not widely published. There are very few indicators in the scientific literature that attempt to compare and contrast the benefits and disadvantages of such techniques, as most are passed down through word of mouth rather than through published data. This study attempts to present a preliminary evaluation of several methods employing tissue softeners to facilitate the preparation of reproducible, good-quality formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of nail tissue. A standard 10-minute surface application of each softener is employed for all paraffin-embedded tissue in order to ensure consistency. The results show that the use of Veet (hair remover), Fairy Liquid or fabric conditioner provides the most beneficial results. Thus, widely available products can be used in preference to specific commercially produced reagents that have no clear benefits and can cost considerably more to purchase. This study will form the basis of a more in-depth evaluation of the most beneficial softeners, in an attempt to determine optimal parameters for their use in routine histopathology laboratories. PMID:19055107

  1. Titanium, Sinusitis, and the Yellow Nail Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fredrik Berglund; Björn Carlmark

    Yellow nail syndrome is characterized by nail changes, respiratory disorders, and lymphedema. In a yellow nail patient with\\u000a a skeletal titanium implant and with gold in her teeth, we found high levels of titanium in nail clippings. This study aims\\u000a to examine the possible role of titanium in the genesis of the yellow nail syndrome. Nail clippings from patients with

  2. Nail Bed Reconstruction with Split-Thickness Nail Bed Grafts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. C. YONG; L. C. TEOH

    1992-01-01

    The results of reconstruction of chronic post-traumatic nail deformities are thought to be unpredictable. We have reviewed eight patients treated by split-thickness nail bed grafts for deformities arising from defects in the sterile matrix. Appearance, adherence and function were improved in all cases, with no significant morbidity of the donor area.

  3. The Red Nail – Always Benign?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Baran

    2009-01-01

    Red nail is a common disorder. However, a thorough examination of the patient's nails allows one to distinguish different diseases. For example, longitudinal erythronychia may be monodactylous or polydactylous. Only the former type can show histologically Bowen's disease or an amelanotic melanoma. Among the polydactylous type, the nosologic position of the acantholytic and dyskeratotic naevus versus Darier's disease is still

  4. 7 CFR 735.105 - Care of agricultural products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Care of agricultural products. 735.105 Section...Licensing § 735.105 Care of agricultural products. Each warehouse...license, exercise such care in regard to stored...non-storage agricultural products in their custody...

  5. Nail as a window of systemic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Singal, Archana; Arora, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Certain nail changes are specific for various dermatological disorders. In addition, examination of nails may also provide an insight into more sinister systemic manifestations in the form of both subtle as well as specific changes. These findings may present as a defect of various anatomical components of the nail unit; nail matrix, nail plate and/or nail bed or vasculature. This article is an attempt to equip the dermatologists with a foresight to suspect and diagnose the unapparent systemic connotations that may be possible by a simple but detailed nail examination. PMID:25821724

  6. Nail as a window of systemic diseases.

    PubMed

    Singal, Archana; Arora, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Certain nail changes are specific for various dermatological disorders. In addition, examination of nails may also provide an insight into more sinister systemic manifestations in the form of both subtle as well as specific changes. These findings may present as a defect of various anatomical components of the nail unit; nail matrix, nail plate and/or nail bed or vasculature. This article is an attempt to equip the dermatologists with a foresight to suspect and diagnose the unapparent systemic connotations that may be possible by a simple but detailed nail examination. PMID:25821724

  7. Docetaxel-induced nail dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Nicolopoulos, Jenny; Howard, Anne

    2002-11-01

    A 73-year-old man with metastatic prostate cancer treated with weekly docetaxel chemotherapy for 5 months developed an acute nail dystrophy restricted to the fingernails. This was characterized by onycholysis, subungual haemorrhage and acute paronychia, progressing to a subungual abscess of the right index finger. Nail bed hyperaemia and haemosiderin-like nail bed discoloration were present. Nail plate avulsion was performed to decompress the acutely painful subungual abscess. The right thumb, middle finger and left index finger demonstrated early, proximal white subungual collections of pus obscuring the lunula (onychophosis). Central nail plate fenestrations with a surgical drill led to exudation of purulent material. Cultures of the subungual abscess material yielded mixed organisms, possibly related to administration of flucloxacillin for 1 week prior to presentation. The patient completed a further two courses of docetaxel without sequelae, and the nail dystrophy appears to be resolving. Docetaxel-induced nail changes are a common adverse effect, occurring in 30-40% of patients. Mild changes do not usually warrant the discontinuation of treatment. PMID:12423438

  8. Emmert-plasty for ingrown toe nail

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans-Dietmar Strube; Bruno Wasserscheid

    1993-01-01

    Surgical Principles\\u000a \\u000a Excision of the involved quarter of the toe nail.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Wedge excision of nail fold, nail bed and nail matrix down to the bone of the terminal phalanx of the toe [4, 6].\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a In cases without inflammation: wedge excision of involved nail fold.

  9. Drug-related nail disease.

    PubMed

    Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Alessandrini, Aurora

    2013-01-01

    Drug-induced nail abnormalities can present with a wide variety of clinical manifestations that are often dose-related and that disappear after drug withdrawal. Some nail changes are asymptomatic and only cause cosmetic problems, whereas others cause pain and discomfort and impair manual activities or deambulation. New side effects have been recently observed with different groups of anticancer agents. These include painful onycholysis and subungual abscesses caused by taxanes and anthracyclines (eg, doxorubicin) in addition to ingrown nails, paronychia, and pyogenic granuloma associated with the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (eg, erlotinib, gefitinib). PMID:24079591

  10. Randomized controlled trial of a water-soluble nail lacquer based on hydroxypropyl-chitosan (HPCH), in the management of nail psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Cantoresi, Franca; Caserini, Maurizio; Bidoli, Antonella; Maggio, Francesca; Marino, Raffaella; Carnevale, Claudia; Sorgi, Paola; Palmieri, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Background Nail psoriasis occurs in up to 50% of patients affected by psoriasis, with a significant impact on quality of life that leads to a real clinical need for new therapeutic options. Aim To confirm whether the strengthening and hardening properties of the hydroxypropyl-chitosan (HPCH) nail lacquer could improve the structure of the nail plates on psoriatic nails. Materials and methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, parallel-group trial was carried out to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a hydrosoluble nail lacquer containing HPCH, Equisetum arvense, and methylsulfonylmethane on nail psoriasis. The test product or a placebo was applied once daily for 24 weeks to all fingernails. Efficacy assessments were performed on the target fingernail by means of the modified Nail Psoriasis Severity Index score. A cut-off score of 4 was considered to define the clinical cure rate (ie, Cure ?4, Failure >4). Results After 24 weeks, the clinical cure rate showed the statistically significant superiority of the HPCH nail lacquer compared to placebo in both the intention-to-treat (Fisher’s exact test, P=0.0445) and the per protocol population (Fisher’s exact test, P=0.0437). This superiority was already present after 16 weeks of treatment. Moreover, the analysis of the modified Nail Psoriasis Severity Index-50 showed a statistically significant clinical improvement after 12 weeks of treatment in comparison to the results obtained after 8 weeks (Fisher’s exact test, P<0.05). Conclusion The trial showed that HPCH nail lacquer could be a new, valid, effective, and safe option for decreasing the signs of nail dystrophy in psoriatic patients. PMID:24904219

  11. Finger nail clubbing in kwashiorkor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Indira Amla; J. V. Narayan

    1968-01-01

    Summary  The association of finger nail clubbing and kwashiorkor was investigated in 60 children. Clubbing was present in 46 (76.7%).\\u000a Since diarrhoea was a prominent feature in all positive patients, a suggestion is put forth that the mild to moderate finger-nail\\u000a clubbing present in kwashiorkor in this series may be due to a non-specific infection of the gut and may be

  12. Is distal locking of long nails for intertrochanteric fractures necessary? A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Vopat, Bryan G.; Kane, Patrick M.; Truntzer, Jeremy; McClure, Philip; Paller, David; Abbood, Emily; Born, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Background Few clinical studies have examined the utility of distal interlocking nails when fixing intertrochanteric fractures with intramedullary devices. In this study we performed a retrospective analysis comparing fixation method of intertrochanteric fractures with either a long unlocked cephalomedullary nail versus a long locked cephalomedullary nail. Our hypothesis was there would be no difference in device related failures or complications in stable intertrochanteric fractures treated with long locked or long unlocked cephalomedullary nails. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed of all stable intertrochanteric fractures treated with a long cephalomedullary nail between 2006 and 2012 at our institution. Clinical history as well as perioperative radiography was carefully reviewed for all subjects. AO classification, the use of locked or unlocked technique, and failure status was recorded. Results Overall, a device related failure rate of 1.8% (2/107) was observed for stable intertrochanteric fractures treated with long cephalomedullary nails. No statistical difference in failure rate was found between locked and unlocked nails within our studied population (0% long locked (0/56) versus 3.9% long unlocked (2/51), p = 0.224). Conclusion This clinical study supports our hypothesis that long cephalomedullary nails do not need to be locked for stable intertrochanteric fractures. We found no difference in failure rates between the two approaches across 107 patients. PMID:25983504

  13. Nail psoriasis: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Schons, Karen Regina Rosso; Knob, Cristiane Faccin; Murussi, Nádia; Beber, André Avelino Costa; Neumaier, Walter; Monticielo, Odirlei André

    2014-01-01

    Nails are considered epidermal appendages, and as such, are commonly affected in patients with psoriasis, 80% of whom are likely to develop nail psoriasis as a result of their condition. Two patterns of nail disorders have been shown to be caused by psoriasis. Nail matrix involvement can result in features such as leukonychia, pitting (punctures or cupuliform depressions), red spots in the lunula and crumbling. Nail bed involvement, on the other hand, can cause onycholysis, salmon or oil-drop patches, subungual hyperkeratosis and splinter hemorrhages. Nail disease causes aesthetic and functional impairment, and is indicative of more severe forms of psoriasis as well as of joint involvement. The treatment for nail psoriasis involves behavioral interventions, topical medications, or systemic therapy in case of extensive skin or joint involvement. This article presents a review of the main features of nail psoriasis, its clinical presentation, diagnostic and assessment methods, clinical repercussions, and of its available treatment options. PMID:24770509

  14. Nail psoriasis: a review of the literature*

    PubMed Central

    Schons, Karen Regina Rosso; Knob, Cristiane Faccin; Murussi, Nádia; Beber, André Avelino Costa; Neumaier, Walter; Monticielo, Odirlei André

    2014-01-01

    Nails are considered epidermal appendages, and as such, are commonly affected in patients with psoriasis, 80% of whom are likely to develop nail psoriasis as a result of their condition. Two patterns of nail disorders have been shown to be caused by psoriasis. Nail matrix involvement can result in features such as leukonychia, pitting (punctures or cupuliform depressions), red spots in the lunula and crumbling. Nail bed involvement, on the other hand, can cause onycholysis, salmon or oil-drop patches, subungual hyperkeratosis and splinter hemorrhages. Nail disease causes aesthetic and functional impairment, and is indicative of more severe forms of psoriasis as well as of joint involvement. The treatment for nail psoriasis involves behavioral interventions, topical medications, or systemic therapy in case of extensive skin or joint involvement. This article presents a review of the main features of nail psoriasis, its clinical presentation, diagnostic and assessment methods, clinical repercussions, and of its available treatment options. PMID:24770509

  15. Medicare Payment: Surgical Dressings and Topical Wound Care Products

    PubMed Central

    Schaum, Kathleen D.

    2014-01-01

    Medicare patients' access to surgical dressings and topical wound care products is greatly influenced by the Medicare payment system that exists in each site of care. Qualified healthcare professionals should consider these payment systems, as well as the medical necessity for surgical dressings and topical wound care products. Scientists and manufacturers should also consider these payment systems, in addition to the Food and Drug Administration requirements for clearance or approval, when they are developing new surgical dressings and topical wound care products. Due to the importance of the Medicare payment systems, this article reviews the Medicare payment systems in acute care hospitals, long-term acute care hospitals, skilled nursing facilities, home health agencies, durable medical equipment suppliers, hospital-based outpatient wound care departments, and qualified healthcare professional offices. PMID:25126477

  16. Tips to diagnose uncommon nail disorders.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Samantha L; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-04-01

    This article reviews 6 nail disorders that, although easy to diagnose, are misdiagnosed frequently by dermatologists and general practitioners. Diagnostic clues are emphasized to familiarize readers with features that indicate the correct diagnosis. We focus on two common tumors (onychomatricoma and onychopapilloma), two rare genetic conditions that can be diagnosed owing to nail changes (Darier disease and nail patella syndrome), and two uncommon acquired disorders (the yellow nail syndrome and lichen striatus). PMID:25828712

  17. The nail dystrophy of psoriatic arthritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C J Eastmond; V Wright

    1979-01-01

    Nail abnormalities occur frequently in patients with psoriatic arthritis. This study of the finger nails of 46 patients with psoriatic arthritis, 100 nonpsoriatic rheumatism patients, and 100 nonpsoriatic general medical patients was designed to characterise these abnormalities with particular reference to the severity of nail pitting. The results of the study suggest: (1) Onycholysis alone in the absence of previous

  18. Nail Changes Secondary to Docetaxel (Taxotere)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Correia; C. Azevedo; E. Pinto Ferreira; F. Braga Cruz; J. Polónia

    1999-01-01

    Docetaxel is a new taxoid antineoplastic drug widely used for advanced breast cancer. Skin and nail toxicity are one of the more frequent nonhematologic adverse reactions. Besides dark pigmentations and Beau’s lines, subungual hemorrhage, orange discoloration, acute painful paronychia, onycholysis, subungual hyperkeratosis and transverse loss of the nail plate are described. The type of nail alteration is related with the

  19. Primary Care Teaching Physicians' Losses of Productivity and Revenue at Three Ambulatory-Care Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garg, Mohan L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A study compared the productivity and patient-care revenues of clinical teaching faculty and their nonteaching physician counterparts over two years. Productivity was reduced by 30-40 percent when teaching, and revenue lost reached as high as $24,000 per student taught. Implications for ambulatory-care delivery system planning are discussed.…

  20. Consensus on melanonychia nail plate dermoscopy.

    PubMed

    Di Chiacchio, Nilton Di; Farias, Débora Cadore de; Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Hirata, Sergio Henrique; Richert, Bertrand; Zaiac, Martin; Daniel, Ralph; Fanti, Pier Alessandro; Andre, Josette; Ruben, Beth S; Fleckman, Philip; Rich, Phoebe; Haneke, Eckart; Chang, Patricia; Cherit, Judith Dominguez; Scher, Richard; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    This statement, focused on melanonychia and nail plate dermoscopy, is intended to guide medical professionals working with melanonychia and to assist choosing appropriate management for melanonychia patients. The International Study Group on Melanonychia was founded in 2007 and currently has 30 members, including nail experts and dermatopathologists with special expertise in nails. The need for common definitions of nail plate dermoscopy was addressed during the Second Meeting of this Group held in February 2008. Prior to this meeting and to date (2010) there have been no evidence-based guidelines on the use of dermoscopy in the management of nail pigmentation. PMID:23739699

  1. Nail abnormalities associated with systemic pathologies.

    PubMed

    Zaiac, Martin N; Walker, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Nail abnormalities can arise in conjunction with or as a result of systematic pathologies. These pathologies include single-organ diseases, multisystemic diseases, and drug-induced insults. Clinical signs associated with these conditions include dyschromias, vascular alterations, periungual tissue changes, textural dystrophies, contour alterations, and growth-rate alterations. The associated systemic pathologies may affect any part of the nail apparatus, including the nail matrix, the nail plate, the nail bed, the underlying vasculature, and the periungual tissues. The anatomical location and extent of damage determine the clinically manifested anomaly. PMID:24079592

  2. Finger Nail Pitting in Psoriasis and its Relation with Different Variables

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Satyendra Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Incidence of pitting, vary considerably in different types of psoriasis. In clinical practice, toe nail examination is inconvenient. There are inadequate studies which show relation of nail pitting with duration and severity of the disease. The objective was to examine the incidence of finger nail pitting in all types of cutaneous psoriasis and its relation with different variables. This is a clinico-epidemiological study. A careful clinical examination of finger nails was done in day time. Severity of disease was calculated by psoriasis area severity index (PASI). Statistical analysis was done using Microcomputer statistics software (MSTAT). In study group, 621 patients and in control group 350 people were taken. Finger nail pitting was present in 37% (total number was < 20 in 17%; 20-60 in 8% and > 60 in 12%) in study group. In control group, it was present in 10% (in all cases total number was < 20). In < 1 year duration group, pitting was present in 32% of cases, while in > 1 year duration group it was 40.5%. In mild psoriasis, pitting was present in 34.2%, while in severe cases it was 47.6%. Finger nail pitting is an important nail finding in psoriasis and its incidence increases with duration and severity of disease. PMID:23919005

  3. Nail Psoriasis: The Journey So Far

    PubMed Central

    Dogra, Alka; Arora, Amanjot Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Nail involvement is an extremely common feature of psoriasis and affects approximately 10-78% of psoriasis patients with 5-10% of patients having isolated nail psoriasis. However, it is often an overlooked feature in the management of nail psoriasis, despite the significant burden it places on the patients as a result of functional impairment of manual dexterity, pain, and psychological stress. Affected nail plates often thicken and crumble, and because they are very visible, patients tend to avoid normal day-to-day activities and social interactions. Importantly, 70-80% of patients with psoriatic arthritis have nail psoriasis. In this overview, we review the clinical manifestations of psoriasis affecting the nails, the common differential diagnosis of nail psoriasis, Nail Psoriasis Severity Index and the various diagnostic aids for diagnosing nail psoriasis especially, the cases with isolated nail involvement. We have also discussed the available treatment options, including the topical, physical, systemic, and biological modalities, in great detail in order to equip the present day dermatologist in dealing with a big clinical challenge, that is, management of nail psoriasis. PMID:25071247

  4. Confocal microscopy for healthy and pathological nail.

    PubMed

    Cinotti, E; Fouilloux, B; Perrot, J L; Labeille, B; Douchet, C; Cambazard, F

    2014-07-01

    Nail diseases are often annoying for the patient and diagnostically challenging for dermatologists. New imaging techniques are of high interest in the diagnosis of nail disorders to reduce the number of nail biopsies. Confocal microscopy is a high-resolution emerging imaging technique that can be used to explore the entire body surface, including skin, mucosa, hair and nails. A systematic review of the literature concerning the use of confocal microscopy for the study of either healthy or pathological nail has been performed to evaluate the current use of this technique and possible future applications. Confocal microscopy is particularly suitable for nails because it allows a non-invasive in vivo examination of this sensitive body area, and nail plate transparency permits to image up to the nail bed with an easy identification of corneocytes. Confocal microscopy can play a role in the diagnosis of onychomycosis and melanonichia, and in the study of drug penetration through the nail plate. It could be used in the future as a non-invasive procedure for the investigation of different nail diseases, such as psoriasis and lichen planus. Further application could be the intra-operative ex vivo examination of nail specimens to outline tumour margins to assist surgery. PMID:24320009

  5. Methylisothiazolinone: An Emergent Allergen in Common Pediatric Skin Care Products

    PubMed Central

    Schlichte, Megan J.

    2014-01-01

    Recalcitrant dermatitis, such as that of the hands, face, or genitals, may be due to allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from ingredients in seemingly innocuous personal care products. Rising rates of allergy have been noted due to the preservative methylisothiazolinone (MI). This preservative is commonly found in skin and hair care products, especially wipes. This study evaluated the use of MI in products specifically marketed for babies and children and examined the associated marketing terms of such products. Ingredients of skin care products specifically marketed for babies and children were surveyed at two major retailers. Of 152 products surveyed, 30 products contained MI. Categories of products surveyed included facial or body wipes, antibacterial hand wipes, hair products, soaps, bubble baths, moisturizers, and sunscreens. Facial or body wipes and hair products were the categories with the greatest number of MI-containing products. MI-containing products were manufactured by a number of popular brands. Of note, products marketed as “gentle,” “sensitive,” “organic,” or “hypoallergenic” often contained MI, thus emphasizing the importance of consumer scrutiny of product choices. These findings reinforce the importance of educating parents and providing consumer decision-making advice regarding common skin care products, in order to help prevent ACD in children. PMID:25342949

  6. Methylisothiazolinone: an emergent allergen in common pediatric skin care products.

    PubMed

    Schlichte, Megan J; Katta, Rajani

    2014-01-01

    Recalcitrant dermatitis, such as that of the hands, face, or genitals, may be due to allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from ingredients in seemingly innocuous personal care products. Rising rates of allergy have been noted due to the preservative methylisothiazolinone (MI). This preservative is commonly found in skin and hair care products, especially wipes. This study evaluated the use of MI in products specifically marketed for babies and children and examined the associated marketing terms of such products. Ingredients of skin care products specifically marketed for babies and children were surveyed at two major retailers. Of 152 products surveyed, 30 products contained MI. Categories of products surveyed included facial or body wipes, antibacterial hand wipes, hair products, soaps, bubble baths, moisturizers, and sunscreens. Facial or body wipes and hair products were the categories with the greatest number of MI-containing products. MI-containing products were manufactured by a number of popular brands. Of note, products marketed as "gentle," "sensitive," "organic," or "hypoallergenic" often contained MI, thus emphasizing the importance of consumer scrutiny of product choices. These findings reinforce the importance of educating parents and providing consumer decision-making advice regarding common skin care products, in order to help prevent ACD in children. PMID:25342949

  7. Regeneration of nails with artificial dermis.

    PubMed

    Sugamata, Akira

    2012-09-01

    We treated fingertips injured through the proximal half of the nail bed using artificial dermis in 22 patients from 2004 to 2009. We classified the injuries to the nail bed into three types according to where the wounds were. Type ? was localised to the nail bed with or without minor injury to the surrounding structure; type II was an avulsion and amputation of the fingertip including the nail bed, the finger pulp, and the distal phalanx at the level of the proximal nail bed; and type III was post-traumatic shortening of the nail, in which the pulp and distal phalanx were intact. Regeneration and elongation of the nail was achieved in every patient by applying artificial dermis. All patients were satisfied with the results. PMID:22747352

  8. [A boy with nail abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Atiq, Nasirah; van Meurs, Tim

    2013-01-01

    A 12-year-old boy consulted the dermatologist for nail abnormalities. Three weeks earlier, he was treated with doxycycline 100 mg BID for 10 days because of erythema chronicum migrans. Following sun exposure, the patient had developed distal onycholysis surrounded by a hyperpigmented zone. He was diagnosed with doxycycline-induced photo-onycholysis. PMID:23838405

  9. [Key messages in nail disease].

    PubMed

    Goettmann, Sophie

    2014-11-01

    Nail diseases are varied, and their diagnosis is often difficult. Misdiagnosis can result in failure to recognize a severe disease in urgent need of treatment and in the prescription of treatments that are inappropriate, long, ineffective, and expensive. Acute paronychia must be managed rapidly, treated with antiseptics several times a day, and closely monitored. Nail lichen must be recognized early and treated rapidly and appropriately to prevent permanent scarring. All chronic pain (to shocks or cold) of the tip of a finger or toe should suggest a glomus tumor. Any unexplained persistent single-finger onychopathy should in principle cause the physician to suspect a tumor, carcinoma, or melanoma and to order a histologic examination. An onychopathy must not be treated as an onychomycosis without diagnostic certainty. Repeated microtraumas of the toenails cause injuries that absolutely must be differentiated from onychomycosis. In growth of the big toenail can often be avoided by appropriate cutting of the nails, leaving in place the lateral parts of the nail plate. PMID:25451634

  10. The bed of nails revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucher, Manfred

    1988-09-01

    The popular bed of nails demonstration is analyzed by making use of a novel collision diagram. Cases of hitting rubber bricks or cinder blocks illustrate the difference between elastic and inelastic collisions. While the analysis suggests several safety measures, a considerable degree of danger remains.

  11. The bed of nails revisited

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manfred Bucher

    1988-01-01

    The popular bed of nails demonstration is analyzed by making use of a novel collision diagram. Cases of hitting rubber bricks or cinder blocks illustrate the difference between elastic and inelastic collisions. While the analysis suggests several safety measures, a considerable degree of danger remains.

  12. Comparative anatomy of mouse and human nail units.

    PubMed

    Fleckman, Philip; Jaeger, Karin; Silva, Kathleen A; Sundberg, John P

    2013-03-01

    Recent studies of mice with hair defects have resulted in major contributions to the understanding of hair disorders. To use mouse models as a tool to study nail diseases, a basic understanding of the similarities and differences between the human and mouse nail unit is required. In this study we compare the human and mouse nail unit at the macroscopic and microscopic level and use immunohistochemistry to determine the keratin expression patterns in the mouse nail unit. Both species have a proximal nail fold, cuticle, nail matrix, nail bed, nail plate, and hyponychium. Distinguishing features are the shape of the nail and the presence of an extended hyponychium in the mouse. Expression patterns of most keratins are similar. These findings indicate that the mouse nail unit shares major characteristics with the human nail unit and overall represents a very similar structure, useful for the investigation of nail diseases and nail biology. PMID:23408541

  13. Urinary incontinence products - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... have problems with urinary incontinence (leakage), wearing special products will keep you dry and help you avoid ... you can buy many types of urinary incontinence products. These products help keep your skin dry and ...

  14. Drug reactions affecting the nail unit: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Iorizzo, Matilde

    2007-04-01

    Several drugs may be responsible for the development of nail abnormalities, but only a few classes are consistently associated with nail symptoms. Drug-induced nail abnormalities result from toxicity to the matrix, the nail bed, the periungual tissues, or the digit blood vessels. Pharmacologic agents that most frequently produce nail abnormalities include retinoids, indinavir, and cancer chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:17430758

  15. The Productivity of Health Care and Pharmaceuticals: An International Comparison

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. E. III Frech; Richard D. Miller Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Much work has been done analyzing the determinants of health care expenditures. Much less effort has been devoted to analyzing the determinants of health itself. The focus of the analysis presented here is the production of health, with special attention paid to disaggregating health into pharmaceuticals and other health care. We also analyze the effects that wealth and certain lifestyle

  16. 78 FR 39772 - Electrolux Home Care Products, Inc., a Subsidiary of Electrolux North America, Inc., Electrolux...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ...TA-W-82,702B] Electrolux Home Care Products, Inc., a Subsidiary of Electrolux...Working On-Site at Electrolux Home Care Products, Inc., Webster City, Iowa; Electrolux Home Care Products, Inc., a Subsidiary of...

  17. Biodegradable interlocking nails for fracture fixation.

    PubMed

    van der Elst, M; Bramer, J A; Klein, C P; de Lange, E S; Patka, P; Haarman, H J

    1998-12-01

    Serious problems such as stress shielding, allergic reactions, and corrosion are associated with the use of metallic fracture fixation devices in fractured long bones. Metal implants often are removed during a second retrieval operation after fracture healing has completed. A biocompatible implant that degrades slowly during implantation would obviate the need for a second operation and save the patient from considerable physical, psychologic, and financial discomfort. The biodegradable implant must provide the fractured limb sufficient support for a certain time, allowing early loading. A gradual transfer of load from the biodegradable implant to the bone would result in a better product of bone healing and avoid stress shielding. In an animal model using adult sheep, two types of biodegradable polymer interlocking nails were tested in comparison with a stainless steel interlocking nail. Fracture healing, mechanical properties of the bones, degradation behavior in vivo and in vitro, and tissue response were monitored during a 2 1/2-year followup study. To detect shifts in acid base relations caused by the release of acid compounds, pH measurements were performed. Fracture healing was unimpaired, and the mechanical test results of all three groups were excellent. Histologic analysis showed a mild inflammatory response, but no pH shifts were observed. The results of this study justify additional research on these promising materials. PMID:9917717

  18. Persistent Toenail Onycholysis Associated With Beta-Papillomavirus Infection of the Nail Bed.

    PubMed

    Umanoff, Nicole; Werner, Betina; Rady, Peter L; Tyring, Stephen; Carlson, J Andrew

    2014-07-01

    : Onycholysis, separation of the nail plate from the nail bed, is etiologically classified as primary (idiopathic) or secondary (eg, caused by psoriasis, squamous cell carcinoma). Repetitive microtrauma plays a role in idiopathic onycholysis and also facilitates human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Herein, we report a case of persistent primary onycholysis associated with repetitive trauma and infection by a multiplicity of Beta-papillomavirus (Beta-PV) genotypes. An otherwise healthy 27-year-old woman presented with a 6-year history of onycholysis of the halluces and right second toe. Her occupation required wearing steel-toed boots. Fungal cultures were negative and antifungal therapy was ineffective. Punch biopsy of the hallux nail bed revealed epidermal hyperplasia, acanthosis, hypergranulosis, hyperkeratosis, and regions of koilocytosis without significant inflammation. This histopathology implicated chronic irritation and HPV infection. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated productive HPV infection. Nested PCR using degenerate consensus primers revealed infection with 5 known and 1 novel Beta-PV genotypes (HPV 5, HPV 8, HPV 20, HPV 23, HPV 37, and FA25). The histopathology of primary onycholysis is unknown. Based on the aforementioned, we propose that repetitive microtrauma caused by wearing steel-toed boots promoted onycholysis and HPV infection, the latter of which, altered the differentiation of nail bed epithelium, preventing adhesion of nail plate to the nail bed. Lastly, the presence of oncogenic Beta-PV genotypes (ie, HPV 5, 8, and 20) implicates a risk for subungual squamous cell carcinoma, particularly if the nail remains symptomatic and persistently irritated. PMID:24999548

  19. Nail toxicities induced by systemic anticancer treatments.

    PubMed

    Robert, Caroline; Sibaud, Vincent; Mateus, Christina; Verschoore, Michèle; Charles, Cécile; Lanoy, Emilie; Baran, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Patients treated with systemic anticancer drugs often show changes to their nails, which are usually well tolerated and disappear on cessation of treatment. However, some nail toxicities can cause pain and functional impairment and thus substantially affect a patient's quality of life, especially if they are given taxanes or EGFR inhibitors. These nail toxicities can affect both the nail plate and bed, and might present as melanonychia, leukonychia, onycholysis, onychomadesis, Beau's lines, or onychorrhexis, as frequently noted with conventional chemotherapies. Additionally, the periungual area (perionychium) of the nail might be affected by paronychia or pyogenic granuloma, especially in patients treated with drugs targeting EGFR or MEK. We review the nail changes induced by conventional chemotherapies and those associated with the use of targeted anticancer drugs and discuss preventive or curative options. PMID:25846098

  20. Drugs-of-Abuse in Nails

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diana Garside

    The utility of nails in forensic toxicology for the analysis of drugs-of-abuse is examined. This chapter reviews the basic\\u000a structure of the nail, mechanisms of drug incorporation, drugs-of-abuse that have been detected in nails, analytical methodologies,\\u000a interpretation of results, advantages and disadvantages, and a chronological review of the literature. Drugs-of-abuse that\\u000a are discussed within this chapter include amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA\\/MDA,

  1. Nail bed injury detected by ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Soyuncu, Secgin; Bektas, Firat

    2012-09-01

    A 46-year-old man presented to the emergency department after being injured with a press machine from his left hand 30 minutes before admission. Subungual hematoma was diagnosed in his index finger, although the nail plate was intact. Emergency physicians could identify nail bed injury with bedside ultrasonography examination. This noninvasive, inexpensive, and repeatable diagnostic modality could preserve patients from a complex, invasive nail removal procedure. PMID:21855257

  2. IMAGE IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Dirty Nails

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans K. Ghayee; John Q. A. Mattern; David S. Cooper

    2005-01-01

    42-YR-OLD MAN presented with symptoms and signs of hyperthyroidism, including a large symmetrical goi- ter with a bruit, tachycardia, brisk reflexes, and fingernail changes consistent with onycholysis (Plummer's nails), shown in Fig. 1. After thyroidectomy, he has remained well with nor- mal thyroid function tests. A photograph of his fingernails after 18 months of follow-up is shown in Fig. 2.

  3. Nail changes secondary to docetaxel (Taxotere).

    PubMed

    Correia, O; Azevedo, C; Pinto Ferreira, E; Braga Cruz, F; Polónia, J

    1999-01-01

    Docetaxel is a new taxoid antineoplastic drug widely used for advanced breast cancer. Skin and nail toxicity are one of the more frequent nonhematologic adverse reactions. Besides dark pigmentations and Beau's lines, subungual hemorrhage, orange discoloration, acute painful paronychia, onycholysis, subungual hyperkeratosis and transverse loss of the nail plate are described. The type of nail alteration is related with the number of cycles administered and there are no efficacious preventive measures to avoid its development. Clinicians should recognize the clinical picture of these adverse nail reactions because docetaxel is used for several neoplastic disorders. PMID:10393455

  4. Nail Abnormalities: Clues to Systemic Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROBERT S. FAWCETT; Thomas M. Hart; SEAN LINFORD; DANIEL L. STULBERG

    The visual appearance of the fingernails and toenails may suggest an underlying systemic disease. Clubbing of the nails often suggests pulmonary disease or inflammatory bowel disease. Koilonychia, or \\

  5. Safety and efficacy of personal care products containing colloidal oatmeal

    PubMed Central

    Criquet, Maryline; Roure, Romain; Dayan, Liliane; Nollent, Virginie; Bertin, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Background Colloidal oatmeal is a natural ingredient used in the formulation of a range of personal care products for relief of skin dryness and itchiness. It is also used as an adjunctive product in atopic dermatitis. The safety of personal care products used on vulnerable skin is of particular importance and the risk of developing further skin irritations and/or allergies should be minimized. Methods In a series of studies, we tested the safety of personal care products containing oatmeal (creams, cleansers, lotions) by assessing their irritant/allergenic potential on repeat insult patch testing, in safety-in-use and ocular studies using subjects with nonsensitive and sensitive skin. We also tested the skin moisturizing and repair properties of an oatmeal-containing skin care product for dry skin. Results We found that oatmeal-containing personal care products had very low irritant potential as well as a very low allergenic sensitization potential. Low-level reactions were documented in 1.0% of subjects during the induction phase of repeat insult patch testing; one of 2291 subjects developed a persistent but doubtful low-level reaction involving edema during the challenge phase in repeat insult patch testing. No allergies were reported by 80 subjects after patch testing after in-use application. Sustained skin moisturizing was documented in subjects with dry skin that lasted up to 2 weeks after product discontinuation. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that colloidal oatmeal is a safe and effective ingredient in personal care products. No allergies were reported by consumers of 445,820 products sold during a 3-year period. PMID:23204849

  6. Tips to treat the 5 most common nail disorders: brittle nails, onycholysis, paronychia, psoriasis, onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Iorizzo, Matilde

    2015-04-01

    Nail disorders are difficult to treat and often frustrating both for patients and clinicians. Because of the slow growth rate of the nail plate and the difficulty of getting the drug actives to penetrate the nail tissues, it is usually necessary to wait several months before seeing the results of treatments. This delay often leads to discontinuation of therapy by the patients. This article therefore helps clinicians to find the right treatment of the 5 most common nail disorders (brittle nails, onycholysis, paronychia, psoriasis, and onychomycosis) and provides practical tips that might improve patients' compliance. PMID:25828710

  7. Dermoscopy of non-skin cancer nail disorders.

    PubMed

    Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Bruni, Francesca; Starace, Michela

    2012-01-01

    Nail dermoscopy is becoming more and more frequently utilized for the diagnosis of nail disorders. It can be performed with handy dermoscope or with a video dermoscope, which allows magnifications of up to 200. Nail dermoscopy requires a good knowledge of nail anatomy and physiology and the pathogenesis of nail diseases: we have to know which part of the nail we have to look at! The nail is in fact not visible as a whole at one time, but its different parts should be observed, moving the lens back and forth and transversally. All nail disorders can be observed by dermoscopy. However, except for some diseases in which the technique really adds a lot to clinical examination, in most of the cases, nail dermoscopy only permits a better visualization of symptoms already evident to the naked eye. Dermoscopic features of nail signs are always very interesting and surprising, and may help in our understanding of nails. PMID:23210758

  8. Are physician productivity and quality of care related?

    PubMed

    Menachemi, Nir; Yeager, Valerie A; Welty, Elisabeth; Manzella, Bryn

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between clinical quality of care and physician productivity in the public sector clinical setting. This longitudinal study takes place in Jefferson County, Alabama using data from six public sector clinics. Data representing 21 physicians across 13 consecutive quarters representing 44,765 person observations were analyzed. Four variables were selected to represent quality of care for this pediatric patient population; two of which pertained to antibiotic use and two pertained to asthma care. Findings from multivariate analyses examining each quality of care measure and controlling for other visit and practice characteristics indicate that three of the four quality measures were significantly related to productivity. Specifically, the percent of asthma patients with documented asthma severity classification was negatively related to physician productivity (ß = -.24, p = .04), although the magnitude of this relationship was small. The percent of asthma patients prescribed an inhaled corticosteroid who also had a severity classification was negatively related to physician productivity (ß = -.23, p = .03) and the percent of patients prescribed oral antibiotics was marginally negatively related to physician productivity (ß = -.09, p = .09). In general, findings suggest that a relationship exists between quality of healthcare and physician productivity. Future research should continue to examine this relationship across other disciplines and healthcare settings. PMID:24033482

  9. Microstructure of Horseshoe Nails Using Neutron Diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goossens, D. J.; Studer, A. J.; Stachurski, Z. H.

    2010-04-01

    Neutron diffraction allows nondestructive testing of the bulk microstructure of mechanical components. The microstructures of horseshoe nails made through three different processes have been explored as a function of position along the nail. Despite all nails being made of similar plain low-carbon steel and being process annealed after manufacture, the microstructures are far from the same. Nails made from strip, using a cold forging stamping process, show narrower diffraction peaks indicating a narrower distribution of lattice parameters and also show diffraction peak intensity ratios closer to those expected for unstrained steel. Thus, the distribution of the orientation of grains in these nails is closer to that of undistorted steel compared to nails made through the other two processes considered—one a drawing from wire and the other a combination of rolling and cold forging. The blades of the drawn nails showed little preferred orientation but the converse was true in the heads. Differing patterns of preferred orientation suggest that the various manufacturing approaches result in substantially different mechanical advantages for the three types of nails, a result in accord with mechanical testing.

  10. Fungal Nail Infections in Tehran, Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Zaini; M Mahmoudi; ASA Mehbod; P Kordbacheh; M Safara

    2009-01-01

    Background: Onychomycosis results from invasion of the nail plate by dermatophytes, yeasts or mould species of fungi. The objective was to determine the etiological agents of onychomycosis. Methods: A total of 549 patients clinically suspected of onychomycosis were examined for causative fungal agents. Both direct microscopy and the cultures of the nail material were performed to identify the causative agents

  11. Dressings of the Nailbed following Nail Avulsion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. F. DOVE; J. P. SLOAN; T. J. MOULDER; A. BARKER

    1988-01-01

    Dressings of the raw nailbed tend to adhere and to be difficult and painful to remove. We have compared three types of dressing: polyurethane sponge, paraffin-gauze and replacement of the finger-nail. Assessment of adherence and pain showed that replacement of the nail had significant advantages over the other dressings.

  12. The nail and hair in forensic science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Ralph Daniel; Bianca Maria Piraccini; Antonella Tosti

    2004-01-01

    Drugs, chemicals, and biological substances accumulate and are stored in hair and nails where they can be detected and measured. Advantages of analyzing hair and nail samples also include their easy and non-invasive collection, the small sample size required for analysis, and their easy storage at room temperature. We report 3 examples of heavy metal poisoning diagnosed because of the

  13. Ciclopirox nail lacquer solution 8% in the 21st century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aditya K. Gupta; Robert Baran

    2000-01-01

    Ciclopirox nail lacquer solution 8% has been shown to be effective in the treatment of dermatophyte onychomycosis of mild to moderate severity. Other studies report the effectiveness of ciclopirox nail lacquer in onychomycosis caused by Candida sp and nondermatophyte molds. Ciclopirox nail lacquer may also be valuable in the treatment of early cases of reinfection\\/relapse. Ciclopirox nail lacquer solution 8%

  14. NailO: Fingernails as an Input Surface

    E-print Network

    Kao, Cindy Hsin-Liu

    We present NailO, a nail-mounted gestural input surface. Using capacitive sensing on printed electrodes, the interface can distinguish on-nail finger swipe gestures with high accuracy (>92%). NailO works in real-time: we ...

  15. Cleanser, Detergent, Personal Care Product, and Pretreatment Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, Niklas; Carrier, Chris; Vega, Leticia; Casteel, Michael; Verostko, chuck; Pickering, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the Cleanser, Detergent, Personal Care Product, and Pretreatment Evaluation & Selection task is to identify the optimal combination of personal hygiene products, crew activities, and pretreatment strategies to provide the crew with sustainable life support practices and a comfortable habitat. Minimal energy, mass, and crew time inputs are desired to recycle wastewater during long duration missions. This document will provide a brief background on the work this past year supporting the ELS Distillation Comparison Test, issues regarding use of the hygiene products originally chosen for the test, methods and results used to select alternative products, and lessons learned from testing.

  16. Pulsed dye laser for the treatment of nail psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Yin, Natalie; Choudhary, Sonal; Nouri, Keyvan

    2013-09-01

    Psoriasis can involve the skin, joints, and nails, either alone or in combination. Psoriasis of the nails can involve both the nail bed and nail matrix. The treatment of nail psoriasis largely depends on the severity of symptoms. The pulsed dye laser (PDL) recently has demonstrated efficacy in treating resistant plaque-type psoriasis and has been suggested as an alternative to conventional therapies. We review 4 studies of PDL for nail psoriasis and discuss the findings in relation to treatment recommendations. Ultimately, a standardized regimen for the treatment of nail psoriasis remains elusive. PMID:24153141

  17. Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in urban receiving waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. Ellis

    2006-01-01

    The transport pathways of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCP) discharges within the urban water cycle include both combined and separate sewer systems with only the former receiving treatment. The dry-weather flow dilution patterns for selected PPCPs following discharge from a sewage treatment works (STW) to a North London stream indicate a persistent downstream increase in concentration. The dilution ratio

  18. Chapter 3 Biodegradation of Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanne Kagle; Abigail W. Porter; Robert W. Murdoch; Giomar Rivera-Cancel; Anthony G. Hay

    2009-01-01

    Medical treatments and personal hygiene lead to the steady release of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) into the environment. Some of these PPCPs have been shown to have detrimental environmental effects and could potentially impact human health. Understanding the biological transformation of PPCPs is essential for accurately determining their ultimate environmental fate, conducting accurate risk assessments, and improving PPCP

  19. Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products( PPCPs) in Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jia Ai; Hu Jianying; Sun Jianxian; Shi Jiachen

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing concern about pharmaceuticals and personal care products ( PPCPs) during the last decade due to their environmental occurrence and potential physiological effects. These compounds can be continually discharged into the environment primarily via untreated and treated sewage since current wastewater treatment plant can not completely remove them. This results in chronic low concentration exposure of aquatic organisms

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL RISKS OF PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS IN WATER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dana Manuela Sirbu; Daniela Curseu; Monica Popa

    Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) are a diverse group of chemicals comprising all human and veterinary drugs, diagnost ics agents, nutraceuticals and other chemicals such as fragrances, sun-screen agen ts and excipients (inert ingredients used in PPCP manufacturing and formulation). The origins of PPCPs as \\

  1. The rational use of oral care products in the elderly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Davies

    2004-01-01

    This review examines the evidence of the effectiveness of oral care products in preventing and controlling dental caries and periodontal disease in the ageing population. The strength of evidence is indicated using the following hierarchy: Type 1 (systematic reviews), Type 2 (randomised controlled trials), Type 3 (observational studies) and Type 4 (traditional reviews). Most of the evidence to support the

  2. ''Endonyx'' Onychomycosis: A New Modality of Nail Invasion by Dermatophytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANTONELLA TOSTI; ROBERT BARAN; BIANCA MARIA PIRACCINI; PIER ALESSANDRO FANTI

    1999-01-01

    Three patients with onychomycosis due toTrichophyton souda- nense with an ''endonyx'' type of nail invasion are presented. Endonyx onychomycosis is clinically characterized by a dif- fuse milky-white discolouration of the a¡ected nail, in the absence of nail bed hyperkeratosis or onycholysis. Nail plate surface and nail thickness are normal. The pathology shows a contrast between the great number of fungal

  3. Spectrophotometric determination of triclosan in personal care products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Huihui; Ma, Hongbing; Tao, Guanhong

    2009-09-01

    A spectrophotometric method for the determination of triclosan in personal care products was proposed. It was based on the reaction of sodium nitrite with p-sulfanilic acid in an acidic medium to form diazonium ion, with which triclosan further formed an azo compound in an alkaline medium. The resulting yellow colored product has a maximum absorption at 452 nm. A good linear relationship ( r = 0.9999) was obtained in the range of 0-30 mg L -1 triclosan. A detection limit of 0.079 g L -1 was achieved and the relative standard deviation was 0.24% ( n = 11) at 14 mg L -1 triclosan. The proposed method has been applied to the analyses of triclosan in several personal care products and the results were in good agreement with those obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography.

