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1

Nail Care Products  

MedlinePLUS

... used in a wide variety of products, from toys to carpeting and medical tubing. In nail polishes, ... Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel is an independent, industry-funded panel of medical and toxicology experts that ...

2

Nail care for newborns  

MedlinePLUS

Newborn fingernails and toenails are most often soft and flexible. However, if they are ragged or too ... to keep your baby's nails clean and trimmed. Newborns do not yet have control of their movements. ...

3

Artificial Nails Require Care to Keep Nails Healthy  

MedlinePLUS

... Warts Common questions Quick facts Skin dictionary Camp Discovery About Camp Discovery For kids FAQs What to pack Photo gallery ... Skin: Introduction Skin: Skin types Skin: Eczema and psoriasis Skin: Warts and fungus Hair care: Introduction Hair ...

4

Teaching Your Child Healthy Nail Care  

MedlinePLUS

... meetings archive Derm Exam Prep Course Epiphanies in Dermatology Legislative Conference Education and quality care AAD professional education Online Learning Center Clinical guidelines PQRS DataDerm State melanoma ...

5

Nail-Gun Injuries to the Hand  

PubMed Central

Background: The nail gun is a commonly utilized tool in carpentry and construction. When used properly with appropriate safety precautions, it can facilitate production and boost efficiency; however, this powerful tool also has the potential to cause serious injury. The most common site of nail-gun injuries in both industrial and nonoccupational settings is the hand. Materials and Methods: We report on two patients with nail-gun injuries to the hand. A review of the literature and discussion of clinical evaluation and treatment of nail-gun injuries to the hand are presented. Results: Two patients present with soft tissue injuries to the hand with the nail embedded and intact at the injury site. Operative removal of the nail and wound care resulted in successful treatment in both cases. Nail-gun injuries to the hand vary in severity on the basis of the extent of structural damage. Treatment is based on the severity of injury and the presence and location of barbs on the penetrating nail. Conclusion: Healthcare providers must understand and educate patients on the prevention mechanics of nail-gun injuries. Nail-gun injuries to the hand necessitate appropriate evaluation techniques, understanding of surgical management versus nonsurgical management, and awareness of potential pitfalls in treatment. PMID:19079574

Pierpont, Yvonne N.; Pappas-Politis, Effie; Naidu, Deepak K.; Salas, R. Emerick; Johnson, Erika L.; Payne, Wyatt G.

2008-01-01

6

The ultrastructure and growth of human nails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinicians used to observing the slow rate of clearance of diseased or damaged nail are apt to see the nail apparatus as a rather inert structure. Paticularly during the last 15years, ultrastructural and physiological research has shown that under a variety of circumstances the nail matric and its product, the nail plate, are in fact the centre of marked biological

Rodney P. R. Dawber

1980-01-01

7

Nail abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

Nail abnormalities are problems with the color, shape, texture, or thickness of the fingernails or toenails. ... Infection: Fungus or yeast cause changes in the color, texture, and shape of the nails. Bacterial infection may cause a ...

8

Your Nails  

MedlinePLUS

... easier to scratch an itch or remove a dog hair from your sweater. Nails themselves are made ... may be associated with skin problems, lung disease, anemia, and other medical conditions. Your nails are in ...

9

Nail Trauma  

MedlinePLUS

... the trauma to the nail injures the nail matrix (the tissue inside the cuticle at the base ... a ridge or split can develop. If the matrix heals normally, this deformity eventually will disappear as ...

10

Nail Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... growth rate can be signs of lung, heart, kidney, and liver diseases, as well as diabetes and anemia. White spots and vertical ridges are harmless. Nail problems that sometimes require treatment include Bacterial and fungal infections Ingrown nails Tumors ...

11

Nail Problems (Toenails)  

MedlinePLUS

... by a podiatric physician. Nail Ailments Ingrown Toenails Ingrown nails, the most common nail impairment, are nails whose ... or oral medication to treat the infection. If ingrown nails are a chronic problem, your podiatrist can perform ...

12

Nail Detachment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Onycholysis describes detachment of the nail plate from the nail bed. It may be caused by traumatic, inflammatory, infective\\u000a or neoplastic nail disorders. Linking onycholysis to a specific cause is impossible in some cases (idiopathic onycholysis).\\u000a Onycholysis may affect the fi ngernails or the toenails. It generally starts distally due to disruption of the onychocorneal\\u000a band and moves proximally. Proximal

Antonella Tosti; Ralph Daniel; Bianca Maria Piraccini; Matilde Iorizzo

13

Worn down nails after acrylic nail removal.  

PubMed

Worn-down nail syndrome is a nail disorder characterized by thinning of the distal nail plate caused by repetitive chemical or mechanical trauma. We present a previously undescribed source of worn-down nail syndrome caused by trauma from nail filing after acrylic nail removal. PMID:25612131

Wu, Timothy P; Morrison, Brian W; Tosti, Antonella

2015-01-01

14

Urinary and air phthalate concentrations and self-reported use of personal care products among minority pregnant women in New York city  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diethyl phthalate (DEP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) are used extensively in personal care products, including fragrances (DEP) and nail polish (DnBP). Between May 2003 and July 2006, we gathered questionnaire data on the use of seven product categories (deodorant, perfume, hair spray, hair gel, nail polish\\/polish remover, liquid soap\\/body wash, and lotion\\/mist) over 48 h during the third trimester of

Allan C Just; Jennifer J Adibi; Andrew G Rundle; Antonia M Calafat; David E Camann; Russ Hauser; Manori J Silva; Robin M Whyatt

2010-01-01

15

Fungal Nail Infection (Onychomycosis)  

MedlinePLUS

... disorders. In the most common form of fungal nail infections, fungus grows under the growing portion of the nail ... doctor may perform testing, such as scraping a nail to examine for fungi or clipping a nail to look for bacterial ...

16

Nail and skin disorders of the foot.  

PubMed

Disorders of the dermis and the nails on the feet are common. Despite the simplicity of the skin and nail disorders of the foot, they can be debilitating and impact the patient's ability to ambulate and perform activities of daily living. Diagnosis in most cases is confirmed on physical examination alone. Diligent care of skin and nail disorders can prevent further pathology involving the deeper structures of the foot and allow the patient to fully participate in their usual activities. PMID:24559870

Flint, Wesley W; Cain, Jarrett D

2014-03-01

17

Common nail disorders.  

PubMed

Brittle nail, simple chronic paronychia, and onycholysis represent three of the most prevalent nail disorders. Brittle nails are characterized by increased fragility of the nail plate due to damage to the nail matrix or changes to nail plate cohesion, caused by internal and/or external factors. Simple chronic paronychia represents an inflammatory process of the lateral and/or proximal nail folds of the fingernails or toenails often preceded by damage to the cuticle. Onycholysis describes the detachment of the nail plate from its nail bed, often attributable to dermatologic conditions, infections, drug therapy, or trauma. PMID:24079587

Shemer, Avner; Daniel, C Ralph

2013-01-01

18

Keloid formation on the great toe after chronic paronychia secondary to ingrown nail.  

PubMed

Keloid is a clinically intractable fibro-proliferative disease that spreads beyond the original scar or lesion. Although several theories have attempted to explain the mechanism of keloid formation, the phenomenon still remains obscure. Our present study examines a rare case of keloid formation that occurred on the great toe after a repeated paronychia secondary to an ingrown nail. The 22-year-old female patient had a large keloid with chronic paronychia and a history of ingrown nails on her left great toe on both the lateral nail folds. We excised the keloids and made new lateral nail grooves without extracting the nail. The open wounds were conservatively managed with the help of moisturized dressings until the wounds were completely epithelialised. Adjuvant therapies with oral medication, intermittent intralesional injection and toe care were performed during the follow-up period. Histopathological analysis of the specimen revealed the presence of irregular, thick, glassy and dense collagen of keloid and inflammation of paronychia. During the 14-month follow-up period, adjuvant combination therapies successfully inhibited recurrence of keloid as well as paronychia and the normal appearance of the great toe was maintained. This study addresses a case of keloid formation on the great toe due to repeated recurrence of ingrown nails and consequent chronic paronychia. It is implied that if an ingrown nail is not controlled, it will result in the production of chronic inflammation and tension stress, which might trigger the formation of a secondary keloid. PMID:23506345

Lee, Kang Woo; Burm, Jin Sik; Yang, Won Yong

2013-04-01

19

Nail bed onychomatricoma.  

PubMed

Onychomatricoma is a rare tumor originating from the nail matrix, and, in rare conditions, from the ventral aspect of the proximal nailfold. Here we report a rare case of a 51-year-old man presenting with melanonychia mainly involving the distal nail plate. Histopathologic examination showed typical findings of onychomatricoma mainly involving the nail bed, while the nail matrix was largely uninvolved. We also identified fungal infection in a focal area of the distal nail plate. Our findings indicate that onychomatricoma can develop in the surrounding epithelial tissue of the nail unit, including the nail bed, and suggest that fungal infection may represent a secondary phenomenon of onychomatricoma. PMID:25039855

Wang, Lei; Gao, Tianwen; Wang, Gang

2014-10-01

20

Investigation of Human Nail Microstructure with Ultrasound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigation of a human fingernail and the extraction of the data on its microstructure and elastic properties is important in three main aspects. First of all, various diseases of the nail can be differentiated more precisely; second of all, it is possible to non-invasively track during time the effects of a cosmetic product upon the nail; third of all, because various processes in the organism have a strong influence upon the nail plate growth, the monitoring of the nail morphology and its mechanical properties may be used as additional information for the diagnosis of a number of medical disorders, such as systemic sclerosis, psoriasis, chronic hand eczema, anemia etc. The aim of the present study was to carry out a detailed ultrasound investigation in the high-frequency range (25-50 MHz) of a human nail including micro-anatomical structure imaging and ultrasound velocity evaluation, using B-scans obtained with a scanning acoustic microscope. On the images, exact topology of the nail, nail matrix and the underlying bone have been revealed. Additionally, a certain type of inclined internal layering along the nails of some individuals has been found, which was not reported in previous ultrasonic studies of the nail.

Maeva, A. R.; Bakulin, E. Y.; Denisova, L. A.; Maev, R. Gr.

21

Nailing Pompeii  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Roman hihstorian Pliny the Younger noted that Mount Vesuvius blew its top and destroyed Pompeii in the early afternoon of August 24, 1,918 years ago. Now, a team of scientists, tempted by the certainty of that record, has confirmed the eruption to within 7 years. The team developed and used an improved radioactive argon-argon dating technique, which they say can reliably establish the age of rocks as old as the solar system or as recent as 1,000 years old.“We nailed the date to 5% on our first attempt, so we could probably get the error down to 1% or less,” says Paul Renne, adjunct associate professor of geology and geophysics at the University of California at Berkeley and director of the private Berkeley Geochronology Center. “Dating things that are really young has always been the Holy Grail of potassium-argon [an earlier method] and argonargon dating.”

Showstack, Randy

22

Nail psoriasis: a review.  

PubMed

Nail psoriasis is common, occurring in up to half of patients with psoriasis and in 90% of patients with psoriatic arthritis. Left untreated, it may progress to debilitating nail disease, which leads to significant functional impairment. The most common clinical signs of nail psoriasis are nail plate pitting and onycholysis. Other classical signs include oil drop discoloration, subungual hyperkeratosis, and splinter hemorrhages. The modified Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (mNAPSI) can be used to grade the severity of nail psoriasis, while the Nail Psoriasis Quality of Life Scale (NPQ10) is a questionnaire that evaluates the impact of nail psoriasis on the patient's functional status and quality of life. Treatment of nail psoriasis should be individualized according to the patient's preferences, severity of nail changes, and presence of skin and/or joint involvement. Both topical and intralesional therapies are safe and effective treatment modalities for nail disease, but are limited by poor adherence and pain, respectively. Systemic therapy such as oral retinoids may be considered for widespread nail disease causing significant morbidity. Among biologic agents, tumor necrosis factor-? inhibitors and T-cell-targeted therapies such as ustekinumab may be useful for refractory severe nail psoriasis. PMID:22784035

Tan, Eugene S T; Chong, Wei-Sheng; Tey, Hong Liang

2012-12-01

23

Nail embolization to the femoral artery.  

PubMed

Modern air-nailing tools are known to cause penetrating trauma. We report the unusual case of a pneumatically fired carpenter's nail that penetrated the chest of a 30-year-old man and subsequently embolized from the heart to the left femoral artery without clinical evidence of having entered the heart. The nail was surgically removed, and the patient was discharged from hospital without sequelae after 10 days. This case and the relevant literature are discussed from the perspective of the emergency department investigation and care of such patients. PMID:17355687

Baw, Bandar; Al-Salamah, Majid A; Al-Hodaib, Abdullah; Wadams, Heather

2005-07-01

24

Trimming a rabbit's nails.  

PubMed

This column presents a step-by-step procedure for trimming a rabbit's nails. The technique requires only one person, who uses the rabbit's feedback to determine where to cut the nail, minimizing stress in the animal. PMID:18292772

Cotter, Mary E

2008-03-01

25

[Ingrown nails or onychocryptosis].  

PubMed

Ingrown nails come down to a conflict between the nail plate and the periungual tissue, causing pain, morbidity and impairment. The feet are mainly affected. The treatments are numerous: medical, podiatric, or surgical. Surgical management has two approaches: the techniques focused on the periungual skin and those on the nail plate. Among the latter, partial nail avulsion followed by matrix phenolization, known as "Boll's technique", is still highly regarded. PMID:25448121

Blatière, Véronique

2014-11-01

26

Treatment and prevention of "hook nail" deformity with anatomic correlation.  

PubMed

The hook nail deformity is a relatively common complication after fingertip amputation. It can be corrected or prevented with a carefully performed surgical procedure. The nail plate is removed. The redundant nail bed that is folded over the tip of the terminal phalanx is carefully removed with an additional 2 mm that is supported by the terminal phalanx so that wound healing will not draw the nail bed over the tip of the phalanx again. The fingertip is then resurfaced by a V-Y advancement flap, with precautions taken to avoid all tension in the flap. PMID:8349967

Kumar, V P; Satku, K

1993-07-01

27

Common nail changes and disorders in older people  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To present family physicians with common nail alterations and disorders occurring in the elderly population and their management options. Quality of evidence The evidence relating to different nail conditions is mostly derived from randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, and review articles. However, given the scarcity of evidence on some conditions, articles with weaker levels of evidence were also included in our review. Main message Given the growing elderly population and the associated demographic changes and longer lifespans, geriatric care is becoming more of a complicated and multidisciplinary effort in which the role of the family physician is increasingly important. Although common among the elderly, nail changes are often not brought to the attention of primary caregivers and are thus overlooked. These nail changes can affect various components of the nail unit and might represent normal age-related nail alterations or nail abnormalities that require immediate intervention. Knowledge and familiarity with these common nail abnormalities and their underlying causes is important for the family practitioner in order to effectively reach an accurate diagnosis and provide better care of this large and growing elderly population. Conclusion Nail changes are common in the elderly, and family physicians are best placed to diagnose and treat these common problems. It is important that family physicians also recognize less common but more serious nail problems that require immediate treatment. PMID:21321168

Abdullah, Lina; Abbas, Ossama

2011-01-01

28

Utility of Gel Nails in Improving the Appearance of Cosmetically Disfigured Nails: Experience with 25 Cases  

PubMed Central

Background: Gel nails are a commonly used cosmetic procedure, though their use by dermatologists has not been evaluated. These can be used to improve the appearance of cosmetically disfigured nails where other treatment options have failed; the condition is self-limiting or irreversible; or to camouflage the dystrophy until healing. Materials and Methods: A prospective, uncontrolled, open-label study on 25 participants presenting with cosmetically disfigured nails was undertaken. Mycologically negative, consenting patients with various nail plate surface abnormalities like trachyonychia (n =8); superficial pitting (n =6); onychorrhexis (n =4); superficial pitting with onychoschizia (n =3); Beau's lines (n =3) and pterygium (n =1) were included. The patients received gel nail application using Ranara gel nail kit®. Extra care was taken to avoid any damage to cuticle. Standard pre- and post-treatment photographs were taken to assess improvement. Patient satisfaction score (1-10); Global assessment score of improvement (no improvement to excellent improvement) and any side effects reported were recorded. Results: The average age of treated patients was 30.44±11.39 years (range 18-60 years). A total of 69 nails were treated (average of 2.76 per patient). Post-procedure, the average patient satisfaction score was 9.08 ± 0.86 (range 7-10). The Global assessment showed excellent improvement (40% cases); good improvement (56% cases) and mild improvement in the single case of pterygium treated. Conclusions: The use of Gel nails in patients with cosmetically disfiguring nail plate surface abnormalities (like trachyonychia, onychoschizia, pitting, etc.) was found to produce good to excellent improvement in most of the cases. The patient satisfaction with the procedure was rated as high. This, coupled with absence of side effects, make gel nails a valuable tool in improving cosmesis and satisfaction among patients presenting with nail plate surface abnormalities. Further studies with larger number of patients are required to assess the impact these prostheses can have. PMID:24761096

Nanda, Soni; Grover, Chander

2014-01-01

29

[Malignant nail tumors].  

