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1

Nail Care Products  

MedlinePLUS

... Products Advisory Committees Regulatory Information Safety Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll ...

2

Primary care of nail traumas.  

PubMed

Injuries to the nail complex are common in adults and children. These complex injuries often involve the paraungueal tissues, fingertip and bone. Specialized primary care is essential to limiting the sequelea that are typically difficult to repair secondarily. The current state of knowledge on nail bed lacerations and defects is reviewed and compared to our own experience. Special attention is paid to nail restoration in distal amputation cases and we propose an original technique to restore nail length. PMID:23706592

Loréa, P

2013-06-01

3

Nail care for newborns  

MedlinePLUS

... others. It is important to keep your baby's nails clean and trimmed. Newborns do not yet have ... their face. Clean the baby's hands, feet, and nails during regular bathing. Use a nail file or ...

4

Artificial Nails Require Care to Keep Nails Healthy  

MedlinePLUS

... nail at home, make sure you: Use only glue made specifically for artificial nails. Never bandage a ... If you bandage an artificial nail or use glue that is not made specifically for artificial nails, ...

5

Nail surgery.  

PubMed

Nail surgery is a special branch of hand and dermatologic surgery. It is not widely performed, and many physicians do not feel at ease to perform it. The objective of this contribution is to give a short overview of the most important surgical procedures in clinical practice. References from the literature and the author's own experiences are condensed to describe what a dermatologic practitioner with knowledge of the nail and some surgical skills can perform. Nail surgery is a precise technique that requires careful administration and attention to details. Proper patient preparation starts with a patient history to identify potential contraindications and to prevent unnecessary complications. The author recommends isopropyl alcohol scrub and chlorhexidine for disinfection and ropivacaine 1% for anesthesia. The technique used for anesthesia depends on the type of surgery. Surgical procedures are described for diagnostic biopsies, nail avulsion in general, onychogryposis, paronychia treatment, hematomas and bone fracture due to trauma, removal of subungual foreign bodies, ingrowing nails, pincer nails, warts, ungual fibrokeratomas, digital myxoid pseudocyst, subungual exostoses, and various tumors. If performed correctly with adequate skills, nail surgery will lead to functionally and aesthetically satisfying results in the majority of instances. PMID:24079580

Haneke, Eckart

2013-01-01

6

Nail-Gun Injuries to the Hand  

PubMed Central

Background: The nail gun is a commonly utilized tool in carpentry and construction. When used properly with appropriate safety precautions, it can facilitate production and boost efficiency; however, this powerful tool also has the potential to cause serious injury. The most common site of nail-gun injuries in both industrial and nonoccupational settings is the hand. Materials and Methods: We report on two patients with nail-gun injuries to the hand. A review of the literature and discussion of clinical evaluation and treatment of nail-gun injuries to the hand are presented. Results: Two patients present with soft tissue injuries to the hand with the nail embedded and intact at the injury site. Operative removal of the nail and wound care resulted in successful treatment in both cases. Nail-gun injuries to the hand vary in severity on the basis of the extent of structural damage. Treatment is based on the severity of injury and the presence and location of barbs on the penetrating nail. Conclusion: Healthcare providers must understand and educate patients on the prevention mechanics of nail-gun injuries. Nail-gun injuries to the hand necessitate appropriate evaluation techniques, understanding of surgical management versus nonsurgical management, and awareness of potential pitfalls in treatment.

Pierpont, Yvonne N.; Pappas-Politis, Effie; Naidu, Deepak K.; Salas, R. Emerick; Johnson, Erika L.; Payne, Wyatt G.

2008-01-01

7

Nail Trauma  

MedlinePLUS

... hematoma. Nails also can be accidentally torn or split, or a splinter can get under the nail. ... the nail. In extreme cases, the nail can split. Symptoms A subungual hematoma appears dark red under ...

8

Withdrawal Strength of Threaded Nails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Threaded nails are used in wood construction because of their superior performance, but relatively few tests have been conducted on nails larger than 12d (3.76 mm diameter). Experience has suggested that threaded nail withdrawal design values are too conservative. The Forest Products Laboratory and Washington State University have been cooperatively characterizing the strength of threaded nails over a range of

Douglas R. Rammer; Steve G. Winistorfer; Donald A. Bender

2001-01-01

9

Evaluation of nail abnormalities.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the anatomy and function of the nail apparatus is essential when performing the physical examination. Inspection may reveal localized nail abnormalities that should be treated, or may provide clues to an underlying systemic disease that requires further workup. Excessive keratinaceous material under the nail bed in a distal and lateral distribution should prompt an evaluation for onychomycosis. Onychomycosis may be diagnosed through potassium hydroxide examination of scrapings. If potassium hydroxide testing is negative for the condition, a nail culture or nail plate biopsy should be performed. A proliferating, erythematous, disruptive mass in the nail bed should be carefully evaluated for underlying squamous cell carcinoma. Longitudinal melanonychia (vertical nail bands) must be differentiated from subungual melanomas, which account for 50 percent of melanomas in persons with dark skin. Dystrophic longitudinal ridges and subungual hematomas are local conditions caused by trauma. Edema and erythema of the proximal and lateral nail folds are hallmark features of acute and chronic paronychia. Clubbing may suggest an underlying disease such as cirrhosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or celiac sprue. Koilonychia (spoon nail) is commonly associated with iron deficiency anemia. Splinter hemorrhages may herald endocarditis, although other causes should be considered. Beau lines can mark the onset of a severe underlying illness, whereas Muehrcke lines are associated with hypoalbuminemia. A pincer nail deformity is inherited or acquired and can be associated with beta-blocker use, psoriasis, onychomycosis, tumors of the nail apparatus, systemic lupus erythematosus, Kawasaki disease, and malignancy. PMID:22534387

Tully, Amber S; Trayes, Kathryn P; Studdiford, James S

2012-04-15

10

Effects of foot care intervention including nail drilling combined with topical antifungal application in diabetic patients with onychomycosis.  

PubMed

We performed periodical foot care intervention including nail drilling combined with topical antifungal application for 6 months or more in 24 diabetic patients with onychomycosis who were not receiving oral antifungals, and evaluated its effects. The type of onychomycosis was superficial white onychomycosis (SWO) in eight patients, and distal-lateral subungual onychomycosis (DLSO) in 16. The state of onychomycosis was evaluated according to the Scoring Clinical Index for Onychomycosis (SCIO). Of the eight patients with SWO, none showed aggravation of the onychomycosis state, and two were cured 6 months after the initiation of intervention and two after 1 year (total of four patients, 50%). In the patients with DLSO, the SCIO score was 18.1 +/- 6.5 before intervention but significantly decreased to 14.6 +/- 6.6 6 months after intervention. In 12 patients who we were able to consecutively follow up for 1 year, the SCIO score also significantly decreased compared with the score before intervention. Thus, foot care intervention including nail drilling combined with topical antifungal application had effects on onychomycosis and achieved cure in some patients with SWO. In addition, intervention increased patients' awareness of foot care, showing educational effects. Therefore, foot care intervention including nail drilling may be useful. PMID:17584323

Sumikawa, Masuko; Egawa, Takako; Honda, Ikumi; Yamamoto, Yoko; Sumikawa, Yasuyuki; Kubota, Minoru

2007-07-01

11

The ultrastructure and growth of human nails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinicians used to observing the slow rate of clearance of diseased or damaged nail are apt to see the nail apparatus as a rather inert structure. Paticularly during the last 15years, ultrastructural and physiological research has shown that under a variety of circumstances the nail matric and its product, the nail plate, are in fact the centre of marked biological

Rodney P. R. Dawber

1980-01-01

12

Nail anatomy.  

PubMed

The nail unit comprises the nail plate, the surrounding soft tissues, and their vasculature and innervation based upon the distal phalanx. The nail plate is a laminated keratinized structure lying on the nail matrix (15-25%), the nail bed with its distal onychodermal band (75-85%), and the hyponychium at its free edge. The distal part of the matrix, the lunula characterized by its half-moon shape, can be observed in some digits. The nail plate is embedded by the proximal and lateral folds. From the proximal nail fold, the cuticle (also known as the eponychium), adheres to the superficial surface of the proximal nail plate. The nail unit possesses a complex and abundant vascular network to ensure adequate blood supply. Finally, both the periungual soft tissues and the nail folds are innervated. The shapes, structure, and inter-relationships of these tissues are factors in the way nails present with disease and how we understand and manage those diseases. In particular, an understanding of the surgical anatomy is important for those undertaking diagnostic or curative operations on the nail. With this knowledge, the most appropriate surgery can be planned and the patient can be provided with accurate and clear guidance to enable informed consent. PMID:24079579

de Berker, David

2013-01-01

13

[Surgical interventions of the nail organ].  

PubMed

The nails are the largest appendage of the skin. They provide protection of the tactile regions of the fingers; moreover, well cared-for nails are an attribute of beauty. Operations of the nails should, therefore, regard both functional and cosmetic aspects. Surgical procedures are indicated in the case of nail deformities, bacterial or mycotic infections, as well as pigmentation of the nail wall or plate, and periungual or subungual tumors, which are always suspicious of malignant melanoma. All operations of the nail region can be performed in Oberst's anesthesia. We recommend the preoperative application of a tourniquet to stop the blood flow. PMID:2291286

Kirchhoff, A; Petres, J

1990-10-01

14

Psoriatic Nails  

MedlinePLUS

PsoriasisNet Article Psoriatic Nails About 50 percent of persons with active psoriasis have psoriatic changes in fingernails and/or toenails. In some instances psoriasis may occur only in the nails and nowhere else on the body. Psoriatic changes ...

15

Fungal nail infection  

MedlinePLUS

Good general health and hygiene help prevent fungal infections. Do not share tools used for manicures and pedicures. Keep your skin clean and dry. Take proper care of your nails. Wash and dry your hands thoroughly after contact with any fungal infection.

16

Bacterial carriage by artificial versus natural nails.  

PubMed

Although health care workers are following fashion trends when they wear artificial nails, the implications of these nails for infection control is unknown. Cultures were obtained before and after handwashing from the fingertips of 56 nurses with artificial nails and 56 nurses with natural nails. After handwashing there were higher numbers of colony-forming units of gram-negative rods cultured from the fingertips of nurses with artificial nails than from nurses with natural nails. There were no significant differences in carriage of gram-positive cocci or normal flora. Because of the number of nosocomial infections caused by gram-negative rods, health care workers who wear artificial nails should consider the potential risk of increased carriage of gram-negative rods. PMID:2596731

Pottinger, J; Burns, S; Manske, C

1989-12-01

17

Ciclopirox nail lacquer topical solution 8%.  

PubMed

Ciclopirox nail lacquer 8% (Penlac, Aventis Pharma) was approved by the US FDA in December 1999, as a component of a comprehensive management program, for use in immunocompetent patients who have mild to moderate onychomycosis of the fingers and toes without lunula involvement due to Trichophyton rubrum. The comprehensive management program includes removal of the unattached, infected nails as frequently as once per month, by a health care professional who has special competence in the diagnosis and treatment of nail disorders, including minor nail procedures. The nail lacquer is not approved in Canada. PMID:11027420

Gupta, A K

2000-01-01

18

[Interlocking nailing of the humerus].  

PubMed

Within a 3-year period a total of 42 humeral fractures were treated. Nineteen of these were operated on with the Seidel intramullary interlocking nail. Most of the fractures could be classified into group A (AO classification); three type B and four type C fractures occurred. Two patients had pathological fractures due to bone metastases. Mean hospital inpatient treatment was 24 days. Besides two infections seven system-specific complications occurred. A discrepancy between the diameter of the nail and the width of medullary cavity was the reason in one case for an additional fracture and in another case for nonunion because of loosening of the nail tip in the distal fragment. Three further intraoperative fractures occurred during impaction of the nail, the reasons are also device-specific and are carefully analyzed. In two cases we were forced to remove the nail because of subacromial impingement due to an overranging proximal nail end. Finally, a normal intraoperative and postoperative course with good functional results could only be observed in approximately half the cases. Thus, our initial optimism with respect to the outstanding theoretical concept was dampened, so that the interlocking humerus nail is now just applied in pathological shaft fractures. PMID:8342061

Ruf, W; Pauly, E

1993-06-01

19

Nail and skin disorders of the foot.  

PubMed

Disorders of the dermis and the nails on the feet are common. Despite the simplicity of the skin and nail disorders of the foot, they can be debilitating and impact the patient's ability to ambulate and perform activities of daily living. Diagnosis in most cases is confirmed on physical examination alone. Diligent care of skin and nail disorders can prevent further pathology involving the deeper structures of the foot and allow the patient to fully participate in their usual activities. PMID:24559870

Flint, Wesley W; Cain, Jarrett D

2014-03-01

20

Pediatric nail conditions.  

PubMed

Pediatric nail findings are plentiful and can range from benign processes to the initial signs of a systemic condition. The examination of the nail is an essential part of the pediatric physical examination. The nail unit consists of the nail plate, the nail matrix, the hyponychium, the nail bed, and the surrounding nail folds. Conditions that affect the nail unit have a variety of etiologies; these include inflammatory, congenital, and hereditary conditions as well as tumors and trauma. This review describes many of the nail conditions that are seen in the pediatric population. PMID:24079585

Wulkan, Adam J; Tosti, Antonella

2013-01-01

21

Common nail disorders.  

PubMed

Brittle nail, simple chronic paronychia, and onycholysis represent three of the most prevalent nail disorders. Brittle nails are characterized by increased fragility of the nail plate due to damage to the nail matrix or changes to nail plate cohesion, caused by internal and/or external factors. Simple chronic paronychia represents an inflammatory process of the lateral and/or proximal nail folds of the fingernails or toenails often preceded by damage to the cuticle. Onycholysis describes the detachment of the nail plate from its nail bed, often attributable to dermatologic conditions, infections, drug therapy, or trauma. PMID:24079587

Shemer, Avner; Daniel, C Ralph

2013-01-01

22

Yellow nail syndrome (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Yellow nail syndrome is characterized by yellow nails that lack a cuticle, grow slowly, and are loose or detached (onycholysis). Yellow nail syndrome is most commonly associated with lung disorders, and ...

23

Yellow nails (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Yellow nails are seen in the 'yellow nail syndrome' in which there is thickening and yellow to yellow-green discoloration of all nails. Lymphedema, especially of the ankles, and compromised respiration ...

24

Nail Splitting (Onychoschizia)  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Nail Splitting (Onychoschizia) Information for adults A A A Onychoschizia means plate-like splitting of the free edge of the nail. Overview Onychoschizia, commonly known as nail splitting but ...

25

Green Nail Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Green Nail Syndrome Share | Green nail syndrome (GNS) is an infection of the ... discoloration of nails, also known as chloronychia. The green discoloration varies from blue-green to dark green ...

26

Matricectomy and nail ablation.  

PubMed

Matricectomy refers to the complete extirpation of the nail matrix, resulting in permanent nail loss. Usually however, matricectomy is only partial, restricted to one or both lateral horns of the matrix. Nail ablation is the definitive removal of the entire nail organ. The most important common denominator in the successful matricectomy is the total removal or destruction of the matrix tissue. Matricectomy may be indicated for the management of onychauxis, onychogryphosis, congenital nail dystrophies, and chronic painful nail, such as recalcitrant ingrown toenail or split within the medial or lateral one-third of the nail. PMID:12516982

Baran, Robert; Haneke, Eckart

2002-11-01

27

Burns and beauty nails.  

PubMed

A case involving a five-month-old girl brought to the emergency department with burns over her abdomen is described. The child was reported to have spilled two small bottles of beauty nail adhesive on her clothes while her mother was preparing dinner. After undressing the infant, the mother discovered several lesions on the child's abdomen and quickly sought medical attention. Given the unusual circumstances of the presentation, the child was hospitalized for both treatment and supervision. The beauty nail adhesive contained cyanoacrylate. In addition to its well-appreciated adhesive capacity, cyanoacrylate, in the presence of cotton or other tissues, is known to produce an exothermic reaction that may cause burns. Cyanoacrylate-based products, due to their possible adverse effects, should be kept away from children as advised. Odd injuries should always raise concerns about the possibility of inflicted injury. PMID:24421671

Bélanger, Richard E; Marcotte, Marie-Eve; Bégin, François

2013-03-01

28

Burns and beauty nails  

PubMed Central

A case involving a five-month-old girl brought to the emergency department with burns over her abdomen is described. The child was reported to have spilled two small bottles of beauty nail adhesive on her clothes while her mother was preparing dinner. After undressing the infant, the mother discovered several lesions on the child’s abdomen and quickly sought medical attention. Given the unusual circumstances of the presentation, the child was hospitalized for both treatment and supervision. The beauty nail adhesive contained cyanoacrylate. In addition to its well-appreciated adhesive capacity, cyanoacrylate, in the presence of cotton or other tissues, is known to produce an exothermic reaction that may cause burns. Cyanoacrylate-based products, due to their possible adverse effects, should be kept away from children as advised. Odd injuries should always raise concerns about the possibility of inflicted injury.

Belanger, Richard E; Marcotte, Marie-Eve; Begin, Francois

2013-01-01

29

[The Medin intramedullary nails].  

PubMed

The authors present an account on a group of their first 28 patients/29 nails/treated during a 6-month period from May 1995 by synthesis using Medin nails/14 tibial, 12 femoral and 3 reconstruction nails/. The nails and instruments are briefly described. The main objective of the development of nails was to enable the professional public to obtain the necessary implants from local manufacturers and thus at much lower prices. PMID:8768995

Palarcík, J; Bucek, P; Nestrojil, P

1996-04-01

30

Investigation of Human Nail Microstructure with Ultrasound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigation of a human fingernail and the extraction of the data on its microstructure and elastic properties is important in three main aspects. First of all, various diseases of the nail can be differentiated more precisely; second of all, it is possible to non-invasively track during time the effects of a cosmetic product upon the nail; third of all, because various processes in the organism have a strong influence upon the nail plate growth, the monitoring of the nail morphology and its mechanical properties may be used as additional information for the diagnosis of a number of medical disorders, such as systemic sclerosis, psoriasis, chronic hand eczema, anemia etc. The aim of the present study was to carry out a detailed ultrasound investigation in the high-frequency range (25-50 MHz) of a human nail including micro-anatomical structure imaging and ultrasound velocity evaluation, using B-scans obtained with a scanning acoustic microscope. On the images, exact topology of the nail, nail matrix and the underlying bone have been revealed. Additionally, a certain type of inclined internal layering along the nails of some individuals has been found, which was not reported in previous ultrasonic studies of the nail.

Maeva, A. R.; Bakulin, E. Y.; Denisova, L. A.; Maev, R. Gr.

31

[Systemic complications in intramedullary nailing].  

PubMed

Today intramedullary nailing is the treatment of choice in stabilizing femoral and tibial diaphysial fractures because of its superior bone healing compared to other forms of osteosyntheses. By interlocking, the indication can be extended to all fractures in which interlocking bolts can be fixed in the proximal and distal main fragment. Küntscher's principle of elastic clamp has changed to intramedullary splinting. With that method reaming is limited to a few reaming processes, and unreamed nailing has become possible. Today implants start at a diameter of 9 mm. The diameter of implants of all manufacturers is less than a few years ago. Since the importance of embolization by increasing the intramedullary pressure as a result of reaming is accepted, the question arises concerning the clinical relevance of embolization if reaming is restricted and unreamed nails are applied. In our own investigations, relevant intravasation of bone marrow content appeared only in reamed femoral nailing. The bone marrow cavity of the tibia is smaller, the configuration of the tibia allows more back-streaming of the content, and the venous drainage system in the distal tibia is much less extensive than in the supracondylar area. All pulmonary complications in the literature are reported after nailing of femoral fractures. Therefore, systemic complications in intramedullary nailing are only a problem in femoral fractures. The pathophysiological connection between intramedullary pressure increases and pulmonary impairment is not clarified in detail. Relevant content of the bone marrow cavity is not only bone marrow, but also the blood with which the marrow cavity is refilled after each reaming process and which passes into the circulation during the following reaming. This blood is activated concerning coagulation. By reaming, the pathogenic content of the bone marrow cavity is embolized, which can become clinically relevant if cofactors are present. Cofactors are volume deficit, shock, lung contusion and pre-existing pulmonary impairment. These conditions can never be excluded before primary stabilization after trauma. Today the importance of systemic complications during unreamed nailing is controversial. Our experimental and echocardiographic investigations clearly show that the velocity of the nail into the bone marrow cavity and the gap between the nail and cortical bone at the entrance in the distal fragment determine the amount of embolized material. By carefully inserting the nail and choosing thin nails with a correct length, which can gain stability by fixation in the condylar area and not by clamping in the distal fragment, echocardiography reveals only minimal embolization. Therefore unreamed nailing is the treatment of choice, if the situation of the patient allows the procedure of nailing in itself. Multitrauma patients in shock or with unstable circulation should be stabilized primarily with external fixation. After consolidation, early change to an intramedullary nail should be performed. PMID:8766666

Wenda, K; Runkel, M

1996-06-01

32

Ciclopirox nail lacquer and podiatric practice.  

PubMed

Ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer has recently been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the management of mild-to-moderate dermatophytic onychomycosis not involving the lunula. Previously, the agents that were approved for the treatment of dermatophytic pedal onychomycosis--griseofulvin, itraconazole, and terbinafine--were administered orally. When ciclopirox nail lacquer is used, it is recommended that the infected nail undergo debridement by a health-care professional as frequently as monthly. It is important to be aware of the circumstances under which debridement of the mycotic nail may be considered medically necessary and therefore potentially eligible for reimbursement by third-party payers. For many nail presentations, nail debridement is an important component of a treatment protocol involving either the oral medications or the topical lacquer, as it serves to reduce the fungal load and ameliorate symptoms. With the availability of a new FDA-approved topical treatment alternative, it remains to be seen if podiatrists will embrace the definitive treatment of onychomycosis using the newer oral agents, the new nail lacquer, or both in combination with nail debridement to treat the disease. PMID:11107711

Gupta, A K; Malkin, K F

2000-01-01

33

[Anatomy, biology, physiology and basic pathology of the nail organ].  

PubMed

The nail is the largest skin appendage. It grows continuously through life in a non-cyclical manner; its growth is not hormone-dependent. The nail of the middle finger of the dominant hand grows fastest with approximately 0.1 mm/day, whereas the big toe nail grows only 0.03-0.05 mm/d. The nails' size and shape vary characteristically from finger to finger and from toe to toe, for which the size and shape of the bone of the terminal phalanx is responsible. The nail apparatus consists of both epithelial and connective tissue components. The matrix epithelium is responsible for the production of the nail plate whereas the nail bed epithelium mediates firm attachment. The hyponychium is a specialized structure sealing the subungual space and allowing the nail plate to physiologically detach from the nail bed. The proximal nail fold covers most of the matrix. Its free end forms the cuticle which seals the nail pocket or cul-de-sac. The dermis of the matrix and nail bed is specialized with a morphogenetic potency. The proximal and lateral nail folds form a frame on three sides giving the nail stability and allowing it to grow out. The nail protects the distal phalanx, is an extremely versatile tool for defense and dexterity and increases the sensitivity of the tip of the finger. Nail apparatus, finger tip, tendons and ligaments of the distal interphalangeal joint form a functional unit and cannot be seen independently. The nail organ has only a certain number of reaction patterns that differ in many respects from hairy and palmoplantar skin. PMID:24718505

Haneke, E

2014-04-01

34

[Nail pathology in children].  

PubMed

In children the nail has physiologic characteristics that imply specific abnormalities. The most common dermatological localisation in psoriasis in the child; it is seen as trachyonychia, pitting, and occasionally pachyonychia. Ingrowth of the large toenail is a common problem, whether due to congenital hypertrophy of the lateral nail folds of the hallux in the newborn, to congenital malalignment of the nail of the big toe, or to a juvenile ingrown nail. Many other nail disorders are observed in the child: parakeratosis pustulosa, nail lichen, lichen striatus, melanonychia, dermatophyte onychomycosis, candida infection, herpes.... Aside from warts, tumours are rare. PMID:11217129

Goettmann, S

2000-12-15

35

Lichen striatus with nail involvement.  

PubMed

A 13-year-old boy of lichen striatus (LS) with nail changes is reported. Nail involvement in LS is rare. Nail LS is to be considered if--longitudinal ridges and splitting localized to one portion of the nail, single nail involvement and presence of skin lesions near the nail. PMID:17664740

Inamadar, A C

2001-01-01

36

Skin or nail culture  

MedlinePLUS

Mucosal culture; Culture - skin; Culture - mucosal; Nail culture; Culture - fingernail; Fingernail culture ... to three weeks to get results for a nail culture. Further tests can be done to identify ...

37

Paronychia Nail Infection  

MedlinePLUS

... Paronychia Nail Infection Share | Paronychia is an often tender infection or inflammation around the base of the ... above the nail. It may be red and tender from time to time, and sometimes a little ...

38

Bacterial Nail Infection (Paronychia)  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Nail Infection, Bacterial (Paronychia) Information for adults A A A Nail-fold swelling and large pus-filled lesions are typical ... bacterial paronychia. Overview Paronychia, commonly known as bacterial nail infection, is inflammation of the region of the ...

39

Utility of Gel Nails in Improving the Appearance of Cosmetically Disfigured Nails: Experience with 25 Cases  

PubMed Central

Background: Gel nails are a commonly used cosmetic procedure, though their use by dermatologists has not been evaluated. These can be used to improve the appearance of cosmetically disfigured nails where other treatment options have failed; the condition is self-limiting or irreversible; or to camouflage the dystrophy until healing. Materials and Methods: A prospective, uncontrolled, open-label study on 25 participants presenting with cosmetically disfigured nails was undertaken. Mycologically negative, consenting patients with various nail plate surface abnormalities like trachyonychia (n =8); superficial pitting (n =6); onychorrhexis (n =4); superficial pitting with onychoschizia (n =3); Beau's lines (n =3) and pterygium (n =1) were included. The patients received gel nail application using Ranara gel nail kit®. Extra care was taken to avoid any damage to cuticle. Standard pre- and post-treatment photographs were taken to assess improvement. Patient satisfaction score (1-10); Global assessment score of improvement (no improvement to excellent improvement) and any side effects reported were recorded. Results: The average age of treated patients was 30.44±11.39 years (range 18-60 years). A total of 69 nails were treated (average of 2.76 per patient). Post-procedure, the average patient satisfaction score was 9.08 ± 0.86 (range 7-10). The Global assessment showed excellent improvement (40% cases); good improvement (56% cases) and mild improvement in the single case of pterygium treated. Conclusions: The use of Gel nails in patients with cosmetically disfiguring nail plate surface abnormalities (like trachyonychia, onychoschizia, pitting, etc.) was found to produce good to excellent improvement in most of the cases. The patient satisfaction with the procedure was rated as high. This, coupled with absence of side effects, make gel nails a valuable tool in improving cosmesis and satisfaction among patients presenting with nail plate surface abnormalities. Further studies with larger number of patients are required to assess the impact these prostheses can have.

Nanda, Soni; Grover, Chander

2014-01-01

40

[Malignant nail tumors].  

PubMed

Because of the large number of different tissues making up the distal phalanx of fingers and toes, a large variety of malignant tumors can be found in and around the nail apparatus. Bowen disease is probably the most frequent nail malignancy. It is usually seen as a verrucous plaque of the nail fold and nail bed in persons above the age of 40 years. It slowly grows over a period of years or even decades before degenerating to an invasive squamous cell carcinoma. The latter may also occur primarily often as a weeping onycholysis. The next most frequent nail malignancy is ungual melanoma. Those arising from the matrix are usually pigmented and often start with a longitudinal melanonychia whereas those originating from the nail bed remain amelanotic, are often nodular and mistaken for an ingrown nail in an elderly person. The treatment of choice for in situ and early invasive subungual melanomas is generous extirpation of the nail apparatus whereas distal amputation is only indicated for advanced melanomas. In addition to these frequent nail malignancies, nail-specific carcinomas, malignant vascular and osseous tumors, other sarcomas, nail involvement in malignant systemic disorders and metastases may occur. In most cases, they cannot be diagnosed accurately on clinical grounds. Therefore, a high degree of suspicion is necessary in all isolated or single-digit proliferations that do not respond to conservative treatment. PMID:24718507

Haneke, E

2014-04-01

41

Women's exposure to phthalates in relation to use of personal care products  

PubMed Central

Background Several phthalates, particularly diethyl phthalate (DEP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), can be used in personal care products (PCPs) to fix fragrance and hold color. We investigated associations between women’s reported use of personal care products within the 24 hours prior to urine collection and concentrations of several urinary phthalate metabolites. Methods Between 2002–2005, 337 women provided spot urine samples and answered questions regarding their use of thirteen PCPs at a follow-up visit 3–36 months after pregnancy. We examined associations between urinary concentrations of several phthalate metabolites and use of PCPs using linear regression. Results Use of individual PCPs ranged from 7% (nail polish) to 91% (deodorant). After adjusting for age, education, and urinary creatinine, women reporting use of perfume had 2.92 times higher (95% CI: 2.20–3.89) concentration of monoethyl phthalate (MEP, the primary metabolite of diethyl phthalate) than other women. Other PCPs that were significantly associated with MEP included: hair spray, nail polish, and deodorant. MEP concentrations increased with the number of PCPs used. Conclusion PCP use was widespread in this group of recently pregnant women. Women’s use of PCPs, particularly of perfumes and fragranced products, was positively associated with urinary concentration of multiple phthalate metabolites.

Parlett, Lauren E.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Swan, Shanna H.

2014-01-01

42

A preliminary survey of Vietnamese nail salon workers in Alameda County, California.  

PubMed

In recent decades, the nail salon industry has been one of the fastest growing in the U.S. California has over 300,000 workers licensed to perform nail care services. Though little is known about their health, these workers routinely handle cosmetic products containing carcinogens and endocrine disruptors that may increase a woman's breast cancer risk. Additionally, an estimated 59-80% of California nail salons are run by Vietnamese women who face socio-cultural barriers that may compromise their workplace safety and health care access. In a pilot project designed to characterize Vietnamese nail salon workers in Alameda County, California in order to inform future health interventions and reduce occupational exposures, we conducted face-to-face surveys with a convenience sample of 201 Vietnamese nail salon workers at 74 salons. Of the workers surveyed, a majority reported that they are concerned about their health from exposure to workplace chemicals. Additionally, a sizeable proportion reported having experienced some health problem after they began working in the industry, particularly acute health problems that may be associated with solvent exposure (e.g. skin and eye irritation, breathing difficulties and headaches). Our findings highlight a critical need for further investigation into the breast cancer risk of nail salon workers, underscored by the workers' routine use of carcinogenic and endocrine-disrupting chemicals, their prevalent health concerns about such chemicals, and their high level of acute health problems. Moreover, the predominance of Vietnamese immigrant women in this workforce makes it an important target group for further research and health interventions. PMID:18478317

Quach, Thu; Nguyen, Kim-Dung; Doan-Billings, Phuong-An; Okahara, Linda; Fan, Cathyn; Reynolds, Peggy

2008-10-01

43

Capillary nail refill test  

MedlinePLUS

... test is a quick test done on the nail beds. It is used to monitor dehydration and the ... Pressure is applied to the nail bed until it turns white. This indicates that the blood has been forced from the tissue. It is called blanching. Once the ...

44

[Dermoscopy of nails].  

PubMed

Pigmented and nonpigmented nail abnormalities often represent a challenge for clinicians because many, and sometimes potentially life-threatening differential diagnoses must be taken into consideration. Although many details of nail diseases can already be assessed with the naked eye, dermoscopy opens up a second microscopic level of inspection, which can be very useful for the diagnostic process. In the last 20 years dermoscopy has made rapid progress in the further development of criteria for the early recognition of melanoma. In addition, the use of dermoscopy has been extended to the examination of cutaneous adnexa, such as hairs (trichoscopy) and nails (onychoscopy). Many, sometimes highly specific criteria for the dermoscopic assessment of nail diseases have been described in a series of recently published articles. This review article provides important diagnostic aids for a well-founded dermoscopic assessment of nail diseases. PMID:24668319

Haenssle, H A; Brehmer, F; Zalaudek, I; Hofmann-Wellenhof, R; Kreusch, J; Stolz, W; Argenziano, G; Blum, A

2014-04-01

45

Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by photobonded sculptured nails and a review of (meth)acrylates in nail cosmetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Mono(meth)acrylates (monoacrylates and monomethacrylates) are moderate to strong sensitizers. They are used in the production of a great variety of polymers, including nail cosmetics.Objective: A patient who became occupationally sensitized to photobonded sculptured nails is reported. Detailed patch testing and analyses of the patient's nail cosmetics containing mono(meth)acrylates clarified the cause of her hand and face dermatitis. The current

Lasse Kanerva; Antti Lauerma; Tuula Estlander; Kristiina Alanko; Maj-Len Henriks-Eckerman; Riitta Jolanki

1996-01-01

46

7 CFR 3201.82 - Foot care products.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Foot care products. 3201.82 Section 3201... Designated Items § 3201.82 Foot care products. (a) Definition. Products...preference for qualifying biobased foot care products. By that date, Federal...

2014-01-01

47

7 CFR 3201.101 - Automotive care products.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Automotive care products. 3201.101 Section 3201...Designated Items § 3201.101 Automotive care products. (a) Definition. Products...soaps, wheel and tire cleaners, leather care products, interior cleaners, and...

2014-01-01

48

Nail avulsion: indications and methods (surgical nail avulsion).  

PubMed

The nail is a subject of global importance for dermatologists, podiatrists and surgeons. Nail avulsion is a frequently undertaken, yet simple, intriguing procedure. It may either be surgical or chemical, using 40% urea. The former is most often undertaken using the distal approach. Nail avulsion may either be useful for diagnostic purposes like exploration of the nail bed, nail matrix and the nail folds and before contemplating a biopsy on the nail bed or for therapeutic purposes like onychocryptosis, warts, onychomycosis, chronic paronychia, nail tumors, matricectomy and retronychia. The procedure is carried out mostly under local anesthesia with or without epinephrine (1:2,00,000 dilution). Besides the above-mentioned indications, the contraindications and complications of nail avulsion are briefly outlined. PMID:22565429

Pandhi, Deepika; Verma, Prashant

2012-01-01

49

Household Products Database: Personal Care  

MedlinePLUS

... Names Types of Products Manufacturers Ingredients About the Database FAQ Product Recalls Help Glossary Contact Us More ... holders. Information is extracted from Consumer Product Information Database ©2001-2013 by DeLima Associates. All rights reserved. ...

50

Women's exposure to phthalates in relation to use of personal care products.  

PubMed

Several phthalates, particularly diethyl phthalate (DEP) and di-n-butyl phthalate, can be used in personal care products (PCPs) to fix fragrance and hold color. We investigated associations between women's reported use of PCPs within the 24 h before urine collection and concentrations of several urinary phthalate metabolites. Between 2002 and 2005, 337 women provided spot urine samples and answered questions regarding their use of 13 PCPs at a follow-up visit 3-36 months after pregnancy. We examined associations between urinary concentrations of several phthalate metabolites and use of PCPs using linear regression. Use of individual PCPs ranged from 7% (nail polish) to 91% (deodorant). After adjusting for age, education, and urinary creatinine, women reporting use of perfume had 2.92 times higher (95% CI: 2.20-3.89) concentration of monoethyl phthalate (MEP; the primary metabolite of DEP) than other women. Other PCPs that were significantly associated with MEP concentrations included: hair spray, nail polish, and deodorant. MEP concentrations increased with the number of PCPs used. PCP use was widespread in this group of recently pregnant women. Women's use of PCPs, particularly of perfumes and fragranced products, was positively associated with urinary concentration of multiple phthalate metabolites. PMID:23168567

Parlett, Lauren E; Calafat, Antonia M; Swan, Shanna H

2013-03-01

51

Nail Lifting (Onycholysis)  

MedlinePLUS

... as various forms of eczema (including hand dermatitis), psoriasis, and lichen planus. Nail lifting may also occur with underlying medical problems, including thyroid disease, pregnancy, some forms of infection, and rarely ...

52

Fungal Nail Infection (Onychomycosis)  

MedlinePLUS

... requires daily application for 9–12 months. Oral antifungal treatments offer the best chance for curing fungal ... may be used, in addition topical or oral antifungal agents. Trusted Links MedlinePlus: Fungal Infections MedlinePlus: Nail ...

53

[Nail involvement in leprosy].  

PubMed

Leprosy, a disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, primarily affects the skin and nerves, but the nails are also involved in as many as 3 out of 4 patients .The factors that trigger nail changes in leprosy are numerous and include repeated trauma, neuropathy, vascular impairment, infections, lepra reactions, and the drugs used to manage the disease. The changes most often reported include subungual hematomas, onycholysis, onychauxis, onychogryphosis, pterygium unguis, and onychoheterotopia, most of which can be attributed to nerve damage and trauma. Furthermore, the acro-osteolysis that occurs in the advanced stages of the disease may present with brachyonychia, racquet nails, or even anonychia. Infections of the nail bed leading to paronychia and onychomycosis should also be taken into account in leprosy. Other typical changes include longitudinal striae, pitting, macrolunula, Terry nails, leukonychia, hapalonychia, and Beau lines. In this review, we describe the principal nail changes associated with leprosy. These changes, which are highly varied and diverse in origin, are in fact a reflection of the significant morbidity caused by M. leprae infection. PMID:22056258

Belinchón Romero, I; Ramos Rincón, J M; Reyes Rabell, F

2012-05-01

54

7 CFR 3201.26 - Lip care products.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lip care products. 3201.26 Section 3201.26...PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.26 Lip care products. (a) Definition. Personal care products formulated to replenish the...

2014-01-01

55

7 CFR 3201.70 - Hair care products.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hair care products. 3201.70 Section 3201... Designated Items § 3201.70 Hair care products. (a) Definitions. ...shampoos and conditioners. (2) Hair care products for which Federal preferred...

2014-01-01

56

7 CFR 3201.97 - Sun care products.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sun care products. 3201.97 Section 3201... Designated Items § 3201.97 Sun care products. (a) Definition. ...preference for qualifying biobased sun care products. By that date, Federal...

2014-01-01

57

Aging changes in nails (image)  

MedlinePLUS

The nails change with aging, growing more slowly, and becoming dull and brittle. The color may change from translucent to yellowed and opaque. Nails, especially toenails, may become hard and thick and ...

58

Biomechanics of the interlocking nail  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional interlocking nails for the femur use an inclined proximal interlocking screw; the AO\\/ASIF universal interlocking nail utilizes a transverse interlocking screw which is anchored in cortical bone. The transverse position of the screw allows one to employ the nail for either the right or left side. The yield strength of the thinner diameter transverse screw, (thread 4.5 mm, core

C. Kinast; R. Frigg; S. M. Perren

1990-01-01

59

[Mechanical borderline indications in the treatment of unreamed tibial nailing].  

PubMed

The extended usage of unreamed tibial nailing resulted in reports of an increased rate of complications, especially for the distal portion of the tibia. The goal was to gain a thorough understanding of the load-sharing mechanism between unreamed nail and bone in a fractured tibia, and to identify borderline indications due to biomechanical factors. In finite element analyses of a human tibia, horizontal defects were modeled using unreamed nailing for five different fracture locations, including proximal and distal borderline indications for this treatment method. The findings of this study show that with all muscle and joint contact forces included, nailing leads to considerable unloading of the interlocked bone segments. Unreamed nailing of the distal defect results in an extremely low axial and high shear strain between the fragments. Apart from biological reasons, clinical problems reported for distal fractures may be due to the less favorable mechanical conditions in unreamed nailing. From a biomechanical perspective, the treatment of distal tibial shaft fractures with unreamed nailing without additional fragment contact or without stabilizing the fibula should be carefully reconsidered. PMID:12955241

Duda, G N; Mandruzzato, F; Heller, M; Schütz, M; Claes, L; Haas, N P

2003-08-01

60

Biomechanics of femoral interlocking nails.  

PubMed

Today there is a variety of different interlocking intramedullary nail designs available for the femur. We compared different nail types in the bone implant complex (BIC) of four unreamed solid nails and a slotted reamed nail with simulated comminuted mid shaft fractures to see if there are major differences in stiffness for axial load, bending and torsion. The fractures were simulated by a 2 cm defect osteotomy in paired human cadaver femora. Each bone was tested intact in a universal testing machine, osteotomy and osteosynthesis were performed, and the BIC was tested. Relative stiffness was calculated. In torque testing the unslotted solid nail showed significantly more stiffness (0.6-1.8 Nm/degrees) compared to the slotted nail (0.2 Nm/degrees). Compared to intact bone (6.9 Nm/degrees), both groups of nails were significantly less stiff (relative stiffness 2-20%). In axial load and bending testing the large diameter unreamed nail showed significantly higher stiffness (32-68%). This study shows that stiffness of bone implant complex in interlocking femoral nails is more dependent on nail profile than on the pressfit of nails in the medullary canal. PMID:10831743

Schandelmaier, P; Farouk, O; Krettek, C; Reimers, N; Mannss, J; Tscherne, H

2000-07-01

61

Defining care products to finance health care in the Netherlands.  

PubMed

A case-mix project started in the Netherlands with the primary goal to define a complete set of health care products for hospitals. The definition of the product structure was completed 4 years later. The results are currently being used for billing purposes. This paper focuses on the methodology and techniques that were developed and applied in order to define the casemix product structure. The central research question was how to develop a manageable product structure, i.e., a limited set of hospital products, with acceptable cost homogeneity. For this purpose, a data warehouse with approximately 1.5 million patient records from 27 hospitals was build up over a period of 3 years. The data associated with each patient consist of a large number of a priori independent parameters describing the resource utilization in different stages of the treatment process, e.g., activities in the operating theatre, the lab and the radiology department. Because of the complexity of the database, it was necessary to apply advanced data analysis techniques. The full analyses process that starts from the database and ends up with a product definition consists of four basic analyses steps. Each of these steps has revealed interesting insights. This paper describes each step in some detail and presents the major results of each step. The result consists of 687 product groups for 24 medical specialties used for billing purposes. PMID:21350859

Westerdijk, Machiel; Zuurbier, Joost; Ludwig, Martijn; Prins, Sarah

2012-04-01

62

Cleanser, Detergent, Personal Care Product Pretreatment Evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the Cleanser, Detergent, Personal Care Product, and Pretreatment Evaluation & Selection task is to identify the optimal combination of personal hygiene products, crew activities, and pretreatment strategies to provide the crew with sustainable life support practices and a comfortable habitat. Minimal energy, mass, and crew time inputs are desired to recycle wastewater during long duration missions. This document will provide a brief background on the work this past year supporting the ELS Distillation Comparison Test, issues regarding use of the hygiene products originally chosen for the test, methods and results used to select alternative products, and lessons learned from testing.

Adam, Niklas

2010-01-01

63

Nail psoriasis severity index: a useful tool for evaluation of nail psoriasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (NAPSI) is a numeric, reproducible, objective, simple tool for evaluation of nail psoriasis. This scale is used to evaluate the severity of nail bed psoriasis and nail matrix psoriasis by area of involvement in the nail unit. The NAPSI will be useful during clinical trials for evaluating response to treatment of psoriatic nails. The scale

Phoebe Rich; Richard K Scher

2003-01-01

64

Use of softening agents to improve the production of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of nail tissue: an assessment.  

PubMed

The use of tissue softeners to enhance the quality of tissue sections of heavily keratotic tissue is not widely published. There are very few indicators in the scientific literature that attempt to compare and contrast the benefits and disadvantages of such techniques, as most are passed down through word of mouth rather than through published data. This study attempts to present a preliminary evaluation of several methods employing tissue softeners to facilitate the preparation of reproducible, good-quality formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of nail tissue. A standard 10-minute surface application of each softener is employed for all paraffin-embedded tissue in order to ensure consistency. The results show that the use of Veet (hair remover), Fairy Liquid or fabric conditioner provides the most beneficial results. Thus, widely available products can be used in preference to specific commercially produced reagents that have no clear benefits and can cost considerably more to purchase. This study will form the basis of a more in-depth evaluation of the most beneficial softeners, in an attempt to determine optimal parameters for their use in routine histopathology laboratories. PMID:19055107

Orchard, G E; Torres, J; Sounthararajah, R

2008-01-01

65

Ciclopirox vs amorolfine: in vitro penetration into and permeation through human healthy nails of commercial nail lacquers.  

PubMed

One of the pre-requisite for a successful topical antifungal drug indicated for onychomycosis is its bioavailability into the nail unit for achieving fungal eradication and clinical benefit. The aim of this study was to compare in vitro permeation/penetration through and into human nails of amorolfine (MRF) from a 5% anhydrous commercial formulation (Loceryl®) and ciclopirox (CPX) from the 8% aqueous formulation in hydroxypropyl chitosan (HPCH) technology (Onytec®). The ability of the active ingredient to reach efficacious concentrations to inhibit nail pathogens was also evaluated. The amounts of drug permeated and retained in human healthy nails were determined using a suitably modified diffusion apparatus. HPLC analysis of the samples was performed. The HPCH-based CPX formulation demonstrated an efficient penetration into and permeation through the nail plates. Conversely, Loceryl® produced an amount of MRF permeated through and penetrated into the human toenails significantly lower than CPX. The evaluation of the efficacy index showed a higher potential efficacy of Onytec® with respect to Loceryl® on nail pathogens. The present work not only reinforced the previous results on different experimental substrates, but pointed out the superiority of HPCH-based Onytec® formulation containing CPX with respect to Loceryl® commercial product with MRF, both in terms of higher permeation through and penetration into the human nail, and for the efficacy towards the most common ungual pathogens. PMID:24509963

Monti, Daniela; Tampucci, Silvia; Chetoni, Patrizia; Burgalassi, Susi; Mailland, Federico

2014-02-01

66

[Surgery of the nail region].  

PubMed

Operations of the nail apparatus are done under sterile conditions and regional anaesthesia and in local anaemia. The knowledge of the complicated anatomy and physiology is the prerequisite for good surgical results. Nail extractions are commonly done too frequently. Subungual haematomas require a different treatment depending on the severity. Removal of the proximal third of the nail plate quickly clears acute paronychia resistent to antibiotics. The treatment of choice for the ingrown toenail is the surgical narrowing of the matrix. Kind and size of subungual tumours determine their surgical treatment. Diagnostic nail biopsies are best performed laterally. PMID:7124048

Haneke, E; Baran, R; Bureau, H

1982-08-01

67

The productivity of primary care research networks.  

PubMed Central

Primary care research networks are being publicly funded in the United Kingdom to promote a culture of research and development in primary care. This paper discusses the organisational form of these networks and how their productivity can be evaluated, drawing on evidence from management science. An evaluation of a research network has to take account of the complexity of the organisation, the influence of its local context, and its stage of development. Output measures, such as number of research papers, and process measures, such as number of research meetings, may contribute to an evaluation. However, as networking relies on the development of informal, trust-based relationships, the quality of interactions within a network is of paramount importance for its success. Networks can audit and reflect on their success in promoting such relationships and a more formal qualitative evaluation by an independent observer can document their success to those responsible for funding.