  4. Nail changes during docetaxel containing combination chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Woo, In Sook; Shim, Kon Ho; Kim, Gi Young; Lee, Myung Ah; Kang, Jin Hyoung; Hong, Young Seon; Lee, Kyung Shik

    2004-06-01

    Nail toxicity following systemic chemotherapy is common. Onychopathy during the period of neutropenia following chemotherapy may cause subungual abscesses and serious infection. Despite taxoid-related toxicity being increasingly reported since 2000, there are still phase II systemic chemotherapy studies using taxoid that have never mentioned nail changes. Recently, new criteria for the evaluation of nail toxicity have been suggested. The present report is the first of its kind, in Korea, to describe a case of docetaxel-associated onychopathy, which improved following a reduction in the docetaxel dose. PMID:15366647

  5. Nail picking disorder (onychotillomania): a case report.

    PubMed

    Snorrason, Ivar; Woods, Douglas W

    2014-03-01

    Nail picking disorder (onychotillomania) is characterized by excessive picking or pulling at one's own finger- or toenails. This condition has received scant research attention and may be related to other body focused repetitive behaviors such as pathological nail biting, skin picking and hair pulling. We present a case of a male client with a chronic and severe nail picking habit treated with acceptance-enhanced behavior therapy. The client showed clinical characteristics similar to other body focused repetitive behaviors and responded moderately well to the treatment. PMID:24291396

  6. Comparison of Nail Bed Repair Versus Nail Trephination for Subungual Hematomas in Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven E. Roser; Harris Gellman

    Fifty-three fingers in 52 children were divided into 2 groups, operative and nonoperative, after fingernail crush injury. Criteria for inclusion into the study were an intact nail and nail margin with subungual hematoma and no previous nail abnormality. The length of the follow-up period averaged longer than 2 years for each group. Twenty-six fingers in 26 children were treated by

  7. Comparison of Nail Bed Repair Versus Nail Trephination for Subungual Hematomas in Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven E. Roser; Harris Gellman

    1999-01-01

    Fifty-three fingers in 52 children were divided into 2 groups, operative and nonoperative, after fingernail crush injury. Criteria for inclusion into the study were an intact nail and nail margin with subungual hematoma and no previous nail abnormality. The length of the follow-up period averaged longer than 2 years for each group. Twenty-six fingers in 26 children were treated by

  8. Human dermal exposure to galaxolide from personal care products.

    PubMed

    Correia, P; Cruz, A; Santos, L; Alves, A

    2013-06-01

    Musks are synthetic fragrances applied on personal care and household products as fixatives, by retarding the release of other fragrances with higher volatility. Galaxolide is the most used polycyclic musk since the 90th decade, and it has been detected in several environmental and biological matrices, particularly in human tissues and fluids. For exposure assessment purposes, large-monitoring data need to be obtained and rapid but reliable analytical techniques are requested. The main objective of this study is to develop and validate a new and fast analytical methodology to quantify galaxolide in personal care products and to apply this method to real matrices like skin care products (creams and lotions), shower products (soap bar), hair care products (shampoo and hair conditioner) and oral care products (toothpaste), to evaluate the human dermal exposure risk. A dispersive solid-phase extraction is proposed, using QuEChERS methodology, followed by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Some extraction parameters were studied, like the ratio of sample/solvent amounts, the homogenization time, the salt addition effect and the used sorbents. The validation parameters of the developed method were the following: a linearity range of 0.005-1.002 mg kg?¹ sample, a limit of detection of 0.001 mg kg?¹ sample, repeatability between 0.7% and 11.3% (variation coefficient of six standard injections), an intermediate precision of 2.5% (variation coefficient of six independent analysis of the same sample), mean recoveries ranging from 65% (soap bar) to 95% (body cream) and 3% of global uncertainty in most of the working range. The time of analysis, including the extraction steps, is 60 min, allowing a throughput of 4 samples h?¹ . Galaxolide was detected in all of the seven analysed products in concentrations ranging from 0.04 ± 0.01 mg kg?¹ sample (toothpaste) to 280.78 ± 8.19 mg kg?¹ sample (perfumed body cream), which may correspond to a significant estimated daily human dermal exposure of 904 ?g day?¹. PMID:23406205

  9. Nail-gun injuries. Accident, homicide, or suicide?

    PubMed

    McCorkell, S J; Harley, J D; Cummings, D

    1986-09-01

    It may be difficult to distinguish industrial accidents from suicide attempts or even assaults or homicide. Nail guns are relatively new industrial tools that can produce severe or fatal injuries. The configuration of the nail on patients' radiographs after such injuries can be helpful in determining the cause of injury. Steel nails that are bent are due to a ricochet and thus indicate accidental injury. Straight-nail injuries to the co-workers of nail-gun users are most likely due to over-penetration of the substance being nailed or accidental mid-air firing; however, intentional injury cannot be ruled out. Extremity injuries caused by straight steel nails in nail gun users are the result of carelessness or poor technique, but suicide should be considered when straight nails cause wounds to the chest, head, or abdomen. PMID:3788906

  10. Femoral lengthening with a motorized intramedullary nail

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Joachim; Grimsrud, Øyvind; Dagsgard, Anita Hoddevik; Huhnstock, Stefan; Steen, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We assessed whether an intramedullary lengthening device would reduce the problems normally associated with the external fixation technique. We also wanted to determine whether it is a reliable construct for limb lengthening and deformity correction in the femur. Patients and methods We conducted a matched-pair comparison of 30 femoral lengthenings, 15 with a motorized intramedullary nail (the nail group) and 15 lengthenings with an external ring fixator (the fixator group). The patients were matched based on age, sex, amount of lengthening, and the etiology of leg length discrepancy. Mean lengthening was 35 (25–55) mm in the nail group and 38 (15–75) mm in the fixator group. Outcome measures were: lengthening and alignment achieved, consolidation index, knee range of motion (ROM), and complications. Results The pairs in this matched-pair study were similar in terms of age, sex, diagnosis, and amount of lengthening. The planned amount of lengthening was achieved in all patients in both groups and axis correction was considered sufficient. The mean radiographic consolidation index in the nail group, at 1.5 (0.9–3.0) months/cm, was better than the mean value for the fixator group (1.9 (0.9–3.4) months/cm) (p = 0.01). Knee ROM was better in the nail group during the lengthening, 6 weeks after lengthening was completed, and 6 months after lengthening was completed (p < 0.001). A larger number of complications were observed in the fixator group than in the nail group. Interpretation A lengthening nail may be superior to external fixation in femoral lengthening, when the anatomical conditions and the complexity of the deformity allow the use of an intramedullary nail. PMID:25191936

  11. [Nail psoriasis--an ignored disorder. Pathogenesis, diagnosis and therapy].

    PubMed

    Kahl, C; Hansen, B; Reich, K

    2012-03-01

    Approximately 50% of all patients with psoriasis develop characteristic nail changes as a clinical correlate of psoriatic inflammation of the nail matrix and/or nail bed. The most frequent signs of nail psoriasis are pitting and distal onycholysis. The most commonly used score to assess the severity of nail involvement at present is the Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (NAPSI). Although more than half of affected patients experience a significant physical and mental impairment, this index does not include patient-reported symptoms. There is a striking association between nail psoriasis and a higher risk of psoriatic arthritis with a prevalence of nail involvement among patients with psoriatic arthritis as high as 70%. A possible explanation is the close anatomical link between the nail apparatus and the distal interphalangeal joint; enthesitis of the latter is carried by fibers to the nail and becomes clinically visible as nail psoriasis. Nail involvement is not adequately reflected in current concepts of disease management. There is limited evidence for the efficacy of topical therapies in nail psoriasis. A number of large studies document an improvement of nail psoriasis in response to biologics and, more recently, also to methotrexate. PMID:22382303

  12. Thumbnail Sketches: EDTA-Type Chelating Agents in Everyday Consumer Products: Some Medicinal and Personal Care Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, J. Roger

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA)-type chelating agents found in ophthalmic products, personal care products, and disinfectants. Also discusses the properties and action of these EDTA agents. (JN)

  13. Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in the Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gheorghe Duca; Veaceslav Boldescu

    Various problems concerning the pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in the environment of the Eastern European\\u000a countries are described. The main classes of PPCPs in the environment, as well as major occurrence pathways and PPCPs fate,\\u000a are depicted. The influence of specifics of the regional pharmaceutical market, medication consumption culture and pharmaceutical\\u000a waste disposal techniques on environmental pollution with

  14. Part V—sorption of pharmaceuticals and personal care products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo Pan; Ping Ning; Baoshan Xing

    2009-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope  Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) including antibiotics, endocrine-disrupting chemicals, and veterinary pharmaceuticals\\u000a are emerging pollutants, and their environmental risk was not emphasized until a decade ago. These compounds have been reported\\u000a to cause adverse impacts on wildlife and human. However, compared to the studies on hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs)\\u000a whose sorption characteristics is reviewed in Part

  15. Heat profiles of laser-irradiated nails.

    PubMed

    Paasch, Uwe; Nenoff, Pietro; Seitz, Anna-Theresa; Wagner, Justinus A; Kendler, Michael; Simon, Jan C; Grunewald, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    Onychomycosis is a worldwide problem with no tendency for self-healing, and existing systemic treatments achieve disease-free nails in only 35 to 76% of cases. Recently, treatment of nail fungus with a near-infrared laser has been introduced. It is assumed that fungal eradication is mediated by local heat. To investigate if laser treatment has the potential to eradicate fungal hyphae and arthrospores, laser heat application and propagation needs to be studied in detail. This study aimed to measure nail temperatures using real-time videothermography during laser irradiation. Treatment was performed using 808- and 980-nm linear scanning diode lasers developed for hair removal, enabling contact-free homogeneous irradiation of a human nail plate in one pass. Average and peak temperatures increased pass by pass, while the laser beam moved along the nail plates. The achieved mean peak temperatures (808 nm: 74.1 to 112.4°C, 980 nm: 45.8 to 53.5°C), as well as the elevation of average temperatures (808 nm: 29.5 to 38.2°C, 980 nm: 27.1 to 32.6°C) were associated with pain that was equivalent to that of hair removal procedures and was not significantly different for various wavelengths. The linear scanning laser devices provide the benefits of contact-free homogeneous heating of the human nail while ensuring adequate temperature rises. PMID:24407504

  16. Sarcoid and the nail: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Momen, S E; Al-Niaimi, F

    2013-03-01

    Nail involvement in sarcoidosis is rare, but its presence is often associated with chronic systemic disease. We have reviewed all 33 reported cases of nail involvement with sarcoidosis, including our own case. Nail changes in sarcoidosis, while rare, can include dystrophy (n=10, 30%), onycholysis (n=7, 21%), subungual hyperkeratosis (n=7, 21%), nail hyperkeratosis (n=2, 6%) and longitudinal ridging (n=8, 24%). All reported cases of nail sarcoidosis occurred in the setting of systemic involvement. In almost half of the cases, bony cysts were noted on radiological examination. The presence of nail dystrophy in a patient with sarcoidosis should therefore prompt radiological examination and investigation for systemic involvement. PMID:23368092

  17. Usage pattern of personal care products in California households Xiangmei (May) Wu a

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    Usage pattern of personal care products in California households Xiangmei (May) Wu a , Deborah H Article history: Received 22 February 2010 Accepted 4 August 2010 Keywords: Personal care products the potential for health risks associated with certain ingredients (e.g., phthalates) in personal care products

  18. Fluorescent silica colloids for study and visualization of skin care products

    E-print Network

    Sokolov, Igor

    Fluorescent silica colloids for study and visualization of skin care products Swaminathan Iyer: The efficacy of skin care products depends on the time and dynamics of their absorbance by the skin, and its to trace the location and dynamics of skin care products on the skin. Methods: We use fluorescent silica

  19. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Food and Personal Care Products

    PubMed Central

    Weir, Alex; Westerhoff, Paul; Fabricius, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Titanium dioxide is a common additive in many food, personal care, and other consumer products used by people, which after use can enter the sewage system, and subsequently enter the environment as treated effluent discharged to surface waters or biosolids applied to agricultural land, incinerated wastes, or landfill solids. This study quantifies the amount of titanium in common food products, derives estimates of human exposure to dietary (nano-) TiO2, and discusses the impact of the nanoscale fraction of TiO2 entering the environment. The foods with the highest content of TiO2 included candies, sweets and chewing gums. Among personal care products, toothpastes and select sunscreens contained 1% to >10% titanium by weight. While some other crèmes contained titanium, despite being colored white, most shampoos, deodorants, and shaving creams contained the lowest levels of titanium (<0.01 ?g/mg). For several high-consumption pharmaceuticals, the titanium content ranged from below the instrument detection limit (0.0001 ?g Ti/mg) to a high of 0.014 ?g Ti/mg. Electron microscopy and stability testing of food-grade TiO2 (E171) suggests that approximately 36% of the particles are less than 100 nm in at least one dimension and that it readily disperses in water as fairly stable colloids. However, filtration of water solubilized consumer products and personal care products indicated that less than 5% of the titanium was able to pass through 0.45 or 0.7 ?m pores. Two white paints contained 110 ?g Ti/mg while three sealants (i.e., prime coat paint) contained less titanium (25 to 40 ?g Ti/mg). This research showed that while many white-colored products contained titanium, it was not a prerequisite. Although several of these product classes contained low amounts of titanium, their widespread use and disposal down the drain and eventually to WWTPs deserves attention. A Monte Carlo human exposure analysis to TiO2 through foods identified children as having the highest exposures because TiO2 content of sweets is higher than other food products, and that a typical exposure for a US adult may be on the order of 1 mg Ti per kilogram body weight per day. Thus, because of the millions of tons of titanium based white pigment used annually, testing should focus on food-grade TiO2 (E171) rather than that adopted in many environmental health and safety tests (i.e., P25), which is used in much lower amounts in products less likely to enter the environment (e.g., catalyst supports, photocatalytic coatings). PMID:22260395

  20. Ultrasonography reveals nail thickening in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Gisondi, P; Idolazzi, L; Girolomoni, G

    2012-11-01

    Nail psoriasis is usually investigated and diagnosed by clinical examination. Ultrasonography is a non-invasive imaging technique for studying soft tissue involvement. The objective of this study was to estimate nail involvement in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis by ultrasonography. Prevalence, clinical type and severity of nail involvement according to nail psoriasis and severity index (NAPSI) were investigated in 138 patients with psoriasis. The thickness of the plate and bed of the fingernails was measured in 54 patients with psoriasis, 46 healthy controls and 37 patients with chronic eczema, using an ultrasonographic system equipped with a frequency transducer of 18 MHz. The prevalence of nail psoriasis was 73 % (102 out of 138). Onycholysis and thickening of the nail plate were the most common clinical type affecting 56 and 50 % of patients, respectively; splinter haemorrhages was the less common involving 10 % of patients. The mean NAPSI score was 18.4 ± 17.5 (SD; range 0-107). The thickness of fingernail plate and bed was significantly higher in patients with psoriasis with nail disease compared to healthy controls and patients with chronic eczema (p < 0.001). There was a linear correlation between NAPSI and plate and bed nail thickness (r = 0.52 and r = 0.38, p = 0.001). Increased nail plate and bed thickness was observed also in patients with psoriasis without clinically apparent nail involvement. In conclusion, thickening of the nail is a common feature of nail psoriasis also in patients without clinically apparent nail involvement. PMID:23011659

  1. 42. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE NAIL HARDENER USED TO HARDEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE NAIL HARDENER USED TO HARDEN AND TEMPER THE NAILS; WEST TUBES IN FOREGRPUND AND DRAWBACK TUBE IN THE CENTER - LaBelle Iron Works, Thirtieth & Wood Streets, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

  2. Transonychial water loss in healthy and diseased nails.

    PubMed

    Krönauer, C; Gfesser, M; Ring, J; Abeck, D

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the transonychial water loss (TOWL) in both healthy and affected nails in different diseases and to compare it with the transepidermal water loss (TEWL). TOWL was measured by a new evaporimetric method: Plasticine was used to fix the protection cover of the evaporimeter probe to the nails. The TOWL behaved contrary to the TEWL. Affected nails in patients with atopic eczema (p <0.01), psoriasis (p<0.05) and onychomycosis (p<0.001) showed a significantly lower TOWL than did nails of healthy test subjects. The decrease in TOWL in diseased nails in comparison to healthy nails could be due to the formation of a stratum granulosum in atopic, psoriatic or fungus-affected nails, as this layer is normally absent in healthy nails. PMID:11558871

  3. Nail psoriasis masqueraded by secondary infection with Rhodotorula mucilaginosa.

    PubMed

    Martini, K; Müller, H; Huemer, H P; Höpfl, R

    2013-11-01

    A 38-year-old man presented with whitish nail changes on all fingers as the sole symptom. The condition had developed within a few days and led to dystrophy of the proximal part of the nail plates. As microscopic examination of nail scrapings demonstrated budding hyphae and the patient working as a teacher reported frequent use of a wet sponge, antifungal therapy was initiated. Subsequent cultures and molecular typing identified Rhodotorula mucilaginosa (formerly R. rubra). This environmental yeast was repeatedly isolated despite of therapy with itraconazole. As no improvement was achieved and testing of the biological activity of the fungus revealed only marginal keratolytic activity, it was considered as a coloniser of a destructed nail matrix. Finally, a biopsy of the nail bed confirmed the diagnosis of nail psoriasis, which rapidly responded to treatment with acitretin and topical calcipotriol/betamethasone cream. Fungal growth in destructed nails masqueraded the underlying disease and may have triggered the psoriatic nail reaction. PMID:23691938

  4. Trauma to the nail unit including occupational sports injuries.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, P S; Dawber, R P

    1985-07-01

    Trauma to the nail unit is one of the most common causes of onychodystrophy and may be acute (a single overwhelming injury) or chronic (repeated minor injury). Immediate effects of acute trauma include splinter hemorrhages, subungual hematomas, and nail shedding. Delayed deformities include splits and ridges, pterygium, hook nails, pigment bands, and ectopic nail. Also discussed are the results of chronic trauma, including self-inflicted injury and repeated indirect injury. PMID:3830505

  5. Screening-level human health risk assessment of toluene and dibutyl phthalate in nail lacquers.

    PubMed

    Kopelovich, Luda; Perez, Angela L; Jacobs, Neva; Mendelsohn, Emma; Keenan, James J

    2015-07-01

    Toluene and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) are found in many consumer products, including cosmetics, synthetic fragrances, and nail polish. In 2012, the California Environmental Protection Agency evaluated 25 nail products and found that 83% of the products that claimed to be toluene-free contained toluene at concentrations ranging up to 190,000?ppm, and 14% of the products that claimed to be DBP-free contained DBP at concentrations ranging up to 88,000?ppm. We conducted a preliminary, screening-level analysis of the potential toluene and DBP-related health risks to consumers and professionals based on the medium and maximum concentrations of toluene and DBP presented in the 2012 report and evaluated dermal and inhalation exposure to a salon patron, nail technician, and home user. We concluded that the maximum toluene concentration for the technician and home user scenarios exceeded the California MADL, but the estimated air concentrations did not exceed the Federal or Cal OSHA PEL. The MADL for DBP was exceeded for all user scenarios at both the median and maximum concentrations. Using these highly conservative assumptions, exposures above regulatory limits could possibly occur during routine use of nail products; further research is needed in order to evaluate potential human health risks. PMID:25865937

  6. Fatigue strength of common tibial intramedullary nail distal locking screws

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lanny V. Griffin; Robert M Harris; Joseph J Zubak

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Premature failure of either the nail and\\/or locking screws with unstable fracture patterns may lead to angulation, shortening, malunion, and IM nail migration. Up to thirty percent of all unreamed nail locking screws can break after initial weight bearing is allowed at 8–10 weeks if union has not occurred. The primary problem this presents is hardware removal during revision

  7. Retained portion of latex glove during femoral nailing. Case report.

    PubMed

    Sadat-Ali, M; Marwah, S; al-Habdan, I

    1996-11-01

    A case of retained glove during Kuntscher intramedullary nailing is described. An abscess around the glove could have lead to osteomyelitis. One need to be cautious feeling the top end of the nail while femoral nailing to avoid such a complication. PMID:9141352

  8. Unusual manifestation of the yellow nail syndrome - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Papaiordanou, Francine; Epstein, Marina Gabrielle; Miyaoka, Mariana Yumi; Yang, Jeane Jeong Hoon; Pires, Mario Cezar

    2014-01-01

    The yellow nail syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by the classic triad of yellow and dystrophic nails, lymphedema and pleural effusion. We report in this paper a case of yellow nail syndrome, presenting the classic triad of the disease, associated with an unusual lymph accumulation in the abdomen region. PMID:24937826

  9. Health care expenditures and gross domestic product: the Turkish case.

    PubMed

    Sülkü, Seher Nur; Caner, Asena

    2011-02-01

    Our study examines the long-term relationship among per capita gross domestic product (GDP), per capita health expenditures and population growth rate in Turkey during the period 1984-2006, employing the Johansen multivariate co-integration technique. Related previous studies on OECD countries have mostly excluded Turkey-itself an OECD country. The only study on Turkey examines the period 1984-1998. However, after 1998, major events and policy changes that had a substantial impact on income and health expenditures took place in Turkey, including a series of reforms to restructure the health and social security system. In contrast to earlier findings in the literature, we find that the income elasticity of total health expenditures is less than one, which indicates that health care is a necessity in Turkey during the period of analysis. According to our results, a 10% increase in per capita GDP is associated with an 8.7% increase in total per capita health expenditures, controlling for population growth. We find that the income elasticity of public health expenditures is less than one. But, in the case of private health care expenditures, the elasticity is greater than one, meaning that private health care is a luxury good in Turkey. PMID:20151170

  10. Accounting for intended use application in characterizing the contributions of cyclopentasiloxane (D5) to aquatic loadings following personal care product use: antiperspirants, skin care products and hair care products.

    PubMed

    Montemayor, Beta P; Price, Bradford B; van Egmond, Roger A

    2013-10-01

    Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane, commonly known as D5 (cyclopentasiloxane) has a wide application of use across a multitude of personal care product categories. The relative volatility of D5 is one of the key properties attributed to this substance that provide for the derived performance benefits from the use of this raw material in personal care formulations. On this basis, rapid evaporative loss following use of many products comprising D5 is expected following typical use application and corresponding wear time. Studies were conducted on three key product categories containing D5 (antiperspirants, skin care products and hair care products) to characterize the amount of D5 that may be destined to 'go down the drain' following simulated typical personal care use scenarios. Marketed antiperspirants and skin care products were applied to human subjects and hair care products were applied to human hair tressesand subsequently rinsed off at designated time points representative of typical consumer cleansing and personal hygiene habits. Wash water was collected at 0, 8 and 24h (antiperspirant and hair care analysis) and additionally at 4h (skin care analysis) post product application and samples were analyzed by isotope dilution headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to quantify the concentration of D5 destined to be available to go down the drain in captured wash water. It is demonstrated that significant amounts of D5 in 'leave-on' application products evaporate during typical use and that the concentration of D5 available to go down the drain under such conditions of use is only a very small (negligible) fraction of that delivered immediately upon product application. PMID:23186890

  11. Remote nailing of intertrochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures of the femur.

    PubMed

    Waddell, J P

    1983-01-01

    Remote nailing of intertrochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures of the femur is a definite addition to the armamentarium in the management of these injuries. The advantages of the technique are too great to ignore. The surgeon should not be misled, however, into thinking that this is an easy operation or that it represents a panacea for difficult fracture situations. Considerable time must be spent learning the operative technique, its pitfalls and complications, and the postoperative management of patients. After the operation we allow our patients early weight bearing in the knee-extended position, this being maintained by the use of a Jones bandage. We believe that the prevention of knee flexion minimizes stresses across the fracture site and prevents the tendency toward external rotation. Early external rotation deformity in the patient lying in bed may cause concern, but this tendency toward external rotation disappears as soon as the patient begins to walk and bear weight. In the patient with the fracture anatomically reduced and fixed a significant external rotation will not be a problem. The use of remote nailing does not eliminate complications in the surgical treatment of intertrochanteric fractures but merely replaces one set of complications for another. It is our belief that the complications arising from remote nailing in intertrochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures are of less severity to the patient and more easily managed by the surgeon than the more traditional complications occurring as a result of direct attack on the fracture site with the implantation of various nail plate devices. Lower blood loss, shorter operating time, decreased incidence of infection, earlier walking, extremely high rate of union, and extremely low rate of implant failure are sufficient returns for occasional shortening and occasional external rotation deformity, the two complications most frequently mentioned in the literature. Excessive deformity, failure of fixation, and pin migration either proximally or distally are attributable to poor technique (with the system) and are not inherent defects of the method itself. As a relatively unbiased observer I find praise and fault with both techniques and am not in a position to recommend one over the other for any given surgeon or any given fracture. The concept advanced by both Ender and Harris, however, is sound and if used correctly can improve the overall care of the unfortunate patient who suffers an intertrochanteric fracture of the femur. PMID:6546077

  12. Hydration studies of human finger nails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Benjamin; Chan, Danny; Ruebhausen, Michael; Wepf, Roger; Wessel, Sonja; Williams, Stefanie

    2002-03-01

    We investigate the complex refractive index hatn = n+ik of human fingernails by means of spectral-resolved ellipsometry (325 nm - 790 nm), using a beam focussed to a spot diameter of 200 ?m. Using an effective medium approximation, we can derive the water content of the nail from the measured hatn. In particular, we study the hydration/dehydration behaviour of the nails by observing the changes in the complex refractive index. Upon hydration by soaking the nail in water, we find that the time dependence of n is well described by K_0+K1 exp (-t / ?), with ? ? 5 min, while k is increasing. Furthermore, we find that the external hydration process seems to be only partially reversible.

  13. Controversies in the Treatment of Ingrown Nails

    PubMed Central

    Haneke, Eckart

    2012-01-01

    Ingrown toenails are one of the most frequent nail disorders of young persons. They may negatively influence daily activities, cause discomfort and pain. Since more than 1000 years, many different treatments have been proposed. Today, conservative and surgical methods are available, which, when carried out with expertise, are able to cure the disease. Packing, taping, gutter treatment, and nail braces are options for relatively mild cases whereas surgery is exclusively done by physicians. Phenolisation of the lateral matrix horn is now the safest, simplest, and most commonly performed method with the lowest recurrence rate. Wedge excisions can no longer be recommended PMID:22675345

  14. A curious case of yellow nail syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cri?an-Dabija, Radu; Mih?escu, Traian

    2015-01-01

    The Yellow Nail Syndrome is a rare clinical entity, first described in 1967 by P.D. Samman and W.F. White. The triad slow-growing dystrophic yellow nails, lymphedema and chronic respiratory disorders is the typical manifestation of the disease but some variations have been described as well as associations with chylothorax, chylous ascites, intestinal lymphangiectasia, thyroid abnormalities, malignancies and immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency. We present a case of a 55-years-old woman that had an insidious onset of respiratory disorders and chronic sinusitis, suspected to be infectious throughout the hospitalizations, associated with therapeutically neglected autoimmune thyroiditis. PMID:26016054

  15. Pincer Nail Deformity in a Patient with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Youshi; Fujita, Takehisa

    2014-01-01

    Although several manifestations of skin involvement in cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have been reported, the pincer nail deformity has not been previously reported in a patient with ALS. The pincer nail deformity is characterized by distortion of the shape of the nail with transverse over curvature and may be associated with systemic diseases and certain medications. We herein describe the case of a patient presenting with a pincer nail deformity associated with rapidly advancing ALS. This case suggests a potential link between quickly advancing disease and the pincer nail deformity. PMID:25568742

  16. The Best Dressing for a Nail Bed is the Nail Itself

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. P. HENDERSON

    1984-01-01

    The replacement of a surgically avulsed nail as a splint and dressing with “Superglue” is reported. It provides a painless cover for the sterile matrix and facilitates the dressing of finger tip injuries.

  17. The effect of nail polish and acrylic nails on pulse oximetry reading using the Lifebox oximeter in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Desalu, I; Diakparomre, O I; Salami, A O; Abiola, A O

    2013-12-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES - Pulse oximetry is mandatory during anaesthesia, sedation and transfer of critically ill patients. The effect of nail polish and acrylic nails on the accuracy of saturation reading is inconsistent. The Lifebox pulse oximeter is reliable and recommended for low and middle income countries. We investigated its accuracy in the presence of 4 nail colours and acrylic nails SUBJECTS AND METHODS Fifty non-smoking volunteers had their fingers numbered from right to left (little finger of right hand =1 and little finger of left hand =10). Alternate fingers were nails painted with clear, red, brown and black nail polish and the 5th finger had acrylic nail applied. The corresponding finger on the other hand acted as control. The oxygen saturation was determined using the Lifebox pulse oximeter. Results All fingers (100%) with clear nail polish, red nail polish and acrylic nails recorded a saturation value. Each of the mean saturation value for clear nail polish, red nail polish and acrylic nails was not significantly different from the control mean (p= 0.378, 0.427 and 0.921). Only 12% and 64% of nails polished black and brown respectively recorded a saturation value. The mean SpO- for black and brown polish were significantly different from their control mean (p<0.001). CONCLUSION Black and brown polish resulted in a significant decrease in SpO with the Lifebox oximeter. Dark coloured nail polish should be removed prior to SpO2 determination to ensure that accurate readings can be obtained. PMID:24633278

  18. [Vascular networks of the periphery of the finger nail].

    PubMed

    Sick, H; Wolfram-Gabel, R

    The vascular networks of the periphery of the nail of the finger are studied on fingers of adults, fetus and newborns, by injecting the vascular system with gelatinous Indian ink. The nail is an avascular horny structure, partially covered with the nail fold. It is lying on a nail bed which prolonges forwards with the hyponychium. Each part of the nail apparatus (nail fold, matricial and unmatricial parts of the nail bed, hyponychium) presents a characteristic network which is tributary of dorsal collaterals arising from the digital palmar vessels and from their arcades. These networks are papillar, pseudopapillar, reticular and subdermical. The morphology and density of these networks vary according to their localisation and are superimposed with the histological variations of the different parts of the nail apparatus. Thus the matricial part of the nail bed shows a poor vascularization. It corresponds to the germinative part of the nail and is responsible of the color of the lunula. The unmatricial part of the nail bed and the hyponychium have dense vascular networks with glomi. PMID:8881555

  19. Treatment of Nail Psoriasis: Common Concepts and New Trends

    PubMed Central

    Oram, Yasemin; Akkaya, A. Deniz

    2013-01-01

    The lifetime incidence of nail involvement in psoriatic patients is estimated to be 80–90%, and the nails can be affected in 10% to 55% of psoriatic patients. Psoriasis may also solely involve the nails, without any other skin findings, in which the treatment can be more challenging. Nail psoriasis may lead to considerable impairment in quality of life due to aesthetic concerns and more importantly limitations in daily activities resulting from the associated pain, which may be overlooked by the physicians. Several topical and systemic treatment modalities, as well as radiation and light systems, have been used in the treatment of nail psoriasis. In the last decade, the introduction of biologic agents and the utilization of laser systems have brought a new insight into the treatment of nail psoriasis. This paper focuses on the recent advances, as well as the conventional methods, in treating nail psoriasis in adults and children, in reference to an extensive literature search. PMID:23762032

  20. Influence of the intramedullary nail preparation method on nail's mechanical properties and degradation rate.

    PubMed

    Morawska-Chochó?, Anna; Ch?opek, Jan; Szaraniec, Barbara; Domalik-Pyzik, Patrycja; Balacha, Ewa; Bogu?, Maciej; Kucharski, Rafael

    2015-06-01

    When it comes to the treatment of long bone fractures, scientists are still investigating new materials for intramedullary nails and different manufacturing methods. Some of the most promising materials used in the field are resorbable polymers and their composites, especially since there is a wide range of potential manufacturing and processing methods. The aim of this work was to select the best manufacturing method and technological parameters to obtain multiphase, and multifunctional, biodegradable intramedullary nails. All composites were based on a poly(l-lactide) matrix. Either magnesium alloy wires or carbon and alginate fibres were introduced in order to reinforce the nails. The polylactide matrix was also modified with tricalcium phosphate and gentamicin sulfate. The composite nails were manufactured using three different methods: forming from solution, injection moulding and hot pressing. The effect of each method of manufacturing on mechanical properties and degradation rate of the nails was evaluated. The study showed that injection moulding provides higher uniformity and homogeneity of the particle-modified polylactide matrix, whereas hot pressing favours applying higher volume fractions of fibres and their better impregnation with the polymer matrix. Thus, it was concluded that the fabrication method should be individually selected dependently on the nail's desired phase composition. PMID:25842113

  1. Hydration studies of human finger nails

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin Schulz; Danny Chan; Michael Ruebhausen; Roger Wepf; Sonja Wessel; Stefanie Williams

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the complex refractive index hatn = n+ik of human fingernails by means of spectral-resolved ellipsometry (325 nm - 790 nm), using a beam focussed to a spot diameter of 200 mum. Using an effective medium approximation, we can derive the water content of the nail from the measured hatn. In particular, we study the hydration\\/dehydration behaviour of the

  2. Proteomic Analysis of Human Nail Plate

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Robert H.; Xia, Yajuan; Alvarado, Rudy J.; Phinney, Brett S.

    2010-01-01

    Shotgun proteomic analysis of the human nail plate identified 144 proteins in samples from Causcasian volunteers. The 30 identified proteins solubilized by detergent and reducing agent, 90% of the total nail plate mass, were primarily keratins and keratin associated proteins. Keratins comprised a majority of the detergent-insoluble fraction as well, but numerous cytoplasmic, membrane and junctional proteins and histones were also identified, indicating broad use by transglutaminases of available proteins as substrates for cross-linking. Two novel membrane proteins were identified, also found in the hair shaft, for which mRNAs were detected only at very low levels by real time polymerase chain reaction in other tissues. Parallel analyses of nail samples from volunteers from Inner Mongolia, China gave essentially the same protein profiles. Comparison of the profiles of nail plate and hair shaft from the latter volunteers revealed extensive overlap of protein constituents. Analyses of samples from an arsenic-exposed population revealed few proteins whose levels were altered substantially but raised the possibility of detecting sensitive individuals in this way. PMID:20939611

  3. Morphology of Corneocytes from Human Nail Plates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henriette Germann; Werner Barran; Gerd Plewig

    1980-01-01

    A technique is described which permits the isolation of individual corneocytes from the superficial layers of the human nail plates. Tesa-film D is used to strip off the cells. The tape is mounted on a glass slide, stained with a mixture of methylene blue and rhodamine B. The parameters were size (Surface ?2), shape (regular, irregular), nuclear inclusions and trabeculae.

  4. Nail disorders in children: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Richert, Bertrand; André, Josette

    2011-04-01

    Nail disorders in children can be divided into seven categories. The first is physiologic alterations, which every physician should be aware of in order to reassure parents. These usually disappear with age and do not require any treatment. Among congenital and inherited conditions, the nail-patella syndrome, with its pathognomonic triangular lunula, should not be missed as recognition of the disease allows early diagnosis of associated pathologies. The most common infection is the periungual wart, whose treatment is delicate. Herpetic whitlow should be distinguished from bacterial whitlow as their therapeutic approaches differ. Dermatologic diseases encompass eczema, psoriasis, lichen planus, lichen striatus, trachyonychia, and parakeratosis pustulosa. Lichen planus, when it presents as in adults, is important to recognize because, if not treated, it may lead to permanent nail loss. Systemic or iatrogenic nail alterations may be severe but are usually not the first clue to the diagnosis. Beau lines on several fingernails are very common in children after temperature crest. Tumors are rare in children. Radiographic examination allows confirmation of the diagnosis of subungual exostosis. Other cases should undergo biopsy. Single-digit longitudinal melanonychia in children is mostly due to nevi. Its management should be tailored on a case-by-case basis. Acute trauma should never be underestimated in children and hand surgeons should be involved if necessary. Onychophagia and onychotillomania are responsible for chronic trauma. PMID:21348541

  5. Nail Lichen Planus: Successful Treatment with Etanercept

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Irla; T. Schneiter; E. Haneke; N. Yawalkar

    2010-01-01

    Background: Etanercept is a fully human tumor necrosis factor ? receptor fusion protein that binds tumor necrosis factor ? with greater affinity than natural receptors. Biologics are widely used in the treatment of psoriasis and psoriasis arthritis and may represent a new therapeutic option for some patients with psoriatic nail disease. Case Report: We report a case of lichen planus

  6. WFU Physics Demo Video: Bed of Nails

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Matthews, G. Eric

    This video demonstrates that a person can stand on a bed of nails without hurting their feet due to the force being spread out over a large area. It is part of a collection of typical lecture demonstration videos put together by the physics department at Wake Forest University.

  7. Passive sampling methods to determine household and personal care product use

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    Passive sampling methods to determine household and personal care product use DEBORAH H. BENNETTa, use of household and personal care products has been collected through questionnaires, which is very (Study of Use of Products and Exposure-Related Behaviors), a novel platform was developed using bar codes

  8. Market trends in baby skin care products and implications for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Simpson, Eric L

    2014-01-01

    Although the U.S. pediatric skin care market is a $1.7 billion industry, little is known regarding the usage pattern of skin care products in very young children. We have begun to recognize that common over-the-counter skin care products may have positive or negative effects on skin barrier function. Thus, knowing what and how skin care products are used early in life is important. The goal of the current study was to better understand skin care product use in the United States using market research data. We found that the prevalence of use was greater than 50% for all skin care product categories and age groups. Premoistened cleansing wipes and cloths were the most frequently used product, followed by baby oil and lotion and body and baby powder. Baby bath and shampoo products were used at least five times per week per household, and caregivers generally preferred products that were fragrance-free and made for sensitive skin. Lower-income households reported a higher frequency of product use and were less likely to purchase fragrance-free products or ones that were made for sensitive skin. Our findings suggest that the prevalence of pediatric skin care product use is high and conflicts with current recommended skin care guidelines. Product use and preferences may also vary according to race and ethnicity and household income level. PMID:25236850

  9. Passive sampling methods to determine household and personal care product use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah H Bennett; Candice H Teague; Kiyoung Lee; Diana L Cassady; Beate Ritz; Irva Hertz-Picciotto

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, use of household and personal care products has been collected through questionnaires, which is very time consuming, a burden on participants, and prone to recall bias. As part of the SUPERB Project (Study of Use of Products and Exposure-Related Behaviors), a novel platform was developed using bar codes to quickly and reliably determine what household and personal care products

  10. NAIL: Nucleic Acid detection using Isotachophoresis and Loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Borysiak, Mark D; Kimura, Kevin W; Posner, Jonathan D

    2015-04-01

    Nucleic acid amplification tests are the gold standard for many infectious disease diagnoses due to high sensitivity and specificity, rapid operation, and low limits of detection. Despite the advantages of nucleic acid amplification tests, they currently offer limited point-of-care (POC) utility due to the need for complex instruments and laborious sample preparation. We report the development of the Nucleic Acid Isotachophoresis LAMP (NAIL) diagnostic device. NAIL uses isotachophoresis (ITP) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) to extract and amplify nucleic acids from complex matrices in less than one hour inside of an integrated chip. ITP is an electrokinetic separation technique that uses an electric field and two buffers to extract and purify nucleic acids in a single step. LAMP amplifies nucleic acids at constant temperature and produces large amounts of DNA that can be easily detected. A mobile phone images the amplification results to eliminate the need for laser fluorescent detection. The device requires minimal user intervention because capillary valves and heated air chambers act as passive valves and pumps for automated fluid actuation. In this paper, we describe NAIL device design and operation, and demonstrate the extraction and detection of pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 cells from whole milk samples. We use the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) limit of detection (LoD) definitions that take into account the variance from both positive and negative samples to determine the diagnostic LoD. According to the CLSI definition, the NAIL device has a limit of detection (LoD) of 1000 CFU mL(-1) for E. coli cells artificially inoculated into whole milk, which is two orders of magnitude improvement to standard tube-LAMP reactions with diluted milk samples and comparable to lab-based methods. The NAIL device potentially offers significant reductions in the complexity and cost of traditional nucleic acid diagnostics for POC applications. PMID:25666345

  11. Ability of hydroxypropyl chitosan nail lacquer to protect against dermatophyte nail infection.

    PubMed

    Ghannoum, M A; Long, L; Isham, N; Bulgheroni, A; Setaro, M; Caserini, M; Palmieri, R; Mailland, F

    2015-04-01

    The development of a topical agent that would strengthen the nail, improve the natural barrier, and provide better drug penetration to the nail bed is needed. In this study, we examined the effects of a hydroxypropyl chitosan (HPCH)-based nail solution using a bovine hoof model. Following application of the nail solution, changes in the hardness of the hoof samples were measured using the Vickers method. Tensile and flexural strengths were tested by stretching or punching the samples, respectively. The ultrastructure was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and samples stained with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stain were used to determine the fungal penetration depth. The comparators included 40% urea and 70% isopropyl alcohol solutions. The HPCH nail solution increased hoof sample hardness in comparison to the untreated control sample (mean, 22.3 versus 19.4 Vickers pyramid number [HV]). Similarly, the HPCH solution increased the tensile strength (mean, 33.07 versus 28.42 MPa) and flexural strength (mean, 183.79 versus 181.20 MPa) compared to the untreated control. In contrast, the comparators had adverse effects on hardness and strength. SEM showed that the HPCH solution reduced the area of sample crumbling following abrasion compared to the untreated control (7,418 versus 17,843 pixels), and the PAS-stained images showed that the HPCH solution reduced penetration of the dermatophyte hyphae (e.g., penetration by Trichophyton mentagrophytes was <25 ?m at day 9 versus 275 ?m in the untreated control). Unlike chemicals normally used in cosmetic treatments, repeated application of the HPCH nail solution may help prevent the establishment of new or recurring fungal nail infection. PMID:25547349

  12. Detection of short tandem repeat polymorphisms from human nails using direct polymerase chain reaction method.

    PubMed

    Tie, Jian; Uchigasaki, Seisaku

    2014-11-01

    Human nail is an important forensic material for parental testing and individual identification in large-scale disasters. Detection of STR polymorphism from hard tissues generally requires DNA purification, which is technically complicated and time consuming. In the present study, we attempted to detect STR polymorphisms from untreated human nail samples by direct PCR amplification method using the primer mixture supplied with the GenePrint® SilverSTR® III System or the AmpF?STR® Identifiler® PCR Amplification Kit, and Tks Gflex DNA polymerase known to be effective for amplification from crude samples. A nail fragment measuring approximately 1.5 mm in breadth and 0.5 mm in length was placed directly into a PCR tube, and various PCR conditions were tested. The PCR products were analyzed by denaturing acrylamide gel electrophoresis or CE. Multiple STR polymorphisms were detected successfully. This method that detects STR polymorphisms not only from fresh human fingernails, but also from old nail fragments stored at room temperature for up to 10 years is expected to become a novel DNA analytical method in forensic medicine and genetic studies. PMID:24934775

  13. Tumors of the nail unit. A review. Part II: acquired localized longitudinal pachyonychia and masked nail tumors.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Christophe

    2013-10-01

    This second part of the review categorizes the site-specific nail tumors, as proposed in the first part, according to their clinical presentations. Acquired localized longitudinal pachyonychia allows for the specific recognition of onychogenic nail tumor, which can be classified into 2 groups according to the predominant compartment of origin within the nail unit as follows: epithelial tumors encompassing onychocytic matricoma and onychocytic carcinoma, and fibroepithelial tumors: the so-called onychomatricoma. As onychomatricoma is neither an epithelial matrical tumor nor a tumor with a limited differentiation toward the matrix, the author proposes instead the descriptive term of panonychoma fibropapilliferum (POP). The designation of POP does convey to the surgical pathologist or the dermatopathologist the key morphological pattern of this tumor. It should be noted that the proposed term of panonychoma is analogous to the nomenclature that is well established for follicular neoplasms with differentiation toward all elements of the normal hair follicle, that is panfolliculoma. The second term fibropapilliferum is used to highlight the mixed fibroepithelial nature of this neoplasm, which forms multiple rudimentary nail units. These nail units construct multiple nail plates that join together and form a single thick nail plate. According to nail anatomy, 2 types of POP are described: POP of the apical matrix/eponychium, with a pseudo-condylomatous pattern, and POP of the ventral matrix with a foliated pattern in transverse sections and a fibrokeratoma-like pattern in the longitudinal sections. Suggestions for the evaluation and clinical management of localized longitudinal pachyonychia are proposed. On histology of a nail clipping, 2 patterns with clinical significance can be individualized. A horizontal alignment of large cavities indicates POP of the ventral matrix. A haphazard arrangement of smaller cavities in the nail plate, including an arrangement in the inferior two-thirds of the nail clipping, should prompt a biopsy of the distal ventral matrix to rule out a malignant lesion. In the setting of the "masked "nail tumor, a clinical subtype with some significance can be individualized, the subungual keratotic nodule growing rapidly. Three nail bed tumors are discussed within this latter group. Two new clinicopathological variants of subungual keratoacanthoma are described, and a new nail bed tumor is discussed: the infundibulocystic nail bed squamous cell carcinoma. The absence of striking nuclear atypia and the giant cystic to multicystic pattern distinguishes infundibulocystic nail bed squamous cell carcinoma from follicular infundibulocystic squamous cell carcinoma. The last section proposes a classification of folliculogenic nail bed tumors. The follicular microcysts of the nail bed have previously been called subungual epidermoid inclusions or onycholemmal cysts, but the term follicular microcysts of the nail bed is more pertinent, because of the multiple lines of follicular differentiation (infundibular, tricholemmal, apocrine, and sebaceous) seen in their benign and malignant counterparts. Absent in a large portion of the normal nail bed, the follicular microcysts seem to have a peculiar propensity for the formation of tumors that vary in maturity from simple follicular microcystic hyperplasia associated with acquired longitudinal melanonychia to microcystic nail bed hamartoma and microcystic nail bed carcinoma (the so-called onycholemmal carcinoma). The concluding tables emphasize the key and essential histological features required to make the diagnosis of site-specific nail tumors and guide appropriate therapy. The author proposes to categorize subungual tumors into 2 types: subungual skin tumors (including subungual skin metastasis from internal malignancies) and nail tumors. Nail tumors can be accurately classified using a combined clinical and histogenetic approach. This new and expanding group of appendageal tumors is important for both dermatologists and dermatopathologists for the potential

  14. 76 FR 52313 - Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates: Postponement of Preliminary Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ...A-520-804] Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates: Postponement of Preliminary Determination...duty investigation on nails from the United Arab Emirates. See Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates: Initiation of Antidumping...