PubMed

Because of the large number of different tissues making up the distal phalanx of fingers and toes, a large variety of malignant tumors can be found in and around the nail apparatus. Bowen disease is probably the most frequent nail malignancy. It is usually seen as a verrucous plaque of the nail fold and nail bed in persons above the age of 40 years. It slowly grows over a period of years or even decades before degenerating to an invasive squamous cell carcinoma. The latter may also occur primarily often as a weeping onycholysis. The next most frequent nail malignancy is ungual melanoma. Those arising from the matrix are usually pigmented and often start with a longitudinal melanonychia whereas those originating from the nail bed remain amelanotic, are often nodular and mistaken for an ingrown nail in an elderly person. The treatment of choice for in situ and early invasive subungual melanomas is generous extirpation of the nail apparatus whereas distal amputation is only indicated for advanced melanomas. In addition to these frequent nail malignancies, nail-specific carcinomas, malignant vascular and osseous tumors, other sarcomas, nail involvement in malignant systemic disorders and metastases may occur. In most cases, they cannot be diagnosed accurately on clinical grounds. Therefore, a high degree of suspicion is necessary in all isolated or single-digit proliferations that do not respond to conservative treatment. PMID:24718507

Haneke, E

2014-04-01

30

Nail Fungal Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... know where or how you got a fungal nail infection. A warm, wet place is a good place for a fungus to grow. If you often wear heavy work ... in locker rooms, you can pick up a fungus from the warm, wet floors. ... fungal infections in their nails at the same time. This can happen because ...

31

Treatment of Nail Psoriasis with a Two-Compound Formulation of Calcipotriol plus Betamethasone Dipropionate Ointment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Treatment of nail psoriasis remains a challenge. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a two-compound product of calcipotriol plus betamethasone dipropionate ointment on nail psoriasis in an open-label study. Methods: Twenty-five psoriatic patients with nail involvement and mild cutaneous psoriasis were instructed to apply a calcipotriol-betamethasone valerate ointment formulation once daily for 12 weeks on affected nails. Outcome measures

D. Rigopoulos; S. Gregoriou; C. R. Daniel; III; H. Belyayeva; G. Larios; P. Verra; C. Stamou; G. Kontochristopoulos; G. Avgerinou; A. Katsambas

2009-01-01

32

Trimming Your Baby's Nails  

MedlinePLUS

... as once or twice a week. Some newborns need their nails to be trimmed even more often than that during the first few weeks of ... ON THIS TOPIC Sleep and Newborns Learning, Play, and Your Newborn Bonding ...

33

Nail gun injuries among construction workers.  

PubMed

Pneumatic nail guns greatly increase worker productivity and are extensively used in wood frame building construction, with especially high use in residential construction. One surveillance report of nail gun injuries in Washington State has been published; however, other literature consists largely of case reports and case series in trauma journals. The major objective of the current study was to investigate the occurrence of nail gun-associated injuries among construction workers and to identify preventable work-related factors associated with these injuries. Nail gun-related injuries occurring among a cohort of 13,347 carpenters in Ohio who worked union hours during the time period January 1, 1994, until September 30, 1997, were identified by matching the cohort with workers' compensation claims made to the Ohio Bureau of Workers' Compensation. We also analyzed workers' compensation claims for North Carolina Home Builders Association members for the period July 1996-November 1999 to identify nail gun-related injuries. Analyses included stratified analyses of claims by nature and body part injured, calculation of nail gun injury rates, and analyses of free text descriptions of injuries. Overall, nail gun injuries were responsible for 3.9 percent of workers' compensation claims with 8.3 percent to 25.5 percent of claims involving paid lost work time. The overall rate of nail gun injuries (cases per 200,000 work hours) was 0.33 in North Carolina and 0.26 in Ohio, reflecting the greater concentration of wood frame construction workers in the North Carolina population studied. Higher rates of injury were observed for carpenters in North Carolina and among residential carpenters in Ohio. The predominant body part injured was the hands/fingers, with 80 to 89 percent of injuries being nail punctures. Analyses of free text information for puncture injuries found approximately 70 percent of injuries to occur during the framing/sheathing stage of construction. Our data suggest that approximately 69 percent of puncture injuries may be due to an inadvertent gun discharge or misfire, preventable in large part by the use of sequential triggers. Worker training and education also are important components of nail gun injury prevention. PMID:12746081

Dement, John M; Lipscomb, Hester; Li, Leiming; Epling, Carol; Desai, Tejas

2003-05-01

34

[Nail involvement in leprosy].  

PubMed

Leprosy, a disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, primarily affects the skin and nerves, but the nails are also involved in as many as 3 out of 4 patients .The factors that trigger nail changes in leprosy are numerous and include repeated trauma, neuropathy, vascular impairment, infections, lepra reactions, and the drugs used to manage the disease. The changes most often reported include subungual hematomas, onycholysis, onychauxis, onychogryphosis, pterygium unguis, and onychoheterotopia, most of which can be attributed to nerve damage and trauma. Furthermore, the acro-osteolysis that occurs in the advanced stages of the disease may present with brachyonychia, racquet nails, or even anonychia. Infections of the nail bed leading to paronychia and onychomycosis should also be taken into account in leprosy. Other typical changes include longitudinal striae, pitting, macrolunula, Terry nails, leukonychia, hapalonychia, and Beau lines. In this review, we describe the principal nail changes associated with leprosy. These changes, which are highly varied and diverse in origin, are in fact a reflection of the significant morbidity caused by M. leprae infection. PMID:22056258

Belinchón Romero, I; Ramos Rincón, J M; Reyes Rabell, F

2012-05-01

35

Distal Femoral Complications Following Antegrade Intramedullary Nail Placement  

PubMed Central

While antegrade nailing for proximal and diaphyseal femur fractures is a commonly utilized fixation method with benefits including early mobilization and high rates of fracture union, both intraoperative and postoperative complications may occur. Intraoperative errors include leg length discrepancy, anterior cortical perforation, malreduction of the fracture, and neurovascular injury, and postoperative complications include nonunion, malunion, infection, and hardware failure. This case series reviews complications affecting the distal femur after intramedullary nailing including fracture surrounding a distal femoral interlocking screw (Case #1), nonunion after dynamization with nail penetration into the knee joint (Case #2), and anterior cortical perforation (Case #3). Prevention of intraoperative and postoperative complications surrounding intramedullary nailing requires careful study of the femoral anatomy and nail design specifications (radius of curvature), consideration of the necessity of distal interlocking screws, the need for close radiographic follow-up after nail placement with X-rays of the entire length of the nail, and awareness of possible nail penetration into the knee joint after dynamization. PMID:25874066

Fantry, Amanda J.; Elia, Gregory; Vopat, Bryan G.; Daniels, Alan H.

2015-01-01

36

Distal femoral complications following antegrade intramedullary nail placement.  

PubMed

While antegrade nailing for proximal and diaphyseal femur fractures is a commonly utilized fixation method with benefits including early mobilization and high rates of fracture union, both intraoperative and postoperative complications may occur. Intraoperative errors include leg length discrepancy, anterior cortical perforation, malreduction of the fracture, and neurovascular injury, and postoperative complications include nonunion, malunion, infection, and hardware failure. This case series reviews complications affecting the distal femur after intramedullary nailing including fracture surrounding a distal femoral interlocking screw (Case #1), nonunion after dynamization with nail penetration into the knee joint (Case #2), and anterior cortical perforation (Case #3). Prevention of intraoperative and postoperative complications surrounding intramedullary nailing requires careful study of the femoral anatomy and nail design specifications (radius of curvature), consideration of the necessity of distal interlocking screws, the need for close radiographic follow-up after nail placement with X-rays of the entire length of the nail, and awareness of possible nail penetration into the knee joint after dynamization. PMID:25874066

Fantry, Amanda J; Elia, Gregory; Vopat, Bryan G; Daniels, Alan H

2015-03-01

37

Dressings and Products in Pediatric Wound Care.  

PubMed

Significance: The increasing complexity of medical and surgical care provided to pediatric patients has resulted in a population at significant risk for complications such as pressure ulcers, nonhealing surgical wounds, and moisture-associated skin damage. Wound care practices for neonatal and pediatric patients, including the choice of specific dressings or other wound care products, are currently based on a combination of provider experience and preference and a small number of published clinical guidelines based on expert opinion; rigorous evidence-based clinical guidelines for wound management in these populations is lacking. Recent Advances: Advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of wound healing have contributed to an ever-increasing number of specialized wound care products, most of which are predominantly marketed to adult patients and that have not been evaluated for safety and efficacy in the neonatal and pediatric populations. This review aims to discuss the available data on the use of both more traditional wound care products and newer wound care technologies in these populations, including medical-grade honey, nanocrystalline silver, and soft silicone-based adhesive technology. Critical Issues: Evidence-based wound care practices and demonstration of the safety, efficacy, and appropriate utilization of available wound care dressings and products in the neonatal and pediatric populations should be established to address specific concerns regarding wound management in these populations. Future Directions: The creation and implementation of evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of common wounds in the neonatal and pediatric populations is essential. In addition to an evaluation of currently marketed wound care dressings and products used in the adult population, newer wound care technologies should also be evaluated for use in neonates and children. In addition, further investigation of the specific pathophysiology of wound healing in neonates and children is indicated to promote the development of wound care dressings and products with specific applications in these populations. PMID:24761363

King, Alice; Stellar, Judith J; Blevins, Anne; Shah, Kara Noelle

2014-04-01

38

Dressings and Products in Pediatric Wound Care  

PubMed Central

Significance: The increasing complexity of medical and surgical care provided to pediatric patients has resulted in a population at significant risk for complications such as pressure ulcers, nonhealing surgical wounds, and moisture-associated skin damage. Wound care practices for neonatal and pediatric patients, including the choice of specific dressings or other wound care products, are currently based on a combination of provider experience and preference and a small number of published clinical guidelines based on expert opinion; rigorous evidence-based clinical guidelines for wound management in these populations is lacking. Recent Advances: Advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of wound healing have contributed to an ever-increasing number of specialized wound care products, most of which are predominantly marketed to adult patients and that have not been evaluated for safety and efficacy in the neonatal and pediatric populations. This review aims to discuss the available data on the use of both more traditional wound care products and newer wound care technologies in these populations, including medical-grade honey, nanocrystalline silver, and soft silicone-based adhesive technology. Critical Issues: Evidence-based wound care practices and demonstration of the safety, efficacy, and appropriate utilization of available wound care dressings and products in the neonatal and pediatric populations should be established to address specific concerns regarding wound management in these populations. Future Directions: The creation and implementation of evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of common wounds in the neonatal and pediatric populations is essential. In addition to an evaluation of currently marketed wound care dressings and products used in the adult population, newer wound care technologies should also be evaluated for use in neonates and children. In addition, further investigation of the specific pathophysiology of wound healing in neonates and children is indicated to promote the development of wound care dressings and products with specific applications in these populations. PMID:24761363

King, Alice; Stellar, Judith J.; Blevins, Anne; Shah, Kara Noelle

2014-01-01

39

Curvature Index of Pincer Nail  

PubMed Central

Summary: Pincer nails are a common problem, and various treatments have been reported. However, there is no simple assessment of severity. We designed a curvature index for the nail plate to assess the severity of pincer nail. Measurement of the curvature index was as follows. The apparent width of the nail tip was defined as A, and the traced length of the nail tip was defined as B. The curvature index was defined as B divided by A (B/A). With this curvature index, it is easy to describe the severity of the pincer nail and to compare the improvement before and after treatment. PMID:25289244

2013-01-01

40

Drug-induced nail disorders.  

PubMed

Nail disorders are defined according to their appearance and the part of the nail affected: the nail plate, the tissues that support or hold the nail plate in place, or the lunula. The consequences of most nail disorders are purely cosmetic. Other disorders, such as ingrown nails, inflammation, erythema, abscesses or tumours, cause functional impairment or pain. The appearance of the lesions is rarely indicative of their cause. Possible causes include physiological changes, local disorders or trauma, systemic conditions, toxic substances and drugs. Most drug-induced nail disorders resolve after discontinuation of the drug, although complete resolution sometimes takes several years. Drugs appear to induce nail disorders through a variety of mechanisms. Some drugs affect the nail matrix epithelium, the nail bed or the nail folds. Some alter nail colour. Other drugs induce photosensitivity. Yet others affect the blood supply to the nail unit. Nail abnormalities are common during treatment with certain cytotoxic drugs: taxanes, anthracyclines, fluorouracil, EGFR, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, etc. Some drugs are associated with a risk of serious and painful lesions, such as abscesses. When these disorders affect quality of life, the benefits of withdrawing the drug must be weighed against the severity of the condition being treated and the drug's efficacy, taking into account the harm-benefit balance of other options. Various anti-infective drugs, including tetracyclines, quinolones, clofazimine and zidovudine, cause the nail plate to detach from the nail bed after exposure to light, or cause nail discoloration. Psoralens and retinoids can also have the same effects. PMID:25162091

2014-07-01

41

Cosmetics and Skin Care Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Contact allergy to ingredients of cosmetics is one of the most frequent causes of contact allergy. While patients may report\\u000a reactions to fragrance items, preservative allergy may not be suspected. The reaction typically resembles eczema on the face\\u000a or hands, although any body site may be affected. Products left on the skin are much more likely to cause allergic reactions

Jonathan M. L. White; Anton C. Groot; Ian R. White

42

Cleanser, Detergent, Personal Care Product Pretreatment Evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the Cleanser, Detergent, Personal Care Product, and Pretreatment Evaluation & Selection task is to identify the optimal combination of personal hygiene products, crew activities, and pretreatment strategies to provide the crew with sustainable life support practices and a comfortable habitat. Minimal energy, mass, and crew time inputs are desired to recycle wastewater during long duration missions. This document will provide a brief background on the work this past year supporting the ELS Distillation Comparison Test, issues regarding use of the hygiene products originally chosen for the test, methods and results used to select alternative products, and lessons learned from testing.

Adam, Niklas

2010-01-01

43

Morphopathological aspects of healthy nails and nails affected by onychomycosis.  