Griffiths, F; Wild, A; Harvey, J; Fenton, E

2000-01-01

68

Dermoscopic Examination of Nail Pigmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Diagnosis of longitudinal melanonychia is usually difficult, and neither a single clinical criterion nor a combination of symptoms currently can be used to clearly distinguish malignant from benign bandlike pig- mented nail lesions. Biopsy is painful and often leaves definitive dystrophic scars. Objectives: To describe and evaluate dermoscopic pat- terns associated with longitudinal nail pigmentation. Patients and Methods: A

Sandra Ronger; Sandrine Touzet; Claire Ligeron; Brigitte Balme; Anne Marie Viallard; Daniele Barrut; Cyrille Colin; Luc Thomas

2002-01-01

69

Microstructure of Horseshoe Nails Using Neutron Diffraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutron diffraction allows nondestructive testing of the bulk microstructure of mechanical components. The microstructures of horseshoe nails made through three different processes have been explored as a function of position along the nail. Despite all nails being made of similar plain low-carbon steel and being process annealed after manufacture, the microstructures are far from the same. Nails made from strip,

D. J. Goossens; A. J. Studer; Z. H. Stachurski

2010-01-01

70

7 CFR 735.105 - Care of agricultural products.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Care of agricultural products. 735.105...ACT Warehouse Licensing § 735.105 Care of agricultural products. Each warehouse...suspension of their license, exercise such care in regard to stored and non-storage...

2014-01-01

71

Randomized controlled trial of a water-soluble nail lacquer based on hydroxypropyl-chitosan (HPCH), in the management of nail psoriasis  

PubMed Central

Background Nail psoriasis occurs in up to 50% of patients affected by psoriasis, with a significant impact on quality of life that leads to a real clinical need for new therapeutic options. Aim To confirm whether the strengthening and hardening properties of the hydroxypropyl-chitosan (HPCH) nail lacquer could improve the structure of the nail plates on psoriatic nails. Materials and methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, parallel-group trial was carried out to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a hydrosoluble nail lacquer containing HPCH, Equisetum arvense, and methylsulfonylmethane on nail psoriasis. The test product or a placebo was applied once daily for 24 weeks to all fingernails. Efficacy assessments were performed on the target fingernail by means of the modified Nail Psoriasis Severity Index score. A cut-off score of 4 was considered to define the clinical cure rate (ie, Cure ?4, Failure >4). Results After 24 weeks, the clinical cure rate showed the statistically significant superiority of the HPCH nail lacquer compared to placebo in both the intention-to-treat (Fisher’s exact test, P=0.0445) and the per protocol population (Fisher’s exact test, P=0.0437). This superiority was already present after 16 weeks of treatment. Moreover, the analysis of the modified Nail Psoriasis Severity Index-50 showed a statistically significant clinical improvement after 12 weeks of treatment in comparison to the results obtained after 8 weeks (Fisher’s exact test, P<0.05). Conclusion The trial showed that HPCH nail lacquer could be a new, valid, effective, and safe option for decreasing the signs of nail dystrophy in psoriatic patients.

Cantoresi, Franca; Caserini, Maurizio; Bidoli, Antonella; Maggio, Francesca; Marino, Raffaella; Carnevale, Claudia; Sorgi, Paola; Palmieri, Renata

2014-01-01

72

Does pernio cause nail dystrophy?  

PubMed

Pernio is an abnormal inflammatory response to moisture and cold. It is characterized with inflammatory, erythema or violet, painful or itchy cutaneous lesions affecting distal extremities, particularly the fingers and toes. It is more common in women. A literature search showed no reports of nail deformities due to pernio. Here, we present a pernio case who developed nail deformities after extended exposure to cold, if combined with other facilitating factors. PMID:24864616

Ozuguz, Pinar; Kacar, Seval Dogruk; Karaca, Semsettin

2014-03-01

73

[Retrograde nailing of humerus shaft fractures with the unreamed humerus nail. An international multicenter study].  

PubMed

Combined with the new unreamed humeral nail (UHN) (Synthes), the retrograde approach to the endomedullary canal of the humeral shaft promises careful reduction and fixation of humeral shaft fractures. This prospective multicenter study reports and analyses 102 retrograde nailings with the UHN and their operative procedures. Seven patients with pathological fractures have died meanwhile, but 75 patients could be followed up until bone healing. Seventy-three fresh humeral shaft fractures, 12 pseudarthrosis, 3 refractures and 14 pathological fractures have been treated with the UHN. In 98 cases (96.1%) the surgeon estimated fracture stability well enough to initiate immediate postoperative elbow and shoulder mobilization. The difficulties involved with free-hand interlocking proximally at the nail tip in 5.9%, fissure or avulsion at the insertion point in 3.9% and radial nerve palsy also in 3.9% of the cases were the most important intraoperative complications. In all 75 patients followed up, bone healing occurred, but five fractures (6.7%) needed more than 8 months connected with a second operative procedure. In one case spongious bone transplantation and new locking bolts had been performed. In three cases a special compression device has been used, whereas in one case also a new nail and in the second spongious bone transplantation had been added. In the fifth case plate osteosynthesis had been performed. At the end of treatment 89.4% of the patients had excellent shoulder function and 88.0% excellent elbow function. Once the indication for surgery is established, the UHN can be considered a reliable and safe implant for stabilizing humeral shaft fractures. PMID:9629046

Blum, J; Rommens, P M; Janzing, H; Langendorff, H S

1998-05-01

74

Nail psoriasis: a review of the literature.  

PubMed

Nails are considered epidermal appendages, and as such, are commonly affected in patients with psoriasis, 80% of whom are likely to develop nail psoriasis as a result of their condition. Two patterns of nail disorders have been shown to be caused by psoriasis. Nail matrix involvement can result in features such as leukonychia, pitting (punctures or cupuliform depressions), red spots in the lunula and crumbling. Nail bed involvement, on the other hand, can cause onycholysis, salmon or oil-drop patches, subungual hyperkeratosis and splinter hemorrhages. Nail disease causes aesthetic and functional impairment, and is indicative of more severe forms of psoriasis as well as of joint involvement. The treatment for nail psoriasis involves behavioral interventions, topical medications, or systemic therapy in case of extensive skin or joint involvement. This article presents a review of the main features of nail psoriasis, its clinical presentation, diagnostic and assessment methods, clinical repercussions, and of its available treatment options. PMID:24770509

Schons, Karen Regina Rosso; Knob, Cristiane Faccin; Murussi, Nádia; Beber, André Avelino Costa; Neumaier, Walter; Monticielo, Odirlei André

2014-01-01

75

Nail psoriasis: a review of the literature*  

PubMed Central

Nails are considered epidermal appendages, and as such, are commonly affected in patients with psoriasis, 80% of whom are likely to develop nail psoriasis as a result of their condition. Two patterns of nail disorders have been shown to be caused by psoriasis. Nail matrix involvement can result in features such as leukonychia, pitting (punctures or cupuliform depressions), red spots in the lunula and crumbling. Nail bed involvement, on the other hand, can cause onycholysis, salmon or oil-drop patches, subungual hyperkeratosis and splinter hemorrhages. Nail disease causes aesthetic and functional impairment, and is indicative of more severe forms of psoriasis as well as of joint involvement. The treatment for nail psoriasis involves behavioral interventions, topical medications, or systemic therapy in case of extensive skin or joint involvement. This article presents a review of the main features of nail psoriasis, its clinical presentation, diagnostic and assessment methods, clinical repercussions, and of its available treatment options.

Schons, Karen Regina Rosso; Knob, Cristiane Faccin; Murussi, Nadia; Beber, Andre Avelino Costa; Neumaier, Walter; Monticielo, Odirlei Andre

2014-01-01

76

Alternatives to complete nail plate avulsion.  

PubMed

Successful nail surgery requires exposure of the underlying tissues. In many cases, partial nail plate avulsion is preferable compared with traditional total distal and proximal plate avulsions. The techniques described herein include partial distal, lateral, proximal, and window techniques, and two variation of the total plate avulsion termed the trap door and lateral nail plate curl avulsion. By using these methods, the surgeon is able to access the targeted nail unit while minimizing trauma to adjacent, uninvolved tissue. PMID:18793936

Collins, Siobhan C; Cordova, Katharine; Jellinek, Nathaniel J

2008-10-01

77

Microstructure of Horseshoe Nails Using Neutron Diffraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutron diffraction allows nondestructive testing of the bulk microstructure of mechanical components. The microstructures\\u000a of horseshoe nails made through three different processes have been explored as a function of position along the nail. Despite\\u000a all nails being made of similar plain low-carbon steel and being process annealed after manufacture, the microstructures are\\u000a far from the same. Nails made from strip,

D. J. Goossens; A. J. Studer; Z. H. Stachurski

2010-01-01

78

Glue-Nail: A Deductive Database System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glue is a procedural language for deductive databases.It is designed to complement the purely declarativeNAIL! language, firstly by performing system functionsimpossible to write in NAIL!, and secondly by allowingthe procedural specification of algorithms for criticalcode sections. The two languages together are sufficientto write a complete application. Glue was designed tobe as close to NAIL! as possible, hence minimizing theimpedance mismatch

Geoffrey Phipps; Marcia A. Derr; Kenneth A. Ross

1991-01-01

79

7 CFR 3201.93 - Leather, vinyl, and rubber care products.  

... false Leather, vinyl, and rubber care products. 3201.93 Section 3201...3201.93 Leather, vinyl, and rubber care products. (a) Definition. Products...qualifying biobased leather, vinyl, and rubber care products. By that date, Federal...

2014-01-01

80

Nail abnormalities associated with systemic pathologies.  

PubMed

Nail abnormalities can arise in conjunction with or as a result of systematic pathologies. These pathologies include single-organ diseases, multisystemic diseases, and drug-induced insults. Clinical signs associated with these conditions include dyschromias, vascular alterations, periungual tissue changes, textural dystrophies, contour alterations, and growth-rate alterations. The associated systemic pathologies may affect any part of the nail apparatus, including the nail matrix, the nail plate, the nail bed, the underlying vasculature, and the periungual tissues. The anatomical location and extent of damage determine the clinically manifested anomaly. PMID:24079592

Zaiac, Martin N; Walker, Ashley

2013-01-01

81

Confocal microscopy for healthy and pathological nail.  

PubMed

Nail diseases are often annoying for the patient and diagnostically challenging for dermatologists. New imaging techniques are of high interest in the diagnosis of nail disorders to reduce the number of nail biopsies. Confocal microscopy is a high-resolution emerging imaging technique that can be used to explore the entire body surface, including skin, mucosa, hair and nails. A systematic review of the literature concerning the use of confocal microscopy for the study of either healthy or pathological nail has been performed to evaluate the current use of this technique and possible future applications. Confocal microscopy is particularly suitable for nails because it allows a non-invasive in vivo examination of this sensitive body area, and nail plate transparency permits to image up to the nail bed with an easy identification of corneocytes. Confocal microscopy can play a role in the diagnosis of onychomycosis and melanonichia, and in the study of drug penetration through the nail plate. It could be used in the future as a non-invasive procedure for the investigation of different nail diseases, such as psoriasis and lichen planus. Further application could be the intra-operative ex vivo examination of nail specimens to outline tumour margins to assist surgery. PMID:24320009

Cinotti, E; Fouilloux, B; Perrot, J L; Labeille, B; Douchet, C; Cambazard, F

2014-07-01

82

Nail Psoriasis: The Journey So Far  

PubMed Central

Nail involvement is an extremely common feature of psoriasis and affects approximately 10-78% of psoriasis patients with 5-10% of patients having isolated nail psoriasis. However, it is often an overlooked feature in the management of nail psoriasis, despite the significant burden it places on the patients as a result of functional impairment of manual dexterity, pain, and psychological stress. Affected nail plates often thicken and crumble, and because they are very visible, patients tend to avoid normal day-to-day activities and social interactions. Importantly, 70-80% of patients with psoriatic arthritis have nail psoriasis. In this overview, we review the clinical manifestations of psoriasis affecting the nails, the common differential diagnosis of nail psoriasis, Nail Psoriasis Severity Index and the various diagnostic aids for diagnosing nail psoriasis especially, the cases with isolated nail involvement. We have also discussed the available treatment options, including the topical, physical, systemic, and biological modalities, in great detail in order to equip the present day dermatologist in dealing with a big clinical challenge, that is, management of nail psoriasis.

Dogra, Alka; Arora, Amanjot Kaur

2014-01-01

83

Regeneration of nails with artificial dermis.  

PubMed

We treated fingertips injured through the proximal half of the nail bed using artificial dermis in 22 patients from 2004 to 2009. We classified the injuries to the nail bed into three types according to where the wounds were. Type ? was localised to the nail bed with or without minor injury to the surrounding structure; type II was an avulsion and amputation of the fingertip including the nail bed, the finger pulp, and the distal phalanx at the level of the proximal nail bed; and type III was post-traumatic shortening of the nail, in which the pulp and distal phalanx were intact. Regeneration and elongation of the nail was achieved in every patient by applying artificial dermis. All patients were satisfied with the results. PMID:22747352

Sugamata, Akira

2012-09-01

84

The bed of nails revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The popular bed of nails demonstration is analyzed by making use of a novel collision diagram. Cases of hitting rubber bricks or cinder blocks illustrate the difference between elastic and inelastic collisions. While the analysis suggests several safety measures, a considerable degree of danger remains.

Bucher, Manfred

1988-09-01

85

Comparative Anatomy of Mouse and Human Nail Units  

PubMed Central

Recent studies of mice with hair defects have resulted in major contributions to the understanding of hair disorders. To use mouse models as a tool to study nail diseases, a basic understanding of the similarities and differences between the human and mouse nail unit is required. In this study we compare the human and mouse nail unit at the macroscopic and microscopic level and use immunohistochemistry to determine the keratin expression patterns in the mouse nail unit. Both species have a proximal nail fold, cuticle, nail matrix, nail bed, nail plate, and hyponychium. Distinguishing features are the shape of the nail and the presence of an extended hyponychium in the mouse. Expression patterns of most keratins are similar. These findings indicate that the mouse nail unit shares major characteristics with the human nail unit and overall represents a very similar structure, useful for the investigation of nail diseases and nail biology.

Fleckman, Philip; Jaeger, Karin; Silva, Kathleen A.; Sundberg, John P.

2013-01-01

86

Comparative anatomy of mouse and human nail units.  

PubMed

Recent studies of mice with hair defects have resulted in major contributions to the understanding of hair disorders. To use mouse models as a tool to study nail diseases, a basic understanding of the similarities and differences between the human and mouse nail unit is required. In this study we compare the human and mouse nail unit at the macroscopic and microscopic level and use immunohistochemistry to determine the keratin expression patterns in the mouse nail unit. Both species have a proximal nail fold, cuticle, nail matrix, nail bed, nail plate, and hyponychium. Distinguishing features are the shape of the nail and the presence of an extended hyponychium in the mouse. Expression patterns of most keratins are similar. These findings indicate that the mouse nail unit shares major characteristics with the human nail unit and overall represents a very similar structure, useful for the investigation of nail diseases and nail biology. PMID:23408541

Fleckman, Philip; Jaeger, Karin; Silva, Kathleen A; Sundberg, John P

2013-03-01

87

Mechanical boundary conditions of fracture healing: borderline indications in the treatment of unreamed tibial nailing.  

PubMed

Unreamed nailing favors biology at the expense of the achievable mechanical stability. It is therefore of interest to define the limits of the clinical indications for this method. The extended usage of unreamed tibial nailing resulted in reports of an increased rate of complications, especially for the distal portion of the tibia. The goals of this work were to gain a thorough understanding of the load-sharing mechanism between unreamed nail and bone in a fractured tibia, to identify the mechanical reasons for the unfavorable clinical results, and to identify borderline indications due to biomechanical factors. In a three-dimensional finite element model of a human tibia, horizontal defects were stabilized by means of unreamed nailing for five different fracture locations, including proximal and distal borderline indications for this treatment method. The loading of the bone, the loading of the implant and the inter-fragmentary strains were computed. The findings of this study show that with all muscle and joint contact forces included, nailing leads to considerable unloading of the interlocked bone segments. Unreamed nailing of the distal defect results in an extremely low axial and high shear strain between the fragments. The results suggest that mechanical conditions are advantageous to unreamed nailing of proximal and mid-diaphyseal defects. Apart from biological reasons, clinical problems reported for distal fractures may be due to the less favorable mechanical conditions in unreamed nailing. From a biomechanical perspective, the treatment of distal tibial shaft fractures by means of unreamed nailing without additional fragment contact or without stabilizing the fibula should be carefully reconsidered. PMID:11311705

Duda, G N; Mandruzzato, F; Heller, M; Goldhahn, J; Moser, R; Hehli, M; Claes, L; Haas, N P

2001-05-01

88

Dermatologic photography of nail pathologies.  

PubMed

Professional-quality photography of nail pathologies can easily be a routine in a dermatologist's office with the use of modern equipment for a camera system. The camera body component should be a single-lens reflex. The optics should be a true "macro" lens focusing to half life-size for multiple nails and, with an accessory tube, to life-size (X 1 or 1:1) for individual nails. If a choice of focal length macro lenses is available, the longer-length lens is preferable, somewhere between 90 and 120 mm, depending on the manufacturer. A portable electronic flash unit with both thyristor circuitry plus macro focusing sensor calibration is recommended. A flash bracket enabling off-camera flash positioning will provide shadow-producing "pointlight" illumination for delineating pictorial texture and anatomic architecture. One film should be standardized: a daylight-rated color film producing slides not prints, preferably Kodachrome 64 or Ektachrome 64 or 100, manufactured by Eastman Kodak Co. The ASA rating of the film should be matched with the power of the flash unit so that exposure should be a minimum of f.11 or f.16 to provide adequate depth of field at the close-up and ultra close-up magnifications required for nail pathologies. Patient and camera should be positioned so that the major axis of the anatomic site parallels that of camera back (plane of film). The image should fill up as much of the film frame as possible by moving the camera system into close-ups while retaining anatomic landmarks and some portion of uninvolved nail or skin in the immediate area. Film inventories should be stored in either a refrigerator or freezer to avoid heat- and humidity-induced degradation of imaging. When exposed, the film should always be developed by the same processing laboratory, preferably one of Eastman Kodak's regional laboratories throughout the United States. PMID:3830513

Weiss, C H

1985-07-01

89

21 CFR 886.5918 - Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products. 886.5918... § 886.5918 Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products. (a) Identification. A rigid gas permeable contact lens care product is a device...

2013-04-01

90

21 CFR 886.5928 - Soft (hydrophilic) contact lens care products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Soft (hydrophilic) contact lens care products. 886.5928...886.5928 Soft (hydrophilic) contact lens care products. (a) Identification. A soft (hydrophilic) contact lens care product is a device...

2013-04-01

91

21 CFR 886.5918 - Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products.  

...false Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products. 886.5918 Section 886...5918 Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products. (a) Identification. A rigid gas permeable contact lens care product is a device intended...

2014-04-01

92

21 CFR 886.5928 - Soft (hydrophilic) contact lens care products.  

...false Soft (hydrophilic) contact lens care products. 886.5928 Section 886...5928 Soft (hydrophilic) contact lens care products. (a) Identification. A soft (hydrophilic) contact lens care product is a device intended...

2014-04-01

93

Factors affecting productive efficiency in primary care clinics.  

PubMed

This study examines factors affecting the productive efficiency of primary care clinics. The empirical analysis uses a single-stage stochastic frontier regression model, in which factors affecting productive efficiency are specified as part of the inefficiency error component and estimated simultaneously with the production function. The study population includes primary care clinics in the US Military Health System from 1999 through 2003; the analytical data set is an unbalanced panel of 442 observations. The study's main results were that primary care clinics not associated with medical centres had significantly higher levels of productive efficiency than those associated with medical centres and that having proportionately more civilian staff (and thus less turnover) had a positive impact on productive efficiency. Due to their nature, these findings would be expected to also be applicable to the production of primary care in other settings. A key implication of the results is that improvements in productive efficiency should be a top priority, given the possibility for providing more primary care visits without increases in cost. PMID:18275665

Schmacker, Eric R; McKay, Niccie L

2008-02-01

94

The histopathological feature of the nail isthmus in an ectopic nail.  

PubMed

The nail unit has a unique structure. It has been recently proposed that the nail isthmus as a transitional zone between the most distal part of the nail bed and the hyponychium. A 7-year-old Japanese boy presented with an ectopic nail, an additional and independent miniature nail on the digital pulp of the right fifth finger. We studied the expression of a series of keratin in longitudinal specimens and showed the histopathological manifestation in the nail isthmus. This region in the ectopic nail is subdivided into 2 parts: a proximal and narrow part anchored to the nail plate and a distal and wide part with a semihard keratinized structure. PMID:21885945

Oiso, Naoki; Kurokawa, Ichiro; Tsuruta, Daisuke; Narita, Tomohiko; Chikugo, Takaaki; Tsubura, Airo; Kimura, Masatomo; Baran, Robert; Kawada, Akira

2011-12-01

95

Correction of pincer nail deformity with phenol.  

PubMed

From 2006 to 2009 we treated nine cases (11 toes) with pincer nail deformity of the first toe, using phenol. There were 8 women and 1 man, age range 9-81 years (mean 51). They were followed up for 7-17 months (mean 12) and all reported improvement of the pincer nail deformity and disappearance of pain from the first toes. Only one woman complained of a recurrent pincer nail deformity eight months after the first treatment, and the procedure was repeated. The mechanism of improvement is contraction of the phenolised wound away from the lateral nail fold, which gradually stretches and flattens the nail bed. We conclude that this technique is a simple and effective treatment for pincer nail deformity. PMID:22150141

Sugamata, Akira; Inuzuka, Kiyoshi

2011-09-01

96

Ciclopirox nail lacquer: a brush with onychomycosis.  

PubMed

Ciclopirox nail lacquer solution 8%, effective and safe for the treatment of dermatophyte onychomycosis of mild-to-moderate severity, covers a broad-spectrum of organisms and also may be effective in onychomycosis caused by Candida species and nondermatophyte molds. In addition, ciclopirox nail lacquer may be an important adjunct to oral antifungal therapy in certain presentations (eg, lateral onychomycosis, longitudinal spike, dermatophytoma, extensive onycholysis) that might respond poorly to oral antifungal therapy alone. Combination therapy with an oral antifungal agent may reduce the duration and cumulative dosage of oral therapy. In some cases, however, surgical therapies may be preferred or needed in addition to topical nail lacquer treatment. Ciclopirox nail lacquer also may be valuable in the treatment of early cases of reinfection and relapse. Treatment with ciclopirox nail lacquer for onychomycosis has a favorable risk-benefit ratio. Studies to determine the role of combination oral and topical nail lacquer therapy for the management of onychomycosis are needed. PMID:11665723

Gupta, A K

2001-08-01

97

A survey of phthalates and parabens in personal care products from the United States and its implications for human exposure.  

PubMed

Despite the widespread usage of phthalates and parabens in personal care products (PCPs), little is known about concentrations and profiles as well as human exposure to these compounds through the use of PCPs. In this study, nine phthalates and six parabens were determined in 170 PCPs (41 rinse-off and 109 leave-on), including 20 baby care products collected from Albany, New York. Phthalates were less frequently found in rinse-off PCPs but were more frequently found in perfumes (detection frequency of 100% for diethyl phthalate [DEP], 67% for dibutyl phthalate [DBP]), skin toners (90% for DEP), and nail polishes (90% for DBP). Parabens were found in ?40% of rinse-off products and ?60% of leave-on products. The highest concentrations of DEP, DBP, methyl- (MeP), ethyl- (EtP), propyl- (PrP), and butyl parabens (BuP) were on the order of 1000 ?g per gram of the product. On the basis of amount and frequency of use of PCPs and the measured median concentrations of target analytes, the total dermal intake doses (sum of all phthalates or parabens) were calculated to be 0.37 and 31.0 ?g/kg-bw/day for phthalates and parabens, respectively, for adult females. The calculated dermal intake of phthalates from PCPs was lower for infants and toddlers than for adult females. In contrast, dermal intake of parabens from PCPs by infants and toddlers was higher than that for adult females. The calculated maximum daily exposure dose of MeP, EtP, and PrP from PCPs ranged between 58.6 and 766 ?g/kg-bw/day for infants and toddlers, which was 3 times higher than that calculated for adult females. PCPs are an important source of human exposure to parabens; the contribution of PCPs to phthalate exposure is low, except for DEP. PMID:24261694

Guo, Ying; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

2013-12-17

98

Nail bed injury detected by ultrasonography.  

PubMed

A 46-year-old man presented to the emergency department after being injured with a press machine from his left hand 30 minutes before admission. Subungual hematoma was diagnosed in his index finger, although the nail plate was intact. Emergency physicians could identify nail bed injury with bedside ultrasonography examination. This noninvasive, inexpensive, and repeatable diagnostic modality could preserve patients from a complex, invasive nail removal procedure. PMID:21855257

Soyuncu, Secgin; Bektas, Firat

2012-09-01

99

Block Tearing Tests Near Balanced Timber and Nail Capacities of Nailed Steel-to-Timber Joints.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In design codes, nail spacing are mainly determined to avoid splitting during nailing. In case of predrilled holes, and steel-to-timber connections increased nail density is allowed. This may lead to the exceeding of the timber capacity in the joint area,...

J. Vesa J. Kangas

1998-01-01

100

Lyonization pattern of normal human nails.  

PubMed

To examine the X-inactivation patterns of normal human nails, we performed the human androgen receptor gene assay of DNA samples extracted separately from each finger and toe nail plates of nine female volunteers. The X-inactivation pattern of each nail was unique and constant for at least 2 years. The frequency of nails with one of the two X-chromosomes exclusively inactivated was 25.9%. In the nails composed of two types of cells with either one X-chromosome inactivated, the two cell types were distributed in patchy mosaics. These findings suggest that the composition of precursor cells of each nail is maintained at each site at least through several cycles of regeneration time, and that the nail plate has a longitudinal band pattern, each band consisting of cells with only one of the two X-chromosomes inactivated. Using the frequency of nails with one of two X-chromosomes exclusively inactivated, we estimated the number of progenitor cells that gave rise to the nail plate during development to be about 3, under the assumption that the process follows the binominal distribution model. A strong correlation observed among the big, index and little fingers, and among the corresponding toes suggests an interesting interpretation concerning their morphogenetic process. PMID:18429815

Okada, Mariko; Nishimukai, Hiroaki; Okiura, Tatsuyuki; Sugino, Yoshinobu

2008-05-01

101

Safety of skin care products during pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Abstract Question Many of my female patients complain about acne, unwanted hair growth, and other skin problems that have only developed since they became pregnant. Are products used for these types of benign skin conditions safe to use in pregnancy, as it is understandable that women want to look their best at this important time in their lives? Answer With the exception of hydroquinone, which has a relatively high systemic absorption rate, and tretinoin, for which the evidence is controversial, these products act locally and therefore produce minimal systemic levels. Consequently, in most cases women can deal with these cosmetically unappealing skin conditions without compromising the safety of their unborn children.

Bozzo, Pina; Chua-Gocheco, Angela; Einarson, Adrienne

2011-01-01

102

Heterotopic ossification in the reaming tract of a percutaneous antegrade femoral nail: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Heterotopic ossification is a rare complication of musculoskeletal injuries, characterized by bone growth in soft tissues. Percutaneous antegrade intramedullary nailing represents the ‘gold standard’ for the treatment of femur shaft fractures. Minor bone growth is frequently seen around the proximal end of reamed femoral nails (so-called ‘callus caps’), which are asymptomatic and lack a therapeutic implication. The occurrence of excessive, symptomatic heterotopic ossification around the entry site of an antegrade femoral nail is rarely described in the literature. Case presentation We present the case of a 28-year-old Caucasian woman who developed extensive heterotopic ossification around the reaming seeds of a reamed femoral nail. She developed severe pain and significantly impaired range of motion of the hip joint, requiring revision surgery for heterotopic ossification resection and adjunctive local irradiation. She recovered full function of the hip and remained asymptomatic at her two-year follow-up appointment. Conclusions Severe heterotopic ossification represents a rare but potentially detrimental complication after percutaneous femoral nailing of femur shaft fractures. Diligent care during the reaming procedure, including placement of a trocar to protect from osteogenic seeding of the soft tissues, may help decrease the risk of developing heterotopic ossification after reamed antegrade femoral nailing.

2013-01-01

103

Opto-thermal radiometry for in-vivo nail measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a new method for in-vivo human nail characterization by using opto-thermal transient emission radiometry (OTTER) and condenser-chamber TEWL (trans-dermal water loss) method - AquaFlux. With OTTER, we can measure nail water content, nail water concentration depth profiles, as well as topically applied solvent penetration through nail. With AquaFlux, we can measure nail transonychial water loss (TOWL). Combining the water content results with TOWL results, we can get the water diffusion coefficient of nail. Measuring the water diffusion coefficients of nail at different nail water concentration levels can also yield information on how nail diffusion coefficients change with water content. We will present the theoretical background, and experimental results on water concentration depth profile in nail, as well as topically applied solvent penetration through nail.

Xiao, P.; Ciortea, L. I.; Singh, H.; Berg, E. P.; Imhof, R. E.

2010-03-01

104

Management of extra-articular fractures of the distal tibia: intramedullary nailing versus plate fixation.  

PubMed

Intramedullary nailing and plate fixation represent two viable approaches to internal fixation of extra-articular fractures of the distal tibia. Although both techniques have demonstrated success in maintaining reduction and promoting stable union, they possess distinct advantages and disadvantages that require careful consideration during surgical planning. Differences in soft-tissue health and construct stability must be considered when choosing between intramedullary nailing and plating of the distal tibia. Recent advances in intramedullary nail design and plate-and-screw fixation systems have further increased the options for management of these fractures. Current evidence supports careful consideration of the risk of soft-tissue complications, residual knee pain, and fracture malalignment in the context of patient and injury characteristics in the selection of the optimal method of fixation. PMID:23118133

Casstevens, Chris; Le, Toan; Archdeacon, Michael T; Wyrick, John D

2012-11-01

105

Design Overview of the NAIL! System  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the design decisions made for the NAIL! (not another implementation of logic!) system, an advanced form of DBMS where queries may involve a large collection of Prolog-like rules used for query interpretation. A discussion of the ways NAIL! semantics differs from Prolog is followed by an exposition of the principal ideas in the system design. These points include

Katherine A. Morris; Jeffrey D. Ullman; Allen Van Gelder

1986-01-01

106

Functional Analysis and Treatment of Nail Biting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study applied functional analysis methodology to nail biting exhibited by a 24-year-old female graduate student. Results from the brief functional analysis indicated variability in nail biting across assessment conditions. Functional analysis data were then used to guide treatment development and implementation. Treatment included a…

Dufrene, Brad A.; Watson, T. Steuart; Kazmerski, Jennifer S.

2008-01-01

107

The nail and hair in forensic science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drugs, chemicals, and biological substances accumulate and are stored in hair and nails where they can be detected and measured. Advantages of analyzing hair and nail samples also include their easy and non-invasive collection, the small sample size required for analysis, and their easy storage at room temperature. We report 3 examples of heavy metal poisoning diagnosed because of the

C Ralph Daniel; Bianca Maria Piraccini; Antonella Tosti

2004-01-01

108

Dermatopharmacology of ciclopirox nail lacquer topical solution 8% in the treatment of onychomycosis.  

PubMed

Ciclopirox is a synthetic hydroxypyridone antifungal agent. In contrast to the azoles, glucuronidation is the main metabolic pathway of ciclopirox; therefore interactions with drugs metabolized via the cytochrome P450 system are unlikely Ciclopirox is also distinct from the common systemic agents, which interfere with sterol biosynthesis. In fact, ciclopirox chelates trivalent cations (such as Fe3+), inhibits metal-dependent enzymes that are responsible for degradation of toxic metabolites in the fungal cells, and targets diverse metabolic (eg, respiratory) and energy producing processes in microbial cells. Ciclopirox is a broad spectrum antimicrobial with activity against all the usual dermatophytes as well as yeast and nondermatophyte molds. It has demonstrated activity against gram positive and negative bacteria, including resistant strains of Staphlococcus aureus. Ciclopirox exhibits fungal inhibitory activity (minimum inhibitory concentration < 4 microg/mL for dermatophytes) as well as fungicidal activity; to date resistance to the drug has not been identified. Ciclopirox has been formulated in a nail lacquer delivery system. After evaporation of volatile solvents in the lacquer, the concentration of ciclopirox in the remaining lacquer film reaches approximately 35%, providing a high concentration gradient for penetration into the nail. Radiolabel data demonstrate penetration into infected nails after only 1 application of the lacquer. Ciclopirox nail lacquer is a topical product that provides an active fungicidal agent in a delivery system capable of promoting nail penetration. With repeated applications, the antifungal agent is homogeneously distributed through all layers of the toenail achieving concentrations of ciclopirox in excess of inhibitory and fungicidal concentrations for most pathogens. Although ciclopirox readily penetrates nails, very low levels of ciclopirox are recoverable systemically, even after chronic use. Ciclopirox nail lacquer 8% is a topical product that provides an active fungicidal agent in a delivery system capable of penetrating nails. PMID:11051135

Bohn, M; Kraemer, K T

2000-10-01

109

Cleanser, Detergent, Personal Care Product, and Pretreatment Evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the Cleanser, Detergent, Personal Care Product, and Pretreatment Evaluation & Selection task is to identify the optimal combination of personal hygiene products, crew activities, and pretreatment strategies to provide the crew with sustainable life support practices and a comfortable habitat. Minimal energy, mass, and crew time inputs are desired to recycle wastewater during long duration missions. This document will provide a brief background on the work this past year supporting the ELS Distillation Comparison Test, issues regarding use of the hygiene products originally chosen for the test, methods and results used to select alternative products, and lessons learned from testing.

Adam, Niklas; Carrier, Chris; Vega, Leticia; Casteel, Michael; Verostko, chuck; Pickering, Karen

2011-01-01

110

A review of hair care products for black individuals.  

PubMed

Physicians should be prepared to provide professional guidance to black individuals with both chemically treated and natural (ie, nonchemically treated) hair. Patients may seek advice from physicians if they decide to discontinue use of chemical relaxers or if they have sustained damage such as chemical burns, breakage, or hair loss from the misuse of various hair care products. Properly advising this patient population requires a basic understanding of hair morphology in black individuals as well as the unique characteristics of this hair type and the products used to address its needs. Although some products may promote healing properties, misusing or overusing them may cause adverse effects. This article will provide clinicians with a basic understanding of chemically treated and natural hair in black individuals. We also discuss hair care products that are ideal for this patient population and the potential adverse effects based on their chemical formulations. PMID:24999639

Crawford, Karla; Hernandez, Claudia

2014-06-01

111

Safety of botanical ingredients in personal care products\\/cosmetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key issue of the safety assessment of botanical ingredients in personal care products (PCP) is the phytochemical characterisation of the plant source, data on contamination, adulteration and hazardous residues. The comparative approach used in the safety assessment of GM-plants may be applied to novel botanical PCP ingredients. Comparator(s) are the parent plant or varieties of the same species. Chemical

Eric Antignac; Gerhard J. Nohynek; Thomas Re; Jacques Clouzeau; Hervé Toutain

2011-01-01

112

Deformation of femoral nails with intramedullary insertion.  

PubMed

Current methods of distal interlocking of intramedullary femoral nails are dependent on image intensification. However, radiation exposure to the patient, the operating room staff, and the surgeon remains a concern. Proximally mounted, radiation-free aiming systems for distal interlocking of femoral nails have reportedly failed because of nail deformation with insertion. To better understand this deformation, a three-dimensional magnetic motion tracking system was used to determine the position of the distal interlocking hole following nail insertion. The amount and direction of deformation of commercially available small-diameter implants (unslotted 9-mm nails inserted without reaming) and large-diameter implants (slotted 13-mm nails inserted with reaming) from a single manufacturer were analyzed. Measurements of deformation (three translations and three angles), based on the center of the distal transverse locking hole, were performed on 10 paired intact human cadaveric femora before and after insertion. The technique produced the following results for the small and large-diameter nails, respectively: lateral translations of 18.1+/-10.0 mm (mean+/-SD, range: 47.8 mm) and 21.5+/-7.9 mm (range: 26.4 mm), dorsal translations of -3.1+/-4.3 mm (range: 15.2 mm) and 0.4+/-9.8 mm (range: 30.1 mm), and rotation about the longitudinal axes of -0.1+/-0.2 degrees (range: 0.7 degrees) and 10.0+/-3.1 degrees (range: 7.8 degrees). This technique is useful for measuring insertion-related femoral nail deformation. The data for the nails tested suggest that a simple aiming arm, mounted on the proximal end of the femoral nail alone, will not sufficiently provide accurate distal aiming. PMID:9820280

Krettek, C; Mannss, J; Miclau, T; Schandelmaier, P; Linnemann, I; Tscherne, H

1998-09-01

113

Design and Implementation of the Glue-Nail Database System  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the design and implementation of the Glue-Nail database system. The Nail language is a purely declarative query language; Glue is a procedural language used for non- query activities. The two languages combined are sufficient to write a complete application. Nail and Glue code both compile into the target language IGlue. The Nail compiler uses variants of the magic

Marcia A. Derr; Shinichi Morishita; Geoffrey Phipps

1993-01-01

114

Pulsed dye laser for the treatment of nail psoriasis.  

PubMed

Psoriasis can involve the skin, joints, and nails, either alone or in combination. Psoriasis of the nails can involve both the nail bed and nail matrix. The treatment of nail psoriasis largely depends on the severity of symptoms. The pulsed dye laser (PDL) recently has demonstrated efficacy in treating resistant plaque-type psoriasis and has been suggested as an alternative to conventional therapies. We review 4 studies of PDL for nail psoriasis and discuss the findings in relation to treatment recommendations. Ultimately, a standardized regimen for the treatment of nail psoriasis remains elusive. PMID:24153141

Yin, Natalie; Choudhary, Sonal; Nouri, Keyvan

2013-09-01

115

Spectrophotometric determination of triclosan in personal care products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spectrophotometric method for the determination of triclosan in personal care products was proposed. It was based on the reaction of sodium nitrite with p-sulfanilic acid in an acidic medium to form diazonium ion, with which triclosan further formed an azo compound in an alkaline medium. The resulting yellow colored product has a maximum absorption at 452 nm. A good linear relationship ( r = 0.9999) was obtained in the range of 0-30 mg L -1 triclosan. A detection limit of 0.079 g L -1 was achieved and the relative standard deviation was 0.24% ( n = 11) at 14 mg L -1 triclosan. The proposed method has been applied to the analyses of triclosan in several personal care products and the results were in good agreement with those obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography.

Lu, Huihui; Ma, Hongbing; Tao, Guanhong

2009-09-01

116

Health hazard evaluation report HETA 90-048-2253, Haute Nails, Norman, Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

In response to a request from the owner/operator of the Haute Nails Salon, Norman, Oklahoma, an evaluation was undertaken of possible chemical exposures from the use of nail sculpturing products. Haute Nails was an artificial nail sculpturing and tanning salon employing two full time nail sculpturers and four part time receptionists. The company was located on the first floor of a two story brick building. Long term general area air sampling was conducted for volatile organic chemicals, formaldehyde, and methacrylates; personal breathing zone air sampling was conducted for methacrylates. Ethyl-methacrylate concentrations in long term samples ranged from 10.3 to 14.1 mg/cu m. Breathing zone concentrations of ethyl-methacrylate were 128 mg/cu m for a 7 minute sample and 78.9 mg/cu m for a 14 minute sample during nail sculpturing. Carbon-dioxide measurements exceeded the recommended level of 1000 parts per million. The authors conclude that there were no overexposures to ethyl-methylacrylate during the evaluation. The heating and air conditioning system did not provide for the mechanical exchange of outside air and no exhaust fans were located in the area served by the system. The authors recommend that an outside air supply duct be added to the present system.

Almaguer, D.; Blade, L.M.

1992-09-01

117

Ultrasound-mediated nail drug delivery system.  

PubMed

A novel ultrasound-mediated drug delivery system has been developed for treatment of a nail fungal disorder (onychomycosis) by improving delivery to the nail bed using ultrasound to increase the permeability of the nail. The slip-in device consists of ultrasound transducers and drug delivery compartments above each toenail. The device is connected to a computer, where a software interface allows users to select their preferred course of treatment. In in vitro testing, canine nails were exposed to 3 energy levels (acoustic power of 1.2 W and exposure durations of 30, 60, and 120 seconds). A stereo -microscope was used to determine how much of a drug-mimicking compound was delivered through the nail layers by measuring brightness on the cross section of each nail tested at each condition, where brightness level decreases coincide with increases in permeability. Each of the 3 energy levels tested showed statistical significance when compared to the control (P < .05) with a permeability factor of 1.3 after 30 seconds of exposure, 1.3 after 60 seconds, and 1.5 after 120 seconds, where a permeability factor of 1 shows no increase in permeability. Current treatments for onychomycosis include systemic, topical, and surgical. Even when used all together, these treatments typically take a long time to result in nail healing, thus making this ultrasound-mediated device a promising alternative. PMID:22124008

Abadi, Danielle; Zderic, Vesna

2011-12-01

118

Nail Lichen Planus: Successful Treatment with Etanercept  

PubMed Central

Background Etanercept is a fully human tumor necrosis factor a receptor fusion protein that binds tumor necrosis factor a with greater affinity than natural receptors. Biologics are widely used in the treatment of psoriasis and psoriasis arthritis and may represent a new therapeutic option for some patients with psoriatic nail disease. Case Report We report a case of lichen planus limited to the toe nails successfully treated with etanercept monotherapy. Conclusion The significant improvement of our case suggests that etanercept is an effective treatment modality for lichen planus limited particularly to the nails. Further controlled studies are needed to establish the effectiveness and therapeutic regimes.

Irla, N.; Schneiter, T.; Haneke, E.; Yawalkar, N.

2010-01-01

119

Human dermal exposure to galaxolide from personal care products.  

PubMed

Musks are synthetic fragrances applied on personal care and household products as fixatives, by retarding the release of other fragrances with higher volatility. Galaxolide is the most used polycyclic musk since the 90th decade, and it has been detected in several environmental and biological matrices, particularly in human tissues and fluids. For exposure assessment purposes, large-monitoring data need to be obtained and rapid but reliable analytical techniques are requested. The main objective of this study is to develop and validate a new and fast analytical methodology to quantify galaxolide in personal care products and to apply this method to real matrices like skin care products (creams and lotions), shower products (soap bar), hair care products (shampoo and hair conditioner) and oral care products (toothpaste), to evaluate the human dermal exposure risk. A dispersive solid-phase extraction is proposed, using QuEChERS methodology, followed by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Some extraction parameters were studied, like the ratio of sample/solvent amounts, the homogenization time, the salt addition effect and the used sorbents. The validation parameters of the developed method were the following: a linearity range of 0.005-1.002 mg kg?¹ sample, a limit of detection of 0.001 mg kg?¹ sample, repeatability between 0.7% and 11.3% (variation coefficient of six standard injections), an intermediate precision of 2.5% (variation coefficient of six independent analysis of the same sample), mean recoveries ranging from 65% (soap bar) to 95% (body cream) and 3% of global uncertainty in most of the working range. The time of analysis, including the extraction steps, is 60 min, allowing a throughput of 4 samples h?¹ . Galaxolide was detected in all of the seven analysed products in concentrations ranging from 0.04 ± 0.01 mg kg?¹ sample (toothpaste) to 280.78 ± 8.19 mg kg?¹ sample (perfumed body cream), which may correspond to a significant estimated daily human dermal exposure of 904 ?g day?¹. PMID:23406205

Correia, P; Cruz, A; Santos, L; Alves, A

2013-06-01

120

A case of yellow nail syndrome with dramatically improved nail discoloration by oral clarithromycin.  

PubMed

An 80-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with pneumonia and exacerbation of sinobronchial syndrome (SBS). She presented with yellow discoloration of the nail beds of all fingers and toes, and her nails were recognized as growing slowly. Chest X-ray revealed bronchiectasis in the bilateral lower lobe and bilateral pleural effusion. We diagnosed her as having yellow nail syndrome (YNS), based on the triad of yellow nails, lymphedema, and lung disease. After treatment with antibiotics [ampicillin/sulbactam and clarithromycin (CAM)] for pneumonia and SBS, her general condition improved, and the yellow nails disappeared in some fingers. When she was previously treated with 200 mg CAM for SBS, her yellow nails had not shown improvement. This time, her yellow nails improved after treatment with 400 mg CAM. The literature reports vitamin E, zinc, and topical corticosteroid plus active vitamin D3 to be effective in the treatment of yellow nails. Two studies have reported treatment for YNS using CAM, though they found a lack of efficacy. Thus, the present case is the first to report improved yellow nails using CAM alone. We conclude that not only SBS and lung disease but also YNS were improved by treatment with 400 mg CAM. PMID:22220146

Suzuki, Manabu; Yoshizawa, Atsuto; Sugiyama, Haruhito; Ichimura, Yasunori; Morita, Akane; Takasaki, Jin; Naka, Gou; Hirano, Satoshi; Izumi, Shinyu; Takeda, Yuichiro; Hoji, Masayuki; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Kudo, Koichiro

2011-09-01

121

The 'PDA nail': traumatic nail dystrophy in habitual users of personal digital assistants.  

PubMed

All-in-one devices with mobile phone, web browser, and organizer are now owned by over 6 million people and their popularity is increasing. These devices are often called personal digital assistants (PDAs) or 'BlackBerry(R)' devices, after a popular brand name of these appliances. The use of PDAs is associated with exposure of distal thumbs and nails to repeated pressure with a frequency of up to a few thousand times per hour and several tens of thousands of times per day. We describe two cases of traumatic thumb nail dystrophy associated with using a PDA keyboard for several hours per day. Both patients developed median nail plate dystrophy after 4-8 months of habitual PDA use. One patient also developed thumb nail psoriasis and paronychia. All symptoms resolved a few months after discontinuing PDA use. Analysis of nail biomechanics, performed by using a finite element fingertip model, showed that maximal stress reaches approximately 3 MPa and appears near the root on the internal surface of the nail, while it reaches approximately 2 MPa and appears around one-third from the root on the outside surface. In conclusion, biomechanical stress resulting from overuse of PDAs may result in various types of nail dystrophy. We suggest the general term 'PDA nails' for these nail abnormalities. PMID:19354334

Olszewska, Malgorzata; Wu, John Z; Slowinska, Monika; Rudnicka, Lidia

2009-01-01

122

Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in the Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various problems concerning the pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in the environment of the Eastern European\\u000a countries are described. The main classes of PPCPs in the environment, as well as major occurrence pathways and PPCPs fate,\\u000a are depicted. The influence of specifics of the regional pharmaceutical market, medication consumption culture and pharmaceutical\\u000a waste disposal techniques on environmental pollution with

Gheorghe Duca; Veaceslav Boldescu

123

Thumbnail Sketches: EDTA-Type Chelating Agents in Everyday Consumer Products: Some Medicinal and Personal Care Products.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses various ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA)-type chelating agents found in ophthalmic products, personal care products, and disinfectants. Also discusses the properties and action of these EDTA agents. (JN)

Hart, J. Roger

1984-01-01

124

Genetics Home Reference: Nail-patella syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... at the base of the nails (lunulae) are triangular instead of the usual crescent shape. Individuals with ... about genetic testing , particularly the difference between clinical tests and research tests . To locate a healthcare provider, ...