  15. A review of personal care products in the aquatic environment: Environmental concentrations and toxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. Brausch; Gary M. Rand

    2011-01-01

    Considerable research has been conducted examining occurrence and effects of human use pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment; however, relatively little research has been conducted examining personal care products although they are found more often and in higher concentrations than pharmaceuticals. Personal care products are continually released into the aquatic environment and are biologically active and persistent. This article examines the

  16. Current approaches to trace analysis of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang W. Buchberger

    2011-01-01

    A large number of xenobiotics including pharmaceuticals and personal care products are continuously released into the environment. Effluents from sewage treatment plants are well known to be the major source for introduction of pharmaceuticals and personal care products into the aquatic system. In recent years, reliable methods have been established for residue analysis of these pollutants down to low ng\\/L

  17. Taxonomic perspective of plant species yielding vegetable oils used in cosmetics and skin care products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Athar; Syed Mahmood Nasir

    A search conducted to determine the plants yielding vegetable oils resulted in 78 plant species with potential use in cosmetics and skin care products. The taxonomic position of these plant species is described with a description of vegetable oils from these plants and their use in cosmetics and skin care products. These species belonged to 74 genera and 45 plant

  18. Perianal contact dermatitis caused by nail lacquer allergy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aneta Lazarov

    1999-01-01

    Background: Allergy to nail cosmetics is relatively infrequent compared with other cosmetics. Allergic contact dermatitis from nail lacquer typically affects the eyelids, cheeks, sides of the neck, hands and periungual areas, and less frequently another areas.Objective: We report on a patient who developed nail lacquer-related allergic contact dermatitis in an infrequent location, namely the perianal area.Methods: A patient with perianal

  19. Nail damage in spray operators exposed to paraquat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. D. Hearn; W. Keir

    1971-01-01

    Hearn, C. E. D., and Keir, W. (1971).Brit. J. industr. Med.,28, 399-403. Nail damage in spray operators exposed to paraquat. Nail damage in 55 persons due to contamination by diluted paraquat in a group of 296 spray operators employed on a sugar estate in Trinidad is described.The commonest lesion seen was transverse white bands of discoloration, but loss of nail

  20. Some notes of an aging nail watcher.

    PubMed

    Bean, W

    1976-04-01

    Growth of deciduous tissues gives us a natural kymograph to record secular trends and in some instances makes the mark on the moving record. For the observant clinician, knowledge of the rate of nail growth may permit an occasional spectacular diagnosis, although much more often it merely adds a small bit to our understanding of simple but basic biological prenciples in health and disease. PMID:1262107

  1. Nail Biting and Picking as a Possible Cause of Longitudinal Melanonychia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Baran

    1990-01-01

    Examination of individuals affected by onychotillomania led us to describe a new cause of longitudinal melanonychia (LM) of the finger-nails. Damage of the finger-nails was caused both manually and by chewing. The nail cuticles were usually pushed back, and biting caused pressure damage of the base of the nail. It is likely that finger-nails respond similarly to toe-nails and the

  2. Candida parapsilosis of the nail-bed without onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Rieder, Evan; Hu, Stephanie W; Meehan, Shane A; Adigun, Chris

    2014-12-01

    Candida parapsilosis is an emerging fungal pathogen that was once thought to be solely a colonizing organism. C. parapsilosis is increasingly becoming reported as the most common Candida species that causes onychomycosis. Clinical findings include typically severe dystrophy of the nail fold and plate as well as thickening and fragmentation of the plate, particularly in the distal plate. We present a unique case of C. parapsilosis infection of the nail bed without infection of the nail plate and with twenty-nail melanonychia. PMID:25526338

  3. Radiographic findings in the nail-patella syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    Nail-patella syndrome is a rare disorder characterized classically by the tetrad of nail hypoplasia or aplasia, aplastic or hypoplastic patellae, elbow dysplasia, and the presence of iliac horns. Iliac horns are considered pathognomonic, and the presence of hypoplastic or aplastic patellae in conjunction with nail abnormalities is a cardinal feature of diagnosis. Elbow dysplasia is present in most cases and can exhibit features typical of the syndrome. Herein we present the radiographic findings of the elbows, knees, and pelvis of a woman with nail-patella syndrome. PMID:26130880

  4. Nail-preserving excision for subungual glomus tumour of the hand.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Poong-Taek; Kyung, Hee-Soo; Kim, Hyung-Sub; Jeon, In-Ho

    2014-06-01

    Subungual glomus tumours can cause excruciating pain and nail deformity. Conventional surgical excision requires nail removal and, therefore, nail deformity often occurs. Because nail preservation prevents further damage to the nail bed, it is beneficial for patients from the perspectives of pain and cosmesis. Here, the authors introduce a nail-preserving transungual approach for subungual glomus tumours. Between 1996-2010, 34 patients were treated using this nail-preserving transungual approach for the excision of a subungual glomus tumour and were followed up. Preoperatively, all patients complained of pain (mean visual analogue scale (VAS) 8.9), and seven of the 34 patients presented concomitant nail deformities. During surgeries, nails were elevated after incising nail folds, and tumours were excised after a longitudinal nail bed incision. Elevated nails were relocated to their original position after nail bed repair. Thirty-two of the 34 patients achieved complete recovery without sign of recurrence. Mean postoperative pain was reduced (VAS 0.9, range = 0-2), and preoperative nail deformity was also improved. The nail preserving transungual approach provides several advantages, that is, better nail bed exposure, resulting in easier tumour excision, and less damage to the nail bed with less deformity of the nail. PMID:24256308

  5. Student Productivity Under Requirement and Comprehensive Care Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evangelidis-Sakellson, Vicky

    1999-01-01

    Columbia University (New York) dental-school study examined educational/patient care effects of changing from a numerical requirements-driven clinical curriculum to a comprehensive-care model driven by patient needs and led by faculty group leaders. Results suggest a significant increase in number of treatment plans completed by students, with no…

  6. Safety to human skin of cocamidopropyl betaine: A mild surfactant for personal-care products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Edward Hunter; Joseph F. Fowler

    1998-01-01

    Cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) is a mild surfactant used in shampoos, conditioners, body washes, and other personal-care products.\\u000a Several recently published case reports have suggested that CAPB may be a skin sensitizer. A 6-wk product-use study was conducted\\u000a to determine whether subjects with previous positive patch tests to CAPB could use personal-care products (prototype hair\\u000a shampoo, liquid handsoap, and body wash)

  7. Nail bed expansion: A new technique for correction of multiple isolated congenital micronychia.

    PubMed

    Ghaffarpour, Gholamhossein; Faghihi, Alireza; Ghasemi, Mohammadreza; Ghaffarpour, Gelareh

    2014-01-01

    Congenital micronychia may involve big toes or may involve other nails. The etiology of micronychia is not clear but amniotic bands, teratogens (drugs, alcohol), Nail Patella Syndrome etc. A 44-year-old woman with multiple isolated congenital micronychia over her hands and feet was selected. The major affected nails were thumbs and Index fingers. Surgical method were done step by step: Anesthesia of the area, extraction of short nail, elevation of nail bed, longitudinal nail bed incisions, suturing the lateral nail bed to the nail wall, covering the nail bed by a splint of plastic suction tube, bandage with gauze Vaseline. Finally, we hypnotized that in congenital micronychia, the main pathology is in nail bed; through this theory by nail bed expansion better outcomes are coming. PMID:24804179

  8. Characterization of indoor air contaminants in a randomly selected set of commercial nail salons in Salt Lake County, Utah, USA.

    PubMed

    Alaves, Victor M; Sleeth, Darrah K; Thiese, Matthew S; Larson, Rodney R

    2013-01-01

    Air samples were collected in 12 randomly selected commercial nail salons in Salt Lake County, Utah. Measurements of salon physical/chemical parameters (room volume, CO2 levels) were obtained. Volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations were collected using summa air canisters and sorbent media tubes for an 8-h period. Multivariate analyses were used to identify relationships between salon physical/chemical characteristics and the VOCs found in the air samples. The ACGIH(®) additive mixing formula was also applied to determine if there were potential overexposures to the combined airborne concentrations of chemicals monitored. Methyl methacrylate was detected in 58% of the establishments despite having been banned for use in nail products by the state of Utah. Formaldehyde was found above the NIOSH REL(®) (0.016 ppm) in 58% of the establishments. Given the assortment of VOCs to which nail salon workers are potentially exposed, a combination of engineering as well as personal protective equipment is recommended. PMID:23286453

  9. MEASUREMENT OF WATER VAPOR LOSS THROUGH HUMAN NAIL IN VIVO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Spruit

    1971-01-01

    A capsule is described which can be used for the measurement of the water vapor loss of the nail with the aid of the same instrumentation that has been used for the measurement of the water vapor loss of skin.The effective area of the described capsule has been determined applying an electric analog.The specific water permeability of the nail plate

  10. TOXIC TRACE METALS IN MAMMALIAN HAIR AND NAILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data have been compiled from the available world literature on the accumulation and bioconcentration of selected toxic trace metals in human hair and nails and other mammalian hair, fur, nails, claws, and hoofs. The toxic trace metals and metalloids include antimony, arsenic, bor...

  11. Elastoplasticity analysis of the nails used in long bone fractures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Paterson; G Del Sel; A Paterson; M T Miralles; N Del Sel

    2011-01-01

    Elastoplastic endomedullary nail-insertion system in long bone fractures is a method which allows generating forces, moments, frictions and stress states in parts of the bone previously selected. Adding previous knowledge on the distribution of forces and acting moments over the bone fragments to be threaded, as well as on the elastoplastic and mechanical properties of the nails to be inserted

  12. Femoral nail removal should be restricted in asymptomatic patients.

    PubMed

    Gösling, Thomas; Hufner, Tobias; Hankemeier, Stefan; Zelle, Boris A; Muller-Heine, Assia; Krettek, Christian

    2004-06-01

    Femoral nail removal has been suggested as a routine procedure for symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether asymptomatic patients have long-term complaints after femoral nail removal. Additionally, factors that might extend operation time and effect soft tissue healing negatively were analyzed. A retrospective study on the removal of 164 femoral nails after fracture consolidation was done. A review of the patient charts and radiographs was done. Neither the interval between nail implantation and nail removal or the use of an end-cap significantly influenced the operation time. The surgeon's qualification and nail depth were the only variables that influenced operation time. Neither operation time, nail depth, surgeon's qualification, nor the grade of heterotopic ossification significantly influenced the incidence of wound healing problems. One hundred nine patients (73%) were available for the followup interview. Preoperatively, 58 patients (53%) had local complaints. Of these 58 patients, 78% reported improvement and 7% reported an aggravation of their local complaints. Of the 51 patients who were asymptomatic before surgery, 20% reported long-term complaints at followup. Only symptomatic patients should be considered for femoral nail removal. PMID:15232453

  13. Tractor nail as impacted foreign body: rare case scenario.

    PubMed

    Khanduja, Sumeet; Khurana, Aruj; Sachdeva, Sumit; Rathi, Ashok; Khurana, A K

    2013-06-01

    A patient presented with a metallic nail impacted in the right orbital floor after being hit by a projectile. The nail was disimpacted and removed as guided by the radiograph image. Radiography proved helpful in forming a coherent scheme for case management. PMID:23329332

  14. Nail morphology studies as assessments for onychomycosis treatment modalities.

    PubMed

    Repka, Michael A; O'Haver, John; See, Chun Hwa; Gutta, Kavitha; Munjal, Manish

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the morphology of the human nail treated with chemical penetration enhancers (CPE), bioadhesives and surface modifiers for assessment of topical treatment modalities for onychomycosis. CPEs, including dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and urea were applied to human nail samples. Additional samples were treated with surface modifiers, tartaric acid (TTA) and phosphoric acid gel (PA). Other nail specimens were subjected to the bioadhesive polymers Carbopol 971P and Klucel MF. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and polarized light microscopy (PLM) were utilized to visualize nail morphology and topographical changes of the human nail samples subjected to the various chemical agents. AFM, SEM and PLM micrographs revealed changes in topography to the dorsal layer when CPEs and surface modifiers were applied. Roughness scores as determined by NANOSCOPE IIIA software indicated a 2-fold increase when the dorsal nail layer was subjected to PA versus the control (147.8 vs. 85.0 nm, respectively). In contrast, when carbomer 971P was applied to the dorsal surface, roughness scores decreased significantly (44.6 vs. 85.0 nm, respectively). AFM, SEM and PLM studies of the human nail subjected to various chemical agents may be useful in the design and formulation of novel drug delivery systems for the topical treatment of onychomycosis. The AFM studies offer both a qualitative and quantitative assessment for nail treatment opportunities. PMID:12270239

  15. Ten self-inflicted intracranial penetrating nail gun injuries.

    PubMed

    Yuh, Sung-Joo; Alaqeel, Ahmed

    2015-07-01

    Penetrating craniocerebral injuries from nail gun use are rare. We describe a case of 10 self-inflicted nail gun injuries with intracranial penetrations. We also review the literature and discuss management strategies of such craniocerebral trauma. A 33-year-old male with a long-standing history of severe depression took a nail gun and sustained 10 penetrating intracranial injuries. Initial neuroimaging revealed 10 penetrating nails, all sparing the major cerebral vasculature. Immediate surgical removal was undertaken in the surgical suite using a combination of craniotomies, craniectomies, and blind removal. Intracranial injuries from self-inflicted nail gun misuse is becoming increasingly more frequent. Initial appropriate clinical decision-making are critical in preventing further cortical or vascular damage. PMID:26166596

  16. A chemical mixer with dark-green nails.

    PubMed

    Leung, Lawrence K; Harding, John

    2015-01-01

    Nails are integral extensions of the skin and they together form the largest organ of the human body. Changes in nail appearance can be due to external insults or internal pathologies, and nail signs have to be interpreted in light of a good history. We present an interesting case of a man who developed dark-green discolouration of his nails over a short period of time. His work as a chemical mixer rendered him susceptible to hazardous chemical exposure. A notification was filed and the local Occupational Health Department discovered insufficient protective gear and lack of protocols regarding hazards of isocyanate-based resin. The patient also reported washing utensils with bare hands. Based on the meniscal demarcation borders between the discoloured and normal areas, plus a positive bacterial culture from nail clippings, the final diagnosis of isocyanate-resin-induced onycholysis with secondary Pseudomonas infection remained as the most likely clinical diagnosis. PMID:26040827

  17. [How to diagnose and treat psoriasis of the nails].

    PubMed

    Baran, Robert

    2014-11-01

    Psoriasis is an inherited chronic hyper proliferative autoimmune disease. Nail involvement is common and is found in 61% of cases of cutaneous psoriasis, with lifetime incidence of 90%; 80 to 90% in patients with psoriatic arthritis. Classical manifestations on the nail apparatus are correlated with the origin site of the disease. The proximal matrix produces pitting, trachyonychia and Beau's lines, transverse grooves. The distal matrix (lunula) may appear spotted or erythematous in color. Inflammation of the mid or distal matrix causes leuconychia due to nail incorporation of parakeratotic cells. Nail bed and hyponychium can show onycholysis, oil drops (salmon patches) subungual hyperkeratosis and at the distal nail bed splinter hemorrhages. Induction or severe exacerbation of psoriasis may be due to drugs, such as ?-blockers, lithium, antimalarial agents, anti-TNF and interferon. PMID:25443636

  18. Ciclopirox Nail Lacquer 8%: In vivo Penetration into and through Nails and in vitro Effect on Pig Skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. G. Ceschin-Roques; H. Hänel; S. M. Pruja-Bougaret; J. Luc; J. Vandermander; G. Michel

    1991-01-01

    This report presents original methods to assess the bioavailability of an antifungal drug from a varnish preparation in finger nails. For the studies with human volunteers a ciclopirox 8 % nail lacquer was used to determine its efficacy in the treatment of onychomycoses. In vivo studies were performed on the fingernails of healthy volunteers by determining the total amount of

  19. Yellow Nail Syndrome and Nail Lichen Planus may be Induced by a Common Culprit. Focus on Dental Restorative Substances

    PubMed Central

    Baran, Léon-Robert

    2014-01-01

    Different clinical appearances such as Yellow nail syndrome and Lichen planus or lichenoid reactions can originate from close or identical etiologies. They may result from dental restorative materials or metal allergy. Interestingly, the nail sometimes returns to its normal condition, months after the withdrawal of the offending agents. PMID:25593919

  20. Green Nail Syndrome (Pseudomonas aeruginosa Nail Infection): Two Cases Successfully Treated with Topical Nadifloxacin, an Acne Medication

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Simon; Ebnöther, Myriam; Itin, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Green nail syndrome (GNS) caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common bacterial nail infection. The treatment of GNS is challenging in many cases and recommendations based on clinical trials are lacking. We report two cases with GNS successfully treated with off-label use of topical nadifloxacin, a fluoroquinolone approved for acne and bacterial skin infections in some countries. PMID:25202260

  1. Impact of a healthy nails program on nail-biting in Turkish schoolchildren: a controlled pretest-posttest study.

    PubMed

    Ergun, Ayse; Toprak, Rumeysa; Sisman, Fatma Nevin

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of a healthy nails program on nail-biting in Turkish schoolchildren. This quasi-experimental study was of pretest-posttest control group design. A total of 50 students of a primary school formed the intervention group, while 53 students from the same school formed the control group. Data were collected with a demographic form, a nail-biting follow-up form, and photographs of the fingernails. It was found that 68.9% of students were biting seven or more of their nails; 46.6% had damaged nail beds. In the intervention group, the rate of the children who were not biting their nails (baseline = 0%, 4th week = 56.0%, 8th week = 64.0%) increased significantly compared to the control group (baseline = 0%, 4th week = 15.1%, 8th week = 18.9%). Outcomes indicate the efficacy of the healthy nails program in reducing the nail-biting problem in schoolchildren. PMID:23492878

  2. Perishable Product Supply Chains in Health Care: Models, Analysis, and Computations

    E-print Network

    Nagurney, Anna

    socially, politically, and security-wise. Anna Nagurney Perishable Product Supply Chains #12;Our ApproachPerishable Product Supply Chains in Health Care: Models, Analysis, and Computations Anna NagurneyGill University Montreal, Canada October 28, 2011 Anna Nagurney Perishable Product Supply Chains #12

  3. Perishable Product Supply Chains in Health Care: Models, Analysis, and Computations

    E-print Network

    Nagurney, Anna

    Perishable Product Supply Chains in Health Care: Models, Analysis, and Computations Anna Nagurney and Business Vienna, Austria March 12, 2013 Anna Nagurney Perishable Product Supply Chains #12;Acknowledgments Perishable Product Supply Chains #12;Outline Background and Motivation Examples of Supply Chains That We

  4. Perishable Product Supply Chains in Health Care: Models, Analysis, and Computations

    E-print Network

    Nagurney, Anna

    Perishable Product Supply Chains in Health Care: Models, Analysis, and Computations Anna Nagurney Gothenburg, Sweden March 20, 2012 Anna Nagurney Perishable Product Supply Chains #12;Acknowledgments I would Product Supply Chains #12;Outline Background and Motivation Examples of Supply Chains That We Focus

  5. Perishable Product Supply Chains in Health Care: Models, Analysis, and Computations

    E-print Network

    Nagurney, Anna

    Perishable Product Supply Chains in Health Care: Models, Analysis, and Computations Anna Nagurney Stockholm, Sweden June 18, 2012 Anna Nagurney Perishable Product Supply Chains #12;Acknowledgments I would Product Supply Chains #12;Outline Background and Motivation Examples of Supply Chains That We Focus

  6. International scientists? priorities for research on pharmaceutical and personal care products in the environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are widely discharged into the environment via diverse pathways. The effects of PPCPs in the environment have potentially important human and ecosystem health implications, so credible, salient, and legitimate scientific evidence...

  7. Plasma treatment on finger nails prior to coating with a varnish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Kaemling; A. Kaemling; S. Tümmel; W. Viöl

    2005-01-01

    Application of plasma onto the nail surface using a specifically designed prototype facilitates the longer-lasting nail varnish claimed in advertisements by many conventional nail varnish producers. This new, functional prototype is user-friendly and inexpensive; it is also portable because it is battery powered. The purpose of this article is to explore using surface analysis methods the modifications on finger nails

  8. Skin and nail changes in children with sickle cell anemia receiving hydroxyurea therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erin E. O'Branski; Russell E. Ware; Neil S. Prose; Thomas R. Kinney

    2001-01-01

    Skin and nail changes from long-term hydroxyurea therapy are reported in adults. Skin and nail changes, including nail hyperpigmentation, longitudinal bands, and hyperpigmentation of the palms and other skin surfaces, developed in 7 children with sickle cell anemia after 6 to 16 weeks of hydroxyurea therapy. Cutaneous and nail changes may occur in children receiving hydroxyurea. (J Am Acad Dermatol

  9. Thin Split-Thickness Toenail Bed Grafts for Avulsed Nail Bed Defects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shang-Chin Hsieh; Shao-Liang Chen; Tim-Mo Chen; Tiang-Yeu Cheng; Hsian-Jenn Wang

    2004-01-01

    Avulsed defect of a fingernail bed is a common injury in acute hand trauma. Insufficient management for this type of nail bed avulsion often leads to an irregular and nonadherent nail. The use of thin split-thickness sterile matrix graft from the great toe for immediate replacement of a nail bed defect can regain a smooth, adherent, and normal-looking nail. Between

  10. Newborn Chemical Exposure from Over-the-Counter Skin Care Products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Cetta; George H. Lambert; Simon P. Ros

    1991-01-01

    Human exposure to potentially toxic environmental chemicals is major concern to our society. Over-the-counter (OTC) skin care products are a potential source of environmental chemical exposure to newborns. A prospective study was undertaken to define existing newborn bathing practices and quantitate environmental chemical exposure from OTC skin care products. One hundred-ninety six mothers of infants discharged from our newborn nursery

  11. Take Care of Your Feet for a Lifetime

    MedlinePLUS

    ... an infection. 4 Gently rub calluses with a pumice stone. 5 5 If you can see, reach, ... to take care of your feet: nail clippers, pumice stone, emery board, skin lotion, talcum powder, plastic ...

  12. The oral environment: the challenge for antimicrobials in oral care products.

    PubMed

    Brading, M G; Marsh, P D

    2003-12-01

    For any antibacterial/ anti-plaque system from an oral care product to be effective, it must firstly be delivered and retained at relevant sites in the oral cavity and secondly, remain active within the chosen formulation to successfully target the biofilm cells within dental plaque. This must include inhibition of the growth and metabolism of relevant organisms associated with disease. This review will concentrate on understanding the environmental conditions in which such oral care products must work and summarise the activity within the oral cavity of the main antibacterial and anti-plaque agents in common oral care products, namely chlorhexidine, essential oils, metal salts and Triclosan. Routes to further enhance the activity of these products, together with the use of relatively novel formats such as confectionery products to provide added consumer oral health benefits will be considered. PMID:14725379

  13. Production cost structure in US outpatient physical therapy health care.

    PubMed

    Lubiani, Gregory G; Okunade, Albert A

    2013-02-01

    This paper investigates the technology cost structure in US physical therapy care. We exploit formal economic theories and a rich national data of providers to tease out implications for operational cost efficiencies. The 2008-2009 dataset comprising over 19?000 bi-weekly, site-specific physical therapy center observations across 28 US states and Occupational Employment Statistics data (Bureau of Labor Statistics) includes measures of output, three labor types (clinical, support, and administrative), and facilities (capital). We discuss findings from the iterative seemingly unrelated regression estimation system model. The generalized translog cost estimates indicate a well-behaved underlying technology structure. We also find the following: (i) factor demands are downwardly sloped; (ii) pair-wise factor relationships largely reflect substitutions; (iii) factor demand for physical therapists is more inelastic compared with that for administrative staff; and (iv) diminishing scale economies exist at the 25%, 50%, and 75% output (patient visits) levels. Our findings advance the timely economic understanding of operations in an increasingly important segment of the medical care sector that has, up-to-now (because of data paucity), been missing from healthcare efficiency analysis. Our work further provides baseline estimates for comparing operational efficiencies in physical therapy care after implementations of the 2010 US healthcare reforms. PMID:22431432

  14. Nail changes secondary to docetaxel chemotherapy : a case report

    PubMed Central

    Ghafoor, Qamar; Chetiyawardana, Anula

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Docetaxel is a chemotherapy agent used in the management of many neoplastic conditions. Various side effects are known. Nail changes are often under-recognised or attributed to other causes. Case presentation We report the case of a 66 year old gentleman who received docetaxel chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer. He had nail changes as a complication of the treatment. Conclusion Nail toxicity is a recognised side-effect of taxane chemotherapy agents and can often persist for many months after finishing the treatment. We would like to highlight this problem, so it can be considered as a differential diagnosis in the appropriate population. PMID:18226208

  15. Nail lichen planus in a patient with alopecia totalis.

    PubMed

    Ginsberg, Brian A; Yost, John Montgomery; Lewin, Jesse; Hale, Christopher S; Meehan, Shane A; Carucci, John A; Ramachandran, Sarika

    2014-12-01

    A 67-year-old man with a three-year history of non-scarring alopecia that progressed to alopecia totalis despite intralesional glucocorticoid injections is presented. He developed 20-nail dystrophy that was recalcitrant to antifungal and anti-inflammatory treatments. Biopsy of the nail matrix showed histopathologic features of lichen planus. Alopecia totalis and isolated lichen planus of the nails are uncommon subtypes of common dermatologic disorders. Rarely reported concurrently, we provide a review of the literature of their association, which is most likely attributed to their autoimmune pathogeneses. PMID:25526340

  16. Product Safety, Risk Assessment, and Responsible Care in the Biocide Chemical Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. D. Weiler; M. A. Jayjock; H. C. Levy

    1996-01-01

    Manufacturers of biocides recognize a need to control the risk from their products. This paper discusses some of the history and critical aspects of these activities and outlines the needs under the current initiatives of Responsible Care. Biocide product safety risk assessment is operationally defined in this context and presented as the fundamental tool of the process. The need for

  17. Demonstration of 20 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as nitrosamine precursors during chloramine disinfection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruqiao Shen; Susan A. Andrews

    2011-01-01

    The worldwide detection of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the aquatic environment and drinking water has been a cause for concern in recent years. The possibility for concurrent formation of nitrosamine DBPs (disinfection by-products) during chloramine disinfection has become another significant concern for delivered drinking water quality because of their potent carcinogenicity. This study demonstrates that a group

  18. Safety evaluation of perfluoropolyethers, liquid polymers used in barrier creams and other skin-care products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Malinverno; G. Pantini; J. Bootman

    1996-01-01

    Fomblin HC products area ‘family’ of high-purity perfluoropolyethers manufactured for barrier cream and other personal care applications which involve direct application to the skin. To confirm the safety of such use, representative Fomblin HC products were tested in experimental animals for acute toxicity, primary and repeated insult irritancy, sensitization and photosensitization, subacute oral toxicity and comedogenicity; mutagenicity was examined in

  19. PROBLEMS IN INTRAMEDULLARY NAILING OF FEMORAL FRACTURES

    PubMed Central

    Soto-Hall, Ralph; McCloy, Neil P.

    1951-01-01

    Intramedullary nailing, an improved method for treatment of fractures of the shaft of the femur, is still in a transitional stage. Experience in 35 cases indicates that supplementary fixation as safeguard against sepparation or overriding often is advisable, particularly in the presence of considerable fragmentation. Wire loops, cross screws and, in some cases, a Collins band modified in such a way as to avoid occlusion of blood supply, have been used for this purpose. For strength and rigidity, the rod used should be as great in diameter as the medullary space can accommodate. A method of preoperative determination of the size of rod to use has been devised. As the intramedullary rod may bend or break, it is advisable that patients be cautioned against full weight bearing on the injured leg too soon after operation. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6. PMID:14848704

  20. 6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT OUTSIDE CANAL BANK. VIEW IS TO THE WEST. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  1. A fatal nail gun injury--an unusual ricochet?

    PubMed

    Nadesan, K

    2000-01-01

    An 18-year-old construction worker suddenly collapsed while handling a power-actuated nail gun and died shortly after. A neat, almost circular puncture wound was found on the front of his left chest. No fire-arm residues were detected on the surrounding skin. The police stated that it was an accidental injury, at a construction site, where a nail fired from a nail gun by the deceased had deflected off the wall and struck him on the front of the chest. Since the entry wound appeared to be a neat hole, and that too on the front of the left chest overlying the heart area, there was reluctance on the part of the pathologist to accept it as an accidental injury due to a ricochet. A visit to the scene, interrogation of witnesses, examination of the alleged tool and post-mortem X-ray of the deceased were undertaken prior to autopsy. A bent nail was found in the heart. The scene visit and the subsequent autopsy revealed that the nail took a roughly circular flightpath after it had struck the wall, all the while travelling with its pointed end directed forward. Within the body too, the nail maintained the same path. Various medicolegal issues are discussed pertaining to nail-gun injuries. The importance of a visit to the scene, examination of the alleged tool, interrogation of witnesses and the X-ray of the body, all prior to autopsy, are emphasized. The conclusion was: accidental death due to the unusual ricochet of a nail. PMID:10689867

  2. 14-year-old boy with painful nail changes.

    PubMed

    Nag, Shudeshna; Weinstein, Miriam; Greenberg, Saul

    2015-03-01

    Doxycycline is a classically implicated cause of phototoxic reactions. Photo-onycholysis is a rare manifestation of phototoxicity. Nail changes may typically include nail pain, subungual hemorrhages, or distal onycholysis. Self-resolution can be expected in 3 to 6 months. Patients prescribed doxycycline should be counseled about the potential for phototoxicity and the need for appropriate sun protection while taking the medication. PMID:25733769

  3. Estimating chemical emissions from home and personal care products in China.

    PubMed

    Hodges, J E N; Holmes, C M; Vamshi, R; Mao, D; Price, O R

    2012-06-01

    China's economy has grown significantly and concomitantly so has the demand for home and personal care (HPC) products. The detection of chemicals used in HPC products is increasing in profile as China strives to improve its environmental management. China is developing robust exposure models for use in regulatory risk-based assessments of chemicals, including those chemicals used in HPC products. Accurate estimates of chemical emissions play an important role within this. A methodology is presented to derive spatially refined emissions from demographic and economic indicators with large variations in emissions calculated, showing product usage being higher in East and South China. The less affordable a product, the greater the influence per capita Gross Domestic Product has on the product distribution. Lastly, more spatially resolved input data highlights greater variation of product use. Linking product sales data with population density increased the observed variability in absolute usage distribution of HPC products at the county > province > regional > country scale. PMID:22154979

  4. Survey of Organosilicone Compounds, Including Cyclic and Linear Siloxanes, in Personal-Care and Household Products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuichi Horii; Kurunthachalam Kannan

    2008-01-01

    The determination of organosiloxanes in consumer products is important for the evaluation and characterization of sources\\u000a of human and environmental exposures. In this study, we determined concentrations of cyclic siloxanes [octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane\\u000a (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6)], tetradecamethylcycloheptasiloxane (D7)] and linear siloxanes (L4 to L14) in a variety of consumer products (n = 76), including hair-care products, skin lotions, body washes, cosmetics, nursing

  5. Role of nail biopsy as a diagnostic tool.

    PubMed

    Grover, Chander; Chaturvedi, Uma K; Reddy, Belum Siva Nagi

    2012-01-01

    Nail biopsy (NB) is an investigation that is not routinely resorted to by most of the dermatologists. The commonly cited reasons are the complexity of the procedure, risk of scarring and the reluctance of the patient. However, in cases with isolated nail psoriasis, isolated nail lichen planus, onychomycosis not confirmed on direct microscopy and culture, or longitudinal melanonychia, the treating dermatologist is left with no choice but to resort to this procedure. Nail as a unit, is capable of projecting only a limited number of clinical manifestations. This is responsible for the more or less similar clinical presentation of many different nail disorders. Hence, a practical knowledge of the indications, appropriate patient selection, procedural details and histopathological interpretation of a NB is a must-have for any practicing dermatologist. The risk of scarring is none to minimal if appropriate type of biopsy is performed, not to mention the wealth of histopathological data that can be retrieved from the nail unit. This article aims to explore the various practical do's and don'ts for the NB and tells us what to expect from of the procedure. PMID:22565428

  6. The Effect of Improving Primary Care Depression Management on Employee Absenteeism and Productivity A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rost, Kathryn; Smith, Jeffrey L.; Dickinson, Miriam

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To test whether an intervention to improve primary care depression management significantly improves productivity at work and absenteeism over 2 years. Setting and Subjects: Twelve community primary care practices recruiting depressed primary care patients identified in a previsit screening. Research Design: Practices were stratified by depression treatment patterns before randomization to enhanced or usual care. After delivering brief training, enhanced care clinicians provided improved depression management over 24 months. The research team evaluated productivity and absenteeism at baseline, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months in 326 patients who reported full-or part-time work at one or more completed waves. Results: Employed patients in the enhanced care condition reported 6.1% greater productivity and 22.8% less absenteeism over 2 years. Consistent with its impact on depression severity and emotional role functioning, intervention effects were more observable in consistently employed subjects where the intervention improved productivity by 8.2% over 2 years at an estimated annual value of $1982 per depressed full-time equivalent and reduced absenteeism by 28.4% or 12.3 days over 2 years at an estimated annual value of $619 per depressed full-time equivalent. Conclusions: This trial, which is the first to our knowledge to demonstrate that improving the quality of care for any chronic disease has positive consequences for productivity and absenteeism, encourages formal cost-benefit research to assess the potential return-on-investment employers of stable workforces can realize from using their purchasing power to encourage better depression treatment for their employees. PMID:15550800

  7. Humanistic care in design of products for women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuanwu Shi; Qianqian Wen

    2010-01-01

    As economy develops, the role of women in modern society sees tremendous changes and women is becoming an essential market participant. With respect to such new changes, physiological and psychological difference between the sexes, as well as consumption psychology of various types of women, is analyzed in this paper. It states that the basic view, i.e., product designers should implement

  8. Chloronychia: green nail syndrome caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in elderly persons.

    PubMed

    Chiriac, Anca; Brzezinski, Piotr; Foia, Liliana; Marincu, Iosif

    2015-01-01

    Green nails, also known as chloronychia or green nail syndrome, are characterized by green discoloration of the nail plate (greenish-yellow, greenish-brown, greenish-black), proximal chronic non-tender paronychia, and distolateral onycholysis. The cause is Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection of the nail plate in persons whose hands are constantly exposed to water, soaps, and detergents or are subject to mechanical trauma, especially in the elderly. Green or black coloration of the nails should raise suspicion for Pseudomonas infection and be treated with an oral quinolone (ciprofloxacin), particularly in aged patients. We present three cases of green nails in elderly persons. PMID:25609938

  9. Chloronychia: green nail syndrome caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in elderly persons

    PubMed Central

    Chiriac, Anca; Brzezinski, Piotr; Foia, Liliana; Marincu, Iosif

    2015-01-01

    Green nails, also known as chloronychia or green nail syndrome, are characterized by green discoloration of the nail plate (greenish-yellow, greenish-brown, greenish-black), proximal chronic non-tender paronychia, and distolateral onycholysis. The cause is Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection of the nail plate in persons whose hands are constantly exposed to water, soaps, and detergents or are subject to mechanical trauma, especially in the elderly. Green or black coloration of the nails should raise suspicion for Pseudomonas infection and be treated with an oral quinolone (ciprofloxacin), particularly in aged patients. We present three cases of green nails in elderly persons. PMID:25609938

  10. Dystrophic Psoriatic Fingernails Treated with 1% 5Fluorouracil in a Nail Penetration-Enhancing Vehicle: A Double-Blind Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. G. J. de Jong; H. E. Menke; M. C. G. van Praag

    1999-01-01

    Background: Topically applied nail therapeutics need to permeate the nail plate to reach the nail bed or nail matrix and exert their potential beneficial effect at these locations to obtain a therapeutic benefit. So far only topically applied 5-fluorouracil on affected nails of psoriatic patients has been shown to produce a notable clearance. Vehicle formulations enhancing nail permeation processes are

  11. FDA's Report on New Health Care Products Approved in 1999

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Released on January 18 by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), this report highlights some of the approximately 140 medications and medical devices approved by the FDA last year. The highlighted products are listed by the groups of patients or diseases they are designed to help. The report also discusses FDA approval and application procedures. While neither extensive nor particularly easy to read, the report still contains a useful overview of the most important new drugs and treatments to enter the market in 1999.

  12. Demand and Supply–Based Operating Modes—A Framework for Analyzing Health Care Service Production

    PubMed Central

    Lillrank, Paul; Groop, P Johan; Malmström, Tomi J

    2010-01-01

    Context: The structure of organizations that provide services should reflect the possibilities of and constraints on production that arise from the market segments they serve. Organizational segmentation in health care is based on urgency and severity as well as disease type, bodily function, principal method, or population subgroup. The result is conflicting priorities, goals, and performance metrics. A managerial perspective is needed to identify activities with similar requirements for integration, coordination, and control. Methods: The arguments in this article apply new reasoning to the previous literature. Findings: The method used in this article to classify health care provision distinguishes different types of health problems that share generic constraints of production. Conclusions: The analysis leads to seven different demand-supply combinations, each with its own operational logic. These are labeled demand and supply–based operating modes (DSO modes), and constitute the managerial building blocks of health care organizations. The modes are Prevention, Emergency, One visit, Project, Elective, Cure, and Care. As analytical categories the DSO modes can be used to understand current problems. Several operating modes in one unit create managerial problems of conflicting priorities, goals, and performance metrics. The DSO modes are constructed as managerially homogeneous categories or care platforms responding to general types of demand, and supply constraints. The DSO modes bring methods of industrial management to bear on efforts to improve health care. PMID:21166870

  13. Intramedullary nailing: evolutions of femoral intramedullary nailing: first to fourth generations.

    PubMed

    Russell, Thomas A

    2011-12-01

    Intramedullary femoral nailing is the gold standard for femoral shaft fixation but only in the past 27 years. This rapid replacement of closed traction and cast techniques in North America was a controversial and contentious evolution in surgery. As we enter the fourth generation of implant design, capabilities, and surgical technique, it is important to understand the driving forces for this technology. These forces included changes in radiographic imaging capabilities, biomaterial design and computer-assisted manufacturing, and the recognition of the importance of mobilization of the trauma patient to avoid systemic complications and optimize functional recovery. PMID:22089849

  14. Proximal humeral fractures and intramedullary nailing: Experience with a new nail system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jochen Blum; Matthias Hansen; Mathias Müller; Pol M. Rommens; Helmut Matuschka; Antonio Olmeda; Marek J. Radziejowski; Wolfgang Merbold; Stefan Nijs; Renzo Angeloni

    2009-01-01

    \\u000a Abstract\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives:\\u000a   The goal of this study was to evaluate fracture healing and alignment as well as functional outcome and complication risks\\u000a after internal fixation with the intramedullary proximal humeral nail (PHN). This device shows promise for applications involving\\u000a the reconstruction of the humeral shaft and head with minimal soft tissue stripping and for providing a locked, fixed-angle\\u000a construct for

  15. Tests of stationarity and cointegration of health care expenditure and gross domestic product: an application to Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kiymaz, Halil; Akbulut, Yasemin; Demir, Ahmet

    2006-12-01

    This study examines the long-run relationship among the per capita private, public, and total health care expenditure and per capita gross domestic product and population growth of Turkey. We find some evidence of multivariate cointegrating relationships among the health care expenditure and gross domestic product, and population growth. We further find a bivariate cointegrating relationship between private health care expenditure and per capita gross domestic product. Accordingly, a 10% increase in gross domestic product would translate into a 21.9% increase in total health care expenditure while controlling population growth. The income elasticity of health expenditure is found to be greater than 1, implying that health care is a luxury good in Turkey. Finally we note that there exists one-way causality running from per capita gross domestic product to various definitions of health care expenses. PMID:17109146

  16. Steps Toward Effective Production of Speech (STEPS): No. 5--How to Take Care of a Hearing Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheeley, Eugene C.; McQuiddy, Doris

    The booklet, one of a series of guides for parents of deaf-blind children developed by Project STEPS (Steps Toward Effective Production of Speech), gives parents practical suggestions for caring for their deaf-blind child's hearing aid. An initial section provides basic information on hearing aid function and care. Specific care ideas are provided…

  17. Fat embolism syndrome after femur fracture with intramedullary nailing: case report.

    PubMed

    Powers, K A; Talbot, L A

    2011-05-01

    Fat embolism syndrome is a life-threatening condition that can develop after orthopedic injury and surgery. This syndrome developed in a 19-year-old man after a traumatic femoral fracture that was surgically repaired with intramedullary nailing. The complications experienced by the patient highlight the importance of prevention and early detection of fat embolism syndrome. Although minimization of the syndrome focuses primarily on prehospital care and early stabilization of a patient's condition, prevention of the potential consequences requires early detection by bedside nurses who care for trauma and orthopedic patients. Detailed nursing assessment and rapid recognition and reporting of the signs and symptoms associated with fat embolism syndrome are key to improving the outcomes of these patients. PMID:21532048

  18. Immunochemical Determination of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products as Emerging Pollutants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M.-Carmen Estévez; Mikaela Nichkova; J.-Pablo Salvador; Begoña Varela; Francisco Sánchez-Baeza; M.-Pilar Marco

    A review on immunochemical methods for the analysis of pharmaceuticals is presented. A broad range of pharmaceutical categories\\u000a and personal care products may reach the aquatic environment after excretion through industrial, domestic, and hospital wastewater.\\u000a With few exceptions pharmaceuticals for human medicine are not high-production chemicals and the expected environmental concentrations\\u000a should be low. However, the use of some of

  19. Photobiological safety evaluation of UV nail lamps.

    PubMed

    Dowdy, John C; Sayre, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated six UV nail lamps representative of major US manufacturers to evaluate radiant hazards as defined in ANSI/IESNA RP-27 Recommended Practice for Photobiological Safety. Lamps were evaluated at three positions, 1 cm above the inner surface approximating exposure to the hand and the 20 cm RP-27 non-general light source distance, oriented normal and 45° to the opening. Hazard to skin at intended use distance classified these devices into Risk Group 1 or 2 (Low to Moderate) with S(?) weighted Actinic UV ranging 1.2-1.7 ?W cm(-2) and 29.8-276.25 min permissible daily exposure. At 20 cm on center and 45° UV risk to skin and eyes were all within Exempt classification. Actinic UV ranged 0.001-0.078 ?W cm(-2) and unweighted near UV (320-400 nm) ranged 0.001-0.483 mW cm(-2). Likewise the retinal photochemical blue light hazard and retinal thermal and cornea/lens IR were also Exempt. One device had aphakic eye hazard slightly rising into Risk Group 1 (Low). There were no other photobiological risks to normal individuals. Total exposure following programmed times and steps accumulate to only a small fraction of RP-27 permissible daily occupational exposure. These risks are further mitigated in realistic nonoccupational use scenarios as it is unlikely to be a daily occurrence. PMID:23550905

  20. Occurrence of Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) in Surface Water from Mankyung River, South Korea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joon-Woo Kim; Hyo-Sang Jang; Jong-Gu Kim; Hiroshi Ishibashi; Masashi Hirano; Kazuaki Nasu; Nobuhiro Ichikawa; Yuji Takao; Ryota Shinohara; Koji Arizono

    2009-01-01

    The present study demonstrates the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in sur- face water from the Mankyung River, South Korea. Samples collected at 5 Sites along the Mankyung River were as- sayed using a liquid chromatograph coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer (LC\\/MS\\/MS) for 13 PPCPs. Overall, 11 out of the 13 selected PPCPs, which span a

  1. WEBPAGE ON ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR CHEMICALS, PHARMACEUTICALS, AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS - UPDATE 6/28/02

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presence of endocrine disruptors, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products in the environment and in drinking waters is a growing concern in the US. The definition of endocrine disruptors is a matter of debate, however, a simple definition is that endocrine disruptors are ...

  2. Pharmaceuticals, Personal Care Products, and Endocrine Disruptors in Water: Implications for the Water Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shane A. Snyder; Paul Westerhoff; Yeomin Yoon; David L. Sedlak

    2003-01-01

    For over 70 years, scientists have reported that certain synthetic and natural compounds could mimic nat- ural hormones in the endocrine systems of animals. These substances are now collectively known as en- docrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), and have been linked to a variety of adverse effects in both humans and wildlife. More recently, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have been

  3. Characterizing the Passage of Personal Care Products Through Wastewater Treatment Processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan Oppenheimer; Roger Stephenson; Arturo Burbano; Li Liu

    Wastewater treatment facilities use secondary treatment to stabilize the effect of discharged effluent on receiving waters by oxidizing biodegradable organic matter and reducing suspended solids and nutrients. The process was never specifically intended to remove trace quantities of xenobiotics, such as endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) and pharmaceu- ticals and personal care products (PPCPs). Nevertheless, European studies performed at bench-scale or at

  4. Analytical techniques in studies of the environmental fate of pharmaceuticals and personal-care products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agata Kot-Wasik; Jolanta D?bska; Jacek Namie?nik

    2007-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal-care products are widely used around the world to maintain human and animal health. There is a growing concern that these compounds pass through sewage-treatment plants and enter the environment. We present a brief review of input by different sources, trends in either fate or analysis of pharmaceuticals, parapharmaceuticals and their metabolites in the environment.

  5. Degradation and adsorption of selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in agricultural soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Xu; Laosheng Wu; Andrew C. Chang

    2009-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are emerging contaminants in the environment, which have drawn popular concerns recently. Most studies on the environmental fate of PPCPs have focused on their behaviors during wastewater treatment processes, in aquatic environments, and in the sludge, however, little is known about their behavior in agricultural soils. In this study, adsorption and degradation of six

  6. Simulation of Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Product Transport to Tile Drains after Biosolids Application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mats Larsbo; David R. Lapen; Edward Topp; Chris Metcalfe; Karim C. Abbaspour; Kathrin Fenner

    2009-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) carried in biosolids may reach surface waters or ground water when these materials are applied as fertilizer to agricultural land. During preferential fl ow conditions created by land application of liquid municipal biosolids (LMB), the residence time of solutes in the macropores may be too short for sorption equilibration. Th e physically based dual-permeability

  7. Selected personal care products and endocrine disruptors in biosolids: An Australia-wide survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kate A. Langdon; Michael St. J. Warne; Ronald J. Smernik; Ali Shareef; Rai S. Kookana

    2011-01-01

    Personal care products (PCPs) and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are groups of organic contaminants that have been detected in biosolids around the world. There is a shortage of data on these types on compounds in Australian biosolids, making it difficult to gain an understanding of their potential risks in the environment following land application. In this study, 14 biosolids samples

  8. Safety assessment of personal care products\\/cosmetics and their ingredients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerhard J. Nohynek; Eric Antignac; Thomas Re; Herve Toutain

    2010-01-01

    We attempt to review the safety assessment of personal care products (PCP) and ingredients that are representative and pose complex safety issues. PCP are generally applied to human skin and mainly produce local exposure, although skin penetration or use in the oral cavity, on the face, lips, eyes and mucosa may also produce human systemic exposure. In the EU, US

  9. Steps Toward Effective Production of Speech (STEPS): No. 7--How to Take Care of Glasses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheeley, Eugene C.; McQuiddy, Doris

    This guide, one of a series of booklets developed by Project STEPS (Steps Toward Effective Production of Speech), presents guidelines for parents of deaf-blind children regarding the care of eyeglasses. Basic concerns with glasses and contact lenses are noted and parents are advised to perform the following daily tasks: checking the frames,…

  10. Determination of ABO(H) blood group substances from finger and toe nails

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Garg

    1983-01-01

    Summary Thirty-six finger and toe nails were analyzed for ABO(H) blood group substances by the modified absorption elution method. The blood groups from nails were successfully determined in all the samples.