PubMed

Patients of onychomycosis are common in the dermatology practice. Contemporary morphology creates opportunities to study the functional units of the nail when such infections occur from morphopathological point of view. There were 22 nails biopsies from onychomycosis patients taken for the research of morphopathological changes in the thickened nail plate affected by onychomycosis. Samples of cadaverous' nails were used as a control material. The material was stained with haematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical methods. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling reaction and periodic acid-Schiff reaction were also performed. We found patchy hypertrophy in the granulose layer of the epidermis, with focal acanthosis. In the horn layer, we identified nests of parakeratosis of various sizes, with incorporations of homogenous and eosinophil masses. We found high levels of interleukin 6 and interleukin 10 positive cells in the nail bed and in the bloodstream. Interleukin 1, however, was not a part of any of the functional units of any of the nails. Significant amount of fibres containing human beta defensin-2 were found in the bed and plate of the nail. Therefore one can conclude that as regards the nails affected by onychomycosis, the most effective morphopathogenical processes include cytokine and defensin excretion occurrence in the nail bed. PMID:24661598

Zaikovska, Olga; Pilmane, Mara; Kisis, Janis

2014-09-01

44

7 CFR 3201.70 - Hair care products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hair care products. 3201.70 Section 3201...PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.70 Hair care products. (a) Definitions...hygiene products specifically formulated for hair cleaning and treating applications,...

2013-01-01

45

7 CFR 3201.70 - Hair care products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hair care products. 3201.70 Section 3201...PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.70 Hair care products. (a) Definitions...hygiene products specifically formulated for hair cleaning and treating applications,...

2012-01-01

46

7 CFR 3201.70 - Hair care products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hair care products. 3201.70 Section 3201...PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.70 Hair care products. (a) Definitions...hygiene products specifically formulated for hair cleaning and treating applications,...

2014-01-01

47

7 CFR 3201.97 - Sun care products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sun care products. 3201.97 Section 3201...PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.97 Sun care products. (a) Definition. Products including sunscreens, sun blocks, and suntan lotions that are...

2014-01-01

48

7 CFR 3201.97 - Sun care products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sun care products. 3201.97 Section 3201...PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.97 Sun care products. (a) Definition. Products including sunscreens, sun blocks, and suntan lotions that are...

2013-01-01

49

Urinary and air phthalate concentrations and self-reported use of personal care products among minority pregnant women in New York City  

PubMed Central

Diethyl phthalate (DEP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) are used extensively in personal care products, including fragrances (DEP) and nail polish (DnBP). Between May 2003 and July 2006, we gathered questionnaire data on use of 7 product categories (deodorant, perfume, hair spray, hair gel, nail polish/polish remover, liquid soap/body wash, lotion/mist) over 48 hours during the 3rd trimester of pregnancy from 186 inner-city women. A 48-hour personal air sample was collected and analyzed for DEP and DnBP; a maternal spot urine sample was collected and analyzed for their monoester metabolites, monoethyl phthalate (MEP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), respectively. Ninety-seven percent of air samples and 84% of urine samples were collected within ±2 days of the questionnaire. During the 48 hours, 41% of women reported perfume use and 10% reported nail polish/polish remover use. In adjusted analyses, no association was seen between nail product use and air DnBP or urine MnBP concentrations. Women reporting perfume use had 2.3 times higher (95% CI 1.6, 3.3) urinary MEP concentrations. Personal air DEP increased 7% for each 25% increase in a composite indicator of the 6 other product categories (p<0.05) but was not associated with perfume use. Air DEP was correlated with urine MEP concentrations only among non-perfume users (r=0.51, p<0.001). Results suggest that perfume use is a significant source of DEP exposure. PMID:20354564

Just, Allan C.; Adibi, Jennifer J.; Rundle, Andrew G.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Camann, David E.; Hauser, Russ; Silva, Manori J.; Whyatt, Robin M.

2011-01-01

50

Ciclopirox vs amorolfine: in vitro penetration into and permeation through human healthy nails of commercial nail lacquers.  

PubMed

One of the pre-requisite for a successful topical antifungal drug indicated for onychomycosis is its bioavailability into the nail unit for achieving fungal eradication and clinical benefit. The aim of this study was to compare in vitro permeation/penetration through and into human nails of amorolfine (MRF) from a 5% anhydrous commercial formulation (Loceryl®) and ciclopirox (CPX) from the 8% aqueous formulation in hydroxypropyl chitosan (HPCH) technology (Onytec®). The ability of the active ingredient to reach efficacious concentrations to inhibit nail pathogens was also evaluated. The amounts of drug permeated and retained in human healthy nails were determined using a suitably modified diffusion apparatus. HPLC analysis of the samples was performed. The HPCH-based CPX formulation demonstrated an efficient penetration into and permeation through the nail plates. Conversely, Loceryl® produced an amount of MRF permeated through and penetrated into the human toenails significantly lower than CPX. The evaluation of the efficacy index showed a higher potential efficacy of Onytec® with respect to Loceryl® on nail pathogens. The present work not only reinforced the previous results on different experimental substrates, but pointed out the superiority of HPCH-based Onytec® formulation containing CPX with respect to Loceryl® commercial product with MRF, both in terms of higher permeation through and penetration into the human nail, and for the efficacy towards the most common ungual pathogens. PMID:24509963

Monti, Daniela; Tampucci, Silvia; Chetoni, Patrizia; Burgalassi, Susi; Mailland, Federico

2014-02-01

51

The productivity of primary care research networks.  

PubMed Central

Primary care research networks are being publicly funded in the United Kingdom to promote a culture of research and development in primary care. This paper discusses the organisational form of these networks and how their productivity can be evaluated, drawing on evidence from management science. An evaluation of a research network has to take account of the complexity of the organisation, the influence of its local context, and its stage of development. Output measures, such as number of research papers, and process measures, such as number of research meetings, may contribute to an evaluation. However, as networking relies on the development of informal, trust-based relationships, the quality of interactions within a network is of paramount importance for its success. Networks can audit and reflect on their success in promoting such relationships and a more formal qualitative evaluation by an independent observer can document their success to those responsible for funding. PMID:11141879

Griffiths, F; Wild, A; Harvey, J; Fenton, E

2000-01-01

52

Nail as a window of systemic diseases.  

PubMed

Certain nail changes are specific for various dermatological disorders. In addition, examination of nails may also provide an insight into more sinister systemic manifestations in the form of both subtle as well as specific changes. These findings may present as a defect of various anatomical components of the nail unit; nail matrix, nail plate and/or nail bed or vasculature. This article is an attempt to equip the dermatologists with a foresight to suspect and diagnose the unapparent systemic connotations that may be possible by a simple but detailed nail examination. PMID:25821724

Singal, Archana; Arora, Rahul

2015-01-01

53

Nail as a window of systemic diseases  

PubMed Central

Certain nail changes are specific for various dermatological disorders. In addition, examination of nails may also provide an insight into more sinister systemic manifestations in the form of both subtle as well as specific changes. These findings may present as a defect of various anatomical components of the nail unit; nail matrix, nail plate and/or nail bed or vasculature. This article is an attempt to equip the dermatologists with a foresight to suspect and diagnose the unapparent systemic connotations that may be possible by a simple but detailed nail examination. PMID:25821724

Singal, Archana; Arora, Rahul

2015-01-01

54

Magnesium alloy wires as reinforcement in composite intramedullary nails.  

PubMed

A promising group of biomaterials assigned for the production of intramedullary nails are composites with a polylactide (PLA) matrix, reinforced with wires made of magnesium alloys and carbon fibres. The paper describes the effect of the composition of magnesium alloy wires, their number and orientation in the composite, as well as their connection with differently directed long carbon fibres, on the mechanical properties and the degradation rate of the obtained intramedullary nails. Among the tested implant prototypes, the best mechanical characteristics and a gradual and uniform course of magnesium alloy wires were exhibited by the PLA+CF1D+MgI composite nails (with a unidirectional orientation of carbon fibres and an axially oriented single Mg alloy wire). The strength of these nails became gradually decreased with the incubation time, which should allow for a gradual loading of the bone. In the case of the PLA with only magnesium alloy wires (without carbon fibres), the increase of the number of wires, on the one hand, stimulates the improvement of the nails' strength, yet on the other hand, a higher content of magnesium alloys in the PLA matrix affects the nails' faster resorption. PMID:24642977

Morawska-Chochó?, Anna; Ch?opek, Jan; Domalik-Pyzik, Patrycja; Szaraniec, Barbara; Grzy?ka, Ewa

2014-01-01

55

Emmert-plasty for ingrown toe nail  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surgical Principles\\u000a \\u000a Excision of the involved quarter of the toe nail.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Wedge excision of nail fold, nail bed and nail matrix down to the bone of the terminal phalanx of the toe [4, 6].\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a In cases without inflammation: wedge excision of involved nail fold.

Hans-Dietmar Strube; Bruno Wasserscheid

1993-01-01

56

Efficacy testing for hair care products.  

PubMed

For the efficacy testing of hair care products, a number of methods are available. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy are most suitable for surface evaluation; the swelling properties in the course of a treatment are determined using a fiber-swelling analyzer, and the luster may be reliably determined by means of a multiangle goniophotometer. Further, surface tension is a suitable method to evaluate the hydrophilic/hydrophobic properties of a hair section, and is sensitive enough to indicate the individual hormone cycle. PMID:10393526

Höcker, H

1999-01-01

57

Congenital onychogryphosis: Leaning Tower nail.  

PubMed

A 45-year-old man presented with a thickened and raised nail of his left fifth finger since birth. He was otherwise healthy. On examination, the nail of the left little finger was markedly thickened, hyperkeratotic, and situated at an angle of approximately 45 degrees to the long axis of the distal phalanx. There was prominent subungual hyperkeratosis. A diagnosis of congenital onychogryphosis of the little finger of idiopathic nature was considered. Visual analogy to the leaning tower of Pisa encouraged us to describe it as congenital leaning tower nail. PMID:22136865

Nath, Amiya Kumar; Udayashankar, Carounanidy

2011-01-01

58

Drug-related nail disease.  

PubMed

Drug-induced nail abnormalities can present with a wide variety of clinical manifestations that are often dose-related and that disappear after drug withdrawal. Some nail changes are asymptomatic and only cause cosmetic problems, whereas others cause pain and discomfort and impair manual activities or deambulation. New side effects have been recently observed with different groups of anticancer agents. These include painful onycholysis and subungual abscesses caused by taxanes and anthracyclines (eg, doxorubicin) in addition to ingrown nails, paronychia, and pyogenic granuloma associated with the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (eg, erlotinib, gefitinib). PMID:24079591

Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Alessandrini, Aurora

2013-01-01

59

Randomized controlled trial of a water-soluble nail lacquer based on hydroxypropyl-chitosan (HPCH), in the management of nail psoriasis  

PubMed Central

Background Nail psoriasis occurs in up to 50% of patients affected by psoriasis, with a significant impact on quality of life that leads to a real clinical need for new therapeutic options. Aim To confirm whether the strengthening and hardening properties of the hydroxypropyl-chitosan (HPCH) nail lacquer could improve the structure of the nail plates on psoriatic nails. Materials and methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, parallel-group trial was carried out to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a hydrosoluble nail lacquer containing HPCH, Equisetum arvense, and methylsulfonylmethane on nail psoriasis. The test product or a placebo was applied once daily for 24 weeks to all fingernails. Efficacy assessments were performed on the target fingernail by means of the modified Nail Psoriasis Severity Index score. A cut-off score of 4 was considered to define the clinical cure rate (ie, Cure ?4, Failure >4). Results After 24 weeks, the clinical cure rate showed the statistically significant superiority of the HPCH nail lacquer compared to placebo in both the intention-to-treat (Fisher’s exact test, P=0.0445) and the per protocol population (Fisher’s exact test, P=0.0437). This superiority was already present after 16 weeks of treatment. Moreover, the analysis of the modified Nail Psoriasis Severity Index-50 showed a statistically significant clinical improvement after 12 weeks of treatment in comparison to the results obtained after 8 weeks (Fisher’s exact test, P<0.05). Conclusion The trial showed that HPCH nail lacquer could be a new, valid, effective, and safe option for decreasing the signs of nail dystrophy in psoriatic patients. PMID:24904219

Cantoresi, Franca; Caserini, Maurizio; Bidoli, Antonella; Maggio, Francesca; Marino, Raffaella; Carnevale, Claudia; Sorgi, Paola; Palmieri, Renata

2014-01-01

60

Scopulariopsis brevicaulis in nails.  

PubMed

Scopulariopsis brevicaulis was demonstrated in 226 out of 5,600 patients examined for abnormal toe-nails. Among 3,700 patients without onychomycosis S. brevicaulis was demonstrated as a contaminant in 2%. Onychomycosis, present in 1,925 patients, was caused by S. brevicaulis in 6%, but 10% of these cases were mixed infections with dermatophytes. In the approximately 1,800 cases of onychomycosis due to other reasons, S. brevicaulis was a contaminant in 2%. A specific finding of S. brevicaulis on direct microscopy is diagnostic, and a number of colonies greater than or equal to 10 supports the diagnosis, while in the presence of less than or equal to 3 colonies and no S. brevicaulis on direct microscopy the diagnosis is unlikely. Onychomycosis due to S. brevicaulis was most often diagnosed in elderly persons, with equal frequency in men and women. PMID:6447633

Onsberg, P

1980-01-01

61

Is distal locking of long nails for intertrochanteric fractures necessary? A clinical study  

PubMed Central

Background Few clinical studies have examined the utility of distal interlocking nails when fixing intertrochanteric fractures with intramedullary devices. In this study we performed a retrospective analysis comparing fixation method of intertrochanteric fractures with either a long unlocked cephalomedullary nail versus a long locked cephalomedullary nail. Our hypothesis was there would be no difference in device related failures or complications in stable intertrochanteric fractures treated with long locked or long unlocked cephalomedullary nails. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed of all stable intertrochanteric fractures treated with a long cephalomedullary nail between 2006 and 2012 at our institution. Clinical history as well as perioperative radiography was carefully reviewed for all subjects. AO classification, the use of locked or unlocked technique, and failure status was recorded. Results Overall, a device related failure rate of 1.8% (2/107) was observed for stable intertrochanteric fractures treated with long cephalomedullary nails. No statistical difference in failure rate was found between locked and unlocked nails within our studied population (0% long locked (0/56) versus 3.9% long unlocked (2/51), p = 0.224). Conclusion This clinical study supports our hypothesis that long cephalomedullary nails do not need to be locked for stable intertrochanteric fractures. We found no difference in failure rates between the two approaches across 107 patients.

Vopat, Bryan G.; Kane, Patrick M.; Truntzer, Jeremy; McClure, Philip; Paller, David; Abbood, Emily; Born, Christopher

2014-01-01

62

A Method to Modify Angle-Stable Intramedullary Nail Construct Compliance  

PubMed Central

Traditional interlocked intramedullary (IM) nails have recently been modified to provide enhanced angular stability. These so-called ‘angle-stable’ IM nails are designed to eliminate construct toggle and also provide increased axial, bending, and torsional stiffness. While this added stability is needed for small fracture gaps to heal, angle-stable nails may be too stiff for large fracture gaps to unite. Even though relative stability is recommended for large fracture gaps, recent in vivo data indicates that traditional nails may allow for too much motion for healing to occur. The current study evaluated a modified technique for implanting an angle-stable nail which allows for an intermediate amount of stability. The compliance of the nail construct was adjusted by over-drilling the near cortex interlocking hole. This led to increased construct motion in torsion, but less so in axial compression and bending. This modification creates stability which is partway between angle-stable and traditional IM nail designs. These findings were unchanged after 50,000 fatigue loading cycles. By carefully selecting the magnitude of over-drilling, the compliance of the construct can easily be modified as it is being implanted. This design modification may lead to more reliable fracture union since the surgeon can tailor the nail compliance to the injury and bone quality. PMID:25328462

Flanagan, B P; LeCronier, D; Kubacki, M R; Telehowski, P; Atkinson, P

2014-01-01

63

Physics of nail conditions: why do ingrown nails always happen in the big toes?  