125

Heat profiles of laser-irradiated nails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Onychomycosis is a worldwide problem with no tendency for self-healing, and existing systemic treatments achieve disease-free nails in only 35 to 76% of cases. Recently, treatment of nail fungus with a near-infrared laser has been introduced. It is assumed that fungal eradication is mediated by local heat. To investigate if laser treatment has the potential to eradicate fungal hyphae and arthrospores, laser heat application and propagation needs to be studied in detail. This study aimed to measure nail temperatures using real-time videothermography during laser irradiation. Treatment was performed using 808- and 980-nm linear scanning diode lasers developed for hair removal, enabling contact-free homogeneous irradiation of a human nail plate in one pass. Average and peak temperatures increased pass by pass, while the laser beam moved along the nail plates. The achieved mean peak temperatures (808 nm: 74.1 to 112.4°C, 980 nm: 45.8 to 53.5°C), as well as the elevation of average temperatures (808 nm: 29.5 to 38.2°C, 980 nm: 27.1 to 32.6°C) were associated with pain that was equivalent to that of hair removal procedures and was not significantly different for various wavelengths. The linear scanning laser devices provide the benefits of contact-free homogeneous heating of the human nail while ensuring adequate temperature rises.

Paasch, Uwe; Nenoff, Pietro; Seitz, Anna-Theresa; Wagner, Justinus A.; Kendler, Michael; Simon, Jan C.; Grunewald, Sonja

2014-01-01

126

Biomechanical investigation of a novel ratcheting arthrodesis nail  

PubMed Central

Background Knee or tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis is a salvage procedure, often with unacceptable rates of nonunion. Basic science of fracture healing suggests that compression across a fusion site may decrease nonunion. A novel ratcheting arthrodesis nail designed to improve dynamic compression is mechanically tested in comparison to existing nails. Methods A novel ratcheting nail was designed and mechanically tested in comparison to a solid nail and a threaded nail using sawbones models (Pacific Research Laboratories, Inc.). Intramedullary nails (IM) were implanted with a load cell (Futek LTH 500) between fusion surfaces. Constructs were then placed into a servo-hydraulic test frame (Model 858 Mini-bionix, MTS Systems) for application of 3 mm and 6 mm dynamic axial displacement (n = 3/group). Load to failure was also measured. Results Mean percent of initial load after 3-mm and 6-mm displacement was 190.4% and 186.0% for the solid nail, 80.7% and 63.0% for the threaded nail, and 286.4% and 829.0% for the ratcheting nail, respectively. Stress-shielding (as percentage of maximum load per test) after 3-mm and 6-mm displacement averaged 34.8% and 28.7% (solid nail), 40.3% and 40.9% (threaded nail), and 18.5% and 11.5% (ratcheting nail), respectively. In the 6-mm trials, statistically significant increase in initial load and decrease in stress-shielding for the ratcheting vs. solid nail (p = 0.029, p = 0.001) and vs. threaded nail (p = 0.012, p = 0.002) was observed. Load to failure for the ratcheting nail; 599.0 lbs, threaded nail; 508.8 lbs, and solid nail; 688.1 lbs. Conclusion With significantly increase of compressive load while decreasing stress-shielding at 6-mm of dynamic displacement, the ratcheting mechanism in IM nails may clinically improve rates of fusion.

2010-01-01

127

Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Food and Personal Care Products  

PubMed Central

Titanium dioxide is a common additive in many food, personal care, and other consumer products used by people, which after use can enter the sewage system, and subsequently enter the environment as treated effluent discharged to surface waters or biosolids applied to agricultural land, incinerated wastes, or landfill solids. This study quantifies the amount of titanium in common food products, derives estimates of human exposure to dietary (nano-) TiO2, and discusses the impact of the nanoscale fraction of TiO2 entering the environment. The foods with the highest content of TiO2 included candies, sweets and chewing gums. Among personal care products, toothpastes and select sunscreens contained 1% to >10% titanium by weight. While some other crèmes contained titanium, despite being colored white, most shampoos, deodorants, and shaving creams contained the lowest levels of titanium (<0.01 ?g/mg). For several high-consumption pharmaceuticals, the titanium content ranged from below the instrument detection limit (0.0001 ?g Ti/mg) to a high of 0.014 ?g Ti/mg. Electron microscopy and stability testing of food-grade TiO2 (E171) suggests that approximately 36% of the particles are less than 100 nm in at least one dimension and that it readily disperses in water as fairly stable colloids. However, filtration of water solubilized consumer products and personal care products indicated that less than 5% of the titanium was able to pass through 0.45 or 0.7 ?m pores. Two white paints contained 110 ?g Ti/mg while three sealants (i.e., prime coat paint) contained less titanium (25 to 40 ?g Ti/mg). This research showed that while many white-colored products contained titanium, it was not a prerequisite. Although several of these product classes contained low amounts of titanium, their widespread use and disposal down the drain and eventually to WWTPs deserves attention. A Monte Carlo human exposure analysis to TiO2 through foods identified children as having the highest exposures because TiO2 content of sweets is higher than other food products, and that a typical exposure for a US adult may be on the order of 1 mg Ti per kilogram body weight per day. Thus, because of the millions of tons of titanium based white pigment used annually, testing should focus on food-grade TiO2 (E171) rather than that adopted in many environmental health and safety tests (i.e., P25), which is used in much lower amounts in products less likely to enter the environment (e.g., catalyst supports, photocatalytic coatings).

Weir, Alex; Westerhoff, Paul; Fabricius, Lars

2012-01-01

128

Iontophoresis across the proximal nail fold to target drugs to the nail matrix.  

PubMed

The main objective of the present study was to investigate the plausibility of iontophoretic delivery of drugs to the nail matrix via proximal nail fold. The in vitro drug transport studies were performed in Franz diffusion cells across folded epidermis, which is used as a model for the proximal nail fold. The amount of drug transported into the receiver compartment following iontophoresis for 3 h at 0.5 mA/cm(2) was 150-fold higher than the control (0.008 ± 0.002 ?g/cm(2)). The amount of drug present in the skin after iontophoresis (0.45 ± 0.12 ?g/mg) was approximately fivefold higher as compared with that of the control (0.08 ± 0.01 ?g/mg). Iontophoresis of terbinafine across the proximal nail fold was assessed using excised cadaver toe model as well. A custom-designed foam-pad-type patch system was used for iontophoresis in cadaver toes. The amount of the drug delivered into the nail matrix following iontophoresis for 3 h was significantly higher than the minimum inhibition concentration of terbinafine. However, on the contrary, passive delivery for about 24 h did not result in any detectable drug levels in the nail matrix. Iontophoresis across the proximal nail fold could be developed as a potential method to target drugs to nail matrix. PMID:22487899

Manda, Prashanth; Sammeta, Srinivasa M; Repka, Michael A; Murthy, S Narasimha

2012-07-01

129

Treatment of unstable trochanteric fractures. Randomised comparison of the gamma nail and the proximal femoral nail  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proximal femoral nail (PFN) is a recently introduced intramedullary system, designed to improve treatment of unstable trochanteric fractures of the hip. In a multicentre prospective clinical study, the intra-operative use, complications and outcome of treatment using the PFN (n = 211) were compared with those using the gamma nail (GN) (n = 213). The intra-operative blood loss was lower

I. B. Schipper; E. W. Steyerberg; R. M. Castelein; F. H. van der Heijden; P. T. den Hoed; A. J. Kerver; A. B. van Vugt

2004-01-01

130

Ultrasonography reveals nail thickening in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis.  

PubMed

Nail psoriasis is usually investigated and diagnosed by clinical examination. Ultrasonography is a non-invasive imaging technique for studying soft tissue involvement. The objective of this study was to estimate nail involvement in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis by ultrasonography. Prevalence, clinical type and severity of nail involvement according to nail psoriasis and severity index (NAPSI) were investigated in 138 patients with psoriasis. The thickness of the plate and bed of the fingernails was measured in 54 patients with psoriasis, 46 healthy controls and 37 patients with chronic eczema, using an ultrasonographic system equipped with a frequency transducer of 18 MHz. The prevalence of nail psoriasis was 73 % (102 out of 138). Onycholysis and thickening of the nail plate were the most common clinical type affecting 56 and 50 % of patients, respectively; splinter haemorrhages was the less common involving 10 % of patients. The mean NAPSI score was 18.4 ± 17.5 (SD; range 0-107). The thickness of fingernail plate and bed was significantly higher in patients with psoriasis with nail disease compared to healthy controls and patients with chronic eczema (p < 0.001). There was a linear correlation between NAPSI and plate and bed nail thickness (r = 0.52 and r = 0.38, p = 0.001). Increased nail plate and bed thickness was observed also in patients with psoriasis without clinically apparent nail involvement. In conclusion, thickening of the nail is a common feature of nail psoriasis also in patients without clinically apparent nail involvement. PMID:23011659

Gisondi, P; Idolazzi, L; Girolomoni, G

2012-11-01

131

Soft-tissue nail-fold excision: a definitive treatment for ingrown toenails  

PubMed Central

Background Ingrown toenail, or onychocryptosis, is a common source of morbidity worldwide. The current standard of care focuses on the nail as the causative agent, and, in cases that are resistant to medical management, surgical correction via nail avulsion and phenol matrix ablation is used. Unfortunately, this treatment leads to poor cosmetic results, high rates of recurrence and low patient satisfaction. Methods We retrospectively reviewed a case series of 124 consecutive patients who underwent surgical correction of ingrown toenails from 1988 to 2004. We recorded the operative technique and postoperative wound healing via photographs. We assessed outcomes and patient satisfaction using self-reports and 7-point Likert scale questionnaires. Results Our surgical approach involved the excision of excessive nail-fold granulation tissue with preservation of the nail and its matrix. In total, 72.5% of patients were under the age of 29 (69.4% men). Before surgical intervention, 78.8% of patients scored their pain as severe, 69.9% had difficulty wearing normal footwear and 64.3% had difficulty with normal activities because of their ingrown toenails. A total of 212 surgical sites were analyzed, with a median follow-up of 8 years. No recurrences were identified in any patients (100%, n = 124). Overall, 94.3% (n = 116) stated that they were highly satisfied with the procedure. Only 1.6% (n = 2) reported a loss of sensation at the surgical site. Conclusion Surgical correction of ingrown toenails via soft-tissue excision of the nail folds, coupled with preservation of the nail and its matrix, had excellent cosmetic results, no recurrences and high rates of patient satisfaction.

Chapeskie, Henry; Kovac, Jason R.

2010-01-01

132

Dietary treatment of chylous ascites in yellow nail syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chylous ascites has rarely been reported in yellow nail syndrome. A case of chylous ascites in yellow nail syndrome is described which was treated successfully with dietary restriction of fat and supplements of medium chained triglycerides.

W C Tan

1989-01-01

133

Nail Salons' Drying Lamps Carry Small Cancer Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Nail Salons' Drying Lamps Carry Small Cancer Risk Study ... A typical salon manicure involves drying freshly painted nails under a lamp that emits ultraviolet-A (UV- ...

134

42. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE NAIL HARDENER USED TO HARDEN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

42. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE NAIL HARDENER USED TO HARDEN AND TEMPER THE NAILS; WEST TUBES IN FOREGRPUND AND DRAWBACK TUBE IN THE CENTER - LaBelle Iron Works, Thirtieth & Wood Streets, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

135

6. DETAIL, NORTH (FRONT) DOORWAY, CROSS BATTENS AND NAILS, WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. DETAIL, NORTH (FRONT) DOORWAY, CROSS BATTENS AND NAILS, WITH NAILS - Williams Place, Commissary, SC secondary Road 113, 3/4 mile North of SC secondary Road 235, Glenn Springs, Spartanburg County, SC

136

50. INTERIOR VIEW OF PACKING LINE WHERE ALL THE NAIL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

50. INTERIOR VIEW OF PACKING LINE WHERE ALL THE NAIL BOXES ARE FORMED, FILLED WITH NAILS AND SEALED; NOTE THESE ARE FIFTY-POUND BOXES - LaBelle Iron Works, Thirtieth & Wood Streets, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

137

Biomechanical study of nine different tibia locking nails.  

PubMed

We compared different nail types within the Bone/Implant-Complex to look for differences in stiffness for axial load, bending and torsion of the System. We simulated comminuted mid shaft fractures by a 2-cm defect osteotomy in paired human cadaver tibiae. We fixed tibiae with one of nine different interlocking nails [AO Unreamed Tibial Nail 9 mm (UTN9), AO Unreamed Tibial Nail 8 mm (UTN8), Russell & Taylor Delta Tibial Nail 9 mm (RTD), Russell & Taylor Reconstruction Tibial Nail 11 mm (RTR), Brooker & Wills Tibial Nail 11 mm (B&W), Grosse & Kempf Tibial Nail 11 mm (G&K), AO Universal Tibial Nail 11 mm (AOU), Klemm & Schellmann Tibial Nail 11 mm (K&S), and Börner & Mattheck Tibial Nail 11 mm (B-M)] according to the manufacturer's recommendations. In torque testing the unslotted nails (UTN9, UTN8, RTD, RTR, B&W) showed significantly higher stiffness compared to the slotted nails (G&K, AOU, K&S, B-M). Compared to intact bone, both groups of nails were significantly less stiff. In axial load testing large diameter nails interlocked by large diameter interlocking bolts (G&K, K&S, B-M) showed significantly higher stiffness. For A-P bending no significant differences between implants were found, but isolated bones showed significantly higher A-P bending stiffness. In varus-valgus bending large diameter nails (RTR, G&K, K&S, B-M) showed significantly higher bending stiffness compared to low diameter (UTN8, B&W) implants. PMID:8926553

Schandelmaier, P; Krettek, C; Tscherne, H

1996-01-01

138

Unusual manifestation of the yellow nail syndrome - Case report.  

PubMed

The yellow nail syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by the classic triad of yellow and dystrophic nails, lymphedema and pleural effusion. We report in this paper a case of yellow nail syndrome, presenting the classic triad of the disease, associated with an unusual lymph accumulation in the abdomen region. PMID:24937826

Papaiordanou, Francine; Epstein, Marina Gabrielle; Miyaoka, Mariana Yumi; Yang, Jeane Jeong Hoon; Pires, Mario Cezar

2014-06-01

139

Chylous ascites, intestinal lymphangiectasia and the 'yellow-nail' syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1964 Samman and White described 13 patients with lymphoedema of the lower extremities associated with an unusual dystrophy of the finger and toe nails: this they termed the 'yellow-nail' syndrome. Affected nails were thickened, excessively curved along both axes, very slow growing and of yellowish-grey hue; cuticle and lunula were usually absent and onycholysis was frequently evident. Lower limb

P M Duhra; E M Quigley; M N Marsh

1985-01-01

140

78 FR 78382 - Steel Nails From China; Determination  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. 731-TA-1114 (Review)] Steel Nails From China; Determination On the basis...of the antidumping duty order on steel nails from China would be likely to lead to continuation...4442 (December 2013), entitled Steel Nails from China: Investigation No....

2013-12-26

141

Fatigue strength of common tibial intramedullary nail distal locking screws  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Premature failure of either the nail and\\/or locking screws with unstable fracture patterns may lead to angulation, shortening, malunion, and IM nail migration. Up to thirty percent of all unreamed nail locking screws can break after initial weight bearing is allowed at 8–10 weeks if union has not occurred. The primary problem this presents is hardware removal during revision

Lanny V. Griffin; Robert M Harris; Joseph J Zubak

2009-01-01

142

Unusual manifestation of the yellow nail syndrome - Case report*  

PubMed Central

The yellow nail syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by the classic triad of yellow and dystrophic nails, lymphedema and pleural effusion. We report in this paper a case of yellow nail syndrome, presenting the classic triad of the disease, associated with an unusual lymph accumulation in the abdomen region.

Papaiordanou, Francine; Epstein, Marina Gabrielle; Miyaoka, Mariana Yumi; Yang, Jeane Jeong Hoon; Pires, Mario Cezar

2014-01-01

143

Nail Psoriasis Successfully Treated with Intralesional Methotrexate: Case Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psoriasis is a common, chronic disease which affects nearly 3% of the population. The lifetime incidence of nail involvement increases up to 80–90% for psoriatic patients. Nail psoriasis is considered a significant social problem. Many topical agents have been used for psoriatic nails with various side effects and some benefits; management is currently inconclusive. Methotrexate (MTX) is a folic acid

Arife Oz; Hakan Turan

2011-01-01

144

Permanent loss of finger nails from sensitization and reaction to acrylic in a preparation designed to make artificial nails.  

PubMed

Six years ago a patient suffered a severe allergic reaction from sensitization to methyl methacrylate in a mixture of materials designed to make artificial nails. There was marked erythema, edema, and pain of the eponychial and paronychial tissues with persistent paresthesia of the finger tips. Gradual destruction of the nail plates developed and since no regrowth of the nails resumed in six years, the loss of the finger nails is found to be permanent. PMID:7356701

Fisher, A A

1980-01-01

145

[Retrograde nailing in a tibial fracture].  

PubMed

We describe a case of a severely comminuted type iiia open tibial fracture, with distal loss of bone stock (7 cm), total involvement of the tibial joint surface, and severe instability of the fibular-talar joint. The treatment performed consisted of thorough cleansing, placing a retrograde reamed calcaneal-talar-tibial nail with proximal and distal blockage, as well as a fibular-talar Kirschner nail. Primary closure of the skin was achieved. After 3 weeks, an autologous iliac crest bone graft was performed to fill the bone defect, and the endomedullary nail, which had protruded distally was reimpacted and dynamized distally. The bone defect was eventually consolidated after 16 weeks. Currently, the patient can walk without pain the tibial-astragal arthrodesis is consolidated. PMID:24438859

Valls-Mellado, M; Martí-Garín, D; Fillat-Gomà, F; Marcano-Fernández, F A; González-Vargas, J A

2014-01-01

146

Developing a Proactive Research Agenda to Advance Nail Salon Worker Health, Safety, and Rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Problem: Nail salons represent a burgeoning industry with Vietnamese immigrant workers making up the majority. Workers routinely handle cosmetic products containing hazardous compounds, with implications for their health. Purpose of Article: This paper describes how a collaborative of multiple organizations and community members collectively developed a proactive research agenda for salon worker health, safety, and rights during a pivotal

Thu Quach; Julia Liou; Lisa Fu; Anuja Mendiratta; My Tong; Peggy Reynolds

2012-01-01

147

The measurement of efficiency and productivity of health care delivery.  

PubMed

The measurement of efficiency and productivity of health service delivery has become a small industry. This is a review of 317 published papers on frontier efficiency measurement. The techniques used are mainly based on non-parametric data envelopment analysis, but there is increasing use of parametric techniques, such as stochastic frontier analysis. Applications to hospitals and other health care organizations and areas are reviewed and summarised, and some meta-type analysis undertaken. Cautious conclusions are that public provision may be potentially more efficient than private, in certain settings. The paper also considers conceptualizations of efficiency, and points to dangers and opportunities in generating such information. Finally, some criteria for assessing the use and usefulness of efficiency studies are established, with a view to helping both researchers and those assessing whether or not to act upon published results. PMID:18702091

Hollingsworth, Bruce

2008-10-01

148

Primary total hip arthroplasty with a retained intramedullary femoral nail.  

PubMed

Retained intramedullary femoral nails can pose a problem for the implantation of the femoral component during total hip arthoplasty (THA) and they must often be removed. A patient with a retained Küntscher femoral nail implanted 47 years previously presented in our outpatient clinic for a THA. Since removal of the nail was impossible without severe damage to the femur, we chose to perform an extended trochanteric osteotomy, to cut the proximal part of the nail and to implant a cemented short stem with its tip in the hollow end of the nail. PMID:23547527

Goosen, Jon H M; Van Hellemondt, Gijs G

2013-02-01

149

[Physiological metals in the serum, hair and nails of patients with head and neck cancer].  

PubMed

Cigarette smoking and excessive alcohol drinking result in the rise of numbers of patients suffering from the head and neck cancer. Addiction to any of these stimulants carry a risk of developing a cancerogenesis process. Using them simultaniously lead not to a summary of each of those risks but multiplies them. Scientific research also indicates the important difference in the incidence of cancer in people who have never smoked cigarettes or drunk alcohol in comparison to those, whose exposure to these stimulatns was longterm - in such case, the former group had a lower percentage of developing the disease. Human body burdened with the ongoing cancer shows disturbances on various levels of the system. One of such disturbances is change of the concetration levels of physiological metals, such as calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, zinc or mangenese. They play key roles in maintaing the hormonal and ionic stability, they act as cofactors in many enzymes in metabolic processes. Diagnostic research of any deviations in levels of those essential elements enables a full estimation of a patient condition. The aim of this study was physiological metal levels evaluation in different kinds of biological material in patients with tumors of larynx, salivary glands and oral cavity and tongue. Hair and nail samples were used as examples of alternative material, beside the serum samples, which is a standard material and often used. Subjects were patients of Otolaryngology and Laryngological Oncology Clinic of Poznan University of Medical Sciences (Samodzielny Publiczny Szpital Kliniczny nr 2 im. Heliodora Swiecickiego Uniwersytetu Medycznego im. Karola Marcinkowskiego w Poznaniu) and The Head and Neck Surgery Ward of The Greater Poland Cancer Centre in Poznan. Subjects were 41 men and 18 women with tumors of larynx, salivary glands and oral cavity and tongue. The control group consisted of patients from the Otolaryngology and Laryngological Oncology Clinic of Poznan University of Medical Sciences (Samodzielny Publiczny Szpital Kliniczny nr 2 im. Heliodora Swiecickiego Uniwersytetu Medycznego im. Karola Marcinkowskiego w Poznaniu), The Head and Neck Surgery Ward of The Greater Poland Cancer Centre in Poznan and patients of Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Internal Medicine of Poznan University of Medical Sciences (Samodzielny Publiczny Szpital Kliniczny nr 2 im. Heliodora Swiecickiego Uniwersytetu Medycznego im. Karola Marcinkowskiego w Poznaniu) and Department of Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology Pozna? University of Medical Sciences. They gave answers to the questionnaire concerning smoking habits, alcohol consumption and dietary habits, Then the samples of their serum, hair and nails were collected. After careful preparations the biological material has underwent the process of digestion, and then calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, zinc, mangenese were determined quantitatively using the method of ICP-MS. Profile of the patients who took part in the research displayed a strong correlation between tobacco smoking with alcohol drinking and appearance of larynx, salivary gland and oral cavity and tongue cancer as well as between exclusively tobacco smoking and appearance of these types of cancer. There is a higher incidence of larynx, salivary gland and oral cavity and tongue cancer when there is a deficiency of grain products or fibre in everyday diet. A higher level of calcium, magnesium, iron and manganese was found in patients' hair and nails who suffered from salivary gland cancer. According to applied Chemometric Analysis of Principal Component 1 - concentrations of iron, copper and manganese with magnesium and zinc in patients' nail samples showed strong correlation between measured variables. In patiens' hair samples measured correlation between variables was decreased - concentrations of calcium and magnesium as well as of iron and manganese were highlighted as two groups of variables which showed some correlation in this type of biological material. Further research is required to indicate which of alternativ

Wo?niak, Anna; Kujawa, Anita; Se?czuk-Przyby?owska, Monika; Kulza, Maksymilian; Gawecki, Wojciech; Szybiak, Bartosz; Herman, Ma?gorzata; Czarnywojtek, Agata; Kurha?ska-Flisykowska, Anna; Chesy, Paulina; Szyfter, Witold; Walas, Stanis?aw; Golusi?ski, Wojciech; Szyfter, Krzysztof; Krejpcio, Zbigniew; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Parczewski, Andrzej; Florek, Ewa

2012-01-01

150

New Concepts in Median Nail Dystrophy, Onychomycosis, and Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Nail Pathology  

PubMed Central

Nails are underutilized as diagnostic tools, despite being involved in many dermatologic conditions. This paper explores new concepts in the treatment of median nail dystrophy (MND), onychomycosis, and the nail pathology of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). A Pubmed database literature search was conducted for MND treatment, onychomycosis treatment, and HFMD nail pathology. Only papers published after January 2008 were reviewed. The results showed that 0.1% tacrolimus ointment can be an effective treatment for MND. Early studies on laser therapy indicate that it is a safe and efficacious treatment option for onychomycosis, compared to conventional oral antifungal agents. Vicks VapoRub (The Proctor & Gamble Company, Cincinnati, OH) is effective against onychomycosis and is a reasonable option in patients who choose to forgo conventional treatments. Lastly, there is evidence to support a correlation between HFMD and onychomadesis.

Hoy, Nathan Y.; Leung, Alexander K. C.; Metelitsa, Andrei I.; Adams, Stewart

2012-01-01

151

Treatment of Nail Psoriasis: Common Concepts and New Trends  

PubMed Central

The lifetime incidence of nail involvement in psoriatic patients is estimated to be 80–90%, and the nails can be affected in 10% to 55% of psoriatic patients. Psoriasis may also solely involve the nails, without any other skin findings, in which the treatment can be more challenging. Nail psoriasis may lead to considerable impairment in quality of life due to aesthetic concerns and more importantly limitations in daily activities resulting from the associated pain, which may be overlooked by the physicians. Several topical and systemic treatment modalities, as well as radiation and light systems, have been used in the treatment of nail psoriasis. In the last decade, the introduction of biologic agents and the utilization of laser systems have brought a new insight into the treatment of nail psoriasis. This paper focuses on the recent advances, as well as the conventional methods, in treating nail psoriasis in adults and children, in reference to an extensive literature search.

Oram, Yasemin; Akkaya, A. Deniz

2013-01-01

152

Clinical guidelines for the recognition of melanoma of the foot and nail unit  

PubMed Central

Malignant melanoma is a life threatening skin tumour which may arise on the foot. The prognosis for the condition is good when lesions are diagnosed and treated early. However, lesions arising on the soles and within the nail unit can be difficult to recognise leading to delays in diagnosis. These guidelines have been drafted to alert health care practitioners to the early signs of the disease so an early diagnosis can be sought.

2010-01-01

153

A BIOMECHANICAL EVALUATION OF THE GAMMA NAIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effect of the Gamma nail on strain distribution in the proximal femur, using ten cadaver femora instrumented with six unidirectional strain gauges along the medial and lateral cortices. The femora were loaded to 1800 N and strains were determined with or without distal interlocking screws before and after experimentally created two-part and four-part fractures. Motion of the

SHEPHERD F. ROSENBLUM; JOSEPH D. ZUCKERMAN; FREDERICK J. KUMMER; BENJAMIN S. TAM

154

Proteomic Analysis of Human Nail Plate  

PubMed Central

Shotgun proteomic analysis of the human nail plate identified 144 proteins in samples from Causcasian volunteers. The 30 identified proteins solubilized by detergent and reducing agent, 90% of the total nail plate mass, were primarily keratins and keratin associated proteins. Keratins comprised a majority of the detergent-insoluble fraction as well, but numerous cytoplasmic, membrane and junctional proteins and histones were also identified, indicating broad use by transglutaminases of available proteins as substrates for cross-linking. Two novel membrane proteins were identified, also found in the hair shaft, for which mRNAs were detected only at very low levels by real time polymerase chain reaction in other tissues. Parallel analyses of nail samples from volunteers from Inner Mongolia, China gave essentially the same protein profiles. Comparison of the profiles of nail plate and hair shaft from the latter volunteers revealed extensive overlap of protein constituents. Analyses of samples from an arsenic-exposed population revealed few proteins whose levels were altered substantially but raised the possibility of detecting sensitive individuals in this way.

Rice, Robert H.; Xia, Yajuan; Alvarado, Rudy J.; Phinney, Brett S.

2010-01-01

155

Can the Proximal Femoral Nail be Improved?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The Proximal Femoral Nail® (PFN) has an extra hip pin in the head-neck fragment, to prevent rotation of the fracture fragments. However, this hip pin brought along two unexpected complications: medial migration and cutout. In order to reduce the risk of migration and cutout, the hip pin should bear no or minimal load. For this reason, a modified PFN

Roger K. J. Simmermacher; Tobias Hüttl; Röbi Frigg; Peter Messmer; Michael Schütz; Andreas Lenich; Chris van der Werken

2005-01-01

156

WFU Physics Demo Video: Bed of Nails  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video demonstrates that a person can stand on a bed of nails without hurting their feet due to the force being spread out over a large area. It is part of a collection of typical lecture demonstration videos put together by the physics department at Wake Forest University.

Matthews, G. E.

2011-12-19

157

Nail disorders in children: diagnosis and management.  

PubMed

Nail disorders in children can be divided into seven categories. The first is physiologic alterations, which every physician should be aware of in order to reassure parents. These usually disappear with age and do not require any treatment. Among congenital and inherited conditions, the nail-patella syndrome, with its pathognomonic triangular lunula, should not be missed as recognition of the disease allows early diagnosis of associated pathologies. The most common infection is the periungual wart, whose treatment is delicate. Herpetic whitlow should be distinguished from bacterial whitlow as their therapeutic approaches differ. Dermatologic diseases encompass eczema, psoriasis, lichen planus, lichen striatus, trachyonychia, and parakeratosis pustulosa. Lichen planus, when it presents as in adults, is important to recognize because, if not treated, it may lead to permanent nail loss. Systemic or iatrogenic nail alterations may be severe but are usually not the first clue to the diagnosis. Beau lines on several fingernails are very common in children after temperature crest. Tumors are rare in children. Radiographic examination allows confirmation of the diagnosis of subungual exostosis. Other cases should undergo biopsy. Single-digit longitudinal melanonychia in children is mostly due to nevi. Its management should be tailored on a case-by-case basis. Acute trauma should never be underestimated in children and hand surgeons should be involved if necessary. Onychophagia and onychotillomania are responsible for chronic trauma. PMID:21348541

Richert, Bertrand; André, Josette

2011-04-01

158

Assessment of Occupational Symptoms and Chemical Exposures for Nail Salon Technicians in Daegu City, Korea  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study aimed to evaluate occupational symptoms and chemical exposures of nail salon technicians. Methods Work-related symptoms of nail salon technicians in Daegu City were surveyed using a researcher-administered questionnaire, and responses were compared to those of non-exposed office workers as controls. Personal exposure level of airborne volatile organic compounds was also monitored using passive samplers. Results A total of 159 subjects in 120 salons were interviewed. Average work-shift concentrations of 13 chemicals were measured for 50 workers from 30 salons using personal passive samplers. The most frequently reported respiratory or neurologic symptoms by nail shop technicians compared to controls were nose irritation (odds ratio [OR], 54.0; confidence interval [CI], 21.6 to 134.8), followed by headache (OR, 9.3; CI, 4.7 to 18), and throat irritation (OR, 4.3; CI, 2.2 to 8.5). For eyes and skin, 92% of respondents complained eye irritation (OR, 13.1; CI, 5.7 to 30.1). In musculoskeletal symptoms, workers reported pain or discomfort in shoulders (OR, 20.3; CI, 7.7 to 54) and neck (OR, 19.7; CI, 8.9 to 43.6). From personal measurements, the proportion of exceeding the Korean Occupational Exposure Limit was the highest for acetone with 64%, followed by toluene (50%), butyl acetate (46%), and methyl methacrylate (12%). However, the service was being provided without a proper ventilation system in most surveyed shops. Conclusions Based on these findings, it is warranted to have appropriate local exhaust ventilation place to ensure adequate health protection of nail shop technicians as well as customers. At the same time, greater policy interests are warranted in nail care business to protect health of both workers and customers.

Park, Sung-Ae; Gwak, Sugyeong

2014-01-01

159

Indoor air quality survey of nail salons in Boston.  

PubMed

Employees in nail salons, largely Vietnamese immigrant women in Boston, are exposed to a range of volatile organic chemicals from the products used in salons, including solvents, glues and polishes. Some of these chemicals have the potential to cause short and long-term adverse health effects. Only limited research has been performed on assessing occupational exposures. This project aimed to characterize total volatile organic compound (TVOC) and PM2.5 concentrations in nail salons as a function of ventilation, building characteristics, customer and employee occupancy, and type of services being performed. Students conducted sampling in 21 salons in Boston, MA from September to December, 2011. Study visits included: indoor environmental quality measurements (TVOCs, PM2.5 and carbon dioxide), site observations, and an interview. CO2 levels in 15 of 21 salons exceeded 800 ppm, suggesting that these salons may have insufficient ventilation. Higher TVOC and PM2.5 levels were found in salons with less ventilation (as estimated using CO2 concentrations). Contrary to our a priori hypothesis, average levels of TVOCs, CO2 and PM2.5 were consistent throughout salons, indicating that exposures may not be restricted to areas in the salon where work is being performed (e.g., at the manicure table). Higher TVOC concentrations were observed when tasks were being performed, yet were not dependent upon the number of tasks being performed. Improving ventilation conditions in salons to meet minimum outdoor air delivery requirements can reduce exposures to TVOCs. PMID:23765035

Goldin, Laura J; Ansher, Liza; Berlin, Ariana; Cheng, Jenny; Kanopkin, Deena; Khazan, Anna; Kisivuli, Meda; Lortie, Molly; Bunker Peterson, Emily; Pohl, Laura; Porter, Sam; Zeng, Vivian; Skogstrom, Tiffany; Fragala, Matt A; Myatt, Theodore A; Stewart, James H; Allen, Joseph G

2014-06-01

160

Study to Determine the Effects of System Changes on the Productivity Level at the Nutrition Care Division Using a Total Factor Productivity Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study to determine the effects of system changes on the productivity level at the Nutrition Care Division using a Total Factor Productivity model. The productivity measures were calculated from historical data located in the Nutrition Care Division, Res...

D. S. DePastina

1994-01-01

161

Safety of botanical ingredients in personal care products/cosmetics.  

PubMed

The key issue of the safety assessment of botanical ingredients in personal care products (PCP) is the phytochemical characterisation of the plant source, data on contamination, adulteration and hazardous residues. The comparative approach used in the safety assessment of GM-plants may be applied to novel botanical PCP ingredients. Comparator(s) are the parent plant or varieties of the same species. Chemical grouping includes definition of chemical groups suitable for a read-across approach; it allows the estimation of toxicological endpoints on the basis of data from related substances (congeneric groups) with physical/chemical properties producing similar toxicities. The Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) and Dermal Sensitisation Threshold (DST) are tools for the assessment of trace substances or minor ingredients. The evaluation of skin penetration of substances present in human food is unnecessary, whereas mixtures may be assessed on the basis of physical/chemical properties of individual substances. Adverse dermal effects of botanicals include irritation, sensitisation, phototoxicity and immediate-type allergy. The experience from dietary supplements or herbal medicines showed that being natural is not equivalent to being safe. Pragmatic approaches for quality and safety standards of botanical ingredients are needed; consumer safety should be the first objective of conventional and botanical PCP ingredients. PMID:21111022

Antignac, Eric; Nohynek, Gerhard J; Re, Thomas; Clouzeau, Jacques; Toutain, Hervé

2011-02-01

162

77 FR 27421 - Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates: Amended Final Determination of Sales at Less...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates: Amended Final Determination of Sales...nails (nails) from the United Arab Emirates (UAE). In addition, the Department...Certain Steel Nails from the United Arab Emirates: Final Determination of Sales at...

2012-05-10

163

Taxonomic perspective of plant species yielding vegetable oils used in cosmetics and skin care products  

Microsoft Academic Search

A search conducted to determine the plants yielding vegetable oils resulted in 78 plant species with potential use in cosmetics and skin care products. The taxonomic position of these plant species is described with a description of vegetable oils from these plants and their use in cosmetics and skin care products. These species belonged to 74 genera and 45 plant

Mohammad Athar; Syed Mahmood Nasir

164

New developments in magnetic resonance imaging of the nail unit.  

PubMed

The evolution of dedicated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) musculoskeletal equipment allows new sequences and better images of the nail unit. The use of MRI has modified the imaging strategies used in treating inflammatory arthritis. In the case of psoriatic arthritis (PsA), the MRI study of the nail unit identifies nail involvement, which appears as an initial lesion for the induction of distal phalanx damage and consequently of distal interphalangeal joint arthritis. All patients with psoriasis, even in the absence of a clinically evident onychopathy, show characteristic MRI changes in the nail. This evidence could have a practical diagnostic value, because MRI study of the nail could document diagnosis in patients with undifferentiated spondyloarthropathies who have a barely evident psoriasis. We discuss the advantages and problems related to the use of low-field and high-field MRI in the study of the nail unit of patients with PsA. PMID:22751592

Soscia, Ernesto; Sirignano, Cesare; Catalano, Onofrio; Atteno, Mariangela; Costa, Luisa; Caso, Francesco; Peluso, Rosario; Bruner, Vincenzo; Aquino, Maria Maddalena; Del Puente, Antonio; Salvatore, Marco; Scarpa, Raffaele

2012-07-01

165

How to predict requisite nail length in tibial fractures.  

PubMed

In a retrospective study involving 59 patients, a regression equation between nail length and body weight has been computed as follows: nail length = -5.05729 + 0.222 x body height (probability value for intercept P = 0.24327 and slope P = 0.0000). Graphic analysis of the residuals gave a randomly scattered blob of data points. Validation of the equation in 12 patients showed an average difference between actual and derived nail length of -0.09 (SD 0.93, minimum -1.57, maximum 1.42). It can be stated that in most cases of intramedullary tibial nailing, the length of nail required can be predicted by the regression equation using the available manufactured nail of the size nearest in length to the derived length or the next size up or down. PMID:7917710

Fischmeister, M F; Lang, T; Reichl, C; Wechselberger, C

1994-01-01

166

Computational comparison of reamed versus unreamed intramedullary tibial nails.  

PubMed

We compared, via a computational model, the biomechanical performance of reamed versus unreamed intramedullary tibial nails to treat fractures in three different locations: proximal, mid-diaphyseal, and distal. Two finite element models were analyzed for the two nail types and the three kinds of fractures. Several biomechanical variables were determined: interfragmentary strains in the fracture site, von Mises stresses in nails and bolts, and strain distributions in the tibia and fibula. Although good mechanical stabilization was achieved in all the simulated fractures, the best results were obtained in the proximal fracture for the unreamed nail and in the mid-diaphyseal and distal fractures for the reamed nail. The interlocking bolts, in general, were subjected to higher stresses in the unreamed tibial nail than in the reamed one; thus the former stabilization technique is more likely to fail due to fatigue. PMID:17089377

Gómez-Benito, María José; Fornells, Pere; García-Aznar, José Manuel; Seral, Belén; Seral-Iñnigo, Fernando; Doblaré, Manuel

2007-02-01

167

76 FR 52313 - Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates: Postponement of Preliminary Determination of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates: Postponement of Preliminary Determination...investigation on nails from the United Arab Emirates. See Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...

2011-08-22

168

Prenatal care and birthweight production: evidence from South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research using US data has shown that increases in prenatal care have positive effects on birthweight and that the existence of unobserved health heterogeneity tends to reduce the measured effect of prenatal care. This study extends extant research to the South American countries of Bolivia, Brazil, Columbia and Peru using data from the demographic and health surveys, finding a positive

R. Todd Jewell

2007-01-01

169

[A woman with polyneuropathy and white nails].  

PubMed

A 69-year-old woman had a progressive demyelinating and axonal polyneuropathy and a monoclonal gammopathy. Physical examination showed hyperpigmentation, acrocyanosis, white nails and pitting oedema. Additional tests showed polycythemia, thrombocytosis, a high serum VEGF-level, clonal plasma cells on bone marrow biopsy and sclerotic lesions of a cervical rib and the cervical and thoracal spine. POEMS-syndrome was diagnosed. PMID:24642120

van der Meijden, Wilbert A G; Alsma, Jelmer; van Doorn, Pieter A

2014-01-01

170

An algorithm for ordering subgoals in NAIL?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rule-goal graphs are the central data structures used in the NAIL? system, a knowledge-base system being developed at Stanford University They are constructed while testing the applicability of capture rules, and traversed while generating ICODE to evaluate queries. Generating rule-goal graphs may be reduced to the problem of ordering subgoals. This paper gives an algorithm for generating rule-goal graphs efficiently,

Katherine A. Morris

1988-01-01

171

Cephalomedullary nailing for proximal femoral fractures.  

PubMed

From May 1999 to April 2002, we treated 14 patients with subtrochanteric femoral fractures and seven patients with ipsilateral fractures of the femoral neck and shaft using a second-generation cephalomedullary interlocked nail. Patients mean age was 36 (20-60) years, and 19 fractures were caused by high-energy trauma. Four patients had associated injuries. The average follow-up was 23 (16-30) months. Per-operatively, we had problems in locating the entry portal in four patients, and one nail was driven through the inter-condylar notch. All fractures except two united. One patient had non-union of the femoral neck and one of both neck and shaft. One patient united with shortening of more than 1.5 cm and varus angulation at the fracture site. Two patients had loosening and backing out of the proximal screw. The second-generation cephalomedullary nail is a suitable treatment option for proximal femoral fractures, but it requires a high degree of accuracy and technical expertise. PMID:15647914

Kakkar, Rahul; Kumar, S; Singh, A K

2005-02-01

172

Fe distribution and speciation in human nails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro-X-ray Fluorescence (?-XRF) and Fe-K edge micro-X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (?-XANES) spectroscopies are applied for the study of the distribution and the spatially-resolved bonding environment of Fe in human nails. The ?-XRF maps reveal that Fe forms islands where its concentration is up to six times higher than in the rest of the sample. Comparison of the map characteristics of two nails that belong to healthy and ill donors (affected by lung cancer), reveals that there is no significant variation in the size distribution of the Fe-rich inclusions contrary to their spatial density which is found higher in the nail of the ill donor. However, a relation between the variations of the spatial density and the illness can not be established due to the small number of the studied samples. The analysis of the Fe-K ?-XANES spectra reveals that the bonding environment of Fe varies between the samples and between different spots of the same sample with different Fe concentration. The characteristics of the pre-edge peak in the Fe-K XANES spectra indicate the presence of both Fe +3 and Fe +2 that participate in the formation of distorted octahedra. Finally, the area under the pre-edge peak depends linearly on the position of the absorption edge indicating variation of the Fe ligation between the samples and/or between different spots in the same sample.

Katsikini, M.; Pinakidou, F.; Mavromati, E.; Paloura, E. C.; Gioulekas, D.; Grolimund, D.

2010-02-01

173

Genetic disorders of palm skin and nail  

PubMed Central

The outer part of the skin, the epidermis, is specialized to protect the human body from its environment. Because of the high levels of physical stress experienced by the human hand in everyday use, the epidermis of the hand is especially toughened. In particular, the epidermis of the palm is highly specialized to resist mechanical trauma. Like the epidermis, the nails are composed of specialized epithelial cells and are especially strong. In recent years it has become apparent that the physical strength of epithelial cells comes from the keratin cytoskeleton – a dense meshwork of filaments extending throughout the cytoplasm. Keratins are a large family of intermediate filament proteins encoded by more than 50 distinct genes in humans. These different keratin genes are expressed in well-defined combinations in specific epithelial tissues. Several keratin genes are expressed in palmoplantar epidermis and in the stratified epithelia of the nail bed. Genetic mutations in these genes lead to fragility of these tissues and result in a range of genetic disorders characterized by blistering and thickening of palm and sole skin and/or nails. Study of these diseases has shed new light on the vital structural role of keratins in maintaining the integrity of epithelial cells.

McLean, WH Irwin

2003-01-01

174

Novel treatment using thioglycolic acid for pincer nails.  

PubMed

The authors developed a novel treatment using thioglycolic acid (TGA) to chemically soften pincer nails. The objective was to describe a new treatment method for pincer nails by applying TGA to soften the nail and then fix it in the correct position. A total of 104 patients (nine men and 95 women; mean age, 56 years) with 106 pincer nails underwent our treatment. A small hole was made on the markedly incurvated side of the pincer nail, and a super-elastic wire was inserted into the hole and bent backwards; 5% TGA was then applied for 6-7 h prior to reduction. Favorable reduction was achieved in 66% of patients within 1 day of the procedure, in 30% within 2-4 days and in 4% 5 days or more later. No patient required surgery. No post-procedure infection, rash, continuous pain or nail cut out was evident. In eight cases, recurrences of nail deformity were observed within the 1-year follow-up period. Our novel method, which consists of administrating TGA via a hole in the nail plate, is a useful treatment for pincer nails. PMID:22963208

Okada, Kikuzo; Okada, Eijiro

2012-12-01

175

Diagnosis and management of nail disorders in children.  

PubMed

The authors herein describe several nail conditions, which the general pediatrician is likely to encounter in the course of routine practice. Because pediatric nail disorders represent a limited component of a general pediatric practice, it can be challenging for practitioners to establish expertise in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions and to recognize when reassurance is appropriate or when referral to a specialist is necessary. This article summarizes the anatomy of the normal nail unit, as well as the evaluation and management of onychomycosis, melanonychia, trachyonychia, onychomadesis, and nail pitting. PMID:24636647

Chu, Derek H; Rubin, Adam I

2014-04-01

176

Nail-preserving excision for subungual glomus tumour of the hand.  

PubMed

Abstract Subungual glomus tumours can cause excruciating pain and nail deformity. Conventional surgical excision requires nail removal and, therefore, nail deformity often occurs. Because nail preservation prevents further damage to the nail bed, it is beneficial for patients from the perspectives of pain and cosmesis. Here, the authors introduce a nail-preserving transungual approach for subungual glomus tumours. Between 1996-2010, 34 patients were treated using this nail-preserving transungual approach for the excision of a subungual glomus tumour and were followed up. Preoperatively, all patients complained of pain (mean visual analogue scale (VAS) 8.9), and seven of the 34 patients presented concomitant nail deformities. During surgeries, nails were elevated after incising nail folds, and tumours were excised after a longitudinal nail bed incision. Elevated nails were relocated to their original position after nail bed repair. Thirty-two of the 34 patients achieved complete recovery without sign of recurrence. Mean postoperative pain was reduced (VAS 0.9, range = 0-2), and preoperative nail deformity was also improved. The nail preserving transungual approach provides several advantages, that is, better nail bed exposure, resulting in easier tumour excision, and less damage to the nail bed with less deformity of the nail. PMID:24256308

Lee, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Poong-Taek; Kyung, Hee-Soo; Kim, Hyung-Sub; Jeon, In-Ho

2014-06-01

177

Effects of different broiler production systems on health care costs in the Netherlands.  