  11. A novel nonsurgical treatment for pincer nail that involves mechanical force control.

    PubMed

    Sano, Hitomi; Ogawa, Rei

    2015-02-01

    We hypothesize that nails have an automatic curvature feature and that their flat shape is maintained by the daily upward mechanical forces from the finger/toe pad. Thus, nail deformities, such as pincer nail, spoon nail, and koilonychias, may be caused by an imbalance between these forces and can be treated by controlling these forces. Here, we report the case of a 55-year-old man whose severe pincer nail was effectively treated by thinning the nail, which reduced the automatic curvature force. This is the first report to show that pincer nail can be treated by a nonsurgical method that reduces the automatic curvature force, thus obviating the need for surgery. This supports the notion that mechanical stimulus-based treatments have high therapeutic potential for nail deformities. PMID:25750850

  12. Enhancing transungual delivery and spreading of efinaconazole under the nail plate through a unique formulation approach.

    PubMed

    Kircik, Leon H

    2014-12-01

    Onychomycosis is a very common nail disorder seen in dermatological practice. It is difficult to treat successfully for a multitude of reasons, and although topical antifungal therapy might be considered ideal for mild to moderate onychomycosis, efficacy has been limited by poor nail penetration of active ingredient through the nail plate into the nail bed and nail matrix to the site of infection. The intrinsic properties of an antifungal and its vehicle formulation are both considered important contributors to effective treatment. Here we review the formulation approach to efinaconazole topical solution, 10% an effective and well-tolerated treatment for onychomycosis. We demonstrate that the low surface tension formulation affords better penetration of efinaconazole through the nail plate, and also to the site of infection by spreading into the space between the nail and nail bed. PMID:25607788

  13. 76 FR 19124 - Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ...731-TA-1185 (Preliminary)] Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission...is materially retarded, by reason of imports from The United Arab Emirates of certain steel nails, provided for in...

  14. Green Nail Syndrome Treated with the Application of Tobramycin Eye Drop

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Youin; Lee, Gang Mo; Sim, Ji Hoon; Lee, Sanghoon; Lee, Sung Yul

    2014-01-01

    Green nail syndrome (chromonychia) is a nail disorder characterized by onycholysis and green-black discoloration of the nail bed. This condition is often associated with chronic paronychia. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most commonly identified organism in cultures from the affected area. Despite the various treatment options available, removal of the nail is still necessary in many cases. A 35-year-old man presented with dark-greenish discoloration of the nail plate and onycholysis on the left thumbnail. He had been treated with oral antifungal and antibiotic agents for several months; however, the lesion showed no improvement. The diagnosis of green nail syndrome was established after a positive bacterial culture, and on the basis of the antibiotic sensitivity test result, tobramycin eye drop (Tobrex®) was then prescribed. Three weeks later, the nail discoloration almost vanished but the onycholysis remained. Herein, we recommend the application of tobramycin eye drop as an easy and safe treatment option for green nail syndrome. PMID:25143684

  15. Green nail syndrome treated with the application of tobramycin eye drop.

    PubMed

    Bae, Youin; Lee, Gang Mo; Sim, Ji Hoon; Lee, Sanghoon; Lee, Sung Yul; Park, Young Lip

    2014-08-01

    Green nail syndrome (chromonychia) is a nail disorder characterized by onycholysis and green-black discoloration of the nail bed. This condition is often associated with chronic paronychia. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most commonly identified organism in cultures from the affected area. Despite the various treatment options available, removal of the nail is still necessary in many cases. A 35-year-old man presented with dark-greenish discoloration of the nail plate and onycholysis on the left thumbnail. He had been treated with oral antifungal and antibiotic agents for several months; however, the lesion showed no improvement. The diagnosis of green nail syndrome was established after a positive bacterial culture, and on the basis of the antibiotic sensitivity test result, tobramycin eye drop (Tobrex®) was then prescribed. Three weeks later, the nail discoloration almost vanished but the onycholysis remained. Herein, we recommend the application of tobramycin eye drop as an easy and safe treatment option for green nail syndrome. PMID:25143684

  16. A Novel Nonsurgical Treatment for Pincer Nail That Involves Mechanical Force Control

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Rei

    2015-01-01

    Summary: We hypothesize that nails have an automatic curvature feature and that their flat shape is maintained by the daily upward mechanical forces from the finger/toe pad. Thus, nail deformities, such as pincer nail, spoon nail, and koilonychias, may be caused by an imbalance between these forces and can be treated by controlling these forces. Here, we report the case of a 55-year-old man whose severe pincer nail was effectively treated by thinning the nail, which reduced the automatic curvature force. This is the first report to show that pincer nail can be treated by a nonsurgical method that reduces the automatic curvature force, thus obviating the need for surgery. This supports the notion that mechanical stimulus–based treatments have high therapeutic potential for nail deformities. PMID:25750850

  17. 77 FR 53845 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results and Partial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ...coils using materials such as plastic, paper, or wire. Certain...two-piece steel nails having plastic or steel washers (caps) already assembled to the nail...Limited; Wenzhou KLF Medical Plastics Co., Lt.; Wenzhou...

  18. An Alternative Instrument for Making Entry Point for Elastic Intramedullary Nail

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, P; Meena, S; Gangary, S; Chowdhury, B

    2015-01-01

    Femoral shaft fractures are common in children and are increasingly being treated with elastic intramedullary nail. We outline an instrument we have used successfully to make an entry point for placement of elastic nail. PMID:25861534

  19. A review on the use of non-timber forest products in beauty-care in Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sayma Akhter; Abdul Halim; Shawkat Islam Sohel; Swapan Kumar Sarker; Mohammad Shaheed Hossain Chowdhury; Sanjay Saha Sonet

    2008-01-01

    This review describes the non-timber forest products (NTFPs) used for different aspects of beauty-care in Bangladesh on the\\u000a basis of extensive literature survey. The diverse plant species, including used parts and using patterns for hair care, facial\\u000a treatments and body care, were summarized in 13 tables. This paper accumulate the scattered knowledge regarding the use of\\u000a plants in beauty-care in

  20. Elastoplasticity analysis of the nails used in long bone fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, R.; Del Sel, G.; Paterson, A.; Miralles, M. T.; Del Sel, N.

    2011-12-01

    Elastoplastic endomedullary nail-insertion system in long bone fractures is a method which allows generating forces, moments, frictions and stress states in parts of the bone previously selected. Adding previous knowledge on the distribution of forces and acting moments over the bone fragments to be threaded, as well as on the elastoplastic and mechanical properties of the nails to be inserted (designing a special, specific structure for each case), the results, coming from 26 years of applying this technique, have been promising. It is from this perspective that we call this threading and anchoring procedure "Selective Tension System" (STS). Physicochemical analyses and mechanical trials on elastoplastic nails used in the osteosynthesis in long bone fractures are presented. The magnitude of the forces produced by flattening the nails and the reacting forces at both ends are measured. It is expected that the evidence provided on the elastic variability of these nails will be useful as guidance on the availability and choice of the elastoplastic combinations that best fit each patient.

  1. Locked nailing of severely comminuted or segmental humeral fractures.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jinn; Hou, Sheng-Mou

    2003-01-01

    Some comminuted or segmental humeral fractures have been well-treated by functional bracing, but some also have been reported to have a bad outcome. If surgery is required, unlocked nailing has the disadvantage of unstable fixation, and plating has the disadvantage of extensive soft tissue injury. In the current study, closed locked nailing was used to treat 23 Orthopaedic Trauma Association Type C humeral fractures (C1, five; C2, three; C3, 15). The patients were 12 men and 11 women with a mean age of 42.4 years. There were 16 closed fractures and four Type I, two Type II, and one Type IIIA open fractures. Eight fractures were in the proximal third, seven in the middle third, and eight in the distal third. With one nailing, 21 of 23 (91%) fractures achieved solid union in an average of 13.2 weeks. The two nonunions eventually united after another revision nailing and bone grafting. No patients had significant impairment of elbow function. Excellent or satisfactory shoulder function was obtained in 20 patients. Closed locked nailing showed reliable treatment results for severely comminuted or segmental humeral fractures. The keys to success include compression of the fractures, static locking, postoperative external support, and experienced surgical technique. PMID:12579019

  2. Effect of NonEnzymatic Glycosylation and Heating on Browning of Human Stratum corneum and Nail

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Sueki; S. Nozaki; S. Numazawa; K. Aoki; R. Fujisawa

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of non-enzymatic glycosylation and subsequent heating on the browning of the plantar stratum corneum and the finger-nail, and to elucidate the pathogenesis of the yellow skin and the yellow nail seen in diabetic subjects. We incubated stratum corneum and nail from non-diabetics in 0 (control) 10 (only nail) 20

  3. Interlocking nailing of humeral shaft fractures: the Oxford experience 1991 to 1994

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. E. J. Hems; T. P. S. Bhullar

    1996-01-01

    Forty-three patients with fractures of the humeral shaft were treated by locked intermedullary nailing, using the Russell-Taylor nailing system. Overall there were few technical problems with nail insertion. Additional fracture comminution occurred in five patients but affected stability in only one case. Twenty-six nails were inserted into 22 patients with pathological fractures. The objective of fracture stabilization and pain relief

  4. Getting the product right: how competition policy can improve health care markets.

    PubMed

    Sage, William M

    2014-06-01

    As hospital, physician, and health insurance markets consolidate and change in response to health care reform, some commentators have called for vigorous enforcement of the federal antitrust laws to prevent the acquisition and exercise of market power. In health care, however, stricter antitrust enforcement will benefit consumers only if it accounts for the competitive distortions caused by the sector's long history of government regulation. This article directs policy makers to a neglected dimension of health care competition that has been altered by regulation: the product. Competition may have failed to significantly lower costs, increase access, or improve quality in health care because we have been buying and selling the wrong things. Competition policy makers-meaning both antitrust enforcers and regulators-should force the health care industry to define and market products that can be assembled and warranted to consumers while keeping emerging sectors such as mHealth free from overregulation, wasteful subsidy, and appropriation by established insurer and provider interests. PMID:24841884

  5. Cosmetics, skin care, and appearance in teenagers.

    PubMed

    Marcoux, D

    1999-09-01

    Adolescence is a period of tremendous transformation in the appearance of the body and the evolution of the mind that will eventually lead to adulthood. "Yesterday's child" will need to assume and exert control over these changes. Therefore his/her appearance becomes a means of communication, a language to express his/her pursuit of self-identity. The cosmetic industry has identified teenagers as "powerful" consumers, and offers them various toiletry and skin care products that should fulfill their needs, such as cleansing, hydrating, and photoprotective agents. Certain decorative cosmetics, especially for hair and nails, are attractive to them also. For some teenagers, the expression of individualism is through body art such as tattooing and body piercing. Areas of concern are the lack of motivation for sun protection and the risky behavior associated with body piercing and tattooing. PMID:10468044

  6. Plasma concentrations of parabens in postmenopausal women and self-reported use of personal care products: the NOWAC postgenome study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Torkjel M Sandanger; Sandra Huber; Morten K Moe; Tonje Braathen; Henriette Leknes; Eiliv Lund

    2011-01-01

    Parabens are used extensively in personal care products; however, their estrogenic properties have raised concern over risks to human health. High levels of total parabens, mainly as conjugates, have been reported in human plasma\\/serum, with limited data on native parabens. Our objective was to assess and link plasma concentrations of native common parabens to self-reported use of personal care products

  7. NailDisplay: Bringing an Always-Available Visual Display to Fingertips

    E-print Network

    Ouhyoung, Ming

    @ntu.edu.tw ABSTRACT This work presents a novel and always-available nail mounted display known as Nail as visibility while users' hands are involved in manual tasks. While nail beauty is a major aesthetic back through tactile feedback. SenseableR- ays [15] added a photo sensor, which transfers projected pat

  8. Stress analysis of the distal locking screws for femoral interlocking nailing.

    PubMed

    Lin, J; Lin, S J; Chen, P Q; Yang, S H

    2001-01-01

    In femoral locked nailing, the distal locking screws are vulnerable to mechanical failure. Biomechanical studies have shown that the stress on these screws is substantially affected by the fit of the nail in the medullary canal. In this study, a "closed form" mathematical model based on elastic beam-column theory was developed to investigate how the nail-cortical contact, which was simulated by a linear elastic foundation, affected the stress on the distal locking screws. Providing data for the model was a construct of a fractured femur with an intramedullary locked nail loaded by an eccentric vertical load. The stress on the locking screw was analyzed as a function of the distance from the fracture to the locking screw in the distal fragment under two situations: with and without nail-cortical contact in the distal fragment. With nail-cortical contact, the screw stress decreased as the length of nail-cortical contact and the distance between the distal locking screw and the fracture site increased, but this stress contrarily increased when the nail reached the femoral region at which the screw length increased. The screw stress was much higher without nail-cortical contact than with contact and continued to increase as the nail was inserted further. The mathematical model developed here can be a convenient means of rapid stress evaluation and parametric analysis for locked femoral nailing. It may be used to improve the design of interlocking nails and surgical technique. PMID:11332621

  9. 76 FR 29266 - Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ...Preliminary] Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates Determination On the basis of...injured by reason of imports from the United Arab Emirates of certain steel nails, provided...of certain steel nails from the United Arab Emirates. Accordingly, effective...

  10. 77 FR 27080 - Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ...Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates Determination On the basis of...injured by reason of imports from the United Arab Emirates of certain steel nails, provided...of certain steel nails from the United Arab Emirates were being sold at LTFV...

  11. Comparison of dynamic hip screw and gamma nail: a prospective, randomized, controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Butt; S. J. Krikler; S. Nafie; M. S. Ali

    1995-01-01

    We report a prospective, randomized, controlled trial, comparing the results of treatment with a dynamic hip screw (DHS) and a gamma nail in 95 consecutive patients with peri-trochanteric fractures of the femur. The DHS was used in 48 patients, the gamma nail in 47. Clinical and radiological outcomes were similar, but the gamma nail was associated with a higher incidence

  12. Outcome of Distal Both Bone Leg Fractures Fixed by Intramedulary Nail for Fibula & MIPPO in Tibia

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Anil; Anjum, Rashid; Singh, Navdeep; Hackla, Shafiq

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fractures of the distal third of the tibia are mostly associated with a fibular fracture that often requires fixation. The preferred treatment of distal tibial fracture is the minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis (MIPPO) procedure. However, there are no clear cut guidelines on fixation of the fibular fracture and currently most orthopedic surgeons use a plate osteosynthesis for the fibula as well. A common complication associated with dual plating is an increased chance of soft tissue necrosis, infection, and in some cases resulting in an exposed implant. We conducted a prospective study to analyze the results of fractures of the distal in both leg bones managed by the MIPPO procedure for tibial fractures and a rush nail for fibular fractures. Methods: The study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital from November 2012 to May 2014, a total of 30 fractures in 30 patients (18 males, 12 females) with a mean age of 42.4 years (26-60 years) were treated in our institution in the aforesaid time period with MIPPO for tibia and rush nail for fibular fractures. All the cases were operated on by a single surgeon in emergency within 24 hours. The patients with skin blistering and compound fractures were excluded from this study. Rehabilitative measures were proceeded as per patient’s pain profile, isometric and isotonic exercises were started on the first post-operative day, with full weight bearing at 10-12 weeks after assessing clinical and radiological union. Regular follow up of patients was done, radiographs were taken at the immediate post-operative period and at 3, 6, 12 and 24 weeks. Results: All the patients were available for regular follow up. Radiological and clinical union proceeded normally in all the patients, no patients had signs of any deep infection, delayed union or nonunion, three patients had a superficial infection of the tibial incision that healed with a change in antibiotic. Conclusions: The use of dual plating for fixation of the lower tibia and fibula fractures is often associated with soft tissue complications, exposed implant, and increased risk of infection. We conclude that in fractures of the distal tibia and fibula it is better to use a rush nail for the fibula with a concurrent MIPPO for the tibia for the reasons cited above. Moreover, with the use of rush nail the cost of implant is also reduced, which is a very important factor in developing countries.

  13. Survey of trace elements in human nails: an international comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Takagi, Y.; Matsuda, S.; Imai, S.; Ohmori, Y.; Masuda, T.; Vinson, J.A.; Mehra, M.C.; Puri, B.K.; Kaniewski, A.

    1988-11-01

    Evaluation of trace metals in human tissues such as hair and nails has proven useful in the studies pertaining to chronic body exposure. These have also been suggested as indexes to evaluate environmental exposure by toxic trace metals. Though hair have been more extensively studied than finger nails, yet it remains that the latter tissue is equally promising in the characterization of certain diseases and abnormalities. These studies reveal continued interest in trace elements in the devitalized human tissues. The authors conducted earlier a survey of trace elements in human hair and in continuation of this study the present communication reports the data on trace elements in human nails in populations of diverse regions. Over 500 specimens drawn from Japan, India, Poland, Canada and U.S.A. were analyzed for 21 trace elements. An attempt has also been made to differentiate trace elements distributed according to age, sex and living habits of the donors.

  14. Airborne contact dermatitis and asthma in a nail art operator.

    PubMed

    Vaccaro, Mario; Guarneri, Fabrizio; Barbuzza, Olga; Cannavò, Serafinella Patrizia

    2014-01-01

    Nail art (creation and decoration of artificial nails) is a growing fashion trend. Proportionally to its popularity, the number of allergic reactions to the materials used has recently increased. We report the case of a nail art operator who developed occupational allergy to acrylates, manifested with the unusual simultaneous presence of asthma and dermatitis. Cutaneous lesions only affected areas not covered by individual protection devices or clothes, even if such areas were not in direct contact with acrylates, suggesting airborne allergic contact dermatitis. While respiratory problems were solved with the correct use of a mask at the workplace, facial dermatitis proved impossible to avoid or control and, for this reason, the patient had to change her work. PMID:24488773

  15. Road Nail: Experimental Solar Powered Intelligent Road Marking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samardžija, Dragan; Tesli?, Nikola; Todorovi?, Branislav M.; Kova?, Erne; Isailovi?, ?or?e; Miladinovi?, Bojan

    2012-03-01

    Driving in low visibility conditions (night time, fog or heavy precipitation) is particularly challenging task with an increased probability of traffic accidents and possible injuries. Road Nail is a solar powered intelligent road marking system of wirelessly networked signaling devices that improve driver safety in low visibility conditions along hazardous roadways. Nails or signaling devices are autonomous nodes with capability to accumulate energy, exchange wireless messages, detect approaching vehicles and emit signalization light. We have built an experimental test-bed that consists of 20 nodes and a cellular gateway. Implementation details of the above system, including extensive measurements and performance evaluations in realistic field deployments are presented. A novel distributed network topology discovery scheme is proposed which integrates both sensor and wireless communication aspects, where nodes act autonomously. Finally, integration of the Road Nail system with the cellular network and the Internet is described.

  16. Tibial shaft fractures treated with the AO unreamed tibial nail

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Kutty; M Farooq; D Murphy; C Kelliher; F Condon; JP McElwain

    2003-01-01

    Background The AO unreamed tibial nail (UTN) has been used for both open and closed tibial fractures. The reported results have been\\u000a mixed. We evaluated its outcome in our unit.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aim To assess the outcome of tibial shaft fractures treated with the AO UTN.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Forty-eight patients underwent intramedullary nailing between 1995 and 2000 using the AO UTN. Follow-up details

  17. Serious Penetrating Craniocerebral Injury Caused by a Nail Gun

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Yong Hyun; Kim, Dong Min; Kim, Sung Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Penetrating cerebral injuries caused by foreign bodies occur rarely due to the substantial mechanical protection offered by the skull. Throughout most of history, the brain, residing in a "closed box" of bone, has not been vulnerable to external aggression. Recently, we encountered a serious penetrating craniocerebral injury caused by a nail gun. Total excision of the offending nail via emergency craniotomy was performed, but the patient's neurologic status was not improved in spite of aggressive rehabilitative treatment. Here, we report on this troublesome case in light of a review of the relevant literature. PMID:25628820

  18. Dispersion effects in Fakir's bed of nails metamaterial waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papantonis, Stergios; Lucyszyn, Stepan; Shamonina, Ekaterina

    2014-02-01

    The propagation characteristics of electromagnetic waves in waveguides implemented using the "Fakir's bed of nails" are investigated both analytically and numerically. The classical metal walls of a parallel-plate waveguide are replaced by a Fakir's bed of nails metamaterial having arbitrary pin lengths on both walls; treated as a homogenized effective spatially dispersive dielectric. A modal analysis of the electromagnetic fields is presented for the first time, and dispersion expressions for the propagating modes are derived analytically and independently validated with full-wave numerical simulations. An equivalent transmission line model is also given, and similarities with the classical metal-dielectric-metal structure commonly used in optics are discussed.

  19. Caries clinical trial methods for the assessment of oral care products in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Ellwood, R P; Gomez, J; Goma, J; Pretty, I A

    2012-09-01

    Traditionally, caries clinical trials of oral care products have focused on the prevention of caries in children and adolescents at the "cavitation" level. Because of a general reduction in caries incidence and the use of positive control comparators, studies have grown both in size and duration to improve statistical power. Currently, they tend to be of 2 to 3 years' duration, with up to 2,000 high-risk individuals per group. During the past decade, there has been a shift in emphasis from a restorative approach to the treatment of dental caries to a therapeutic approach focused on the remineralization of early caries lesions. However, caries clinical trials of oral care products have not often reflected this paradigm change. This manuscript reviews alternative caries clinical trial methods for oral care products. It is concluded that methods focused on the detection and monitoring of enamel caries and root caries, by visual approaches such as ICDAS and instrumental methods such as QLF, Diagnodent, and Electrical Caries Monitors, provide viable alternatives to traditional methods. In particular, such approaches more accurately reflect the modes of action of many therapeutic agents and formulations and may reduce the cost and duration of product innovation. PMID:22899676

  20. Vascularized nail transfer from non-replantable digit: a case report.

    PubMed

    Zemirline, Ahmed; Taleb, Chihab; Goukodadja, Oswald; Liverneaux, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a traumatic amputation by circular saw of the ring and small fingers, associated with middle finger nail matrix loss and tendon, bone and joint exposure. The replantation was not attempted with patient's consent. Since the nail unit from the ring finger was intact, we decided to harvest the ring finger nail unit for major finger reconstruction. Although the principle of vascularized transfer from a severely damaged finger is widely recognized and the vascularized nail transfer from toe is a relatively common procedure, there is no description of a vascularized nail transfer from a non-replantable digit in the literature. PMID:24641758

  1. Nail apparatus melanoma: is trauma a coincidence? Is this peculiar tumor a real acral melanoma?

    PubMed

    Fanti, P A; Dika, E; Misciali, C; Vaccari, S; Barisani, A; Piraccini, B M; Cavrin, G; Maibach, H I; Patrizi, A

    2013-06-01

    Nail Apparatus Melanoma (NAM) is rare, particularly in Caucasians. Understanding its pathogenesis and collecting epidemiologic data may be difficult due to its location and the exiguity of the case series of this cancer. Cutaneous melanoma has been thought related to UV radiation, and NAM is considered an acral variant of melanoma, even if the nail presents a specific anatomy. Little is reported about pathogenesis, except reports suggesting traumatic injuries as a causal factor. UV exposure is debated in nail melanoma because of its structure. The nail is, in fact, a unique structure with sun-exposed and non exposed melanocytes. NAM arises from the nail melanocytes, located in the nail matrix, which is the germinative part of the nail and composed of a proximal and distal portion. The proximal nail matrix lays under the proximal nail fold that covers it and is non-sun exposed, while the distant nail matrix, clinically visible as the lunula, is sun-exposed, though lying underneath the nail plate. According to these anatomical data, NAM is a distinct melanoma type, and studies need to classify it as acral melanoma or as a particular type of melanoma with its own pathogenesis and prognostic criteria. This study investigates potential risk factors of NAM, emphasizing (i) trauma and (ii) UV exposure among our NAM patients. PMID:23153047

  2. Lichen nitidus presenting with nail changes-case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tay, Evelyn Yuxin; Ho, Madeline Sheun Ling; Chandran, Nisha Suyien; Lee, Joyce Siong-See; Heng, Yee Kiat

    2015-05-01

    Lichen nitidus of the nail is rare and can precede the onset of skin lesions. Delayed diagnosis is common. We present an unusual case of lichen nitidus-associated nail changes that preceded the onset of skin lesions in a 4-year-old Indian girl. We also conduct a review of six other cases of lichen nitidus with nail involvement from the English-language literature. Clues to the diagnosis of lichen nitidus include violaceous or pigmentary changes of the nail fold and subtle lichenoid papules on the affected digits. Lichen nitidus of the nails appears to be less severe than nail changes of lichen planus and is generally self-limiting. Understanding the natural history of lichen nitidus of the nails will help physicians better counsel patients and their families. PMID:25440319

  3. How are pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) removed from urban wastewaters?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sonia Suárez; Marta Carballa; Francisco Omil; Juan M. Lema

    2008-01-01

    The presence of bioactive trace pollutants such as pharmaceuticals and ingredients of personal care products (PPCPs) in different\\u000a environmental compartments (rivers, lakes, groundwaters, sediments, etc.) is an emerging issue due to the lack of existing\\u000a information about the potential impact associated with their occurrence, fate and ecotoxicological effects. Due to the low\\u000a PPCP concentrations reported in wastewaters (ppb or ppt)

  4. Biodegradation and removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in treatment systems: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathryn M. Onesios; Jim T. Yu; Edward J. Bouwer

    2009-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have been the focus of much recent research as concerns rise about their\\u000a occurrence in bodies of water worldwide. In an effort to characterize the risk and determine the prevalence of these micropollutants\\u000a in lakes and rivers, many researchers are examining PPCP removal from impaired water during wastewater treatment and water\\u000a recycling (soil passage)

  5. Occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in Taiwan's aquatic environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela Yu-Chen Lin; Yu-Ting Tsai; Tsung-Hsien Yu; Xiao-Huan Wang; Cheng-Fang Lin

    2011-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have raised considerable concern around the world due to their potential toxicity for ecological system and human health. PPCPs are ineffectively removed by conventional wastewater treatment processes and thus occur widely in aqueous environments. This study investigated the occurrence and removal of 28 often-used PPCPs (including selected antibiotics, estrogens, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, beta-blockers, and

  6. Pharmaceuticals And Personal Care Products (Ppcp) In Canadian Urban Waters: A Management Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiri Marsalek

    A management perspective on pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in Canadian urban waters is presented. The\\u000a issues of PPCPs occurrence, effects, and means of control have been studied intensively during the past 10 years, but the\\u000a information available is not yet sufficient to develop risk assessment\\/management strategies at this time. The management\\u000a strategies receiving most attention include PPCP emission

  7. Excretion and ecotoxicity of pharmaceutical and personal care products in the environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick K. Jjemba

    2006-01-01

    The presence and fate of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in the environment is undergoing increasing scrutiny. The existing clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics data for 81 common compounds were examined for cues of ecotoxicity. Of these the proportions excreted were available for 60 compounds (i.e., 74%). The compounds had a low (?0.5%), a moderately low (6–39%), a relatively high

  8. Pharmaceutical and personal care products in tile drainage following land application of municipal biosolids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Lapen; E. Topp; C. D. Metcalfe; H. Li; M. Edwards; N. Gottschall; P. Bolton; W. Curnoe; M. Payne; A. Beck

    2008-01-01

    Land application of municipal biosolids (sewage) is a common farming practice in many parts of the world. There is potential for transport of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) from agricultural fields to adjacent surface waters via tile drainage systems. In this study, liquid municipal biosolids (LMB) (total solids=11,933 mg L?1), supplemented with selected PPCPs and the fluorescent dye tracer rhodamine

  9. Nanofiltration and ultrafiltration of endocrine disrupting compounds, pharmaceuticals and personal care products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yeomin Yoon; Paul Westerhoff; Shane A. Snyder; Eric C. Wert

    2006-01-01

    Reports of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have raised substantial concern among important potable drinking water and reclaimed wastewater quality issues. Our study investigates the removal of EDC\\/PPCPs of 52 compounds having different physico-chemical properties (e.g., size, hydrophobicity, and polarity) by nanofiltration (NF) and ultrafiltration (UF) membranes using a dead-end stirred-cell filtration system. EDC\\/PPCPs

  10. Degradation of selected pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) by white-rot fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. I. Rodarte-Morales; G. Feijoo; M. T. Moreira; J. M. Lema

    Today, more than 3,000 pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) are used and released into the environment at low\\u000a doses but they are barely degraded in wastewater treatment plants. One of the potential alternatives to effectively degrade\\u000a PPCPs is based on the use of white-rot fungi (WRF) and involves the oxidative action of extracellular fungal enzymes. The\\u000a aim of this

  11. Course Objective 1 1a,1c Learn and apply useful knowledge of the most current basic science that help to explain normal skin and adnexal, hair, nails and mucous membrane structure and

    E-print Network

    Myers, Lawrence C.

    knowledge of the most current basic science that help to explain normal skin, and the pathophysiology of disease, such that this knowledge can be used to improve patient care with disorders of the skin, hair, nails and mucous membranes. 3 1c Correlate cutaneous

  12. Reduction of nutrients, microbes, and personal care products in domestic wastewater by a benchtop electrocoagulation unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symonds, E. M.; Cook, M. M.; McQuaig, S. M.; Ulrich, R. M.; Schenck, R. O.; Lukasik, J. O.; van Vleet, E. S.; Breitbart, M.

    2015-03-01

    To preserve environmental and human health, improved treatment processes are needed to reduce nutrients, microbes, and emerging chemical contaminants from domestic wastewater prior to discharge into the environment. Electrocoagulation (EC) treatment is increasingly used to treat industrial wastewater; however, this technology has not yet been thoroughly assessed for its potential to reduce concentrations of nutrients, a variety of microbial surrogates, and personal care products found in domestic wastewater. This investigation's objective was to determine the efficiency of a benchtop EC unit with aluminum sacrificial electrodes to reduce concentrations of the aforementioned biological and chemical pollutants from raw and tertiary-treated domestic wastewater. EC treatment resulted in significant reductions (p < 0.05, ? = 0.05) in phosphate, all microbial surrogates, and several personal care products from raw and tertiary-treated domestic wastewater. When wastewater was augmented with microbial surrogates representing bacterial, viral, and protozoan pathogens to measure the extent of reduction, EC treatment resulted in up to 7-log10 reduction of microbial surrogates. Future pilot and full-scale investigations are needed to optimize EC treatment for the following: reducing nitrogen species, personal care products, and energy consumption; elucidating the mechanisms behind microbial reductions; and performing life cycle analyses to determine the appropriateness of implementation.

  13. Reduction of nutrients, microbes, and personal care products in domestic wastewater by a benchtop electrocoagulation unit

    PubMed Central

    Symonds, E. M.; Cook, M. M.; McQuaig, S. M.; Ulrich, R. M.; Schenck, R. O.; Lukasik, J. O.; Van Vleet, E. S.; Breitbart, M.

    2015-01-01

    To preserve environmental and human health, improved treatment processes are needed to reduce nutrients, microbes, and emerging chemical contaminants from domestic wastewater prior to discharge into the environment. Electrocoagulation (EC) treatment is increasingly used to treat industrial wastewater; however, this technology has not yet been thoroughly assessed for its potential to reduce concentrations of nutrients, a variety of microbial surrogates, and personal care products found in domestic wastewater. This investigation's objective was to determine the efficiency of a benchtop EC unit with aluminum sacrificial electrodes to reduce concentrations of the aforementioned biological and chemical pollutants from raw and tertiary-treated domestic wastewater. EC treatment resulted in significant reductions (p < 0.05, ? = 0.05) in phosphate, all microbial surrogates, and several personal care products from raw and tertiary-treated domestic wastewater. When wastewater was augmented with microbial surrogates representing bacterial, viral, and protozoan pathogens to measure the extent of reduction, EC treatment resulted in up to 7-log10 reduction of microbial surrogates. Future pilot and full-scale investigations are needed to optimize EC treatment for the following: reducing nitrogen species, personal care products, and energy consumption; elucidating the mechanisms behind microbial reductions; and performing life cycle analyses to determine the appropriateness of implementation. PMID:25797885

  14. Rotational alignment of the finger nails in a normal population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Bansal; M. A. C. Craigen

    2007-01-01

    We measured the alignment of the nails in the hands of 100 normal adults with the interphalangeal joints extended and the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints at 0? and 90?. All fingers were naturally supinated (i.e. rotated towards the thumb), the index and little being the most supinated. When examining individual hands in MCP joint extension, only 17% of hands had all

  15. Retrograde Intramedullary Nailing for Distal Femur Fracture with Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jihyeung; Nam, Kyungpyo; Rhee, Seung Hwan; Won, Jong Won; Han, Hyuk-Soo

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence of distal femur fracture in the elderly has been increasing recently, and commonly occurs with osteoporosis. Retrograde intramedullary nailing has been considered a good surgical option for distal femur fracture. The purpose of the present study was to present our surgical results with retrograde intramedullary nailing for distal femur fractures with osteoporosis. Methods Thirteen patients diagnosed with extra-articular distal femur fracture and osteoporosis and managed with retrograde intramedullary nailing were retrospectively reviewed. Cement augmentation was used in four patients, shape memory alloy was used in eight patients and both were used in one patient. All patients were followed up for more than 2 years. Radiologic alignments were scored and Tegner and the Lysholm activity score was used for a functional assessment. Results The average time to clinical union was 13 weeks (range, 10 to 15 weeks). In 12 of our cases, the total alignment scores were excellent. At the last follow-up, the mean range of motion was 116° (range, 110° to 125°). The average functional score at postoperative 1 year was 2.6 (range, 1 to 5). Conclusions Retrograde intramedullary nailing is a good surgical option for distal femur fracture with osteoporosis. Cement augmentation and shape memory alloy can also be used for added mechanical stability. This surgical technique is very useful for distal femur fracture with osteoporosis as it promotes fracture healing and early rehabilitation. PMID:23205241

  16. Treatment of Midshaft Clavicular Fractures With Elastic Titanium Nails

    PubMed Central

    Keihan Shokouh, Hassan; Naderi, Mohammad Nasir; Keihan Shokouh, Mahsa

    2014-01-01

    Background: One of the modern techniques for the treatment of clavicle fracture (Fx) is elastic titanium intramedullary nailing. But, there are different opinions about this technique. We studied this technique in 12 patients with clavicle Fx and assessed its outcome. Objectives: We aimed to study the prognosis of midshaft clavicular Fx treated via minimally invasive stable elastic intramedullary nailing. Patients and Methods: We operated on 13 clavicle Fx in 12 patients from 2008 through 2012. We used a new technique called minimally invasive titanium elastic intramedullary nailing for operating patients with midshaft clavicular Fx. Results: Clinical union was achieved 3-5 weeks after the operation with no pain over Fx sites upon physical examination. Radiologic union appeared at 6 to 12 weeks .We did not encounter nonunion or infection, but one of the comminuted Fx united 1 cm shorter; however, it had a solid union with a good score. All but two patients had good scores. Conclusions: Although controversy exist regarding intramedullary nailing of clavicle Fx, our results using this technique for minimally comminuted midshaft clavicular Fx were very good. PMID:25337513

  17. Genetic identification of decomposed cadavers using nails as DNA source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Allouche; M. Hamdoum; P. Mangin; V. Castella

    2008-01-01

    Blood or muscle can be used as a DNA source for the genetic identification of recently deceased persons. If the post mortem interval increases, bones and teeth are used. In this case, collection and DNA isolation will be more difficult and time consuming. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of nails as an alternative DNA source

  18. Brown Nail-bed Arcs and Chronic Renal Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. K. Stewart; E. J. Raffle

    1972-01-01

    A brown arc affecting the distal part of the fingernail-bed, just proximal to the point of separation of the nail from its bed, has been found in 12 out of 34 patients with chronic renal disease (35%) compared with an incidence of less than 2% in a series of unselected patients. It represents a distinctive form of pigmentation, possibly due

  19. Nail fold capillaroscopy findings in patients with primary fibromyalgia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Frödin; A. Bengtsson; M. Skogh

    1988-01-01

    The nail fold capillary morphology and blood flow were examined by capillaroscopy in 10 patients with primary fibromyalgia. Only slight morphological anomalies such as moderate enlargement of capillary loops and variations in calibre were found. No obvious correlation emerged between capillary morphology and the duration of the disease, smoking, or history of Raynaud's phenomenon. Three patients with a history of

  20. New method for determination of efficacy of health care personnel hand wash products.

    PubMed Central

    Mahl, M C

    1989-01-01

    A method of studying the effects of health care personnel hand wash products is described. The fingernail regions of the hands of volunteers are inoculated with a mixture of Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens, and the areas are dried for a standard time. After routine hand washing, each fingernail region is individually scrubbed with an electric toothbrush which moves longitudinally to the handle into collection fluid contained in a petri dish. The test bacteria in the fluid are then enumerated. (Bacillus subtilis spores may be included as tracers to show degree of physical removal of the procedure.) This method has several advantages over the frequently used glove juice technique. Experimental designs with large numbers of volunteers, multiple sampling sites, and many hand wash products may be performed. Ten sampling sites (fingers) are available, versus the two gloved hands for testing products. (Efficiency is almost 100% in the recovery of spore tracers placed on the fingernails.) Many commercial health care personnel hand wash products containing antimicrobial agents substantive to the skin do not rapidly reduce numbers of inoculated bacteria in the fingernail regions to any greater extent than nonantimicrobial hand washes. Products containing isopropanol or ethanol are very effective in decreasing bacteria in areas around and under the fingernails. PMID:2685028

  1. Impact of IT on health care professionals: changes in work and the productivity paradox.

    PubMed

    Hebert, M A

    1998-05-01

    Health care organizations are under increasing pressure to become more efficient while at the same time maintaining or improving the quality of care. Information technology (IT), with its potential to increase efficiency, accuracy and accessibility of information, has been expected to play an important role in supporting these changes. We report the impact of patient care information systems on health care professionals in five community hospitals. The study framework incorporated both quality of care in Donabedian's elements of structure-process-outcome and Grusec's three levels of IT impact: direct substitution, proceduralization and new capabilities. The study results suggest that, for specific tasks, IT increased efficiency and productivity--a single employee was able to complete more tasks. However, this produced other consequences not predicted. Participants noted this change did not 'free up time' to spend with patients, but meant there were potentially more opportunities to provide services and more tasks to complete. Other effects included: reduced job satisfaction as more time was spent on the computer; less frequent interactions with patients and for shorter duration; and an increasingly 'visible' accountability as performance was easily monitored. There were also changes in roles and responsibilities as the computer enabled tasks to be carried out from a number of locations and by a variety of personnel. When innovations are introduced into organizations there are both expected and unexpected consequences. Increased awareness of the interactive relationship between computer users and the technology helps organizations better understand why results do, or do not, occur. One must look beyond just simply increasing productivity by replacing manual tasks with automated ones, to examining how the changes influence the nature of work and relationships within the organization. PMID:10181380

  2. Improving emissions estimates of home and personal care products ingredients for use in EU risk assessments.

    PubMed

    Price, Oliver R; Hughes, Gregory O; Roche, Nicola L; Mason, Paul J

    2010-10-01

    REACh introduces environmental release categories (ERCs) used to describe chemical emissions to the environment. These ERCs contain a number of default values that are combined with product usage data to estimate environmental exposure concentrations for use in risk assessment. The methodology presented in the present work constitutes a novel approach that allows for the coupling of population density and country-specific usage statistics for a range of home and personal care products. Spatially explicit usage estimates are presented for European Union (EU) hypothetical regions (200?×?200-km grid), as described in EU risk assessment frameworks. Recent sales and population density data are combined to assess the relevance of current default assumptions; that 10% of a product will be used in an EU hypothetical region that is inhabited by 20 million people. It is demonstrated that these assumptions are conservative and their relevance geographically limited. The highest usage estimates for hypothetical regions are located in southern England and a transboundary area in Europe consisting of Belgium, the Netherlands, and Germany. The maximum identified usage of 9 home and personal care product types, in an EU hypothetical region, ranges from 4.3% to 11.4%. The 99.5th percentile values, representative of an EU hypothetical region with a population of 20 million, range from 3.6% to 9.0%, which suggests that the current default parameterization of the ERCs may be overly protective for ingredients used in a number of home and personal care product types. Accordingly, it may be justified to use such an analysis to refine the default values in order to provide more realistic exposure estimates for use in REACh assessments. PMID:20872648

  3. Tolerance of natural baby skin-care products on healthy, full-term infants and toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Coret, Catherine D; Suero, Michael B; Tierney, Neena K

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the tolerance of baby skin-care products with at least 95% naturally derived ingredients on infants and toddlers. Materials and methods Healthy, full-term infants and toddlers aged 1–36 months were enrolled. In study 1, a lightly fragranced natural baby hair and body wash (n=30), a lightly fragranced natural baby shampoo (n=30), or a lightly fragranced natural baby lotion (n=32) were assessed over 2 weeks. In study 2, a lightly fragranced natural baby hair and body wash and a lightly fragranced natural baby lotion (n=33) were assessed as a regimen over 4 weeks. The wash and shampoo were used three or more times per week, but not more than once daily. Lotions were applied in the morning or after a bath. Clinicians assessed the arms, legs, torso, or scalp for erythema, dryness, peeling/flakiness (study 1 only), tactile roughness, edema (study 1 only), rash/irritation (study 2 only), and overall skin condition (study 2 only) at baseline, week 1, and weeks 2 or 4. Parents completed skin assessment questionnaires. In study 2, stratum corneum hydration was measured. Subjects were monitored for adverse events. Results No significant changes in clinical grading scores were observed, indicating that all products were well tolerated. By the end of each study, >90% of parents/caregivers believed each product was mild and gentle. In study 2, improvement in stratum corneum hydration was observed (+37% at week 1 and +48% at week 4, P<0.05 for both). In study 1, one baby experienced mild erythema on the neck and scalp after using the shampoo (possibly related to treatment). In study 2, there were no product-related adverse events. Conclusion The natural baby skin-care products were well tolerated by infants and toddlers when used alone or as part of a skin-care regimen. PMID:24523593

  4. Clubbed fingers: radiological evaluation of the nail bed thickness.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Ana-Luiza S; Porto, Nelson S; Moreira, José S; Ulbrich-Kulczynski, Jane M; Irion, Klaus L

    2008-05-01

    It is established that there is an increase in soft tissue of the clubbed digits as demonstrated on previous histopathological examinations. In the present study, the nail bed thickness was assessed and measured on plain radiographs of index fingers in two groups of patients: one group with lung disease and fingers clubbing and one group of normal controls. A vertical x-ray beam was used with a focus-film distance of 1.0 m, with the index finger placed in lateral view directly over the film, without anti-diffusion grid. Three investigators, blinded to prevent bias measured the thickness of soft tissues between the nail root and the terminal phalanx on the radiographs. This method was used to evaluate a group of 85 clinically clubbed (hyponychial angle > 192.0 degrees) adult patients with lung disease and a control group of a 100 normal adult individuals with no clubbing (hyponychial angle < 188.0 degrees). The mean nail bed thickness in the patients with clubbing (n = 85) was 3.88 +/- 0.55 mm (3.00-5.50 mm). In comparison, in the normal subjects (n = 100), the mean was 2.38 +/- 0.27 mm (1.75-3.10 mm), revealing a significant difference (P < 0.001). Only two normal individuals presented nail bed thickness >or=3.0 mm. A good interobserver agreement on the measurements was found (P > 0.900). The radiographic evaluation of the nail bed thickness was easily performed, with good interobserver concordance. It is possible to distinguish between clubbed from nonclubbed fingers, in vivo, using plain radiograph. PMID:18428986

  5. Clinical Evidence for the Relationship between Nail Configuration and Mechanical Forces

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Rei

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Mechanobiology is an emerging field of science that focuses on the way physical forces and changes in cell or tissue mechanics contribute to development, physiology, and disease. As nails are always exposed to physical stimulation, mechanical forces may have a particularly pronounced effect on nail configuration and could be involved in the development of nail deformities. However, the role of mechanobiology in nail configuration and deformities has rarely been assessed. This review describes what is currently understood regarding the effect of mechanical force on nail configuration and deformities. On the basis of these observations, we hypothesize that nails have an automatic curvature function that allows them to adapt to the daily upward mechanical forces. Under normal conditions, the upward daily mechanical force and the automatic curvature force are well balanced. However, an imbalance between these 2 forces may cause nail deformation. For example, pincer nails may be caused by the absence of upward mechanical forces or a genetic propensity increase in the automatic curvature force, whereas koilonychias may occur when the upward mechanical force exceeds the automatic curvature force, thereby causing the nail to curve outward. This hypothesis is a new concept that could aid the development of innovative methods to prevent and treat nail deformities. PMID:25289309

  6. Treatment of severe nail psoriasis with acitretin: an impressive therapeutic result.

    PubMed

    Ricceri, F; Pescitelli, L; Tripo, L; Bassi, A; Prignano, F

    2013-01-01

    Nail psoriasis is common in adult psoriatic patients. Although several new drugs have recently been introduced for the treatment of skin psoriasis, treatment of nail psoriasis still remains a challenge. Topical treatments (e.g., corticosteroids, tazarotene, 5-fluorouracil, calcipotriol) are the first line in the management of skin psoriasis. The efficacy of these drugs in nail disease, however, is limited, mainly due to the difficulty in penetrating the nail bed and nail matrix. In cases of nail disease resistant to topical treatment, methotrexate, ciclosporin, acitretin, or biological agents can be used. The present authors introduce a 73-year-old patient affected by impressive psoriatic nail disease involving all her fingernails and toenails treated by acitretin, a traditional systemic treatment. After 2 months of treatment there was a marked improvement. The clinical improvement of the nails was progressive and 6 months later it was stable and satisfactory. The remarkable response to treatment in this case suggests that oral acitretin, in association to urea nail lacquer, might be useful in the management of disabling severe nail psoriasis even in absence of severe cutaneous involvement. PMID:23384024

  7. Clinical Trial Study in the Treatment of Nail Psoriasis with Pulsed Dye Laser.

    PubMed

    Goldust, Mohamad; Raghifar, Ramin

    2013-10-16

    Abstract Objective: The treatment options for nail psoriasis have been limited, and the management of nail psoriasis has been challenging for physicians. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of different pulse durations in the treatment of nail psoriasis with the 595-nm PDL to determine the optimal pulse duration. Methods: Forty patients with bilateral fingernail psoriasis were recruited and completed a 6-month trial. PDL was applied on the proximal and lateral nailfolds based on random assignment. Eghity nails were treated with 6-millisecond pulse duration and 9 J/cm(2) whereas 80 nails were treated with 0.45-millisecond pulse duration and 6 J/cm(2). Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (NAPSI) was used to assess the clinical outcome from pretreatment and posttreatment photographs. Results: After 6 months of first treatment, there was a significant reduction in overall NAPSI, nail matrix NAPSI, and nail bed NAPSI scores from baseline in both groups; however, no significant difference was found between the two pulse duration groups. Side effects were mild including transient petechiae and hyperpigmentation. Conclusion: Both the longer 6-millisecond and shorter 0.45-millisecond pulses of PDL (595 nm) have been clinically proven to be effective for the treatment of nail matrix and nail bed psoriasis. PMID:24131073

  8. Benefits of an ungual prosthesis in traumatology and reconstructive surgery of the nail.

    PubMed

    Guero, Stéphane

    2014-03-01

    Lesions of the nail apparatus can leave esthetic and sometimes functional sequelae. Many sequelae are the result of incorrect growth of the nail plate. During the acute phase, in the absence of a nail plate, the nail bed may keratinize or form a pyogenic granuloma, compromising harmonious regrowth of the nail plate. The ideal is to reinsert the plate if it is available, but if it has been lost, an ungual prosthesis must be inserted to act as a temporary implantable splint. This implant must have the same shape and structure as the nail plate. Many ideas have been used in the past, including suture pack, infusion tubing, or x-ray film. However, these techniques are no longer acceptable, as, in many countries, all types of implants require a documented recorded identification or "traceability." The implants we use are packed individually in sterile packaging. They are therefore immediately available in traumatology departments treating Hand Emergencies. These prostheses are also very useful in reconstructive surgery of the digit in the hand and feet, particularly when the nail bed has to be reconstructed. In this case, the implant is used to flatten the nail bed, whether it is sutured, grafted, or reconstructed with flaps, during the slow regrowth of the nail plate. The author reports his experience in emergency or secondary repair of the nail complex. PMID:24275763

  9. Nail bed defect covered with labial mucosa graft after subungal glomus tumor removal.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Sun Yong; Kim, Ui Kyung; Nam, Hyun Min; Park, Seok Don; Kim, Jeong Hee; Park, Kun

    2013-01-01

    The nail bed is an important part of the nail unit. It supports the nail plate, but does not regenerate itself. The labial mucosa and the nail bed both lack a granular layer. Because the keratinization of the nail bed can cause poor nail adhesion, harvesting graft from nonkeratinized sites is preferred. Furthermore, harvesting graft from labial mucosa is convenient in surgical approach. Therefore, the labial mucosa is more eligible for covering the nail bed defect than other graft methods. In this report, a 46-year-old female patient suffered from a subungal glomus tumor of the right fourth fingernail bed for 10 years. After the nail plate was removed, complete excision of the tumor was performed, and a labial mucosa graft was used to cover the defect. Eight months after the operation, the tumor had not reoccurred and no nail deformity was observed. This outcome demonstrates that our procedure is a good surgical option for treatment of nail bed defects. PMID:24099076

  10. 346 BULLETIN OF THE UNlTEb STATES FISR COMVISSION. or ''nail bed ''is lost the nail does not again grow out, so in the case

    E-print Network

    346 BULLETIN OF THE UNlTEb STATES FISR COMVISSION. or ''nail bed ''is lost the nail does not again, they are frozen solid as they lie in boxes. This process is SO perfected in the works at Salem, N. J., that 128

  11. Comparative in vitro activities of topical wound care products against community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David T. Bearden; George P. Allen; J. Mark Christensen

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for an increasing number of skin infections. Over-the-counter topical wound care products may play a role in the prevention of these infections, but limited data are available regarding their activity. The current study utilized a modified time-kill design to evaluate the activity of three over-the-counter topical wound care products (benzethonium chloride\\/essential oils, neomycin\\/polymyxin

  12. Production gains from health care: what should be included in cost-effectiveness analyses?

    PubMed

    Olsen, J A; Richardson, J

    1999-07-01

    Recent literature has been concerned with the correct measurement of the 'indirect costs and benefits' of health care as well as the issue of including these items in economic evaluations. This article considers the question of which 'indirect benefits' to include in cost effectiveness analysis and cost utility analysis. Within the context of a collectively financed health scheme the relevant issues include not only the size of the net resource costs of providing health care but also which costs and benefits the society is prepared to consider in its assessment of health services. The strong preference for 'equal access for equal need' implies that some production gains may have to be disregarded in the social welfare function. We introduce the notion of socially relevant and socially irrelevant production gains. The analysis suggests that the magnitude of the socially relevant part of the production gains may vary between countries as it depends, first, upon differences in patients' potential contributions to the rest of society (tax rates), and second, the strength of preferences for equity. PMID:10414837

  13. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in chicken meat and other food animal products: a market-basket pilot study.