PubMed

Although surgical treatment of nail conditions can be traced back centuries to the writings of Paul Aegineta (625-690 AC), little is known about the physical laws governing nail growth. Such a poor understanding together with the increasing number of nail salons in the high street should raise legitimate concerns regarding the different procedures applied to nails. An understanding of the physics of nail growth is therefore essential to engage with human medicine and to understand the aetiology of nail conditions. In this context, a theory of nail plate adhesion, including a physical description of nail growth can be used to determine the transverse and longitudinal curvatures of the nail plate that are so important in the physical diagnosis of some nail conditions. As a result physics sheds light on: (a) why/how nails/hooves adhere strongly, yet grow smoothly; (b) why hoof/claw/nail growth rates are similar across species; (c) potential nail damage incurred by poor trimming; (d) the connection between three previously unrelated nail conditions, i.e. spoon-shaped, pincer and ingrown nails and; last but not least, (e) why ingrown nails occur preferentially in the big toes. PMID:25322083

Rauch, Cyril; Cherkaoui-Rbati, Mohammed

2014-12-01

64

Physics of nail conditions: why do ingrown nails always happen in the big toes?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although surgical treatment of nail conditions can be traced back centuries to the writings of Paul Aegineta (625–690 AC), little is known about the physical laws governing nail growth. Such a poor understanding together with the increasing number of nail salons in the high street should raise legitimate concerns regarding the different procedures applied to nails. An understanding of the physics of nail growth is therefore essential to engage with human medicine and to understand the aetiology of nail conditions. In this context, a theory of nail plate adhesion, including a physical description of nail growth can be used to determine the transverse and longitudinal curvatures of the nail plate that are so important in the physical diagnosis of some nail conditions. As a result physics sheds light on: (a) why/how nails/hooves adhere strongly, yet grow smoothly; (b) why hoof/claw/nail growth rates are similar across species; (c) potential nail damage incurred by poor trimming; (d) the connection between three previously unrelated nail conditions, i.e. spoon-shaped, pincer and ingrown nails and; last but not least, (e) why ingrown nails occur preferentially in the big toes.

Rauch, Cyril; Cherkaoui-Rbati, Mohammed

2014-12-01

65

Titanium elastic nails for pediatric tibial shaft fractures  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of our study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of elastic stable intramedullary nailing for unstable pediatric tibial shaft fractures using titanium elastic nails (TENs). To our knowledge, this is the largest series reported in the literature of this specific fixation technique. Methods We reviewed all children with tibial shaft fractures treated operatively at our tertiary care children's hospital to find those patients who underwent fixation with TENs. Between 1998 and 2005, we identified 19 consecutive patients who satisfied inclusion criteria. The average age of the patients in our series was 12.2 years (range 7.2–16 years), and mean follow-up was 15.7 months (range 6–28 months). Patient charts and radiographs were retrospectively reviewed to gather the clinical data. Outcomes were classified as excellent, satisfactory, or poor according to the Flynn classification for flexible nail fixation. Results All patients achieved complete healing at a mean of 11.0 weeks (range 6–18 weeks). At final follow-up, mean angulation was 2° (range 0°–6°) in the sagittal plane and 3° in the coronal plane (range 0°–9°). Five patients (26%) complained of irritation at the nail entry site; there were no leg length discrepancies or physeal arrests as a result of treatment. Two patients required remanipulation after the index procedure to maintain adequate alignment. According to the Flynn classification, we had 12 excellent, six satisfactory, and one poor result. Conclusion Although the indications for operative fixation of pediatric tibial shaft fractures are rare, occasionally surgical treatment is warranted. Based on our results, elastic stable intramedullary nailing with titanium elastic nails is an effective surgical technique which allows rapid healing of tibial shaft fractures with an acceptable rate of complications. PMID:19308521

Sankar, Wudbhav N.; Jones, Kristofer J.; David Horn, B.

2007-01-01

66

Nail psoriasis: a review of the literature.  

PubMed

Nails are considered epidermal appendages, and as such, are commonly affected in patients with psoriasis, 80% of whom are likely to develop nail psoriasis as a result of their condition. Two patterns of nail disorders have been shown to be caused by psoriasis. Nail matrix involvement can result in features such as leukonychia, pitting (punctures or cupuliform depressions), red spots in the lunula and crumbling. Nail bed involvement, on the other hand, can cause onycholysis, salmon or oil-drop patches, subungual hyperkeratosis and splinter hemorrhages. Nail disease causes aesthetic and functional impairment, and is indicative of more severe forms of psoriasis as well as of joint involvement. The treatment for nail psoriasis involves behavioral interventions, topical medications, or systemic therapy in case of extensive skin or joint involvement. This article presents a review of the main features of nail psoriasis, its clinical presentation, diagnostic and assessment methods, clinical repercussions, and of its available treatment options. PMID:24770509

Schons, Karen Regina Rosso; Knob, Cristiane Faccin; Murussi, Nádia; Beber, André Avelino Costa; Neumaier, Walter; Monticielo, Odirlei André

2014-01-01

67

Nail psoriasis: a review of the literature*  

PubMed Central

Nails are considered epidermal appendages, and as such, are commonly affected in patients with psoriasis, 80% of whom are likely to develop nail psoriasis as a result of their condition. Two patterns of nail disorders have been shown to be caused by psoriasis. Nail matrix involvement can result in features such as leukonychia, pitting (punctures or cupuliform depressions), red spots in the lunula and crumbling. Nail bed involvement, on the other hand, can cause onycholysis, salmon or oil-drop patches, subungual hyperkeratosis and splinter hemorrhages. Nail disease causes aesthetic and functional impairment, and is indicative of more severe forms of psoriasis as well as of joint involvement. The treatment for nail psoriasis involves behavioral interventions, topical medications, or systemic therapy in case of extensive skin or joint involvement. This article presents a review of the main features of nail psoriasis, its clinical presentation, diagnostic and assessment methods, clinical repercussions, and of its available treatment options. PMID:24770509

Schons, Karen Regina Rosso; Knob, Cristiane Faccin; Murussi, Nádia; Beber, André Avelino Costa; Neumaier, Walter; Monticielo, Odirlei André

2014-01-01

68

Congenital malalignment of the big toe nail.  

PubMed

Congenital malalignment of the big toe nail is based on a lateral deviation of the nail plate. This longitudinal axis shift is due to a deviation of the nail matrix, possibly caused by increased traction of the hypertrophic extensor tendon of the hallux. Congenital malalignment of the big toe nail is typically present at birth. Ingrown toenails and onychogryphosis are among the most common complications. Depending on the degree of deviation, conservative or surgical treatment may be recommended. PMID:22117849

Wagner, Gunnar; Sachse, Michael Max

2012-05-01

69

How to Select Anti-Aging Skin Care Products  

MedlinePLUS

... Adult skin Anti-aging products: Selecting How to select anti-aging skin care products Dermatologists share their ... make a noticeable difference. When shopping for sunscreen, select one that offers all of the following: Broad ...

70

Nail gun injury: a barbed problem.  

PubMed Central

A case of nail gun injury is reported. Preoperative radiographs are essential to determine whether copper barbs project from the nail shaft before any attempt is made to remove the nail. Thorough exploration is required. Images p210-a PMID:8733664

Armstrong, A P; Davies, D M

1996-01-01

71

The nail dystrophy of psoriatic arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nail abnormalities occur frequently in patients with psoriatic arthritis. This study of the finger nails of 46 patients with psoriatic arthritis, 100 nonpsoriatic rheumatism patients, and 100 nonpsoriatic general medical patients was designed to characterise these abnormalities with particular reference to the severity of nail pitting. The results of the study suggest: (1) Onycholysis alone in the absence of previous

C J Eastmond; V Wright

1979-01-01

72

Nail Changes Secondary to Docetaxel (Taxotere)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Docetaxel is a new taxoid antineoplastic drug widely used for advanced breast cancer. Skin and nail toxicity are one of the more frequent nonhematologic adverse reactions. Besides dark pigmentations and Beau’s lines, subungual hemorrhage, orange discoloration, acute painful paronychia, onycholysis, subungual hyperkeratosis and transverse loss of the nail plate are described. The type of nail alteration is related with the

O. Correia; C. Azevedo; E. Pinto Ferreira; F. Braga Cruz; J. Polónia

1999-01-01

73

The Burden of Nail Psoriasis: An Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nail involvement is an extremely common feature of psoriasis and affects approximately 50% of patients. Despite this, it is an often overlooked feature of the disease, and treatment tends to be focused on clearing the cutaneous component of psoriasis. Clinical manifestations of nail psoriasis are pitting, discolouration, onycholysis and subungual hyperkeratosis as well as nail plate crumbling and splinter haemorrhages.

Robert Baran

2010-01-01

74

7 CFR 3201.82 - Foot care products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Foot care products. 3201.82 Section 3201...PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.82 Foot care products. (a) Definition. ...to be used in the soothing or cleaning of feet. (b) Minimum biobased...

2013-01-01

75

7 CFR 3201.82 - Foot care products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Foot care products. 3201.82 Section 3201...PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.82 Foot care products. (a) Definition. ...to be used in the soothing or cleaning of feet. (b) Minimum biobased...

2014-01-01

76

Nail abnormalities associated with systemic pathologies.  

PubMed

Nail abnormalities can arise in conjunction with or as a result of systematic pathologies. These pathologies include single-organ diseases, multisystemic diseases, and drug-induced insults. Clinical signs associated with these conditions include dyschromias, vascular alterations, periungual tissue changes, textural dystrophies, contour alterations, and growth-rate alterations. The associated systemic pathologies may affect any part of the nail apparatus, including the nail matrix, the nail plate, the nail bed, the underlying vasculature, and the periungual tissues. The anatomical location and extent of damage determine the clinically manifested anomaly. PMID:24079592

Zaiac, Martin N; Walker, Ashley

2013-01-01

77

[Nail plate susceptibility to Scopulariopsis brevicaulis infection].  

PubMed

Nail plate susceptibility to Scopulariopsis brevicaulis infection. Experimental Scopulariopsis brevicaulis infection of toe and finger nails collected from 79 persons of both sexes and at various age is presented. Crumbled nail fragments were incubated with a S. brevicaulis strain isolated from toenail acauliosis. The culture was inspected and evaluated under light microscope after seven days of incubation. Hyphe intensively penetrating nail fragments were found in 67.1% of toenails and 38% of fingernails. The infection was most intensive in the nails collected from males and elderly persons. PMID:16894717

Macura, Anna B; Pawlik, Boles?aw; Perun, Magdalena; Król, Monika

2002-01-01

78

Confocal microscopy for healthy and pathological nail.  

PubMed

Nail diseases are often annoying for the patient and diagnostically challenging for dermatologists. New imaging techniques are of high interest in the diagnosis of nail disorders to reduce the number of nail biopsies. Confocal microscopy is a high-resolution emerging imaging technique that can be used to explore the entire body surface, including skin, mucosa, hair and nails. A systematic review of the literature concerning the use of confocal microscopy for the study of either healthy or pathological nail has been performed to evaluate the current use of this technique and possible future applications. Confocal microscopy is particularly suitable for nails because it allows a non-invasive in vivo examination of this sensitive body area, and nail plate transparency permits to image up to the nail bed with an easy identification of corneocytes. Confocal microscopy can play a role in the diagnosis of onychomycosis and melanonichia, and in the study of drug penetration through the nail plate. It could be used in the future as a non-invasive procedure for the investigation of different nail diseases, such as psoriasis and lichen planus. Further application could be the intra-operative ex vivo examination of nail specimens to outline tumour margins to assist surgery. PMID:24320009

Cinotti, E; Fouilloux, B; Perrot, J L; Labeille, B; Douchet, C; Cambazard, F

2014-07-01

79

Nail Psoriasis: The Journey So Far  

PubMed Central

Nail involvement is an extremely common feature of psoriasis and affects approximately 10-78% of psoriasis patients with 5-10% of patients having isolated nail psoriasis. However, it is often an overlooked feature in the management of nail psoriasis, despite the significant burden it places on the patients as a result of functional impairment of manual dexterity, pain, and psychological stress. Affected nail plates often thicken and crumble, and because they are very visible, patients tend to avoid normal day-to-day activities and social interactions. Importantly, 70-80% of patients with psoriatic arthritis have nail psoriasis. In this overview, we review the clinical manifestations of psoriasis affecting the nails, the common differential diagnosis of nail psoriasis, Nail Psoriasis Severity Index and the various diagnostic aids for diagnosing nail psoriasis especially, the cases with isolated nail involvement. We have also discussed the available treatment options, including the topical, physical, systemic, and biological modalities, in great detail in order to equip the present day dermatologist in dealing with a big clinical challenge, that is, management of nail psoriasis. PMID:25071247

Dogra, Alka; Arora, Amanjot Kaur

2014-01-01

80

Salvage for nail breakage in femoral intramedullary nailing.  

PubMed

Proximal fractures of femur represent an important cause of hospitalization, morbidity and mortality for elderly patients. Femoral intramedullary nailing is an option to achieve a stable osteosynthesis but the breakage is a rare complication. The aim was to determinate the prevalence, causes, management and functional outcomes of this patients in our hands. Retrospective review of 1246 proximal femur fractures operated between 2003 and 2012. We analyse epidemiological data, fracture type and the quality of closed reduction and fixation by preoperative and postoperative radiology. Type of salvage procedure chosen for each case is presented. Functional outcome and quality of life questionnaire was obtained by Barthel index and Short Form 12 version 2. 11 cases (0.88%) were identified. The type of initial fracture was 7 cases AO/OTA 31A3 and 4 cases AO/OTA 31A2. The implant failure was detected at 11 months after surgery (SD 6.39). Nail breakage occurred in three different points: 7 cases in the proximal aperture, 3 cases in cervicocephalic screw and 1 case in the distal aperture of the nail. The association of nonunion at fracture site and progressive hip pain was observed in all cases. Different salvage procedures were performed: 7 cases osteosynthesis revision (nail or dynamic condilar screw plate), 2 cases arthroplasty and 2 cases conservative treatment. The main Barthel score before the salvage procedure was 63.2 (SD 13). At final follow-up, this score improved to 72.8 (SD 20.38). To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the largest series of cases of trochanteric nail breakage due to material fatigue. This complication is rare (0.88%) that can foresee in unstable fractures with delayed union. The type of salvage should be individualized showing acceptable functional outcome in our series. PMID:25560089

Cruz-Sánchez, Marcos; Torres-Claramunt, Raúl; Alier-Fabregó, Albert; Martínez-Díaz, Santos

2015-04-01

81

Methylisothiazolinone: an emergent allergen in common pediatric skin care products.  