PubMed

This study analyzed the effects of different broiler production systems on health care costs in the Netherlands. In addition to the conventional production system, the analysis also included 5 alternative animal welfare systems representative of the Netherlands. The study was limited to the most prevalent and economically relevant endemic diseases in the broiler farms. Health care costs consisted of losses and expenditures. The study investigated whether higher animal welfare standards increased health care costs, in both absolute and relative terms, and also examined which cost components (losses or expenditures) were affected and, if so, to what extent. The results show that health care costs represent only a small proportion of total production costs in each production system. Losses account for the major part of health care costs, which makes it difficult to detect the actual effect of diseases on total health care costs. We conclude that, although differences in health care costs exist across production systems, health care costs only make a minor contribution to the total production costs relative to other costs, such as feed costs and purchase of 1-d-old chicks. PMID:24879680

Gocsik, E; Kortes, H E; Lansink, A G J M Oude; Saatkamp, H W

2014-06-01

178

Nail bed expansion: A new technique for correction of multiple isolated congenital micronychia  

PubMed Central

Congenital micronychia may involve big toes or may involve other nails. The etiology of micronychia is not clear but amniotic bands, teratogens (drugs, alcohol), Nail Patella Syndrome etc. A 44-year-old woman with multiple isolated congenital micronychia over her hands and feet was selected. The major affected nails were thumbs and Index fingers. Surgical method were done step by step: Anesthesia of the area, extraction of short nail, elevation of nail bed, longitudinal nail bed incisions, suturing the lateral nail bed to the nail wall, covering the nail bed by a splint of plastic suction tube, bandage with gauze Vaseline. Finally, we hypnotized that in congenital micronychia, the main pathology is in nail bed; through this theory by nail bed expansion better outcomes are coming.

Ghaffarpour, Gholamhossein; Faghihi, Alireza; Ghasemi, Mohammadreza; Ghaffarpour, Gelareh

2014-01-01

179

Nail bed expansion: A new technique for correction of multiple isolated congenital micronychia.  

PubMed

Congenital micronychia may involve big toes or may involve other nails. The etiology of micronychia is not clear but amniotic bands, teratogens (drugs, alcohol), Nail Patella Syndrome etc. A 44-year-old woman with multiple isolated congenital micronychia over her hands and feet was selected. The major affected nails were thumbs and Index fingers. Surgical method were done step by step: Anesthesia of the area, extraction of short nail, elevation of nail bed, longitudinal nail bed incisions, suturing the lateral nail bed to the nail wall, covering the nail bed by a splint of plastic suction tube, bandage with gauze Vaseline. Finally, we hypnotized that in congenital micronychia, the main pathology is in nail bed; through this theory by nail bed expansion better outcomes are coming. PMID:24804179

Ghaffarpour, Gholamhossein; Faghihi, Alireza; Ghasemi, Mohammadreza; Ghaffarpour, Gelareh

2014-01-01

180

Rotational malalignment after intramedullary nailing of femoral fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: Intramedullary nailing has been accepted as the treatment of choice for femoral shaft fractures. The aim of our study was to determine the incidence and implications of rotational malalignment after intramedullary nailing using computed tomography measurements. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Patients who postoperatively visited the orthopaedic outpatient and radiology clinics. PATIENTS: Seventy-six patients, 59 men and 17 women, with

R. L. Jaarsma; D. F. M. Pakvis; N. J. J. Verdonschot; J. Biert; A. van Kampen

2004-01-01

181

How to predict requisite nail length in tibial fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a retrospective study involving 59 patients, a regression equation between nail length and body height has been computed as follows: nail length = -5.05729 + 0.222 × body height (probability value for intercept P = 0.24327 and slope P = 0.0000). Graphic analysis of the residuals gave a randomly scattered blob of data points. Validation of the equation in

M. F. Fischmeister; T. Lang; C. Reichl; C. Wechselberger

1994-01-01

182

Femoral neck fracture: a complication of femoral nailing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fracture of the shaft of the femur in adults is common after road traffic accidents. Until recently it was not known that a fracture of the femoral neck can occur while fixing the femoral shaft fracture with an intramedullary nail. We report three patients in whom femoral neck fractures occurred during femoral nailing. Fractures of the femoral neck were

F. A. Khan; M. A. Ikram; A. A. Badr; H. Al-Khawashki

1995-01-01

183

Extending the Indication of Intramedullary Nailing of Tibial Fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intramedullary nailing is an effective and well-established method for the treatment of a wide spectrum of tibial fractures.\\u000a Nevertheless, the handling of metaphyseal and open fracture remains challenging. Surgical and technical advancements have\\u000a opened up new possibilities to broaden the indication of intramedullary nailing in these areas.

Sebastian Kuhn; Matthias Hansen; Pol M. Rommens

2007-01-01

184

Hair, nail, and pigment changes in major systemic disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the nail, hair, and pigment changes caused by systemic diseases will be reviewed. Among the subjects discussed are abnormalities of shape, attachments, surface, and color of the nails; hair alterations such as telogen and anagen effluvium, scarring alopecia, hypertrichosis, and hirsutism; and pigment changes due to connective tissue disorders, sarcoidosis, and metabolic and endocrinologic diseases, among others.

Marcia Ramos-e-Silva; Melissa Chaves Azevedo-e-Silva; Sueli Coclho Carneiro

2008-01-01

185

Evaluating a county-based Healthy nail Salon Recognition Program  

EPA Science Inventory

To determine whether nail solons that participate in the SF recognition program have reduced measured levels of toluene, methyl methacrylate (MMA), and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC)as compared to nail salons that do not participate. We also evaluated changes in worker ...

186

Visualisation of human characteristics in vehicle and health care product development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the research project described in this paper is to improve the efficiency of product development processes by exchanging knowledge and experiences about user centred design methods and technologies between the two branches: vehicle and health care industries. The health care industry can benefit from visualisation and simulation tools that include computer manikins, a physical representation of the

Mikael Blomé; Maria Jönsson; Daniel Lundström; CARAN AB; Dan Högberg

187

The productivity of mental health care: an instrumental variable approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Like many other medical technologies and treatments, there is a lack of reliable evidence on treatment effectiveness of mental health care. Increasingly, data from non-experimental settings are being used to study the effect of treatment. However, as in a number of studies using non-experimental data, a simple regression of outcome on treatment shows a puzzling negative and significant impact

Mingshan Lu

1999-01-01

188

Yellow-nail syndrome: report of three cases.  

PubMed Central

The yellow nail syndrome, a combination of yellow discolouration of and dystrophic changes in the nails, pleural effusions and lymphedema, is thought to be relatively rare; to date 44 cases have been reported. Of a further three patients with this syndrome, one had all three features, one had the yellow nails alone and the other had pleural effusions and lymphedema without classic nail changes. Each had recurrent lower respiratory tract infections; and of all 47, chronic pulmonary infections occurred in approximately one quarter and were frequently associated with chronic sinus infections. The underlying abnormality is presumed to be a congenital defect of the lymphatics, but so far this has not been demonstrated to be the cause of the nail changes, the pathogenesis of which remains obscure. Images FIG. 1

Nakielna, E. M.; Wilson, J.; Ballon, H. S.

1976-01-01

189

PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS AS UBIQUITOUS POLLUTANTS FROM PERSONAL USE AND ACTIVITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Perhaps more so than with any other class of pollutants, the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPS) in the environment highlights the immediate, intimate, and inseparable connection between the individual activities of consumers and their environment. In...

190

Nail DNA and Possible Biomarkers: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Nail has been a substitute DNA source for genotyping. To investigate the integrity and consistency of nail DNA amplification for biomarker study, nail clippings from 12 subjects were collected at monthly intervals. The possibility of longer amplification and existence of GAPDH RNA/protein, were also investigated with three nail samples. Methods Three primer sets were designed for quantitative amplification of nuclear and mitochondrial genes and analysis of their consistency. The mean threshold cycles in amplification of the target genes were compared to test the consistency of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) performance among individual factors including age groups, sex, family, the nail source, and by the size of the amplification segments. Results The amplification of the target genes from nail DNA showed similar integrity and consistency between the nail sources, and among the serial collections. However, nail DNA from those in their forties showed earlier threshold cycles in amplification than those in their teens or seventies. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) showed better DNA integrity and consistency in amplification of all three targets than did nuclear DNA (nucDNA). Over 9 kb of mtDNA was successfully amplified, and nested quantitative PCR showed reliable copy numbers (%) between the two loci. Reverse transcription PCR for mRNA and immunoblotting for GAPDH protein successfully reflected their corresponding amounts. Regarding the existence of RNA and protein in nails, more effective extraction and detection methods need to be set up to validate the feasibility in biomarker study. Conclusions Nail DNA might be a feasible intra-individual monitoring biomarker. Considering integrity and consistency in target amplification, mtDNA would be a better target for biomarker research than nucDNA.

Park, Joshua; Liang, Debbie; Kim, Jung Woo; Luo, Yongjun; Huang, Taesheng; Kim, Soo-Young

2012-01-01

191

Impact of a Healthy Nails Program on Nail-Biting in Turkish Schoolchildren: A Controlled Pretest-Posttest Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to examine the effect of a healthy nails program on nail-biting in Turkish schoolchildren. This quasi-experimental study was of pretest-posttest control group design. A total of 50 students of a primary school formed the intervention group, while 53 students from the same school formed the control group. Data were…

Ergun, Ayse; Toprak, Rumeysa; Sisman, Fatma Nevin

2013-01-01

192

Optimizing the use of blood products in trauma care  

PubMed Central

Blood transfusion has been used to treat the injured since the US Civil War. Now, it saves the lives of tens of thousands of injured patients each year. However, not everyone who receives blood benefits, and some recipients are injured by the transfusion itself. Effective blood therapy in trauma management requires an integration of information from diverse sources, including data relating to trauma and blood use epidemiology, medical systems management, and clinical care. Issues of current clinical concern in highly developed trauma systems include how to manage massive transfusion events, how to limit blood use and so minimize exposure to transfusion risks, how to integrate new hemorrhage control modalities, and how to deal with blood shortages. Less developed trauma systems are primarily concerned with speeding transport to specialized facilities and assembling trauma center resources. This article reviews the factors that effect blood use in urgent trauma care.

2005-01-01

193

Unusual Complications during Removal of Intramedullary Nails after Lower Leg Fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients and Methods: Between January 1995 and December 1999, 279 fractures of the lower leg were stabilized by crural intramedullary nailing (ACE® interlocking nails, DePuy). Only under certain circumstances was the medullary cavity reamed. This paper reports on ten patients with whom unusual complications arose during nail removal. Results: In two cases, the nail jammed in the fracture callus during

Ewa F. Folwaczny; Klaus Michael Stürmer

2001-01-01

194

Three dimensional finite difference analysis of soil-nailed walls under static conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil nailing has been extensively used as an efficient method for improving stability of slopes. There are many different approaches including limit equilibrium methods to understand soil-nailed wall behaviour under static loading conditions. Having three construction stages involved in soil nailing construction (excavation, nail installation and face stabilization), in the framework of a numerical approach, the present study aimed to

A. M. Halabian; A. M. Sheikhbahaei; S. H. Hashemolhosseini

2012-01-01

195

Take Care of Your Feet for a Lifetime  

MedlinePLUS

... an infection. 4 Gently rub calluses with a pumice stone. 5 5 If you can see, reach, ... to take care of your feet: nail clippers, pumice stone, emery board, skin lotion, talcum powder, plastic ...

196

L'Entretien des Machines Agricoles (Farm Machinery Care).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The translation of an English publication titled 'Machinery Care Project D Units' covers the following: Knowledge of parts used in machinery; The importance of screws and bolts, nuts, wrenches, their size, the different size of nails, their different shap...

1979-01-01

197

Failure of knee arthroplasty secondary to inadequate technique in cephalomedullary nailing of a subtrochanteric hip fracture.  

PubMed

A case of total knee replacement loosening caused by a failed cephalomedullary nail is presented. The nail was inserted for the treatment of an unstable subtrochanteric femoral fracture. The distal locking screw of the nail subsequently fractured allowing the leg to shorten and causing the nail to displace the femoral component of the knee replacement leading to a valgus alignment and deformity of the knee. In order to revise the knee the long ? nail had to be replaced by a shorter nail to allow a femoral component with a long stem to be used. This case illustrates the importance of using shorter nails in patients with prosthetic knees. PMID:22602840

Clement, Rhys Gareth Ellis; Burnett, Richard

2012-01-01

198

The oral environment: the challenge for antimicrobials in oral care products.  

PubMed

For any antibacterial/ anti-plaque system from an oral care product to be effective, it must firstly be delivered and retained at relevant sites in the oral cavity and secondly, remain active within the chosen formulation to successfully target the biofilm cells within dental plaque. This must include inhibition of the growth and metabolism of relevant organisms associated with disease. This review will concentrate on understanding the environmental conditions in which such oral care products must work and summarise the activity within the oral cavity of the main antibacterial and anti-plaque agents in common oral care products, namely chlorhexidine, essential oils, metal salts and Triclosan. Routes to further enhance the activity of these products, together with the use of relatively novel formats such as confectionery products to provide added consumer oral health benefits will be considered. PMID:14725379

Brading, M G; Marsh, P D

2003-12-01

199

Malignant melanoma masqueraded as ingrown toe nail.  

PubMed

We report a case in a 62-year-old female who presented with a year history of dull aching pain of the left big toe, which was aggravated by pressure on the nail and relieved by analgesia. Tissue biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of malignant melanoma. There was a black colour swelling about 3x8 mm in size over the medial side of the dorsum of left big toe with a scar of previous operation. Histopathological examination showed on gross section of 2 blackish area one infiltrate the bone the other the tumour not infiltrate the proximal interphalangial joint with another satellite lesion 20mm from main tumour area was found. Malignant cells were large with abundant cytoplasm, hyperchromatic nuclei and some prominent eosinophilic nucleoli. Melanin pigment was markedly seen. The big toe was amputated. We here highlight a case where the patient was diagnosed and managed as having ingrown nail of the left big toe while in actual fact she had a subungual amelanotic melanoma. PMID:24589950

Adnan, A; Bajuri, M Y; Shukur, M H; Subanesh, S; Das, S

2014-01-01

200

Nail Biting; Etiology, Consequences and Management  

PubMed Central

Nail biting (NB) is a common, but unresolved, problem in psychiatry, psychology, medicine and dentistry. While it seems that NB is a simple behavior that can be stopped easily, many of the children with NB have already tried to stop it, but they have not been successful. The frustrations due to failed attempt involve others such as parents and siblings. The present review aims at providing an overview of prevalence, co-morbidities, education and counseling, and management for NB. Overall, the reviewed literatures suggest that co-morbidities of psychiatric disorders and other stereotypic behaviors in clinical sample of children with NB is more than 80%, and more than half of the parents suffer from psychiatric disorders mainly depression. Treatment of NB, however, is not as easy as it seems. The management of NB is much more complicated than just focusing on stopping it. Nail biting cannot be managed without considering its co-morbidities, antecedents and consequences. It might be concluded form the reviewed literature that children with NB, parents, siblings, and teachers should be educated about what to do and what not to do about NB. Punishment is not effective. Moreover, clinical randomized controlled trials are required to make available evidence-based behavioral and pharmacologic treatment protocols.

Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

2011-01-01

201

A nail drilling method suitable for the diagnosis of onychomycosis.  

PubMed

We describe a nail drilling method suitable for the diagnosis of onychomycosis. Thirty-three patients with onychomycosis in which the big toenail had a white band or spike were enrolled in this study. We drilled a hole about 3-mm-wide in the most proximal part of the white band or spike using a ball-shaped metal file and then, through the hole, sampled the underlying nail material softened by fungi after removing the superficial hard nail plate. Fungi in 32 (97.0%) of the nail samples were detected by direct KOH examination. When incubated on Sabouraud's dextrose agar slant with chloramphenicol and cycloheximide, fungal cultures were obtained from 27 (81.8%) of the 33 nail samples. Fourteen of the fungal isolates were identified as T. rubrum, 11 as T. mentagrophytes, and 2 as Acremonium sp. The nail drilling method is suitable for diagnosing onychomycosis with a white band or spike, because it gives a high isolation rate and leaves the patients' nail relatively more intact compared with other methods. PMID:15906540

Mochizuki, Takashi; Kawasaki, Masako; Tanabe, Hiroshi; Ishizaki, Hiroshi

2005-02-01

202

"INGROWN" NAILS AND OTHER TOENAIL PROBLEMS--Surgical Treatment  

PubMed Central

Appropriate office treatment for “ingrown” or deformed toenails can bring quick and lasting relief. The principle is the removal of the portion of the nail that irritates. For mild problems, a buried nail corner or spur may be successfully trimmed away without anesthesia. More extensive infection requires a nerve block anesthetic of the toe and removal of a wide triangle of deformity with nail edge and the mass of heaped up granulations. Chronic or recurrent infection is often associated with some abnormality of the nail. It usually saves time and suffering in the long run to remove a third or so of the width of the nail together with its matrix or “root.” Sharp dissection is relatively easy and far more dependable than other methods of removal or destruction of the matrix. The matrix of the entire nail can be removed just as easily to eliminate such problems as the grossly thickened nail of onychogryphosis. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.

Johnstone, Marshall W.

1962-01-01

203

Successful treatment of onychomycosis with ciclopirox nail lacquer: a case report.  

PubMed

Onychomycosis commonly causes patients to seek medical care. Its unpleasant cosmetic appearance and negative impact on a patient's quality of life often prompt these visits. Onychomycosis rarely resolves spontaneously and has a high rate of recurrence. Although a variety of treatment options are available, inconsistent results and poor patient compliance have often hindered their success. We report the case of a 75-year-old man with moderate-to-severe onychomycosis who was treated successfully with ciclopirox nail lacquer solution 8%, the first topical antifungal agent approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of this disease. PMID:11665725

Galitz, J

2001-08-01

204

Yellow nail syndrome presenting with postpartum massive pleural effusion.  

PubMed

Yellow nail syndrome (YNS) is an uncommon clinical syndrome characterized by yellow-green discoloration of nails and recurrent respiratory tract lesions, pleural effusions and lymphedema. A 38-year-old woman was referred to the emergency complaining of chronic cough and increasing dyspnea within last 2 weeks. She had given birth 1 month ago. On examination, the patient exhibited dystrophic yellowish nails and mild peripheral lymphedema. A chest roentgenogram revealed a large right pleural effusion and a small left pleural effusion. YNS is a rare clinical entity but should be taken into consideration in patients with massive pleural effusions and persistent lymphedemas on the postpartum period. PMID:24279775

Günbatar, Hülya; Sertogullarindan, Bunyamin; Ekin, Selami; Arisoy, Ahmet; Ozkol, Hatice Uce

2014-07-01

205

Devices and methods for interlocking surgical screws and nails  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention demonstrates an improved interlocking nail and screw combination to repair fracture bones. The preferred combination uses an hourglass shaped intramedullary nail wherein the larger ends of the nail have holes capable of receiving screws. The holes may, or may not be conical. Further, the holes may or may not be threaded. The surgical screws have a variety of thread patterns, or lack threads. A non-threaded end is believed to improve healing because of a larger core diameter as compared to a comparably sized threaded screw end.

2013-05-07

206

Safety evaluation of perfluoropolyethers, liquid polymers used in barrier creams and other skin-care products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fomblin HC products area ‘family’ of high-purity perfluoropolyethers manufactured for barrier cream and other personal care applications which involve direct application to the skin. To confirm the safety of such use, representative Fomblin HC products were tested in experimental animals for acute toxicity, primary and repeated insult irritancy, sensitization and photosensitization, subacute oral toxicity and comedogenicity; mutagenicity was examined in

G. Malinverno; G. Pantini; J. Bootman

1996-01-01

207

Conservative treatment of a femoral neck fracture following nail removal.  

PubMed

With increased longevity, the management of fragility fractures in the elderly is becoming more frequent. In particular, hip fractures have considerable importance due to the significant morbidity and mortality. A 67-year-old woman underwent intramedullary nail (IMN) removal inserted for a pertrochanteric fracture that had occurred 20 months earlier. This was indicated due to continuous discomfort related to the protruding apex of the implant over the great trochanter. Due to pain persistence two days after surgery, a computed tomography (CT) scan was performed, documenting a minimally displaced impacted subcapital femoral neck fracture. Conservative management with close radiographic follow-up was conducted. After six months, the patient had returned to previous daily activities and a satisfactory range of motion was achieved without pain on walking. The purpose of our paper is to discuss the decision of removing hardware in the elderly osteoporotic patient and to analyze the possibility to conservatively treat an impacted minimally displaced subcapital fracture occurring after the removal of an IMN inserted previously for the treatment of a trochanteric fracture. In the elderly population with decreased bone quality, the removal of intramedullary implants of the proximal femur should be carefully evaluated, and osteoporotic patients undergoing reduction and fixation of femoral fractures should be encouraged to start antiosteoporotic therapy (bisphosphonate, teriparatide) to reduce the risk of further bone loss. Conservative treatment should be considered for the management of lesser symptomatic minimally displaced impacted fractures, where the inherent stability of the fracture allows rapid healing without further surgical attempts. PMID:24672194

Legnani, Claudio; Dondi, Alessandra; Pietrogrande, Luca

2013-07-01

208

Antifungal activity, experimental infections and nail permeation of an innovative ciclopirox nail lacquer based on a water-soluble biopolymer.  

PubMed

P-3051 is an innovative 8% ciclopirox nail lacquer, based on hydroxypropyl chitosan (HPCH) as a film-forming agent. The authors' aim was to investigate P-3051's in vitro antifungal activity, as well as its in vitro and in vivo nail permeation. The dilution susceptibility tests performed for Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum) and Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis) showed that the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of P-3051, as percent of ciclopirox, was for both fungi < or = 0.0015% (equivalent to a concentration of 15.6 mg/ ml). In the biological assay of in vitro nail permeation and fungal inhibition, the authors observed that P-3051 permeated well through bovine hoof membranes and produced dose-dependent inhibitory effects on dermatophyte, yeast and mold strains. Moreover, the inhibition effects were higher than those obtained by equal amounts of the ciclopirox reference nail lacquer. P-3051 and the reference showed the same protective activity in experimental infections with strains of dermatophytes isolated from clinical samples. The amount of ciclopirox remained in cut fingernails washed six hours after in vivo application of P-3051 ranged between 18 and 35% of the applied dose. After in vitro application to cut human nails, 40-50% of the applied ciclopirox penetrated during the first six hours, independent of nails being infected or uninfected, intact or filed. In both experiments, the concentration of ciclopirox is largely higher (three to four orders of magnitude) than the MICs for nail pathogens. PMID:20480796

Togni, Giuseppe; Mailland, Federico

2010-05-01

209

77 FR 17029 - Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates: Final Determination of Sales at Less...nails (nails) from the United Arab Emirates are being, or are likely to be, sold...investigation of nails from the United Arab Emirates. See Certain Steel Nails from the...

2012-03-23

210

Measuring the productive efficiency and clinical quality of institutional long-term care for the elderly.  

PubMed

The authors consider the association between productive efficiency and clinical quality in institutional long-term care for the elderly. Cross-sectional data were collected from 122 wards in health-centre hospitals and residential homes in Finland in 2001. Productive efficiency was measured in terms of technical efficiency, which was defined as the unit's distance from the (best practice) production frontier. The analysis employed stochastic production frontier estimation, where technical inefficiency in the production function was specified to be a function of ward characteristics and clinical quality of care. Several quality indicators based on the Resident Assessment Instrument, such as prevalence of pressure ulcers and depression with no treatment, were used in the analysis. The results did not reveal systematic association between technical efficiency and clinical quality of care. However, the prevalence of pressure ulcers, indicating poor quality of care was associated with technical efficiency, a fact which highlights the importance of including quality measures in the assessment of efficiency in long-term care. PMID:15386654

Laine, Juha; Linna, Miika; Häkkinen, Unto; Noro, Anja

2005-03-01

211

The effect of federal grants on medical schools' production of primary care physicians.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES. Title VII of the Health Professions Educational Assistance Act of 1976 was created to encourage the production of primary care physicians. This study explored recent trends in the proportion of US medical school graduates entering primary care in relationship to Title VII funding. METHODS. The American Medical Association Physician Masterfile was used to determine the specialty choice of all students graduating from American medical schools between 1960 and 1985. RESULTS. The proportion of graduates entering primary care rose from 19.7% in 1967 to 31.1% in 1976 and remained stable for the subsequent decade. The increase occurred before implementation of Title VII. Rural, state-owned medical schools with departments of family medicine tend to produce a greater proportion of primary care physicians than urban private schools without family medicine departments. CONCLUSIONS. The values of American medical schools and the reward structure of American medical practice favor the production of specialists over primary care physicians. Although Title VII helped to encourage and sustain the development of primary care educational programs at both the medical student and graduate levels, an increase in the proportion of primary care physicians will require fundamental changes.

Rosenblatt, R A; Whitcomb, M E; Cullen, T J; Lishner, D M; Hart, L G

1993-01-01

212

Survey of Organosilicone Compounds, Including Cyclic and Linear Siloxanes, in Personal-Care and Household Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The determination of organosiloxanes in consumer products is important for the evaluation and characterization of sources\\u000a of human and environmental exposures. In this study, we determined concentrations of cyclic siloxanes [octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane\\u000a (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6)], tetradecamethylcycloheptasiloxane (D7)] and linear siloxanes (L4 to L14) in a variety of consumer products (n = 76), including hair-care products, skin lotions, body washes, cosmetics, nursing

Yuichi Horii; Kurunthachalam Kannan

2008-01-01

213

14. Detail view of the old rotating nail case and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Detail view of the old rotating nail case and glass display cases now located in the second floor meeting room; looking southeast. - Horsepasture Store, U.S. Route 58 & State Route 687, Horse Pasture, Henry County, VA

214

23. INTERIOR VIEW, SIDE FLOOR, SHOWING THE BANK OF NAIL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. INTERIOR VIEW, SIDE FLOOR, SHOWING THE BANK OF NAIL CUTTING MACHINES WITH FOUR IN OPERATION (NOTE WALL OF OLD SECTION, BLACKSMITH'S SHOP, IN BACKGROUND) - LaBelle Iron Works, Thirtieth & Wood Streets, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

215

24. INTERIOR VIEW, SIDE FLOOR SHOWING BANK OF NAIL CUTTING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. INTERIOR VIEW, SIDE FLOOR SHOWING BANK OF NAIL CUTTING MACHINES WITH FEEDER GETTING READY TO REMOVE SPENT FEEDER ROD AND INSERT NEW FEEDER ROD - LaBelle Iron Works, Thirtieth & Wood Streets, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

216

6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT OUTSIDE CANAL BANK. VIEW IS TO THE WEST. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

217

Soil Nailing for Stabilization of Highway Slopes and Excavations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the findings of a comprehensive research study to evaluate, summarize, interpret and extend the state of the art in soil nailing design and technology. The report also provides construction control guidelines and specifications for pro...

I. Juran V. Elias

1991-01-01

218

Biomechanical analysis of the mechanism of interlocking nail failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

From December 1986 to May 1989, 412 patients with 274 femoral and 144 tibial fractures were treated with Grosse-Kempf interlocking nails at our hospital. 324 cases (78.6%) were followed-up for at least 1 year (average 23 months). There were 13 breakages in the locking nails in femora and none in tibiae. The recorded incidence of breakage in the femur is

Chi-Chuan Wu; Chun-Hsiung Shih

1992-01-01

219

Femoral nailing with transverse locking screws through the femoral neck  

Microsoft Academic Search

We treated 55 patients with subtrochanteric or comminuted femoral fractures with a transverse locking femoral nail (Alta, Howmedica). This nail was positioned more cephalad than usual so that at least one fixation screw was located in the femoral neck or head. Forty-seven fractures (20 subtrochanteric and 27 diaphyseal) were available for follow-up averaging 12 months (3-35). The time to radiographic

B. H. Ziran; A. D. Wasan; M. W. Chapman

2001-01-01

220

FDA's Report on New Health Care Products Approved in 1999  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released on January 18 by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), this report highlights some of the approximately 140 medications and medical devices approved by the FDA last year. The highlighted products are listed by the groups of patients or diseases they are designed to help. The report also discusses FDA approval and application procedures. While neither extensive nor particularly easy to read, the report still contains a useful overview of the most important new drugs and treatments to enter the market in 1999.

221

Ciclopirox nail lacquer solution 8% in the 21st century.  

PubMed

Ciclopirox nail lacquer solution 8% has been shown to be effective in the treatment of dermatophyte onychomycosis of mild to moderate severity Other studies report the effectiveness of ciclopirox nail lacquer in onychomycosis caused by Candida sp and nondermatophyte molds. Ciclopirox nail lacquer may also be valuable in the treatment of early cases of reinfection/relapse. Ciclopirox nail lacquer solution 8% may be an important adjunct to oral antifungal therapy in certain presentations that might be poorly responsive to oral antifungal therapy alone (eg, lateral onychomycosis, longitudinal spike, dermatophytoma, and extensive onycholysis). In some cases, surgical therapies may need to be considered in addition to, or in preference to, topical nail lacquer treatment. The use of ciclopirox nail lacquer solution 8% as an adjunct to oral antifungal therapy may widen the spectrum of activity of the combination because of the broad spectrum of coverage provided by the lacquer. The use of combination therapy may be synergistic in terms of efficacy, enabling a reduction in the duration and cumulative dosage of oral therapy. This could result in a decrease in the frequency and severity of systemic adverse effects associated with the oral antimycotics and the need to be vigilant about drug interactions. Studies need to be conducted to determine the place of combination oral and topical lacquer therapy in the management of onychomycosis. PMID:11051138

Gupta, A K; Baran, R

2000-10-01

222

Exposure data for personal care products: Hairspray, spray perfume, liquid foundation, shampoo, body wash, and solid antiperspirant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliable exposure information for cosmetic and other personal care products and ingredients is needed in order to conduct safety assessments. Essential information includes both the amount of product applied, and the frequency of use. To obtain current data, studies to assess consumer use practices were undertaken. Six widely used personal care product types were included in the studies. Five of

Linda Loretz; Anne Marie Api; Leila Barraj; Joel Burdick; De Ann Davis; William Dressler; Enrico Gilberti; Gwendolyn Jarrett; Steve Mann; Y. H. Laurie Pan; Thomas Re; Kevin Renskers; Carolyn Scrafford; Sally Vater

2006-01-01

223

75 FR 61132 - Certain Steel Nails from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Trade Administration [A-570-909] Certain Steel Nails from the People's Republic of China: Initiation...of the antidumping duty order on certain steel nails (``steel nails'') from the People's Republic of China...

2010-10-04

224

75 FR 17125 - Certain Steel Nails from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-570-909] Certain Steel Nails from the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on certain steel nails from the People's Republic of China...Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of...

2010-04-05

225

78 FR 24721 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results of the Third...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Ind. Corp., CYM (Nanjing) Nail Manufacture Co., Ltd., Qidong Liang Chyuan...the order includes certain steel nails having a shaft length up to 12...Corp.; (3) CYM (Nanjing) Nail Manufacture Co., Ltd.; (4) Qidong...

2013-04-26

226

Nonclassical yellow nail syndrome in six-year-old girl: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction The yellow nail syndrome is usually described as the combination of yellow nails with lymphoedema and often with respiratory manifestations such as pleural effusions, chronic sinusitis and bronchiectasis. The syndrome is most often seen in the middle-aged individuals. Case presentation We present a 6-year-old girl with yellow nail syndrome having pansinusitis and bronchiectasis. Conclusion The components comprising the classical triad of yellow nail syndrome in children may not necessarily be present altogether. Therefore, yellow nail syndrome should be suspected in children having only typical nail changes.

2009-01-01

227

Ocular irritation reversibility assessment for personal care products using a porcine corneal culture assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personal care product manufacturers have used a broad spectrum of alternative ocular irritation assays during the past two decades because these tests do not require the use of live animals, they provide reliable predictive data, and they are relatively inexpensive to conduct. To complement these assays, the ex vivo Porcine Corneal Opacity Reversibility Assay (PorCORA) was recently developed using a

Douglas A. Donahue; Javier Avalos; Lewis E. Kaufman; F. Anthony Simion; Daniel R. Cerven

2011-01-01

228

78 FR 49528 - Consolidation of Wound Care Products Containing Live Cells  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is transferring oversight responsibilities for certain wound care products containing live cells from the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) to the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER). This consolidation initiative provides the opportunity to further develop and coordinate scientific and regulatory activities between CDRH and......

2013-08-14

229

ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY OF PHARMACEUTICAL AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS: THE SEPARATIONS FOCUS TURNS TO POLAR ANALYTES  

EPA Science Inventory

Within the scope of a number of emerging contaminant issues in environmental analysis, one area that has received a great deal of public interest has been the assessment of the role of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as stressors and agents of change in ecosyst...

230

Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in the Environment: What are the Big Questions?  

EPA Science Inventory

Over the past 10-15 years, a significant amount of work has been done by the scientific, regulatory and business communities into effects and risks of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the environment. It is now timely to review the current knowledge and to...

231

Pharmaceuticals, Personal Care Products, and Endocrine Disruptors in Water: Implications for the Water Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

For over 70 years, scientists have reported that certain synthetic and natural compounds could mimic nat- ural hormones in the endocrine systems of animals. These substances are now collectively known as en- docrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), and have been linked to a variety of adverse effects in both humans and wildlife. More recently, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have been

Shane A. Snyder; Paul Westerhoff; Yeomin Yoon; David L. Sedlak

2003-01-01

232

Characterizing the Passage of Personal Care Products Through Wastewater Treatment Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater treatment facilities use secondary treatment to stabilize the effect of discharged effluent on receiving waters by oxidizing biodegradable organic matter and reducing suspended solids and nutrients. The process was never specifically intended to remove trace quantities of xenobiotics, such as endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) and pharmaceu- ticals and personal care products (PPCPs). Nevertheless, European studies performed at bench-scale or at

Joan Oppenheimer; Roger Stephenson; Arturo Burbano; Li Liu

233

Longitudinal erythronychia: the value of cosmetic alterations in nail findings.  

PubMed

A 71-year-old man presented to the authors' clinic for evaluation of a red line under his right thumb. He noticed a red streak develop during the past year. It slowly grew in width and become more prominent in color (Figure 1). It did not cause pain. He delayed presentation because he perceived it to be only a cosmetic issue. Medical history included a metastatic atypical carcinoid tumor to the liver, lung, and the bone diagnosed 9 years ago. He had undergone multiple debulking surgeries and was currently taking octreotide and zoledronic acid. He had not started any new medications in the past 2 years. Review of systems was unremarkable. On physical examination, the right thumb nail was noted to have a red streak that began at the distal matrix. The line ended at the distal nail plate with distal disintegration and subungual hyperkeratosis. A biopsy was performed through the nail plate. The site removed by biopsy included the area in which the erythronychia visibly started, as well as the preceding normal nail matrix. The ventral nail plate was noted to have a groove of thinning, with slight purple discoloration. The nail bed/matrix was red in a linear pattern and no clinically apparent hyperkeratosis was noted. The matrix/bed sample was sent for pathologic evaluation. Notable findings included an acanthotic epidermis with some enlarged nuclei (Figure 2). Mild capillary dilatation was present in papillary dermis. Focal solar elastosis in the distal portion of the nail bed was identified. In situ hybridization for low- and high-risk human papillomavirus was negative. An immunohistochemical study using a panmelanocytic cocktail (HMB45, anti-MART1, anti-tyrosinase) failed to reveal any melanocytic lesion. Perl's iron stain was negative. Metastatic carcinoid or primary squamous cell carcinoma were not identified. PMID:21409965

Rashid, Rashid M; Torres-Cabala, Carlos; Chon, Susan

2011-01-01

234

Potential exposure of German consumers to engineered nanoparticles in cosmetics and personal care products.  

PubMed

The rapid increase in the number of consumer products containing engineered nanoparticles (ENP) raises concerns about an appropriate risk assessment of these products. Along with toxicological data, exposure estimates are essential for assessing risk. Currently, cosmetics and personal care products (C&PCP) represent the largest ENP-containing consumer product class on the market. We analyzed factors influencing the likelihood that ENP-containing products are available to consumers. We modelled potential external exposure of German consumers, assuming a maximum possible case where only ENP-containing products are used. The distribution of exposure levels within the population due to different behavior patterns was included by using data from an extensive database on consumer behavior. Exposure levels were found to vary significantly between products and between consumers showing different behavior patterns. The assessment scheme developed here represents a basis for refined exposure modelling as soon as more specific information about ENPs in C&PCP becomes available. PMID:21417685

Lorenz, Christiane; Von Goetz, Natalie; Scheringer, Martin; Wormuth, Matthias; Hungerbühler, Konrad

2011-03-01

235

A review on the use of non-timber forest products in beauty-care in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review describes the non-timber forest products (NTFPs) used for different aspects of beauty-care in Bangladesh on the\\u000a basis of extensive literature survey. The diverse plant species, including used parts and using patterns for hair care, facial\\u000a treatments and body care, were summarized in 13 tables. This paper accumulate the scattered knowledge regarding the use of\\u000a plants in beauty-care in

Sayma Akhter; Abdul Halim; Shawkat Islam Sohel; Swapan Kumar Sarker; Mohammad Shaheed Hossain Chowdhury; Sanjay Saha Sonet

2008-01-01

236

In vitro antimycotic activity and nail permeation models of a piroctone olamine (octopirox) containing transungual water soluble technology.  

PubMed

Several in vitro studies with a new medical device (Myfungar) containing 0.5% of piroctone olamine (CAS 68890-66-4, octopirox) in a hydroxypropyl chitosan hydroalcoholic solution were performed. The chemical name of the active ingredient is 1-hydroxy-4-methyl-6 (2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)-2(1H)-pyridone; combination with 2-amino-ethanol (1:1). The antimycotic activity was determined in the most common fungi responsible of nail infections such as Candida parapsilosis, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis or Trichophyton rubrum. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), found by means of the broth dilution susceptibility method, ranged between 0.0003% and 0.006% for all pathogens considered. The in vitro permeation study was performed by using bovine hoof membranes inserted in a modified Gummer vertical permeation cell. The experiment showed, at 30 h, a retention of the product in the nail membranes by 11.1% of the applied dose. No piroctone permeation through bovine hoof membranes could be detected by HPLC due to the limit of quantitation of this method. On the other hand, permeation of nail membranes has been demonstrated by a biological assay: the study of in vitro permeation through bovine hoof membranes, performed by biological assay, showed dose-dependent inhibition rings of T. rubrum growth by the tested device, placed either on disks for antibiogram or on nail fragments. The placebo did not show any inhibition. In vitro experimental infection by T. rubrum showed a preventive activity of the tested device on fungal growth as well as a curative activity, as the pathogen was eradicated by the tested solution in previously infected nails. PMID:16149717

Dubini, Francesco; Bellotti, Maria Grazia; Frangi, Alessandra; Monti, Daniela; Saccomani, Luigi

2005-01-01

237

Getting the product right: how competition policy can improve health care markets.  

PubMed

As hospital, physician, and health insurance markets consolidate and change in response to health care reform, some commentators have called for vigorous enforcement of the federal antitrust laws to prevent the acquisition and exercise of market power. In health care, however, stricter antitrust enforcement will benefit consumers only if it accounts for the competitive distortions caused by the sector's long history of government regulation. This article directs policy makers to a neglected dimension of health care competition that has been altered by regulation: the product. Competition may have failed to significantly lower costs, increase access, or improve quality in health care because we have been buying and selling the wrong things. Competition policy makers-meaning both antitrust enforcers and regulators-should force the health care industry to define and market products that can be assembled and warranted to consumers while keeping emerging sectors such as mHealth free from overregulation, wasteful subsidy, and appropriation by established insurer and provider interests. PMID:24841884

Sage, William M

2014-06-01

238

76 FR 19124 - Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Preliminary)] Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION...materially retarded, by reason of imports from The United Arab Emirates of certain steel nails, provided for in subheadings...

2011-04-06

239

Unlocked and locked elastic stable intramedullary nailing in an ovine tibia fracture model: A biomechanical study.  

PubMed

In the present study, four different systems of elastic stable intramedullary nails (unlocked, Ender stainless steel nails locked with 3-mm screws, titanium nails locked with end caps, titanium nails locked with plugs and 3-mm screws) were implanted in cadaveric ovine tibiae. Fractures were simulated by a transverse diaphyseal osteotomy. The specimens were subjected to simultaneous axial and torsional fatigue loading of 5000 and 1000cycles, respectively. The unlocked systems failed at an axial load of 200N peak amplitude. End caps systems withstood axial loads up to 800N for 1000cycles, and ender nails and plugs lasted up to 1000N for 1000cycles. All systems showed a decrease of axial stiffness with higher loads and endured cycles. Ender nails and nails locked with plugs failed by penetration of the distal epiphysis rather than by loosening of the interlocking system. Overall, the titanium nails locked with plugs and 3-mm screws exhibited superior test results. PMID:24857493

Berger, Leopold; Fischerauer, Stefan; Weiß, Barbara; Celarek, Anna; Castellani, Christoph; Weinberg, Annelie-Martina; Tschegg, Elmar

2014-07-01

240

Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor for Treatment of Onychomadesis with Delayed Regrowth of the Nail  

PubMed Central

Onychomadesis usually arises from an inflammation of the paronychium or as a result of blisters and hemorrhaging under a nail that has been struck or compressed. No documented interactions between basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and onychomadesis have hitherto been reported. This case report describes a 25-year-old woman with onychomadesis following infection of the ingrown nail of her left thumb. After ten months of observation with no treatment showed no regrowth of her left thumbnail, the external use of bFGF and antibiotic ointment was started. One month later, nail regrowth was observed up to the halfway point of the nail bed, and after treatment for three months, the regrown nail reached the top of the nail bed. Both thumbnails now looked identical. This case suggests that external use of bFGF can promote nail regrowth in cases of onychomadesis with delayed regrowth of the nail.

Oji, Tomito; Yazawa, Masaki; Kishi, Kazuo

2013-01-01

241

Extended Neviaser portal approach to antegrade humeral nailing.  

PubMed

Certain arthropathies can distort the normal acromiohumeral relationship and make traditional anterolateral access to the proximal humerus for nailing difficult or impossible. This article presents a case of bilateral antegrade humeral nailing in which the Neviaser portal approach was used for humeral shaft fractures in a patient with distorted shoulder anatomy secondary to severe cuff tear arthropathy and rheumatoid arthritis. Based on a literature review, extending the traditional superomedial (Neviaser) portal to the shoulder to perform humeral nailing has never been described clinically. An 85-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis and bilateral cuff tear arthropathy presented after a mechanical fall from standing height with bilateral acute humeral shaft fractures. Preoperative fluoroscopy confirmed the inability to access the traditional starting point with an anterolateral approach due to a shield acromion resulting from cuff tear arthropathy and rheumatoid arthritis. Bilateral locked antegrade humeral nails were successfully placed through a 3-cm incision just off the medial border of the acromion and directly posterior to the acromioclavicular joint (the extended Neviaser portal approach). Postoperatively, the patient demonstrated early evidence of clinical and radiographic union. She was able to return to her preinjury function level, with an active range of motion comparable with her baseline. The Neviaser portal approach to antegrade humeral nailing is an effective solution to diaphyseal humeral fractures when access to the traditional anterolateral proximal humeral starting port is not possible due to distorted shoulder anatomy. PMID:23383679

Dilisio, Matthew F; Fitzgerald, Ryan E; Miller, Eric T

2013-02-01

242

Elastoplasticity analysis of the nails used in long bone fractures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elastoplastic endomedullary nail-insertion system in long bone fractures is a method which allows generating forces, moments, frictions and stress states in parts of the bone previously selected. Adding previous knowledge on the distribution of forces and acting moments over the bone fragments to be threaded, as well as on the elastoplastic and mechanical properties of the nails to be inserted (designing a special, specific structure for each case), the results, coming from 26 years of applying this technique, have been promising. It is from this perspective that we call this threading and anchoring procedure "Selective Tension System" (STS). Physicochemical analyses and mechanical trials on elastoplastic nails used in the osteosynthesis in long bone fractures are presented. The magnitude of the forces produced by flattening the nails and the reacting forces at both ends are measured. It is expected that the evidence provided on the elastic variability of these nails will be useful as guidance on the availability and choice of the elastoplastic combinations that best fit each patient.

Paterson, R.; Del Sel, G.; Paterson, A.; Miralles, M. T.; Del Sel, N.

2011-12-01

243

Stress analysis of a partially slotted intramedullary nail.  

PubMed

A finite element analysis of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen/Association for the Study of Internal Fixation (AO/ASIF) intramedullary femoral nail was performed to study the failure of the nail from circumferential cracking near the slot tip. These failures are evidently the result of a stress-concentrating effect owing to the partially slotted nail design. Several finite element models were created of the proximal one-fourth of the nail. One model of the nail incorporated the cloverleaf profile as it is presently manufactured, and one had a circular cross section. An additional three models were created with alternative slot-tip geometries: a narrowed slot, a tapered slot, and a widened slot. Antero-posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) bending loads and torsion loads were applied in two fundamentally different loading modes: (1) loads that were applied on both sides of the slot tip (spanned); and (2) loads that were self-equilibrating distal to the slot tip (non-spanned). For the load cases studied, for all models, the stresses predicted from the finite element models were locally highest at the junction between the open and closed cross sections. Alternative slot-tip shapes had a marked effect on the predicted stresses, in one case reducing maximum stress by 40%. However, no alternative slot tip shape was uniformly superior for all load cases. Therefore, until the in vivo loading modes are known more precisely, an alternative slot-tip shape cannot be proposed. PMID:6527162

Beaupré, G S; Schneider, E; Perren, S M

1984-01-01

244

Mismatch between PFNa and medullary canal causing difficulty in nailing of the pertrochanteric fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proximal femoral nail (PFN) and the proximal femoral nail anti-rotation (PFNA) have been successfully used in the management\\u000a of osteoporotic pertrochanteric fractures. Although many studies have described the geometrical mismatch between the antecurvation\\u000a of the femur and the contemporary intramedullay nails, technical difficulties related to the mismatch between the femoral\\u000a bowing and the PFN\\/PFNA at the time of nailing

Jin Ho Hwang; Jong Keon Oh; Sang Hwan Han; Won Yong Shon; Chang Wug Oh

2008-01-01

245

Interlocking nailing of humeral shaft fractures: the Oxford experience 1991 to 1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-three patients with fractures of the humeral shaft were treated by locked intermedullary nailing, using the Russell-Taylor nailing system. Overall there were few technical problems with nail insertion. Additional fracture comminution occurred in five patients but affected stability in only one case. Twenty-six nails were inserted into 22 patients with pathological fractures. The objective of fracture stabilization and pain relief

T. E. J. Hems; T. P. S. Bhullar

1996-01-01

246

[Biomechanical studies of 9 tibial interlocking nails in a bone-implant unit].  