    PubMed

    Baron, Patrick A; Love, David C; Nachman, Keeve E

    2014-08-15

    Pharmaceutical drugs are extensively used in industrial food animal production. We examined whether residues of veterinary antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) were detectable in a small market-basket sample of retail chicken (n=39), ground beef (n=3) and milk (n=3) samples. High-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry were used to assess the concentration of 59 PPCPs and their residues in animal products. All samples of ground beef, milk, and 14 chickens were analyzed individually, while an additional 25 chicken samples were pooled and analyzed in groups of five. The majority of PPCPs were not detected in meat and milk samples. Caffeine was detected in two of three milk samples (0.4 ng/mL, 2.0 ng/mL) and in 10 of 19 individual and pooled chicken samples (median: 18.6 ng/g, range: 6.1-28.8 ng/g). Acetaminophen was detected in three of three milk samples (median: 1.5 ng/mL, range: 1.4-2.1 ng/mL). Antibiotics in the tetracycline class were detected in two of three milk samples (median: 1.0 ng/mL, range: 0.1-2.0 ng/mL) and did not exceed regulatory residue tolerances of 300 ng/mL. There are no regulatory residue tolerances for caffeine or acetaminophen in animal products. The acetaminophen detections in milk, however, raise questions about extra-label and unapproved use of pharmaceutical drugs in food animal production, as this drug is not approved for use in lactating dairy cattle or any other type of food animal production. Additional studies are needed to confirm our finding of PPCPs in meat and dairy products. PMID:24858227

  14. Consumption and occurrence of pharmaceutical and personal care products in the aquatic environment in Spain.

    PubMed

    Ortiz de García, Sheyla; Pinto Pinto, Gilberto; García Encina, Pedro; Irusta Mata, Rubén

    2013-02-01

    The occurrence of sixty pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs), twenty metabolites and eight personal care products (PCPs) in the aquatic environment in Spain and their predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) were calculated and compared with measured environmental concentrations (MECs) obtained from relevant published research. The occurrence in the aquatic environment was calculated through a mass balance approach considering the following: the number of pharmaceutical prescriptions issued, the amount of pharmaceutical discharged without consumption, consumption, self-medication, pharmacokinetics, treatment in wastewater facilities and discharged to aquatic environment. The estimation of consumption of active compounds of pharmaceuticals was conducted by at least one of the following methodologies: number of commercial packages sold, data for the number of defined daily dose per 1000 inhabitants per day (DHD), and pattern of treatment. Comparison of these methodologies for some compounds showed similar estimated consumption ranges. The highest pharmaceutical occurrence in the aquatic environment was for acetaminophen glucuronide, Galaxolide®, Iso-E-super®, acetaminophen, valsartan, amoxicillin, 2-hydroxy-ibuprofen, iopromide, omeprazole, carbamazepine 10, 11-epoxide, iopamidol, salicylic ?-d-O-glucuronide acid, Tonalide®, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), clarithromycin and iohexol, with releases between 5 and 600 ty(-1). The relation of PEC/MEC was calculated for 58% of the compounds under study, and 64.7% of them had PEC/MEC ratios between 0.5 and 2. PEC values were mostly overestimated (57.4%). The predicted concentrations for pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) that had a high occurrence in the aquatic environment were very close to the measured concentrations. This research provides information that had not been calculated and analyzed previously, at least for Spain. Estimation of the PECs for pharmaceutical, personal care products and metabolites is a useful tool for identifying compounds that should be considered for environmental concern, and such estimations could be used to improve environmental risk assessment studies. PMID:23287535

  15. [Research progress of pharmaceutical and personal care products on ecological and human health].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yinping; Zhu, Lingyan; Li, Jingguang

    2009-03-01

    EU (European Union) and Center of Water Pollution and Control in the United States have continued to measure persistent bioaccumulate and toxic (PB&T) chemicals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) since the 1970s. In resent years, Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) have raised more concern among chemists and toxicologists. The present paper introduced the main properties of PPCPs and their present situation of research. Additionally, the potential toxicites of PPCPs to ecological and human health were detailedly reviewed in this article. PMID:19408672

  16. Perception of brittle nails in dermatologic patients: a cross-sectional study*

    PubMed Central

    Gequelim, Giulio Cesar; Kubota, Cynthia Yone; Sanches, Sarah; Dranka, Daniela; Mejia, Marcelo Murilo; Sumiya, Fernando Mitsuo; Schmitt, Juliano Vilaverde

    2013-01-01

    Brittle Nails Syndrome is characterized by fragility of the nail plate, affecting 27% of women. We evaluated dermatology patients in a cross-sectional study about perception of nail fragility. One hundred and thirtyeight women were included, with median age of 36.5 years. Nail examination showed changes in 57% and 49% reported nail fragility. The first three fingernails were the most affected. Onychoschizia was related to onychophagia (OR = 3.29), housework (OR = 2.95) and water contact (OR = 2.44). Onychorrhexis had the strongest association with nail fragility perception (OR = 17.89). The fragility was more perceived by those who were black, of mixed race and atopic, and was associated with depressed mood. PMID:24474124

  17. Generalized Lichen nitidus with Oral and Nail Involvement in a Child

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Bettoli; M. P. De Padova; M. Corazza; A. Virgili

    1997-01-01

    The generalized form of lichen nitidus (LN) with oral and nail changes is extremely rare in childhood. We report a 10-year-old boy with generalized LN associated with oral involvement and onychodystrophy. Oral lesions showed yellowish papules on the gums. The nails had longitudinal striations and pits on the finger-nails, and transversal ridging of the big toes was found. Cutaneous and

  18. Infrared spectroscopic investigation of in vivo and ex vivo human nails

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael G. Sowa; Jing Wang; Christian P. Schultz; M. Khalique Ahmed; Henry H. Mantsch

    1995-01-01

    Mid (700–4000 cm?1) and near (4000–10000 cm?1) infrared spectra of viable and clipped human finger nails are presented. Mid-infrared depth profiles acquired by physically etching the nail plate and those acquired nondestructively using photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) are compared. The dorsal, intermediate, and ventral layers of the nail plate could be discerned spectroscopically. Near infrared (NIR) attenuated total reflectance (ATR), NIR-PAS

  19. Incidence of dermatophytes and cyclohexamide resistantfungi on healthy children hairs and nails in nurseries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Maghazy

    2002-01-01

    In order to estimate the prevalence of dermatophytes and other fungi on healthy children hairs and nails, 92 hair samples\\u000a and 85 nail samples (groups of 10 finger nails from each child) were collected from 5 nurseries (children aged 9 months up\\u000a to 4 years) in Assiut city. From hair samples 22 species were collected, Trichophyton (2 species) and Microsporum

  20. Two synchronous periungual BCC treated with Mohs surgery. Nail polish related?

    PubMed

    Dika, Emi; Patrizi, Annalisa; Fanti, Pier Alessandro; Alessandrini, Aurora; Sorci, Rita; Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Vaccari, Sabina; Misciali, Cosimo; Maibach, Howard I

    2013-06-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most frequent malignant skin tumor observed in Caucasian adults, especially males, occurs mainly in sun-exposed areas of the body. BCC in the periungual tissues, such as proximal nail fold, nail matrix, nail bed and hyponychium, is rarely reported. We report a patient with two synchronous BCC of the periungual tissue localized in the IV and V fingernail, effectively treated with Mohs micrographic surgery. PMID:22849570

  1. Extended report: nail disease in psoriatic arthritis--clinically important, potentially treatable and often overlooked

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Williamson; N. Dalbeth; J. L. Dockerty; B. C. Gee; R. Weatherall; B. P. Wordsworth

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the relationship between the severity of nail disease and characteristics of psoriatic arthritis (PsA). We also wished to assess the clinical management of nail disease in patients with PsA. Methods. We studied 69 patients with PsA at two visits. On the first visit, a rheumatology assessment of joint, skin and nail disease was made. On the second

  2. When all you have is a dermatoscope— start looking at the nails

    PubMed Central

    Haenssle, Holger A.; Blum, Andreas; Hofmann-Wellenhof, Rainer; Kreusch, Juergen; Stolz, Wilhelm; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Zalaudek, Iris; Brehmer, Franziska

    2014-01-01

    Pigmented and non-pigmented nail alterations are a frequent challenge for dermatologists. A profound knowledge of clinical and dermatoscopic features of nail disorders is crucial because a range of differential diagnoses and even potentially life-threatening diseases are possible underlying causes. Nail matrix melanocytes of unaffected individuals are in a dormant state, and, therefore, fingernails and toenails physiologically are non-pigmented. The formation of continuous, longitudinal pigmented streaks (longitudinal melanonychia) may either be caused by a benign activation of matrix melanocytes (e.g., as a result of trauma, inflammation, or adverse drug reactions) or by a true melanocytic proliferation (e.g., in a nevus or melanoma). In general, non-continuous nail alterations, affecting only limited parts of the nail apparatus, are most frequently of non-melanocytic origin. Important and common differential diagnoses in these cases are subungual hemorrhage or onychomycosis. In addition, foreign bodies, bacterial infections, traumatic injuries, or artificial discolorations of the nail unit may less frequently cause non-continuous nail alterations. Many systemic diseases that may also show involvement of the nails (e.g., psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, lichen planus, alopecia areata) tend to induce alterations in numerous if not all nails of the hands and feet. A similar extensive and generalized alteration of nails has been reported after treatment with a number of systemic drugs, especially antibiotics and cytostatics. Benign or malignant neoplasms that may also affect the nail unit include glomus tumor, Bowen’s disease, squamous cell carcinoma, and rare collision tumors. This review aims to assist clinicians in correctly evaluating and diagnosing nail disorders with the help of dermatoscopy. PMID:25396079

  3. Keratotic horn on left fifth fingertip: congenital ectopic nail misdiagnosed as a common wart.

    PubMed

    Bilenchi, Roberta; Poggiali, Sara; De Paola, Mariele; Batsikosta, Natasha; Fimiani, Michele

    2013-01-01

    The term "ectopic nail" refers to nail tissue found in a location other than in the normal nail bed. Here we report a 9-year-old girl with an asymptomatic keratotic "horn" on the tip of her left fifth finger. Present since the age of 1?month, it was misdiagnosed as a common wart and treated using liquid nitrogen cryotherapy without benefit. PMID:22277059

  4. Oblique triangular neurovascular osteocutaneous flap for hook nail deformity correction.

    PubMed

    García-López, Antonio; Laredo, Carlos; Rojas, Adaly

    2014-07-01

    Hook nail deformity results in aesthetic and functional problems after fingertip amputations. Previously described techniques do not correct the osseous defect, which may be the principle cause of the problem. We present a surgical technique based on a compound homodigital advancement flap combining bone of the distal phalanx, finger pulp, and skin. We describe this technique, report a case, and discuss the advantages over former techniques. PMID:24969498

  5. A rare manifestation of nail changes with docetaxel therapy.

    PubMed

    Halvorson, Christian R; Erickson, Corinne L; Gaspari, Anthony A

    2010-01-01

    A 60-year-old African American man presented to the dermatology clinic for evaluation of skin and nail changes associated with docetaxel therapy for adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Previous treatment cycles ofdocetaxel had resulted in hyperpigmented patches and linear streaks on his arms where he received infusions, as well as nail changes, including longitudinal melanonychia and onycholysis of his great toenails. At his latest visit, he reported recently noticing a new bluish discoloration of his lunulae that had developed during the past 3 months, the time corresponding to his most recent docetaxel treatment cycle (Figure). The patient's history did not reveal any recent medication changes, ingestion of known lunula-discoloring agents, or any silver-containing compounds. On examination, the patient's observation was confirmed, as the lunulae on both his right and left thumb were found to have a marked blue discoloration to them. The patient was treated with observation as the discoloration was not bothersome to him, and on routine follow-up for an unrelated skin complaint, the patient's nail beds had returned to their normal color, approximately 3 months after discontinuation of the docetaxel therapy, according to the patient. PMID:21137627

  6. DNA from keratinous tissue. Part I: hair and nail.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Camilla Friis; Olsen, Maia E; Brandt, Luise Ørsted; Bertelsen, Mads F; Willerslev, Eske; Tobin, Desmond J; Wilson, Andrew S; Gilbert, M Thomas P

    2012-01-20

    Keratinous tissues such as nail, hair, horn, scales and feather have been used as a source of DNA for over 20 years. Particular benefits of such tissues include the ease with which they can be sampled, the relative stability of DNA in such tissues once sampled, and, in the context of ancient genetic analyses, the fact that sampling generally causes minimal visual damage to valuable specimens. Even when freshly sampled, however, the DNA quantity and quality in the fully keratinized parts of such tissues is extremely poor in comparison to other tissues such as blood and muscle - although little systematic research has been undertaken to characterize how such degradation may relate to sample source. In this review paper we present the current understanding of the quality and limitations of DNA in two key keratinous tissues, nail and hair. The findings indicate that although some fragments of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA appear to be present in almost all hair and nail samples, the quality of DNA, both in quantity and length of amplifiable DNA fragments, vary considerably not just by species, but by individual, and even within individual between hair types. PMID:21530205

  7. [The present study situation and application prospect of nail analysis for abused drugs].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hang; Xiang, Ping; Shen, Min

    2010-10-01

    In forensic toxicology analysis, various types of biological samples have their own special characteristics and scope of applications. In this article, the physiological structure of nails, methods for collecting and pre-processing samples, and for analyzing some poisons and drugs in the nails are reviewed with details. This paper introduces the influence factors of drug abuse of the nails. The prospects of its further applications are concluded based on the research results. Nails, as an unconventional bio-sample without general application, show great potential and advantages in forensic toxicology. PMID:21287743

  8. Development of topical therapeutics for management of onychomycosis and other nail disorders: a pharmaceutical perspective.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, Mustafa M A

    2015-02-10

    The human nail plate is a formidable barrier to drug permeation. Development of therapeutics for management of nail diseases thus remains a challenge. This article reviews the current knowledge and recent advances in the field of transungual drug delivery and provides guidance on development of topical/ungual therapeutics for management of nail diseases, with special emphasis on management of onychomycosis, the most common nail disease. Selection of drug candidates, drug delivery approaches, and evaluation of formulations are among the topics discussed. A comprehensive mathematical description for transungual permeation is also introduced. PMID:25481439

  9. [Penetrating injury of the left ventricle caused by a nail gun; report of a case].

    PubMed

    Suda, Hisao; Nakayama, Takuya; Sunada, Masatoshi; Miyata, Yosuke; Yamada, Toshiyuki

    2014-05-01

    Penetrating cardiac injuries are life-threatening emergencies. We present a case of a 24-year-old construction worker who accidentally shot himself with a nail gun. Chest X-ray showed a 6 cm-long nail overlapping the cardiac shadow. A computed tomography (CT) scan revealed the nail penetrating the left ventricle and a large amount of pericardial effusion. Median sternotomy was performed and cardiopulmomary bypass was established. Then, the nail was removed and the left ventricular wound was repaired by 4-0 Prolene mattress sutures buttressed with felt-strips. He had an uncomplicated postoperative course and was discharged 7 days postoperatively. PMID:24917290

  10. Intertemporal analysis of organizational productivity in residential aged care networks: scenario analyses for setting policy targets.

    PubMed

    Avkiran, Necmi Kemal; McCrystal, Alan

    2014-06-01

    With an increasing ageing population, there is a growing concern about how the elderly would be looked after. The primary purpose of this paper is to develop scenario analysis using simulated data where various criteria are incorporated into modeling policy targets, and apply an intertemporal productivity analysis to observe inefficiencies as reform unfolds. The study demonstrates how dynamic network data envelopment analysis (DN-DEA) can be used to evaluate the changing productivity of residential aged care (RAC) networks over time. Results indicate that it takes 9 years for 90 % of the RAC networks to have 85 % or more of the total beds in high-level care, and an optimal bed capacity is reached by the end of year 7. Number of beds and registered nurses employed are the main sources of inefficiency. The common core inefficient cohort identified with the paper's method represents a sub-group of RAC networks more deserving of closer managerial attention because of their constantly inefficient operations over time. PMID:24293078

  11. Histopathological analysis of the progression pattern of subungual melanoma: late tendency of dermal invasion in the nail matrix area.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyun-Tae; Jang, Kee-Taek; Mun, Goo-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Youn; Lee, Jason B

    2014-11-01

    Subungual melanoma is a rare subtype of melanoma that usually originates and spreads from the nail matrix. Because of its poor prognosis and short matrix-to-bone distance, amputation has been traditionally performed. Recently, conservative surgery has been attempted for early subungual melanoma, but the evidence supporting this practice is sparse. As little is known about the progression pattern of subungual melanoma, further advances on the subject may provide better guidance on the optimal surgical approach. Histopathology slides, clinical records, and photographs of 23 cases of subungual melanoma were reviewed. For all cases, each area of the nail unit-proximal nail fold, nail matrix, nail bed, and/or hyponychium-in longitudinal sections was available for histological examination. Growth pattern, dermal invasion, and thickness were assessed in each area of the nail unit. There were five cases of melanoma in situ. Eighteen cases showed dermal invasion in at least one area of the nail unit. There were no cases showing dermal invasion in the nail matrix area only. In four cases, dermal invasion involved areas of the nail unit other than the nail matrix. In 14 cases, dermal invasion involved the nail matrix area as well as other areas of the nail unit. Except for one case, the nail matrix area showed thinner dermal invasion compared with dermal invasion in other areas of the nail unit. In conclusion, dermal invasion of subungual melanoma in the nail matrix area tends to occur later than other areas of the nail unit. Longitudinal incisional biopsy is necessary to accurately evaluate melanoma invasion. The findings of this study suggest that conservative surgical treatment for early subungual melanoma may be justified as the nail matrix area, an area of thin dermis and close proximity to the underlying bone, appears to be more resistant to invasion. PMID:24743223

  12. A comparison of the torsional performance of stainless steel and titanium alloy tibial intramedullary nails: a clinically relevant approach.

    PubMed

    Aitchison, G A; Johnstone, A J; Shepherd, D E T; Watson, M A

    2004-01-01

    In recent years there has been a tendency to design and manufacture intramedullary nails from titanium alloy rather than from stainless steel. The aim of this project was to compare the torsional performance of one manufacturers standard stainless steel and titanium alloy tibial intramedullary nails, using their distal locking screw holes and dedicated cross screws to secure each nail distally. A custom built test rig and materials testing machine were used to determine the torsional rigidity of the nails. Theory was used to calculate the torsional rigidity of the central parts of each nail. From the mechanical testing, the mean torsional rigidity of the titanium alloy nail system was 40.9 N m2 while that of the stainless steel nail system was 34.6 N m2, for all distal interlocking screw positions tested. Based on theoretical calculations the torsional rigidity of the central part of the nail was 83 N m2 for the stainless steel nail and 66 N m2 for the titanium alloy nail. This study shows the importance of using the distal locking screw holes and dedicated cross screws to secure intramedullary nails during mechanical testing so that clinically relevant results are obtained about the whole nail system and not just the nail. PMID:15299235

  13. Caryocar brasiliense supercritical CO2 extract possesses antimicrobial and antioxidant properties useful for personal care products

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries have an increasing interest in replacing synthetic antimicrobials in dermatological products due to increased microbial resistance to conventional antimicrobial agents. Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense) is a native fruit tree of the Brazilian Cerrado, specifically used in cosmetics, in the food industry, and for medicinal purposes. Leishmanicidal and antifungal activities have been reported previously. This study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of a C. brasiliense extract obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction. Methods The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus were determined by the classical microdilution method. Antiseptic activity against these organisms was evaluated by the plate diffusion method. The antioxidant potential of the extract was evaluated using a method based on the oxidation of 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS). The extract’s chemical profile was analyzed for the presence of alkaloids, saponins, anthraquinones, steroids, tannins, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds according to standard colorimetric methods. Results The C. brasiliense supercritical CO2 extract exhibits antimicrobial activity against all bacteria tested. It also possesses antioxidant activity, when compared to a vitamin E standard. Conclusions The C. brasiliense supercritical CO2 extract may be useful for the development of personal care products, primarily for antiseptic skin products that inactivate, reduce, prevent, or arrest the growth of microorganisms with the inherent intent to mitigate or prevent disease as well as products that minimize damage caused by free radicals. PMID:24565304

  14. Penetration of (14C)-Efinaconazole Topical Solution, 10%, Does Not Appear to be Influenced by Nail Polish

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Linda Stein; Korotzer, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Onychomycosis is a common nail disorder with significant medical impacts and aesthetic consequences. Patients seek treatment for several reasons, including the unsightliness of the nail(s). Even with successful management, it takes months for the diseased nail to appear cosmetically normal. Patients commonly apply nail polish to mask the appearance of the dystrophic nail, though it is contraindicated with the currently available topical lacquers for onychomycosis. The authors’ nonclinical study using a cadaver nail model showed that penetration of efinaconazole topical solution, 10%, a new antifungal being developed for the treatment of mild-to-moderate toenail onychomycosis, was not influenced by application of nail polish. Polishes showed an increase in surface tackiness with repeated efinaconazole topical solution, 10% application. The medical and aesthetic significance of the authors’ findings have yet to be assessed clinically. PMID:25276275

  15. Penetration of ((14)C)-Efinaconazole Topical Solution, 10%, Does Not Appear to be Influenced by Nail Polish.

    PubMed

    Zeichner, Joshua A; Stein Gold, Linda; Korotzer, Andrew

    2014-09-01

    Onychomycosis is a common nail disorder with significant medical impacts and aesthetic consequences. Patients seek treatment for several reasons, including the unsightliness of the nail(s). Even with successful management, it takes months for the diseased nail to appear cosmetically normal. Patients commonly apply nail polish to mask the appearance of the dystrophic nail, though it is contraindicated with the currently available topical lacquers for onychomycosis. The authors' nonclinical study using a cadaver nail model showed that penetration of efinaconazole topical solution, 10%, a new antifungal being developed for the treatment of mild-to-moderate toenail onychomycosis, was not influenced by application of nail polish. Polishes showed an increase in surface tackiness with repeated efinaconazole topical solution, 10% application. The medical and aesthetic significance of the authors' findings have yet to be assessed clinically. PMID:25276275

  16. 76 FR 30101 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ...two-piece steel nails having plastic or steel washers (caps) already assembled to the...coils using materials such as plastic, paper, or wire. Certain...two-piece steel nails having plastic or steel washers (caps) already assembled to...

  17. From Prototype to Product: Development of a Primary Care\\/Internet Based Depression Prevention Intervention for Adolescents (CATCH-IT)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josephine Landback; Micah Prochaska; Justin Ellis; Karoline Dmochowska; Sachiko A. Kuwabara; Tracy Gladstone; John Larson; Scott Stuart; Jackie Gollan; Carl Bell; Nathan Bradford; Mark Reinecke; Joshua Fogel; Benjamin W. Van Voorhees

    2009-01-01

    We describe the prototype to product development process of a low cost, socio-culturally relevant, easily implemented Internet-based\\u000a depression prevention intervention for adolescents in primary care. The intervention named “Project CATCH-IT” (Competent Adulthood\\u000a Transition with Cognitive-behavioral, Humanistic and Interpersonal Training) includes an initial motivational interview in\\u000a primary care to engage the adolescent, fourteen Web-based modules based on behavioral activation, cognitive behavioral

  18. Anaerobic-aerobic sequencing bioreactors improve energy efficiency for treatment of personal care product industry wastes.

    PubMed

    Ahammad, S Z; Bereslawski, J L; Dolfing, J; Mota, C; Graham, D W

    2013-07-01

    Personal care product (PCP) industry liquid wastes contain shampoo residues, which are usually treated by aerobic activated sludge (AS). Unfortunately, AS is expensive for PCP wastes because of high aeration and energy demands, whereas potentially energy-positive anaerobic designs cannot meet effluent targets. Therefore, combined anaerobic-aerobic systems may be the best solution. Seven treatment systems were assessed in terms of energy and treatment performance for shampoo wastes, including one aerobic, three anaerobic (HUASB, AHR and AnCSTR) and three anaerobic-aerobic reactor designs. COD removals were highest in the HUASB-aerobic (87.9 ± 0.4%) and AHR-aerobic (86.8±0.5%) systems, which used 69.2% and 62.5% less energy than aerobic AS. However, actual methane production rates were low relative to theoretical in the UASB and AHR units (?10% methane/COD removed) compared with the AnCSTR unit (?70%). Anaerobic-aerobic sequence reactors show promise for treating shampoo wastes, but optimal designs depend upon whether methane production or COD removal is most important to operations. PMID:23639409

  19. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products alter the holobiome and development of a medically important mosquito.

    PubMed

    Pennington, Marcus J; Rivas, Nicholas G; Prager, Sean M; Walton, William E; Trumble, John T

    2015-08-01

    The increasing demand for fresh water has forced many countries to use reclaimed wastewater for agricultural purposes. This water contains pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) that remain biologically active following passage through wastewater treatment plants. Run-off from farms and contaminated water from treatment facilities exposes aquatic ecosystems to PPCPs. This study examined the effects of PPCPs on a lower trophic organism. Culex quinquefasciatus larvae were reared in water contaminated with environmentally relevant concentrations of common PPCPs. Acetaminophen alone and a mixture of contaminants were found to increase developmental time of larvae. Susceptibility to Bti increased in larvae exposed to antibiotics, acetaminophen, or a mixture of PPCPs. Antibiotics, hormones, and the mixture altered the mosquito bacterial microbiome. Overall, the results indicate that at environmentally relevant concentrations, PPCPs in reclaimed water can have biologically important effects on an ecologically and medically important lower trophic level insect. PMID:25913146

  20. Silicone oil emulsions: strategies to improve their stability and applications in hair care products.

    PubMed

    Nazir, H; Zhang, W; Liu, Y; Chen, X; Wang, L; Naseer, M M; Ma, G

    2014-04-01

    Silicone oils have wide range of applications in personal care products due to their unique properties of high lubricity, non-toxicity, excessive spreading and film formation. They are usually employed in the form of emulsions due to their inert nature. Until now, different conventional emulsification techniques have been developed and applied to prepare silicone oil emulsions. The size and uniformity of emulsions showed important influence on stability of droplets, which further affect the application performance. Therefore, various strategies were developed to improve the stability as well as application performance of silicone oil emulsions. In this review, we highlight different factors influencing the stability of silicone oil emulsions and explain various strategies to overcome the stability problems. In addition, the silicone deposition on the surface of hair substrates and different approaches to increase their deposition are also discussed in detail. PMID:24279388

  1. [Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the effluent of sewage treatment plants].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shao-Kui; Li, Xiao-Feng

    2013-08-01

    In recent years, there is an increasing concern about pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), newly identified as micro-pollutants, due to their potential ecological risks. Sewage treatment plant (STP) is well demonstrated as the most significant way for PPCPs to enter into the environment. Therefore, PPCPs' discharge control from STPs' effluents is the key to reduce their ecological risks. Based on the therapeutic classes of PPCPs, this paper individually reviews the pharmacology, function, application and ecotoxicology of antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, psychiatric drugs, beta-blockers, environmental estrogen, lipid regulators, musk fragrances and other PPCPs. A great attention is paid to typical PPCPs frequently detected in STPs' effluents worldwide and their maximum concentrations were reported during 1998-2012, which provides important information for PPCPs' discharge control in STPs. Finally, the potential research fields on this topic are proposed. PMID:24191585

  2. Removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in aquatic plant-based systems: a review.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongqing; Gersberg, Richard M; Ng, Wun Jern; Tan, Soon Keat

    2014-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the aquatic environment are regarded as emerging contaminants and have attracted increasing concern. The use of aquatic plant-based systems such as constructed wetlands (CWs) for treatment of conventional pollutants has been well documented. However, available research studies on aquatic plant-based systems for PPCP removal are still limited. The removal of PPCPs in CWs often involves a diverse and complex set of physical, chemical and biological processes, which can be affected by the design and operational parameters selected for treatment. This review summarizes the PPCP removal performance in different aquatic plant-based systems. We also review the recent progress made towards a better understanding of the various mechanisms and pathways of PPCP attenuation during such phytoremediation. Additionally, the effect of key CW design characteristics and their interaction with the physico-chemical parameters that may influence the removal of PPCPs in functioning aquatic plant-based systems is discussed. PMID:24080393

  3. Phase distribution and removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products during anaerobic sludge digestion.

    PubMed

    Narumiya, Masanori; Nakada, Norihide; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2013-09-15

    The fate and removal of 48 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) during anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge were investigated in four full-scale sewage treatment plants (STPs). We measured concentrations in both the liquid and solid phases of the sludge to compare the distribution ratios (Kd) between phases before and after digestion. The results showed changes in Kd values of PPCPs with carboxyl or amino functional groups, probably due to a shift of dissociation equilibrium with the increase in pH. Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim were almost completely degraded (>90%); triclosan, triclocarban, and ofloxacin were moderately degraded (around 30-50%); but carbamazepine was not eliminated. To our knowledge, this is the first report that shows (i) the occurrence and removal of several tens of PPCPs by anaerobic sludge digestion in full-scale municipal STPs and (ii) the change of distribution between the liquid and solid phases during digestion. PMID:23774781

  4. Comparative study on secondary structural changes in diabetic and non-diabetic human finger nail specimen by using FTIR spectra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katheem M. Farhan; Thottapalli P. Sastry; Asit B. Mandal

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundIn human anatomy, a nail is a hornlike envelope covering the dorsal aspect of the terminal phalanges of fingers and toes. Nail disorders are most common among the geriatric population. Diabetes mellitus is also supposed to affect the condition of nails. Acceptable differences in infrared (IR) spectra of chronic and acute diabetes mellitus patient fingernail specimens compared to control normal

  5. Nail penetration of the antifungal agent oxiconazole after repeated topical application in healthy volunteers, and the effect of acetylcysteine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J van Hoogdalem; W. E van den Hoven; I. J Terpstra; J van Zijtveld; J. S. C Verschoor; J. N Visser

    1997-01-01

    Poor response of fungal nail infections to topical treatment with antimycotics is probably related to poor drug penetration into the infected nail. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vivo nail penetration of the antimycotic oxiconazole from a 1% w\\/v lotion, and to evaluate the potential penetration enhancing properties of co-delivered acetylcysteine. Six healthy volunteers were

  6. Discussion of the paper: "Rock nail reinforcement of a free surface" by Euripides Papamichos and Ioannis Vardoulakis,

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Discussion of the paper: "Rock nail reinforcement of a free surface" by Euripides Papamichos modelling of a rock material reinforced by the introduction of metallic bolts or nails, with a special emphasis on the way the interactions between the nails and the rock may be captured by means of a specific

  7. Packaging of microstrip circuits using bed of springs to suppress cavity modes - A replacement for bed of nails

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Rajo-Iglesias; P.-S. Kildal; A. Kishk

    2010-01-01

    The bed of nails has been demonstrated to be very useful in the design of new confined gap waveguide appearing between parallel metal plates with texture, as well as for removing cavity modes in microstrip circuit packages. As the bed of nails is bulky at low frequencies due to the required height of the nails, a new version of this

  8. Nail matrix nevi: A clinical and histopathologic study of twenty-two patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonella Tosti; Robert Baran; Bianca Maria Piraccini; Norma Cameli; Pier Alessandro Fanti

    1996-01-01

    Background: Because most dermatologists do not regularly perform biopsies of longitudinal melanonychia, even when the pigmentation presents as a single band, the true prevalence of nail matrix nevi is unknown.Objective: Our purpose was to determine the prevalence of nail matrix nevi in white patients with longitudinal melanonychia involving a single digit and to determine whether longitudinal melanonychia caused by a

  9. Contraceptive pill-induced porphyria cutanea tarda presenting with onycholysis of the finger nails

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Byrne; J. M. Boss; R. P. Dawber

    1976-01-01

    A case of porphyria cutanea tarda induced by oral contraceptive pill therapy is reported, and its unusual presenting sign of onycholysis of the finger nails is noted. Reference is made to the rarity of nail changes in porphyria and the regression of the onycholysis in the patient following therapy is outlined.

  10. [Comparison of the effectiveness of DNA isolation from nail plates with the use of commercial kits].

    PubMed

    Dereviagina, E O; Kuklev, M Iu; Lapenkov, M I; Plakhina, N V

    2013-01-01

    We compared the effectiveness of DNA isolation from nail plates using three commercial kits from different manufacturers. The results of the study give reason to recommend the use of PrepFiler BTA Forensic DNA Extraction Kits and QIAamp DNA Investigator Kit for the work with nail microfragments. PMID:24428053

  11. Simultaneous determination of polar pharmaceuticals and personal care products in biological organs and tissues.

    PubMed

    Tanoue, Rumi; Nomiyama, Kei; Nakamura, Haruna; Hayashi, Terutake; Kim, Joon-Woo; Isobe, Tomohiko; Shinohara, Ryota; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2014-08-15

    In the present study, a sensitive and accurate isotope dilution method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 17 polar pharmaceutical and personal care product (PPCP) residues (logKow=1.40-5.74), including 14 pharmaceuticals and 3 personal care products, in biological organs and tissues. The proposed method involved enzymatic hydrolysis, followed by sequential clean-up using silica gel chromatography and gel permeation chromatography, and analysis via ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. This method yielded acceptable absolute recoveries (48-88%) and internal standard-corrected recoveries (90-130%) for 17 PPCPs. Method detection limits were between 0.0092 and 3.2ngg(-1) wet weight, and the limits of quantification were between 0.020 and 8.7ngg(-1) wet weight. The method can be used to readily detect the target compounds at trace levels while minimizing the required sample volume. The developed method was applied to the determination of 17 PPCPs in the liver and kidney of 17 birds collected from Japan and also in the plasma, liver, and brain of 7 cyprinoid fish from an effluent-dominated stream in Japan. Triclosan was detected in 5 of 11 fish-eating birds but not in non-fish-eating birds, suggesting the contamination of prey fish by the chemical. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibacterial agents, and psychotropic agents were frequently detected in the fish tissues. In addition, 7 of the target compounds were found in fish brain. The median brain/plasma ratios of the psychotropic agents ranged from 1.6 (carbamazepine) to 12 (diphenhydramine), indicating high transportability to fish brain. PMID:24958034

  12. Determining water content in human nails with a portable near-infrared spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Egawa, Mariko; Fukuhara, Tadao; Takahashi, Motoji; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2003-04-01

    The water content of human nail plates was determined using a portable near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer with an InGaAs photodiode array detector. NIR diffuse reflectance (DR) spectra were collected from 108 cut nail plates with different relative humidity and in vivo from fingernails. Partial least-squares (PLS) regression was applied to the NIR spectra in the 1115-1645 nm region to develop calibration models that determine the water content in the cut nail plates and fingernails. A good correlation was obtained between the NIR spectra and the water content measured by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) for the NIR measurement of both cut nail plates and fingernails. The results indicate that the water content in the nails can be determined very rapidly (1 s) by means of the portable NIR spectrometer and PLS regression. PMID:14658646

  13. Longitudinal erythronychia with distal subungual keratosis: onychopapilloma of the nail bed and Bowen's disease.

    PubMed

    Baran, R; Perrin, C

    2000-07-01

    We biopsied longitudinal erythronychia in 16 subjects, and found an onychopapilloma in 14 cases and Bowen's disease in the remaining two. Shared clinical features in addition to erythronychia (or sometimes an interrupted line made up of splinter haemorrhages) were typically a longitudinal marked ridge of the nail bed expanded at the distal nail bed as subungual keratosis, and associated localized onycholysis. The presentation of Bowen's disease in this pattern has not been previously reported. In all cases of onychopapilloma of the nail bed, acanthosis and papillomatosis were evident, and were associated with a keratogenous zone identical to the nail matrix. In addition, we found multinucleate giant cells in two onychopapillomas. We have therefore suggested that the term 'localized, distal, subungual keratosis with multinucleate cells' should be replaced by 'onychopapilloma' (nail-producing papilloma). PMID:10886147

  14. Diagnosis using the proximal and lateral nail folds.

    PubMed

    Chang, Patricia

    2015-04-01

    This article includes the etiology and pathophysiological data of each entity, classifying them as dermatologic, systemic, infectious, neoplastic, traumatic, and other classifications. The entities inherent to the periungual folds are also included, such as acute paronychia, chronic paronychia, retronychia, hangnails, hematomas of the proximal fold caused by oximeter, onychocryptosis, hypertrophy of the lateral folds, and infections caused by Candida albicans, Pseudomonas, and Staphylococcus aureus. Additionally, pathologies caused by diabetes mellitus, sepsis, endocarditis, drug reactions, and finally less frequent diseases that also affect the nail folds are discussed. PMID:25828713

  15. Fixation of ankle fragility fractures by tibiotalocalcaneal nail

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rouin Amirfeyz; Andrew Bacon; Jeff Ling; Ashley Blom; Steve Hepple; Ian Winson; William Harries

    2008-01-01

    Introduction  Fragility fractures of the ankle are difficult to treat by conventional fixation due to poor bone quality, compromised soft\\u000a tissues, and inherent instability. Conservative management of these patients also has its problems.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  We retrospectively reviewed 13 patients who underwent intramedullary nailing through the tibiotalocalcaneal joints in an attempt\\u000a to achieve the dual aims of fracture control and early

  16. Myxoid onychomatricoma: an unusual variant of a rare nail unit tumor.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Campbell L; Sobanko, Joseph F; Rubin, Adam I

    2015-06-01

    A 57-year-old woman presented with a 3-year history of a thickened, yellowed, over-curved nail plate of the left second toe. The proximal nail fold had an associated nodule. When observed head-on, the distal nail plate demonstrated multiple circular perforations. Avulsion of the nail plate revealed a 0.7 cm pale white mass within the proximal nail matrix, which was excised. Histologic sections of the nail plate showed longitudinal cystic spaces associated with papillary projections of nail matrix epithelium. The parenchyma of the lesion demonstrated bland-appearing spindled cells in a prominent myxoid stroma with abundant mast cells. The spindled cells were focally positive for CD34 and factor XIIIa and negative for S100, pan-cytokeratin, desmin, smooth muscle actin, epithelial membrane antigen, and MART-1. Onychomatricoma (OM) is a rare nail unit biphasic fibroepithelial tumor with multiple radiating digitations lined by papillomatous matrix epithelium. The epithelial component is consisted of matrix cells that generate the thickened nail plate, and the digitations cause characteristic "wormwood" perforations of the nail plate. A fibrous stroma is characteristic with staining positive for CD34 and negative for CD99, epithelial membrane antigen, and S100. This case is unique with the presence of a prominent myxoid stroma associated with the fibrous component of the OM. Only 1 previous report of OM highlights a related finding of a myxocollagenous stroma. This purely myxoid variant represents a new distinct form of OM. Clinicopathologic correlation is essential to avoid confusion with other myxoid tumors such as a superficial acral myxoma, superficial angiomyxoma, or a digital myxoid cyst. PMID:25830718

  17. The effect of K101 Nail Solution on Trichophyton rubrum and Candida albicans growth and ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Hultenby, Kjell; Chryssanthou, Erja; Klingspor, Lena; Rensfeldt, Kjell; Strömbeck, Louise; Faergemann, Jan

    2014-10-01

    K101 Nail Solution (trademarks Emtrix(®), Nalox(™), Naloc(™)) is a combination of propylene glycol, urea and lactic acid in a topical formulation for the treatment of nails affected by onychomycosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the Minimal Cidal Concentration (MCC) of K101 Nail Solution against Trichophyton rubrum and Candida albicans as well as the effect of K101 Nail Solution on the micromorphology of these fungi. The MCC of K101 Nail Solution against T. rubrum and C. albicans was 50% after 60-min exposure time. A MCC of 50% for K101 Nail Solution means that K101 Nail Solution diluted with e.g. water to 50% will totally kill the fungi tested. In the scanning electron microscope C. albicans cells, treated with 50% K101 Nail Solution, showed a shrunken surface. T. rubrum cells were severely damaged shown as collapse and degradation of the cells. In the transmission electron microscope most C. albicans cells, treated with 50% K101 Nail Solution exhibited destroyed organelles and many necrotic cells were found. The cell wall was clearly degraded and the contact between the cell wall and the inner membrane was punctured. In T. rubrum most cells were necrotic. Some cells were clearly collapsed and the content in the cytoplasm was degraded shown as small membrane vesicles and many big vacuoles. The cell wall was clearly degraded and the membrane was punctured. In conclusion, this in vitro study documents the efficacy of K101 Nail Solution against T. rubrum and C. albicans. PMID:24934317

  18. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs): a review on environmental contamination in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin-Lin; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2013-09-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) which contain diverse organic groups, such as antibiotics, hormones, antimicrobial agents, synthetic musks, etc., have raised significant concerns in recently years for their persistent input and potential threat to ecological environment and human health. China is a large country with high production and consumption of PPCPs for its economic development and population growth in recent years. This may result in PPCP contamination in different environmental media of China. This review summarizes the current contamination status of different environment media, including sewage, surface water, sludge, sediments, soil, and wild animals, in China by PPCPs. The human body burden and adverse effects derived from PPCPs are also evaluated. Based on this review, it has been concluded that more contamination information of aquatic environment and wildlife as well as human body burden of PPCPs in different areas of China is urgent. Studies about their environmental behavior and control technologies need to be conducted, and acute and chronic toxicities of different PPCP groups should be investigated for assessing their potential ecological and health risks. PMID:23838081

  19. The biological fate of silver ions following the use of silver-containing wound care products - a review.

    PubMed

    Walker, Michael; Parsons, David

    2014-10-01

    Ionic silver has a long history as an antimicrobial in human health care. This article is a review of the published literature on how ionic silver may enter the body from exposure to silver-containing wound care products and its eventual metabolic fates, in an assessment of the safety during normal use of these products in wound care. Following the application to breached skin, there appears to be little evidence of localised or systemic toxicity, and this is borne out by the continuous use of silver sulfadiazine formulations for more than 50 years. Consequently, following normal use, the risk of silver ion toxicity locally and systemically is considered to be low or negligible. PMID:23173975

  20. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in surface and treated waters of Louisiana, USA and Ontario, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glen R. Boyd; Helge Reemtsma; Deborah A. Grimm; Siddhartha Mitra

    2003-01-01

    A newly developed analytical method was used to measure concentrations of nine pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in samples from two surface water bodies, a sewage treatment plant effluent and various stages of a drinking water treatment plant in Louisiana, USA, and from one surface water body, a drinking water treatment plant and a pilot plant in Ontario, Canada.