PubMed

Recalcitrant dermatitis, such as that of the hands, face, or genitals, may be due to allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from ingredients in seemingly innocuous personal care products. Rising rates of allergy have been noted due to the preservative methylisothiazolinone (MI). This preservative is commonly found in skin and hair care products, especially wipes. This study evaluated the use of MI in products specifically marketed for babies and children and examined the associated marketing terms of such products. Ingredients of skin care products specifically marketed for babies and children were surveyed at two major retailers. Of 152 products surveyed, 30 products contained MI. Categories of products surveyed included facial or body wipes, antibacterial hand wipes, hair products, soaps, bubble baths, moisturizers, and sunscreens. Facial or body wipes and hair products were the categories with the greatest number of MI-containing products. MI-containing products were manufactured by a number of popular brands. Of note, products marketed as "gentle," "sensitive," "organic," or "hypoallergenic" often contained MI, thus emphasizing the importance of consumer scrutiny of product choices. These findings reinforce the importance of educating parents and providing consumer decision-making advice regarding common skin care products, in order to help prevent ACD in children. PMID:25342949

Schlichte, Megan J; Katta, Rajani

2014-01-01

82

Methylisothiazolinone: An Emergent Allergen in Common Pediatric Skin Care Products  

PubMed Central

Recalcitrant dermatitis, such as that of the hands, face, or genitals, may be due to allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from ingredients in seemingly innocuous personal care products. Rising rates of allergy have been noted due to the preservative methylisothiazolinone (MI). This preservative is commonly found in skin and hair care products, especially wipes. This study evaluated the use of MI in products specifically marketed for babies and children and examined the associated marketing terms of such products. Ingredients of skin care products specifically marketed for babies and children were surveyed at two major retailers. Of 152 products surveyed, 30 products contained MI. Categories of products surveyed included facial or body wipes, antibacterial hand wipes, hair products, soaps, bubble baths, moisturizers, and sunscreens. Facial or body wipes and hair products were the categories with the greatest number of MI-containing products. MI-containing products were manufactured by a number of popular brands. Of note, products marketed as “gentle,” “sensitive,” “organic,” or “hypoallergenic” often contained MI, thus emphasizing the importance of consumer scrutiny of product choices. These findings reinforce the importance of educating parents and providing consumer decision-making advice regarding common skin care products, in order to help prevent ACD in children. PMID:25342949

Schlichte, Megan J.

2014-01-01

83

[Key messages in nail disease].  

PubMed

Nail diseases are varied, and their diagnosis is often difficult. Misdiagnosis can result in failure to recognize a severe disease in urgent need of treatment and in the prescription of treatments that are inappropriate, long, ineffective, and expensive. Acute paronychia must be managed rapidly, treated with antiseptics several times a day, and closely monitored. Nail lichen must be recognized early and treated rapidly and appropriately to prevent permanent scarring. All chronic pain (to shocks or cold) of the tip of a finger or toe should suggest a glomus tumor. Any unexplained persistent single-finger onychopathy should in principle cause the physician to suspect a tumor, carcinoma, or melanoma and to order a histologic examination. An onychopathy must not be treated as an onychomycosis without diagnostic certainty. Repeated microtraumas of the toenails cause injuries that absolutely must be differentiated from onychomycosis. In growth of the big toenail can often be avoided by appropriate cutting of the nails, leaving in place the lateral parts of the nail plate. PMID:25451634

Goettmann, Sophie

2014-11-01

84

[A boy with nail abnormalities].  

PubMed

A 12-year-old boy consulted the dermatologist for nail abnormalities. Three weeks earlier, he was treated with doxycycline 100 mg BID for 10 days because of erythema chronicum migrans. Following sun exposure, the patient had developed distal onycholysis surrounded by a hyperpigmented zone. He was diagnosed with doxycycline-induced photo-onycholysis. PMID:23838405

Atiq, Nasirah; van Meurs, Tim

2013-01-01

85

Biodegradable interlocking nails for fracture fixation.  

PubMed

Serious problems such as stress shielding, allergic reactions, and corrosion are associated with the use of metallic fracture fixation devices in fractured long bones. Metal implants often are removed during a second retrieval operation after fracture healing has completed. A biocompatible implant that degrades slowly during implantation would obviate the need for a second operation and save the patient from considerable physical, psychologic, and financial discomfort. The biodegradable implant must provide the fractured limb sufficient support for a certain time, allowing early loading. A gradual transfer of load from the biodegradable implant to the bone would result in a better product of bone healing and avoid stress shielding. In an animal model using adult sheep, two types of biodegradable polymer interlocking nails were tested in comparison with a stainless steel interlocking nail. Fracture healing, mechanical properties of the bones, degradation behavior in vivo and in vitro, and tissue response were monitored during a 2 1/2-year followup study. To detect shifts in acid base relations caused by the release of acid compounds, pH measurements were performed. Fracture healing was unimpaired, and the mechanical test results of all three groups were excellent. Histologic analysis showed a mild inflammatory response, but no pH shifts were observed. The results of this study justify additional research on these promising materials. PMID:9917717

van der Elst, M; Bramer, J A; Klein, C P; de Lange, E S; Patka, P; Haarman, H J

1998-12-01

86

PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS: DIVERSE GALAXY OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as trace environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope of concerns continues to expand. PPCPs comprise thousands of distinct chemicals from numerous therapeutic and consumer classes. They typical...

87

PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS (PPCPS) AS ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as trace environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope of concerns continues to expand. PPCPs comprise thousands of distinct chemicals from numerous therapeutic and consumer classes. They typical...

88

21 CFR 886.5928 - Soft (hydrophilic) contact lens care products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Soft (hydrophilic) contact lens care products. 886.5928...886.5928 Soft (hydrophilic) contact lens care products. (a) Identification. A soft (hydrophilic) contact lens care product is a device...

2010-04-01

89

21 CFR 886.5918 - Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products. 886.5918... § 886.5918 Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products. (a) Identification. A rigid gas permeable contact lens care product is a device...

2013-04-01

90

21 CFR 886.5918 - Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products. 886.5918... § 886.5918 Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products. (a) Identification. A rigid gas permeable contact lens care product is a device...

2014-04-01

91

21 CFR 886.5918 - Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products. 886.5918... § 886.5918 Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products. (a) Identification. A rigid gas permeable contact lens care product is a device...

2012-04-01

92

21 CFR 886.5918 - Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products. 886.5918... § 886.5918 Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products. (a) Identification. A rigid gas permeable contact lens care product is a device...

2011-04-01

93

21 CFR 886.5928 - Soft (hydrophilic) contact lens care products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Soft (hydrophilic) contact lens care products. 886.5928...886.5928 Soft (hydrophilic) contact lens care products. (a) Identification. A soft (hydrophilic) contact lens care product is a device...

2014-04-01

94

21 CFR 886.5928 - Soft (hydrophilic) contact lens care products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Soft (hydrophilic) contact lens care products. 886.5928...886.5928 Soft (hydrophilic) contact lens care products. (a) Identification. A soft (hydrophilic) contact lens care product is a device...

2012-04-01

95

21 CFR 886.5928 - Soft (hydrophilic) contact lens care products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Soft (hydrophilic) contact lens care products. 886.5928...886.5928 Soft (hydrophilic) contact lens care products. (a) Identification. A soft (hydrophilic) contact lens care product is a device...

2013-04-01

96

21 CFR 886.5928 - Soft (hydrophilic) contact lens care products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Soft (hydrophilic) contact lens care products. 886.5928...886.5928 Soft (hydrophilic) contact lens care products. (a) Identification. A soft (hydrophilic) contact lens care product is a device...

2011-04-01

97

78 FR 49528 - Consolidation of Wound Care Products Containing Live Cells  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Wound Care Products Containing Live Cells AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...certain wound care products containing live cells from the Center for Devices and Radiological...more wound care products containing live cells are developed such consolidation is...

2013-08-14

98

Randomized Trial of Reamed and Unreamed Intramedullary Nailing of Tibial Shaft Fractures  

PubMed Central

Background: There remains a compelling biological rationale for both reamed and unreamed intramedullary nailing for the treatment of tibial shaft fractures. Previous small trials have left the evidence for either approach inconclusive. We compared reamed and unreamed intramedullary nailing with regard to the rates of reoperations and complications in patients with tibial shaft fractures. Methods: We conducted a multicenter, blinded randomized trial of 1319 adults in whom a tibial shaft fracture was treated with either reamed or unreamed intramedullary nailing. Perioperative care was standardized, and reoperations for nonunion before six months were disallowed. The primary composite outcome measured at twelve months postoperatively included bone-grafting, implant exchange, and dynamization in patients with a fracture gap of <1 cm. Infection and fasciotomy were considered as part of the composite outcome, irrespective of the postoperative gap. Results: One thousand two hundred and twenty-six participants (93%) completed one year of follow-up. Of these, 622 patients were randomized to reamed nailing and 604 patients were randomized to unreamed nailing. Among all patients, fifty-seven (4.6%) required implant exchange or bone-grafting because of nonunion. Among all patients, 105 in the reamed nailing group and 114 in the unreamed nailing group experienced a primary outcome event (relative risk, 0.90; 95% confidence interval, 0.71 to 1.15). In patients with closed fractures, forty-five (11%) of 416 in the reamed nailing group and sixty-eight (17%) of 410 in the unreamed nailing group experienced a primary event (relative risk, 0.67; 95% confidence interval, 0.47 to 0.96; p = 0.03). This difference was largely due to differences in dynamization. In patients with open fractures, sixty of 206 in the reamed nailing group and forty-six of 194 in the unreamed nailing group experienced a primary event (relative risk, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 0.91 to 1.78; p = 0.16). Conclusions: The present study demonstrates a possible benefit for reamed intramedullary nailing in patients with closed fractures. We found no difference between approaches in patients with open fractures. Delaying reoperation for nonunion for at least six months may substantially decrease the need for reoperation. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions to Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:19047701

2008-01-01

99

Persistent Toenail Onycholysis Associated With Beta-Papillomavirus Infection of the Nail Bed.  

PubMed

: Onycholysis, separation of the nail plate from the nail bed, is etiologically classified as primary (idiopathic) or secondary (eg, caused by psoriasis, squamous cell carcinoma). Repetitive microtrauma plays a role in idiopathic onycholysis and also facilitates human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Herein, we report a case of persistent primary onycholysis associated with repetitive trauma and infection by a multiplicity of Beta-papillomavirus (Beta-PV) genotypes. An otherwise healthy 27-year-old woman presented with a 6-year history of onycholysis of the halluces and right second toe. Her occupation required wearing steel-toed boots. Fungal cultures were negative and antifungal therapy was ineffective. Punch biopsy of the hallux nail bed revealed epidermal hyperplasia, acanthosis, hypergranulosis, hyperkeratosis, and regions of koilocytosis without significant inflammation. This histopathology implicated chronic irritation and HPV infection. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated productive HPV infection. Nested PCR using degenerate consensus primers revealed infection with 5 known and 1 novel Beta-PV genotypes (HPV 5, HPV 8, HPV 20, HPV 23, HPV 37, and FA25). The histopathology of primary onycholysis is unknown. Based on the aforementioned, we propose that repetitive microtrauma caused by wearing steel-toed boots promoted onycholysis and HPV infection, the latter of which, altered the differentiation of nail bed epithelium, preventing adhesion of nail plate to the nail bed. Lastly, the presence of oncogenic Beta-PV genotypes (ie, HPV 5, 8, and 20) implicates a risk for subungual squamous cell carcinoma, particularly if the nail remains symptomatic and persistently irritated. PMID:24999548

Umanoff, Nicole; Werner, Betina; Rady, Peter L; Tyring, Stephen; Carlson, J Andrew

2014-07-01

100

Nail-gun injury of the cervical spine: simple technique for removal of a barbed nail.  

PubMed

Although nail-gun injuries are a common form of penetrating low-velocity injury, impalement with barbed nails has been underreported to date. Barbed nails are designed to resist dislodgment once embedded, and any attempt at removal may splay open the barbs along the path of entry, with the potential for significant soft-tissue and neurovascular injury. A 25-year-old man sustained a nail impalement of the cervical spine from accidental discharge of a nail gun. The patient was noted to be fully conscious with no neurological deficits. Cervical Zone 2 impalement was noted, with only the head of the nail visible. Angiography revealed the nail lying just anterior to the right vertebral artery (VA), with compression of the vessel. Preoperatively, analysis of a similar nail revealed that orientation of the head determined position of the barbs. A deep neck dissection was then performed to the lateral aspect of the C-3 body, using the nail as a guide. Prior to removal, the nail was turned 180° to change the position of the barbs, to prevent injury to the VA. Nail removal was uneventful. The authors present a simple technique for treatment of a nail-gun injury with a barbed nail. Prior to removal, radiographic analysis of the impaled nail must be performed to determine the presence of barbs. If possible, the surgeon should request a similar nail for analysis prior to surgery. Last, the treating surgeon must have knowledge of the barbs' position at all times during nail removal, to prevent damage to critical structures. PMID:21456893

Nathoo, Narendra; Sarkar, Atom; Varma, Gandhi; Mendel, Ehud

2011-07-01

101

[Black nails caused by Proteus mirabilis].  

PubMed

Black nails caused by Proteus mirabilis were seen in a motor mechanic and in a petrol pump attendant. Proteus mirabilis is a gram-negative bacillus that generates hydrogen sulfide. This compound reacts with traces of metals in the nail plate such as zinc, nickel, cobalt, iron, manganese, tin, copper and lead. Metal sulfides blacken the nail plate. The protracted course of the discoloration over months corresponds to the slow reactions of metals with hydrogen sulfide. The disappearance of the blackening after topical treatment with chinosol, tincture of iodine and chloramphenicol solution supports the etiologic connection between black nails and Proteus mirabilis. Wet and dirty work encourages the colonisation of Proteus mirabilis between nail fold and nail plate. PMID:11475651

Qadripur, S A; Schauder, S; Schwartz, P

2001-07-01

102

Pachyonychia congenita tarda affecting only the nails.  

PubMed

A 42-year-old woman presented with complaints of rapidly progressing thickening and yellowish discoloration of the nails for the past 24 months. All nails were affected and fingernails were more thickened than toenails. Her palms and soles were normal. Keratosis pilaris, palmoplantar blistering, hyperhidrosis, leukokeratosis, alopecia, dental malformation, corneal abnormalities and epidermoid cysts were absent. This patient has pachyonychia congenita tarda with clinical manifestations limited to nail involvement. PMID:18700115

Vaccaro, Mario; Guarneri, Fabrizio; Barbuzza, Olga; Guarneri, Claudio

2008-01-01

103

IMAGE IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Dirty Nails  

Microsoft Academic Search

42-YR-OLD MAN presented with symptoms and signs of hyperthyroidism, including a large symmetrical goi- ter with a bruit, tachycardia, brisk reflexes, and fingernail changes consistent with onycholysis (Plummer's nails), shown in Fig. 1. After thyroidectomy, he has remained well with nor- mal thyroid function tests. A photograph of his fingernails after 18 months of follow-up is shown in Fig. 2.

Hans K. Ghayee; John Q. A. Mattern; David S. Cooper

2005-01-01

104

Nail Abnormalities: Clues to Systemic Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The visual appearance of the fingernails and toenails may suggest an underlying systemic disease. Clubbing of the nails often suggests pulmonary disease or inflammatory bowel disease. Koilonychia, or \\

ROBERT S. FAWCETT; Thomas M. Hart; SEAN LINFORD; DANIEL L. STULBERG

105

Safety and efficacy of personal care products containing colloidal oatmeal  

PubMed Central

Background Colloidal oatmeal is a natural ingredient used in the formulation of a range of personal care products for relief of skin dryness and itchiness. It is also used as an adjunctive product in atopic dermatitis. The safety of personal care products used on vulnerable skin is of particular importance and the risk of developing further skin irritations and/or allergies should be minimized. Methods In a series of studies, we tested the safety of personal care products containing oatmeal (creams, cleansers, lotions) by assessing their irritant/allergenic potential on repeat insult patch testing, in safety-in-use and ocular studies using subjects with nonsensitive and sensitive skin. We also tested the skin moisturizing and repair properties of an oatmeal-containing skin care product for dry skin. Results We found that oatmeal-containing personal care products had very low irritant potential as well as a very low allergenic sensitization potential. Low-level reactions were documented in 1.0% of subjects during the induction phase of repeat insult patch testing; one of 2291 subjects developed a persistent but doubtful low-level reaction involving edema during the challenge phase in repeat insult patch testing. No allergies were reported by 80 subjects after patch testing after in-use application. Sustained skin moisturizing was documented in subjects with dry skin that lasted up to 2 weeks after product discontinuation. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that colloidal oatmeal is a safe and effective ingredient in personal care products. No allergies were reported by consumers of 445,820 products sold during a 3-year period. PMID:23204849

Criquet, Maryline; Roure, Romain; Dayan, Liliane; Nollent, Virginie; Bertin, Christiane

2012-01-01

106

[Skin sensitizers in cosmetics and skin care products].  