PubMed

Various different interlocking intramedullary nail designs are now available for the tibia the designs resulting from a different approaches to achieving stability for fracture fixation. During recent years small-diameter unreamed interlocking nails have been developed. So far there are no data on stiffness of different nail designs that can justify the use of certain nail types. We compared different nail types in the bone-implant complex (BIC) with reference to stiffness under axial load, bending and torsion of the BIC. We simulated comminuted mid-shaft fractures by a 2-cm defect osteotomy in paired human cadaver tibiae. We fixed each tibia with one of nine different interlocking nails (AO Unreamed Tibial Nail 9 mm [UTN9], AO Unreamed Tibial Nail 8 mm [UTN8], Russell & Taylor Delta Tibial Nail 9 mm [RTD], Russell & Taylor Reconstruction Tibial Nail 11 mm [RTR], Brooker & Wills Nail 11 mm [B-W], Grosse & Kempf Tibial Nail 11 mm [G-K], AO Universal Tibial Nail 11 mm [AOU], Klemm & Schellmann Tibial Nail 11 mm [K-S], Börner & Mattheck Tibial Nail 11 mm [B-M]) according to the manufacturers' recommendations. Each BIC was tested mechanically using a Zwick universal testing machine. Torque testing was performed with a maximum moment of 5 Nm in both directions. Maximum axial load was 1100 N. Four-point bending was done up to a moment of 66 Nm. For each implant bending and torque stiffness of the nail were calculated and compared with the test results obtained in the cadaver study. A P-value less than 0.05 (least significance difference test, ANOVA) was considered significant.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7817197

Schandelmaier, P; Krettek, C; Tscherne, H

1994-11-01

247

Subtrochanteric femoral fracture during trochanteric nailing for the treatment of femoral shaft fracture.  

PubMed

We report on three cases of subtrochanteric femoral fractures during trochanteric intramedullary nailing for the treatment of femoral shaft fractures. Trochanteric intramedullary nails, which have a proximal lateral bend, are specifically designed for trochanteric insertion. When combined with the modified insertion technique, trochanteric intramedullary nails reduce iatrogenic fracture comminution and varus malalignment. We herein describe technical aspects of trochanteric intramedullary nailing for femoral shaft fractures to improve its application and prevent implant-derived complications. PMID:24009910

Yun, Ho Hyun; Oh, Chi Hun; Yi, Ju Won

2013-09-01

248

Ingrown toenails: an evaluation of elevating the nail bed-periosteal flap.  

PubMed

Many procedures to correct ingrown toenails are available; however, they cannot avoid recurrence and nail deformities. We have performed a procedure which corrects ingrown toenail without reducing the width of the nail plate by elevating the nail bed-periosteal flap. Sixty patients were observed for longer than six months and exhibited excellent results. Only two cases of incurvated nails (2) required re-operation. PMID:1401497

Umeda, T; Nishioka, K; Ohara, K

1992-07-01

249

77 FR 27080 - Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates Determination On the basis of the record...reason of imports from the United Arab Emirates of certain steel nails, provided for...certain steel nails from the United Arab Emirates were being sold at LTFV within the...

2012-05-08

250

76 FR 23559 - Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigation...certain steel nails from the United Arab Emirates (UAE) filed in proper form by Mid Continent...Certain Steel Nails from the United Arab Emirates, dated March 31, 2011 (the...

2011-04-27

251

76 FR 29266 - Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates Determination On the basis of the record...reason of imports from the United Arab Emirates of certain steel nails, provided for...certain steel nails from the United Arab Emirates. Accordingly, effective March...

2011-05-20

252

Comparison of dynamic hip screw and gamma nail: a prospective, randomized, controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a prospective, randomized, controlled trial, comparing the results of treatment with a dynamic hip screw (DHS) and a gamma nail in 95 consecutive patients with peri-trochanteric fractures of the femur. The DHS was used in 48 patients, the gamma nail in 47. Clinical and radiological outcomes were similar, but the gamma nail was associated with a higher incidence

M. S. Butt; S. J. Krikler; S. Nafie; M. S. Ali

1995-01-01

253

Reaming versus non-reaming in medullary nailing: Interference with cortical circulation of the canine tibia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medullary nails have only been used with reluctance in the treatment of open fractures since reaming interferes with the cortical circulation. The technique of interlocking offers the interesting possibility of inserting a relatively stiff nail which does not necessarily require reaming. The effects of reaming prior to nail insertion upon the cortical circulation was investigated in the canine tibia. Intravital

M. P. M. Klein; B. A. Rahn; R. Frigg; S. Kessler; S. M. Perren

1990-01-01

254

A STUDY ON HOLE TESTING OF INTRAMEDULLARY NAIL BASED ON ULTRASONIC SENSOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intramedullary nail internal fixation is the most prevalent method of treatment of fracture. The study on hole testing and localization of intramedullary nail is one of the most important research topics in present-day orthopedic medicine. This paper gives a new method for hole testing of intramedullary nail based on ultrasonic sensor. Considering the disadvantage, ultrasonic attenuates too fast in bone,

Jianpo Li; Jiyin Zhao; Yukuan Ma; Yajun Wang

255

77 FR 53845 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results and Partial...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...nails that are cut. Certain steel nails may be of one piece construction...two or more pieces. Certain steel nails may be produced from any type of steel, and have a variety of finishes...but are not limited to, coating in vinyl, zinc...

2012-09-04

256

76 FR 56147 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results and Preliminary...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...nails that are cut. Certain steel nails may be of one piece construction...two or more pieces. Certain steel nails may be produced from any type of steel, and have a variety of finishes...but are not limited to, coating in vinyl, zinc...

2011-09-12

257

The Eponychium as the Point of Entry of Fungal Infection of the Nail.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The point of entry via the eponychium plays an important role in pathogenesis of nail infection. In the case of this invasion route, the fungi settle in the nail organ first of all between the horn cells and they penetrate into the nail as such only later...

W. Sowinski

1967-01-01

258

Demonstration Project 103: Design and Construction Monitoring of Soil Nail Walls. Project Summary Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of Demonstration Project 103 was to introduce the concept of soil nailing use into the American transportation construction practice. The Manual for Design and Construction Monitoring of Soil Nail Walls (FHWA-SA-96-069R) and Soil Nailing Field...

S. Singla

1999-01-01

259

The psychological contract: enhancing productivity and its implications for long-term care.  

PubMed

When hired, a new employee is usually given a job description and an explanation of benefits. In addition, the employee will also have a psychological contract with the organization. This contract, often unstated, reflects the main source of the employee's motivation to work hard. This is true of all groups of employees, including long-term care staff. Common examples of psychological contracts for long-term care administrative staff include autonomy, social acceptance, and being in the forefront of cutting-edge research. An awareness of these psychological contracts can result in better "fits" between employee aspirations and relevant long-term care organization tasks so that productivity is enhanced. This article outlines the steps necessary to create these good fits in ways that benefit both the organization and its employees. These recommendations are of particular relevance to administrators and supervisors in long-term carefacilities. PMID:12083346

Flannery, Raymond B

2002-01-01

260

Mechanical strength of McLaughlin hip nail-plates manufactured from 316 LVM stainless steel. A biomechanical study of unstable trochanteric fractures. V.  

PubMed

Mechanical testing of McLaughlin hip nail-plates manufactured from 316 LVM stainless steel was performed. The mode of failure is described and the results are compared with previous tests of McLaughlin implants manufactured from Cobalt-Chromium-Molybdenum alloy. As there was no significant difference between these two products as regards the basic mechanical problem of failure of the nail-plate junction, it is recommended that the design be changed to make the implant suitable for internal fixation of unstable trochanteric fractures. PMID:7446023

Jensen, J S

1980-06-01

261

Primary Nailing in the Open Fractures of the Tibia-Is it worth?  

PubMed Central

Context (Background): The tibial shaft is one of the most common sites of open fractures. The specific methods of skeletal stabilization and soft tissue treatment of open fractures continue to be topics of debate in the orthopaedic traumatology. Aims: To evaluate the results of the intramedullary nailing in the open fractures of the tibia, especially in the Indian scenario. Settings and Design: An observational, descriptive study which was done at a tertiary care hospital from 2006 to 2010. Material and Methods: A prospective study was done on thirty cases which had sustained open fractures of t/hable Gustilo and Anderson grades I, II and III, who were operated for primary intramedullary interlocking nail fixation after thorough debridement and closure of their wounds with suturing, lateral skin release, split thickness skin grafting and muscle pedicle flap, where ever necessary. All the patients were followed up for a minimum of two years. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics and Fisher’s Exact test were used. Results: Of the total thirty cases, ten were of grade I, seven were of grade II, three were of grade IIIA, seven were of grade IIIB and three were of grade IIIC. Dynamization was done in nine cases. The average time to union was 16.0 weeks in the grade I cases, it was 18.3 weeks in the grade II cases, it was 23.6 weeks in the grade III A cases, it was 28.4 weeks in the grade III B cases and it was 32 weeks in the grade III C cases. The mean time to union was 20.7 weeks. Infection occurred in 3 cases. Delayed unions were observed in 4 cases. A non union occurred in 1 case of type IIIC. A mal union was observed in 1 case of type IIIB. 1 case of grade IIIC had the compartmental syndrome. No case had any implant failure (nail / screw breakage), or deep vein thrombosis. Conclusion: We conclude that the unreamed intramedullary nailing in cases of open fractures of the tibia, with an early soft tissue coverage, results in a faster soft tissue and bony healing, an easier soft tissue coverage, a better biomechanical stability and early rehabilitation and infection rates as comparable to those which are seen with other methods.

Agrawal, Atul; Chauhan, Vijendra Devisingh; Maheshwari, Rajesh K.; Juyal, Anil Kumar

2013-01-01

262

Ciclopirox nail lacquer 8%: in vivo penetration into and through nails and in vitro effect on pig skin.  

PubMed

This report presents original methods to assess the bioavailability of an antifungal drug from a varnish preparation in finger nails. For the studies with human volunteers a ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer was used to determine its efficacy in the treatment of onychomycoses. In vivo studies were performed on the fingernails of healthy volunteers by determining the total amount of ciclopirox penetrated per milligram of nail and the partition of the drug in the plate of the nails (technically divided into four layers). Ciclopirox concentrations were evaluated by measuring the inhibition of Candida pseudotropicalis growth in vitro. The ciclopirox concentration after 30 days treatment was determined as 3.35 +/- 0.82 micrograms/mg nail material. This is a sufficient amount to kill the fungal pathogens. In addition, in vitro penetration experiments were carried out with excised pig skin. Lacquer formulations from 0.5 to 8% were used to inhibit the growth of Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Formulations from 2 to 8% led to a strong to total inhibition of the dermatophyte after 30 min treatment time. PMID:1831626

Ceschin-Roques, C G; Hänel, H; Pruja-Bougaret, S M; Luc, J; Vandermander, J; Michel, G

1991-01-01

263

Avoiding varus malreduction during cephalomedullary nailing of intertrochanteric hip fractures.  

PubMed

We describe a technique for preventing varus malreduction of intertrochanteric hip fractures during fixation with a cephalomedullary nail. When the entry reamer guidewire is positioned in the fracture line, passage of the entry reamer may simply push the proximal fragment medially and the distal fragment laterally rather than ream the accurate entry path. Subsequent nail insertion will result in a varus deformity of the proximal femur. The simple technique described in this report uses a brief period of over-distraction to wedge the entry reamer guidewire against the lateral edge of the proximal fragment, permitting the reamer to cut a correct path in the lateral edge of the proximal fragment. Creation of a proper entry path is essential to maintain anatomic reduction during cephalomedullary nailing of intertrochanteric hip fractures. PMID:20734198

Hak, David J; Bilat, Christian

2011-05-01

264

Ipsilateral hip and femoral shaft fractures treated with intramedullary nails  

PubMed Central

This study retrospectively analysed 34 patients with ipsilateral hip and femoral shaft fractures treated over a period of 10 years between January 1995 and January 2005. They had an average age of 35 years. Twenty-six (76.47%) of these cases suffered high-velocity trauma (RTA); six others had fallen from a height (17.65%), and two had suffered only minimal trauma (5.88%). Twenty were extracapsular (58.82%) and 14 were intracapsular. They were evaluated with an average follow-up of 28 months, both clinically and radiologically; 26 patients (76.47%) had a good result (Friedman and Wyman score). When the intracapsular fracture was detected postperatively, there was one delayed union and one non-union. When the fracture is diagnosed preoperatively, we recommend reconstruction nail fixation. If the hip fracture is diagnosed intra- or postoperatively following nailing of the shaft, we propose the miss-a-nail technique as an option.

Kumar, M. Ajith; Ireshanavar, Sandeep S.; Sudhakar, Dr

2006-01-01

265

The Chinese Nail Murders: forensic medicine in Imperial China.  

PubMed Central

Robert van Gulik was a respected Dutch sinologist and author who first translated a collection of traditional Chinese detective stories into English and then created additional fictional stories based on the same characters and setting in the Tang dynasty. One of these stories, The Chinese Nail Murders, draws on van Gulik's professional interest in law and his knowledge of early Chinese works on forensic medicine. This novel develops a common theme in Chinese detective fiction, murder by a nail wound to the head. The difficulty in detection of this mode of violence posed a particular problem for the examining magistrate because postmortem examination was mostly limited to external observations. This essay compares the development of Chinese and Western forensic medicine in the context of the nail murder motif.

Summers, W. C.

1999-01-01

266

Trace Elements in Nails as Biomarkers in Clinical Research  

PubMed Central

Background The importance of trace elements in relation to human health has been increasingly recognized. Accurate and adequate quantification of trace elements are crucial in clinical research. Design This review was to discuss the rationale of using nail trace elements as biomarkers in clinical studies. Results For most trace elements, dietary instruments can not appropriately capture the intakes because of the minimal amounts and wide variations in the same foods grown in different area as well as the non-dietary exposures. Therefore, biomarkers may be essential in studying trace elements. Although there are notable differences among trace elements in the availability of biomarkers, increasing evidence supports that nail particularly toenail concentrations of most trace elements are useful biomarkers of exposure in which a single sample is assumed to represent long-term exposure. Conclusions As compared to other potential biomarkers of trace elements, nail measurement has certain advantages in clinical research.

He, Ka

2010-01-01

267

Road Nail: Experimental Solar Powered Intelligent Road Marking System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Driving in low visibility conditions (night time, fog or heavy precipitation) is particularly challenging task with an increased probability of traffic accidents and possible injuries. Road Nail is a solar powered intelligent road marking system of wirelessly networked signaling devices that improve driver safety in low visibility conditions along hazardous roadways. Nails or signaling devices are autonomous nodes with capability to accumulate energy, exchange wireless messages, detect approaching vehicles and emit signalization light. We have built an experimental test-bed that consists of 20 nodes and a cellular gateway. Implementation details of the above system, including extensive measurements and performance evaluations in realistic field deployments are presented. A novel distributed network topology discovery scheme is proposed which integrates both sensor and wireless communication aspects, where nodes act autonomously. Finally, integration of the Road Nail system with the cellular network and the Internet is described.

Samardžija, Dragan; Tesli?, Nikola; Todorovi?, Branislav M.; Kova?, Erne; Isailovi?, ?or?e; Miladinovi?, Bojan

2012-03-01

268

Reamed nailing of Gustilo grade-IIIB tibial fractures.  

PubMed

Reamed intramedullary nailing was carried out on R57 Gustilo grade-IIIB tibial fractures in 55 patients. After debridement, there was substantial bone loss in 28 fractures (49%). The mean time to union was 43 weeks (14 to 94). When there was no bone loss, the mean time to union was 32 weeks; it was 45 weeks if there was bone loss. Fractures complicated by infection took a mean of 53 weeks to heal. Revision nailing was necessary in 13 fractures (23%) and bone grafting in 15 (26%). In ten fractures (17.5%) infection developed, in four within six weeks of injury and in six more than four months later. Of these, nine were treated successfully, but one patient required an amputation because of osteomyelitis. Our results indicate that reamed intramedullary nailing is a satisfactory treatment for Gustilo grade-III tibial fractures. PMID:11132268

Keating, J F; Blachut, P A; O'Brien, P J; Court-Brown, C M

2000-11-01

269

[Results of interlocking nailing of distal tibial fractures].  

PubMed

Between 1982 and 1989, 117 fractures of the distal part of the lower leg were surgically treated in the Trauma Clinic belonging to the employers' liability insurance company in Frankfurt/Main. A follow-up examination of 85 of these patients, based on X-ray series, clinical reports, and insurance files, shows the functional results. Because of the high proportion of good to excellent results (95.4%), we consider fracture of the distal tibia a good indication for interlocking nailing, even from the aspect of the borderline indication of fracture in the fifth sixth. In open fractures of the distal part of the lower leg we consider the change of method from primary stabilization with external fixation to secondary interlocking nailing an appropriate procedure. The methods presented for internal fixation of fractures of the distal tibia by interlocking nailing allow early partial and full weight-bearing with the stability needed for exercising. PMID:2270498

Schnettler, R; Börner, M; Soldner, E

1990-11-01

270

Bundle nailing in nonunion of the distal radius: case report.  

PubMed

A previously unreported technique for dealing with severe distal radial nonunion in the presence of marked osteoporosis and deformity in a 65-year-old female is presented. The technique involves temporary ankylosis of the wrist with bundle nails connecting the second and third metacarpal with the distal and proximal fragment of the radius, dorsal to the carpal bones and joints. Union was achieved radiographically after nine months. When the bundle nails were removed, there was some recovery of wrist movement and useful function. PMID:1427469

Saleh, M; Ribbans, W J; Meffert, R H

1992-09-01

271

Selenium Toxicity from a Misformulated Dietary Supplement, Adverse Health Effects, and the Temporal Response in the Nail Biologic Monitor  

PubMed Central

Use of dietary supplements in the U.S. has increased steadily over the last 25 years. While misformulation is uncommon, the consequences can be serious. A March 2008 voluntary market recall removed supplement products responsible for the most serious selenium toxicity outbreak that has occurred in the U.S. We quantified selenium concentrations in the misformulated supplement products, measured the temporal response in the nail biologic monitor, and associated exposure to self-reported selenosis symptoms. Subjects recruited through state health departments and referrals provided samples of the misformulated supplement products, exposure information, monthly toenail and or fingernail clippings or onycholysitic nail fragments, and listed their newly onset adverse health effects attributed to selenium toxicity. Ninety-seven subjects enrolled and submitted at least one test sample. Peak selenium concentrations (up to 18.3 and 44.1 ?g/g for toenails and fingernails, respectively) were measured. Multiple samples (52 total) of all six recalled supplement lots were analyzed ranging from 22,300 to 32,200 ?g selenium per daily dose. Average consumption was 30.9 ± 13.9 doses; 73 subjects provided follow-up data on selenosis symptoms at 2.50 ± 0.14 years. Nail samples accurately reflect exposure in this selenium toxicity outbreak, which resulted in long-term/permanent adverse health effects.

Morris, John Steven; Crane, Stacy B.

2013-01-01

272

Biodegradation and removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in treatment systems: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have been the focus of much recent research as concerns rise about their\\u000a occurrence in bodies of water worldwide. In an effort to characterize the risk and determine the prevalence of these micropollutants\\u000a in lakes and rivers, many researchers are examining PPCP removal from impaired water during wastewater treatment and water\\u000a recycling (soil passage)

Kathryn M. Onesios; Jim T. Yu; Edward J. Bouwer

2009-01-01

273

GC-MS analytical methods for the determination of personal-care products in water matrices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the more recent methods combining gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for analysis of personal-care products (PCPs) in water matrices. We describe different procedures for sample extraction and preparation as well as different instrumental methods commonly used for these compounds. GC-MS and GC-tandem MS (GC-MS2), which are complementary to liquid chromatography combined with MS (LC-MS), allow identification

Giulia Basaglia

2007-01-01

274

76 FR 68129 - Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates: Preliminary Determination of Sales...nails (nails) from the United Arab Emirates (UAE) are being, or are likely to...Certain Steel Nails from the United Arab Emirates, dated March 31, 2011 (the...

2011-11-03

275

Fluoride in the urine, hair, and nails of phosphate fertiliser workers.  

PubMed Central

The fluoride content in the urine, hair, and nails of 106 workers employed in a phosphate fertiliser plant was significantly raised above the control level. Positive correlations were found between the group means for concentrations of fluorides in urine and hair (r = 0.77), urine and nails (r = 0.99), and hair and nails (r = 0.70). Individual values in the whole population gave significant correlations between concentrations in urine and nails (r = 0.73). The obtained results indicate that the fluoride content in hair and nails may be used as an indicator of occupational exposure to fluorides.

Czarnowski, W; Krechniak, J

1990-01-01

276

Blood products and the phases of perianesthesia care-reviewing the implications.  

PubMed

Perianesthesia nurses often provide care for patients who have received blood products. Over the years, great advances in the safety and technology around blood products have occurred, yet transfusions are not without risk. Because 50% of blood transfusions are administered in the surgical setting, the perianesthesia nurse must know the indications and potential adverse reactions. The perianesthesia nurse has an important role in supporting appropriate use of blood products, which can be a scarce resource at times. By knowing indications, benefits, and risks of transfusion, the nurse can better advocate for the patient's needs. Additionally, with this knowledge, the nurse is able to support patient education and ensure that consent obtained is informed in nature. In this article, the commonly used blood products, potential adverse reactions, and methods to reduce transfusion errors are being reviewed. Ideally, nurses should be provided a periodic review on blood products and transfusion safety to maintain knowledge, competency, and an acceptable comfort level overall. Ongoing education can be an effective means to expand knowledge of the health care provider and improve patient safety and outcomes. PMID:21803274

Ead, Heather

2011-08-01

277

Management of Proximal Phalangeal Fractures of the Hand Using Finger Nail Traction and a Digital Splint: A Prospective Study of 43 Cases  

PubMed Central

Background Proximal phalangeal fractures are common fractures of the hand. The fractures are difficult to treat because of vicinity of two important joints and crossing long tendons. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of nail traction technique in the management of proximal phalangeal fractures of the hand. Methods Patients (n=43) with proximal phalangeal fractures were treated by nail traction and evaluated prospectively. We assessed all the patients at the time of presentation and then followed a standard protocol for recruiting patients. After application of nail traction, the patients were initially assessed at 12th day. The outcome measures included post reduction radiographic evaluation and total active motion (TAM) in finger at the final follow-up appointment. All the patients were followed for one year. Results The post-reduction X-ray evaluation showed good reduction in 33 cases, fair reduction in 8 and poor reduction in 2 cases. At final assessment, 35 patients had good TAM score, six had fair and two had poor TAM score. Complications were noted in two patients and these included pressure necrosis in palm and stiffness in proximal interphalangeal joint. Conclusions The results of this prospective study show that with careful selection of patients, nail traction seems to be simple, safe and effective technique for managing proximal phalangeal fractures.

Chandraprakasam, Thangavel; Thambiraj, Sathya

2012-01-01

278

Nail bed keratinocytes express an antigen of the carcinoembryonic antigen family.  

PubMed

Using a panel of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies raised against human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and CEA-related molecules, we detected strong expression of an antigen, with immunoreactivity consistent with non-specific cross-reacting antigen (NCA) (CD66c), in all of 26 normal human nail specimens obtained from various fingers and toes. In longitudinal sections, strong and constant expression of the NCA-like antigen was seen on keratinocytes distributed in the upper epithelial cell layers of the nail bed, while in transverse sections the expression was limited to the major central portions of the nail bed, but only where longitudinal epidermal ridges were observed. In the hyponychium and the ventral aspect of the proximal nail fold, the expression was weak or lacking. No expression was seen in the nail matrix, the nail plate, or the dorsal aspect of the proximal nail fold. The same results were obtained for all of the 26 nails studied. This report is the first to demonstrate that an antigen of the CEA family, with NCA-like immunoreactivity, is expressed in a specific subpopulation of keratinocytes in the nail bed. The specific expression pattern suggests that the antigen may play a part in adhesion of the nail plate to the nail bed. PMID:10886139

Egawa, K; Kuroki, M; Inoue, Y; Ono, T

2000-07-01

279

Creating an environment for caring using lean principles of the Virginia Mason Production System.  

PubMed

As healthcare leaders search for viable options to cut costs, increase efficiencies, and improve the product that they offer to customers, many are looking at different business models to adopt. At the same time, an aging workforce of nurses feel the pressure of being overworked and understaffed, resulting in both decreased job and patient satisfaction. Virginia Mason Medical Center in Seattle, Wash, has implemented the Virginia Mason Production System, using proven concepts adapted from the Toyota Production System that effectively eliminate "muda" or waste, in workplace processes. The authors discuss the application of the Virginia Mason Production System and how it has resulted in increased time for nurses to care for their patients. PMID:17563521

Nelson-Peterson, Dana L; Leppa, Carol J

2007-06-01

280

Raman spectroscopic investigation of cocaine hydrochloride on human nail in a forensic context.  

PubMed

This study describes the application of Raman spectroscopy to the detection of drugs of abuse and noncontrolled substances used in the adulteration of drugs of abuse on human nail. Contamination of the nail may result from handling or abusing these substances. Raman spectra of pure cocaine hydrochloride, a seized street sample of cocaine hydrochloride (77%), and paracetamol could be acquired from drug crystals on the surface of the nail. An added difficulty in the analytical procedure is afforded by the presence of a nail varnish coating the nail fragment. By using confocal Raman spectroscopy, spectra of the drugs under nail varnish could be acquired. Spectra of the drugs could be readily obtained nondestructively within three minutes with little or no sample preparation. Raman spectra could be acquired from drug particles with an average size of 5-20 microm. Acquisition of Raman point maps of crystals from both pure and street samples of cocaine hydrochloride under nail varnish is also reported. PMID:18172621

Ali, Esam M A; Edwards, Howell G M; Hargreaves, Michael D; Scowen, Ian J

2008-02-01

281

[Removal of a bent intramedullary tibia nail. Case report and review of literature].  

PubMed

Breakage or deformity of intramedullary nails of the lower extremities is the result of subsequent high energy trauma, falling or noncompliance of the patient in partial weight bearing. We describe the removal of a bent tibia nail in a young patient who sustained another high energy trauma on the same limb. Different surgical options are discussed on the basis of the current literature. Possible removal strategies could be: drilling half diameter of the nail and then straighten it backwards, cutting the nail with a burr or removing the nail without any manipulation of the nail itself. The most customized procedure depends on the available capabilities and the individual case because of the rare occurrence of bent nails. Soft tissue damage, degree of bending and re-osteosynthesis must be considered in individual treatment strategies. PMID:21153391

Wierer, M; Biberthaler, P; Mutschler, W; Grote, S

2011-07-01

282

APREP: the automated patient record evolutionary process; reduce costs and improve productivity in today's health care delivery system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thinking about the potential for technology to control and quantify health care costs led me to develop the automated patient record evolutionary process (APREP). The automated patient record (APR) came to mind as an area with great potential to control and reduce health care costs. The automated patient record is a keystone in the overall health care delivery process. Information technology vendors try to sell a computerized patient record as a 'product.' It is important to consider the automated patient record as a process. A process evolving as part of the overall evolution of the delivery of health care services. The APREP is designed to assist health care executives response to the overwhelming forces driving the health care market towards a capitated managed care environment.

Zehler, Andrew M.

1995-10-01

283

Retrograde Intramedullary Nailing for Distal Femur Fracture with Osteoporosis  

PubMed Central

Background The incidence of distal femur fracture in the elderly has been increasing recently, and commonly occurs with osteoporosis. Retrograde intramedullary nailing has been considered a good surgical option for distal femur fracture. The purpose of the present study was to present our surgical results with retrograde intramedullary nailing for distal femur fractures with osteoporosis. Methods Thirteen patients diagnosed with extra-articular distal femur fracture and osteoporosis and managed with retrograde intramedullary nailing were retrospectively reviewed. Cement augmentation was used in four patients, shape memory alloy was used in eight patients and both were used in one patient. All patients were followed up for more than 2 years. Radiologic alignments were scored and Tegner and the Lysholm activity score was used for a functional assessment. Results The average time to clinical union was 13 weeks (range, 10 to 15 weeks). In 12 of our cases, the total alignment scores were excellent. At the last follow-up, the mean range of motion was 116° (range, 110° to 125°). The average functional score at postoperative 1 year was 2.6 (range, 1 to 5). Conclusions Retrograde intramedullary nailing is a good surgical option for distal femur fracture with osteoporosis. Cement augmentation and shape memory alloy can also be used for added mechanical stability. This surgical technique is very useful for distal femur fracture with osteoporosis as it promotes fracture healing and early rehabilitation.

Kim, Jihyeung; Nam, Kyungpyo; Rhee, Seung Hwan; Won, Jong Won; Han, Hyuk-Soo

2012-01-01

284

Iatrogenous superficial femoral artery pseudoaneurysm: treatment with a PFNA nail  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionIatrogenic lesions of the superficial femoral artery are a severe but infrequent complication. The internal rotation and adduction of the affected limb during fracture reduction may cause the overdrilling of the locking mechanism of the intramedullary nail to damage the arterial endothelium.

F. E. Navarrete; J. L. Longares

2009-01-01

285

11. INTERIOR, NAILING MACHINE IN EAST CENTRAL PORTION OF SHOP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. INTERIOR, NAILING MACHINE IN EAST CENTRAL PORTION OF SHOP AREA, FROM APPROXIMATELY 50 FEET SOUTH OF SOUTHWEST CORNER OF 'WING', LOOKING NORTH. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Lumber Storage & Box Factory, East of Fifth Street, between H & I Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

286

Fixation of proximal humeral fractures with the Polarus nail  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty patients with fractures of the proximal humerus were treated by internal fixation with an intramedullary locked nail. Fourteen of these patients were more than 60 years of age; 23 patients had 2-part fractures (surgical neck fractures) and were operated on within an average of 3 days after injury. At follow-up, 20 (80%) of 25 patients showed satisfactory to excellent

C. Rajasekhar; P. S. Ray; M. S. Bhamra

2001-01-01

287

Interlocking medullary nails — Radiation doses in distal targeting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distal interlocking of intramedullary nails involves the use of a fluoroscope and a targeting device. A specially designed awl makes the interlocking procedure simple and efficient. The 30-cm-long side arm of this awl protects the surgeon's hand from direct radiation, and measurements of X-ray exposure show that the protection against radiation is sufficient.

S. Skjeldal; S. Backe

1987-01-01

288

Radiation exposure to the surgeon during closed interlocking intramedullary nailing  

Microsoft Academic Search

During interlocking intramedullary nailing of twenty-five femoral and five tibial fractures, the primary surgeon wore both a universal film badge on the collar of the lead apron and a thermoluminescent dosimeter ring on the dominant hand to quantify the radiation that he or she received. When distal interlocking was performed, the first ring was removed and a second ring was

PAUL E. LEVIN; ROBERT W. SCHOEN; BRUCE D. BROWNER

1987-01-01

289

Study and Reduction of Noise from a Pneumatic Nail Gun  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the reduction of noise from a pneumatic 18 gauge nail gun. The objectives were to identify the major sources of noise, implement possible noise reduction measures, and evaluate the effectiveness of the modifications. Sound measurements were taken according to a procedure that was developed based on the ANSI S12.15-1992 standard for power tools. Results show that the

Daniel A. Hicks; Kha Vu; Mohan D. Rao

290

Skeletal Integrity in Patients with Nail Patella Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nail patella syndrome (NPS) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder resulting from a heterogenous loss of function in the LMX1B gene. It is associated with multiple skeletal deformi- ties, yet it is unknown whether this is associated with osteo- porosis. To examine bone mass and the prevalence of fragility fractures, we assessed bone mineral density (BMD) of the spine and

Adele L. Towers; Cheryl A. Clay; Susan M. Sereika; Iain McIntosh; Susan L. Greenspan

291

Intramedullary nailing for fibrous dysplasia of lower limbs  

PubMed Central

Fibrous dysplasia (FD) of the bone is rare and self-limiting. However, lesion expansion may occur, causing pain, deformity and pathological fracture, in which case surgery is occasionally required. Indicators of FD have not been previously described, although there are several surgical procedures reported (curettage, curettage and graft, and internal fixation). In this study we discuss whether intramedullary nailing of these lesions could result in more favorable outcomes in correcting deformities, including the prevention of secondary fractures and maintenance of the bone, compared to other internal fixation methods. A total of 39 patients with FD of the bone treated with intramedullary nailing were retrospectively analyzed. The surgical procedures involved curettage, grafting and intramedullary nailing. No infection, thromboembolism or other notable complications occurred. The patients resumed full activities of daily living. At the last follow-up, 33 patients presented no pain and seven patients had occasional mild pain. The clinical score according to the modified criteria of Guille improved from an average of 4.4 points prior to surgery to an average of 8 points following surgery. The neck shaft angle of the femur improved from an average of 90? prior to surgery to 125? following surgery. Intramedullary nailing may be used to correct deformity and prevent pain and refracture in FD of the bone of the lower limbs with large lesions, pathological fracture or deformities. All patients were allowed full athletic recovery following surgery.

ZHANG, XIAOQI; SHANG, XIFU; WANG, YAOFEI; HE, RUI; SHI, GUOGUANG

2012-01-01

292

Malrotation following reamed intramedullary nailing of closed tibial fractures  

PubMed Central

Background: Rotational malalignment after intramedullary tibial nailing is rarely addressed in clinical studies. Malrotation (especially >10°)of the lower extremity can lead to development and progression of degenerative changes in knee and ankle joints. The purpose of this study is to determine the incidence and severity of tibial malrotation after reamed intramedullary nailing for closed diaphyseal tibial fractures. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients (53 males and 7 females) with tibial diaphyseal fracture were included in this study. The mean age of the patients was 33.4±13.3 years. All fractures were manually reduced and fixed using reamed intramedullary nailing. A standard method using bilateral limited computerized tomography was used to measure the tibial torsion. A difference greater than 10° between two tibiae was defined as malrotation. Results: Eighteen (30%) patients had malrotation of more than 10°. Malrotation was greater than 15° in seven cases. Good or excellent rotational reduction was achieved in 70% of the patients. There was no statistically significant relation between AO tibial fracture classification and fibular fixation and malrotation of greater than 10°. Conclusions: Considering the high incidence rate of tibial malrotation following intramedullary nailing, we need a precise method to evaluate the torsion intraoperatively to prevent the problem.

Jafarinejad, Adel Ebrahimpour; Bakhshi, Hooman; Haghnegahdar, Maryam; Ghomeishi, Nima

2012-01-01

293

Placing femoral intramedullary nails in severely bowed femurs.  

PubMed

The authors describe a novel technique of anterograde femoral intramedullary nail fixation for hip fracture using the starting guide pin as a blocking screw. This cost-effective technique uses fluoroscopic radiography to ensure the guidewire is within the posterior aspect of the femur on a lateral view, thereby minimizing the risk of anterior cortical femoral fractures. PMID:24762145

Amin, Nirav H; Chakravarty, Rajit; Jakoi, Andre; Cerynik, Douglas L; Toossi, Nader; Harding, Susan P

2014-03-01

294

Antibiotic cement screw for postoperative infection after gamma nailing.  

PubMed

Few articles describe the management of postoperative infection occurring after the use of an intramedullary nail in the treatment of femoral intertrochanteric fractures. Implant removal is frequently selected for postoperative infection control, especially in chronic cases. However, removal of the intramedullary nail causes a high rate of femoral neck fractures, challenging surgeons to prevent such fractures with few guidelines for how this can be done. This article presents 2 cases of postoperative infection following intramedullary nail implant in elderly women. After removal of the infected implant and meticulous debridement, an antibiotic cement screw (a cannulated screw enveloped with antibiotic-impregnated bone cement) was inserted from the lag screw hole into the femoral head. At the latest follow-up (mean, 18 months postoperatively), neither femoral neck fracture nor infection had occurred in either patient. The antibiotic cement screw is expected to provide stability and prevent fracture at the femoral neck region, and its more intimate contact with the medullary canal allows a higher concentration of local antibiotics than intravenous application. The antibiotic cement screw is recommended especially for infection after gamma nailing. We also introduce a simple, reproducible method for constructing an antibiotic cement screw large enough to fit the lag screw hole using bone cement, cannulated screw, antibiotics, and a chest tube. PMID:19708621

Noda, Mitsuaki; Saegusa, Yasuhiro; Takakura, Yoshiyuki; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Doita, Minoru

2009-08-01

295

Ingrown toenails (unguis incarnatus): Nail braces/bracing treatment  

PubMed Central

Nail bracing is a safe, simple, and inexpensive treatment option that avoids surgery, requires no anesthetic, requires no recovery period, allows wearing the existing shoes, offers immediate relief from pain, and allows the practice of daily activities. Braces can be used for prolonged periods of times. If recurrence occurs, reapplication of bracing is usually required.

Chiriac, Anca; Solovan, Caius

2014-01-01

296

Monitoring of soil nailed slopes and dams using innovative technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents (a) an integrated automatic real-time slope monitoring system using a conventional slope monitoring package and a multi-antenna Global Positioning System (GPS) package and the field monitoring results, (b) monitoring of soil nailed slopes by optical fiber strain sensors, and (c) moni- toring of a model dam by optical fiber sensing bars. The authors also introduce new developments

Jian-Hua Yin; Hong-Hu Zhu; Wei Jin

2008-01-01

297

Ingrown toenails (unguis incarnatus): Nail braces/bracing treatment.  

PubMed

Nail bracing is a safe, simple, and inexpensive treatment option that avoids surgery, requires no anesthetic, requires no recovery period, allows wearing the existing shoes, offers immediate relief from pain, and allows the practice of daily activities. Braces can be used for prolonged periods of times. If recurrence occurs, reapplication of bracing is usually required. PMID:24688206

Chiriac, Anca; Solovan, Caius; Brzezinski, Piotr

2014-04-01

298

Sun-care product advertising in parenting magazines: what information does it provide about sun protection?  

PubMed

This study analyzed the content of sun-care product advertisements in five major U.S. parenting magazines with high circulation: Family Circle, Parents, Family Fun, Parenting (Early Years), and Parenting (School Years). The study examined what information sun-care product advertisements tell parents about skin cancer prevention and about sunscreen use for themselves or for their children based on the Health Belief Model concepts of perceived benefits and perceived barriers. Results showed that the most commonly mentioned benefit of the product was that it blocks ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB) rays. One-third of the ads promoted the product's effectiveness in overcoming four of the barriers that prevent people from using sunscreens: eye irritation, skin irritation, an unpleasant smell, and the need to reapply sunscreen too often or after physical activity. However, only a few of the ads provided information about the consequences of unprotected sun exposure or mentioned methods of sun protection or skin cancer prevention other than sunscreen use. We discuss the implications of these messages for parents' ability to understand correctly how to protect their children from damaging sun exposure. PMID:23066971

Kang, Hannah; Walsh-Childers, Kim

2014-01-01

299

Anti-infective efficacy of antiseptic-coated intramedullary nails.  

PubMed

The coating of medical devices with antimicrobial agents has recently emerged as a potentially effective method for the prevention of device-related infections. We examined the anti-infective efficacy of intramedullary nails coated with an antiseptic combination of chlorhexidine and chloroxylenol in a rabbit model of device-related infection after fixation of an open tibial fracture. The rabbits were randomized to receive 2.8-by-100-millimeter stainless-steel tibial intramedullary nails that either were uncoated or were coated with antiseptic. After administration of anesthesia and preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis, a tibial fracture was created and then reduced with insertion of the intramedullary nail. A bacterial inoculum of 10(6) colony-forming units of Staphylococcus aureus was injected into the intramedullary canal, and the wound was sutured. Radiographs of the tibiae were made postoperatively, and the rabbits were monitored daily. They were killed at six weeks, or earlier if there was dehiscence of the wound, the fracture became grossly unstable, or the rabbit failed to thrive. The use of the antiseptic-coated nails was associated with a significantly lower rate of device-related osteomyelitis (two of twenty-two; 9 per cent) than the use of the uncoated nails (thirteen of twenty-one; 62 per cent) (p = 0.0003). The radiographic and histopathological findings were generally similar in the two groups of rabbits. Antiseptic agents were not detected in serum. The results suggest that antiseptic-coated fracture-fixation devices provide significant local protection against Staphylococcus aureus, which is the most common cause of infections related to orthopaedic devices. PMID:9759819

Darouiche, R O; Farmer, J; Chaput, C; Mansouri, M; Saleh, G; Landon, G C

1998-09-01

300

[Nurses' subjectivity production and the decision-making in the process of care].  

PubMed

This study aimed to understand the relationship between Nurse's production of subjectivity and the decision-making in the process of Nursing care. A qualitative design of research was conducted. The investigation was carried out with twelve nurses who work at the Associação de Caridade Santa Casa do Rio Grande, a hospital located in Rio Grande, RS, Brazil. For data collection, focus group technique was used three meetings were conducted in december 2011. The results were presented in semantic categories: Capitalist System: maintenance of employment bond; Submission System: institutionalized culture and vision of society; Nursing Hierarchical System; and Values System: feeling of guilt and lack of professional recognition. The capitalist system mediates, mainly, the behavior that prevails in the decision-making process in Nursing care. PMID:24015473

Busanello, Josefine; Lunardi Filho, Wilson Danilo; Kerber, Nalú Pereira da Costa

2013-06-01

301

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in chicken meat and other food animal products: A market-basket pilot study.  

PubMed

Pharmaceutical drugs are extensively used in industrial food animal production. We examined whether residues of veterinary antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) were detectable in a small market-basket sample of retail chicken (n=39), ground beef (n=3) and milk (n=3) samples. High-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry were used to assess the concentration of 59 PPCPs and their residues in animal products. All samples of ground beef, milk, and 14 chickens were analyzed individually, while an additional 25 chicken samples were pooled and analyzed in groups of five. The majority of PPCPs were not detected in meat and milk samples. Caffeine was detected in two of three milk samples (0.4ng/mL, 2.0ng/mL) and in 10 of 19 individual and pooled chicken samples (median: 18.6ng/g, range: 6.1-28.8ng/g). Acetaminophen was detected in three of three milk samples (median: 1.5ng/mL, range: 1.4-2.1ng/mL). Antibiotics in the tetracycline class were detected in two of three milk samples (median: 1.0ng/mL, range: 0.1-2.0ng/mL) and did not exceed regulatory residue tolerances of 300ng/mL. There are no regulatory residue tolerances for caffeine or acetaminophen in animal products. The acetaminophen detections in milk, however, raise questions about extra-label and unapproved use of pharmaceutical drugs in food animal production, as this drug is not approved for use in lactating dairy cattle or any other type of food animal production. Additional studies are needed to confirm our finding of PPCPs in meat and dairy products. PMID:24858227

Baron, Patrick A; Love, David C; Nachman, Keeve E

2014-08-15

302

Treatment of severe nail psoriasis with acitretin: an impressive therapeutic result.  

PubMed

Nail psoriasis is common in adult psoriatic patients. Although several new drugs have recently been introduced for the treatment of skin psoriasis, treatment of nail psoriasis still remains a challenge. Topical treatments (e.g., corticosteroids, tazarotene, 5-fluorouracil, calcipotriol) are the first line in the management of skin psoriasis. The efficacy of these drugs in nail disease, however, is limited, mainly due to the difficulty in penetrating the nail bed and nail matrix. In cases of nail disease resistant to topical treatment, methotrexate, ciclosporin, acitretin, or biological agents can be used. The present authors introduce a 73-year-old patient affected by impressive psoriatic nail disease involving all her fingernails and toenails treated by acitretin, a traditional systemic treatment. After 2 months of treatment there was a marked improvement. The clinical improvement of the nails was progressive and 6 months later it was stable and satisfactory. The remarkable response to treatment in this case suggests that oral acitretin, in association to urea nail lacquer, might be useful in the management of disabling severe nail psoriasis even in absence of severe cutaneous involvement. PMID:23384024

Ricceri, F; Pescitelli, L; Tripo, L; Bassi, A; Prignano, F

2013-01-01

303

Biomechanical analysis of nonreamed tibial intramedullary nailing after simulated transverse fracture and fibulectomy.  

PubMed

A tibial shaft fracture model was created to study the effects of an intramedullary nail and partial fibulectomy on fracture loading. Cadaveric lower extremities were instrumented with strain gages and subjected to biomechanical testing. A nonreamed nail was inserted into each tibia using only the proximal locking screws. Each specimen was tested under six conditions: intact tibia; intact tibia with nail; fractured tibia with nail removed and fibula intact; fractured tibia with nail and fibula intact; fractured tibia with nail and partial fibulectomy; and fractured tibia with partial fibulectomy and nail removed. In the intact tibia the anterior cortices were in relative tension compared with the posterior cortex. After transverse fracture this relative tension was increased. Inserting the nail after fracture significantly increased anteromedial and anterolateral compressive strains and decreased posterior strains. Performing a partial fibulectomy in the fractured tibia with a nail had no significant effect on the strain patterns. These results confirm the relative anterior tension present in the intact tibia and demonstrate an increase in this anterior tension following transverse fracture. Performing a partial fibulectomy or inserting an intramedullary nail increased anterior compressive loading. This loading alteration may be responsible for the clinical success seen using these treatment methods. PMID:9122053

Thomas, K A; Bearden, C M; Gallagher, D J; Hinton, M A; Harris, M B

1997-01-01

304

Nail bed defect covered with labial mucosa graft after subungal glomus tumor removal.  

PubMed

The nail bed is an important part of the nail unit. It supports the nail plate, but does not regenerate itself. The labial mucosa and the nail bed both lack a granular layer. Because the keratinization of the nail bed can cause poor nail adhesion, harvesting graft from nonkeratinized sites is preferred. Furthermore, harvesting graft from labial mucosa is convenient in surgical approach. Therefore, the labial mucosa is more eligible for covering the nail bed defect than other graft methods. In this report, a 46-year-old female patient suffered from a subungal glomus tumor of the right fourth fingernail bed for 10 years. After the nail plate was removed, complete excision of the tumor was performed, and a labial mucosa graft was used to cover the defect. Eight months after the operation, the tumor had not reoccurred and no nail deformity was observed. This outcome demonstrates that our procedure is a good surgical option for treatment of nail bed defects. PMID:24099076

Kwon, Sun Yong; Kim, Ui Kyung; Nam, Hyun Min; Park, Seok Don; Kim, Jeong Hee; Park, Kun

2013-01-01

305

Consumption and occurrence of pharmaceutical and personal care products in the aquatic environment in Spain.  