  1. Emerging chemicals of concern: Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in Asia, with particular reference to Southern China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce J. Richardson; Paul K. S. Lam; Michael Martin

    2005-01-01

    In many western nations, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are present in aquatic environments, raising concerns amongst chemists and toxicologists regarding their potential environmental fates and effects. However, there are few published reports of PPCPs in environmental samples from Southeast Asia. Whilst the environmental toxicology of PPCPs is not well understood, several effects cause concern, such as feminisation or

  2. Fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in wastewater treatment plants – Conception of a database and first results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Miège; J. M. Choubert; L. Ribeiro; M. Eusèbe; M. Coquery

    2009-01-01

    We created a database in order to quantitatively assess the occurrence and removal efficiency of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). From 117 scientific publications, we compiled 6641 data covering 184 PPCPs. Data included the concentrations of PPCPs in WWTP influents and effluents, their removal efficiency and their loads to the aquatic environment. The first

  3. Source, Fate and Transport of Endocrine Disruptors, Pharmaceuticals, and Personal Care Products in Drinking Water Sources in California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Carrie Guo; Stuart W. Krasner; Steve Fitzsimmons; Greg Woodside; Nira Yamachika

    The occurrence of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) has been reported in surface waters worldwide. These contaminants may enter the aquatic environment via agricultural run-off, leaching of municipal landfills or after wastewater treatment processes. In California, even though there are major watersheds that are exposed to wastewater discharges, agricultural run-off, and other activities that may

  4. Occurrence of Herbicides and Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products in Surface Water and Groundwater around Liberty Bay, Puget Sound, Washington

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer A. Dougherty; Peter W. Swarzenski; Richard S. Dinicola; Martin Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    Organic contaminants, such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), pose a risk to water quality and the health of ecosystems. Th is study was designed to determine if a coastal community lacking point sources, such as waste water treatment plant effl uent, could release PPCPs, herbicides, and plasticizers at detectable levels to their surface water and groundwater. Research was

  5. Occurrence and reductions of pharmaceuticals and personal care products and estrogens by municipal wastewater treatment plants in Ontario, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lori Lishman; Shirley Anne Smyth; Kurtis Sarafin; Sonya Kleywegt; John Toito; Thomas Peart; Bill Lee; Mark Servos; Michel Beland; Peter Seto

    2006-01-01

    Over the last ten years there have been reports of pharmaceuticals and personal care product (PPCP) residuals in municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. The principle goal of this study was specifically to expand and in some cases establish a Canadian database for the presence of selected acidic drugs, triclosan, polycyclic musks, and selected estrogens in MWWTP influent and effluent.

  6. Occurrence of endocrine disrupting compounds, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products in the Han River (Seoul, South Korea)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yeomin Yoon; Jaena Ryu; Jeill Oh; Byeong-Gyu Choi; Shane A. Snyder

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of 31 selected endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in Korean surface waters was investigated. The area was selected since there is a lack of information in the Seoul area on the suspected contamination of rivers by micropollutants, although over 99% of drinking water is produced from surface waters in this area that

  7. The occurrence of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, endocrine disruptors and illicit drugs in surface water in South Wales, UK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern; Richard M. Dinsdale; Alan J. Guwy

    2008-01-01

    The presence and fate of 56 pharmaceuticals, personal care products, endocrine disruptors and illicit drugs (PPCPs) were investigated in the South Wales region of the UK. Two contrasting rivers: River Taff and River Ely were chosen for this investigation and were monitored for a period of 10 months. The impact of the factors affecting the levels of concentration of PPCPs

  8. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products along the West Prong Little Pigeon River in east Tennessee, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chang-Ping Yu; Kung-Hui Chu

    2009-01-01

    Presence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the environment has received a great attention due to their potential impacts on public health. This study examined the occurrence of PPCPs in West Prong Little Pigeon River in east Tennessee. As wastewater is a major source for environmental occurrence of PPCPs, both wastewater and river water samples were analyzed for

  9. Detection of Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) in 3 Maine Lakes by Synchronous-Scan Fluorescence Spectroscopy (SFS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Marie Lausier

    2009-01-01

    The occurrence of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCP's) and their byproducts in the environment is of growing concern due to their potential harmful effects on environmental and human health. Synchronous-scan fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) was used to detect caffeine, 17?-ethynylestradiol, and the PPCP additive Triclosan levels in Pushaw Lake, Branch Lake, and Sebasticook Lake. These lakes are three heavily populated

  10. The new production theory for health care through clinical reengineering: a study of clinical guidelines--Part I.

    PubMed

    Sharp, J R

    1994-12-01

    Drucker writes that the emerging theory of manufacturing includes four principles and practices: statistical quality control, manufacturing accounting, modular organization, and systems approach. SQC is a rigorous, scientific method of identifying variation in the quality and productivity of a given production process, with an emphasis on improvement. The new manufacturing economics intends to integrate the production strategy with the business strategy in order to account for the biggest portions of costs that the old methods did not assess: time and automation. Production operations that are both standardized and flexible will allow the organization to keep up with changes in design, technology, and the market. The return on innovation in this environment is predicated on a modular arrangement of flexible steps in the process. Finally, the systems approach sees the entire process as being integrated in converting goods or services into economic satisfaction. There is now a major restructuring of the U.S. health care industry, and the incorporation of these four theories into health care reform would appear to be essential. This two-part article will address two problems: Will Drucker's theories relate to health care (Part I)? Will the "new manufacturing" in health care (practice guidelines) demonstrate cost, quality, and access changes that reform demands (Part II)? PMID:10139368

  11. Seasonal and Diurnal Fluctuations in the Concentrations of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) in Residential Sewage Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuji Takao; Miki Shimazu; Mayumi Fukuda; Hiroshi Ishibashi; Masaki Nagae; Shinya Kohra; Yasuhiro Tabira; Yasuhiro Ishibashi; Koji Arizonob

    2008-01-01

    Seasonal and diurnal fluctuations in pharma- ceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) con- centrations in residential sewage water were ascer- tained in an area with no businesses industry (e.g., plants or offices) upstream. PPCPs with high de- tection rates included ibuprofen, acetaminophen and indomethacin (antipyretic analgesics), atenolol and disopyramide (antiarrhythmics), clarithromycin (an- tibiotic), levofloxacin (synthetic antimicrobial agent) an dt riclosan

  12. Rejection of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) by low pressure reverse osmosis membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Ozaki; K. Fukami; N. Ikejima; S. Matsui; Y. Shimizu; R. R. Giri; S. Taniguchi; R. Takanami

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to elucidate retention characteristics of some pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), by two polyamide low pressure reverse osmosis (LPRO) membranes. Feed solution pH did not have an influence on rejections of undissociated solutes, which was most likely governed by adsorption, size exclusion and diffusion simultaneously. Size exclusion was presumably dominant, especially

  13. Evaluation of personal care products (PCP) removal efficiency: NF membranes, granular activated carbon (GAC) and ozone process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sung yun Lee; Yeomin Yoon

    Advanced water treatment processes, including NF membrane, GAC, and ozone process, were evaluated in terms of removal efficiencies of personal care products (PCP). Four different PCP compounds, DEET, galaxolide, tonalide, and musk ketone, were used to evaluate their removal efficiency by selected advanced water treatment processes. Two different NF membranes, RF and NE40, were studied to investigate PCP removal mechanisms.

  14. Ecotoxicological effects of typical personal care products on seed germination and seedling development of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing An; Qixing Zhou; Yuebing Sun; Zhiqiang Xu

    2009-01-01

    Biochemical responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings stressed by two typical personal care products (PCPs) – triclosan (TCS) and galaxolide (HHCB) were experimentally investigated to assess their ecological risks. The results showed that wheat shoot and root elongation was significantly inhibited by 50–250mg L?1 TCS and HHCB. Wheat roots were sensitive to TCS, while shoots were sensitive to HHCB.

  15. Analysis of human nails by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinimakarem, Zahra; Tavassoli, Seyed Hassan

    2011-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is applied to analyze human fingernails using nanosecond laser pulses. Measurements on 45 nail samples are carried out and 14 key species are identified. The elements detected with the present system are: Al, C, Ca, Fe, H, K, Mg, N, Na, O, Si, Sr, Ti as well as CN molecule. Sixty three emission lines have been identified in the spectrum that are dominated by calcium lines. A discriminant function analysis is used to discriminate among different genders and age groups. This analysis demonstrates efficient discrimination among these groups. The mean concentration of each element is compared between different groups. Correlation between concentrations of elements in fingernails is calculated. A strong correlation is found between sodium and potassium while calcium and magnesium levels are inversely correlated. A case report on high levels of sodium and potassium in patients with hyperthyroidism is presented. It is shown that LIBS could be a promising technique for the analysis of nails and therefore identification of health problems.

  16. Aggregate consumer exposure to UV filter ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate via personal care products.

    PubMed

    Manová, Eva; von Goetz, Natalie; Hungerbuehler, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) filters are substances designed to protect our skin from UV-induced damage and can be found in many categories of personal care products (PCPs). The potential endocrine-disrupting effects attributed to UV filter ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC) are being debated. We evaluated the aggregate exposure of the Swiss-German population (N=1196; ages ?1-97years) to EHMC via the use of PCPs; thus we provide the first comprehensive information about the current EHMC exposure sources and aggregate exposure levels. In our probabilistic modeling method performed at an individual level, PCP use data obtained by a postal questionnaire were linked to concentration data on EHMC gained from chemical analyses of PCPs used by the questionnaire respondents. The modeled median and 99.9th percentile of the internal aggregate exposure for the general population were 0.012 and 0.873mgday(-1)kg(-1) and 0.008 and 0.122mgday(-1)kg(-1) for the summer/autumn and winter/spring period, respectively. The major contributors to internal aggregate exposure were sunscreen products in summer/autumn (females: 64%; males: 85%; children aged ?12years 93%). In winter/spring, lip care dominated for females (30%) and sunscreen for males (38%) and children aged ?12years (50%). Overall, the internal aggregate exposure estimates for the studied population are shown to be below the Derived No Effect Level (DNEL) for EHMC i.e., the level of exposure above which humans should not be exposed; however, when an intense short-term exposure via sunscreen is accounted for during a sunbathing day, at the high-end percentiles (99.9th) the predicted aggregate exposure exceeds the DNEL for thyroid-disrupting effects such as for children aged ?4years, who might be particularly susceptible to endocrine disrupting events. It is nevertheless critical to acknowledge that quantitative data on transdermal penetration of EHMC from PCPs are currently insufficient. Since long-term effects of endocrine disruptors are not known, future studies are warranted to provide accurate quantitative data on transdermal penetration of EHMC and to determine its metabolic fate in humans. PMID:25454242

  17. Nail changes in connective tissue diseases: a study of 39 cases

    PubMed Central

    Elmansour, Imane; Chiheb, Soumia; Benchikhi, Hakima

    2014-01-01

    The objective is to identify nail unit changes associated with connective tissue diseases (CTD) and evaluate their frequency. We carried a prospective study between March 2012 and March2013 in our department. All patients with CTD were included. A clinical examination of the fingernails was done by the same dermatologist. Nail features were noted and classified and photos taken. Thirty nine patients were enrolled including: 16 systemic sclerosis, 14 lupus erythematosus (SLE), 8 dermatomyositis (DM), 1 primary Sjorgen's syndrome. The mean age was 40 years old. The mean duration of the disease was 6 years. Nail unit changes were present in 27 patients (69%). The abnormalities observed were Longitidunal ridging in 11 patients, Peri ungueal erythema in 10 patients, Peri-ungual telangiectasia in 11 patients, Ragged cuticle in 10 patients fingertips scars in 9 patients, Increase of longitudinal curvature and beaking of the nail in 4 patients, Increase in transverse curvature in 4 patients, dyschromia of the proximal nail fold in 3 patients, Subungual hyperkeratosis in 3 patients, onycholysis in 2 patients, splinter haemorrhages in 3 patients, nail plate pigmentation in 2 patients, pseudoclubbing in 1 patient, macrolunula in 1 patients, Red lunulae in one patient, bluish- black discoloration of the nail plate in one patient. The proximal nailfold was found to be most sites affected. PMID:25419288

  18. Nail changes in connective tissue diseases: a study of 39 cases.

    PubMed

    Elmansour, Imane; Chiheb, Soumia; Benchikhi, Hakima

    2014-01-01

    The objective is to identify nail unit changes associated with connective tissue diseases (CTD) and evaluate their frequency. We carried a prospective study between March 2012 and March2013 in our department. All patients with CTD were included. A clinical examination of the fingernails was done by the same dermatologist. Nail features were noted and classified and photos taken. Thirty nine patients were enrolled including: 16 systemic sclerosis, 14 lupus erythematosus (SLE), 8 dermatomyositis (DM), 1 primary Sjorgen's syndrome. The mean age was 40 years old. The mean duration of the disease was 6 years. Nail unit changes were present in 27 patients (69%). The abnormalities observed were Longitidunal ridging in 11 patients, Peri ungueal erythema in 10 patients, Peri-ungual telangiectasia in 11 patients, Ragged cuticle in 10 patients fingertips scars in 9 patients, Increase of longitudinal curvature and beaking of the nail in 4 patients, Increase in transverse curvature in 4 patients, dyschromia of the proximal nail fold in 3 patients, Subungual hyperkeratosis in 3 patients, onycholysis in 2 patients, splinter haemorrhages in 3 patients, nail plate pigmentation in 2 patients, pseudoclubbing in 1 patient, macrolunula in 1 patients, Red lunulae in one patient, bluish-black discoloration of the nail plate in one patient. The proximal nailfold was found to be most sites affected. PMID:25419288

  19. Nail alterations as a surrogate marker for the efficacy of low-dose metronomic chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kibata, Kayoko; Tamaki, Takeshi; Inagaki, Noriko; Ogata, Makoto; Shimizu, Toshiki; Nomura, Shosaku

    2013-04-01

    Docetaxel is a well-known causative agent of nail alterations. The aim of this study was to reveal the impact of nail alterations associated with low-dose metronomic (LDM) docetaxel chemotherapy on the survival of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Clinical information, survival data and nail alterations in patients treated with LDM docetaxel chemotherapy (docetaxel 15 mg/m(2) per week) were retrospectively reviewed. Forty-nine patients were included in this study. Various nail alterations were observed in 17 of the 49 patients (34.7%). Onycholysis and subungual hyperkeratosis were observed in 22.4% and 10.2% of patients, respectively. The number of docetaxel administration cycles was correlated with the incidence and severity of nail alterations. Univariate and multivariate analysis clearly demonstrated that the occurrence of nail alterations was an independent favorable prognostic factor for overall survival. Nail alterations associated with treatment may act as a surrogate marker for the efficacy of low-dose metronomic docetaxel chemotherapy. PMID:23599750

  20. Management of Infection After Intramedullary Nailing of Long Bone Fractures: Treatment Protocols and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Makridis, Kostas G; Tosounidis, Theodoros; Giannoudis, Peter V

    2013-01-01

    Implant related sepsis is a relatively unusual complication of intra-medullary nail fixation of long bone fractures. Depending on the extent of infection, timing of diagnosis and progress of fracture union, different treatment strategies have been developed. The aim of this review article is to collect and analyze the existing evidence about the incidence and management of infection following IM nailing of long bone fractures and to recommend treatment algorithms that could be valuable in everyday clinical practice. After searching the P u b M e d /Medline databases, 1270 articles were found related to the topic during the last 20 years. The final review included 28 articles that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Only a few prospective studies exist to report on the management of infection following IM nailing of long-bone fractures. In general, stage I (early) infections only require antibiotic administration with/without debridement. Stage II (delayed) infections can be successfully treated with debridement, IM reaming, antibiotic nails, and administration of antibiotics. Infected non-unions are best treated with exchange nailing, antibiotic administration and when infection has been eradicated with graft implantation if it is needed. Debridement, exchange nailing and systemic administration of antibiotics is the best indication for stage III (late) infections, while stage III infected non-unions can successfully be treated with nail removal and Ilizarov frame, especially when large bone defects exist. PMID:23919097

  1. Onychopharmacokinetics of terbinafine hydrochloride penetration from a novel topical formulation into the human nail in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hui, Xiaoying; Lindahl, Åke; Lamel, Sonia; Maibach, Howard I

    2013-09-01

    This study determined the onychopharmacokinetics, nail absorption, distribution, and penetration of [¹?C]-terbinafine HCl in a new topical formulation into/through the human finger nail using the in vitro finite dose model. This study determined the penetration rate of terbinafine HCl from multiple doses of topical formulation applied daily for 14 days. Results showed that the total dose recovery (mass balance) was almost 100%. The concentration of terbinafine HCl in the deeper nail plate (ventral/intermediate layers) and the cotton-pad nail bed samples after the 14-day treatment were 613?±?145 and (±S.D.) and 27?±?1.2 µg/cm³ (or 1.9?±?0.6 µg/cm³ daily) on average, respectively. In comparison with nail concentration data from the literature for other topical terbinatine formulations, our results show that higher amounts of terbinafine HCl reached the deep nail plate and/or the nail bed after a 14-day topical treatment with this topical formulation in vitro. PMID:22873754

  2. In Vitro Nail Penetration and Antifungal Activity of Tavaborole, a Boron-Based Pharmaceutical.

    PubMed

    Coronado, Dina; Merchant, Tejal; Chanda, Sanjay; Zane, Lee T

    2015-06-01

    An effective topical antifungal medication must penetrate through the nail plate at sufficient concentrations to eradicate the fungal infection. Tavaborole topical solution, 5% is a novel boron-based pharmaceutical approved for the treatment of toenail onychomycosis due to Trichophyton rubrum or T mentagrophytes. Four in vitro studies assessed the antifungal activity and nail penetration of tavaborole. In Study 1, tavaborole demonstrated minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 0.25-2 ?g/mL against all fungi tested; addition of 5% keratin powder did not affect the MIC against T rubrum. The minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values for tavaborole against T rubrum and T mentagrophytes were 8 and 16 ?g/mL, respectively. In Study 2, tavaborole effectively penetrated through the nail plate; mean concentrations in the ventral/intermediate nail layer were significantly higher than ciclopirox at day 15. In Study 3, mean cumulative tavaborole penetration through ex vivo human nails was significantly higher than ciclopirox at day 15. In Study 4, tavaborole demonstrated superior nail penetration and fungicidal activity, as measured by zones of inhibition. These studies demonstrated the superior penetration of tavaborole through the nail plate vs ciclopirox. Tavaborole demonstrated robust antifungal activity, with low MIC and MFC values, even in the presence of keratin.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2015;14(6):609-614.. PMID:26091387

  3. Molecular diffusion in the human nail measured by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Wing Sin; Belsey, Natalie A; Garrett, Natalie L; Moger, Julian; Delgado-Charro, M Begoña; Guy, Richard H

    2015-06-23

    The effective treatment of diseases of the nail remains an important unmet medical need, primarily because of poor drug delivery. To address this challenge, the diffusion, in real time, of topically applied chemicals into the human nail has been visualized and characterized using stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy. Deuterated water (D2O), propylene glycol (PG-d8), and dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO-d6) were separately applied to the dorsal surface of human nail samples. SRS microscopy was used to image D2O, PG-d8/DMSO-d6, and the nail through the O-D, -CD2, and -CH2 bond stretching Raman signals, respectively. Signal intensities obtained were measured as functions of time and of depth into the nail. It was observed that the diffusion of D2O was more than an order of magnitude faster than that of PG-d8 and DMSO-d6. Normalization of the Raman signals, to correct in part for scattering and absorption, permitted semiquantitative analysis of the permeation profiles and strongly suggested that solvent diffusion diverged from classical behavior and that derived diffusivities may be concentration dependent. It appeared that the uptake of solvent progressively undermined the integrity of the nail. This previously unreported application of SRS has permitted, therefore, direct visualization and semiquantitation of solvent penetration into the human nail. The kinetics of uptake of the three chemicals studied demonstrated that each altered its own diffusion in the nail in an apparently concentration-dependent fashion. The scale of the unexpected behavior observed may prove beneficial in the design and optimization of drug formulations to treat recalcitrant nail disease. PMID:26056283

  4. Nail gun injuries in residential carpentry: lessons from active injury surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Lipscomb, H; Dement, J; Nolan, J; Patterson, D; Li, L

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To describe circumstances surrounding injuries involving nail guns among carpenters, calculate injury rates, identify high risk groups and preventive measures. Methods and setting: Active injury surveillance was used to identify causes of injury among a large cohort of union residential and drywall carpenters. Injured carpenters were interviewed by experienced journeymen; enumeration of workers and hourworked were provided by the union. The combined data allowed definition of a cohort of carpenters, their hours worked, detailed information on the circumstances surrounding injuries, and identification of preventive measures from the perspectives of the injured worker and an experienced investigator. Results: Nail guns were involved in 14% of injuries investigated. Ninety percent of these injuries were the result of the carpenter being struck, most commonly by a nail puncturing a hand or fingers. The injury rate among apprentices was 3.7 per 200 000 hours worked (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.7 to 4.9) compared with a rate of 1.2 among journeymen (95% CI 0.80 to 1.7). While not always the sole contributing factor, a sequential trigger would have likely prevented 65% of the injuries from tools with contact trip triggers. Conclusions: Training, engineering, and policy changes in the workplace and manufacturing arena are all appropriate targets for prevention of these injuries. Use of sequential triggers would likely decrease acute injury rates markedly. Over 70% of injuries among residential carpenters were associated with through nailing tasks (such as nailing studs or blocks, trusses or joists) or toe nailing (angled, corner nailing) as opposed to flat nailing used for sheathing activities; this provides some indication that contact trip tools could be used solely for flat nailing. PMID:12642553

  5. Parabens determination in cosmetic and personal care products exploiting a multi-syringe chromatographic (MSC) system and chemiluminescent detection.

    PubMed

    Rodas, Melisa; Portugal, Lindomar A; Avivar, Jessica; Estela, José Manuel; Cerdà, Víctor

    2015-10-01

    Parabens are widely used in dairy products, such as in cosmetics and personal care products. Thus, in this work a multi-syringe chromatographic (MSC) system is proposed for the first time for the determination of four parabens: methylparaben (MP), ethylparaben (EP), propylparaben (PP) and butylparaben (BP) in cosmetics and personal care products, as a simpler, practical, and low cost alternative to HPLC methods. Separation was achieved using a 5mm-long precolumn of reversed phase C18 and multi-isocratic separation, i.e. using two consecutive mobile phases, 12:88 acetonitrile:water and 28:72 acetonitrile:water. The use of a multi-syringe buret allowed the easy implementation of chemiluminescent (CL) detection after separation. The chemiluminescent detection is based on the reduction of Ce(IV) by p-hydroxybenzoic acid, product of the acid hydrolysis of parabens, to excite rhodamine 6G (Rho 6G) and measure the resulting light emission. Multivariate designs combined with the concepts of multiple response treatments and desirability functions have been employed to simultaneously optimize and evaluate the responses. The optimized method has proved to be sensitive and precise, obtaining limits of detection between 20 and 40µgL(-1) and RSD <4.9% in all cases. The method was satisfactorily applied to cosmetics and personal care products, obtaining no significant differences at a confidence level of 95% comparing with the HPLC reference method. PMID:26078157

  6. Aggregate dermal exposure to cyclic siloxanes in personal care products: implications for risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Biesterbos, Jacqueline W H; Beckmann, Gwendolyn; van Wel, Luuk; Anzion, Rob B M; von Goetz, Natalie; Dudzina, Tatsiana; Roeleveld, Nel; Ragas, Ad M J; Russel, Frans G M; Scheepers, Paul T J

    2015-01-01

    Consumers who use personal care products (PCPs) are internally exposed to some of the organic components present of which some may be detected in exhaled air when eliminated. The aim of this study was the quantitative determination of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) in end-exhaled air to study dermal absorption of substances in PCPs. We exposed the forearm of fifteen healthy volunteers for 60min to pure D4 or D5 and to commercial products containing D4 and D5. Inhalation uptake was kept to a minimum by keeping the forearm in a flow cabinet during dermal exposure and supplying filtered air to the breathing zone of the volunteer during the post-exposure period. End-exhaled air was collected using a breath sampler (Bio-VOC), transferred to carbograph multi-bed adsorbent tubes and analyzed by thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). In the end-exhaled air of non-exposed volunteers background concentrations of D4 (0.8-3.5ng/L) and D5 (0.8-4.0ng/L) were observed. After exposing the volunteers, the level of D4 and D5 in end-exhaled air did not or barely exceed background concentrations. At t=90min, a sharp increase of the D4/D5 concentration in end-exhaled air was observed, which we attributed to the inhalation of the substances during a toilet visit without using inhalation protection devices. When this visit was taken out of the protocol, the sharp increase disappeared. Overall, the results of our study indicate that dermal absorption of D4 and D5 contributes only marginally to internal exposure following dermal applications. As in our study inhalation is the primary route of entry for these compounds, we conclude that its risk assessment should focus on this particular exposure route. PMID:25454240

  7. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in German fish tissue: a national study.

    PubMed

    Subedi, Bikram; Du, Bowen; Chambliss, C Kevin; Koschorreck, Jan; Rüdel, Heinz; Quack, Markus; Brooks, Bryan W; Usenko, Sascha

    2012-08-21

    German Environment Specimen Bank (GESB) fish tissue samples, collected from 14 different GESB locations, were analyzed for 15 pharmaceuticals, 2 pharmaceutical metabolites, and 12 personal care products. Only 2 pharmaceuticals, diphenhydramine and desmethylsertraline, were measured above MDL. Diphenhydramine (0.04-0.07 ng g(-1) ww) and desmethylsertraline (1.65-3.28 ng g(-1) ww) were measured at 4 and 2 locations, respectively. The maximum concentrations of galaxolide (HHCB) (447 ng g(-1) ww) and tonalide (AHTN) (15 ng g(-1) ww) were measured at the Rehlingen sampling site in the Saar River. A significant decrease in HHCB and AHTN fish tissue concentrations was observed from 1995 to 2008 at select GESB sampling sites (r(2) = 0.69-0.89 for galaxolide and 0.89-0.97 for tonalide with p < 0.003). Galaxolide and tonalide fish tissue concentrations in Germany were ?19× and ?28× lower, respectively, as compared to fish tissue concentrations measured in a United States nationwide PPCP study conducted in 2006. Proximity of the sampling locations to the upstream wastewater treatment plant discharging point and mean annual flow at the sampling location were found to significantly predict galaxolide and tonalide fish tissue concentrations (HHCB: r(2) = 0.79, p = 0.021 and AHTN: r(2) = 0.81, p = 0.037) in Germany. PMID:22779714

  8. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the aquatic environment in China: a review.

    PubMed

    Bu, Qingwei; Wang, Bin; Huang, Jun; Deng, Shubo; Yu, Gang

    2013-11-15

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have been detected as contaminants of emerging concern ubiquitously in the aquatic environment in China and worldwide. A clear picture of PPCP contamination in the Chinese aquatic environment is needed to gain insight for both research and regulatory needs (e.g. monitoring, control and management). The occurrence data of 112 PPCPs in waters and sediments in China has been reviewed. In most cases, the detected concentration of these PPCPs in waters and sediments were at ng/L and ng/g levels, which were lower than or comparable to those reported worldwide. A screening level risk assessment (SLERA) identified six priority PPCPs in surface waters, namely erythromycin, roxithromycin, diclofenac, ibuprofen, salicylic acid and sulfamethoxazole. The results of SLERA also revealed that the hot spots for PPCP pollution were those river waters affected by the megacities with high density of population, such as Beijing, Tianjin, Guangzhou and Shanghai. Limitations of current researches and implications for future research in China were discussed. Some regulatory issues were also addressed. PMID:24036145

  9. Analytical methods for the determination of personal care products in human samples: an overview.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Díaz, I; Zafra-Gómez, A; Ballesteros, O; Navalón, A

    2014-11-01

    Personal care products (PCPs) are organic chemicals widely used in everyday human life. Nowadays, preservatives, UV-filters, antimicrobials and musk fragrances are widely used PCPs. Different studies have shown that some of these compounds can cause adverse health effects, such as genotoxicity, which could even lead to mutagenic or carcinogenic effects, or estrogenicity because of their endocrine disruption activity. Due to the absence of official monitoring protocols, there is an increasing demand of analytical methods that allow the determination of those compounds in human samples in order to obtain more information regarding their behavior and fate in the human body. The complexity of the biological matrices and the low concentration levels of these compounds make necessary the use of advanced sample treatment procedures that afford both, sample clean-up, to remove potentially interfering matrix components, as well as the concentration of analytes. In the present work, a review of the more recent analytical methods published in the scientific literature for the determination of PCPs in human fluids and tissue samples, is presented. The work focused on sample preparation and the analytical techniques employed. PMID:25127618

  10. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products: A critical review of the impacts on fish reproduction.

    PubMed

    Overturf, Matthew D; Anderson, Jordan C; Pandelides, Zacharias; Beyger, Lindsay; Holdway, Douglas A

    2015-07-01

    Research in environmental toxicology involving pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) has increased greatly over the last 10-15 years. Much research has been focused on the endocrine-disrupting potential of PPCPs, as they relate to negative population impacts of aquatic organisms. This review assesses the current data on the reported effects of PPCPs on fish reproduction with an emphasis on fecundity, a predictor of population effects. Studies of both individual PPCPs and PPCP mixtures are presented. As the majority of individual PPCP studies reviewed demonstrate negative effects on fish fecundity, we relate these findings to detected surface water concentrations of these compounds. Very few studies involving PPCP mixtures have been conducted; however, the need for these types of studies is warranted as fish are most likely exposed to mixtures of PPCPs in the wild. In addition, laboratory and field assessments of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents, a major source of PPCPs, are reviewed. Much of the data provided from these assessments are variable and do not generally demonstrate negative impacts on reproduction, or the studies are unable to directly associate observed effects with WWTP effluents. Finally, future research considerations are outlined to provide an avenue into understanding how wild populations of fish are affected by PPCPs. These considerations are aimed at determining the adaptation potential of fish exposed to mixtures of PPCPs over multiple generations. As global use of PPCPs continually rises, the need to discern the effects of chronic exposure to PPCPs is greatly increased. PMID:25945515

  11. Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in the Environment: What Are the Big Questions?

    PubMed Central

    Rudd, Murray A.; Brooks, Bryan W.; Caldwell, Daniel J.; Choi, Kyungho; Hickmann, Silke; Innes, Elizabeth; Ostapyk, Kim; Staveley, Jane P.; Verslycke, Tim; Ankley, Gerald T.; Beazley, Karen F.; Belanger, Scott E.; Berninger, Jason P.; Carriquiriborde, Pedro; Coors, Anja; DeLeo, Paul C.; Dyer, Scott D.; Ericson, Jon F.; Gagné, François; Giesy, John P.; Gouin, Todd; Hallstrom, Lars; Karlsson, Maja V.; Larsson, D. G. Joakim; Lazorchak, James M.; Mastrocco, Frank; McLaughlin, Alison; McMaster, Mark E.; Meyerhoff, Roger D.; Moore, Roberta; Parrott, Joanne L.; Snape, Jason R.; Murray-Smith, Richard; Servos, Mark R.; Sibley, Paul K.; Straub, Jürg Oliver; Szabo, Nora D.; Topp, Edward; Tetreault, Gerald R.; Trudeau, Vance L.; Van Der Kraak, Glen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Over the past 10–15 years, a substantial amount of work has been done by the scientific, regulatory, and business communities to elucidate the effects and risks of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the environment. Objective: This review was undertaken to identify key outstanding issues regarding the effects of PPCPs on human and ecological health in order to ensure that future resources will be focused on the most important areas. Data sources: To better understand and manage the risks of PPCPs in the environment, we used the “key question” approach to identify the principle issues that need to be addressed. Initially, questions were solicited from academic, government, and business communities around the world. A list of 101 questions was then discussed at an international expert workshop, and a top-20 list was developed. Following the workshop, workshop attendees ranked the 20 questions by importance. Data synthesis: The top 20 priority questions fell into seven categories: a) prioritization of substances for assessment, b) pathways of exposure, c) bioavailability and uptake, d) effects characterization, e) risk and relative risk, f?) antibiotic resistance, and g) risk management. Conclusions: A large body of information is now available on PPCPs in the environment. This exercise prioritized the most critical questions to aid in development of future research programs on the topic. PMID:22647657

  12. Formation of nanostructure on hair surface: its characteristic optical properties and application to hair care products.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shunsuke; Sato, Hirayuki; Shibuichi, Satoshi; Okamoto, Masayuki; Inoue, Shigeto; Satoh, Naoki

    2007-01-01

    Uneven structures on hair fiber surface, such as lift up of cuticle or build up of hair spray ingredients, generally cause a diffuse reflection which results in a dull and unhealthy appearance. However, in the case of finer structure than wavelength of visible light, the optical properties change significantly. An application of the phenomenon to hair care products is reported in this paper. Formation of the fine structure on hair surface was achieved by only a shampoo and rinse-off conditioner system including amino-silicone. Chroma enhancement of hair and light introduction into hair fibers were observed simultaneously with formation of the fine structure on the hair surface. The light introduction phenomenon is understood in terms of "Effective Medium Approximation" (EMA). The simulation study based on EMA indicates that a very low refractive index surface is expected to be realized, which well explains the optical experimental results. When the shampoo and conditioner system developed to form the structure on fiber surface was applied to dyed hair, enhancement and long-lasting of vivid appearance was confirmed in spite of dye elution. PMID:17728928

  13. Degradation and adsorption of selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Wu, Laosheng; Chang, Andrew C

    2009-11-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are emerging contaminants in the environment, which have drawn popular concerns recently. Most studies on the environmental fate of PPCPs have focused on their behaviors during wastewater treatment processes, in aquatic environments, and in the sludge, however, little is known about their behavior in agricultural soils. In this study, adsorption and degradation of six selected PPCPs, including clofibric acid, ibuprofen, naproxen, triclosan, diclofenac and bisphenol A have been investigated in the laboratory using four US agricultural soils associated with reclaimed wastewater reuse. Adsorption test using a batch equilibrium method demonstrated that adsorption of all tested chemicals in soils could be well described with Freundlich equation, and their adsorption affinity on soil followed the order of triclosan>bisphenol A>clofibric acid>naproxen>diclofenac>ibuprofen. Retardation factor (R(F)) suggested that ibuprofen had potential to move downward with percolating water, while triclosan and bisphenol A were readily retarded in soils. Degradation of selected PPCPs in soils generally followed first-order exponential decay kinetics, with half-lives ranging from 0.81 to 20.44 d. Degradation of PPCPs in soils appeared to be influenced by the soil organic matter and clay contents. Sterilization generally decreased the degradation rates, indicating microbial activity played a significant role in the degradation in soils. The degradation rate constant decreased with increasing initial chemical concentrations in soil, implying that the microbial activity was inhibited with high chemical loading levels. PMID:19853275

  14. Transfer of wastewater associated pharmaceuticals and personal care products to crop plants from biosolids treated soil.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chenxi; Spongberg, Alison L; Witter, Jason D; Sridhar, B B Maruthi

    2012-11-01

    The plant uptake of emerging organic contaminants such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) is receiving increased attention. Biosolids from municipal wastewater treatment have been previously identified as a major source for PPCPs. Thus, plant uptake of PPCPs from biosolids applied soils needs to be understood. In the present study, the uptake of carbamazepine, diphenhydramine, and triclocarban by five vegetable crop plants was examined in a field experiment. At the time of harvest, three compounds were detected in all plants grown in biosolids-treated soils. Calculated root concentration factor (RCF) and shoot concentration factor (SCF) are the highest for carbamazepine followed by triclocarban and diphenhydramine. Positive correlation between RCF and root lipid content was observed for carbamazepine but not for diphenhydramine and triclocarban. The results demonstrate the ability of crop plants to accumulate PPCPs from contaminated soils. The plant uptake processes of PPCPs are likely affected by their physico-chemical properties, and their interaction with soil. The difference uptake behavior between plant species could not solely be attributed to the root lipid content. PMID:22921256

  15. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in a mesoscale subtropical watershed and their application as sewage markers.

    PubMed

    Lv, Min; Sun, Qian; Hu, Anyi; Hou, Liyuan; Li, Jiangwei; Cai, Xiang; Yu, Chang-Ping

    2014-09-15

    This study comprehensively analyzed 23 classes of 51 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the two major prongs of Jiulong River and its estuary in southeast China, where the levels of the targeted PPCPs were mostly unknown. For both Jiulong River and its estuary, nine PPCPs were detected with 100% detection frequencies including two anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs (ketoprofen and diclofenac acid), a stimulant (caffeine), a plasticizer (bisphenol A), two preservatives (methyl paraben and propyl paraben), two antimicrobials (triclosan and triclocarban) and a ?-blocks (metoprolol), among which bisphenol A and caffeine accounted for more than 60% in concentrations. PPCPs generally had higher concentrations in dry season than normal season and wet season, while certain PPCPs, such as UV filters, showed higher concentrations in wet season, which were presumed to be related to their usage patterns. The concentrations of PPCPs were significantly correlated to several quality parameters of the surface water. The selected sewage markers were also used to track sewage in the studied river and the ratios of easily removed markers and conservative markers were used to identify the contribution of raw or treated sewage input. From our result, Jiulong River and its estuary were likely polluted by potential discharge of raw sewage. PMID:25232652

  16. [Distal tibial fracture--an indication for osteosynthesis with the unreamed intramedullary nail?].

    PubMed

    Richter, D; Ostermann, P A; Ekkernkamp, A; Hahn, M P; Muhr, G

    1997-01-01

    In a prospective study, 50 fractures of the distal fifth of the tibia with additional involvement of the ankle joint in 18 patients were stabilized by unreamed nailing. In all, 90% of all fractures healed uneventfully without further surgical intervention after unreamed nailing, the highest ratio of complications (22%) being seen in all patients with distal fractures of the fibula without additional plating (of the fibula). Tibial fractures close to the ankle joint can be managed by unreamed nailing; distal fractures of the fibula should be additionally stabilized by fibular plating. PMID:9574396

  17. Application of an antibiotic intramedullary nail in the management of a large metacarpal bone defect.

    PubMed

    Mendelsohn, Elliot S; Warganich, Tibor; Nielsen, Evan S; Najibi, Soheil

    2013-12-01

    Contaminated wounds and infected nonunions of the hand are not amenable to primary internal fixation and grafting. Antibiotic-impregnated cement intramedullary nails have been used in the lower extremity in the treatment of these fractures but have not been described in the hand. This technique combines the advantages of local antibiotic delivery with the mechanical stability afforded by an intramedullary nail. We describe an alternative technique for the management of skeletal defects in a contaminated wound bed in the hand using readily available operating room equipment. The antibiotic-impregnated cement intramedullary nail can be placed temporarily until definitive internal fixation and grafting occur. PMID:24240621

  18. A comparison of relaxation training and competing response training to eliminate hair pulling and nail biting.

    PubMed

    De Luca, R V; Holborn, S W

    1984-03-01

    A 17-year-old female with a 14-year history of hair pulling and nail biting was treated with relaxation training and competing response training. While introduction of relaxation training produced an initial decline in hair pulling, there was a gradual recovery of the maladaptive behavior to baseline levels. The competing response procedure consisted of clenching fists for 3 min whenever hair pulling or nail biting occurred or were likely to occur. By the use of the competing response hair pulling and nail biting decreased, eventually to zero. Follow-up over a 2-year period revealed that the treatment effects were maintained. PMID:6381543

  19. Employer-incurred health care costs and productivity losses associated with influenza

    PubMed Central

    Karve, Sudeep; Misurski, Derek A.; Meier, Genevieve; Davis, Keith L.

    2013-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess trends in employer expenditures for both direct medical costs and indirect productivity losses associated with influenza. A retrospective analysis was performed using two of the MarketScan family of databases for 2005–2009. Patients with at least one diagnosis claim for influenza during an influenza season were selected. We estimated seasonal incidence of influenza in the employed population from the MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters database. Health care utilization and costs and productivity losses were assessed during the 21-d period following the influenza diagnosis date. Compared with the 2005–2006 season (493 per 100,000 plan members), influenza incidence increased during the 2006–2007 (598 per 100,000 plan members) and 2007–2008 (1,142 per 100,000 plan members) seasons and had a dramatic increase during the pandemic season of 2008–2009 (1,715 per 100,000 plan members) . The total influenza-related employer spending per 100,000 plan members also increased by over 400% during the 2008–2009 influenza season [$623,248; confidence interval (CI]):$601,518-$644,991], compared with 2005–2006 ($145,834; 95% CI: $135,067-$156,603). The primary drivers of the increased costs were emergency room, outpatient and inpatient visits. Total costs associated with influenza-related missed work time per 100,000 plan members increased over 4-fold from $26,479 in the 2005–2006 influenza season to $122,811 in 2008–2009. Overall, as expected, considerably higher direct and indirect costs were observed during the 2008–2009 influenza pandemic season than during other influenza seasons. In recent years, the influenza-related employer burden has increased considerably. In future, employers may need efficient resource allocation in order to address the productivity losses and increasing direct medical costs associated with increased influenza incidence. One of the strategies that employers may consider is increasing influenza vaccination rates among employees, which likely will help lower the influenza incidence and the associated downstream direct and indirect costs. PMID:23321849

  20. A Tabletop Interface Using Nail Images and Real Object Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Kenta; Takemura, Noriko; Iwai, Yoshio; Sato, Kosuke

    Many researches and developments of table-top interface have been proposed in the last decade. In a table-top system, the difference of operations between the digital media and the physical media like a paper gives us unsatisfactory experience and disturbs a comfortable simultaneous using of them. It is required for user satisfaction that the user can operate the digital and physical media seamlessly. In this paper, we propose a table-top interface system that allows users to operate digital media intuitively by using gesture recognition. The proposed table can capture an image of the object on the table by press gesture recognition from users' nail images based on SVM, and can acquire a digital content from a digital paper reader by shake gesture of the device. The evaluation experiments show that the proposed system recognizes users' finger state with higher accuracy and the users can intuitively operate the table without awareness of the data transmission.

  1. Candida Parapsilosis and Candida Guillermondii: Emerging Pathogens in Nail Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Fich, Felix; Abarzúa-Araya, Alvaro; Pérez, Mario; Nauhm, Yalile; León, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Onychomycosis of the fingernails and toenails is generally caused by dermatophytes and yeasts. Toenail mycoses involve mainly dermatophytes but when Candida is also involved, the strain most commonly isolated worldwide is C. albicans. Aims: To determine Candida strains prevailing in onychomycosis. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, observational and descriptive study of fungal cultures retrieved from the registry of the microbiology laboratory of the Pontificia Universidad Católica was performed. Specimens obtained from patients attending the healthcare network between December 2007 and December 2010 was analyzed. Statistical Analysis: A descriptive statistical analysis was performed. Results: Candida was retrieved from 467 of 8443 specimens (52% fingernails and 48% toenails). Cultures were negative in 5320 specimens (63.6%). Among Candida-positive cultures, parapsilosis was the most commonly isolated strain with 202 cases (43.3%). While isolates of Candida guillermondii were 113 (24.2%), those of Candida albicans were 110 (23.6%), those of spp. were 20 (4.3%) and there were 22 cases of other isolates (4.71%). Among the 467 patients with positive cultures for Candida, 136 (29,1%) were men and 331 (70,9%) were women. All patients were older than 18 years old. Clinical files were available for only 169 of the 467 patients with positive cultures for Candida. For those, age, gender, underlying illnesses and use of immunossupresive agents during the trial was reviewed. Conclusions: The present study shows that both C. parapsilosis as well as C. guillermondii appear as emerging pathogens that would be in fact taking the place of C. albicans as the most commonly isolated pathogen in patients with Candida onychomycosis. The relative percentage of C parapsilosis increases every year. Identification of Candida strains as etiological agents of nail candidiasis becomes relevant to the management both nail as well as systemic candidiasis, in view of the resistance to conventional treatments readily reported in the literature. PMID:24470656

  2. The modified cross finger flap for finger pulp and nail bed reconstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Spokevicius; A. Gupta

    1997-01-01

    We describe a modification of the cross finger flap procedure. The modification enhances the amount of soft tissue under the flap, permitting reconstruction of the nail bed where necessary. We present two clinical cases.

  3. Surveillance of nail gun injuries by journeymen carpenters provides important insight into experiences of apprentices.