PubMed

Cosmetics are defined as "articles with mild action on the human body, which are intended to be applied to the human body through rubbing, sprinkling or other methods, aiming to clean, beautify and increase the attractiveness, alter the appearance or to keep the skin or hair in good condition (The Pharmaceutical Affairs Law: Article 2)." Consequently, they include personal hygiene products such as shampoos, soaps and toothpaste. In Europe, 1% of the population is estimated to be allergic to fragrances and 2-3% to ingredients of cosmetics; 10% of outpatients patch-tested for cosmetics allergy were found to be positive. Allergenic ingredients of cosmetics can be fragrances, hair dye, preservatives, antioxidants, emollients, surfactants, UV absorbers, pigments or resins used in nail cosmetics. Among standard allergen series, eight substances are related to cosmetics; in Japan in 2003, p-phenylenediamine (hair dyes) induced allergic reactions with the highest rate of 7.9% in outpatients patch-tested (n=805), followed by fragrance mix No. 1 (4.0%, mixture of eight fragrances frequently used), colophony (3.2%, main contents of pine resin), lanolin alcohol (2.7%,emollients), and formaldehyde, parabens, Kathon CG (2.7% ,1.9% and 1.0%, respectively; preservatives). Cosmetic allergy symptoms tend to be mild except those caused by hair dye. However, the population exposed to cosmetics is huge and the number of ingredients used in cosmetics increased up to more than 6000. Here, major cosmetic ingredient allergens, mainly reported in Japan, are reviewed and discussed. PMID:20134105

Minamoto, Keiko

2010-01-01

107

Intramedullary locking femoral nails. Experience with the AO nail.  

PubMed Central

The AO interlocking nail was introduced to the Ulster Hospital, Dundonald in 1988 and since then has been used in over 50 patients with femoral shaft fractures. We have reviewed 45 patients with 46 femoral shaft fractures treated between June 1988 and April 1990. These included four compound fractures and 13 comminuted fractures. The results compare favourably with other series. The union rate was 98% and there were no instances of deep infection. The alternative treatment methods available are discussed along with a review of the relevant literature. Images Fig 3 Fig 5 PMID:1785145

Fogarty, A. B.; Yeates, H. A.

1991-01-01

108

The nail and hair in forensic science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drugs, chemicals, and biological substances accumulate and are stored in hair and nails where they can be detected and measured. Advantages of analyzing hair and nail samples also include their easy and non-invasive collection, the small sample size required for analysis, and their easy storage at room temperature. We report 3 examples of heavy metal poisoning diagnosed because of the

C Ralph Daniel; Bianca Maria Piraccini; Antonella Tosti

2004-01-01

109

Diagnosis and Management of Nail Psoriasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nail psoriasis has traditionally been considered as one of the most difficult forms of psoriasis to treat. The most recent studies have found a higher prevalence of fungal infections in psoriatic nails and therefore cultures before and during treatment are necessary. Over the last few years, novel psoriatic therapies have been developed, some of which are effective for both skin

M Sánchez-Regaña; P Umbert

2008-01-01

110

Nail-gun injuries treated in emergency departments--United States, 2001-2005.  

PubMed

Speed, ease of use, and ready availability have made pneumatic nail guns a common tool used in work settings such as residential construction and wood-product fabrication. In addition, the tools are now readily available to consumers, extending to the public what had been primarily a potential work-related hazard. To characterize nail-gun injuries in work and nonwork settings, patients with nail-gun injuries treated in U.S. hospital emergency departments (EDs) were studied by using the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission's (CPSC's) National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) and the NEISS occupational injury supplement (NEISS-Work) maintained by CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that during the 5-year period 2001-2005, an average of approximately 37,000 patients with injuries related to nail-gun use were treated annually in EDs, with 40% of injuries (14,800) occurring among consumers. In addition, data on ED-treated injuries indicated that, in 2005, nail-gun injuries among consumers were approximately three times higher than in 1991 (4,200). Additional measures are needed to prevent nail-gun injuries among both workers and consumers. PMID:17431377

2007-04-13

111

Usage pattern of personal care products in California households.  

PubMed

Given the concern over the potential for health risks associated with certain ingredients (e.g., phthalates) in personal care products, usage patterns of ?30 types of personal care products (e.g., shampoo, sunscreen, fragrance, etc.) were collected in 604 California households through a telephone interview. Preferences in selecting products, e.g., scented or unscented, aerosol, and brand loyalty, were also investigated. Participants were recruited in three age groups, children (mostly preschoolers), their parents, and adults age 55 or older. Use frequencies of various product types varied by sex, age group, race, education, and climatic region. Product use by parent and child from the same household were correlated. Use frequencies of products in the same class (e.g., skincare) were moderately correlated, which may impact aggregate exposures. Use frequencies observed in this study were generally in the same range as those reported in the EPA Exposure Factor Handbook, but we found differences for some individual products. Our study provides additional data on population-based usage patterns of a large collection of commonly used personal care products pertaining to several age groups and socio-demographic strata. This information will be valuable for exposure and risk assessments. PMID:20696198

Wu, Xiangmei May; Bennett, Deborah H; Ritz, Beate; Cassady, Diana L; Lee, Kiyoung; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

2010-11-01

112

Delayed femoral shaft fracture secondary to nail gun injury: a case report.  

PubMed

Nail gun injuries are common workplace occurrences among construction workers; however, delayed fractures of the femur after a nail gun injury are not found in the medical literature. We report the case of a patient who presented with such a fracture 3 days after accidentally firing a nail into his thigh. The patient was taken to the operating room for intramedullary nailing, irrigation and debridement, and antibiotic beads. Standard postoperative hospital care was provided, and after 2 days of intravenous antibiotics, the patient was returned to the operating room for removal of the antibiotic beads and a delayed primary closure. At the most recent follow-up, over 1 year postinjury, he had radiographic healing and was asymptomatic. Although it is difficult to predict whether the stress riser created by a nail gun injury will lead to a fracture, weight-bearing status and the aggressiveness of treatment to prevent infection are factors that need to be carefully considered in patients with this type of injury. PMID:18670293

Harris, Eric B; Booher, Kermit; Flotten, Andrew S

2008-08-01

113

Cleanser, Detergent, Personal Care Product, and Pretreatment Evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the Cleanser, Detergent, Personal Care Product, and Pretreatment Evaluation & Selection task is to identify the optimal combination of personal hygiene products, crew activities, and pretreatment strategies to provide the crew with sustainable life support practices and a comfortable habitat. Minimal energy, mass, and crew time inputs are desired to recycle wastewater during long duration missions. This document will provide a brief background on the work this past year supporting the ELS Distillation Comparison Test, issues regarding use of the hygiene products originally chosen for the test, methods and results used to select alternative products, and lessons learned from testing.

Adam, Niklas; Carrier, Chris; Vega, Leticia; Casteel, Michael; Verostko, chuck; Pickering, Karen

2011-01-01

114

Callus characteristics following intramedullary nailing with stainless steel or epoxy-carbon nails.  

PubMed

Biological mechanical improvements of osteosynthesis make intramedullary nailing an attractive alternative to bone plate fixation. However, little is known about stress shielding induced by intramedullary implantation of a nail. To evaluate the effect of the nail rigidity on bone healing, mid-metatarsal osteotomies were performed in sheep and fixed with either stainless steel or epoxy-carbon composite V-shaped nails. Mechanical and histomorphometric features of the callus were evaluated 4 months postoperatively. No statistical difference between the two groups were demonstrated for either mechanical or microstructural characteristics. The presence of a fibrous membrane filling the bone/nail interface and allowing sliding micromotions of the implants and the much smaller effect of nail rigidity, as compared to bone plate after implantation, were assumed to be the main reason for this uniformity. At this stage of healing, bone characteristics were more related to a nonspecific (vascular) bone remodeling phenomenon than to a stress-shielding effect. PMID:6477074

Christel, P; Meunier, A; Abols, Y; Sedel, L; Morel, E; Vuichard, R; Leray, J

1984-01-01

115

Microscopic examination of normal nail clippings  

PubMed Central

Background: Nail clipping analysis for diagnosing causes of onychodystrophy other than onychomycosis is investigated to a very small extent. In order to achieve acceptance as a diagnostic method for any kind of nail abnormalities, normal microscopic parameters have to be established first. In most reported cases, nail plates were fixed in formalin with processing of the specimens with routine automated histotechnique. Methodology: Fifteen pairs of normal nails were studied. One nail fragment was placed in a container with formalin, and the other was kept dry in a proper receptacle. Fixed specimens were submitted to standard automated tissue processing (formalin group) and dry specimens were directly embedded in paraffin (dry group). Several microscopic parameters were analyzed. Results: Nail plate thickness ranged from 0.25 to 0.50 mm (mean 0.36 mm) and subungual region from 0 to 0.31 mm (mean 0.11 mm). Forty-one percent of cases presented onychokaryosis, and hypereosinophilic nuclear shadows were detected in 63%, statistically more frequent in the dry group (p=0.002). Parakeratosis was present in 86% of nails varying from 1 to 13 layers (mean 5.6). None of the nails presented fungi, neutrophils, and blood or serum collections. Bacteria were seen in 60% of specimens. Both groups yielded adequate microscopic preparations for analysis with no statistical difference in the dryness or hardness of specimens or difficulty in cutting the paraffin blocks (p=1). Conclusion: These microscopic findings of a normal population can be used as parameters for evaluating any cause of onychodystrophy. The dry method is faster and cheaper and yields adequate slide preparations for microscopic analysis of nail clippings. PMID:24106655

Werner, Betina; Antunes, Andre

2013-01-01

116

Association of hypermobility and ingrown nails.  

PubMed

Ingrown nail (onychocryptosis) is a common condition with severe pain and various associated morbidities. Although some underlying factors are identified, its etiology remains largely unknown. Generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) is a common entity with clinical features that might prone affected individuals to ingrown nails. Herein, we investigated the incidence of GJH in patients with ingrown nails to determine possible association between hypermobility and ingrown nail formation. Patients 16-50 years of age who were undergoing treatment for ingrown nails at the dermatology clinic were consecutively enrolled into the study. Patients with known rheumatic diseases or orthopedic foot disorders were excluded. All patients were in a pain-free period at the time of examination. The control group was comprised of age- and sex-matched healthy subjects without a history of ingrown nail. Assessment of GJH was made according to Beighton criteria. Local hypermobility was evaluated by measurement of range of motion using a goniometer. Thirty-nine patients (male/female, 17/22, mean age 31.9?±?11.3 years) and 32 healthy subjects (male/female 12/20, mean age 31.7?±?10.4 years) were included. Patients with ingrown toe nails were more likely to have GJH compared to healthy subjects (35.9 vs. 9.4 %, p?=?0.009). Toes with ingrown nails had significantly smaller maximum dorsiflexion angles (p?nail formation may be associated with GJH. However, when examined locally, there is a limited range of motion in the affected toe rather than hypermobility, which could be due to the degenerative process facilitated by the hypermobility. PMID:22661053

Erdogan, Fatma Gulru; Tufan, Abdurrahman; Guven, Munevver; Goker, Berna; Gurler, Aysel

2012-09-01

117

Removal of nail penetrating the basilar artery.  

PubMed

Nail-gun injuries have become an increasingly prevalent source of penetrating intracranial trauma. Few cases of intracranial nail-gun injuries disturbing major cerebrovascular structures have been reported, and none entailing basilar artery involvement. We report here the case of a 51-year-old male with an intracranial nail-gun injury involving penetration of the distal basilar artery. Operative removal was accomplished under direct vision using a double concentric cranioorbital zygomatic osteotomy for a trans-Sylvian approach. We highlight the principles involved in removing foreign bodies penetrating critical neurovascular structures. PMID:20532583

Englot, Dario J; Laurans, Maxwell S; Abbed, Khalid; Bulsara, Ketan R

2010-10-01

118

Partial matricectomy with electrodesiccation for permanent repair of ingrown nail borders.  

PubMed

A large number of chemical and surgical procedures have been described for the management and correction of onychocryptosis (1-15). Many of these procedures share the problem of prolonged postoperative drainage, which may continue from 4 to 6 weeks. This extended time period can cause the patient inconvenience and discomfort, and continuous follow-up care by the physician is necessary. Electrodesiccation combined with surgical excision of the nail matrix to correct an ingrowing nail border permanently is simple, fast, has a low incidence of infection, and will usually have a dry bed of granulation tissue within 10 days after surgery. PMID:6978356

Kerman, B L; Kalmus, A

1982-01-01

119

Oat and wheat as contact allergens in personal care products.  

PubMed

Oat and wheat are used as ingredients in various cosmetics and personal care products because of their moisturizing properties. Impaired barrier functions in atopic dermatitis (AD) may increase the risks of sensitization to oat and wheat proteins via skin. Immediate- and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions to oat and wheat in personal care products have been reported in previous studies, and most of those cases were patients with AD. Patch testing with oat and wheat proteins should be performed more frequently, especially in atopic children. It may help identify contact dermatitis, which may be a cause of flares in patients with AD. Complete avoidance of oat- or wheat-derived products is suggested as we cannot conclude that some oat- or wheat-derived components such as oils are free of protein. PMID:24201466

Pootongkam, Suwimon; Nedorost, Susan

2013-01-01

120

Spectrophotometric determination of triclosan in personal care products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spectrophotometric method for the determination of triclosan in personal care products was proposed. It was based on the reaction of sodium nitrite with p-sulfanilic acid in an acidic medium to form diazonium ion, with which triclosan further formed an azo compound in an alkaline medium. The resulting yellow colored product has a maximum absorption at 452 nm. A good linear relationship ( r = 0.9999) was obtained in the range of 0-30 mg L -1 triclosan. A detection limit of 0.079 g L -1 was achieved and the relative standard deviation was 0.24% ( n = 11) at 14 mg L -1 triclosan. The proposed method has been applied to the analyses of triclosan in several personal care products and the results were in good agreement with those obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography.

Lu, Huihui; Ma, Hongbing; Tao, Guanhong

2009-09-01

121

Nails  

MedlinePLUS

... contacts Public service advertisements Stats and facts Gold Triangle Awards Stories and news News releases Press kits ... Vitamin D and UV exposure Cosmetic treatments Gold Triangle Awards Media contacts Public service advertisements View PSAs ...

122

[Malrotation following intramedullary nailing of the femur].  