PubMed

The occurrence of sixty pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs), twenty metabolites and eight personal care products (PCPs) in the aquatic environment in Spain and their predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) were calculated and compared with measured environmental concentrations (MECs) obtained from relevant published research. The occurrence in the aquatic environment was calculated through a mass balance approach considering the following: the number of pharmaceutical prescriptions issued, the amount of pharmaceutical discharged without consumption, consumption, self-medication, pharmacokinetics, treatment in wastewater facilities and discharged to aquatic environment. The estimation of consumption of active compounds of pharmaceuticals was conducted by at least one of the following methodologies: number of commercial packages sold, data for the number of defined daily dose per 1000 inhabitants per day (DHD), and pattern of treatment. Comparison of these methodologies for some compounds showed similar estimated consumption ranges. The highest pharmaceutical occurrence in the aquatic environment was for acetaminophen glucuronide, Galaxolide®, Iso-E-super®, acetaminophen, valsartan, amoxicillin, 2-hydroxy-ibuprofen, iopromide, omeprazole, carbamazepine 10, 11-epoxide, iopamidol, salicylic ?-d-O-glucuronide acid, Tonalide®, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), clarithromycin and iohexol, with releases between 5 and 600 ty(-1). The relation of PEC/MEC was calculated for 58% of the compounds under study, and 64.7% of them had PEC/MEC ratios between 0.5 and 2. PEC values were mostly overestimated (57.4%). The predicted concentrations for pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) that had a high occurrence in the aquatic environment were very close to the measured concentrations. This research provides information that had not been calculated and analyzed previously, at least for Spain. Estimation of the PECs for pharmaceutical, personal care products and metabolites is a useful tool for identifying compounds that should be considered for environmental concern, and such estimations could be used to improve environmental risk assessment studies. PMID:23287535

Ortiz de García, Sheyla; Pinto Pinto, Gilberto; García Encina, Pedro; Irusta Mata, Rubén

2013-02-01

306

Perceptions of glasses as a health care product: a pilot study of New Zealand baby boomers.  

PubMed

Marketers have been slow to customize their strategies for the influential consumer segment of aging baby boomers. This qualitative research provides insights on New Zealand baby boomers' perceptions of glasses as a health care product. Appearance was a dominant theme; status was not a major concern, although style and fashion were. Wearing glasses had negative associations related to aging; however, both male and female participants recognized that glasses offered improved quality of life. Data relating to the theme of expense indicated that these New Zealand baby boomers made sophisticated perceptual associations and subsequent pragmatic trade-offs between price, quality, and style. PMID:23210674

Davey, Janet; King, Chloe; Fitzpatrick, Mary

2012-01-01

307

Ocular irritation reversibility assessment for personal care products using a porcine corneal culture assay.  

PubMed

Personal care product manufacturers have used a broad spectrum of alternative ocular irritation assays during the past two decades because these tests do not require the use of live animals, they provide reliable predictive data, and they are relatively inexpensive to conduct. To complement these assays, the ex vivo Porcine Corneal Opacity Reversibility Assay (PorCORA) was recently developed using a corneal culture model to predict reversibility of ocular irritants. Three commercially available consumer products (a shampoo, a hair color glaze, and a hair colorant system containing 12% hydrogen peroxide) were each tested in two PorCORA study replicates in order to assess potential ocular damage reversibility for surfactant-, propylene carbonate-, and peroxide-based formulations, respectively. Under the exaggerated, in vitro study conditions, the surfactant-based shampoo may cause irreversible porcine corneal damage (histological changes in the epithelial squamous cell and/or basal cell layers), whereas the hair color glaze and 12% hydrogen peroxide product caused fully reversible ocular irritation (microscopic changes only in the superficial squamous cell layer). The hair color glaze and peroxide product results correlate with established in vivo data for similar compounds, but the shampoo results contradicted previous BCOP results (expected to be only a mild irritant). Therefore, although the PorCORA protocol shows promise in predicting the extent and reversibility of potential ocular damage caused by accidental consumer eye exposure to personal care products, the contradictory results for the surfactant-based shampoo indicate that more extensive validation testing of the PorCORA is necessary to definitively establish the protocol's reliability as a Draize test replacement. PMID:21172418

Donahue, Douglas A; Avalos, Javier; Kaufman, Lewis E; Simion, F Anthony; Cerven, Daniel R

2011-04-01

308

Nail-biting stuff? The effect of N-acetyl cysteine on nail-biting.  

PubMed

N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) is a widely available nutraceutical with a variety of actions. As a precursor of cysteine and glutathione, it has antioxidant properties that may impact on mood and contribute to an effect on impulsivity and obsessive behaviour. Via its additional effect on glutamate via the cystine-glutamate exchange system, NAC has been shown to mediate impulsivity in preclinical models of addiction, reduce craving, and cue extinction. Further, by boosting glutathione, NAC acts as a potent antioxidant and has been shown in two positive, large-scale randomized placebo-controlled trials to affect negative symptoms in schizophrenia and depression in bipolar disorder. We describe three cases in which its actions specifically on nail-biting and associated anxiety may offer a potential treatment. The spontaneous findings are reported as part of an ongoing treatment trial examining the utility of NAC in bipolar disorder. Its actions, if robustly replicated, also point to potential treatment targets in glutathione or glutamate pathways in the brain. PMID:19773711

Berk, Michael; Jeavons, Sue; Dean, Olivia M; Dodd, Seetal; Moss, Kirsteen; Gama, Clarissa S; Malhi, Gin S

2009-07-01

309

Justification for Increased Staffing Utilizing A Computerized Program for Documenting Productivity and Direct Patient Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietetics is a diversified profession which must be marketed as an efficient use of resources in the delivery of quality patient care if it is to survive the transitions of health care reform. The shift in patient care is toward preventive medicine and outpatient care. However, more critically ill patients are being hospitalized requiring specialized nutritional care. In this facility,

Patsy Pullen; MaryAnn Kaylor; Clifton Tate

1995-01-01

310

Intertemporal analysis of organizational productivity in residential aged care networks: scenario analyses for setting policy targets.  

PubMed

With an increasing ageing population, there is a growing concern about how the elderly would be looked after. The primary purpose of this paper is to develop scenario analysis using simulated data where various criteria are incorporated into modeling policy targets, and apply an intertemporal productivity analysis to observe inefficiencies as reform unfolds. The study demonstrates how dynamic network data envelopment analysis (DN-DEA) can be used to evaluate the changing productivity of residential aged care (RAC) networks over time. Results indicate that it takes 9 years for 90 % of the RAC networks to have 85 % or more of the total beds in high-level care, and an optimal bed capacity is reached by the end of year 7. Number of beds and registered nurses employed are the main sources of inefficiency. The common core inefficient cohort identified with the paper's method represents a sub-group of RAC networks more deserving of closer managerial attention because of their constantly inefficient operations over time. PMID:24293078

Avkiran, Necmi Kemal; McCrystal, Alan

2014-06-01

311

Perception of brittle nails in dermatologic patients: a cross-sectional study*  

PubMed Central

Brittle Nails Syndrome is characterized by fragility of the nail plate, affecting 27% of women. We evaluated dermatology patients in a cross-sectional study about perception of nail fragility. One hundred and thirtyeight women were included, with median age of 36.5 years. Nail examination showed changes in 57% and 49% reported nail fragility. The first three fingernails were the most affected. Onychoschizia was related to onychophagia (OR = 3.29), housework (OR = 2.95) and water contact (OR = 2.44). Onychorrhexis had the strongest association with nail fragility perception (OR = 17.89). The fragility was more perceived by those who were black, of mixed race and atopic, and was associated with depressed mood.

Gequelim, Giulio Cesar; Kubota, Cynthia Yone; Sanches, Sarah; Dranka, Daniela; Mejia, Marcelo Murilo; Sumiya, Fernando Mitsuo; Schmitt, Juliano Vilaverde

2013-01-01

312

The new diagnosing method basing on the frequency analysis of human's nails in T-RAY  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been reported that many kinds of sickness can be reflected in one's nails. And because of the special composition and structure of nails, they are very suitable for T-ray detecting. Therefore we want to see whether we can diagnose some sickness by only analyzing the transmission of the nails. The experiments consist of three parts. In the first part, we took 200 samples which came from about 20 years old people. By that way, we got that the peak transmission wavelengths of human's nail is about 1.7THz and we almost acknowledged the characteristics of nails. Then we changed our samples coming from different ages, and some interesting phenomenon were coming out. Lastly, by detecting the nails which are taken from special patients, we discovered some sickness can be detected using T-ray.

Ma, Pengcheng; Xiao, Long

2011-02-01

313

A case of ingrown toenail accompanied by extreme soft tissue hypertrophy to the extent of invisible nail.  

PubMed

Ingrown nails occur when the nail fold grows inwards into the nail bed. This condition affects daily life and causes a loss of labor, and therefore, should be meticulously tackled and immediately treated. Ingrown nail is categorized in three stages based on pain, erythema, infection, drainage, and the presence of granulation tissue. We present hypertrophic tissue excision and bilateral partial matrix excision in an unclassified case of ingrown toenail in which the bilateral side wall hypertrophy covered the entire nail; normal tissue of the nail was invisible, along with first year follow-up results. PMID:23268828

Seyfettino?lu, F?rat; Sünneli, Özgür; Dülgero?lu, Ali; Bora, Osman Arslan

2012-01-01

314

Parameters of the ulnar medullary canal for locked intramedullary nailing.  

PubMed

The development of a 'one shot' locked intramedullary device for rapid stabilization of adult ulnar fractures would benefit surgeon and patient alike, but before a prototype device can be manufactured, basic internal measurements of the ulnar medullary canal are needed. Various sections and measurements of 142 adult human cadaver ulnas were performed to determine the calibre, length and curvature of the medullary canal. These measurements revealed that the device can be of one calibre but will need manufactured in three different lengths. Because of the minimal curvature of the ulnar medullary canal and the ability to lock the nail both proximally and distally, the nail can be straight and inserted loosely. A prototype design is described. PMID:2002677

McFarlane, A G; Macdonald, L T

1991-01-01

315

Case Report: Patella Baja After Retrograde Femoral Nail Insertion  

PubMed Central

Patella baja is a rare condition that can result from conditions involving trauma around the knee. Risk factors are believed to include scar tissue formation in the retropatellar fat pad, extensor mechanism dysfunction, and immobilization in extension. Early recognition and aggressive treatment are critical components in minimizing long-term disability. We present a case report of a woman with a fracture of the femoral diaphysis who underwent retrograde placement of an intramedullary nail. Subsequent followup revealed development of patella baja with resultant disability. The diagnosis was made late and the treatment was ineffective. Although patella baja has been reported in trauma around the knee, causative factors include retrograde femoral nailing. We believe early recognition and institution of treatment are important.

Mirza, Amer

2008-01-01

316

Technique for intraoperative determination of femoral rotation with a lateral femur nail (LFN, Synthes, Oberdorf, Switzerland)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endomedullary femur nails with a head–neck implant offer an up to now unused point of reference for the determination of rotation\\u000a during osteosynthesis. The lateral femur nail (LFN) or the long Proximal Femur Nail (long PFNA), for example, have recon screws\\u000a or a blade placed at a 10° angle to the distal locking screw in the transversal plane. \\u000a If the

Dominik Hoigné; Robert Hauck; Reto Babst

317

Yellow nail syndrome associated with thiol compound therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. Two case reports.  

PubMed

Yellow nail syndrome is characterized by ungual dystrophy, lower limb lymphedema, and pleural effusions or bronchiectasis. Rheumatoid arthritis is the autoimmune disorder most often associated with yellow nail syndrome. We report two new cases of yellow nail syndrome in patents receiving thiol compound therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. Eight similar cases have been reported since 1979, suggesting a possible causative effect of this class of drugs. PMID:12184439

Lehuédé, Gaëlle; Toussirot, Eric; Despaux, Jacques; Michel, Fabrice; Wendling, Daniel

2002-06-01

318

Keratotic horn on left fifth fingertip: congenital ectopic nail misdiagnosed as a common wart.  

PubMed

The term "ectopic nail" refers to nail tissue found in a location other than in the normal nail bed. Here we report a 9-year-old girl with an asymptomatic keratotic "horn" on the tip of her left fifth finger. Present since the age of 1?month, it was misdiagnosed as a common wart and treated using liquid nitrogen cryotherapy without benefit. PMID:22277059

Bilenchi, Roberta; Poggiali, Sara; De Paola, Mariele; Batsikosta, Natasha; Fimiani, Michele

2013-01-01

319

[Biomechanics of femoral interlocking nails at the bone-implant transition].  

PubMed

Today there is a variety of different interlocking intramedullary nail designs available for the femur-each designed with a different approach to achieve stability for fracture fixation. We compared different nail types in the bone-implant complex (BIC) of four unreamed solid nails and a slotted, reamed nail to see if there are major differences in stiffness for axial load, bending and torsion. We simulated comminuted mid-shaft fractures by a 2 cm defect osteotomy in paired human cadaver femora. Each bone was tested intact in a Universal testing machine. The results were recorded, osteotomy and osteosynthesis were performed, and the BIC was tested. Relative stiffness was calculated for each individual bone. For P-values less than 0.01 ('least significance difference test') the difference between groups was considered to be significant. In torque testing the unslotted solid nails showed significantly more stiffness (0.6-1.8 Nm/degree) compared to the slotted nail (0.2 Nm/degree). Compared to intact bone (6.9 Nm/degree), both groups of nails were significantly less stiff (relative stiffness 2-20%). In axial load and bending testing, the large-diameter unreamed nail showed greater higher stiffness (32-68%). This study shows that stiffness of the BIC in interlocking femoral nails is more dependent on nail profile than on the press-fit of nails in the medullary canal. For torque stiffness the absence of a slot is of special importance. According to our study, all of the unslotted nails tested give adequate stability for fracture fixation. PMID:9324617

Schandelmaier, P; Farouk, O; Krettek, C; Mannss, J; Tscherne, H

1997-01-01

320

Palmoplantar keratoderma, nail dystrophy, and hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy: an autosomal dominant trait.  

PubMed Central

Autosomal dominant inheritance of a syndrome comprising palmoplantar keratoderma, nail dystrophy, and hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) was observed in three generations of one family. Nail dystrophy affected the toe and fingernails; it was present at birth or developed during early childhood. Palmoplantar keratoderma became apparent in later childhood. Each subject with nail dystrophy and keratoderma also had clinical or electrophysiological evidence of axonal neuropathy. Images

Tolmie, J L; Wilcox, D E; McWilliam, R; Assindi, A; Stephenson, J B

1988-01-01

321

Techniques for intramedullary nailing of proximal tibia fractures.  

PubMed

Despite poor early results with intramedullary nailing of extra-articular proximal tibia fractures, improvements in surgical technique and implant design modifications have resulted in more acceptable outcomes. However, prevention of the commonly encountered apex anterior and/or valgus deformities remains a challenge when treating these injuries. It is necessary for the surgeon to recognize this and know how to neutralize these forces. Surgeons should be comfortable using a variety of the reduction techniques presented to minimize fracture malalignment. PMID:24267205

Stinner, Daniel J; Mir, Hassan

2014-01-01

322

Geometric mismatch analysis of retrograde nail in the Asian femur  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geometric mismatch analysis of the retrograde nail was performed in 108 Asian cadaveric adult femora. The insertion was\\u000a done virtually based on a three-dimensional geometric model derived from computed tomographic images. The investigation was\\u000a performed at eight levels located at 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220 and 240 mm above the condylar surface. The evaluation of\\u000a each level included: (1)

Nattapon Chantarapanich; Banchong Mahaisavariya; Pongwit Siribodhi; Kriskrai Sitthiseripratip

323

Callus patterns in femoral lengthening over an intramedullary nail.  

PubMed

Our objectives were to evaluate callus patterns seen in femoral lengthening over an intramedullary nail by Li classification regarding shape and type and to predict the result while using the nail to reduce the external fixation period and its complications. Eight hundred digital radiographs of 15 patients with 15 segments of femur shortening who underwent femoral lengthening with a monolateral external fixator over an intramedullary nail were analyzed retrospectively by four observers. Each radiograph was studied for callus shape, feature type, and callus density using pixel values. The classification was tested for concurrence and reproducibility by interobserver studies and callus patterns were compared with treatment indices to evaluate how they correlated with the outcome. Mean length gained was 4.5?cm (range: 2-8?cm). External fixator index (EFI) was 21.68?days/cm. Average distraction consolidation index (DCI) was 48.49?days/cm. Fusiform callus was seen in three cases, cylindrical in seven, and lateral in five. The homogenous pathway had higher DCI (43.7) than the heterogeneous pathway (32.9), and mixed pathways making up the rest had a DCI of 50.1. Pixel value of callus showed gradual increase in density until 20-24 weeks, then density gradually fell for 8 weeks, again increased after 32 weeks, again gradually fell, and was comparable to adjacent normal bone by 44-48 weeks. Our results suggest that the Li classification can be satisfactorily applied to lengthening procedures over intramedullary nails. The radiologic pattern and pixel value of regenerate can be correlated with the clinical outcome and can be an aid of prognostic value for the surgeon. PMID:21284034

Muzaffar, Nasir; Hafeez, Arifa; Modi, Hitesh; Song, Hae-Ryong

2011-07-01

324

Classical lissencephaly associated with dolichocephaly, hair and nail defect.  

PubMed

We report on an 1-day-old boy with classical lissencephaly (grade 1, according to Kato and Dobyns, 2003) associated with an extended phenotype, including dolichocephaly, and hair and nail defects. The diagnosis of lissencephaly was made in utero, allowing the rapid characterization of the phenotype at birth. Because previously reported cases were not associated with the features described in our proband, they might represent a newly identified condition. PMID:16376045

Celentano, Claudio; Zannolli, Raffaella; Buoni, Sabrina; Domizio, Sergio; Sabatino, Giuseppe; Colosimo, Cesare; Saponari, Anita; Pallotta, Rosanna; Swift, James A; Rotmensch, Sigi; Liberati, Marco

2006-07-01

325

Nail-Patella Syndrome Associated with Respiratory Chain Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nail-patella syndrome (NPS) has not been described to be associated with a respiratory chain disorder (RCD) before. In a 42-year-old man with the typical phenotype of an NPS, weakness and wasting of the shoulder girdle muscles, muscle cramps, fatigability, hyperhidrosis, chest pain and creatine kinase elevation were observed. Echocardiography revealed left ventricular hypertrabeculation. Needle electromyography was myopathic, lactate stress testing

Josef Finsterer; Claudia Stöllberger; Julia Wanschitz; Michaela Jaksch; Herbert Budka

2001-01-01

326

Corrective Tibial Osteotomy in Young Adults Using an Intramedullary Nail  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to document results of a less invasive technique of open wedge proximal tibial osteotomy (PTO) for the varus knee in young adults using an intramedullary tibial nail. Materials and Methods We prospectively studied 24 knees in 16 young patients with varus knee deformity. The mean follow-up was 54 months (range, 36 to 107 months) and the mean age of patients at the time of operation was 25.8 years (range, 18 to 40 years). The open wedge PTO was performed below tibial tuberosity using a percutaneous multiple drill-hole technique. Conventional intramedullary tibial nail was used for fixation without bone graft. Radiographic evaluations were made using mechanical alignment (MA), posterior tibial slope angle, and Insall-Salvati ratio. Union time, loss of correction, implant failure, and associated complications were also investigated. Results The mean MA was significantly changed from -9.7° preoperatively to 1.1° at the final follow-up (p<0.001). There was no significant change in the proximal tibial anatomy and patellar height. All patients achieved radiographic bony union at an average of 3.1 months without loss of correction. The only complication was knee pain due to nail prominence in 3 patients. Conclusions Radiographic evaluation indicated that PTO using an intramedullary tibial nail leads to significant improvement in radiographic parameters without changes in posterior tibial slope or patellar height. We found that this technique could be a less invasive and effective alternative for correction of the varus knee in young adults.

Kim, Kang-Il; Thaller, Peter H.; Ramteke, Alankar; Lee, Seung-Hyuk

2014-01-01

327

Caryocar brasiliense supercritical CO2 extract possesses antimicrobial and antioxidant properties useful for personal care products  

PubMed Central

Background The cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries have an increasing interest in replacing synthetic antimicrobials in dermatological products due to increased microbial resistance to conventional antimicrobial agents. Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense) is a native fruit tree of the Brazilian Cerrado, specifically used in cosmetics, in the food industry, and for medicinal purposes. Leishmanicidal and antifungal activities have been reported previously. This study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of a C. brasiliense extract obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction. Methods The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus were determined by the classical microdilution method. Antiseptic activity against these organisms was evaluated by the plate diffusion method. The antioxidant potential of the extract was evaluated using a method based on the oxidation of 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS). The extract’s chemical profile was analyzed for the presence of alkaloids, saponins, anthraquinones, steroids, tannins, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds according to standard colorimetric methods. Results The C. brasiliense supercritical CO2 extract exhibits antimicrobial activity against all bacteria tested. It also possesses antioxidant activity, when compared to a vitamin E standard. Conclusions The C. brasiliense supercritical CO2 extract may be useful for the development of personal care products, primarily for antiseptic skin products that inactivate, reduce, prevent, or arrest the growth of microorganisms with the inherent intent to mitigate or prevent disease as well as products that minimize damage caused by free radicals.

2014-01-01

328

Design optimization of the hip nail-plate-screws implant.  

PubMed

This paper is aimed at determining the number of screws and the dimensions of the appliance components of a hip nail-plate screw implant such that their sizes are a minimum (i.e. the implant weight is minimum), without the stresses in the appliance components as well as in the bone shaft exceeding the allowable limits. The implant-bone structure is idealized as a hybrid frame, composed of appliance components and the supporting femur bone elements, which act integrally to support the maximal load (during the gait cycle) at the hip joint. For various configurations of the implant, entailing different numbers of screws, the optimization technique is employed to determine the size of the members (nail, plate and screws) for a lightweight design. Implant configurations are analyzed for two, three, four and five nail configurations. The analysis of the hybrid (implant femur) frame, during each integrative object function and design parameter evaluation, is done by the Finite Element Method. The optimization problem is solved by the sequential unconstrained minimization technique (with the introduction of interior penalty function terms). It is found, from the results of analyses of the four hybrid frames, that the appliance frame, with two screws, yields the minimum-weight structurally safe design. PMID:8925648

Elkholy, A H

1995-12-01

329

Arthroscopic tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis with locked retrograde compression nail.  

PubMed

Tibiotalocalcaneal (TTC) arthrodesis is a demanding procedure. Several techniques have been described for successful fusion, including the use of plates, screws, intramedullary nails, and external fixators. Arthroscopic TTC fusion with intramedullary nailing has been recently described as an alternative method to traditional open procedures. The surgical technique and clinical and radiographic outcomes of 2 patients who had undergone arthroscopic TTC arthrodesis with intramedullary nailing are presented. The indication for surgery was symptomatic tibiotalar and subtalar post-traumatic arthritis in 1 patient and distal tibia and fibula nonunion in the other. In both cases, fusion was obtained at approximately 8 weeks postoperatively. At the final follow-up visit at 2 years postoperatively, their American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score had improved from 31 to 85 points and from 16 to 71 points, respectively. No intra- or postoperative complications developed. Arthroscopic TTC arthrodesis can be an alternative to traditional open procedures, especially in patients with soft tissue concerns or several previous surgeries. Experience with ankle arthroscopy procedures is mandatory to obtain satisfactory results and minimize the risk of complications. PMID:23611414

Vilà y Rico, Jesus; Rodriguez-Martin, Juan; Parra-Sanchez, Guillermo; Marti Lopez-Amor, Carlos

2013-01-01

330

Insertion of intramedullary nails from the suprapatellar pouch for proximal tibial shaft fractures. A technical note.  

PubMed

Intramedullary nailing of proximal tibial fractures can be difficult when using the standard entry portal. We evaluated the suprapatellar portal, using a midline quadriceps tendon incision, to perform intramedullary nailing of the tibia. Seven patients were treated with this adaptation of the standard intramedullary nailing procedure. An arthroscopy was done before and after the nailing procedure. No special equipment was used to perform the intramedullary nailing. We evaluated the handling and necessary modifications of the standard intramedullary technique to introduce the locked tibial nail through the suprapatellar approach. We found this technique not necessarily more difficult than the standard intramedullary nailing of the tibia through the infrapatellar entry portal. Although the patients did not complain of patellofemoral discomfort after the suprapatellar nailing, definitive scuffing of the cartilage in the lower part of the femoral trochlea was visible. Introduction of a locked tibial nail via the suprapatellar approach was found to be possible and even advantageous for some complex upper tibial shaft fractures in compromised limbs. Some possible downsides of this approach need to be taken into account but, in some cases, they can be outweighed by the benefits. PMID:22308632

Jakma, Tijs; Reynders-Frederix, Peter; Rajmohan, Rai

2011-12-01

331

Refractures following removal of plates and elastic nails from paediatric forearms.  

PubMed

We assessed the risk for refractures following removal of elastic nails and plates from paediatric forearms. Out of 82 children who had 112 plates removed, seven patients (8.5%) had refractures when removals were within 12 months of implantation. Those aged 12 years or older were at risk. Out of 24 patients who had 38 nails removed, four patients (16.7%) had refractures and the risk was high when nails were removed within 6 months of insertion. Children aged 9 years or older were at risk. We do not recommend removal of forearm plates within 12 months and nails within 6 months of implantation. PMID:24590255

Makki, Daoud; Kheiran, Amin; Gadiyar, Rajeev; Ricketts, David

2014-05-01

332

Pseudoaneurysm of anterior tibial artery following tibial nailing: a case report.  

PubMed

Interlocking nailing is a widely accepted and performed treatment for tibial shaft fractures. The addition of percutaneously placed transfixation screws increases the stabilisation provided by intramedullary nailing; however, the technical complexity associated with the procedure has introduced new potential complications. We report a pseudoaneurysm of the anterior tibial artery caused by a proximal interlocking screw after intramedullary nailing surgery to repair a tibial shaft fracture. The patient experienced complete relief of symptoms following removal of the nail and the screws, excision of the proximal fibula, resection of the pseudoaneurysm, and ligation of the anterior tibial artery. We recommend the oblique placement of the proximal interlocking screws to prevent this rare complication. PMID:16131685

Inamdar, D; Alagappan, M; Shyam, L; Devadoss, S; Devadoss, A

2005-08-01

333

Massive fat emboli syndrome after unsuccessful unreamed nailing of the tibia.  

PubMed

A patient is presented in whom massive fat emboli syndrome (FES) developed after the unsuccessful treatment of a solitary tibial fracture with an unreamed tibial nail. Ultimately, a reamed tibial nail was inserted. Several risk factors for the development of FES were identified retrospectively in this particular case: a very small medullary canal, a large-diameter unreamed tibial nail, reaming of a small medullary canal and insertion of a thick reamed tibial nail. Even in the presence of patients with solitary lesions and without obvious risks for FES, one should always take this dangerous complication into account. PMID:9061176

Rommens, P M; Claes, P

1997-01-01

334

The effect of acrylic nails on the measurement of oxygen saturation as determined by pulse oximetry.  

PubMed

Pulse oximetry (Spo2) is a simple, noninvasive method that is widely used to determine oxygen saturation in patients undergoing surgical procedures. Artificial acrylic nails have recently become fashionable to strengthen and lengthen nails. This study investigates the effect of unpolished acrylic nails on the measurement of oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry. Data were collected during a 3-month period. Thirty women, average age 32 years (range 18 to 61 years), were recruited at a high-volume nail salon in northwestern Pennsylvania. A baseline pulse oximetry reading was obtained on each subject's natural, unpolished fingernail using a Nellcor N-20/N-20P portable pulse oximeter (Nellcor Incorporated, Hayward, California). A licensed nail technician applied the acrylic compound to the same finger. After the compound had hardened in approximately 5 minutes, a second reading was obtained on the unpolished acrylic nail. The mean pulse oximetry reading at baseline was 97.33% and after acrylic nail application, 97.58%. Using a paired Student's t test, no statistically significant differences existed between readings. This study demonstrates that unpolished acrylic nails do not affect pulse oximetry measurements of oxygen saturation. Patients may not need to remove unpolished acrylic nails before surgery. PMID:9281918

Peters, S M

1997-08-01

335

[Penetrating injury of the left ventricle caused by a nail gun;report of a case].  

PubMed

Penetrating cardiac injuries are life-threatening emergencies. We present a case of a 24-year-old construction worker who accidentally shot himself with a nail gun. Chest X-ray showed a 6 cm-long nail overlapping the cardiac shadow. A computed tomography (CT) scan revealed the nail penetrating the left ventricle and a large amount of pericardial effusion. Median sternotomy was performed and cardiopulmomary bypass was established. Then, the nail was removed and the left ventricular wound was repaired by 4-0 Prolene mattress sutures buttressed with felt-strips. He had an uncomplicated postoperative course and was discharged 7 days postoperatively. PMID:24917290

Suda, Hisao; Nakayama, Takuya; Sunada, Masatoshi; Miyata, Yosuke; Yamada, Toshiyuki

2014-05-01

336

Habit Reversal versus Object Manipulation Training for Treating Nail Biting: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Objective This is a parallel, three group, randomized, controlled clinical trial, with outcomes evaluated up to three months after randomization for children and adolescents with chronic nail biting. The current study investigates the efficacy of habit reversal training (HRT) and compares its effect with object manipulation training (OMT) considering the limitations of the current literature. Method Ninety one children and adolescents with nail biting were randomly allocated to one of the three groups. The three groups were HRT (n = 30), OMT (n = 30), and wait-list or control group (n = 31). The mean length of nail was considered as the main outcome. Results The mean length of the nails after one month in HRT and OMT groups increased compared to the waiting list group (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively). In long term, both OMT and HRT increased the mean length of nails (P < 0.01), but HRT was more effective than OMT (P < 0.021). The parent-reported frequency of nail biting did show similar results as to the mean length of nails assessment in long term. The number of children who completely stopped nail biting in HRT and OMT groups during three months was 8 and 7, respectively. This number was zero during one month for the wait-list group. Conclusion This trial showed that HRT is more effective than wait-list and OMT in increasing the mean length of nails of children and adolescents in long terms.

Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Bazrafshan, Amir; Dehbozorgi, Gholamreza

2013-01-01

337

Autologous "foreign body" as a sequel of improper cutting of an ingrowing toe nail?  

PubMed

We report on a 63-year-old male who suffered from an ingrown toenail affecting the left first digit for several years. Medical history revealed that repeated vigorous nail plate trimming by the patient relieve the red, painful swelling of his great toe. Furthermore, Emmert onychoplasty as well as non-invasive procedures did not achieve improvement. A thorough surgical exploration of the affected area detected a nail spicule in the deeper paronychium. This was likely caused by improper cutting of the nail plate. Removal of the fragment in combination with partial nail plate excision, followed by phenol cauterization of the matrix resulted in full recovery. PMID:19903440

Jessberger, Berthold; Ring, Johannnes; Möhrenschlager, Matthias

2009-01-01

338

Clinical aspects and care production in a Brazilian psychosocial care center of alcohol and other drugs (CAPS AD).  

PubMed

The study aimed to analyze the clinical aspects of the treatment of crack cocaine and excessive alcohol users who were seen in a Psychosocial Care Center of Alcohol and Other Drugs (CAPS AD) in Sobral, Ceará, during the years 2010 and 2011. This is an exploratory descriptive and documentary study, with a retrospective quantitative approach. The sample was composed of 567 medical records of drug users, from which 291 were crack cocaine users, and 276 were alcohol users. For data collection, a form was developed based on the Care Script Service, the data from which was then used to populate a database in an EPI INFO 7, a statistics software system. In both groups of users, males were predominant (85%, n = 482), and were between the ages of 20 and 29 years for crack users (50.9%, n = 148), and between 30 and 39 years for alcohol users (31.9%, n = 88). There were significant differences between crack cocaine users and alcohol users in liver disorders (p < 0.01) and withdrawal syndrome (p < 0.05), however, there were similar signs and symptoms between users. Crack users hospitalized less frequently (OR 0.33 [95% CI 0.23 to 0.47 p < 0.01]). Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts were similar in both crack cocaine and alcohol users. Thus, this research will lead to new proposals for health care professionals in order to enhance and improve the care provided to service customers in CAPS AD. PMID:24766170

Oliveira, Eliany Nazaré; Vasconcelos Alves, Priscila Maria; Ximenes Neto, Francisco Rosemiro Guimarães; Teles Andrade, Aline; Vieira Gomes, Bruna; Grande, Antonio Jose

2014-05-01

339

[Nailing of inter- and subtrochanteric fractures - operative technique].  

PubMed

Intertrochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures are a quite heterogeneous and imprecisely defined group of fractures. These fractures can be essentially divided into two basic groups. The first one belongs to trochanteric fractures. In the AO/ASIF classification; these fractures are called intertrochanteric (31A3). In the second group, the term subtrochanteric fracture is used by most authors for fractures about 5 cm distally from lesser trochanter. In both intertrochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures, the proximal fragment is formed by femoral head, neck and greater trochanter including its base with vastus ridge (tuberculum vastoadductorium or innominate tubercle). On this tubercle, the gluteus medius muscle (proximally) and the origin of the vastus lateralis muscle (distally) are attached. Tension of these muscles may cause dislocation of the proximal fragment. For this reason, reduction of the fracture can be troublesome and it is more difficult than in pertrochanteric fractures It seems that intramedullary nailing will remain the favorite technique of most of the surgeons dealing with intertrochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures. We use short reconstruction nail in intertrochanteric fractures. It is useful to use long reconstruction nail in subtrochanteric fractures. Distal locking of the nail is necessary. Dynamic distal locking is preferred because the two main fragments are compressed along the axis of the nail. The number of complications was largely related to technical errors, such as insufficient reduction or an incorrectly inserted implant. No implant can compensate for errors due to surgery. Serious complications can be reduced by the correct assessment of fracture type, the use of an appropriate operative technique and early treatment of potential complications. The necessity of restoring continuity in the medial cortex of the femoral neck (Adams arch) is the requirement that should be observed. Pseudoarthrosis or varus malalignment in a healed hip should be managed by valgus osteotomy. When the femoral head or the acetabulum is damaged, total hip arthroplasty is indicated. A prerequisite for successful surgical outcome is urgently and correctly performed osteosynthesis allowing for early rehabilitation and mobilisation of the patient. PMID:24295486

Douša, P; Skála-Rosenbaum, J

2013-10-01

340

Aging changes in hair and nails  

MedlinePLUS

... earlier in Caucasians and later in Asians. Nutritional supplements, vitamins, and other products will not stop or decrease the rate of graying. Hair thickness change. Hair is made of many protein strands. A single hair has a normal life ...

341

InterTan nail versus Proximal Femoral Nail Antirotation-Asia in the treatment of unstable trochanteric fractures.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to compare the outcomes of unstable trochanteric fractures treated with the InterTan nail (Smith & Nephew, Memphis, Tennessee) and the Proximal Femoral Nail Antirotation (PFNA-II) (Synthes, Solothurn, Switzerland). A total of 132 consecutive patients with unstable trochanteric fractures of the femur were enrolled in the study. The only intervention was InterTan nail or PFNA-II fixation of the unstable trochanteric fractures. Follow-up occurred at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively and yearly thereafter. Radiographs were obtained at each follow-up, and all implant position changes, complications, and fixation failures were recorded. A total of 113 patients meeting the criteria were evaluated at a mean last follow-up of 18.36 months (range, 12-30 months). Intraoperative complications and length of hospital stay were comparable between the groups. Patients treated with the PFNA-II experienced shorter fluoroscopy and operative times, less intraoperative blood loss, and less femoral neck shortening. The incidence of thigh pain was significantly higher in the PFNA-II group (30.4%) than in the InterTan group (10.3%) (P=.001). No statistically significant differences existed in general complications, local complications, walking ability, Harris Hip Scores, or hip range of motion at final follow-up. PMID:23464935

Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Kairui; Jia, Yanfei; Yu, Bin; Feng, Wei

2013-03-01

342

Productive working relationships in the midst of change in health care.  

PubMed

Traditional lines of authority that once provided identity and meaning in health care are blurring as delivery organizations adapt to the challenges of controlling cost and providing quality service. Teams and committees tackle work that was once the realm of individual managers. Men and women at different levels of authority in the organization now work together to make decisions. Previous lines of authority in the health administration education setting are also blurring as colleges and universities, under pressure, respond to customer needs. Academia is increasingly drawing upon adjunct and non-tenure-eligible professionals to streamline departments and save money. Within the structure of a department, workers in these temporary positions have less authority than tenured and tenure-track faculty. They have less authority in the classroom as well. In both the health care industry and academia, women endure these changes more than their male counterparts, since women often assume the variety of flexible roles required by these strategies. Changes in traditional academic authority produce anxiety and stress for everyone involved. However, faculty can teach students a flexible paradigm to navigate and find meaning in these situations to ensure successful and productive working relationships between men and women in the changing workplace. This paper identifies the pertinent components of this paradigm and its application in the health administration classroom. PMID:10539609

Edwards, K M

1999-01-01

343

Microbial decontamination of cosmetic raw materials and personal care products by irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Typical levels of sporadically occurring (dynamic) microbial contamination of cosmetic raw materials: pigments, abrasives and liposomes, as well as of final products for personal care: toothpaste, crayons, shampoos, cleansers and creams, were evaluated. In most cases the contamination was dominated by a single population of microorganisms, either Gram-negative bacteria or molds. The feasibility of microbial decontamination by irradiation was studied by determining the resistance to gamma radiation of contaminating microflora in situ. It was expressed as a dose required for the first 90% reduction, D first 90% red . The values in the range 1-2 kGy for molds and 0.1-0.6 kGy for Gram-negative bacteria were obtained. This relatively high susceptibility to irradiation allowed inactivation factors close to 6 to be achieved with doses generally not exceeding 3 kGy, and yielding endpoint contamination less than 10/g.

Katušin-Ražem, Branka; Mihaljevi?, Branka; Ražem, Dušan

2003-03-01

344

Low-energy treatment of colourant wastes using sponge biofilters for the personal care product industry.  

PubMed

Four trickling biofilter designs were assessed as low-energy alternatives to aerobic activated sludge (AS) for the treatment of personal care product industry wastes. The designs included partially submerged packed-media and sponge reactors with and without active aeration. Partial submergence was used to reduce active aeration needs. Simulated colourant wastes (up to COD=12,480 mg/L, TN=128 mg/L) were treated for 201 days, including wastes with elevated oxidant levels. COD and TN removal efficiencies were always >79% and >30% (even without aeration). However, aerated sponge reactors consistently had the highest removal efficiencies, especially for TN (?60%), and were most tolerant of elevated oxidants. This study shows sponge biofilters have great potential for treating colourant wastes because they achieve high treatment efficiencies and reduce energy use by >40% relative to AS systems. PMID:23294645

Ahammad, S Z; Zealand, A; Dolfing, J; Mota, C; Armstrong, D V; Graham, D W

2013-02-01

345

Simultaneous determination of polar pharmaceuticals and personal care products in biological organs and tissues.  

PubMed

In the present study, a sensitive and accurate isotope dilution method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 17 polar pharmaceutical and personal care product (PPCP) residues (logKow=1.40-5.74), including 14 pharmaceuticals and 3 personal care products, in biological organs and tissues. The proposed method involved enzymatic hydrolysis, followed by sequential clean-up using silica gel chromatography and gel permeation chromatography, and analysis via ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. This method yielded acceptable absolute recoveries (48-88%) and internal standard-corrected recoveries (90-130%) for 17 PPCPs. Method detection limits were between 0.0092 and 3.2ngg(-1) wet weight, and the limits of quantification were between 0.020 and 8.7ngg(-1) wet weight. The method can be used to readily detect the target compounds at trace levels while minimizing the required sample volume. The developed method was applied to the determination of 17 PPCPs in the liver and kidney of 17 birds collected from Japan and also in the plasma, liver, and brain of 7 cyprinoid fish from an effluent-dominated stream in Japan. Triclosan was detected in 5 of 11 fish-eating birds but not in non-fish-eating birds, suggesting the contamination of prey fish by the chemical. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibacterial agents, and psychotropic agents were frequently detected in the fish tissues. In addition, 7 of the target compounds were found in fish brain. The median brain/plasma ratios of the psychotropic agents ranged from 1.6 (carbamazepine) to 12 (diphenhydramine), indicating high transportability to fish brain. PMID:24958034

Tanoue, Rumi; Nomiyama, Kei; Nakamura, Haruna; Hayashi, Terutake; Kim, Joon-Woo; Isobe, Tomohiko; Shinohara, Ryota; Tanabe, Shinsuke

2014-08-15

346

Ciclopirox delivery into the human nail plate using novel lipid diffusion enhancers.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: Onychomycosis is a common fungal infection of the nail plate and bed that affects up to 14% of the population and can have a substantial impact on the quality of life of those affected. Objective: This study compared the onychopharmacokinetics, nail absorption, nail distribution, and nail penetration of [(14)C]-ciclopirox dissolved in novel lipid diffusion enhancers with that of a commercial ciclopirox nail lacquer using the in vitro finite dose model. Materials and methods: The penetration rate of ciclopirox was determined by applying doses of topical formulation twice daily to human nail plates for 11?d. Drug absorption was then measured by monitoring its rate of appearance in each nail layer and in the cotton pad/nail supporting bed. Results: After a multiple day treatment, cumulative concentrations of ciclopirox formulated with lipid enhancers in the deep nail layer and the nail bed were significantly greater than cumulative concentrations of the commercial ciclopirox lacquer (p?nail can be utilized as a means of effective transungual delivery. PMID:23600655

Hafeez, Farhaan; Hui, Xiaoying; Selner, Marc; Rosenthal, Bert; Maibach, Howard

2014-06-01

347

Numerical Investigation into the Performance of the Soil Nail Wall and Pile Foundation at the Swift Delta I-5 Interchange.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Finite Difference Methods (FDM) and Finite Element Methods (FEM) studies are reported studying the soil nail wall construction at the Swift Delta I-5 Interchange bridge reconstruction in North Portland, Oregon. Five (5) layers of soil nails were installed...

T. D. Smith

1993-01-01

348

75 FR 14423 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the Final...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...International Trade Administration [A-570-909] Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit...January 23, 2008, through January 31, 2009. See Certain Steel Nails from the People's Republic of China: Notice of...

2010-03-25

349

Evaluating the Role of Support Group Structures as Vehicles of Palliative Care: Giving Productivity in the Kanye Care Program in Botswana  

PubMed Central

Aims: The article aims to explore, evaluate, and discuss the role associated with the presence or absence of caregivers’ support groups in the Kanye care program in Botswana. Objective: The objective of the study was to solicit the views, attitudes, and thinking of palliative caregivers on the role, and implication of the presence and absence of support groups as vehicles influencing care-giving productivity. Materials and Methods: The study was explorative and descriptive in nature and used a qualitative design, involving 82 primary caregivers in focus group discussions and five community home-based care nurses in one- to-one interviews. Results: The support groups were found to play the following pivotal roles: (1) facilitate forums of strengthening caregivers; (2) facilitate sharing and exchange of information among caregivers; (3) facilitate counselling, debriefings, and education among caregivers; (4) foster the spirit and feelings of togetherness among caregivers; and (5) act as advocacy fronts and an opportunity of pooling and mobilizing the resources. Conclusion: The article recommends to the Government and the nongovernmental organizations to assist all care programs to institute and facilitate the formation of caregivers’ support groups.

Kang'ethe, Simon

2011-01-01

350

76 FR 72438 - Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates; Scheduling of the Final Phase of Antidumping...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates; Scheduling of the Final Phase of Antidumping...less-than-fair-value imports from The United Arab Emirates of certain steel nails, provided for...certain steel nails from the United Arab Emirates are being sold in the United States...

2011-11-23

351

77 FR 46686 - Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-570-909] Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China...scope of the Order \\1\\ as including steel nails found within Target Corporation's toolkits...the CIT's remand order in Mid Continent Nail Corp. v. United States, Slip Op....

2012-08-06

352

78 FR 68472 - Steel Nails From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. 731-TA-1114 (Review)] Steel Nails From China; Scheduling of an Expedited...Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Steel Nails From China AGENCY: United States International...of the antidumping duty order on steel nails from China would be likely to lead to...

2013-11-14

353

76 FR 75871 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Final Rescission of Antidumping Duty New...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...nails that are cut. Certain steel nails may be of one piece construction...two or more pieces. Certain steel nails may be produced from any type of steel, and have a variety of finishes...but are not limited to, coating in vinyl, zinc...

2011-12-05

354

75 FR 34425 - Certain Steel Nails from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the First New Shipper...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...nails that are cut. Certain steel nails may be of one piece construction...two or more pieces. Certain steel nails may be produced from any type of steel, and have a variety of finishes...but are not limited to, coating in vinyl, zinc...

2010-06-17

355

75 FR 56070 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Preliminary Results and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...nails that are cut. Certain steel nails may be of one piece construction...two or more pieces. Certain steel nails may be produced from any type of steel, and have a variety of finishes...but are not limited to, coating in vinyl, zinc...

2010-09-15

356

75 FR 2483 - Certain Steel Nails from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Preliminary Results of the New...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...nails that are cut. Certain steel nails may be of one piece construction...two or more pieces. Certain steel nails may be produced from any type of steel, and have a variety of finishes...but are not limited to, coating in vinyl, zinc...

2010-01-15

357

77 FR 12556 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Final Partial...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...nails that are cut. Certain steel nails may be of one piece construction...two or more pieces. Certain steel nails may be produced from any type of steel, and have a variety of finishes...but are not limited to, coating in vinyl, zinc...

2012-03-01

358

76 FR 30101 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...nails that are cut. Certain steel nails may be of one piece construction...two or more pieces. Certain steel nails may be produced from any type of steel, and have a variety of finishes...but are not limited to, coating in vinyl, zinc...

2011-05-24

359

76 FR 22369 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Initiation and Preliminary Results of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...nails that are cut. Certain steel nails may be of one piece construction...two or more pieces. Certain steel nails may be produced from any type of steel, and have a variety of finishes...but are not limited to, coating in vinyl, zinc...

2011-04-21

360

78 FR 69644 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited First Sunset...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China...steel nails from the People's Republic of China...review, the Department finds that revocation of the...Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China...revoked. Parties may find a complete...