    PubMed

    Lipscomb, Hester; Nolan, James; Patterson, Dennis; Dement, John M

    2010-01-01

    Experienced journeymen conducted detailed surveillance interviews with injured apprentice carpenters (n = 413). Nail gun injuries commonly occurred due to inadvertent discharge, ricocheting or projectile nails, and penetration of the wood surface. Framing nailers with contact trip triggers were most often involved; these triggers allow nail discharge anytime the trigger and nose piece are both depressed including following recoil of the tool after firing. Injured workers made concrete and practical suggestions for prevention. Scenarios were identified where changes in work practice, safer triggers, and thoughtful training could prevent injuries. Most injuries were not reported through workers' compensation; this was often due to perceived lack of injury severity, but also involved subtle as well as overt pressures on apprentices not to report. These case-based analyses are consistent with reports that many injuries from nail guns could be prevented with existing safer trigger mechanisms and training. Efforts should also focus on improved injury reporting. PMID:20359994

  4. 76 FR 23559 - Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ...coils using materials such as plastic, paper, or wire. Certain steel...two-piece steel nails having plastic or steel washers (``caps'') already assembled to the...inclusive; and an actual washer or cap diameter of 0.900'' to...

  5. Withdrawal resistance of ring-shank nails embedded in Southern pine lumber 

    E-print Network

    Skulteti, Matthew John

    1996-01-01

    The overall goal of this research was to was to gain a better understanding of ringshank nail connections, and to critically evaluate allowable design values for withdrawal. Specific goals ]Included: 1) measuring and ...

  6. Retrograde nailing of femoral fracture below a hip prosthesis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Verburg, A D

    1998-03-01

    In a frail elderly patient a pathological fracture of the femur at the lower end of a loose femoral stem was treated by the retrograde insertion of an intramedullary nail over the tip of the prosthesis. PMID:9546461

  7. Occurrence and removal of selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products in three wastewater-treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jeong-Wook; Rodriguez, Jose M

    2014-05-01

    Residues of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have been detected in surface waters. Incomplete removal of these compounds by wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs) results in their presence in effluents and finally in surface waters. The occurrence and removal of four PPCPs was investigated in three WWTPs in Mississippi, USA, during a period of 1 year. Influent and effluent were sampled from the three WWTPs. Upstream and downstream samples of the WWTPs were also collected. All four PPCPs were detected in all influents where sulfamethoxazole showed the highest concentration levels with a median concentration of 1,640 ng/L, and carbamazepine was detected at the lowest level with a median concentration of 132 ng/L. Different PPCPs were removed to different extents varying from 99 to 100 %. Gemfibrozil showed the highest removal rates (73-100 %), whereas carbamazepine showed the lowest (-99 to -30 %). Secondary activated sludge in oxidation-ditch process showed remarkable PPCP-specific removal rates. Galaxolide was removed more than the other PPCPs, and sulfamethoxazole showed the least removal. Galaxolide was found to be a predominant PPCP in effluent among the PPCPs studied, and it was detected in all downstream (14.1-428.2 ng/L) and upstream (4.1-60.0 ng/L) samples. Sulfamethoxazole was removed more during the summer than the winter season. A clear increase of PPCP concentrations was observed in most downstream samples compared with upstream samples suggesting that discharges from WWTPs are the major source of PPCPs in surface waters. PMID:24357097

  8. Multi-residue determination of pharmaceutical and personal care products in vegetables.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoqin; Conkle, Jeremy Landon; Gan, Jay

    2012-09-01

    Treated wastewater irrigation and biosolid amendment are increasingly practiced worldwide and contamination of plants, especially produces that may be consumed raw by humans, by pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), is an emerging concern. A sensitive method was developed for the simultaneous measurement of 19 frequently-occurring PPCPs in vegetables using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) for detection, combined with ultrasonic extraction and solid phase extraction (SPE) cleanup for sample preparation. Deuterated standards were used as surrogates to quantify corresponding analytes. The corrected recoveries ranged between 87.1 and 123.5% for iceberg lettuce, with intra- and inter-day variations less than 20%, and the method detection limits (MDLs) in the range of 0.04-3.0 ng g?¹ dry weight (dw). The corrected recoveries were equally good when the method was used on celery, tomato, carrot, broccoli, bell pepper and spinach. The method was further applied to examine uptake of PPCPs by iceberg lettuce and spinach grown in hydroponic solutions containing each PPCP at 500 ng L?¹. Twelve PPCPs were detected in lettuce leaves with concentrations from 0.2 to 28.7 ng g?¹ dw, while 11 PPCPs were detected in spinach leaves at 0.04-34.0 ng g?¹ dw. Given the diverse chemical structures of PPCPs considered in this study, this method may be used for screening PPCP residues in vegetables and other plants impacted by treated wastewater or biosolids, and to estimate potential human exposure via dietary uptake. PMID:22867843

  9. Cotton honeydew (Gossypium hirsutum L.) extract offers very interesting properties for hair cosmetics and care products.

    PubMed

    Oberto, G; Bauza, E; Berghi, A; Portolan, F; Botto, J M; Peyronel, D; Dal Farra, C; Domloge, N

    2005-01-01

    Cotton honeydew extract is composed of a unique combination of oligosaccharides, including fructose, glucose, inositol, melezitose, saccharose, trehalose and trehalulose. Studies have shown that these oligosaccharides exhibit a protective effect. Therefore, we were interested in studying the effect of these oligosaccharides on normal and damaged human hair. Both clinical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies were performed. Standardized human hair samples were used to determine the effect of a rinse-off mask with 1% cotton honeydew extract on the ultrastructure of hair. In addition, hair samples were submitted to different aggressions, following various experimental protocols. SEM showed that, without extra aggression, the cuticle scales appeared to lie more smoothly in the hair in cotton honeydew extract-treated samples than in untreated samples. The extract-treated hair samples were also less prone to chipping. In contrast, the control, untreated hair samples retained a dry and damaged appearance and were prone to chipping and progressive splitting. In a clinical study, 15 volunteers had half of their hair treated with a formula with 1% honeydew extract and the other half was left untreated as a control. Pictures and visual evaluation of the hair showed that the honeydew extract formula left the hair with a smoothness that was far superior to the control side and this result was confirmed by SEM. In addition, mRNA studies on epidermal cells were performed and confirmed the stimulating effect of honeydew extract on keratin synthesis. These results demonstrate that cotton honeydew extract can be of great use in hair care products and cosmetics. PMID:16223202

  10. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment: agents of subtle change?

    PubMed Central

    Daughton, C G; Ternes, T A

    1999-01-01

    During the last three decades, the impact of chemical pollution has focused almost exclusively on the conventional "priority" pollutants, especially those acutely toxic/carcinogenic pesticides and industrial intermediates displaying persistence in the environment. This spectrum of chemicals, however, is only one piece of the larger puzzle in "holistic" risk assessment. Another diverse group of bioactive chemicals receiving comparatively little attention as potential environmental pollutants includes the pharmaceuticals and active ingredients in personal care products (in this review collectively termed PPCPs), both human and veterinary, including not just prescription drugs and biologics, but also diagnostic agents, "nutraceuticals," fragrances, sun-screen agents, and numerous others. These compounds and their bioactive metabolites can be continually introduced to the aquatic environment as complex mixtures via a number of routes but primarily by both untreated and treated sewage. Aquatic pollution is particularly troublesome because aquatic organisms are captive to continual life-cycle, multigenerational exposure. The possibility for continual but undetectable or unnoticed effects on aquatic organisms is particularly worrisome because effects could accumulate so slowly that major change goes undetected until the cumulative level of these effects finally cascades to irreversible change--change that would otherwise be attributed to natural adaptation or ecologic succession. As opposed to the conventional, persistent priority pollutants, PPCPs need not be persistent if they are continually introduced to surface waters, even at low parts-per-trillion/parts-per-billion concentrations (ng-microg/L). Even though some PPCPs are extremely persistent and introduced to the environment in very high quantities and perhaps have already gained ubiquity worldwide, others could act as if they were persistent, simply because their continual infusion into the aquatic environment serves to sustain perpetual life-cycle exposures for aquatic organisms. This review attempts to synthesize the literature on environmental origin, distribution/occurrence, and effects and to catalyze a more focused discussion in the environmental science community. PMID:10592150

  11. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products found in the Great Lakes above concentrations of environmental concern.

    PubMed

    Blair, Benjamin D; Crago, Jordan P; Hedman, Curtis J; Klaper, Rebecca D

    2013-11-01

    The monitoring of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) has focused on the distribution in rivers and small lakes, but data regarding their occurrence and effects in large lake systems, such as the Great Lakes, are sparse. Wastewater treatment processes have not been optimized to remove influent PPCPs and are a major source of PPCPs in the environment. Furthermore, PPCPs are not currently regulated in wastewater effluent. In this experiment we evaluated the concentration, and corresponding risk, of PPCPs from a wastewater effluent source at varying distances in Lake Michigan. Fifty-four PPCPs and hormones were assessed on six different dates over a two-year period from surface water and sediment samples up to 3.2 km from a wastewater treatment plant and at two sites within a harbor. Thirty-two PPCPs were detected in Lake Michigan and 30 were detected in the sediment, with numerous PPCPs being detected up to 3.2 km away from the shoreline. The most frequently detected PPCPs in Lake Michigan were metformin, caffeine, sulfamethoxazole, and triclosan. To determine the ecological risk, the maximum measured environmental concentrations were compared to the predicted no-effect concentration and 14 PPCPs were found to be of medium or high ecological risk. The environmental risk of PPCPs in large lake systems, such as the Great Lakes, has been questioned due to high dilution; however, the concentrations found in this study, and their corresponding risk quotient, indicate a significant threat by PPCPs to the health of the Great Lakes, particularly near shore organisms. PMID:23973285

  12. Personal care product preservatives: risk assessment and mixture toxicities with an industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Carbajo, Jose B; Perdigón-Melón, Jose A; Petre, Alice L; Rosal, Roberto; Letón, Pedro; García-Calvo, Eloy

    2015-04-01

    The aquatic toxicity of eight preservatives frequently used in personal care products (PCPs) (iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, bronopol, diazolidinyl urea, benzalkonium chloride, zinc pyrithione, propylparaben, triclosan and a mixture of methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone) was assessed by means of two different approaches: a battery of bioassays composed of single species tests of bacteria (Vibrio fischeri and Pseudomonas putida) and protozoa (Tetrahymena thermophila), and a whole biological community resazurin-based assay using activated sludge. The tested preservatives showed considerable toxicity in the studied bioassays, but with a marked difference in potency. In fact, all biocides except propylparaben and diazolidinyl urea had EC50 values lower than 1 mg L(-1) in at least one assay. Risk quotients for zinc pyrithione, benzalkonium chloride, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate and triclosan as well as the mixture of the studied preservatives exceeded 1, indicating a potential risk for the process performance and efficiency of municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs). These four single biocides explained more than 95% of the preservative mixture risk in all bioassays. Each individual preservative was also tested in combination with an industrial wastewater (IWW) from a cosmetics manufacturing facility. The toxicity assessment was performed on binary mixtures (preservative + IWW) and carried out using the median-effect principle, which is a special case of the concept of Concentration Addition (CA). Almost 70% of all experiments resulted in EC50 values within a factor of 2 of the values predicted by the median-effect principle (CI values between 0.5 and 2). The rest of the mixtures whose toxicity was mispredicted by CA were assessed with the alternative concept of Independent Action (IA), which showed higher predictive power for the biological community assay. Therefore, the concept used to accurately predict the toxicity of mixtures of a preservative with a complex industrial wastewater depends on degree of biological complexity. PMID:25585550

  13. Characterizing the passage of personal care products through wastewater treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Oppenheimer, Joan; Stephenson, Roger; Burbano, Arturo; Liu, Li

    2007-12-01

    Wastewater treatment facilities use secondary treatment to stabilize the effect of discharged effluent on receiving waters by oxidizing biodegradable organic matter and reducing suspended solids and nutrients. The process was never specifically intended to remove trace quantities of xenobiotics, such as endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). Nevertheless, European studies performed at bench-scale or at small facilities have demonstrated that a critical minimum solids retention time (SRT) can achieve good reduction of many EDCs and pharmaceuticals. The objective of this study was to expand these findings to the removal performance for 20 PPCPs commonly found in the influent to full-scale facilities operating in the United States. The participating plants use SRT conditions ranging from 0.5 to 30 days and include facility capacities ranging from 19 000 m3/d (5 mgd) to greater than 1 136 000 m3/d (300 mgd). Two pilot membrane bioreactors were also included in the study. The 20 PPCPs were categorized into nine bin combinations of occurrence frequency and treatment reduction performance. While most compounds were well removed, galaxolide (a musk fragrance) occurred frequently and was resistant to removal. A minimum critical SRT, defined as the minimum SRT, needed to consistently demonstrate greater than 80% removal (SRT80), was compound-dependent, with most compounds removed at 5 to 15 days and a small group requiring longer SRTs. From limited data, no additional removal could be attributed to the use of membrane bioreactors, media filters, or longer hydraulic retention times. Reverse osmosis was effective in removing any remaining compounds. PMID:18198702

  14. Comparative uptake and translocation of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) by common vegetables.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoqin; Ernst, Frederick; Conkle, Jeremy L; Gan, Jay

    2013-10-01

    Reuse of treated wastewater to irrigate agricultural crops is increasing in many arid and semi-arid areas around the world. The presence of numerous pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in treated wastewater and their potential transfer into food produce such as vegetables poses an unknown human health risk. The goal of this study was to identify PPCPs that have a comparatively high potential for plant uptake and translocation. A total of 20 frequently-occurring PPCPs were compared for their accumulation into four staple vegetables (lettuce, spinach, cucumber, and pepper) grown in nutrient solutions containing PPCPs at 0.5 or 5?gL(-1). Triclocarban, fluoxetine, triclosan, and diazepam were found at high levels in roots, while meprobamate, primidone, carbamazepine, dilantin, and diuron exhibited more active translocation from roots to leaves. Root uptake of neutral PPCPs was positively correlated with the pH adjusted log Kow(i.e., log Dow), and was likely driven by chemical adsorption onto the root surfaces. In contrast, translocation from roots to leaves was negatively related to log Dow, suggesting hydrophilicity-regulated transport via xylems. Compounds preferentially sorbed to roots should be further evaluated for their uptake in tuber vegetables (e.g., carrot, radish) under field conditions, while those easily translocated into leaves (e.g., carbamazepine, dilantin) merit focused consideration for leafy and other vegetables (e.g., lettuce, cucumber). However, estimation of dietary intake by humans suggested the implied risks from exposure to PPCPs via wastewater irrigation to be negligible. PMID:23973619

  15. Consumer inhalation exposure to formaldehyde from the use of personal care products/cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Marc-André; Meuling, Wim J A; Engel, Roel; Coroama, Manuela C; Renner, Gerald; Pape, Wolfgang; Nohynek, Gerhard J

    2012-06-01

    We measured consumer exposure to formaldehyde (FA) from personal care products (PCP) containing FA-releasing preservatives. Six study subjects applied facial moisturiser, foundation, shower gel, shampoo, deodorant, hair conditioner, hair styling gel or body lotion at the 90th percentile amount of EU PCP consumer use. FA air concentrations were measured in the empty room, in the presence of study subjects prior to PCP use, and for one hour (breathing zone, area monitoring) after PCP use. The mean FA air concentration in the empty bathroom was 1.32 ± 0.67 ?g/m³, in the presence of subjects it was 2.33 ± 0.86 ?g/m³). Except for body lotion and hair conditioner (6.2 ± 0.1.9 or 4.5 ± 0.1.5 ?g/m³, respectively), mean 1-h FA air concentrations after PCP use were similar to background. Peak FA air concentrations, ranging from baseline values (2.2 ?g/m³; shower gel) to 11.5 ?g/m³ (body lotion), occurred during 0-5 to 5-10 min after PCP use. Despite of exaggerated exposure conditions, FA air levels were a fraction of those considered to be safe (120 ?g/m³), occurring in indoor air (22-124 ?g/m³) or expired human breath (1.4-87 ?g/m³). Overall, our data yielded evidence that inhalation of FA from the use of PCP containing FA-releasers poses no risk to human health. PMID:22406137

  16. Presence and effects of pharmaceutical and personal care products on the Baca National Wildlife Refuge, Colorado.

    PubMed

    Zenobio, Jenny E; Sanchez, Brian C; Leet, Jessica K; Archuleta, Laura C; Sepúlveda, Maria S

    2015-02-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have raised concerns due to their potential effects to aquatic organisms. These chemicals appear in mixtures at very low concentrations thus making their detection and quantification difficult. Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) concentrate trace levels of chemicals over time increasing method sensitivity and thus represent a cost-effective screening tool for biomonitoring studies. The Baca National Wildlife Refuge (BNWR), Colorado, is home for several endemic fish species, including Rio Grande chub (Gila pandora). The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the types and concentrations of PPCPs in the Refuge, (2) compare and contrast two methods (grab and POCIS) for the quantification of PPCPs from surface water, and (3) determine effects due to PPCP exposure in fish. Between 2011 and 2013, 141 PPCPs were quantified using a combination of grab samples and POCIS. Although no PPCPs were detected from the grab samples, high concentrations of N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) and triclosan were detected in all fish sampling sites with POCIS. Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and Rio Grande chubs of both sexes were collected in 2011 and 2012. Several biological responses were observed in both species from creeks contaminated with PPCPs; however the presence of PPCPs in the reference site did not allow for valid data comparison and interpretation. We conclude that POCIS is a sensitive method for the detection and quantification of PPCPs and for identification of reference sites and that appropriate "reference" sites need to be identified at the BNWR for follow-up studies with native fish. PMID:25465958

  17. S1 guideline on occupational skin products: protective creams, skin cleansers, skin care products (ICD 10: L23, L24) - short version.

    PubMed

    Fartasch, Manigé; Diepgen, Thomas L; Drexler, Hans; Elsner, Peter; John, Swen Malte; Schliemann, Sibylle

    2015-06-01

    Job-related hand dermatitis heads up the list of reported occupational diseases. So-called skin products - understood to mean protective creams, skin cleansers and skin care products - are used for the primary and secondary prevention of job- related hand dermatitis. In the interests of evidence-based medicine, the only preventive measures and/or occupational skin products that should be used are those whose potential uses and efficacy are underpinned by scientific research. To this end, the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Berufs- und Umweltdermatologie e.V. (Working Group for Occupational and Environmental Dermatology, ABD) of the DDG (German Dermatological Society) and the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Arbeits- und Umweltmedizin (German Society for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, DGAUM) have summed up the latest scientific findings and recommendations in the updated guideline. The benefit of the combined application of protective creams and skin care products in the primary and secondary prevention of work-related contact dermatitis has been widely confirmed by recent clinical-epidemiological studies. The guideline clearly explains the necessity of demonstrating the efficacy of protective creams and cleansing products by means of in vivo methods in the sense of repetitive applications. Transferable standardised testing systems designed to examine the irritation potential and thus the compatibility of occupational skin cleansers and the reduction of irritation by protective skin creams have now been developed and validated by multicentre studies for skin protection creams and cleansers. The status of the current assessment of the safety of occupational skin products is also summarised. PMID:25997664

  18. Treatment of Psoriatic Nails with Topical Cyclosporin: A Prospective, Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. P. Cannavò; F. Guarneri; M. Vaccaro; F. Borgia; B. Guarneri

    2003-01-01

    Background: Nail involvement is a frequent event in the course of psoriasis causing severe distress. While systemic cyclosporin (CsA) represents a well-established therapy of psoriasis, its topical use is limited by the difficult penetration of the molecule through the skin and the nail because of its highly lipophilic nature. Objectives: We carried out a prospective randomized placebo-controlled study in order

  19. Docetaxel-induced nail toxicity: a case of severe onycholysis and topic review.

    PubMed

    Lau, Chi-Pan; Hui, Pun; Chan, Tak-Cheung

    2011-08-01

    Docetaxel is a commonly-used anti-cancer chemotherapeutic agent given its efficacy in a large variety of solid tumors. It is associated with various adverse effects one of which is nail toxicity. We report a case of severe onycholysis as a result of treatment with docetaxel in a patient who suffered from metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The case report will be followed by a discussion on the possible mechanism and preventive strategies for taxane-induced nail toxicity. PMID:21933605

  20. Molecular cytogenetic detection of 9q34 breakpoints associated with nail patella syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asli Silahtaroglu; Frans A Hol; Peter KA Jensen; Martin Erdel; Hans-Christoph Duba; Monique PA Geurds; Nine VAM Knoers; Edwin CM Mariman; Zeynep Tümer; Gerd Utermann; Jutta Wirth; Merete Bugge; Niels Tommerup

    1999-01-01

    The nail patella syndrome (NPS1) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by dysplasia of the finger nails and skeletal abnormalities. NPS1 has been mapped to 9q34, to a 1 cM interval between D9S315 and the adenylate kinase gene (AK1). We have mapped the breakpoints within the candidate NPS1 region in two unrelated patients with balanced translocations. One patient [46,XY,t(1;9)(q32.1;q34)] was

  1. Nail-Patella Syndrome: Identification of Mutations in the LMX1B Gene in Dutch Families

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NINE V. A. M. KNOERS; ERNIE M. H. F. BONGERS; SYLVIA E. C. VAN BEERSUM; ED J. P. LOMMEN; HANS VAN BOKHOVEN; FRANS A. HOL

    2000-01-01

    Nail-patella syndrome is an autosomal dominant dis- order characterized by dyplasia of finger nails, skeletal anom- alies, and, frequently, renal disease. It has recently been shown that this disorder is caused by putative loss-of-function muta- tions in a transcription factor ( LMX1B) belonging to the LIM- homeodomain family, members of which are known to be important for pattern formation during

  2. Enamel Nail Polish Does Not Interfere With Pulse Oximetry Among Normoxic Volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas M. Brand; Mary E. Brand; Gregory D. Jay

    2002-01-01

    Objective.To determine if enamel nail polish interferes withpulse oximetry. Design. Laboratory investigation.Participants. 12 healthy nonsmoking volunteers. Methods.Spectrophotometry was performed on polystyrene cuvettes painted with 3uniform layers of nail polish enamel in triplicate. Absorbances werecompared at 660 and 940 nm for 10 colors across the visible spectrum anddocumented by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers colorcode against Pantone™ matches on

  3. Copper Content of Hair and Nails of Normal Individuals and of Patients with Hepatolenticular Degeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George M. Martin

    1964-01-01

    INCREASED accumulations of copper have been demonstrated in many tissues of patients suffering from hepatolenticular degeneration (Wilson's disease)1; the corneal depositions2 are considered pathognomonic. In some patients, a striking deep-blue colour can be observed in the finger nails, principally in the lunulæ3. The demonstration of elevated copper concentrations in such readily accessible tissues as hair and nails would be an

  4. A case report of an Irish family displaying Nail-Patella syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Downey

    1993-01-01

    Summary  This is a case report of an Irish family displaying classical features of Nail-Patella Syndrome — also known as Osteo-onycho\\u000a Dystrophy — involving four members over three generations. This rare autosomal dominant disorder is well defined with four\\u000a classical characteristics: dysplasia of finger nails, hypoplastic or absent patellae, hypoplasia of the head of the radius\\u000a and often the capitulum of

  5. [Analysis of the results of peri-trochanteric fracture treated by the Ender nails].

    PubMed

    Go?da, W; Krzywo?, J; Swiech, M; Cnota, H

    1999-01-01

    Results of Ender nailing in 140 patients aged between 49 and 99 (mean 81 years) with peritrochanteric fracture have been analyzed. Pros and cons of the method are discussed and potential complications pointed out. The method proved useful; results were good despite advanced age of the patients. In fractures grade I and II Kayle scale Ender nailing resulted in least complications. The risk of death was doubled by delaying surgical intervention. PMID:10575790

  6. Docetaxel-induced palmoplantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome and long-lasting multiple nail changes.

    PubMed

    Akoglu, Gulsen

    2014-01-01

    Palmoplantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome (PPES) and nail changes are common presentations of cutaneous toxicity of docetaxel chemotherapy, which deteriorate the quality of life of patients. Herein, we describe a female patient who developed PPES and multiple nail changes due to docetaxel treatment for infiltrative ductal carcinoma. Cold application and elevation of extremities during docetaxel infusion, potent topical steroids and oral pyridoxine increased the tolerance to chemotherapy and provided regression of painful cutaneous lesions without cessation of the treatment. PMID:24741199

  7. Docetaxel-induced palmoplantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome and long-lasting multiple nail changes

    PubMed Central

    Akoglu, Gulsen

    2014-01-01

    Palmoplantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome (PPES) and nail changes are common presentations of cutaneous toxicity of docetaxel chemotherapy, which deteriorate the quality of life of patients. Herein, we describe a female patient who developed PPES and multiple nail changes due to docetaxel treatment for infiltrative ductal carcinoma. Cold application and elevation of extremities during docetaxel infusion, potent topical steroids and oral pyridoxine increased the tolerance to chemotherapy and provided regression of painful cutaneous lesions without cessation of the treatment. PMID:24741199

  8. Characterization of the physical factors affecting nail permeation using water as a probe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GOURI GUPCHUP MALHOTRA; JOEL L. ZATZ

    Synopsis Our research objectives were to (a) develop a reproducible technique to measure nail permeation in vitro, (b) study variations in nail permeability as a function of location (toenails vs fingernails), and (c) study the effect of pH and temperature. We monitored the permeation of tritiated water from aqueous gels using specialized Franz-type diffusion cells. For pH studies, the gels

  9. Pregnancy-associated acquired arteriovenous malformation of the nail unit: a novel cause of localized erythronychia.

    PubMed

    Rutnin, Suthinee; Nguyen, Jennifer V; Miller, Christopher J; DeHoratius, Danielle; Rubin, Adam I

    2012-11-01

    Localized longitudinal erythronychia describes a solitary red streak limited to a single nail unit. Localized longitudinal erythronychia can be caused by both benign and malignant entities. Most commonly, the cause is a benign process, such as an onychopapilloma. We report a case of an acquired subungual arteriovenous malformation that presented as localized longitudinal erythronychia during pregnancy. To our knowledge, this is the first report of localized longitudinal erythronychia arising from a pregnancy-associated arteriovenous malformation of the nail unit. PMID:22882235

  10. Lipid\\/surfactant compounds as a new tool to optimize skin-care properties of personal-cleansing products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Th. Förster; U. Issberner; H. Hensen

    2000-01-01

    Surfactants are commonly used in personal-care products to increase cleansing performance and to create pleasing foam. However,\\u000a surfactants can also damage the skin by removing skin lipids and causing corneocytes to swell, resulting in increased skin\\u000a roughness and transepidermal water loss. Newly established methods help to quantify these effects in controlled consumer studies.\\u000a In addition, in vitro experiments with skin

  11. Evaluation of Measured and Predicted Environmental Concentrations of Selected Human Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (10 pp)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Liebig; Johann F. Moltmann; Thomas Knacker

    2006-01-01

    Goal, Scope and Background   In the past few years, there was an increasing awareness of the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products\\u000a (PPCPs) in surface water and drinking water resources, and measurements in surface water, sediment or waste water were done\\u000a for a number of PPCPs. In the regulatory context, an environmental risk assessment (ERA) has become essential for

  12. Microbially Mediated Degradation of Common Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in Soil Under Aerobic and Reduced Oxygen Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah L. Carr; Audra N. Morse; John C. Zak; Todd A. Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Biological degradation rates of estrogen compounds and common pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) were examined\\u000a in soils with a long history of exposure to these compounds through wastewater effluent and in soil not previously exposed.\\u000a Biological degradation rates over 14 days were compared under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Estrogen compounds including\\u000a estrone, 17?-estradiol, estriol, and 17?-ethinylestradiol exhibited rapid degradation by

  13. Direct Detection of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products from Aqueous Samples with Thermally-Assisted Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian S. Campbell; Alain T. Ton; Christopher C. Mulligan

    2011-01-01

    An ambient mass spectrometric method based on desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) has been developed to allow rapid,\\u000a direct analysis of contaminated water samples, and the technique was evaluated through analysis of a wide array of pharmaceutical\\u000a and personal care product (PPCP) contaminants. Incorporating direct infusion of aqueous sample and thermal assistance into\\u000a the source design has allowed low ppt detection

  14. Assessment of sample preservation techniques for pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and steroids in surface and drinking water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brett J. Vanderford; Douglas B. Mawhinney; Rebecca A. Trenholm; Janie C. Zeigler-Holady; Shane A. Snyder

    2011-01-01

    Proper collection and preservation techniques are necessary to ensure sample integrity and maintain the stability of analytes\\u000a until analysis. Data from improperly collected and preserved samples could lead to faulty conclusions and misinterpretation\\u000a of the occurrence and fate of the compounds being studied. Because contaminants of emerging concern, such as pharmaceuticals\\u000a and personal care products (PPCPs) and steroids, generally occur

  15. Individual and Mixture Effects of Selected Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products on the Marine Phytoplankton Species Dunaliella tertiolecta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie E. DeLorenzo; Jessica Fleming

    2008-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) entering the environment may have detrimental effects on aquatic organisms.\\u000a Simvastatin, clofibric acid, diclofenac, carbamazepine, fluoxetine, and triclosan represent some of the most commonly used\\u000a and\\/or detected PPCPs in aquatic environments. This study analyzed the individual and mixture toxicity of these six PPCPs\\u000a to the marine phytoplankton species Dunaliella tertiolecta using a standard 96-hour

  16. Qualification of an automated device to objectively assess the effect of hair care products on hair shine.

    PubMed

    Hagens, Ralf; Wiersbinski, Tim; Becker, Michael E; Weisshaar, Jürgen; Schreiner, Volker; Wenck, Horst

    2011-01-01

    The authors developed and qualified an automated routine screening tool to quantify hair shine. This tool is able to separately record individual properties of hair shine such as specular reflection and multiple reflection, as well as additional features such as sparkle, parallelism of hair fibers, and hair color, which strongly affect the subjective ranking by individual readers. A side-by-side comparison of different hair care and styling products with regard to hair shine using the automated screening tool in parallel with standard panel assessment showed that the automated system provides an almost identical ranking and the same statistical significances as the panel assessment. Provided stringent stratification of hair fibers for color and parallelism, the automated tool competes favorably with panel assessments of hair shine. In this case, data generated with the opsira Shine-Box are clearly superior over data generated by panel assessment in terms of reliability and repeatability, workload and time consumption, and sensitivity and specificity to detect differences after shampoo, conditioner, and leave-in treatment. The automated tool is therefore well suited to replace standard panel assessments in claim support, at least as a screening tool. A further advantage of the automated system over panel assessments is the fact that absolute numeric values are generated for a given hair care product, whereas panel assessments can only give rankings of a series of hair care products included in the same study. Thus, the absolute numeric data generated with the automated system allow comparison of hair care products between studies or at different time points after treatment. PMID:22152491

  17. [Ankle para-articular tibial fracture. Is osteosynthesis with the unreamed intramedullary nail adequate?].

    PubMed

    Richter, D; Hahn, M P; Laun, R A; Ekkernkamp, A; Muhr, G; Ostermann, P A

    1998-05-01

    In a prospective study, 53 fractures of the distal fifth of the tibia were stabilized by unreamed nailing. Additional involvement of the ankle joint occurred in 18 patients. 50 patients returned for follow-up. In 30 patients tibia and fibula were fractured at the same (distal) level; in 20 patients the fracture of the fibula was located more proximally. In 12 patients the fractures extended into the tibial pilon. Severe soft tissue damage was seen in 24 fractures (18 open, 6 closed). Ninety percent of all fractures healed uneventfully without further surgical intervention after unreamed nailing. In two patients the unreamed nail had to be exchanged for a reamed tibial nail. Bone grafting and secondary dynamization of the nail by removal of a proximal interlocking bolt were performed in one case each. Thirty-one fractures healed in anatomical position. Valgus or varsus angulation of less than 5 degrees occurred in 18 patients. One fracture healed with rotatory angulation of 15 degrees. The highest rate of complications (22%) was seen in patients with distal fractures of the fibula without additional plating (of the fibula). There was no deep infection. Tibial fractures close to the ankle joint can be managed by unreamed nailing. Distal fractures of the fibula should be stabilized by additional plating. Because of the unreamed technique of implantation this procedure can also be used in grade II or III open fractures. PMID:9653568

  18. The production of health care services and changing hospital reimbursement. The role of hospital-medical staff relationships.

    PubMed

    Custer, W S; Moser, J W; Musacchio, R A; Willke, R J

    1990-09-01

    The production of health care services has the unique feature that physicians do not face explicit costs for hospital inputs. This paper develops models of the production process given alternative hospital and medical staff relationships, and analyzes the impact of the change in hospital reimbursement under Medicare from a cost-based system to the Prospective Payment System (PPS). A basic theoretical result finds that the switch to PPS forces physicians to alter their input mix, changing both physician and hospital income. The effects of the introduction of PPS on hospital inputs, physician income, and hours of work are empirically examined. PMID:10107500

  19. Skin care and incontinence

    MedlinePLUS

    Incontinence - skin care ... in a wheelchair, regular chair, or bed TAKING CARE OF THE SKIN Using diapers and other products ... skin. Over time, the skin breaks down. Special care must be taken to keep the skin clean ...

  20. Source Characterization and Pretreatment Evaluation of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in Healthcare Facility Wastewater 

    E-print Network

    Nagarnaik, Pranav Mukund

    2012-07-16

    (PPCPs) released into a single municipality’s wastewater system from a hospital, a nursing care facility, an assisted living facility and an independent living facility are presented for 54 pharmaceuticals, 8 hormones and 31 Alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEOs...

  1. Copper analysis of nail clippings an attempt to differentiate between normal children and patients suffering from cystic fibrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. van Stekelenburg; A. J. B. van de Laar; J. van der Laag

    1975-01-01

    From 39 normal children and 36 patients, suffering from cystic fibrosis (C\\/F), the copper content of finger nail clippings and toe nail clippings were determined.\\u000a\\u000aFrom this study it can be concluded that, although the patients with cystic fibrosis (C\\/F) have a higher copper content, the determination of copper in nail samples cannot be used in order to differentiate between

  2. Comparative study of the use of electromagnetic fields in patients with pseudoarthrosis of tibia treated by intramedullary nailing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan L. Cebrián; Pilar Gallego; Alberto Francés; Piedad Sánchez; Elena Manrique; Fernando Marco; Luis López-Durán

    2010-01-01

    We made a comparative cohort study in patients suffering from tibial pseudoarthrosis, all of whom were treated by intramedullary\\u000a nailing. We divided patients into two groups: one treated by intramedullary nailing only (control group) and the other by\\u000a intramedullary nailing combined with pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs). The study included 57 cases of tibial pseudoarthrosis\\u000a in 57 patients from February 1987

  3. Pigmented Onychomatricoma: A Rare Pigmented Nail Unit Tumor Presenting as Longitudinal Melanonychia That Has Potential for Misdiagnosis as Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Wynes, Jacob; Wanat, Karolyn A; Huen, Auris; Mlodzienski, Alan J; Rubin, Adam I

    2015-01-01

    Pigmented onychomatricoma is a rare nail unit tumor that can clinically mimic nail unit melanoma. We report the case of a 63-year-old male with new-onset longitudinal melanonychia involving his right second toe. An excisional biopsy was performed and demonstrated pigmented onychomatricoma. We present this case to alert clinicians of this rare nail unit tumor and the importance of clinicopathologic correlation to avoid misdiagnosis. PMID:25060607

  4. The Productivity and Cost-Efficiency of Models for Involving Nurse Practitioners in Primary Care: A Perspective from Queueing Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Nan; D'Aunno, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop simple stylized models for evaluating the productivity and cost-efficiencies of different practice models to involve nurse practitioners (NPs) in primary care, and in particular to generate insights on what affects the performance of these models and how. Data Sources and Study Design The productivity of a practice model is defined as the maximum number of patients that can be accounted for by the model under a given timeliness-to-care requirement; cost-efficiency is measured by the corresponding annual cost per patient in that model. Appropriate queueing analysis is conducted to generate formulas and values for these two performance measures. Model parameters for the analysis are extracted from the previous literature and survey reports. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to investigate the model performance under different scenarios and to verify the robustness of findings. Principal Findings Employing an NP, whose salary is usually lower than a primary care physician, may not be cost-efficient, in particular when the NP's capacity is underutilized. Besides provider service rates, workload allocation among providers is one of the most important determinants for the cost-efficiency of a practice model involving NPs. Capacity pooling among providers could be a helpful strategy to improve efficiency in care delivery. Conclusions The productivity and cost-efficiency of a practice model depend heavily on how providers organize their work and a variety of other factors related to the practice environment. Queueing theory provides useful tools to take into account these factors in making strategic decisions on staffing and panel size selection for a practice model. PMID:22092009

  5. Fate and removal of typical pharmaceuticals and personal care products by three different treatment processes.

    PubMed

    He, Yu-Jie; Chen, Wei; Zheng, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Xing-Nan; Huang, Xi

    2013-03-01

    The presence and distribution of typical of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), which comprise two types of polycyclic musks (PCMs) including Galaxolide (HHCB) and Tonalide (AHTN) as well as six types of estrogens containing estrone (E1), 17?-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), 17?-ethynylestradiol (EE2), diethylstilbestrol (DES), and bisphenol A (BPA), were investigated at two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Jiangsu, China. Only raw wastewater was treated in WWTP A while WWTP B was serving an urban-industrialized area. In the influent, the concentrations of EE2 (2193-4437ngL(-1)), E2 (1126-1170ngL(-1)), and DES (268-421ngL(-1)) were generally higher than the previously reported values, whereas the concentrations of HHCB (306-316ngL(-1)), E1 (29-129ngL(-1)), E3 (53ngL(-1)), and BPA (26-176ngL(-1)) were much lower than those reported in other previous studies. In addition, AHTN was not detected in either WWTP and E3 was not found in WWTP B. The detected processes including anaerobic/oxic process (A/O), combined orbal oxidation ditch process (C-orbal OD) and anaerobic/anoxic/anoxic/oxic membrane biological reactor (A/A/A/O-MBR) showed higher removal efficiencies for HHCB (67-71%) and EE2 (87%) than those in other previous studies. Besides, the total hydraulic retention time (HRT) ranged between 6.7 and 20.0h, sludge retention time (SRT) ranged between 8 and 23d, and water temperature ranged from 24.8 to 28.2°C. The removal efficiencies for estrogens in biological processes were related to the following factors: the level of hydrophobic estrogens, the type of removal process (C-orbal OD was consistently less efficient in removing estrogens than A/O and A/A/A/O-MBR), and a high SRT or HRT (A/A/A/O-MBR with higher SRT and HRT showed higher and more stable removal of hydrophobic estrogens). PMID:23384648

  6. Comparative Study Using Intramedullary K-wire Fixation Over Titanium Elastic Nail in Paediatric Shaft Femur Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Tushar; Singh, Sudhir

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fracture shaft femur is common paediatric trauma leading to significant morbidity. Conservative treatments available are associated with prolonged periods of immobilization. Use of flexible intramedullary implant allows early rehabilitation in diaphyseal fractures of femur in children. Aim: The aim of the present study is to compare fixation of diaphyseal femur fracture by titanium elastic nail and intramedullary K-wires in children. Setting and Design: Prospective randomized study in a tertiary care hospital. Material and Methods: Fifty-two children between 6 years and 14 years of age with femoral shaft fracture were assigned either in Group I or Group II based on computer generated random numbers. In Group I closed percutaneous intramedullary K- wire fixation and in Group II closed percutaneous intramedullary titanium elastic nail was used to fix the fractures. Partial weight bearing was allowed after 6 weeks of surgery and full weight bearing at clinico-radiological union. Results: Average time of radiological union was 6 to 10 weeks in both groups. In both the groups two cases had entry site irritation which resolved with early implant removal. One case in both the groups had unacceptable mal-alignment. Both the groups had few cases of limb-length discrepancy, which was in acceptable limit, except two cases of TENS. There was no statistically significant difference between the results of both the groups. But, using K-wires significantly reduced the cost of treatment. Conclusion: Most of such fractures in our society are neglected because of high cost of treatment. Providing a cheaper alternative in form of K-wires may be beneficial for the patients from low socio-economic status. PMID:25584251

  7. Optimization and Validation of RP-HPLC-UV/Vis Method for Determination Phenolic Compounds in Several Personal Care Products

    PubMed Central

    Akkbik, Mohammed; Assim, Zaini Bin; Ahmad, Fasihuddin Badruddin

    2011-01-01

    An HPLC method with ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry detection has been optimized and validated for the simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds, such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as antioxidants, and octyl methyl cinnamate (OMC) as UVB-filter in several personal care products. The dynamic range was between 1 to 250?mg/L with relative standard deviation less than 0.25% (n = 4). Limits of detection for BHA, BHT, and OMC were 0.196, 0.170, and 0.478?mg/L, respectively. While limits of quantification for BHA, BHT, and OMC were 0.593, 0.515, and 1.448?mg/L, respectively. The recovery for BHA, BHT, and OMC was ranged from 92.1–105.9%, 83.2–108.9%, and 87.3–103.7%, respectively. The concentration ranges of BHA, BHT, and OMC in 12 commercial personal care samples were 0.13–4.85, 0.16–2.30, and 0.12–65.5?mg/g, respectively. The concentrations of phenolic compounds in these personal care samples were below than maximum allowable concentration in personal care formulation, that is, 0.0004–10?mg/g, 0.002–5?mg/g, and up to 100?mg/g for BHA, BHT, and OMC, respectively. PMID:21760792

  8. Characterization and quantitation of polyolefin microplastics in personal-care products using high-temperature gel-permeation chromatography.

    PubMed

    Hintersteiner, Ingrid; Himmelsbach, Markus; Buchberger, Wolfgang W

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, the development of reliable methods for the quantitation of microplastics in different samples, including evaluating the particles' adverse effects in the marine environment, has become a great concern. Because polyolefins are the most prevalent type of polymer in personal-care products containing microplastics, this study presents a novel approach for their quantitation. The method is suitable for aqueous and hydrocarbon-based products, and includes a rapid sample clean-up involving twofold density separation and a subsequent quantitation with high-temperature gel-permeation chromatography. In contrast with previous procedures, both errors caused by weighing after insufficient separation of plastics and matrix and time-consuming visual sorting are avoided. In addition to reliable quantitative results, in this investigation a comprehensive characterization of the polymer particles isolated from the product matrix, covering size, shape, molecular weight distribution and stabilization, is provided. Results for seven different personal-care products are presented. Recoveries of this method were in the range of 92-96 %. PMID:25410643

  9. International scientists' priorities for research on pharmaceutical and personal care products in the environment.

    PubMed

    Rudd, Murray A; Ankley, Gerald T; Boxall, Alistair B A; Brooks, Bryan W

    2014-10-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are widely discharged into the environment via diverse pathways. The effects of PPCPs in the environment have potentially important human and ecosystem health implications, so credible, salient, and legitimate scientific evidence is needed to inform regulatory and policy responses that address potential risks. A recent "big questions" exercise with participants largely from North America identified 22 important research questions around the risks of PPCP in the environment that would help address the most pressing knowledge gaps over the next decade. To expand that analysis, we developed a survey that was completed by 535 environmental scientists from 57 countries, of whom 49% identified environmental or analytical chemistry as their primary disciplinary background. They ranked the 22 original research questions and submitted 171 additional candidate research questions they felt were also of high priority. Of the original questions, the 3 perceived to be of highest importance related to: 1) the effects of long-term exposure to low concentrations of PPCP mixtures on nontarget organisms, 2) effluent treatment methods that can reduce the effects of PPCPs in the environment while not increasing the toxicity of whole effluents, and 3) the assessment of the environmental risks of metabolites and environmental transformation products of PPCPs. A question regarding the role of cultural perspectives in PPCP risk assessment was ranked as the lowest priority. There were significant differences in research orientation between scientists who completed English and Chinese language versions of the survey. We found that the Chinese respondents were strongly orientated to issues of managing risk profiles, effluent treatment, residue bioavailability, and regional assessment. Among English language respondents, further differences in research orientation were associated with respondents' level of consistency when ranking the survey's 15 comparisons. There was increasing emphasis on the role of various other stressors relative to PPCPs and on risk prioritization as internal decision making consistency increased. Respondents' consistency in their ranking choices was significantly and positively correlated with SETAC membership, authors' number of publications, and longer survey completion times. Our research highlighted international scientists' research priorities and should help inform decisions about the type of hazard and risk-based research needed to best inform decisions regarding PPCPs in the environment. Disciplinary training of a scientist or engineer appears to strongly influence preferences for research priorities to understand PPCPs in the environment. Selection of participants and the depth and breadth of research prioritization efforts thus have potential effects on the outcomes of research prioritization exercises. Further elucidation of how patterns of research priority vary between academic and government scientists and between scientists and other government and stakeholders would be useful in the future and provide information that helps focus scientific effort on socially relevant challenges relating to PPCPs in the environment. It also suggests the potential for future collaborative research between industry, government, and academia on environmental contaminants beyond PPCPs. PMID:24954797

  10. Overall well-being as a predictor of health care, productivity, and retention outcomes in a large employer.

    PubMed

    Sears, Lindsay E; Shi, Yuyan; Coberley, Carter R; Pope, James E

    2013-12-01

    Employers struggle with the high cost of health care, lost productivity, and turnover in their workforce. The present study aims to understand the association between overall well-being and these employer outcomes. In a sample of 11,700 employees who took the Well-being Assessment, the authors used multivariate linear and logistic regression to investigate overall well-being as a predictor of health care outcomes (total health care expenditure, emergency room visits, hospitalizations), productivity outcomes (unscheduled absence, short-term disability leave, presenteeism, job performance ratings), and retention outcomes (intention to stay, voluntary turnover, involuntary turnover). Testing this hypothesis both cross-sectionally and longitudinally, the authors investigated the association between baseline well-being and these outcomes in the following year, and the relationship between change in overall well-being and change in these outcomes over 1 year. The results demonstrated that baseline overall well-being was a significant predictor of all outcomes in the following year when holding baseline employee characteristics constant. Change in overall well-being over 1 year also was significantly associated with the change in employer outcomes, with the exception that the relationship to change in manager-rated job performance was marginally significant. The relationships between overall well-being and outcomes suggest that implementing a well-being improvement solution could have a significant bottom and top line impact on business performance. PMID:23480368

  11. POLLUTION FROM PERSONAL ACTIONS, ACTIVITIES, AND BEHAVIORS: PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS IN THE ENVIRONMENT MULTIDIMENSIONAL SCIENCE ISSUES RELEVANT TO REGULATORY CONSIDERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perhaps more so than with any other class of anthropogenic chemicals, the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPS) in the environment highlights the immediate, intimate, and inseparable connection between the personal activities of individual citizens and ...