PubMed

77 patients with previous intramedullary nailing of the femur underwent detailed clinical and roentgenographical examination designed to show the frequency and extent of malrotation following this type of osteosynthesis. In 29% of the cases, more than 10 degrees of torsion deviation was detected on the roentgenogram using the Rippstein technique. An average outward rotation of three degrees was found after nailing. Most of the cases of malrotation occurred after fractures involving the proximal or distal third of the femoral shaft, or when there were more than two large fragments. Transverse and short oblique fractures of the mid-shaft showed superior results. Additional causes of malrotation included the nail being too thin or intraoperative fixation of the fragments occurring in the wrong torsional position. Torsion deviations were the same after using Küntscher- or AO-nails. PMID:6474605

Wolf, H; Schauwecker, F; Tittel, K

1984-06-01

123

Retrograde Ender nailing for humerus shaft fractures.  

PubMed

Humerus fractures are common; their management remains controversial. Infection, neurovascular injury, joint problems and non-union are recognised complications of surgical treatment. These complications can be decreased by opting for a surgical treatment that is less invasive and safe. We present a series of 59 patients treated with retrograde Ender nailing; 56 healed in an average of 9.1 weeks, 2 had delayed union (> 15 weeks) and one went on to non-union, which healed after secondary plate fixation. Nail back out occurred in 8 cases, of which only 3 required nails repositioning. The mean Constant score at final follow-up (mean 19 months) was 91; it was significantly lower in patients over 50 years of age and in those with segmental fractures. In this series, Ender retrograde nailing gave overall satisfactory results and appeared as a safe and efficient technique. PMID:19999870

Khurana, Ashish; Pendse, Anirudha; Modi, Hitesh; Diwanji, Sanket; Mathur, Hemant; Daveshwar, Rajiv

2009-10-01

124

Femoral lengthening with a motorized intramedullary nail.  

PubMed

Purpose - We assessed whether an intramedullary lengthening device would reduce the problems normally associated with the external fixation technique. We also wanted to determine whether it is a reliable construct for limb lengthening and deformity correction in the femur. Patients and methods - We conducted a matched-pair comparison of 30 femoral lengthenings, 15 with a motorized intramedullary nail (the nail group) and 15 lengthenings with an external ring fixator (the fixator group). The patients were matched based on age, sex, amount of lengthening, and the etiology of leg length discrepancy. Mean lengthening was 35 (25-55) mm in the nail group and 38 (15-75) mm in the fixator group. Outcome measures were: lengthening and alignment achieved, consolidation index, knee range of motion (ROM), and complications. Results - The pairs in this matched-pair study were similar in terms of age, sex, diagnosis, and amount of lengthening. The planned amount of lengthening was achieved in all patients in both groups and axis correction was considered sufficient. The mean radiographic consolidation index in the nail group, at 1.5 (0.9-3.0) months/cm, was better than the mean value for the fixator group (1.9 (0.9-3.4) months/cm) (p = 0.01). Knee ROM was better in the nail group during the lengthening, 6 weeks after lengthening was completed, and 6 months after lengthening was completed (p < 0.001). A larger number of complications were observed in the fixator group than in the nail group. Interpretation - A lengthening nail may be superior to external fixation in femoral lengthening, when the anatomical conditions and the complexity of the deformity allow the use of an intramedullary nail. PMID:25191936

Horn, Joachim; Grimsrud, Øyvind; Dagsgard, Anita Hoddevik; Huhnstock, Stefan; Steen, Harald

2015-04-01

125

Special locations dermoscopy: facial, acral, and nail.  

PubMed

Although dermoscopy reflects the anatomy, skin anatomy is different on facial and acral skin as well as in the nail unit. Malignant patterns on acral sites include the parallel ridge pattern and irregular diffuse pigmentation, whose presence should lead to a biopsy. Malignant patterns on the face include features of follicular invasion (signet-ring images, annular granular images, and rhomboidal structures) and atypical vessels. Malignant patterns on the nail unit include the micro-Hutchinson sign and irregular longitudinal lines. PMID:24075549

Thomas, Luc; Phan, Alice; Pralong, Pauline; Poulalhon, Nicolas; Debarbieux, Sébastien; Dalle, Stéphane

2013-10-01

126

[Nail psoriasis--an ignored disorder. Pathogenesis, diagnosis and therapy].  

PubMed

Approximately 50% of all patients with psoriasis develop characteristic nail changes as a clinical correlate of psoriatic inflammation of the nail matrix and/or nail bed. The most frequent signs of nail psoriasis are pitting and distal onycholysis. The most commonly used score to assess the severity of nail involvement at present is the Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (NAPSI). Although more than half of affected patients experience a significant physical and mental impairment, this index does not include patient-reported symptoms. There is a striking association between nail psoriasis and a higher risk of psoriatic arthritis with a prevalence of nail involvement among patients with psoriatic arthritis as high as 70%. A possible explanation is the close anatomical link between the nail apparatus and the distal interphalangeal joint; enthesitis of the latter is carried by fibers to the nail and becomes clinically visible as nail psoriasis. Nail involvement is not adequately reflected in current concepts of disease management. There is limited evidence for the efficacy of topical therapies in nail psoriasis. A number of large studies document an improvement of nail psoriasis in response to biologics and, more recently, also to methotrexate. PMID:22382303

Kahl, C; Hansen, B; Reich, K

2012-03-01

127

Heat profiles of laser-irradiated nails.  

PubMed

Onychomycosis is a worldwide problem with no tendency for self-healing, and existing systemic treatments achieve disease-free nails in only 35 to 76% of cases. Recently, treatment of nail fungus with a near-infrared laser has been introduced. It is assumed that fungal eradication is mediated by local heat. To investigate if laser treatment has the potential to eradicate fungal hyphae and arthrospores, laser heat application and propagation needs to be studied in detail. This study aimed to measure nail temperatures using real-time videothermography during laser irradiation. Treatment was performed using 808- and 980-nm linear scanning diode lasers developed for hair removal, enabling contact-free homogeneous irradiation of a human nail plate in one pass. Average and peak temperatures increased pass by pass, while the laser beam moved along the nail plates. The achieved mean peak temperatures (808 nm: 74.1 to 112.4°C, 980 nm: 45.8 to 53.5°C), as well as the elevation of average temperatures (808 nm: 29.5 to 38.2°C, 980 nm: 27.1 to 32.6°C) were associated with pain that was equivalent to that of hair removal procedures and was not significantly different for various wavelengths. The linear scanning laser devices provide the benefits of contact-free homogeneous heating of the human nail while ensuring adequate temperature rises. PMID:24407504

Paasch, Uwe; Nenoff, Pietro; Seitz, Anna-Theresa; Wagner, Justinus A; Kendler, Michael; Simon, Jan C; Grunewald, Sonja

2014-01-01

128

Heat profiles of laser-irradiated nails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Onychomycosis is a worldwide problem with no tendency for self-healing, and existing systemic treatments achieve disease-free nails in only 35 to 76% of cases. Recently, treatment of nail fungus with a near-infrared laser has been introduced. It is assumed that fungal eradication is mediated by local heat. To investigate if laser treatment has the potential to eradicate fungal hyphae and arthrospores, laser heat application and propagation needs to be studied in detail. This study aimed to measure nail temperatures using real-time videothermography during laser irradiation. Treatment was performed using 808- and 980-nm linear scanning diode lasers developed for hair removal, enabling contact-free homogeneous irradiation of a human nail plate in one pass. Average and peak temperatures increased pass by pass, while the laser beam moved along the nail plates. The achieved mean peak temperatures (808 nm: 74.1 to 112.4°C, 980 nm: 45.8 to 53.5°C), as well as the elevation of average temperatures (808 nm: 29.5 to 38.2°C, 980 nm: 27.1 to 32.6°C) were associated with pain that was equivalent to that of hair removal procedures and was not significantly different for various wavelengths. The linear scanning laser devices provide the benefits of contact-free homogeneous heating of the human nail while ensuring adequate temperature rises.

Paasch, Uwe; Nenoff, Pietro; Seitz, Anna-Theresa; Wagner, Justinus A.; Kendler, Michael; Simon, Jan C.; Grunewald, Sonja

2014-01-01

129

The science and practice of intramedullary nailing  

SciTech Connect

Joining contributors from world authorities on specific closed nailing techniques, this book contains the facts, data, opinions and recommendations on each method. The introductory section outlines the conceptual basis for intramedullary nailing, with essays on basic rationale and scientific principles. The initial chapters trace the history of intramedullary nailing and assess its overall significance to fracture management. An important chapter on radiation protection has been included to specifically address the safety concerns that have arisen from the increased use of the image intensifier in closed nailing methods. The following sections, organized with a regional approach covering the proximal femur, middle and distal femur, tibia, and upper extremity are devoted to individual nailing techniques. Wherever possible, the chapters begin with discussion of the rationale for the design and use of the particular closed nailing system. Every system is then analyzed as to indications for surgery, practical techniques, possible complications and methods for avoiding complications. Special techniques are treated in an individual chapter on intramedullary osteotomies.

Browner, B.; Edwards, C.C.

1987-01-01

130

Transungual delivery of terbinafine by iontophoresis in onychomycotic nails.  

PubMed

Trans-nail permeability is limited due to the innate nature of the nail plate and the recent investigations indicated the potential of iontophoresis in enhancing the transungual drug delivery in normal nails. However, the onychomycotic nails differ from the normal nails with respect to the anatomical and biological features. The current study investigated the effect of iontophoresis (0.5 mA/cm(2) for 1 h) on the transungual delivery of terbinafine in onychomycotic finger and toe nails. The presence of fungi in the onychomycotic nails was diagnosed by potassium hydroxide (KOH) microscopy. Passive and iontophoretic delivery of terbinafine across the infected nail was studied in Franz diffusion cell. Further, the release profile of terbinafine from the drug-loaded nails was investigated by agar diffusion method. KOH microscopy confirmed the presence of fungi in all the nails used. The amount of drug permeated across the nail plate was enhanced significantly during iontophoresis over passive delivery, that is, by 21-fold in case of finger and 37-fold in case of toe nails. Further, the total drug load in the onychomycotic nail was enhanced by ~12-fold (in both finger and toe nails) due to iontophoresis. Release of terbinafine from the iontophoresis-loaded nails into agar plates exhibited two phases, a rapid phase followed by a steady release, which extended >2 months. This study concluded that the drug delivery in onychomycotic nails did not differ significantly when compared with normal nails, although the extent of drug permeation and drug load differs between finger and toe nails. PMID:21457120

Nair, Anroop B; Vaka, Siva Ram Kiran; Murthy, S Narasimha

2011-10-01

131

7 CFR 3201.93 - Leather, vinyl, and rubber care products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Leather, vinyl, and rubber care products. 3201.93 Section... § 3201.93 Leather, vinyl, and rubber care products. (a) Definition...protect, and restore leather, vinyl, and rubber surfaces, including cleaners,...

2013-01-01

132

7 CFR 3201.93 - Leather, vinyl, and rubber care products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Leather, vinyl, and rubber care products. 3201.93 Section... § 3201.93 Leather, vinyl, and rubber care products. (a) Definition...protect, and restore leather, vinyl, and rubber surfaces, including cleaners,...

2014-01-01

133

Source Characterization and Pretreatment Evaluation of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in Healthcare Facility Wastewater  

E-print Network

Healthcare facility wastewaters are a potentially important and under characterized source of pharmaceuticals and personal care products to the environment. In this study the composition and magnitude of pharmaceuticals and personal care products...

Nagarnaik, Pranav Mukund

2012-07-16

134

78 FR 39772 - Electrolux Home Care Products, Inc., a Subsidiary of Electrolux North America, Inc., Electrolux...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Electrolux Major Appliances, a subsidiary of Electrolux North America...Home Care Products, Inc., a subsidiary of Electrolux North America...Home Care Products, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of Electrolux North...

2013-07-02

135

Sarcoid and the nail: review of the literature.  

PubMed

Nail involvement in sarcoidosis is rare, but its presence is often associated with chronic systemic disease. We have reviewed all 33 reported cases of nail involvement with sarcoidosis, including our own case. Nail changes in sarcoidosis, while rare, can include dystrophy (n=10, 30%), onycholysis (n=7, 21%), subungual hyperkeratosis (n=7, 21%), nail hyperkeratosis (n=2, 6%) and longitudinal ridging (n=8, 24%). All reported cases of nail sarcoidosis occurred in the setting of systemic involvement. In almost half of the cases, bony cysts were noted on radiological examination. The presence of nail dystrophy in a patient with sarcoidosis should therefore prompt radiological examination and investigation for systemic involvement. PMID:23368092

Momen, S E; Al-Niaimi, F

2013-03-01

136

[A new locking nail for proximal humerus fractures: the Telegraph nail, technique and preliminary results].  

PubMed

We present a new nail, the telegraph nail, designed for the treatment of proximal fractures of the humerus. This nail has a new locking system providing a self-stabilization of the cancelous screws inserted in small fragments. We discuss the surgical technique and present preliminary results. The anterolateral approach and nail insertion through the medial and well vascularized part of the cuff is described for simple fractures. With the cup and ball technique, this nail can also be used for complex fractures of the proximal humerus with three or four fragments and major displacement. With this method, the nail is inserted before reduction and locked in the distal humerus before fixation of the head and tuberosities around the head once the targeting device removed. We report results for the first 64 nails inserted in our unit during the first year (1998-1999). Outcome was assessed at 11 months mean follow-up using the Constant score. Outcome was favorable, including in patients with complex fractures involving 3 or 4 separate displaced fragments. Besides providing an anatomically stable reconstruction, the telegraph nail has the advantage of allowing early mobilization of the shoulder joint. This method is a useful alternative to prosthetic reconstruction for traumatic fractures of the proximal humerus. PMID:11973536

Cuny, C; Pfeffer, F; Irrazi, M; Chammas, M; Empereur, F; Berrichi, A; Metais, P; Beau, P

2002-02-01

137

Treatment of unstable trochanteric fractures. Randomised comparison of the gamma nail and the proximal femoral nail  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proximal femoral nail (PFN) is a recently introduced intramedullary system, designed to improve treatment of unstable trochanteric fractures of the hip. In a multicentre prospective clinical study, the intra-operative use, complications and outcome of treatment using the PFN (n = 211) were compared with those using the gamma nail (GN) (n = 213). The intra-operative blood loss was lower

I. B. Schipper; E. W. Steyerberg; R. M. Castelein; F. H. van der Heijden; P. T. den Hoed; A. J. Kerver; A. B. van Vugt

2004-01-01

138

Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Food and Personal Care Products  

PubMed Central

Titanium dioxide is a common additive in many food, personal care, and other consumer products used by people, which after use can enter the sewage system, and subsequently enter the environment as treated effluent discharged to surface waters or biosolids applied to agricultural land, incinerated wastes, or landfill solids. This study quantifies the amount of titanium in common food products, derives estimates of human exposure to dietary (nano-) TiO2, and discusses the impact of the nanoscale fraction of TiO2 entering the environment. The foods with the highest content of TiO2 included candies, sweets and chewing gums. Among personal care products, toothpastes and select sunscreens contained 1% to >10% titanium by weight. While some other crèmes contained titanium, despite being colored white, most shampoos, deodorants, and shaving creams contained the lowest levels of titanium (<0.01 ?g/mg). For several high-consumption pharmaceuticals, the titanium content ranged from below the instrument detection limit (0.0001 ?g Ti/mg) to a high of 0.014 ?g Ti/mg. Electron microscopy and stability testing of food-grade TiO2 (E171) suggests that approximately 36% of the particles are less than 100 nm in at least one dimension and that it readily disperses in water as fairly stable colloids. However, filtration of water solubilized consumer products and personal care products indicated that less than 5% of the titanium was able to pass through 0.45 or 0.7 ?m pores. Two white paints contained 110 ?g Ti/mg while three sealants (i.e., prime coat paint) contained less titanium (25 to 40 ?g Ti/mg). This research showed that while many white-colored products contained titanium, it was not a prerequisite. Although several of these product classes contained low amounts of titanium, their widespread use and disposal down the drain and eventually to WWTPs deserves attention. A Monte Carlo human exposure analysis to TiO2 through foods identified children as having the highest exposures because TiO2 content of sweets is higher than other food products, and that a typical exposure for a US adult may be on the order of 1 mg Ti per kilogram body weight per day. Thus, because of the millions of tons of titanium based white pigment used annually, testing should focus on food-grade TiO2 (E171) rather than that adopted in many environmental health and safety tests (i.e., P25), which is used in much lower amounts in products less likely to enter the environment (e.g., catalyst supports, photocatalytic coatings). PMID:22260395

Weir, Alex; Westerhoff, Paul; Fabricius, Lars

2012-01-01

139

Passive sampling methods to determine household and personal care product use  

E-print Network

Passive sampling methods to determine household and personal care product use DEBORAH H. BENNETTa, use of household and personal care products has been collected through questionnaires, which is very to quickly and reliably determine what household and personal care products people have in their homes

Leistikow, Bruce N.