2013-11-20

361

The Cortical Step Sign Fails to Prevent Malrotation of a Nailed Femoral Shaft Fracture: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Intramedullary nailing has become the treatment of choice for diaphyseal femur fractures. Malrotation is a well-recognized complication of femoral nailing. Various techniques including the cortical step sign (CSS) have been described to minimize iatrogenic rotational deformity during femoral nailing. We present a case in which the use of the CSS resulted in a clinically significant malrotation requiring revision.

Tung, Taranjit; Tufescu, Ted

2014-01-01

362

Mohs' micrographic surgery as treatment for squamous dysplasia of the nail unit.  

PubMed

We report a series of 14 cases of nail unit squamous cell carcinoma in situ/ Bowen's disease and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) treated with Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS). MMS has been previously reported as an ideal treatment for nail unit SCC. This series adds to the current literature substantiating this claim, and also demonstrates the good outcomes achieved with secondary intention healing. PMID:22571561

Young, Lauren Cordelia; Tuxen, Alana Jane; Goodman, Greg

2012-05-01

363

Tibia fracture following removal of the ETN ® (Expert Tibia Nail): a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a patient who sustained a fracture of the tibial shaft during the removal of the newest type of an intramedullary\\u000a nail (Expert Tibia Nail, Synthes®). In this case report, we discuss the causes of this complication and possible ways to prevent this.

Christian J. Seebauer; Karine M. van Scherpenzeel; Norbert P. Haas; Hermann J. Bail

2009-01-01

364

Nail matrix nevi: A clinical and histopathologic study of twenty-two patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Because most dermatologists do not regularly perform biopsies of longitudinal melanonychia, even when the pigmentation presents as a single band, the true prevalence of nail matrix nevi is unknown.Objective: Our purpose was to determine the prevalence of nail matrix nevi in white patients with longitudinal melanonychia involving a single digit and to determine whether longitudinal melanonychia caused by a

Antonella Tosti; Robert Baran; Bianca Maria Piraccini; Norma Cameli; Pier Alessandro Fanti

1996-01-01

365

Understanding Habits: A Preliminary Investigation of Nail Biting Function in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional functional analysis procedures were combined with a functional assessment interview and etiological theories to evaluate functions of nail biting in six children. Environmental restriction in combination with other variables appeared to control nail biting. A habit reversal intervention was generally effective but was less effective…

Woods, Douglas W.; Fuqua, R. Wayne; Siah, Adelene; Murray, Laura K.; Welch, Matthew; Blackman, Edward; Seif, Tory

2001-01-01

366

[Tibio-talo-calcaneal arthrodesis by retrograde intramedullary nail--a case report].  

PubMed

We described a case of 64 year old overweight women, who was treated with revision tibio-talo-calcaneal artrodesis with the use of retrograde intramedullary nail. The procedure was performed after failed primary arthrodesis with the use of lateral approach and fibula osteotomy. Stabilization with intramedullary nail gave good clinical and functional result with a good bone healing. PMID:22235644

Lipi?ski, ?ukasz; Synder, Marek; Sibi?ski, Marcin

2011-01-01

367

Background values for essential and toxic elements in children's nails and correlation with hair levels.  

PubMed

Human nails are an attractive matrix for assessing environmental exposures to toxic elements as well as the deficiency of essential elements since it is noninvasively collected and can be stored at room temperature. However, reference or baseline levels in nonexposed and healthy populations are not yet established. Then, the aims of this study were (a) to estimate background values for essential and toxic elements in nails from a healthy young population in southern Brazil and (b) to evaluate possible correlations between essential and toxic elements in nails. Furthermore, this report took part of a recent study of background values in the hair of a young population. Thus, correlations between chemical elements in nails and hair were also evaluated. Nails were collected from healthy children (n?=?126), and element concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. This study provides new and reliable reference concentrations for toxic and essential elements in children's nails. The results can be used as reference values for epidemiological or clinical investigations based on trace elements in nails. Additionally, we also showed weak to strong correlations between Cu, Mg, Mn, Se, and Zn levels in nails and hair. PMID:21671087

Carneiro, Maria Fernanda Hornos; Grotto, Denise; Batista, Bruno Lemos; Rhoden, Claudia Ramos; Barbosa, Fernando

2011-12-01

368

Nail penetration test for determining the uniaxial compressive strength of rock  

Microsoft Academic Search

We offer a new and practical index test method, the nail penetration test (NPT), to estimate the UCS of intact rocks, to be used as alternative to the point load test (PLT) or Schmidt rebound hammer test (SRH). The major tools used in the investigation include a gasnailer with 130J power and its nails ranging from 25 to 60mm in

Kamil Kayabali; Levent Selcuk

2010-01-01

369

Ciclopirox nail lacquer for the treatment of onychomycosis: an open non-comparative study.  

PubMed

Onychomycosis is a relatively common disease accounting for up to 50% of all nail disorders. Topical treatment, although less effective than systemic, is usually preferred by patients. Topical antifungal nail lacquers have been formulated to provide better delivery of the antifungal agent to the nail unit. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ciclopirox nail lacquer in the treatment of onychomycosis. Patients suffering from distal and lateral subungual toenail onychomycosis (DLSO) and lateral subungual onychomycosis (LSO) were treated by ciclopirox nail lacquer once daily for 9 months. Every week the nail lacquer was removed using acetone. Clinical nail status, KOH examination and mycological culture were recorded by the same investigator at 0, 3, 6 and 9 months. Thirty-six patients completed the 9-month regimen. Trichophyton rubrum was the most common pathogen. At the end of the study, good improvement to complete cure was observed in 13 patients (36%), 12 patients showed only mild to moderate improvement and 11 patients (31%) had no clinical improvement. No adverse effects were noted throughout the treatment period. Ciclopirox nail lacquer seems to be slightly more effective than other topical modalities and could be used in patients who cannot or do not want systemic treatment. PMID:20175847

Shemer, Avner; Nathansohn, Nir; Trau, Henri; Amichai, Boaz; Grunwald, Marcelo H

2010-02-01

370

Occurrence of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) in personal care products and compounding agents.  

PubMed

Perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), are persistent organic pollutants that pose human health risks. However, sources of contamination and exposure pathways of PFCAs have not been explored. In this study, PFCA concentrations were quantified in personal care products. Among 24 samples that listed fluorinated compounds, such as polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs), in their international nomenclature of cosmetic ingredients (INCI) labels, 21contained PFCAs (13 of 15 cosmetic samples, and 8 of 9 sunscreen samples). The concentrations of total PFCAs ranged from not detected to 5.9 ?g g(-1) for cosmetics and from not detected to 19 ?g g(-1) for sunscreens. We also investigated components of PFCAs in cosmetics and sunscreens. Commercially available compounding agents, mica and talc, which were treated with PAPs were analyzed and high concentrations of PFCAs were detected (total PFCAs 2.5 ?g g(-1) for talc treated with PAPs, 35.0 ?g g(-1) for mica treated with PAPs). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on contamination of end consumer products containing PAPs with high concentrations of PFCAs. PMID:23932147

Fujii, Yukiko; Harada, Kouji H; Koizumi, Akio

2013-09-01

371

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs): a review on environmental contamination in China.  

PubMed

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) which contain diverse organic groups, such as antibiotics, hormones, antimicrobial agents, synthetic musks, etc., have raised significant concerns in recently years for their persistent input and potential threat to ecological environment and human health. China is a large country with high production and consumption of PPCPs for its economic development and population growth in recent years. This may result in PPCP contamination in different environmental media of China. This review summarizes the current contamination status of different environment media, including sewage, surface water, sludge, sediments, soil, and wild animals, in China by PPCPs. The human body burden and adverse effects derived from PPCPs are also evaluated. Based on this review, it has been concluded that more contamination information of aquatic environment and wildlife as well as human body burden of PPCPs in different areas of China is urgent. Studies about their environmental behavior and control technologies need to be conducted, and acute and chronic toxicities of different PPCP groups should be investigated for assessing their potential ecological and health risks. PMID:23838081

Liu, Jin-Lin; Wong, Ming-Hung

2013-09-01

372

Phthalates and parabens in personal care products from China: concentrations and human exposure.  

PubMed

Our previous studies showed that populations in China are widely exposed to phthalates and parabens. Nevertheless, sources of Chinese exposure to phthalates and parabens are not well understood. In this study, we measured concentrations of nine phthalates and six parabens in five categories of personal care products (PCPs, N = 52) collected from Tianjin, China, and estimated human exposure doses to these compounds. The most frequently detected phthalates and parabens in PCPs were diethyl phthalate (DEP) (detection frequency 54 %), methyl paraben (MeP), and n-propyl paraben (PrP) (~75 %). The concentrations of DEP in PCPs ranged from not detected (ND; <0.1 ?g/g) to 937 ?g/g. The highest concentrations of MeP and PrP were 2,826 and 1,564 ?g/g, respectively. Median exposure dose to parabens through dermal application of PCPs in China was estimated at 18,700 ?g/d, which was two orders of magnitude greater than that calculated for phthalates (45.5 ?g/d). Hand and body lotions were the major contributors to exposures, and the daily exposure doses for DEP, MeP, and PrP from these products were 38.4, 10,200 and 4,890 ?g, respectively. PMID:23880707

Guo, Ying; Wang, Lei; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

2014-01-01

373

Closed intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fractures in an echelon III facility.  

PubMed

This study was performed to assess the safety of performing intramedullary (IM) nailing in an established echelon III theater hospital. Twenty-two patients (23 fractures) sustained subtrochanteric or diaphyseal femur fractures and presented to the Air Force theater hospital (AFTH) at Balad Air Base, Iraq, for definitive treatment. Sixteen grade IIIA open fractures underwent staged intramedullary nailing. Seven closed fractures were treated with either immediate or staged intramedullary nailing as facility operations tempo dictated. Definitive follow-up was only available for 8 fractures at 2 months and for 5 fractures at 6 months, but no patient was readmitted to any U.S. military hospital in Iraq for treatment of infection or intramedullary nail removal. Although the results are not conclusive, the authors suggest that intramedullary nailing may be performed with acceptable infection risk in an established echelon III facility. Further study will help to establish the efficacy of this treatment approach. PMID:19317191

Keeney, James A; Ingari, John V; Mentzer, Kurt D; Powell, Elisha T

2009-02-01

374

Wedge excision of the nail fold in the treatment of ingrown toenail.  

PubMed

Many treatment modalities of ingrown toenail are reported in the literature, often associated with unacceptably high recurrence rate. The authors present their technique, which aims at reducing the convexity of the nail fold. After complete removal of the nail plate and accurate debridement of the granulomatous tissue, a wedge-shaped ellipsis of skin and subcutaneous tissue, lateral to the affected nail fold, is removed. Approximation of the margins of the resulting defect determines eversion of the nail fold. One hundred twenty ingrown toenails were treated with the wedge excision of the nail fold at the outpatient clinic of the department of plastic surgery, Campus Bio-Medico University, Rome, Italy, between January 1998 and January 2002. Six recurrences were observed. In addition to the high cure rate, short postoperative pain duration, and morbidity as well as low risk of postoperative infection, the remarkable esthetic results achievable with this method are indicated. PMID:15167000

Persichetti, Paolo; Simone, Pierfranco; Li Vecchi, Giancarlo; Di Lella, Filippo; Cagli, Barbara; Marangi, Giovanni Francesco

2004-06-01

375

Treating ingrown toenails by nail splinting with a flexible tube: an Indian experience.  

PubMed

Ingrown toenail is a common problem, and currently available treatments are either quite invasive or associated with unacceptably high recurrence rate. Recently a new non-invasive therapy. "Nail splinting", has been introduced. In this procedure, the nail is splinted with a longitudinally incised plastic tube. We conducted the present study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this procedure in fifty patients (68 nail edges in 61 nails) with ingrown toenails at all stages. The pain disappeared almost immediately, and inflammation subsided in about one week in all nail edges. Thirty-nine patients came for regular follow-up for six months after removal of the tube. Eight (20.5%) of these patients showed recurrence of the problem. No serious side effects were noted. PMID:11603389

Gupta, S; Sahoo, B; Kumar, B

2001-09-01

376

The Mozena Classification System and treatment algorithm for ingrown hallux nails.  

PubMed

Infected ingrown toenails raise the question of how much nail should be removed and what amount of nail fold reduction should occur. Often, the ungual labia folds are found to be hypertrophic, forcing the nail to push into the flesh and start a foreign body reaction. A simplified approach to this problem is proposed on the basis of the measurement of 100 normal nail folds and 25 infected nail folds. The results of this study show that the treatment goal should be to achieve an ungual labia fold of less than 3 mm, concluding that there is a correlation between the depth of the ungual labia fold and the severity of the infected ingrown toenail. PMID:11904324

Mozena, John D

2002-03-01

377

Nail-like targets for laser plasma interaction experiments  

SciTech Connect

The interaction of ultra-high power picosecond laser pulses with solid targets is of interest both for benchmarking the results of hybrid particle in cell (PIC) codes and also for applications to re-entrant cone guided fast ignition. We describe the construction of novel targets in which copper/titanium wires are formed into 'nail-like' objects by a process of melting and micromachining, so that energy can be reliably coupled to a 24 {micro}m diameter wire. An extreme-ultraviolet image of the interaction of the Titan laser with such a target is shown.

Pasley, J; Wei, M; Shipton, E; Chen, S; Ma, T; Beg, F N; Alexander, N; Stephens, R B; MacPhee, A G; Hey, D; Pape, S L; Patel, P; Mackinnon, A J; Key, M H; Offermann, D; Link, A; Chowdhury, E; Van-Woerkom, L D; Freeman, R R

2007-12-18

378

Subtrochanteric fractures: treatment with cerclage wire and long intramedullary nail.  

PubMed

Fracture malalignment and nonunion are not infrequent after treating subtrochanteric fractures with intramedullary nails. The use of a cerclage wire with a minimally invasive approach to aid and maintain reduction in certain subtrochanteric fracture patterns can be an effective surgical strategy to improve outcome. It allows the surgeon to obtain and maintain an anatomic reduction with more bone contact, which will aid in fracture consolidation. This has the added advantage of optimizing the greater trochanteric starting point. It minimizes malreductions of the proximal femoral fragment, and, we believe, that its rational use with a minimally invasive technique is a key factor in achieving good results. PMID:22932753

Tomás, Jordi; Teixidor, Jordi; Batalla, Lledó; Pacha, Daniel; Cortina, Josep

2013-07-01

379

Contaminants in human nail dust: an occupational hazard in podiatry?  

PubMed Central

Background There has been limited literature indicating that podiatrists’ health may be at risk from exposure to human nail dust. Previous studies carried out in the UK have shown that large amounts of dust become airborne during the human nail drilling procedure and are present in the air up to 10 hours after a clinical session. This increases the risk of Respiratory Tract (RT) infection for the practitioner. Methods This study used a nasal swabbing technique and fungal culture to determine whether podiatrists (n = 50) had the same microbes present in their nasal cavities as non-podiatry health professional control group (n = 45). All swabs were cultured, counted and identified for each subject. Survey data of use and type of nail drill, type of mask used and frequency of change over a two week period. Results The results showed podiatrists had a greater range of microbes in their nasal cavities although the controls had greater overall numbers of organisms. The known pathogen and common mould, Aspergillus fumigatus was ost commonly found fungus within the podiatric group with 44% of the group having the fungus present. All nail drills used by the podiatrists had some form of dust extraction (except one). Of concern was 17% (n = 8) of the podiatrists did not use a mask at all whilst drilling and seemed unaware of any infection control issues. Simple disposable masks were the most frequently worn with only half being changed after each patient further increasing the cross infection risk Conclusion The high levels of Aspergilus contamination is a significant finding in the podiatry group as this fungus is small enough to enter the tissue of the nasal cavity and as a small particle will stay airborne in the room for up to 16 hours. Aspergilus has been shown to cause brain and soft tissue tumours in extreme cases. The high levels of upper respiratory track problems reported in the literature may well be caused by this fungal agent. The non use and use of inappropriate masks by podiatrists is clearly an occupational hazard to their health and well being.

2014-01-01

380

Disseminated rhinosporidiosis with unusual involvement of the nail apparatus.  

PubMed

Rhinosporidiosis is an uncommon chronic granulomatous disease caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi. It primarily affects the nasal mucosa and the nasopharynx. The disease may disseminate to the skin, larynx, trachea, genitalia, bones and even the internal organs. Although simultaneous onset of nasal and disseminated lesions has been reported, dissemination usually occurs several years after the onset of nasal lesions. We report a rare case of disseminated rhinosporidiosis involving both nares, the nasal mucosa, nasopharynx, oral cavity and oropharynx, as well as widespread cutaneous lesions over the trunk and the limbs with nail involvement. This last feature has not, to our knowledge, been previously reported. PMID:20055857

Nath, A K; Madana, J; Yolmo, D; D'Souza, M

2009-12-01

381

The new production theory for health care through clinical reengineering: a study of clinical guidelines--Part I.  

PubMed

Drucker writes that the emerging theory of manufacturing includes four principles and practices: statistical quality control, manufacturing accounting, modular organization, and systems approach. SQC is a rigorous, scientific method of identifying variation in the quality and productivity of a given production process, with an emphasis on improvement. The new manufacturing economics intends to integrate the production strategy with the business strategy in order to account for the biggest portions of costs that the old methods did not assess: time and automation. Production operations that are both standardized and flexible will allow the organization to keep up with changes in design, technology, and the market. The return on innovation in this environment is predicated on a modular arrangement of flexible steps in the process. Finally, the systems approach sees the entire process as being integrated in converting goods or services into economic satisfaction. There is now a major restructuring of the U.S. health care industry, and the incorporation of these four theories into health care reform would appear to be essential. This two-part article will address two problems: Will Drucker's theories relate to health care (Part I)? Will the "new manufacturing" in health care (practice guidelines) demonstrate cost, quality, and access changes that reform demands (Part II)? PMID:10139368

Sharp, J R

1994-12-01

382

Emerging chemicals of concern: Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in Asia, with particular reference to Southern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many western nations, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are present in aquatic environments, raising concerns amongst chemists and toxicologists regarding their potential environmental fates and effects. However, there are few published reports of PPCPs in environmental samples from Southeast Asia. Whilst the environmental toxicology of PPCPs is not well understood, several effects cause concern, such as feminisation or

Bruce J. Richardson; Paul K. S. Lam; Michael Martin

2005-01-01

383

Development of a thermal desorption-gas chromatography–mass spectrometry method for determining personal care products in air  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the development of a new analytical method for determining 14 personal care products (PCPs) – nine synthetic musks, four parabens and one insect repellent – in air samples. The method is based on active sampling on sorbent tubes and thermal desorption-gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis, and is rapid, sensitive and drastically reduces the risk of sample contamination. Three

Noelia Ramírez; Rosa Maria Marcé; Francesc Borrull

2010-01-01

384

ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY RESEARCH NEEDS FOR MAPPING TRENDS OF PHARMACEUTICAL AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCT POLLUTION FROM PERSONAL USE  

EPA Science Inventory

The consensus among environmental scientists and risk assessors is that the fate and effects of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPS) in the environment are poorly understood. Many classes of PPCPs have yet to be investigated. Acquisition of trends data for a suite of...

385

The occurrence of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, endocrine disruptors and illicit drugs in surface water in South Wales, UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence and fate of 56 pharmaceuticals, personal care products, endocrine disruptors and illicit drugs (PPCPs) were investigated in the South Wales region of the UK. Two contrasting rivers: River Taff and River Ely were chosen for this investigation and were monitored for a period of 10 months. The impact of the factors affecting the levels of concentration of PPCPs

Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern; Richard M. Dinsdale; Alan J. Guwy

2008-01-01

386

Preliminary screening of small-scale domestic wastewater treatment systems for removal of pharmaceutical and personal care products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occurrence and removal efficiencies of 13 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as well as BOD5, TSS and NH4+ were evaluated for the first time in thirteen onsite household secondary wastewater treatment systems, including two compact biofilters followed by Filtralite-P filter units, two biological sand filters, five horizontal subsurface flow and four vertical flow constructed wetlands. As expected, all systems

Víctor Matamoros; Carlos Arias; Hans Brix; Josep M. Bayona

2009-01-01

387

Pharmaceutical and personal care products in tile drainage following land application of municipal biosolids.  

PubMed

Land application of municipal biosolids (sewage) is a common farming practice in many parts of the world. There is potential for transport of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) from agricultural fields to adjacent surface waters via tile drainage systems. In this study, liquid municipal biosolids (LMB) (total solids=11,933 mg L(-1)), supplemented with selected PPCPs and the fluorescent dye tracer rhodamine WT (RWT), were applied to tile drained fields using two land application approaches. Objectives included evaluating the relative benefits of land application practices with respect to reducing PPCP loadings to tile drains, evaluating PPCP persistence in tile water, and determining whether rhodamine WT can be used to estimate PPCP mass loads in tile. The PPCPs examined included an antibacterial agent used in personal care products (triclosan), a metabolite of nicotine (cotinine), and a variety of drugs including two sulfonamide antimicrobials (sulfapyridine, sulfamethoxazole), a beta-blocker (atenolol), an anti-epileptic (carbamazepine), an antidepressant (fluoxetine), analgesic/anti-inflammatories (acetaminophen, naproxen, ibuprofen), and a lipid-regulator (gemfibrozil). Maximum observed PPCP concentrations in the spiked LMB were about 10(3) ng g(-1) dry weight. PPCPs were shown to move rapidly via soil macropores to tile drains within minutes of the land application. Maximum observed PPCP concentrations in tile effluent associated with the LMB application-induced tile flow event were approximately 10(1) to 10(3) ng L(-1). PPCP mass loads, for the application-induced tile-hydrograph event, were significantly (p<0.1) higher for surface spreading over non-tilled soil (incorporation tillage occurring 20 h post-application), relative to aerating soil immediately prior to surface spreading using an AerWay slurry deposition system. PPCP concentrations that were detected above the limit of quantitation (LOQ) in tile water during several precipitation-induced tile flow events that occurred post-application, included: triclosan (max. approximately 1.5 x 10(2) ng L(-1)), carbamazepine (max. approximately 7 x 10(1) ng L(-1)), atenolol (max approximately 4 x 10(1) ng L(-1)), and cotinine (max approximately 2 x 10(1) ng L(-1)). In spite of their presence in biosolids, the other PPCPs were not observed above LOQ concentrations during these events. PPCP concentrations were predicted from RWT concentrations over a 40 day study period. Tile mass loads as a percent of PPCP mass applied to soil ranged from 4.2%+/-SD of 9.2% to 7.1%+/-10.9% for the AerWay system and surface spreading plus incorporation treatments, respectively. PMID:18455753

Lapen, D R; Topp, E; Metcalfe, C D; Li, H; Edwards, M; Gottschall, N; Bolton, P; Curnoe, W; Payne, M; Beck, A

2008-07-25

388

The Stability Score of the Intramedullary Nailed Intertrochanteric Fractures: Stability of Nailed Fracture and Postoperative Patient Mobilization  

PubMed Central

Background Intertrochanteric fractures of the femur are the most common type of fracture, and are an increasing occurrence due to the aging of the population. The objectives of our study are to predict the fate of intertrochanteric fractures treated with intramedullary hip nails by assessing the postoperative fracture stability utilizing the newly developed scoring system, and to help rehabilitate these patients. Methods Eighty-two patients with intertrochanteric fractures that were treated with intramedullary hip nails between December, 2004 and January, 2011 were subjected to this study. The patients who could be followed for a minimum of one year postoperatively were enrolled. The immediate postoperative conditions were determined by radiograms: reduction status (3 parameters/4 points: contact accuracy of posteromedial cortex, severity of angulation, and distraction), fixation status (3 parameters/3 points: tip-apex distance, location of tip of the lag screw, entry point of the intramedullary nail), and fracture type (1 parameter/1 point: stable or unstable type by the Kyle's classification). Postoperative reduction loss and fixation failure were checked by radiograms taken at a minimum 3 months postoperative. Results Reduction loss and fixation failure were observed in 14 consecutive patients (17%). The fixation failure rate was 100% (2 patients) in score 1, 60% (3 out of the 5 patients) in score 2, 39% (3 out of the 8 patients) in score 3, and 50% (4 out of the 8 patients) in score 4 groups. There were fixation failures only in 1 out of 13 patients with score 5, and in 1 out of 18 patients with score 6. There was no fixation failure in 17 patients with score 7 and 11 patients with score 8. Conclusions Maintenance of the fracture reduction by the stable fixation in the patient scores over 5 could be predicted by the postoperative radiograms.

Lee, Sung-Rak; Yoon, Min Geun; Moon, Myung-Sang; Heo, Jee-Hyun

2013-01-01

389

Triclosan, an environmental pollutant from health care products, evokes charybdotoxin-sensitive hyperpolarization in rat thymocytes.  

PubMed

The effects of triclosan, an environmental pollutant from household items and health care products, on membrane potential and intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations of rat thymocytes were examined by a flow cytometry with fluorescent probes, di-BA-C(4) and fluo-3-AM, because triclosan is often found in humans and wild animals. Triclosan at a concentration of 3 ?M decreased the intensity of di-BA-C(4) fluorescence, indicating the triclosan-induced hyperpolarization. The application of charybdotoxin, a specific inhibitor of Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels, and the removal of external Ca(2+) eliminated the triclosan-attenuation of di-BA-C(4) fluorescence. Furthermore, triclosan augmented the fluo-3 fluorescence under normal Ca(2+) condition, indicating that triclosan increased intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. These results suggest that triclosan induces membrane hyperpolarization by increasing intracellular Ca(2+) concentration that activates Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels. Since the change in membrane potential of lymphocytes influence cellular immune functions, triclosan may exert adverse actions on immune system in human and wild animals. PMID:22004961

Kawanai, Takuya

2011-11-01

390

Formation of nanostructure on hair surface: its characteristic optical properties and application to hair care products.  

PubMed

Uneven structures on hair fiber surface, such as lift up of cuticle or build up of hair spray ingredients, generally cause a diffuse reflection which results in a dull and unhealthy appearance. However, in the case of finer structure than wavelength of visible light, the optical properties change significantly. An application of the phenomenon to hair care products is reported in this paper. Formation of the fine structure on hair surface was achieved by only a shampoo and rinse-off conditioner system including amino-silicone. Chroma enhancement of hair and light introduction into hair fibers were observed simultaneously with formation of the fine structure on the hair surface. The light introduction phenomenon is understood in terms of "Effective Medium Approximation" (EMA). The simulation study based on EMA indicates that a very low refractive index surface is expected to be realized, which well explains the optical experimental results. When the shampoo and conditioner system developed to form the structure on fiber surface was applied to dyed hair, enhancement and long-lasting of vivid appearance was confirmed in spite of dye elution. PMID:17728928

Watanabe, Shunsuke; Sato, Hirayuki; Shibuichi, Satoshi; Okamoto, Masayuki; Inoue, Shigeto; Satoh, Naoki

2007-01-01

391

Occurrence of 70 pharmaceutical and personal care products in Tone River basin in Japan.  

PubMed

The occurrence of 70 pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) was investigated in the Tone River. The river has the largest basin in Japan, and the water is utilized not only for farming, but also as a source of water supply. One day in both January and October 2006, surface waters in the river and its tributaries and effluents from sewage treatment plants (STPs) directly discharging into the Tone River were collected, the location of which ranged over 150 km along the river. The 70 PPCPs in the samples were concentrated by solid phase cartridge and were measured by LC-MS/MS using three analytical methods. Fifty-seven PPCPs were detected in one or more samples. Bezafibrate, caffeine, carbamazepine, clarithromycin, crotamiton and sulpiride were frequently detected. Mass flow profiles of some PPCPs (e.g., crotamiton) were comparable to cumulative inhabitants in the basin, suggesting that these PPCPs could be markers of population. Total load of each PPCP into the basin from upstream, the tributaries, and the STPs were calculated. The contribution of selected PPCPs from the tributaries with lower sewerage system coverage was dominant compared to those from upstream and the STPs, suggesting the installation of sewerage systems is necessary to reduce the load of PPCPs in the Tone River basin. PMID:18075189

Nakada, N; Komori, K; Suzuki, Y; Konishi, C; Houwa, I; Tanaka, H

2007-01-01

392

Degradation and adsorption of selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in agricultural soils.  

PubMed

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are emerging contaminants in the environment, which have drawn popular concerns recently. Most studies on the environmental fate of PPCPs have focused on their behaviors during wastewater treatment processes, in aquatic environments, and in the sludge, however, little is known about their behavior in agricultural soils. In this study, adsorption and degradation of six selected PPCPs, including clofibric acid, ibuprofen, naproxen, triclosan, diclofenac and bisphenol A have been investigated in the laboratory using four US agricultural soils associated with reclaimed wastewater reuse. Adsorption test using a batch equilibrium method demonstrated that adsorption of all tested chemicals in soils could be well described with Freundlich equation, and their adsorption affinity on soil followed the order of triclosan>bisphenol A>clofibric acid>naproxen>diclofenac>ibuprofen. Retardation factor (R(F)) suggested that ibuprofen had potential to move downward with percolating water, while triclosan and bisphenol A were readily retarded in soils. Degradation of selected PPCPs in soils generally followed first-order exponential decay kinetics, with half-lives ranging from 0.81 to 20.44 d. Degradation of PPCPs in soils appeared to be influenced by the soil organic matter and clay contents. Sterilization generally decreased the degradation rates, indicating microbial activity played a significant role in the degradation in soils. The degradation rate constant decreased with increasing initial chemical concentrations in soil, implying that the microbial activity was inhibited with high chemical loading levels. PMID:19853275

Xu, Jian; Wu, Laosheng; Chang, Andrew C

2009-11-01

393

Occurrence and fate of pharmaceutical and personal care products in a sewage treatment works.  

PubMed

The occurrence and fate of eight pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) during sewage treatment has been studied in a pilot-scale treatment plant, comprising a primary settler (2.85 m(3)), an aeration tank (1.845 m(3)) and a secondary clarifier (0.5 m(3)), placed on site at a wastewater treatment works in the north west of the UK. It was fed both with raw sewage and the return liquor produced after sludge centrifugation, thus representing the most common configuration for a municipal sewage treatment plant based on the activated sludge process. Samples were taken at six different locations, including the return liquor stream, and analysed for musk fragrances and pharmaceutically active compounds belonging to various therapeutic groups such as anti-inflammatory drugs, tranquillisers and antiepileptics. Mass balances were conducted for those PPCPs that were quantifiable. The fate of the PPCPs was found to differ according to their physical-chemical characteristics. Anti-inflammatories underwent a degradation process and were almost completely removed from sewage during the biological treatment step. Musk fragrances were only partially removed, through adsorption onto the primary suspended solids and the biomass in the aerobic process, due to their strong lipophilic characteristics. The results of this study provide increasing evidence that the partial removal of these substances through the sewage treatment process contribute to the environmental occurrence of PPCPs. Consequently, existing STPs should be upgraded in order to attenuate the release of these substances into the aquatic environment. PMID:21057683

Reif, Rubén; Santos, Ana; Judd, Simon J; Lema, Juan M; Omil, Francisco

2011-01-01

394

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the aquatic environment in China: a review.  

PubMed

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have been detected as contaminants of emerging concern ubiquitously in the aquatic environment in China and worldwide. A clear picture of PPCP contamination in the Chinese aquatic environment is needed to gain insight for both research and regulatory needs (e.g. monitoring, control and management). The occurrence data of 112 PPCPs in waters and sediments in China has been reviewed. In most cases, the detected concentration of these PPCPs in waters and sediments were at ng/L and ng/g levels, which were lower than or comparable to those reported worldwide. A screening level risk assessment (SLERA) identified six priority PPCPs in surface waters, namely erythromycin, roxithromycin, diclofenac, ibuprofen, salicylic acid and sulfamethoxazole. The results of SLERA also revealed that the hot spots for PPCP pollution were those river waters affected by the megacities with high density of population, such as Beijing, Tianjin, Guangzhou and Shanghai. Limitations of current researches and implications for future research in China were discussed. Some regulatory issues were also addressed. PMID:24036145

Bu, Qingwei; Wang, Bin; Huang, Jun; Deng, Shubo; Yu, Gang

2013-11-15

395

Removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in a membrane bioreactor wastewater treatment plant.  

PubMed

Ninety-nine pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) were analyzed in influent, final effluent, and biosolids samples from a wastewater treatment plant employing a membrane bioreactor (MBR). High concentrations in influent were found for acetaminophen, caffeine, metformin, 2-hydroxy-ibuprofen, paraxanthine, ibuprofen, and naproxen (10(4)-10(5) ng/L). Final effluents contained clarithromycin, metformin, atenolol, carbamazepine, and trimethoprim (>500 ng/L) at the highest concentrations, while triclosan, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, triclocarban, metformin, caffeine, ofloxacin, and paraxanthine were found at high concentrations in biosolids (>10(3) ng/g dry weight). PPCP removals varied from -34% to >99% and 23 PPCPs had ?90% removal. Of the studied PPCPs, 26 compounds have been rarely or never studied in previous membrane bioreactor (MBR) investigations. The removal pathway showed that acetaminophen, 2-hydroxy-ibuprofen, naproxen, ibuprofen, codeine, metformin, enalapril, atorvastatin, caffeine, paraxanthine, and cotinine exhibited high degradation/transformation. PPCPs showing strong sorption to solids included triclocarban, triclosan, miconazole, tetracycline, 4-epitetracycline, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, paroxetine, and ofloxacin. Trimethoprim, oxycodone, clarithromycin, thiabendazole, hydrochlorothiazide, erythromycin-H2O, carbamazepine, meprobamate, and propranolol were not removed during treatment, and clarithromycin was even formed during treatment. This investigation extended our understanding of the occurrence and fate of PPCPs in an MBR process through the analysis of the largest number of compounds in an MBR study to date. PMID:24901615

Kim, M; Guerra, P; Shah, A; Parsa, M; Alaee, M; Smyth, S A

2014-01-01

396

Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in the Environment: What Are the Big Questions?  

PubMed Central

Background: Over the past 10–15 years, a substantial amount of work has been done by the scientific, regulatory, and business communities to elucidate the effects and risks of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the environment. Objective: This review was undertaken to identify key outstanding issues regarding the effects of PPCPs on human and ecological health in order to ensure that future resources will be focused on the most important areas. Data sources: To better understand and manage the risks of PPCPs in the environment, we used the “key question” approach to identify the principle issues that need to be addressed. Initially, questions were solicited from academic, government, and business communities around the world. A list of 101 questions was then discussed at an international expert workshop, and a top-20 list was developed. Following the workshop, workshop attendees ranked the 20 questions by importance. Data synthesis: The top 20 priority questions fell into seven categories: a) prioritization of substances for assessment, b) pathways of exposure, c) bioavailability and uptake, d) effects characterization, e) risk and relative risk, f?) antibiotic resistance, and g) risk management. Conclusions: A large body of information is now available on PPCPs in the environment. This exercise prioritized the most critical questions to aid in development of future research programs on the topic.

Rudd, Murray A.; Brooks, Bryan W.; Caldwell, Daniel J.; Choi, Kyungho; Hickmann, Silke; Innes, Elizabeth; Ostapyk, Kim; Staveley, Jane P.; Verslycke, Tim; Ankley, Gerald T.; Beazley, Karen F.; Belanger, Scott E.; Berninger, Jason P.; Carriquiriborde, Pedro; Coors, Anja; DeLeo, Paul C.; Dyer, Scott D.; Ericson, Jon F.; Gagne, Francois; Giesy, John P.; Gouin, Todd; Hallstrom, Lars; Karlsson, Maja V.; Larsson, D. G. Joakim; Lazorchak, James M.; Mastrocco, Frank; McLaughlin, Alison; McMaster, Mark E.; Meyerhoff, Roger D.; Moore, Roberta; Parrott, Joanne L.; Snape, Jason R.; Murray-Smith, Richard; Servos, Mark R.; Sibley, Paul K.; Straub, Jurg Oliver; Szabo, Nora D.; Topp, Edward; Tetreault, Gerald R.; Trudeau, Vance L.; Van Der Kraak, Glen

2012-01-01

397

Zn-K edge EXAFS study of human nails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy at the Zn - K edge is applied for the study of the bonding geometry of Zn in human nails. The studied nail clippings belong to healthy donors and donors who suffer from lung diseases. Fitting of the first nearest neighboring shell of Zn reveals that it is bonded with N and S, at distances that take values in the ranges 2.00-2.04 Å and 2.23-2.28Å, respectively. Zn is four - fold coordinated and the ratio of the number of sulfur and nitrogen atoms (NS/NN) in the first coordination shell ranges from 0.52 to 1. The sample that belongs to the donor who suffers from lung fibrosis, a condition that is related to keratinization of the lung tissue, is characterized by the highest number of NS/NN. Simulation, using the FEFF8 code, of the Zn - K edge EXAFS spectra with models of tetrahedrally coordinated Zn with 1 (or 2) cysteine and 3 (or 2) histidines is satisfactory.

Katsikini, M.; Mavromati, E.; Pinakidou, F.; Paloura, E. C.; Gioulekas, D.

2009-11-01

398

Nail fold capillary diameter changes in acute systemic hypoxia.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of arterial blood hypoxemia induced by acute systemic hypoxia (pO2=12%) on capillary recruitment and diameter, and red blood cell (RBC) velocity in human nail fold capillaries during rest, arterial post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PRH), and venous occlusion (VO) using intravital video-capillaroscopy. Capillary recruitment was unchanged in acute systemic hypoxia (H) versus normoxia (N). There was no difference in RBC velocity measurements between normoxia and hypoxia (P<0.63). However, a statistically significant increase in nail fold capillary total width (N, 39.9±9.1 vs. H, 42.7±10.3?m; P<0.05), apical diameter (N, 15.5±4.3 vs. H, 16.8±4.3?m; P<0.05), arterial diameter (N, 11.9±3.5 vs. H, 13.9±4.1?m; P<0.05), and venous diameter (N, 15.5±4.3 vs. H, 17.2±4.8?m; P<0.05) was observed and continued to be significant most often during post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PRH) and venous congestion (VO). These data suggest that acute systemic hypoxia does not increase capillary recruitment, but instead increases capillary diameter, resulting in increased capillary blood flow. PMID:24607833

Paparde, Art?rs; N?ringa-Martinsone, Ketija; Plakane, L?ga; Aivars, Juris Imants

2014-05-01

399

Analysis of human nails by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is applied to analyze human fingernails using nanosecond laser pulses. Measurements on 45 nail samples are carried out and 14 key species are identified. The elements detected with the present system are: Al, C, Ca, Fe, H, K, Mg, N, Na, O, Si, Sr, Ti as well as CN molecule. Sixty three emission lines have been identified in the spectrum that are dominated by calcium lines. A discriminant function analysis is used to discriminate among different genders and age groups. This analysis demonstrates efficient discrimination among these groups. The mean concentration of each element is compared between different groups. Correlation between concentrations of elements in fingernails is calculated. A strong correlation is found between sodium and potassium while calcium and magnesium levels are inversely correlated. A case report on high levels of sodium and potassium in patients with hyperthyroidism is presented. It is shown that LIBS could be a promising technique for the analysis of nails and therefore identification of health problems. PMID:21639580

Hosseinimakarem, Zahra; Tavassoli, Seyed Hassan

2011-05-01

400

Linkage analysis of the Nail-patella syndrome  

SciTech Connect

Nail-patella syndrome (NPS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by dysplasia of nails and patella, decreased mobility of the elbow, iliac horns, and, in some cases, nephropathy. The disorder has been mapped to the long arm of chromosome 9, but the precise localization and identity of the NPS gene are unknown. Linkage analysis in three NPS families, using highly informative dinucleotide repeat polymorphisms on 9q33-q34, confirmed linkage of NPS to this chromosome. Recombinations were detected, by two-point linkage analysis, between NPS and the centromeric markers D9S60 and the gelsolin gene and the telomeric markers D9S64 and D9S66, in one of the families. Haplotype analysis suggested an additional recombination between NPS and the argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) gene. These results localize the NPS gene to an interval on 9q34.1, distal to D9S60 an proximal to ASS, comprising a genetic distance of {approximately}9 cM. This represents a significant refinement in the localization of the NPS gene. 25 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Campeau, E.; Watkins, D.; Rouleau, G.A. [Montreal General Hospital, Quebec (Canada); Babul, R.; Der Kaloustian, V.M. [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada); Buchanan, J.A.; Meschino, W. [North York General Hospital (Canada)

1995-01-01

401

ICLAS Working Group on Harmonization: international guidance concerning the production care and use of genetically-altered animals.  

PubMed

Replacement, Reduction and Refinement, the ‘Three Rs’ of Russell & Burch, are accepted worldwide as fundamental to the ethics of animal experimentation. The production, care and use of genetically-altered animals can pose particular challenges to the implementation of the Three Rs,1 necessitating additional considerations by those responsible for overseeing the ethical use and appropriate care of animals involved in science. The International Council for Laboratory Animal Science brings representatives of the international laboratory animal science community together to recommend acceptance of guidance documents.The harmonization of guidance concerning genetically-altered animals was seen as a priority because of the increasing globalization of research involving these animals. PMID:23563121

Rose, M; Everitt, J; Hedrich, H; Schofield, J; Dennis, M; Scott, E; Griffin, G

2013-07-01

402

Quantitative trace element analysis of human nails with external beam PIXE.  

PubMed

External beam PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) analysis with a proton beam of 2.4 MeV was used to study trace element concentrations in human nails. The suitability of PIXE analysis regarding nail samples without any pretreatment besides washing was investigated. The main emphasis has been on the ability to obtain absolute concentration values and a new accurate method for nail sample standardization has been developed. Concentration values for the elements Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, and Pb were determined from human nail samples. A comparison was made with nail samples taken from different fingers and toes to monitor intraindividual variation, and nails of different healthy individuals to get a view of the interindividual differences. The concentrations were also measured in relation to time in order to observe any possible short-term changes. The results are compared with the previous studies reported in the literature. The nail analysis is also compared to hair analysis in terms of detection limits, number of elements determinable, and standardization of the results. PMID:2484384

Lapatto, R; Hietamäki, A; Räisänen, J

1989-03-01

403

Oral carriage of enterobacteriaceae among school children with chronic nail-biting habit  

PubMed Central

Context: Onychophagia or habitual nail-biting is widespread among children and adolescents, between 10 and 18 years. Prevalence estimates range from 30% during childhood to 45% in adolescence. Nail-biting habit can result in autoinoculation of pathogens and transmission of infection between body parts. Aims: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the differences in prevalence of Enterobacteriaceae (E. coli and Enterobacter spp) in saliva samples from subjects with and without chronic nail-biting habit. Subjects and Methods: One hundred and twenty-two subjects with chronic nail-biting habit and 122 subjects with no oral habit were enrolled in the study. All subjects were aged 11-15 years. The saliva samples were collected by oral rinse technique, samples were studied microbiologically. Statistical Analysis Used: Two-tailed Student's t-test and Chi-square/Fisher's exact test were used to find the significance of study parameters between the groups. Results: Enterobacteriaceae were detected in the saliva samples of 80 of the 122 nail-biting subjects, whereas Enterobacteriaceae were detected in the saliva samples of only 10 of the 122 subjects who were not nail-biters. This difference in prevalence was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Our results suggest a higher carriage of Enterobacteriaceae in the individuals having nail-biting habits when compared to individuals with no habits. Further studies need to be done to know the prevalence of Enterobacteriaceae species in different age groups.

Reddy, Sushma; Sanjai, Karpagaselvi; Kumaraswamy, Jayalakshmi; Papaiah, Lokesh; Jeevan, MB

2013-01-01

404

Is a Sliding Hip Screw or IM Nail the Preferred Implant for Intertrochanteric Fracture Fixation?  

PubMed Central

This study was performed to determine whether patients who sustain an intertrochanteric fracture have better outcomes when stabilized using a sliding hip screw or an intramedullary nail. A 20% sample of Part A and B entitled Medicare beneficiaries 65 years or older was used to generate a cohort of patients who sustained intertrochanteric femur fractures between 1999 and 2001. Two fracture implant groups, intramedullary nail and sliding hip screw, were identified using Current Procedural Terminology and International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision codes. The cohort consisted of 43,659 patients. Patients treated with an intramedullary nail had higher rates of revision surgery during the first year than those treated with a sliding hip screw (7.2% intramedullary nail versus 5.5% sliding hip screw). Mortality rates at 30 days (14.2% intramedullary nail versus 15.8% sliding hip screw) and 1 year (30.7% intramedullary nail versus 32.5% sliding hip screw) were similar. Adjusted secondary outcome measures showed significant increases in the intramedullary nail group relative to the sliding hip screw group for index hospital length of stay, days of rehabilitation services in the first 6 months after discharge, and total expenditures for doctor and hospital services. Level of Evidence: Level III, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

Aros, Brian; Tosteson, Anna N. A.; Gottlieb, Daniel J.

2008-01-01

405

Treatment of Femoral Shaft Fracture with an Interlocking Humeral Nail in Older Children and Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Purpose Rigid interlocking nailing for femoral shaft fracture is ideal for use in adolescents in terms of stability of the fracture and convenience for the patient. However, numerous authors have reported that rigid interlocking nailing has some limitations in this age group due to the risk of complications. We evaluated the results of intramedullary nailing for femoral shaft fractures with an interlocking humeral nail in older children and adolescents. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed records of patients treated with an interlocking humeral nail. Radiographs were examined for proximal femoral change and evidence of osteonecrosis. Outcomes were assessed by major or minor complications that occurred after operative treatment. Results Twenty-four femoral shaft fractures in 23 patients were enrolled. The mean age at the time of operation was 12 years and 8 months and the mean follow-up period was 21 months. Bony union was achieved in all patients without any complications related to the procedure such as infection, nonunion, malalignment and limb length discrepancy. All fractures were clinically and radiographically united within an average eight weeks. No patients developed avascular necrosis of the femoral head and coxa valga. Conclusion Intramedullary nailing through the greater trochanter using a rigid interlocking humeral nail is effective and safe for the treatment of femoral shaft fractures in older children and adolescents.

Park, Hoon

2012-01-01

406

Onychopharmacokinetics of terbinafine hydrochloride penetration from a novel topical formulation into the human nail in vitro.  

PubMed

This study determined the onychopharmacokinetics, nail absorption, distribution, and penetration of [¹?C]-terbinafine HCl in a new topical formulation into/through the human finger nail using the in vitro finite dose model. This study determined the penetration rate of terbinafine HCl from multiple doses of topical formulation applied daily for 14 days. Results showed that the total dose recovery (mass balance) was almost 100%. The concentration of terbinafine HCl in the deeper nail plate (ventral/intermediate layers) and the cotton-pad nail bed samples after the 14-day treatment were 613?±?145 and (±S.D.) and 27?±?1.2 µg/cm³ (or 1.9?±?0.6 µg/cm³ daily) on average, respectively. In comparison with nail concentration data from the literature for other topical terbinatine formulations, our results show that higher amounts of terbinafine HCl reached the deep nail plate and/or the nail bed after a 14-day topical treatment with this topical formulation in vitro. PMID:22873754

Hui, Xiaoying; Lindahl, Åke; Lamel, Sonia; Maibach, Howard I

2013-09-01

407

[Fungal nail infections--an update: Part 1--Prevalence, epidemiology, predisposing conditions, and differential diagnosis].  