  12. Drug delivery to the nail: therapeutic options and challenges for onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Barot, Bhavesh S; Parejiya, Punit B; Patel, Hetal K; Mehta, Dharmik M; Shelat, Pragna K

    2014-01-01

    Onychomycosis is one of the most common nail disorders. It affects 10-30% of the world population and is caused by dermatophytes, non-dermatophytes, molds, and yeasts. Present treatment methods of onychomycosis include oral therapy, topical therapy, and a combination of both; they have mild-to-moderate efficacy, with a relapse and reinfection rate of 20-25%. For oral therapy, newer antifungal compounds (azole class and allylamine class) are being investigated to increase efficacy and minimize side effects. Oral therapy with antifungal agents have severe side effects, with lesser bioavailability and longer duration of treatment. By contrast, topical therapy of onychomycosis is associated with greater patient compliance and fewer systemic side effects and drug interactions. Current topical treatment options of onychomycosis are nail lacquers, ointments, lotions, solutions, and gels, but these formulations have been unsuccessful due to poor penetration and distribution of drugs at the infected site. Therefore, novel therapeutic options are constantly being researched to improve the efficacy of onychomycosis treatment by enhancing the permeation of the drug across the nail to reach the infected site. Various physical and chemical enhancement methods have been studied to increase the permeation of drugs across the nail plate to the nail bed. Device-based therapeutic options have also been investigated to increase the antifungal drug concentration and its effects in the onychomycotic nail. Randomized clinical trials of these novel therapies have demonstrated better efficacy. The present review discusses the anatomy of the human nail, onychomycosis and its types, onycholysis, and conventional and novel therapies. We also review patents granted as well as design challenges facing optimal drug formulation for onychomycosis treatment. PMID:25271773

  13. Antegrade femoral nailing: an anatomical determination of the correct entry point.

    PubMed

    Gausepohl, T; Pennig, D; Koebke, J; Harnoss, S

    2002-10-01

    Operative problems in the application of femoral locking nails are frequently related to an unfavourable entry point at the greater trochanter. Especially in more distally located fractures the nail is forced to follow the cortex abutted medullary canal. A wrong defined entry point either in the medio-lateral or dorso-ventral direction inevitably leads to tension between nail and femur. Forceful insertion in this situation may cause disastrous iatrogenic comminution at the fracture side or additional fractures at the proximal femur. To avoid tension between nail and femur the best suited entry point must be defined according to the natural medullary cavity. In 16 human cadaver femora, the natural medullary cavity was opened and after cleaning filled with a radio-opaque substance (barium sulphate). Twelve radiographs where taken from each bone starting with the anterior-posterior view and then turning the bone axially in steps of 15 degrees. From these radiographs, the ideal entry point at the greater trochanter was calculated. In 88% of the specimen the ideal entry point for a straight nail was found constantly at the medial border of the greater trochanter overlaying the tendinous insertion of the piriformis muscle. The axis of the medullary cavity was in average 2.1cm anterior to the dorsal border of the greater trochanter. In a second step the ideal entry point for bend nails was calculated. According to this calculation a bend nail with a radius of 100 cm needs an entry point 0.7 mm anterior to the dorsal edge of the greater trochanter. Overlaying the hook like shape of the posterior part of the trochanter. PMID:12213421

  14. Hackethal Bundle Nailing with Intramedullary Elastic Nails in the Treatment of Two and Three-Part Fractures of the Proximal Humerus: Initial Experience at Al Razi Hospital, Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wieslaw Pospula; Tarek Abu Noor

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To present the clinical and radiological results of a minimally invasive technique, the fixation of two- and three-part fractures of the proximal humerus according to the Neer Classification System, using the intramedullary bundle-wiring Hackethal technique. Subjects and Methods: The operations were performed with the Hackethal technique (use of elastic titanium nails, Synthes) on 17 patients (8 males and 9

  15. Combining high-resolution gross domestic product data with home and personal care product market research data to generate a subnational emission inventory for Asia.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Juliet Elizabeth Natasha; Vamshi, Raghu; Holmes, Christopher; Rowson, Matthew; Miah, Taqmina; Price, Oliver Richard

    2014-04-01

    Environmental risk assessment of chemicals is reliant on good estimates of product usage information and robust exposure models. Over the past 20 to 30 years, much progress has been made with the development of exposure models that simulate the transport and distribution of chemicals in the environment. However, little progress has been made in our ability to estimate chemical emissions of home and personal care (HPC) products. In this project, we have developed an approach to estimate subnational emission inventory of chemical ingredients used in HPC products for 12 Asian countries including Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam (Asia-12). To develop this inventory, we have coupled a 1?km grid of per capita gross domestic product (GDP) estimates with market research data of HPC product sales. We explore the necessity of accounting for a population's ability to purchase HPC products in determining their subnational distribution in regions where wealth is not uniform. The implications of using high resolution data on inter- and intracountry subnational emission estimates for a range of hypothetical and actual HPC product types were explored. It was demonstrated that for low value products (<500 US$ per capita/annum required to purchase product) the maximum deviation from baseline (emission distributed via population) is less than a factor of 3 and it would not result in significant differences in chemical risk assessments. However, for other product types (>500 US$ per capita/annum required to purchase product) the implications on emissions being assigned to subnational regions can vary by several orders of magnitude. The implications of this on conducting national or regional level risk assessments may be significant. Further work is needed to explore the implications of this variability in HPC emissions to enable the HPC industry and/or governments to advance risk-based chemical management policies in emerging markets. PMID:23913410

  16. Investigation into the occurrence in food of veterinary medicines, pharmaceuticals, and chemicals used in personal care products.

    PubMed

    Fussell, Richard J; Garcia Lopez, Monica; Mortimer, David N; Wright, Stuart; Sehnalova, Monika; Sinclair, Chris J; Fernandes, Alwyn; Sharman, Matthew

    2014-04-30

    Human exposure to emerging contaminants by indirect routes is of increasing interest. This study assessed the contamination of food by chemicals used in human pharmaceuticals (HPs), veterinary medicines (VMs), and personal care products (PCPs). A prioritization study was undertaken to identify the chemicals and food-producing scenarios most likely to result in contamination of food. Around 400 samples of mushrooms, vegetables, aquaculture products, and animal tissues were collected from sites in the United Kingdom, along with aquaculture products imported from Southeast Asia. A number of multianalyte methods were developed and validated for the analysis of the prioritized compounds in these samples. The analysis of all sample-method combinations required approximately 18000 determinations. Around 325 individual residues, including parabens, musk compounds, and antibiotics, were detected in 118 individual samples, but mostly at low nanograms per gram concentrations. Results suggest that the limited contamination of target chemicals occurred in the realistic food-producing scenarios investigated. PMID:24495205

  17. Outcome of one-stage correction of deformities of the ankle and hindfoot and fusion in Charcot neuroarthropathy using a retrograde intramedullary hindfoot arthrodesis nail.

    PubMed

    Siebachmeyer, M; Boddu, K; Bilal, A; Hester, T W; Hardwick, T; Fox, T P; Edmonds, M; Kavarthapu, V

    2015-01-01

    We report the outcomes of 20 patients (12 men, 8 women, 21 feet) with Charcot neuro-arthropathy who underwent correction of deformities of the ankle and hindfoot using retrograde intramedullary nail arthrodesis. The mean age of the patients was 62.6 years (46 to 83); their mean BMI was 32.7 (15 to 47) and their median American Society of Anaesthetists score was 3 (2 to 4). All presented with severe deformities and 15 had chronic ulceration. All were treated with reconstructive surgery and seven underwent simultaneous midfoot fusion using a bolt, locking plate or a combination of both. At a mean follow-up of 26 months (8 to 54), limb salvage was achieved in all patients and 12 patients (80%) with ulceration achieved healing and all but one patient regained independent mobilisation. There was failure of fixation with a broken nail requiring revision surgery in one patient. Migration of distal locking screws occurred only when standard screws had been used but not with hydroxyapatite-coated screws. The mean American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Foot and Ankle (AAOS-FAO) score improved from 50.7 (17 to 88) to 65.2 (22 to 88), (p = 0.015). The mean Short Form (SF)-36 Health Survey Physical Component Score improved from 25.2 (16.4 to 42.8) to 29.8 (17.7 to 44.2), (p = 0.003) and the mean Euroqol EQ?5D?5L score improved from 0.63 (0.51 to 0.78) to 0.67 (0.57 to 0.84), (p = 0.012). Single-stage correction of deformity using an intramedullary hindfoot arthrodesis nail is a good form of treatment for patients with severe Charcot hindfoot deformity, ulceration and instability provided a multidisciplinary care plan is delivered. PMID:25568417

  18. Accumulation of advanced glycation end (AGEs) products in intensive care patients: an observational, prospective study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wendela L Greven; Jitty M Smit; Johannes H Rommes; Peter E Spronk

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the course and eventual outcome in a majority of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Markers to estimate oxidative stress are not readily available in a clinical setting. AGEs accumulation has been merely described in chronic conditions, but can also occur acutely due to oxidative stress. Since AGEs have emerged

  19. Arthropathy and proteinuria: nail-patella syndrome revisited

    PubMed Central

    Albishri, Jamal

    2014-01-01

    Nail-patella syndrome (NPS) is a pleiotropic autosomal-dominant disorder due to mutations in the gene LMX1B. It has traditionally been characterized by a tetrad of dermatologic and musculoskeletal abnormalities. However, one of the most serious manifestations of NPS is kidney disease, which may be present in up to 40% of affected individuals. Although diagnosis can be made at birth, it is often missed, presumably due to the rarity of the condition. A 35-year-old female presented to our clinic with history of small joint pain of 6 months duration. In addition she complained of pedal edema off and on for the last 12 years. Prior to her current presentation she had been managed by a local doctor symptomatically. On evaluation, a nephrotic syndrome was obvious, but no secondary cause could be found. However, her physical examination was characteristic of NPS and keeping in view the autosomal dominant nature of the disorder all her three siblings were screened who too showed classical features of NPS. This rare syndrome as a cause of nephrotic range proteinuria is discussed in this report. The report underlines the importance of a good physical examination in a given clinical setting. PMID:25408626

  20. Perceptions and Realities for Distal Freehand Interlocking of Intramedullary Nails

    PubMed Central

    Ostrum, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    There is a perception that distal freehand interlocking (DFHI) of intramedullary nails can be difficult and time consuming. This study consists of a survey of surgeons' practices for DFHI screws and their reasons for not using this technique. A survey was sent to 1400 orthopaedic surgeons who were asked to agree or disagree with statements regarding the difficulty and indications for the usage of distal freehand interlocking screws. The results were analyzed by practice demographics, resident availability, and completion of an orthopaedic trauma fellowship. Overall, 316 surgeons (22.6%) responded to the survey. Fellowship trained surgeons were 60% less likely to find DFHI difficult when compared to nonfellowship surgeons and surgeons with residents were 76% less likely to perceive DFHI as difficult than surgeons without residents. In all groups, 40–43% of surgeons used distal interlocking based on their comfort with the technique and not the fracture pattern. Distal freehand interlocking is perceived as difficult by community orthopaedic surgeons without residents and surgeons who have not done an orthopaedic trauma fellowship. Forty percent of surgeons based their usage of DFHI screws on their comfort with the technique and not the fracture pattern. PMID:25945259

  1. Trichophyton onychocola sp. nov. isolated from human nail.

    PubMed

    Hubka, Vit; Cmokova, Adela; Skorepova, Magdalena; Mikula, Peter; Kolarik, Miroslav

    2014-04-01

    A previously undescribed Trichophyton species was isolated from the nail of a 33-year-old man with a history of probable distal lateral subungual onychomycosis (without confirmation by mycological examination). The infection occurred for the first time five years earlier (in 2006) and affected the right great toenail, with complete clinical remission after treatment with ciclopirox olamine. This undescribed species was isolated during probable relapse in 2011, but its etiological significance was not confirmed, that is, direct microscopy was negative and additional clinical samples were not collected. The species is probably geophilic based on phylogenetic analysis (internal transcribed spacer [ITS] rDNA) and is most closely related to the anamorphic T. thuringiense, homothallic Arthroderma ciferrii (anamorph T. georgiae), and heterothallic A. melis. The new species is characterized by yellowish colonies, red reverse on several media, positive urease test, negative hair-perforation test, absence of growth at 34°C, absence of macroconidia, formation of one-celled clavate microconidia, and spiral hyphae. The species grows well on sterilized human hairs placed on agar medium without any additional nutrients and forms gymnothecium-like structures covered by peridial hyphae. The combination of unique micro- and macromorphological features and physiological and sequence data from four unlinked loci (ITS, benA, RPB2, and act1 gene) justified the proposal of a new species T. onychocola sp. nov. PMID:24577005

  2. State of the art in nail dosimetry: free radicals identification and reaction mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Trompier, F; Romanyukha, A; Reyes, R; Vezin, H; Queinnec, F; Gourier, D

    2014-05-01

    Until very recently, analysis of bone biopsies by means of the method of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) collected after surgery or amputation has been considered as the sole reliable method for radiation dose assessment in hands and feet. EPR measurements in finger- and toenail have been considered for accident dosimetry for a long time. Human nails are very attractive biophysical materials because they are easy to collect and pertinent to whole body irradiation. Information on the existence of a radiation-induced signal in human nails has been reported almost 25 years ago. However, no practical application of EPR dosimetry on nails is known to date because, from an EPR perspective, nails represent a very complex material. In addition to the radiation-induced signal (RIS), parasitic and intense signals are induced by the mechanical stress caused when collecting nail samples (mechanically induced signals-MIS). Moreover, it has been demonstrated that the RIS stability is strongly influenced not only by temperature but also by humidity. Most studies of human nails were carried out using conventional X-band microwave band (9 GHz). Higher frequency Q-band (37 GHz) provides higher spectral resolution which allows obtaining more detailed information on the nature of different radicals in human nails. Here, we present for the first time a complete description of the different EPR signals identified in nails including parasitic, intrinsic and RIS. EPR in both X- and Q-bands was used. Four different MIS signals and five different signals specific to irradiation with ionizing radiation have been identified. The most important outcome of this work is the identification of a stable RIS component. In contrast with other identified (unstable) RIS components, this component is thermally and time stable and not affected by the physical contact of fingernails with water. A detailed description of this signal is provided here. The discovery of stable radiation-induced radical(s) associated with the RIS component mentioned opens a way for broad application of EPR dosimetry in human nails. Consequently, several recent dosimetry assessments of real accident cases have been performed based on the described measurements and analyses of this component. PMID:24469226

  3. Simulation of realistic EarthCARE spaceborne Doppler products from ARM ground-based, SPIDER airborne and CRM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sy, O. O.; Tanelli, S.; Takahashi, N.; Ohno, Y.; Horie, H.; Kollias, P.

    2011-12-01

    The Cloud-profiling radar on ESA and JAXA's future EarthCARE mission will be the first spaceborne Doppler radar to ever fly [1]. This W-band CPR, which operates at 94.05 GHz, should provide an unprecedented global coverage of vertical-velocity field distribution of the Earth's atmosphere, and therewith a better characterization of dynamic energy transfers in the atmosphere. Prior to EarthCARE's launch, one needs to simulate the Doppler products to be expected from such a CPR, viz. the radar reflectivity and the mean velocity. Our work addresses this need by using existing ground-based and airborne Doppler measurements to generate realistic EarthCARElike spaceborne data. The input to our algorithm consists of actual atmospheric Doppler measurements obtained either from ground-based ARM [2], or from an airborne platform such as SPIDER [3], the Japanese CPR from the National institute od Information and Communications Technologies (NICT). Several corrections are then applied to account for the spacecraft motion as well as the spaceborneantenna characteristics. The realism of the simulated products is also achieved in terms of spatial and temporal resolution. Further, the effects of random fluctuations, noise and finite temporal sampling are included. In addition to highlighting the peculiarities of the generation of Doppler products according to the source of the original input data, our paper will show the corrections that are applied to recover the mean-Doppler velocity, particularly in the presence of aliasing and non-uniform beam-filling contaminations. Several scenarii will be discussed to explore the added value of EarthCARE data at a finer spatial resolution.

  4. Bayreuth Productivity Analysis-a method for ascertaining and improving the holistic service productivity of acute care hospitals.

    PubMed

    Pfannstiel, Mario Alexander

    2014-05-19

    The healthcare sector is lacking a method with which hospitals can measure the extent to which they achieve their goals in terms of aggregate productivity from both patients' and employees' perspectives. The Bayreuth Productivity Analysis (BPA) provides a solution to this problem because it uses two standardized questionnaires-one for patients and one for employees-to ascertain productivity at hospitals. These questionnaires were developed in several steps according to the principles of classical test theory, and they consist of six dimensions (information, organization, climate, methods, infrastructure and equipment) of five items each. One item describes a factual situation relevant to productivity and services so that it makes a contribution to the overall productivity of a hospital. After individualized evaluation of these items, the dimensions are subjectively weighted in the two questionnaires. The productivity index thus ascertained can be considered "holistic" when all patients and employees in a hospital make a differentiated assessment and weigh off each of the dimensions. In conclusion, the BPA constitutes a simple yet practicable method to ascertain and improve the holistic service productivity of hospitals. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24839174

  5. Expert tibia nail for subtrochanteric femoral fracture to prevent thermal injury

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung-Jae; Min, Byung-Woo; Jung, Jae-Hoon; Kang, Mi-Kyung; Kim, Min-Ji

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Subtrochanteric femoral fractures are relatively uncommon, accounting for 7–15% of all hip fractures and treatment of these fractures are considered challenge for orthopaedic surgeons. Although several treatment options are reported with up to 90% of satisfactory results, the choice of the appropriate implant is still a matter of debate. Some authors reported thermal injury after reaming for intramedullary nail fixation in patients with narrow medullary canal. Presentation of case A 21-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital because of right subtrochanteric femoral fracture. The narrowest diameter of medullary canal of her femur was about 7 mm but she refused open reduction and internal fixation with plate due to large scar formation. We used expert tibia nail instead of femoral intramedullary nail to prevent thermal injury. Discussion Subtrochanteric femoral fractures are difficult to treat because of their biomechanical and anatomical characteristics. Although several implants are reported for the surgical treatment of these fractures, intramedullary nails have been advocated due to their biological and biomechanical advantages. However, under certain circumstances with associated injury or anatomic difference we might consider another treatment options. Conclusion Expert tibia nail may be considered one of the treatment options for subtrochanteric femoral fracture with narrow medullary canal. We also emphasize the importance of preoperative evaluation of the medullary canal size for these risky fractures. PMID:25839435

  6. Practice Paper of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Principles of Productivity in Food and Nutrition Services: Applications in the 21st Century Health Care Reform Era.

    PubMed

    Gregoire, Mary B; Theis, Monica L

    2015-07-01

    Food and nutrition services, along with the health care organizations they serve, are becoming increasingly complex. These complexities are driven by sometimes conflicting (if not polarizing) human, department, organization, and environment factors and will require that managers shift how they think about and approach productivity in the context of the greater good of the organization and, perhaps, even society. Traditional, single-factor approaches to productivity measurements, while still valuable in the context of departmental trend analysis, are of limited value when assessing departmental performance in the context of an organization's goals and values. As health care continues to change and new models of care are introduced, food and nutrition services managers will need to consider innovative approaches to improve productivity that are consistent with their individual health care organization's vision and mission. Use of process improvement tools such as Lean and Six Sigma as strategies for evaluating and improving food and nutrition services efficiency should be considered. PMID:26115561

  7. Stir bar sorptive extraction with EG-Silicone coating for bisphenols determination in personal care products by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Cacho, Juan Ignacio; Campillo, Natalia; Viñas, Pilar; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel

    2013-05-01

    An easy to perform analytical method for the determination of three bisphenol compounds (BPs) in commonly used personal care products (PCPs) is presented. Ethylene glycol-silicone (EG-Silicone) coated stir bars, which have recently become commercially available, are evaluated in this study for the simultaneous determination of bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol Z (BPZ) by stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) in combination with thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). This new sorptive extraction phase allows the analysis of these compounds without any previous derivatization procedure. Different parameters affecting both SBSE extraction and thermal desorption were carefully optimized, using experimental designs based on the Taguchi orthogonal arrays. The procedure was applied to analyzing easily bought PCPs, providing detection limits of about 8 ng g(-1), with precisions lower than 11% in terms of relative standard deviation. Recovery studies performed at two different concentration levels provided satisfactory values for all the compounds. The analyzed personal care samples contained BPA at concentration levels ranging from 30.9 to 88.3 ng g(-1). PMID:23507687

  8. Modal propagation and interaction in the smooth transition from a metal mushroom structure to a bed-of-nails-type wire medium

    E-print Network

    Hanson, George

    Modal propagation and interaction in the smooth transition from a metal mushroom structure to a bed-of-nails to a bed-of-nails-type wire medium Alexander B. Yakovlev1 and George W. Hanson2 1 Department of Electrical to being transparent, in which case the structure becomes a bed-of-nails medium. It is shown that the modes

  9. Mammary-digital-nail (MDN) syndrome: a novel phenotype maps to human chromosome 22q12.313.1

    E-print Network

    Friedman, Nir

    ARTICLE Mammary-digital-nail (MDN) syndrome: a novel phenotype maps to human chromosome 22q12 and Tzipora C Falik-Zaccai*,1,2 Mammary-digital-nail syndrome is a novel phenotypic association consisting of the fifth finger, and digitalization of the thumbs, with absence or hypoplasia of the distal phalanges

  10. Recording by focusing femtosecond laser pulse and fluorescence readout of three-dimensional optical memory in human nail

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Takita; H. Yamamoto; Y. Hayasaki; H. Misawa; N. Nishida

    2003-01-01

    Three-dimensional optical bit recording with a femtosecond laser pulse and bit observation with atomic force microscope and fluorescence observation in human finger nail are performed. Shapes of a bit and changes of the fluorescence of nail is investigated. The bit is formed by micro-explosion and the fluorescence intensity is increased with a irradiation of a femtosecond laser pulse.

  11. 76 FR 72438 - Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates; Scheduling of the Final Phase of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ...two or more pieces. Certain steel nails may be produced from any type of steel, and have a variety of finishes...turning the fastener using a tool that engages with the head...chisel and no point. Certain steel nails may be sold in...

  12. An in vitro biomechanical investigation of an interlocking nail for fixation of diaphyseal tibial fractures in adult horses.

    PubMed

    McDuffee, L A; Stover, S M; Taylor, K T; Les, C M

    1994-01-01

    The compressive, bending and torsional mechanical properties of osteotomized adult equine tibiae stabilized with an interlocking intramedullary nail (nail-tibia composite) were compared with those of intact tibiae to determine the clinical applicability of the the nail for repair of tibial fractures in adult horses. The mean yield load, failure load, and stiffness for the nail-tibia composites were significantly less (P < .05) than those for the intact tibiae in all loading configurations. The mean compressive yield load for the nail-tibia composites was greater than the compressive load calculated from previously reported in vivo data for walking and trotting, and was equal to the load calculated for recovery from anesthesia. The mean yield bending moment for the nail-tibia composites was greater than the bending moment previously calculated for standing, walking, and recovery from anesthesia. The mean torsional yield load for the nail-tibia composites was less than the torsional load determined for the walk from another in vivo study. The design of the interlocking nail evaluated in the present study should be modified to increase torsional and compressive yield strengths and torsional stiffness before reasonable success could be expected for the treatment of adult equine tibial fractures. PMID:8091624

  13. Twenty-nail dystrophy (trachyonychia) caused by lichen planus in a patient with alopecia universalis and ichthyosis vulgaris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shoji Taniguchi; Haruo Kutsuna; Yukiko Tani; Kazuhiro Kawahira; Toshio Hamada

    1995-01-01

    A 7-year-old girl with alopecia universalis had dystrophy of all 20 nails. A nail biopsy specimen disclosed features of lichen planus. The patient also had ichthyosis vulgaris and hypogammaglobulinemia. We are not aware of any previous reports of these associations, which we believe to be noncoincidental.

  14. 76 FR 75871 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Final Rescission of Antidumping Duty New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ...coils using materials such as plastic, paper, or wire. Certain steel...two-piece steel nails having plastic or steel washers (caps) already assembled to the nail...inclusive; and an actual washer or cap diameter of 0.900'' to...

  15. 77 FR 24462 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results of the Second...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ...coils using materials such as plastic, paper, or wire. Certain steel...two-piece steel nails having plastic or steel washers (caps) already assembled to the nail...inclusive; and an actual washer or cap diameter of 0.900'' to...

  16. The Successful Treatment of Trichophyton rubrum Nail Bed (Distal Subungual) Onychomycosis With Intermittent Pulse-Dosed Terbinafine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nardo Zaias; Gerbert Rebell

    2004-01-01

    Background: The standard treatment of Trichophyton rubrumnailbedonychomycosis(ordistalsubungualony- chomycosis (DSO)) with daily terbinafine for 12 weeks involves treating for a fixed period shorter than the time required for complete replacement of the nail bed and overlying nail plate by normal growth. The same total amount of terbinafine pulse-dosed for approximately 12 months would treat the patient until normal replace- ment of

  17. 78 FR 56861 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of the Fourth...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    The Department of Commerce (``Department'') is conducting the fourth administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain steel nails (``nails'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'').\\1\\ The Department has preliminarily determined that sales have been made below normal value (``NV'') by the respondents examined during the period of review (``POR''), August 1, 2011, through July......

  18. [In defense of society: the invention of palliative care and the production of subjectivities].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Karen Schein; Kruse, Maria Henriqueta Luce

    2012-04-01

    This article is a theoretical reflection that is part of a study named Em Defesa da Sociedade: a invenção dos Cuidados Paliativos (In Defense of Society: the invention of Palliative Care). In order to articulate this discussion, we used the 2007edition of the Palliative Care Manual published by the World Health Organization (WHO), as we understand it is part of a body of work capable of producing subjectivities and ruling conduct. In this sense, we intend to understand how the discourses on palliative care are associated and promote the invention of a new subject that would work as a bio-political strategy in order to defend society. Based on the textual analysis of the discourse presented in the manual, with the help of the Cultural Studies framework and inspired by the works of Michel Foucault, we present one of the possible meanings derived from the readings of the WHO Guide. Thus, we observe the (re)organization and (re)invention of a subject that invests in the subjectivity of individuals and constitutes an actual framework that regulates and rules the population. PMID:22576552

  19. Nail lichen planus: response to treatment and long term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Saccani, Elena; Starace, Michela; Balestri, Riccardo; Tosti, Antonella

    2010-01-01

    In our twenty years' experience of dermatological visits specifically for nail diseases, we saw 105 patients with pathologically proven nail lichen planus. We prescribed treatment to 75 of these patients and we report here the results of treatment. Twenty-seven of these patients were followed-up for more than 5 years (mean follow-up was 10 years): 9 of them (9/27 = 33.3%) did not respond to treatment with steroids (intramuscular or intralesional), 18 were cured (18/27 = 66.7%), 11 relapsed (11/27 = 40.7%). This study is important for the fact that no one has previously published the results of such a long follow-up of patients with nail lichen planus. PMID:20400392

  20. Determination of cocaine and benzoylecgonine in nails by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sykutera, M; Piotrowski, P; Bloch-Bogus?awska, E

    2014-01-01

    Nails and hair are a biological matrix which can be analyzed to confirm the use of a xenobiotic even several months after intake. Results of nail analysis can be used, for example, as evidence in civil and criminal law cases in which a history of drug use can influence the court's decision. The paper presents results of analysis of a nail sample taken from a man who was suspected of trafficking cocaine. The suspect pleaded guilty to the possession of the drug for his own use because, as he claimed, he was addicted to cocaine. A nail sample was taken. Detection and quantification were carried out using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). The concentration of cocaine in nails was found to be 47 ng/mg, and benzoylecgonine - 14 ng/mg. PMID:25693174

  1. Radiation-free Insertion of Distal Interlocking Screw in Tibial and Femur Nailing: A Simple Technique

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Ritesh Kumar; Mehta, Surender Mohan; Awasthi, Bhanu; Singh, Janith Lal; Kumar, Amit; Thakur, Lokesh; Tripathy, Sujit Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Background: Distal interlocking screw insertion in intramedullary nailing of long-bone fracture is a challenging task for orthopedic surgeons. It is difficult particularly when the surgeon is in his learning stage or when image intensifier is not available. We describe a radiation-free technique of distal interlocking screw insertion which is easy and practicable. Materials and Methods: In this technique, a same length nail is placed over the skin (outer nail) and through its distal-most screw hole, a 3.2 mm drill bit is inserted to drill the distal locking screw hole of the intramedullary nail (inner nail). With a small skin incision over the distal screw holes, the distal-most screw hole is identified; the bone window overlying the screw hole is widened with an awl and a locking bolt is inserted with a washer under direct visualization. The other distal interlocking screw is simply drilled by matching the other three holes of the outer and inner nails. We have operated 86 patients (39 femoral shaft fracture and 47 tibial shaft fracture) in 1 year where this technique was used. There were 41 open fracture and 45 closed fracture. Results: Within 6 months of follow-up, bony union was achieved in 36 of 39 femur fractures and 45 of 47 tibial fractures. No unwanted complications were observed during the postoperative period and in follow-up. Conclusion: This method of radiation-free distal interlocking screw insertion is simple and can be used in third world country where image intensifier facility is not available. However, surgeons are encouraged to use image intensifier facility where the facility is available. PMID:23066456

  2. Short versus long intramedullary nails for the treatment of intertrochanteric hip fractures in patients older than 65 years

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi; Liu, Yueju; Liang, Yi; Zhao, Changping; Zhang, Yingze

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare failure rates between short and long intramedullary nails used for the treatment of intertrochanteric hip fractures in patients over 65 years of age. Methods: A retrospective review of 156 patients aged more than 65 years with femoral intertrochanteric fractures from December 2010 to December 2012 was performed. The patients were allocated to two groups: those treated with long nail (n=59) and short nail (n=97). Relevant patient variables and medical comorbidities were collected. Medical comorbidities were evaluated according to the American Society of Anesthesiologists classification and medical records were also reviewed for age, sex, intraoperative blood loss, operative time, length of stay, time to fracture union, hip pain, Harris Hip Score 1 year postoperatively, and failure rates. The failure rate was defined as periprosthetic fracture or reoperation requiring removal or revision of nail. Variables were statistically compared between the two groups, with statistical significance at P<0.05. Results: Patients treat with long nails and short nails were comparable for all assessed clinical variables (P>0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between these groups in intraoperative blood loss, time to fracture union and Harris Hip Score at 1 year postoperatively (P>0.05). The long nail group had significantly less failure rate (0/59) and hip pain rate (3/59) than those with short nail (3/97 and 13/97, respectively) (P < 0.05), but the operative time was significantly longer in the former (60.60 ± 11.43 minutes) than the latter (53.10 ± 8.51 minutes) group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Both the long and short intramedullary nails are the optional internal fixation choices for femoral intertrochanteric fracture in the aged patients older than 65 years. But the long nail could avoid the refracture of femur and reduced postoperative hip pain.

  3. Ultrathin "bed-of-nails" membranes of single-wall carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuhuang; Da, Sean; Kim, Myung Jong; Kelly, Kevin F; Guo, Wenhua; Kittrell, Carter; Hauge, Robert H; Smalley, Richard E

    2004-08-11

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were arranged in a membrane similar to a "bed-of-nails", in which a single layer of parallel SWNTs was densely packed and aligned along the normal to the membrane. The planar, free-standing, ultrathin SWNT membranes were prepared by milling a neat SWNT fiber with a gallium focused ion beam. The approach is readily applicable to cutting nanotubes to a desirable and precise length and enables further fabrication of devices using the "bed-of-nails" membranes to test the transport properties of SWNTs. PMID:15291529

  4. Lateral resistance of ring-shank nail connections in Southern Pine lumber 

    E-print Network

    Theilen, Ross Dean

    1996-01-01

    , lightly brushed, and blown dry with compressed air to remove grease as specified in ASTM D1761 (ASTM, 1995e), Nail characteristics were then measured for each nail used in bending yield strength tests, dowel bearing tests, and connection tests (Figure... and the yield load, the yisld moment was calculated from the following equation (ASTM, 1995c): P s~ M = r 1400 700 600 E, 500 400 O 3pp 200 ? Load Slope of load curve Point of Inflection 1200 1000 8 800 K 600 ~~ O rVl 400 100 200 0. 5 1...

  5. Speckle-correlation analysis of the microcapillary blood circulation in nail bed

    SciTech Connect

    Vilenskii, M A; Agafonov, D N; Zimnyakov, D A; Tuchin, Valerii V; Zdrazhevskii, R A

    2011-04-30

    We present the results of the experimental studies of the possibility of monitoring the blood microcirculation in human finger nail bed with application of speckle-correlation analysis, based on estimating the contrast of time-averaged dynamic speckles. The hemodynamics at normal blood circulation and under conditions of partially suppressed blood circulation is analysed. A microscopic analysis is performed to visualise the structural changes in capillaries that are caused by suppressing blood circulation. The problems and prospects of speckle-correlation monitoring of the nail bed microhemodynamics under laboratory and clinical conditions are discussed. (optical technologies in biophysics and medicine)

  6. Management of distal femur fractures with modern plates and nails: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Beltran, Michael J; Gary, Joshua L; Collinge, Cory A

    2015-04-01

    Fractures of the distal femur, even those with articular extension, are well suited to surgical fixation with modern precontoured anatomic plates and nails. Numerous adjuvant techniques are available to the treating surgeon to obtain and maintain reduction while preserving fracture biology. Yet despite their proven track record and benefits over older implants, technical errors are common and must be overcome with proper preoperative planning and intraoperative attention to detail. This review summarizes the current state of the art regarding distal femur fractures, with an emphasis on relevant modern plate and nail surgical techniques, tempered by our current understanding of implant biomechanics, fracture healing, and long-term outcomes. PMID:25793566

  7. Speckle-correlation analysis of the microcapillary blood circulation in nail bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilenskii, M. A.; Agafonov, D. N.; Zimnyakov, D. A.; Tuchin, Valerii V.; Zdrazhevskii, R. A.

    2011-04-01

    We present the results of the experimental studies of the possibility of monitoring the blood microcirculation in human finger nail bed with application of speckle-correlation analysis, based on estimating the contrast of time-averaged dynamic speckles. The hemodynamics at normal blood circulation and under conditions of partially suppressed blood circulation is analysed. A microscopic analysis is performed to visualise the structural changes in capillaries that are caused by suppressing blood circulation. The problems and prospects of speckle-correlation monitoring of the nail bed microhemodynamics under laboratory and clinical conditions are discussed.

  8. Effective medium theory for the finite conductivity bed-of-nails structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    C?buz, A. I.; Nicolet, A.; Zolla, F.; Felbacq, D.

    2009-10-01

    We present and illustrate an effective medium theory of the finite conductivity periodic finite wire medium (the bed-of-nails structure). It is constructed using a renormalization approach to obtain the system of equations satisfied by the electromagnetic field and the electric current in the limit of large wavelength-to-period ratio. The model is tested numerically and its domain of validity is characterized using full vector three dimensional finite element calculations. Bed-of-nails structures exhibit large absorption with small reflection while their low fill factor allows considerable freedom to control other characteristics of the metamaterial such as its mechanical, thermal or chemical robustness.

  9. Part 3 of a 4-part series Lip and Common Dental Care Products: Trends and Alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Sharon; Katta, Rajani; Nedorost, Susan; Warshaw, Erin; Zirwas, Matt; Kruk, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To provide updated data on the use of ingredients that are common potential contact allergens in several categories of lip and oral products. To identify useful alternative products with few or no common contact allergens. Design: In November 2009, the full ingredient lists of 5,416 skin, hair, and cosmetic products marketed by the CVS pharmacy chain was copied from CVS.com into Microsoft Word format for analysis. Computer searches were made in Microsoft Word using search/replace and sorting functions to accurately identify the presence of specific allergens in each website product. Measurements: Percentages of American Contact Dermatitis Society core series allergens (and other common preservatives) were calculated. Results: The use of American Contact Dermatitis Society core series allergens (and other preservatives) in various categories of lip and oral products are reported. Conclusion: Data on allergens and alternatives for lip and oral products is not widely published. This article reviews some of the common potential allergens in lip liners, lipsticks, lip moisturizers, mouthwashes, and toothpastes. Suitable available alternative products for patients with contact allergy are listed. PMID:21938270

  10. The production and use of evidence in health care service innovation: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Vasileiou, Konstantina; Barnett, Julie; Young, Terry

    2013-03-01

    The focus of this article is on a range of concepts of evidence employed by health care innovators in pursuing service innovations and in demonstrating their success. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 key informants in the United Kingdom who had won Health Service Journal awards for successfully implementing 15 service innovations. Four concepts of evidence were identified: (a) evidence of effectiveness-both direct and indirect, (b) evidence of efficiency, (c) evidence of innovation acceptance, and (d) evidence of relevance. The results suggest that the innovators articulated evidential concepts from the main approaches prevailing in the British National Health Service, namely clinical trials and improvement cycles. Most aspired to "better" evidence than they were able to obtain, while the approach to evidence gathering was very pragmatic and was more aligned with the improvement-cycle framework. Developing supporting mechanisms for assisting innovation evaluation is an important challenge if service innovation is to be routinely attempted and achieved in health care. PMID:22694843

  11. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart C - VOC Content Limits by Product Category

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Structural waterproof 15 Insecticides: Crawling bug 40 Flea and tick 25 Flying bug 35 Foggers 45 Lawn and Garden 20 Laundry prewash: Aerosols/solids 22 All other forms 5 Laundry starch products 5 Nail polish...

  12. [The effectiveness of hand hygiene products on MRSA colonization of health care workers by using CHROMagar MRSA].

    PubMed

    Koçak Tufan, Zeliha; Irmak, Hasan; Bulut, Cemal; Cesur, Salih; K?n?kl?, Sami; Demiröz, Ali Pekcan

    2012-04-01

    The aims of this study were; to investigate the hand hygiene compliance of the health care workers (HCWs) during their routine patient care, to determine the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) hand colonization of the HCWs, to investigate the effect of different hand hygiene products on MRSA colonization and to evaluate the effectiveness of chromogenic agar for detecting MRSA. HCWs were investigated during their routine patient care and hand cultures were taken before and after hand wash/hygiene. Two different techniques were used to obtain the hand cultures: fingertip method (CHROMagar MRSA containing HygiSlide); and direct swab method and then inoculation to CHROMagar MRSA media. MRSA strains grown on those cultures were confirmed with conventional methods. A total of 100 HCWs (of them 61 were female; mean age: 32.7 ± 5.2 years; age range: 25-51 years) involving physicians (n= 33), nurses (n= 38) and health care assistants (n= 29), were included in the study. MRSA was detected in 39% and 11% before hand hygiene and in 13% and 6% after hand hygiene, with HygiSlide CHROMagar media and with CHROMagar in plate media, respectively. No difference were found regarding clinics, occupations, or the type of patient handling in those HCWs who were positive (n= 13) for MRSA colonization following hand hygiene, and those who were negative (n= 26). However, the type of the hand hygiene product used exhibited a statistical difference. None of the seven HCWs who used alcohol based hand rub revealed growth in the second culture while 10 of 19 (53%) HCWs who used soap and three of 13 (23%) HCWs who used chlorhexidine were still colonized with MRSA. In terms of reduction in the MRSA counts, the most effective one was the alcohol based hand rub while the soap was the least, since seven of 19 (37%) HCWs who used soap showed no reduction at all in the MRSA counts. A high ratio of hand colonization with MRSA was detected in our hospital staff (39%). It was shown that the colonization could be reduced significantly (with a rate of 66%) with hand hygiene. Alcohol based hand rub was found to be the most effective method in hand hygiene. The fingertip technique was found to be superior to inoculation to plate media for obtaining hand cultures and CHROMagar MRSA media was found to be rapid, effective and practical for detecting the MRSA hand colonization. PMID:22639312

  13. In situ melanoma of the nail unit in children: report of two cases in fair-skinned Caucasian children.

    PubMed

    Tosti, Antonella; Piraccini, Bianca M; Cagalli, Anna; Haneke, Eckart

    2012-01-01

    Nail melanoma in children is rarely reported in the literature, and all of the published cases were diagnosed in dark-skinned phototypes or in Asians. We report two cases of in situ nail matrix melanoma presenting as longitudinal melanonychia (LM) in fair-skinned children of Italian origin. Nail plate dermatoscopy revealed a brown background with lines of irregular color, spacing, and thickness in both cases. Histopathology of the excised lesions showed melanoma in situ. Clinical, dermatoscopic, and pathological criteria that permit clear differentiation of benign melanocytic activation or proliferation from nail matrix melanoma are not established for children. The presence of a pigmented band of a single nail in a child usually represents a problem for clinicians, because the clinical and dermatoscopic features that are considered possible indicators of nail unit melanoma in adults are frequently observed in benign melanocytic hyperplasia and nevi in children. There is therefore the need to find parameters useful for clinical and dermatoscopic diagnosis in childhood nail pigmentation and to reach a consensus on management of children with a band of LM. PMID:21575049

  14. Caring Teachers and Symbolic Violence: Engaging the Productive Struggle in Practice and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Brigitte C.

    2012-01-01

    Symbolic violence may not be a desirable theory to apply to public schooling--its structuralist limitations render it deterministic, lacking in human agency, and unpalatable to researchers and educators who see schools as viable and productive sites of social transformation. Perhaps for these reasons, it seems little has been written about…

  15. Runoff of pharmaceuticals and personal care products following application of biosolids to an agricultural field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward Topp; Sara C. Monteiro; Andrew Beck; Bonnie Ball Coelho; Alistair B. A. Boxall; Peter W. Duenk; Sonya Kleywegt; David R. Lapen; Michael Payne; Lyne Sabourin; Hongxia Li; Chris D. Metcalfe

    2008-01-01

    Municipal biosolids are a source of nutrients for crop production. Beneficial Management Practices (BMPs) can be used to minimize the risk of contamination of adjacent water resources with chemical or microbial agents that are of public or environmental health concern. In this field study, we applied biosolids slurry at a commercial rate using either subsurface injection or broadcast application followed

  16. The challenge Inventing, making and selling home and personal care products is more complex and time

    E-print Network

    Zharkova, Valentina V.

    of eScience and big data. Our partnership with STFC will give our R&D community a powerful competitive Unilever product developers can use to explore the data and see correlations that are otherwise elusive of government funding, it is home to the UK's most powerful supercomputer dedicated to the development

  17. An adaptive approach to facilitating research productivity in a primary care clinical department.

    PubMed

    Weber-Main, Anne Marie; Finstad, Deborah A; Center, Bruce A; Bland, Carole J

    2013-07-01

    Efforts to foster the growth of a department's or school's research mission can be informed by known correlates of research productivity, but the specific strategies to be adopted will be highly context-dependent, influenced by local, national, and discipline-specific needs and resources. The authors describe a multifaceted approach-informed by a working model of organizational research productivity-by which the University of Minnesota Department of Family Medicine and Community Health (Twin Cities campus) successfully increased its collective research productivity during a 10-year period (1997-2007) and maintained these increases over time.Facing barriers to recruitment of faculty investigators, the department focused instead on nurturing high-potential investigators among their current faculty via a new, centrally coordinated research program, with provision of training, protected time, technical resources, mentoring, and a scholarly culture to support faculty research productivity. Success of these initiatives is documented by the following: substantial increases in the department's external research funding, rise to a sustained top-five ranking based on National Institutes of Health funding to U.S. family medicine departments, later-stage growth in the faculty's publishing record, increased research capacity among the faculty, and a definitive maturation of the department's research mission. The authors offer their perspectives on three apparent drivers of success with broad applicability-namely, effective leadership, systemic culture change, and the self-awareness to adapt to changes in the local, institutional, and national research environment. PMID:23702527

  18. Prenatal Care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Our ePublications > Prenatal care fact sheet ePublications Prenatal care fact sheet Print this fact sheet Prenatal care ... More information on prenatal care What is prenatal care? Prenatal care is the health care you get ...

  19. Hemodynamic analysis of capillary in finger nail-fold using computational fluid dynamics and image estimation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tzu-Ching Shih; Geoffrey Zhang; Chih-Chieh Wu; Hung-Da Hsiao; Tung-Hsin Wu; Kang-Ping Lin; Tzung-Chi Huang

    2011-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) dynamics in capillaries is a useful diagnostic tool for many diseases. Previous study showed that optical flow estimation (OFE) is capable of accurately calculating RBC velocities using image registration technique. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method is explored in this study to calculate the RBC velocity in capillaries of finger nail-fold for six cases. The two-dimensional

  20. Influence of nail biting and finger sucking habits on the oral carriage of Enterobacteriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Firoz G.; Bernard, Reginald Ajay

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral habits like thumb sucking and nail biting are pernicious habits that act as an adaptive function in obtaining pleasure and subduing anxiety. These habits may also act as carriers of numerous microorganisms into the oral cavity, of which, Enterobacteriaceae members are transient pathogens, which might result in debilitating systemic conditions. Aim: To study the oral carriage of Enterobacteriaceae in children having habit of nail biting and thumb sucking. And to study the association of the organism with the individual's respective plaque indices. Subjects and Methods: Totally, 40 chronic nail biters, 40 chronic thumb suckers, and 20 controls (no habit) (8-15 years old) were enrolled in the study. Appropriate history and their plaque indices recorded. Sterile containers were used to collect the salivary samples and later cultured on Agar plates. Biochemical tests categorized the organisms into subspecies. Statistical Analysis Used: ANNOVA, Student's t-test. Results: Presence of a nail biting habit indicated a higher plaque index, which in turn showed a higher carriage of Enterobacteria spps, predominantly Escherichia coli. Conclusions: Oral surgical intervention in individuals with pernicious oral habits need to be counseled and educated on the possible complications, which might otherwise provide an environment that disseminates these microorganisms resulting in a broad range of local and systemic infections. PMID:26097357