PubMed

Onychomycosis describes a chronic fungal infection of the nails most frequently caused by dermatophytes, primarily Trichophyton rubrum. In addition, yeasts (e. g. Candida parapsilosis), more rarely molds (Scopulariopsis brevicaulis), play a role as causative agents of onychomycosis. However, in every case it has to be decided if these yeasts and molds are contaminants, or if they are growing secondarily on pathological altered nails. The point prevalence of onychomycosis in Germany is 12.4%, as demonstrated within the "Foot-Check-Study", which was a part of the European Achilles project. Although, onychomycosis is rarely diagnosed in children and teens, now an increase of fungal nail infections has been observed in childhood. More and more, diabetes mellitus becomes important as significant disposing factor both for tinea pedis and onychomycosis. By implication, the onychomycosis represents an independent and important predictor for development of diabetic foot syndrome and foot ulcer. When considering onychomycosis, a number of infectious and non-infectious nail changes must be excluded. While psoriasis of the nails does not represent a specific risk factor for onychomycosis, yeasts and molds are increasing isolated from patients with psoriatic nail involvement. In most cases this represents secondary growth of fungi on psoriatic nails. Recently, stigmatization and impairment of quality of life due to the onychomycosis has been proven. PMID:22037817

Nenoff, P; Ginter-Hanselmayer, G; Tietz, H-J

2012-01-01

408

Safety assessment of personal care products/cosmetics and their ingredients  

SciTech Connect

We attempt to review the safety assessment of personal care products (PCP) and ingredients that are representative and pose complex safety issues. PCP are generally applied to human skin and mainly produce local exposure, although skin penetration or use in the oral cavity, on the face, lips, eyes and mucosa may also produce human systemic exposure. In the EU, US and Japan, the safety of PCP is regulated under cosmetic and/or drug regulations. Oxidative hair dyes contain arylamines, the most chemically reactive ingredients of PCP. Although arylamines have an allergic potential, taking into account the high number of consumers exposed, the incidence and prevalence of hair dye allergy appears to be low and stable. A recent (2001) epidemiology study suggested an association of oxidative hair dye use and increased bladder cancer risk in consumers, although this was not confirmed by subsequent or previous epidemiologic investigations. The results of genetic toxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity studies suggest that modern hair dyes and their ingredients pose no genotoxic, carcinogenic or reproductive risk. Recent reports suggest that arylamines contained in oxidative hair dyes are N-acetylated in human or mammalian skin resulting in systemic exposure to traces of detoxified, i.e. non-genotoxic, metabolites, whereas human hepatocytes were unable to transform hair dye arylamines to potentially carcinogenic metabolites. An expert panel of the International Agency on Research of Cancer (IARC) concluded that there is no evidence for a causal association of hair dye exposure with an elevated cancer risk in consumers. Ultraviolet filters have important benefits by protecting the consumer against adverse effects of UV radiation; these substances undergo a stringent safety evaluation under current international regulations prior to their marketing. Concerns were also raised about the safety of solid nanoparticles in PCP, mainly TiO{sub 2} and ZnO in sunscreens. However, current evidence suggests that these particles are non-toxic, do not penetrate into or through normal or compromised human skin and, therefore, pose no risk to human health. The increasing use of natural plant ingredients in personal care products raised new safety issues that require novel approaches to their safety evaluation similar to those of plant-derived food ingredients. For example, the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) is a promising tool to assess the safety of substances present at trace levels as well as minor ingredients of plant-derived substances. The potential human systemic exposure to PCP ingredients is increasingly estimated on the basis of in vitro skin penetration data. However, new evidence suggests that the in vitro test may overestimate human systemic exposure to PCP ingredients due to the absence of metabolism in cadaver skin or misclassification of skin residues that, in vivo, remain in the stratum corneum or hair follicle openings, i.e. outside the living skin. Overall, today's safety assessment of PCP and their ingredients is not only based on science, but also on their respective regulatory status as well as other issues, such as the ethics of animal testing. Nevertheless, the record shows that today's PCP are safe and offer multiple benefits to quality of life and health of the consumer. In the interest of all stakeholders, consumers, regulatory bodies and producers, there is an urgent need for an international harmonization on the status and safety requirements of these products and their ingredients.

Nohynek, Gerhard J., E-mail: gnohynec@rd.loreal.co [L'OREAL R and D, Global Safety Evaluation, 92600 Asnieres (France); Antignac, Eric [L'OREAL R and D, Global Safety Evaluation, 92600 Asnieres (France); Re, Thomas [L'Oreal USA, Research and Development, Clark, NJ 07066 (United States); Toutain, Herve [L'OREAL R and D, Global Safety Evaluation, 92600 Asnieres (France)

2010-03-01

409

Employer-incurred health care costs and productivity losses associated with influenza  

PubMed Central

The primary objective of this study was to assess trends in employer expenditures for both direct medical costs and indirect productivity losses associated with influenza. A retrospective analysis was performed using two of the MarketScan family of databases for 2005–2009. Patients with at least one diagnosis claim for influenza during an influenza season were selected. We estimated seasonal incidence of influenza in the employed population from the MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters database. Health care utilization and costs and productivity losses were assessed during the 21-d period following the influenza diagnosis date. Compared with the 2005–2006 season (493 per 100,000 plan members), influenza incidence increased during the 2006–2007 (598 per 100,000 plan members) and 2007–2008 (1,142 per 100,000 plan members) seasons and had a dramatic increase during the pandemic season of 2008–2009 (1,715 per 100,000 plan members) . The total influenza-related employer spending per 100,000 plan members also increased by over 400% during the 2008–2009 influenza season [$623,248; confidence interval (CI]):$601,518-$644,991], compared with 2005–2006 ($145,834; 95% CI: $135,067-$156,603). The primary drivers of the increased costs were emergency room, outpatient and inpatient visits. Total costs associated with influenza-related missed work time per 100,000 plan members increased over 4-fold from $26,479 in the 2005–2006 influenza season to $122,811 in 2008–2009. Overall, as expected, considerably higher direct and indirect costs were observed during the 2008–2009 influenza pandemic season than during other influenza seasons. In recent years, the influenza-related employer burden has increased considerably. In future, employers may need efficient resource allocation in order to address the productivity losses and increasing direct medical costs associated with increased influenza incidence. One of the strategies that employers may consider is increasing influenza vaccination rates among employees, which likely will help lower the influenza incidence and the associated downstream direct and indirect costs.

Karve, Sudeep; Misurski, Derek A.; Meier, Genevieve; Davis, Keith L.

2013-01-01

410

Clinical Outcome of Ream Versus Unream Intramedullary Nailing for Femoral Shaft Fractures  

PubMed Central

Background Stabilization of fractures with an intramedullary nail is a widespread technique in the treatment of femoral shaft fractures in adults; however, to ream or not to ream is still being debated. Objectives The primary objective of this study was to determine clinical results following unreamed versus ream intramedullary nailing of femoral fractures. Patients and Methods Between January 2008 and August 2009, 50 patients with femoral shaft fractures were treated with unreamed or reamed femoral nails in our clinic. From this prospective single centre study, 16 patients were excluded due to insufficient follow-up data. According to the AO classification, fractures in this study were either type A or B. Dynamic proximal locking was performed in all cases. The remaining 34 patients were divided into two groups of 17 with ream or unream nailing. During and after the operation, we evaluated some variables in whole series. Results After statistical analyzes, we found that there were no differences in radiologic union time (P = 1) or full weight bearing time (P = 0.73) between ream and unream nailing. Nail breakage or iatrogenic fractures during nail insertion did not occur and we did not have any fat emboli in both groups but one secondary loss of reduction occurred in the unream group. Superficial infection after the operation was seen in one case which was treated successfully with antibiotics. In the ream group surgical time was about thirty minutes longer and differences were significant (P = 0.000). Patients had to pay more for ream nailing but the difference was not significant. We found no statistical difference between union time with or without reaming; on the other hand, there was significant increased operation length, blood loss and systemic changes in BP or So2 in the ream group versus the unream group. Conclusions We advocate that unream nailing in traumatic femoral shaft fractures is a simple, safe and effective procedure with significant advantages, especially in multitrauma patients.

Bagheri, Farshid; Sharifi, Seyed Reza; Mirzadeh, Navid Reza; Hootkani, Alireza; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohamad Hosein; Ashraf, Hami

2013-01-01

411

[Infections of finger and toe nails due to fungi and bacteria].  

PubMed

Infections of the finger and the toe nails are most frequently caused by fungi, primarily dermatophytes. Causative agents of tinea unguium are mostly anthropophilic dermatophytes. Both in Germany, and worldwide, Trichophyton rubrum represents the main important causative agent of onychomycoses. Yeasts are isolated from fungal nail infections, both paronychia and onychomycosis far more often than generally expected. This can represent either saprophytic colonization as well as acute or chronic infection of the nail organ. The main yeasts causing nail infections are Candida parapsilosis, and Candida guilliermondii; Candida albicans is only in third place. Onychomycosis due to molds, or so called non-dermatophyte molds (NDM), are being increasingly detected. Molds as cause of an onychomycosis are considered as emerging pathogens. Fusarium species are the most common cause of NDM onychomycosis; however, rare molds like Onychocola canadensis may be found. Bacterial infections of the nails are caused by gram negative bacteria, usually Pseudomonas aeruginosa (recognizable because of green or black coloration of the nails) but also Klebsiella spp. and gram positive bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus. Treatment of onychomycosis includes application of topical antifungal agents (amorolfine, ciclopirox). If more than 50?% of the nail plate is affected or if more than three out of ten nails are affected by the fungal infection, oral treatment using terbinafine (in case of dermatophyte infection), fluconazole (for yeast infections), or alternatively itraconazole are recommended. Bacterial infections are treated topically with antiseptic agents (octenidine), and in some cases with topical antibiotics (nadifloxacin, gentamicin). Pseudomonas infections of the nail organ are treated by ciprofloxacin; other bacteria are treated according to the results of culture and sensitivity testing. PMID:24718510

Nenoff, P; Paasch, U; Handrick, W

2014-04-01

412

Bone density and geometry after locked intramedullary nailing. Computed tomography of 8 femoral fractures.  

PubMed

8 patients with femoral shaft fracture treated with locked intramedullary (IM) nailing were examined by computed tomography (CT) a few days after nail removal. Cortical bone density, cortical thickness and geometrical shape of the fracture region were compared to those of the contralateral side. The cortical density was reduced by 23 percent at the mid-fracture level. However, at the same level the cortical thickness had increased by 47 percent, and the antero-posterior and medio-lateral diameters by 30 and 45 percent, respectively. We conclude that the fracture region of the femoral shaft had regained its mechanical properties at the time of nail removal. PMID:8451955

Bråten, M; Nordby, A; Terjesen, T

1993-02-01

413

Successful treatment of pediatric nail psoriasis with periodic pustular eruption using topical indigo naturalis oil extract.  

PubMed

Psoriasis of the nail greatly affects quality of life because of the difficulty in achieving long-lasting remission. Pustular psoriasis of the nail apparatus is characterized by the formation of sterile pustules, starting on one or two fingers or less often on the toes, and spontaneous improvement has rarely been observed. This case presents a girl with refractory nail psoriasis accompanied by periodic pustular eruption that responded well to topical treatment with indigo naturalis oil extract drops, achieving a remission of longer than 1 year. PMID:22471655

Liang, Chung-Yu; Lin, Tung-Yi; Lin, Yin-Ku

2013-01-01

414

[Distal tibial fracture--an indication for osteosynthesis with the unreamed intramedullary nail?].  

PubMed

In a prospective study, 50 fractures of the distal fifth of the tibia with additional involvement of the ankle joint in 18 patients were stabilized by unreamed nailing. In all, 90% of all fractures healed uneventfully without further surgical intervention after unreamed nailing, the highest ratio of complications (22%) being seen in all patients with distal fractures of the fibula without additional plating (of the fibula). Tibial fractures close to the ankle joint can be managed by unreamed nailing; distal fractures of the fibula should be additionally stabilized by fibular plating. PMID:9574396

Richter, D; Ostermann, P A; Ekkernkamp, A; Hahn, M P; Muhr, G

1997-01-01

415

Complications and failures of titanium elastic nailing in pediatric femur fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Flexible intramedullary nailing has become a popular method of fixation of femur fractures in children. The purpose of this\\u000a study was to analyze complications following titanium elastic nailing in pediatric femur fractures.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Sixteen consecutive femoral shaft fractures treated with titanium elastic nails in children 5–15 years of age were analyzed\\u000a for complications.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Fracture union occurred at a median 6 weeks. Major complications

S. Saseendar; J. Menon; D. K. Patro

2010-01-01

416

Application of an antibiotic intramedullary nail in the management of a large metacarpal bone defect.  

PubMed

Contaminated wounds and infected nonunions of the hand are not amenable to primary internal fixation and grafting. Antibiotic-impregnated cement intramedullary nails have been used in the lower extremity in the treatment of these fractures but have not been described in the hand. This technique combines the advantages of local antibiotic delivery with the mechanical stability afforded by an intramedullary nail. We describe an alternative technique for the management of skeletal defects in a contaminated wound bed in the hand using readily available operating room equipment. The antibiotic-impregnated cement intramedullary nail can be placed temporarily until definitive internal fixation and grafting occur. PMID:24240621

Mendelsohn, Elliot S; Warganich, Tibor; Nielsen, Evan S; Najibi, Soheil

2013-12-01

417

[Lichen striatus with nail abnormality is a self-limiting condition].  

PubMed

A six year-old boy was referred with an asymptomatic linear rash on his left arm and a nail involvement of a fingernail on his left hand. Multiple small erythematous papules coalescing into a linear band extending to the thumb with nail abnormality were noted on the left arm. A diagnosis of lichen striatus was established clinically. The condition has spontaneous remission, although the course of the disease is prolonged when nail involvement exists. The condition is benign and there is no need to perform biopsy. PMID:22395017

Sandreva, Tatjana; Bygum, Anette

2012-03-01

418

Nail-Patella Syndrome Associated with Short Stature: A Case Series  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Nail-patella syndrome (NPS) is a rare genetic disorder that is characterized by a pleiotropic malformation affecting the nail, the skeleton, and occasionally the central nervous system and the kidneys. Case Presentation. We report two paediatric cases, which are of two sisters, who aged, respectively, two and five years. They are admitted to explore short stature. The initial clinical examination and radiologic findings confirmed the diagnosis of Nail-patella syndrome. Conclusion. Skeletal, ophthalmologic, and renal involvements were mostly associated with NPS. The association with short stature was exceptional.

Haddad, Samir; Ghedira-Besbes, Leila; Bouafsoun, Chahra; Hammami, Sabeur; Chouchene, Slaheddine; Ben Meriem, Chebil; Guediche, Mohamed-neji

2010-01-01

419

Simulation of pharmaceutical and personal care product transport to tile drains after biosolids application.  

PubMed

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) carried in biosolids may reach surface waters or ground water when these materials are applied as fertilizer to agricultural land. During preferential flow conditions created by land application of liquid municipal biosolids (LMB), the residence time of solutes in the macropores may be too short for sorption equilibration. The physically based dual-permeability model MACRO is used in environmental risk assessments for pesticides and may have potential as an environmental risk assessment tool for PPCPs. The objective of this study was to evaluate MACRO and an updated version of MACRO that included non-equilibrium sorption in macropores using data from experiments conducted in eastern Ontario, Canada on the transport of three PPCPs (atenolol, carbamazepine, and triclosan), the nicotine metabolite cotinine, and the strongly sorbing dye rhodamine WT applied in LMB. Results showed that the MACRO model could not reproduce the measured rhodamine WT concentrations (Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient [NS] for the best simulation = -0.057) in drain discharge. The updated version resulted in better fits to measured data for PPCP (average NS = 0.97) and rhodamine WT (NS = 0.84) concentrations. However, it was not possible to simulate all compounds using the same set of hydraulic parameters, which indicates that the model does not fully account for all relevant processes. The results presented herein show that non-equilibrium sorption in macropores has a large impact on simulated solute transport for reactive compounds contained in LMB. This process should be considered in solute transport models that are used for environmental risk assessments for such compounds. PMID:19398526

Larsbo, Mats; Lapen, David R; Topp, Edward; Metcalfe, Chris; Abbaspour, Karim C; Fenner, Kathrin

2009-01-01

420

Consumer inhalation exposure to formaldehyde from the use of personal care products/cosmetics.  

PubMed

We measured consumer exposure to formaldehyde (FA) from personal care products (PCP) containing FA-releasing preservatives. Six study subjects applied facial moisturiser, foundation, shower gel, shampoo, deodorant, hair conditioner, hair styling gel or body lotion at the 90th percentile amount of EU PCP consumer use. FA air concentrations were measured in the empty room, in the presence of study subjects prior to PCP use, and for one hour (breathing zone, area monitoring) after PCP use. The mean FA air concentration in the empty bathroom was 1.32 ± 0.67 ?g/m³, in the presence of subjects it was 2.33 ± 0.86 ?g/m³). Except for body lotion and hair conditioner (6.2 ± 0.1.9 or 4.5 ± 0.1.5 ?g/m³, respectively), mean 1-h FA air concentrations after PCP use were similar to background. Peak FA air concentrations, ranging from baseline values (2.2 ?g/m³; shower gel) to 11.5 ?g/m³ (body lotion), occurred during 0-5 to 5-10 min after PCP use. Despite of exaggerated exposure conditions, FA air levels were a fraction of those considered to be safe (120 ?g/m³), occurring in indoor air (22-124 ?g/m³) or expired human breath (1.4-87 ?g/m³). Overall, our data yielded evidence that inhalation of FA from the use of PCP containing FA-releasers poses no risk to human health. PMID:22406137

Lefebvre, Marc-André; Meuling, Wim J A; Engel, Roel; Coroama, Manuela C; Renner, Gerald; Pape, Wolfgang; Nohynek, Gerhard J

2012-06-01

421

Evaluation of a model for the removal of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and hormones from wastewater.  

PubMed

Current wastewater treatment processes are insufficient at removing many pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) from wastewater and it is necessary to identify the chemical characteristics that determine their fate. Models that predict the fate of various chemicals lack verification using in situ data, particularly for PPCPs. BIOWIN4 is a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model that has been proposed to estimate the removal of PPCPs from wastewater, but data verifying the accuracy of its predictions is limited. In this study, the in situ soluble and suspended solid concentrations were assessed from raw influent, primary effluent, secondary effluent, and final effluent for 54 PPCPs and hormones over six dates. When assessing the removal efficiency across the different stages of the WWTP, the majority of the removal occurred across the secondary treatment process for the majority of the compounds. The primary treatment and disinfection process had limited impacts on the removal of most PPCPs. Sorption to solids was found to influence the removal for compounds with a log octanol-water partitioning coefficient greater than 4.5 across the secondary treatment process. For other compounds, the removal of PPCPs across the secondary treatment process was significantly correlated with the biodegradation predicted by BIOWIN4. Removal efficiencies across the aerobic secondary treatment process were predicted by integrating BIOWIN4 into pseudo-first order kinetics of PPCPs and these predicted values were compared to the in situ data. This study determines that under a certain set of operating conditions, two chemical characteristics - the expected hydrophobic interaction and the modeled biological degradation from BIOWIN4 - were found to predict the removal of highly degradable and recalcitrant PPCPs from a wastewater secondary treatment process. PMID:23295178

Blair, Benjamin D; Crago, Jordan P; Hedman, Curtis J; Treguer, Ronan J F; Magruder, Christopher; Royer, L Scott; Klaper, Rebecca D

2013-02-01

422

Comparative uptake and translocation of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) by common vegetables.  

PubMed

Reuse of treated wastewater to irrigate agricultural crops is increasing in many arid and semi-arid areas around the world. The presence of numerous pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in treated wastewater and their potential transfer into food produce such as vegetables poses an unknown human health risk. The goal of this study was to identify PPCPs that have a comparatively high potential for plant uptake and translocation. A total of 20 frequently-occurring PPCPs were compared for their accumulation into four staple vegetables (lettuce, spinach, cucumber, and pepper) grown in nutrient solutions containing PPCPs at 0.5 or 5?gL(-1). Triclocarban, fluoxetine, triclosan, and diazepam were found at high levels in roots, while meprobamate, primidone, carbamazepine, dilantin, and diuron exhibited more active translocation from roots to leaves. Root uptake of neutral PPCPs was positively correlated with the pH adjusted log Kow(i.e., log Dow), and was likely driven by chemical adsorption onto the root surfaces. In contrast, translocation from roots to leaves was negatively related to log Dow, suggesting hydrophilicity-regulated transport via xylems. Compounds preferentially sorbed to roots should be further evaluated for their uptake in tuber vegetables (e.g., carrot, radish) under field conditions, while those easily translocated into leaves (e.g., carbamazepine, dilantin) merit focused consideration for leafy and other vegetables (e.g., lettuce, cucumber). However, estimation of dietary intake by humans suggested the implied risks from exposure to PPCPs via wastewater irrigation to be negligible. PMID:23973619

Wu, Xiaoqin; Ernst, Frederick; Conkle, Jeremy L; Gan, Jay

2013-10-01

423

Selected personal care products and endocrine disruptors in biosolids: an Australia-wide survey.  

PubMed

Personal care products (PCPs) and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are groups of organic contaminants that have been detected in biosolids around the world. There is a shortage of data on these types on compounds in Australian biosolids, making it difficult to gain an understanding of their potential risks in the environment following land application. In this study, 14 biosolids samples were collected from 13 Australian wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to determine concentrations of eight compounds that are PCPs and/or EDCs: 4-t-octylphenol (4tOP), 4-nonylphenol (4NP), triclosan (TCS), bisphenol A (BPA), estrone (E1), 17?-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3) and 17?-ethinylestradiol (EE2). Concentration data were evaluated to determine if there were any differences between samples that had undergone anaerobic or aerobic treatment. The concentration data were also compared to other Australian and international data. Only 4tOP, 4NP, TCS, and BPA were detected in all samples and E1 was detected in four of the 14 samples. Their concentrations ranged from 0.05 to 3.08 mg/kg, 0.35 to 513 mg/kg, <0.01 to 11.2 mg/kg, <0.01 to 1.47 mg/kg and <45 to 370 ?g/kg, respectively. The samples that were obtained from WWTPs that used predominantly anaerobic treatment showed significantly higher concentrations of the compounds than those obtained from WWTPs that used aerobic treatment. Overall, 4NP, TCS and BPA concentrations in Australian biosolids were lower than global averages (by 42%, 12% and 62%, respectively) and 4tOP concentrations were higher (by 25%), however, of these differences only that for BPA was statistically significant. The European Union limit value for NP in biosolids is 50 mg/kg, which 4 of the 14 samples in this study exceeded. PMID:21216442

Langdon, Kate A; Warne, Michael St J; Smernik, Ronald J; Shareef, Ali; Kookana, Rai S

2011-02-15

424

Evaluation of pharmaceuticals and personal care products as water-soluble molecular markers of sewage.  

PubMed

We examined the utility of 13 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as molecular markers of sewage contamination in riverine, groundwater, and coastal environments. The PPCPs were crotamiton, ibuprofen, naproxen, ketoprofen, fenoprofen, mefenamic acid, thymol, triclosan, propyphenazone, carbamazepine, diethyltoluamide, ethenzamide, and caffeine. Measurements in 37 Japanese rivers showed positive correlations of riverine flux of crotamiton (r2 = 0.85), carbamazepine (r2 = 0.84), ibuprofen (r2 = 0.73), and mefenamic acid (r2 = 0.67) with the population in the catchments. In three surveys in the Tamagawa estuary, crotamiton, carbamazepine, and mefenamic acid behaved conservatively across seasons within a salinity range of 0.4-29 per thousand, suggesting their utility as molecular markers in coastal environments. Removal of ketoprofen and naproxen in the estuary was ascribed to photodegradation. Ibuprofen and thymol were removed from estuarine waters in summer by microbial degradation. Triclosan was removed by a combination of microbial degradation, photodegradation, and adsorption. These results were consistent with those of river water incubated for 8 d at 25 degrees C in the dark in order to examine the effects of biodegradation and photodegradation. Crotamiton was detected in groundwater from the Tokyo metropolitan area (12 out of 14 samples), suggesting wastewater leakage from decrepit sewers. Carbamazepine, ketoprofen, and ibuprofen (5/14), caffeine (4/14), and diethyltoluamide (3/14) were also detected in the groundwater, whereas the other carboxylic and phenolic PPCPs were not detected and were thought to be removed during their passage through soil. All the data demonstrated the utility of crotamiton and carbamazepine as conservative markers in freshwater and coastal environments. We recommend combining these conservative markers with labile PPCPs to detect inputs of poorly treated sewage. PMID:18800500

Nakada, Norihide; Kiri, Kentaro; Shinohara, Hiroyuki; Harada, Arata; Kuroda, Keisuke; Takizawa, Satoshi; Takada, Hideshige

2008-09-01

425

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment: agents of subtle change?  

PubMed Central

During the last three decades, the impact of chemical pollution has focused almost exclusively on the conventional "priority" pollutants, especially those acutely toxic/carcinogenic pesticides and industrial intermediates displaying persistence in the environment. This spectrum of chemicals, however, is only one piece of the larger puzzle in "holistic" risk assessment. Another diverse group of bioactive chemicals receiving comparatively little attention as potential environmental pollutants includes the pharmaceuticals and active ingredients in personal care products (in this review collectively termed PPCPs), both human and veterinary, including not just prescription drugs and biologics, but also diagnostic agents, "nutraceuticals," fragrances, sun-screen agents, and numerous others. These compounds and their bioactive metabolites can be continually introduced to the aquatic environment as complex mixtures via a number of routes but primarily by both untreated and treated sewage. Aquatic pollution is particularly troublesome because aquatic organisms are captive to continual life-cycle, multigenerational exposure. The possibility for continual but undetectable or unnoticed effects on aquatic organisms is particularly worrisome because effects could accumulate so slowly that major change goes undetected until the cumulative level of these effects finally cascades to irreversible change--change that would otherwise be attributed to natural adaptation or ecologic succession. As opposed to the conventional, persistent priority pollutants, PPCPs need not be persistent if they are continually introduced to surface waters, even at low parts-per-trillion/parts-per-billion concentrations (ng-microg/L). Even though some PPCPs are extremely persistent and introduced to the environment in very high quantities and perhaps have already gained ubiquity worldwide, others could act as if they were persistent, simply because their continual infusion into the aquatic environment serves to sustain perpetual life-cycle exposures for aquatic organisms. This review attempts to synthesize the literature on environmental origin, distribution/occurrence, and effects and to catalyze a more focused discussion in the environmental science community.

Daughton, C G; Ternes, T A

1999-01-01

426

Multi-residue determination of pharmaceutical and personal care products in vegetables.  

PubMed

Treated wastewater irrigation and biosolid amendment are increasingly practiced worldwide and contamination of plants, especially produces that may be consumed raw by humans, by pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), is an emerging concern. A sensitive method was developed for the simultaneous measurement of 19 frequently-occurring PPCPs in vegetables using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) for detection, combined with ultrasonic extraction and solid phase extraction (SPE) cleanup for sample preparation. Deuterated standards were used as surrogates to quantify corresponding analytes. The corrected recoveries ranged between 87.1 and 123.5% for iceberg lettuce, with intra- and inter-day variations less than 20%, and the method detection limits (MDLs) in the range of 0.04-3.0 ng g?¹ dry weight (dw). The corrected recoveries were equally good when the method was used on celery, tomato, carrot, broccoli, bell pepper and spinach. The method was further applied to examine uptake of PPCPs by iceberg lettuce and spinach grown in hydroponic solutions containing each PPCP at 500 ng L?¹. Twelve PPCPs were detected in lettuce leaves with concentrations from 0.2 to 28.7 ng g?¹ dw, while 11 PPCPs were detected in spinach leaves at 0.04-34.0 ng g?¹ dw. Given the diverse chemical structures of PPCPs considered in this study, this method may be used for screening PPCP residues in vegetables and other plants impacted by treated wastewater or biosolids, and to estimate potential human exposure via dietary uptake. PMID:22867843

Wu, Xiaoqin; Conkle, Jeremy Landon; Gan, Jay

2012-09-01

427

Cotton honeydew (Gossypium hirsutum L.) extract offers very interesting properties for hair cosmetics and care products.  

PubMed

Cotton honeydew extract is composed of a unique combination of oligosaccharides, including fructose, glucose, inositol, melezitose, saccharose, trehalose and trehalulose. Studies have shown that these oligosaccharides exhibit a protective effect. Therefore, we were interested in studying the effect of these oligosaccharides on normal and damaged human hair. Both clinical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies were performed. Standardized human hair samples were used to determine the effect of a rinse-off mask with 1% cotton honeydew extract on the ultrastructure of hair. In addition, hair samples were submitted to different aggressions, following various experimental protocols. SEM showed that, without extra aggression, the cuticle scales appeared to lie more smoothly in the hair in cotton honeydew extract-treated samples than in untreated samples. The extract-treated hair samples were also less prone to chipping. In contrast, the control, untreated hair samples retained a dry and damaged appearance and were prone to chipping and progressive splitting. In a clinical study, 15 volunteers had half of their hair treated with a formula with 1% honeydew extract and the other half was left untreated as a control. Pictures and visual evaluation of the hair showed that the honeydew extract formula left the hair with a smoothness that was far superior to the control side and this result was confirmed by SEM. In addition, mRNA studies on epidermal cells were performed and confirmed the stimulating effect of honeydew extract on keratin synthesis. These results demonstrate that cotton honeydew extract can be of great use in hair care products and cosmetics. PMID:16223202

Oberto, G; Bauza, E; Berghi, A; Portolan, F; Botto, J M; Peyronel, D; Dal Farra, C; Domloge, N

2005-01-01

428

Removal of selected pharmaceuticals, personal care products and artificial sweetener in an aerated sewage lagoon.  

PubMed

A sewage lagoon serving the small municipality of Lakefield in Ontario, Canada was monitored in the summer, fall and winter to determine removals of carbamazepine, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, ibuprofen, gemfibrozil, triclosan, sucralose, HHCB and AHTN. Concentrations of these compounds in untreated and treated wastewater were estimated by deploying POCIS and SPMD passive samplers in the sewage lagoon. Passive samplers were also deployed at several points upstream and downstream of the point of discharge from the lagoon into the Otonabee River. LC-MS/MS and GC-MS were utilized to determine the concentrations of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and sucralose, an artificial sweetener. Among PPCPs sampled by POCIS, the highest estimated concentration in untreated wastewater was ibuprofen sampled during the fall, at an estimated concentration of 60.3ng/L. The estimated average concentration of sucralose was 13.6ng/L in the untreated wastewaters. Triclosan, HHCB and AHTN in SPMDs were highest during fall season, at 30, 1677 and 109ng/L, respectively. For all compounds except gemfibrozil, carbamazepine and sucralose, removals were highest in the summer (83.0 to 98.8%) relative to removals in the fall (48.4 to 91.4%) and winter (14.0 to 78.3%). Finally, the estimated concentrations of carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, triclosan and HHCB were compared with predicted values obtained through application of the WEST® modeling tool, with a new model based on the River Water Quality Model No. 1 and extended with dynamic mass balances describing the fate of chemicals of emerging concern subject to a variety of removal pathways. The model was able to adequately predict the fate of these four compounds in the lagoon in summer and winter, but the model overestimated removals of three of the four test compounds in the fall sampling period. This lagoon was as effective at removing PPCPs as many conventional WWTPs, but removals were better during the summer. PMID:24393598

Hoque, M Ehsanul; Cloutier, Frédéric; Arcieri, Carlo; McInnes, Mark; Sultana, Tamanna; Murray, Craig; Vanrolleghem, Peter A; Metcalfe, Chris D

2014-07-15

429

Occurrence and removal of selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products in three wastewater-treatment plants.  

PubMed

Residues of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have been detected in surface waters. Incomplete removal of these compounds by wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs) results in their presence in effluents and finally in surface waters. The occurrence and removal of four PPCPs was investigated in three WWTPs in Mississippi, USA, during a period of 1 year. Influent and effluent were sampled from the three WWTPs. Upstream and downstream samples of the WWTPs were also collected. All four PPCPs were detected in all influents where sulfamethoxazole showed the highest concentration levels with a median concentration of 1,640 ng/L, and carbamazepine was detected at the lowest level with a median concentration of 132 ng/L. Different PPCPs were removed to different extents varying from 99 to 100 %. Gemfibrozil showed the highest removal rates (73-100 %), whereas carbamazepine showed the lowest (-99 to -30 %). Secondary activated sludge in oxidation-ditch process showed remarkable PPCP-specific removal rates. Galaxolide was removed more than the other PPCPs, and sulfamethoxazole showed the least removal. Galaxolide was found to be a predominant PPCP in effluent among the PPCPs studied, and it was detected in all downstream (14.1-428.2 ng/L) and upstream (4.1-60.0 ng/L) samples. Sulfamethoxazole was removed more during the summer than the winter season. A clear increase of PPCP concentrations was observed in most downstream samples compared with upstream samples suggesting that discharges from WWTPs are the major source of PPCPs in surface waters. PMID:24357097

Kwon, Jeong-Wook; Rodriguez, Jose M

2014-05-01

430

Men's Skin Care  

MedlinePLUS

... used on people who have darker skin tones. Athlete's foot, jock itch and nail fungus Tinea fungus can cause three common fungal infections: athlete's foot, jock itch, and nail fungus. Tinea fungus can ...

431

Modification of elastic stable intramedullary nailing with a 3rd nail in a femoral spiral fracture model - results of biomechanical testing and a prospective clinical study  

PubMed Central

Background Elastic stable intramedullary nailing (ESIN) is the standard treatment for displaced diaphyseal femoral fractures in children. However, high complication rates (10-50%) are reported in complex fractures. This biomechanical study compares the stiffness with a 3rd nail implanted to that in the classical 2C-shaped configuration and presents the application into clinical practice. Methods For each of the 3 configurations of ESIN-osteosynthesis with titanium nails eight composite femoral grafts (Sawbones®) with an identical spiral fracture were used: 2C configuration (2C-shaped nails, 2 × 3.5 mm), 3CM configuration (3rd nail from medial) and 3CL configuration (3rd nail from lateral). Each group underwent biomechanical testing in 4-point bending, internal/external rotation and axial compression. Results 2C and 3CM configurations showed no significant differences in this spiroid type fracture model. 3CL had a significantly higher stiffness during anterior-posterior bending, internal rotation and 9° compression than 2C, and was stiffer in the lateral-medial direction than 3CM. The 3CL was less stable during p-a bending and external rotation than both the others. As biomechanical testing showed a higher stability for the 3CL configuration in two (a-p corresponding to recurvation and 9° compression to shortening) of three directions associated with the most important clinical problems, we added a 3rd nail in ESIN-osteosynthesis for femoral fractures. 11 boys and 6 girls (2.5-15 years) were treated with modified ESIN of whom 12 were ‘3CL’; due to the individual character of the fractures 4 patients were treated with ‘3CM’ (third nail from medial) and as an exception 1 adolescent with 4 nails and one boy with plate osteosynthesis. No additional stabilizations or re-operations were necessary. All patients achieved full points in the Harris-Score at follow-up; no limb length discrepancy occurred. Conclusion The 3CL configuration provided a significantly higher stiffness than 2C and 3CM configurations in this biomechanical model. These results were successfully transmitted into clinical practice. All children, treated by 3CL or 3CM according to the individual character of each fracture, needed no additional stabilization and had no Re-Do operations. As a consequence, at our hospital all children with femoral diaphyseal fractures with open physis are treated with this modified ESIN-technique.

2014-01-01

432

Keratinophilic and saprophytic fungi isolated from students' nails in Egypt.  

PubMed

In order to determine the presence of dermatophytes and saprophytes in healthy toe and finger nails, 120 students (60 male and 60 female) from preparatory schools at Sohag Governorate (Upper Egypt) were studied. 54 species in addition to 3 varieties belonging to 17 genera were isolated. Six species of true dermatophytes were collected: Microsporum audouinii var. rivalieri, M. cookei, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. simii, T. terrestre and T. verrucosum. Chrysosporium, a well-known keratinophilic genus, was prevalent and represented by 7 species (C. asperatum, C. indicum, C. keratinophilum, C. luteum, C. pannorum, C. tropicum and Chrysosporium state of Thielavia sepedonium). The commonest saprophytes in order of frequency were members of the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria, Scopulariopsis, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, Chaetomium, Syncephalastrum, Mucor, Rhizopus and Acremonium. PMID:2338622

Abdel-Hafez, A I; el-Sharouny, H M

1990-01-01

433

Medial migration of lag screw after gamma nailing.  

PubMed

Fractures of the proximal femur are common in the elderly population. Intramedullary nailing has become the standard treatment for intertrochanteric fractures although several extramedullary implants (e.g. dynamic hip screw (DHS), blade plate, locking compression plate (LCP), etc.) exist. However, despite this being a very common operation in traumatology, there are numerous associated complications. We report the rare complication of the migration of the medial lag screw into the pelvis at five and a half weeks postoperatively. The implant was removed and replaced by a total hip arthroplasty with simultaneous grafting of the acetabular defect and strapping of the greater trochanter. The evolution was favourable. We also present a review of the literature and analyze our case. PMID:24933440

Thein, Eric; De Cannière, Alexandre; Burn, Alexandre; Borens, Olivier

2014-08-01

434

No such thing as "just" a nail bed injury.  

PubMed

Nail bed injuries are the commonest pediatric hand injuries presenting to the emergency department. If managed correctly, the patient recovers quickly and complications are rare. However, failure to appreciate the complex anatomy of the perionychium and the importance of exploration, washout, and repair can result in devastating complications. These injuries are often underestimated and, consequently, delegated to the most junior and inexperienced staff. The case of a 6-year-old boy with a flexor sheath infection and devitalized fingertip 1 week after injury is presented. Emphasis is placed on the soft tissue and underlying bony injury that was overlooked at initial presentation, and how this led to serious infection requiring amputation. Thorough assessment of these common injuries and a high index of suspicion are essential. PMID:22472652

Fairbairn, Neil

2012-04-01

435

Qualification of an automated device to objectively assess the effect of hair care products on hair shine.  

PubMed

The authors developed and qualified an automated routine screening tool to quantify hair shine. This tool is able to separately record individual properties of hair shine such as specular reflection and multiple reflection, as well as additional features such as sparkle, parallelism of hair fibers, and hair color, which strongly affect the subjective ranking by individual readers. A side-by-side comparison of different hair care and styling products with regard to hair shine using the automated screening tool in parallel with standard panel assessment showed that the automated system provides an almost identical ranking and the same statistical significances as the panel assessment. Provided stringent stratification of hair fibers for color and parallelism, the automated tool competes favorably with panel assessments of hair shine. In this case, data generated with the opsira Shine-Box are clearly superior over data generated by panel assessment in terms of reliability and repeatability, workload and time consumption, and sensitivity and specificity to detect differences after shampoo, conditioner, and leave-in treatment. The automated tool is therefore well suited to replace standard panel assessments in claim support, at least as a screening tool. A further advantage of the automated system over panel assessments is the fact that absolute numeric values are generated for a given hair care product, whereas panel assessments can only give rankings of a series of hair care products included in the same study. Thus, the absolute numeric data generated with the automated system allow comparison of hair care products between studies or at different time points after treatment. PMID:22152491

Hagens, Ralf; Wiersbinski, Tim; Becker, Michael E; Weisshaar, Jürgen; Schreiner, Volker; Wenck, Horst

2011-01-01

436

Multi-residual GC-MS determination of personal care products in waters using solid-phase microextraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-residual method is described for the simultaneous determination of 23 personal care products (PCPs), which display\\u000a a wide range of physicochemical properties, present at trace levels in water samples. A one-step procedure was developed based\\u000a on solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with GC-MS analysis. A chemometric approach consisting of an experimental design\\u000a (design of experiments) was applied to systematically investigate

G. Basaglia; L. Pasti; M. C. Pietrogrande

2011-01-01

437

Assessment of sample preservation techniques for pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and steroids in surface and drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proper collection and preservation techniques are necessary to ensure sample integrity and maintain the stability of analytes\\u000a until analysis. Data from improperly collected and preserved samples could lead to faulty conclusions and misinterpretation\\u000a of the occurrence and fate of the compounds being studied. Because contaminants of emerging concern, such as pharmaceuticals\\u000a and personal care products (PPCPs) and steroids, generally occur

Brett J. Vanderford; Douglas B. Mawhinney; Rebecca A. Trenholm; Janie C. Zeigler-Holady; Shane A. Snyder

2011-01-01

438

Informatics-based product-service systems for point-of-care devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Informatics related to point-of-care devices denotes the ability to translate stand-alone biological data into meaningful information that can be interpreted to enable and support users in taking the most appropriate steps to aid in managing their health. This paper considers small point-of-care devices used outside healthcare environments, and presents glucometers as an example. The paper seeks to evaluate the current

O. Adeogun; A. Tiwari; J. R. Alcock

2010-01-01

439

Candida Parapsilosis and Candida Guillermondii: Emerging Pathogens in Nail Candidiasis  

PubMed Central

Background: Onychomycosis of the fingernails and toenails is generally caused by dermatophytes and yeasts. Toenail mycoses involve mainly dermatophytes but when Candida is also involved, the strain most commonly isolated worldwide is C. albicans. Aims: To determine Candida strains prevailing in onychomycosis. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, observational and descriptive study of fungal cultures retrieved from the registry of the microbiology laboratory of the Pontificia Universidad Católica was performed. Specimens obtained from patients attending the healthcare network between December 2007 and December 2010 was analyzed. Statistical Analysis: A descriptive statistical analysis was performed. Results: Candida was retrieved from 467 of 8443 specimens (52% fingernails and 48% toenails). Cultures were negative in 5320 specimens (63.6%). Among Candida-positive cultures, parapsilosis was the most commonly isolated strain with 202 cases (43.3%). While isolates of Candida guillermondii were 113 (24.2%), those of Candida albicans were 110 (23.6%), those of spp. were 20 (4.3%) and there were 22 cases of other isolates (4.71%). Among the 467 patients with positive cultures for Candida, 136 (29,1%) were men and 331 (70,9%) were women. All patients were older than 18 years old. Clinical files were available for only 169 of the 467 patients with positive cultures for Candida. For those, age, gender, underlying illnesses and use of immunossupresive agents during the trial was reviewed. Conclusions: The present study shows that both C. parapsilosis as well as C. guillermondii appear as emerging pathogens that would be in fact taking the place of C. albicans as the most commonly isolated pathogen in patients with Candida onychomycosis. The relative percentage of C parapsilosis increases every year. Identification of Candida strains as etiological agents of nail candidiasis becomes relevant to the management both nail as well as systemic candidiasis, in view of the resistance to conventional treatments readily reported in the literature.

Fich, Felix; Abarzua-Araya, Alvaro; Perez, Mario; Nauhm, Yalile; Leon, Eugenia

2014-01-01

440

Bone loss after locked intramedullary nailing. Computed tomography of the femur and tibia in 10 cases.  

PubMed

10 patients with previous femoral shaft fracture treated with locked intramedullary nailing were examined by computed tomography (CT) a few days after nail removal. The bone density, cortical thickness and geometric shape of the fractured extremity were compared with those on the contralateral side. Only a small reduction in cortical density and thickness (4 and 7 percent, respectively) was revealed outside the fracture area in the diaphyseal part of the nailed bones. A distinct reduction in trabecular density was observed in the femoral condyles as well as in the ipsilateral tibial condyle (19 and 17 percent, respectively). Our results indicate that the stress-reducing effect of intramedullary nails on the femoral diaphysis is small. PMID:1609597

Bråten, M; Nordby, A; Terjesen, T; Rossvoll, I

1992-06-01

441

Surveillance of nail gun injuries by journeymen carpenters provides important insight into experiences of apprentices.  

PubMed

Experienced journeymen conducted detailed surveillance interviews with injured apprentice carpenters (n = 413). Nail gun injuries commonly occurred due to inadvertent discharge, ricocheting or projectile nails, and penetration of the wood surface. Framing nailers with contact trip triggers were most often involved; these triggers allow nail discharge anytime the trigger and nose piece are both depressed including following recoil of the tool after firing. Injured workers made concrete and practical suggestions for prevention. Scenarios were identified where changes in work practice, safer triggers, and thoughtful training could prevent injuries. Most injuries were not reported through workers' compensation; this was often due to perceived lack of injury severity, but also involved subtle as well as overt pressures on apprentices not to report. These case-based analyses are consistent with reports that many injuries from nail guns could be prevented with existing safer trigger mechanisms and training. Efforts should also focus on improved injury reporting. PMID:20359994

Lipscomb, Hester; Nolan, James; Patterson, Dennis; Dement, John M

2010-01-01

442

[Experiences with the classic nail in management of per-/subtrochanteric femoral fractures in elderly patients].  

PubMed

In the department of trauma and reconstructive surgery at the University Hospital of Hamburg-Eppendorf (UKE) the surgical treatment of unstable per- and subtrochanteric femoral fractures (AO 31A2 and 31A3) in elderly patients with severe osteoporosis includes the implantation of dynamic hip screws (DHS) and gamma nails, as well as the straighter "classic nails". Using 43 short and 15 long classic nails, 58 fractures in seven women and 51 men, respectively, with an average age of 85 years (65-98 years) were stabilized over the last 2 years with good results (98.3% primary full weight bearing). In order to facilitate implantation of the longer nails, additional antetorsion of the femoral neck screw and improvement of the distal interlocking have been developed by the manufacturer. PMID:9102042

Berkhoff, M; Katzer, A; von Kroge, H; Wening, J V

1996-01-01

443

False femoral neck fracture detected during shaft nailing: a Mach band effect.  

PubMed

Femoral neck fractures are associated with femoral shaft fractures in 1% to 9% of cases. Undisplaced neck fractures are susceptible to displacement during shaft nailing. We report the case of a 57-year-old male patient in whom we performed standard intramedullary nailing for a femoral shaft fracture. In doing so, we identified a vertical radiolucent line at the femoral neck, which was thought to be further displacement of a hidden silent fracture or an iatrogenic fracture that developed during nail insertion. Consequently, we decided to switch to reconstructive femoral nailing. Postoperative hip imaging failed to show the femoral neck fracture that we saw in the operating room. Here, we discuss the aforementioned case and review the literature concerning this artifact. PMID:23549835

Yang, Kyu Hyun; Kim, Sungjun; Jeong, Ji Do

2013-05-01

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