140

Ultrasonography reveals nail thickening in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis.  

PubMed

Nail psoriasis is usually investigated and diagnosed by clinical examination. Ultrasonography is a non-invasive imaging technique for studying soft tissue involvement. The objective of this study was to estimate nail involvement in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis by ultrasonography. Prevalence, clinical type and severity of nail involvement according to nail psoriasis and severity index (NAPSI) were investigated in 138 patients with psoriasis. The thickness of the plate and bed of the fingernails was measured in 54 patients with psoriasis, 46 healthy controls and 37 patients with chronic eczema, using an ultrasonographic system equipped with a frequency transducer of 18 MHz. The prevalence of nail psoriasis was 73 % (102 out of 138). Onycholysis and thickening of the nail plate were the most common clinical type affecting 56 and 50 % of patients, respectively; splinter haemorrhages was the less common involving 10 % of patients. The mean NAPSI score was 18.4 ± 17.5 (SD; range 0-107). The thickness of fingernail plate and bed was significantly higher in patients with psoriasis with nail disease compared to healthy controls and patients with chronic eczema (p < 0.001). There was a linear correlation between NAPSI and plate and bed nail thickness (r = 0.52 and r = 0.38, p = 0.001). Increased nail plate and bed thickness was observed also in patients with psoriasis without clinically apparent nail involvement. In conclusion, thickening of the nail is a common feature of nail psoriasis also in patients without clinically apparent nail involvement. PMID:23011659

Gisondi, P; Idolazzi, L; Girolomoni, G

2012-11-01

141

Treatment of ingrown nail: comparison of recurrence rates between the nail matrix phenolization classical technique and phenolization associated with nail matrix curettage - is the association necessary?  

PubMed

Some services in Brazil combine curettage of the nail matrix with phenolization in the treatment of ingrown nails, with the objective of further increasing efficacy. The objective of this research was to compare the cure rates between the phenolization technique and phenolization associated with nail matrix curettage. A retrospective study was done which included 271 cases. There was only a 5% recurrence rate for the phenolization procedure, compared with 7.7% for combined phenolization/nail matrix curettage. There was no statistically significant difference between the two techniques, which indicated that there is no need for curettage of the nail matrix. Phenolization worked even for level III disease. PMID:22147058

Tassara, Glaysson; Machado, Mônica Alberto; Gouthier, Mabely Araújo Duarte

2011-01-01

142

Practical uses of botanicals in skin care.  

PubMed

Cosmeceuticals are the fastest growing sector of the cosmetic industry, and the future of antiaging cosmeceuticals in particular is very promising. Botanical extracts that support the health, texture, and integrity of the skin, hair, and nails are widely used in cosmetic formulations. They form the largest category of cosmeceutical additives found in the marketplace today due to the rising consumer interest and demand for natural products. Various plant extracts that formed the basis of medical treatments in ancient civilizations and many traditional cultures are still used today in cleansers, moisturizers, astringents, and many other skin care products. New botanical skin care treatments are emerging, presenting dermatologists and their patients the challenge of understanding the science behind these cosmeceuticals. Thus, dermatologists must have a working knowledge of these botanicals and keep up with how they evolve to provide optimal medical care and answer patient questions. The most popular botanicals commonly incorporated into skin care protocols are discussed. PMID:20967187

Stallings, Alison F; Lupo, Mary P

2009-01-01

143

Soft-tissue nail-fold excision: a definitive treatment for ingrown toenails  

PubMed Central

Background Ingrown toenail, or onychocryptosis, is a common source of morbidity worldwide. The current standard of care focuses on the nail as the causative agent, and, in cases that are resistant to medical management, surgical correction via nail avulsion and phenol matrix ablation is used. Unfortunately, this treatment leads to poor cosmetic results, high rates of recurrence and low patient satisfaction. Methods We retrospectively reviewed a case series of 124 consecutive patients who underwent surgical correction of ingrown toenails from 1988 to 2004. We recorded the operative technique and postoperative wound healing via photographs. We assessed outcomes and patient satisfaction using self-reports and 7-point Likert scale questionnaires. Results Our surgical approach involved the excision of excessive nail-fold granulation tissue with preservation of the nail and its matrix. In total, 72.5% of patients were under the age of 29 (69.4% men). Before surgical intervention, 78.8% of patients scored their pain as severe, 69.9% had difficulty wearing normal footwear and 64.3% had difficulty with normal activities because of their ingrown toenails. A total of 212 surgical sites were analyzed, with a median follow-up of 8 years. No recurrences were identified in any patients (100%, n = 124). Overall, 94.3% (n = 116) stated that they were highly satisfied with the procedure. Only 1.6% (n = 2) reported a loss of sensation at the surgical site. Conclusion Surgical correction of ingrown toenails via soft-tissue excision of the nail folds, coupled with preservation of the nail and its matrix, had excellent cosmetic results, no recurrences and high rates of patient satisfaction. PMID:20646404

Chapeskie, Henry; Kovac, Jason R.

2010-01-01

144

Penetrating craniocerebral injuries from nail-gun use.  

PubMed

Three patients with penetrating craniocerebral nail-gun injuries are described. In the first patient the nail was impinging on the internal carotid artery (ICA) in the carotid canal. On removal of the nail, the patient developed a false aneurysm at the site. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of nail-gun injury affecting the ICA and also the first case of penetrating head injury affecting the ICA in the carotid canal. The second patient had seven intracranial nails in the frontal area. Three nails penetrated the left orbit, one of which perforated the globe. One nail damaged the optic nerve resulting in optic neuropathy. In the third patient the nail extended through the squamous temporal bone into the temporal lobe. All three were managed successfully via closed gentle traction without craniotomy and/or endovascular intervention. The literature is reviewed and management options for penetrating head injuries are discussed. PMID:17452105

Selvanathan, S; Goldschlager, T; McMillen, J; Campbell, S

2007-07-01

145

Nail psoriasis masqueraded by secondary infection with Rhodotorula mucilaginosa.  

PubMed

A 38-year-old man presented with whitish nail changes on all fingers as the sole symptom. The condition had developed within a few days and led to dystrophy of the proximal part of the nail plates. As microscopic examination of nail scrapings demonstrated budding hyphae and the patient working as a teacher reported frequent use of a wet sponge, antifungal therapy was initiated. Subsequent cultures and molecular typing identified Rhodotorula mucilaginosa (formerly R. rubra). This environmental yeast was repeatedly isolated despite of therapy with itraconazole. As no improvement was achieved and testing of the biological activity of the fungus revealed only marginal keratolytic activity, it was considered as a coloniser of a destructed nail matrix. Finally, a biopsy of the nail bed confirmed the diagnosis of nail psoriasis, which rapidly responded to treatment with acitretin and topical calcipotriol/betamethasone cream. Fungal growth in destructed nails masqueraded the underlying disease and may have triggered the psoriatic nail reaction. PMID:23691938

Martini, K; Müller, H; Huemer, H P; Höpfl, R

2013-11-01

146

A Clinical Trial to Investigate the Effect of Cynatine HNS on Hair and Nail Parameters  

PubMed Central

Objective. A new, novel product, Cynatine HNS, was evaluated for its effects as a supplement for improving various aspects of hair and nails in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Methods. A total of 50 females were included and randomized into two groups. The active group (n = 25) received 2 capsules containing Cynatine HNS, comprised of Cynatine brand keratin (500?mg) plus vitamins and minerals, per day, and the placebo group (n = 25) received 2 identical capsules of maltodextrin per day for 90 days. End points for hair loss, hair growth, hair strength, amino acid composition, and hair luster were measured. End points were also measured for nail strength and the appearance of nails. Results. The results show that subjects taking Cynatine HNS showed statistically significant improvements in their hair and nails when compared to placebo. Conclusion. Cynatine HNS is an effective supplement for improving hair and nails in 90 days or less. EudraCT number is 2014-002645-22. PMID:25386609

Veghte, Robert H.

2014-01-01

147

Pincer Nail Deformity Associated with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder with various systemic and cutaneous manifestations. Nail abnormalities, including onycholysis, red lunulae, pitting, and ridging, have been seen in patients with the disorder. To our knowledge, however, pincer nail deformity has yet to be reported coincident with the onset of SLE. Objective: We report a case of pincer nail deformity subsequent

Candace Majeski; Bruce Ritchie; Martin Giuffre; Gilles Lauzon

2005-01-01

148

Unusual manifestation of the yellow nail syndrome - Case report*  

PubMed Central

The yellow nail syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by the classic triad of yellow and dystrophic nails, lymphedema and pleural effusion. We report in this paper a case of yellow nail syndrome, presenting the classic triad of the disease, associated with an unusual lymph accumulation in the abdomen region. PMID:24937826

Papaiordanou, Francine; Epstein, Marina Gabrielle; Miyaoka, Mariana Yumi; Yang, Jeane Jeong Hoon; Pires, Mario Cezar

2014-01-01

149

Fungal infections of the nails in Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1963 and 1972, 986 fungi were isolated from the nails of patients in Western Australia. Three clinical types of infections in both finger and toe nails were studied. All 3 types occurred more commonly in adults over the age of 20. Multiple infections were relatively frequent. Two hundred and fourteen of the nail infections were caused by dermatophyte fungi.Trichophyton

Rose McAleer

1981-01-01

150

Nail Psoriasis Successfully Treated with Intralesional Methotrexate: Case Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psoriasis is a common, chronic disease which affects nearly 3% of the population. The lifetime incidence of nail involvement increases up to 80–90% for psoriatic patients. Nail psoriasis is considered a significant social problem. Many topical agents have been used for psoriatic nails with various side effects and some benefits; management is currently inconclusive. Methotrexate (MTX) is a folic acid

Arife Oz; Hakan Turan

2011-01-01

151

Health care expenditures and gross domestic product: the Turkish case.  

PubMed

Our study examines the long-term relationship among per capita gross domestic product (GDP), per capita health expenditures and population growth rate in Turkey during the period 1984-2006, employing the Johansen multivariate co-integration technique. Related previous studies on OECD countries have mostly excluded Turkey-itself an OECD country. The only study on Turkey examines the period 1984-1998. However, after 1998, major events and policy changes that had a substantial impact on income and health expenditures took place in Turkey, including a series of reforms to restructure the health and social security system. In contrast to earlier findings in the literature, we find that the income elasticity of total health expenditures is less than one, which indicates that health care is a necessity in Turkey during the period of analysis. According to our results, a 10% increase in per capita GDP is associated with an 8.7% increase in total per capita health expenditures, controlling for population growth. We find that the income elasticity of public health expenditures is less than one. But, in the case of private health care expenditures, the elasticity is greater than one, meaning that private health care is a luxury good in Turkey. PMID:20151170

Sülkü, Seher Nur; Caner, Asena

2011-02-01

152

Skin and nail mycoses in patients with diabetic foot.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus affects all socioeconomic and age groups and its incidence is rapidly increasing worldwide. The diabetic foot complication represents one of the most complex and serious complications in these patients. Fungal infections can also contribute to the severity of the diabetic foot. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of foot skin and toenail mycosis in a group of 75 patients with diabetic foot complication and in a matched control group. Diabetic patients showed onychomycosis in 53.3% and foot skin mycosis in 46.7% of the cases, with a prevalence of both fungal infections significantly higher than that observed in the control group. At least one type of these fungal infections was present in 69.3% of diabetic subjects with a highly significant difference compared to control group (P<0.001). Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale were the most common species responsible of both nail and skin infections. Candida spp, Fusarium spp, Aspergillus spp and other moulds. were found in about 1/3 onychomycosis. Previous toe amputation was significantly associated with both skin and nail mycosis. The present study confirms that both tinea pedis and onychomycosis have a high prevalence in subjects suffering from diabetic foot complication, and that the problem of fungal infections of the foot in diabetic subjects is still highly underestimated. Consequently, there is an important clinical rationale for careful mycological examination of diabetic foot and an adequate treatment tailored for each individual patient according to the fungal species involved. PMID:24442040

Papini, M; Cicoletti, M; Fabrizi, V; Landucci, P

2013-12-01

153

Controversies in the Treatment of Ingrown Nails  

PubMed Central

Ingrown toenails are one of the most frequent nail disorders of young persons. They may negatively influence daily activities, cause discomfort and pain. Since more than 1000 years, many different treatments have been proposed. Today, conservative and surgical methods are available, which, when carried out with expertise, are able to cure the disease. Packing, taping, gutter treatment, and nail braces are options for relatively mild cases whereas surgery is exclusively done by physicians. Phenolisation of the lateral matrix horn is now the safest, simplest, and most commonly performed method with the lowest recurrence rate. Wedge excisions can no longer be recommended PMID:22675345

Haneke, Eckart

2012-01-01

154

Controversies in the treatment of ingrown nails.  

PubMed

Ingrown toenails are one of the most frequent nail disorders of young persons. They may negatively influence daily activities, cause discomfort and pain. Since more than 1000 years, many different treatments have been proposed. Today, conservative and surgical methods are available, which, when carried out with expertise, are able to cure the disease. Packing, taping, gutter treatment, and nail braces are options for relatively mild cases whereas surgery is exclusively done by physicians. Phenolisation of the lateral matrix horn is now the safest, simplest, and most commonly performed method with the lowest recurrence rate. Wedge excisions can no longer be recommended. PMID:22675345

Haneke, Eckart

2012-01-01

155

Cost of external fixation vs external fixation then nailing in bone infection  

PubMed Central

AIM: To study the cost benefit of external fixation vs external fixation then nailing in treatment of bone infection by segment transfer. METHODS: Out of 71 patients with infected nonunion tibia treated between 2003 and 2006, 50 patients fitted the inclusion criteria (26 patients were treated by external fixation only, and 24 patients were treated by external fixation early removal after segment transfer and replacement by internal fixation). Cost of inpatient treatment, total cost of inpatient and outpatient treatment till full healing, and the weeks of absence from school or work were calculated and compared between both groups. RESULTS: The cost of hospital stay and surgery in the group of external fixation only was 22.6 ± 3.3 while the cost of hospital stay and surgery in the group of early external fixation removal and replacement by intramedullary nail was 26.0 ± 3.2. The difference was statistically significant regarding the cost of hospital stay and surgery in favor of the group of external fixation only. The total cost of medical care (surgery, hospital stay, treatment outside the hospital including medications, dressing, physical therapy, outpatient laboratory work, etc.) in group of external fixation only was 63.3 ± 15.1, and total absence from work was 38.6 ± 6.6 wk. While the group of early removal of external fixation and replacement by IM nail, total cost of medical care was 38.3 ± 6.4 and total absence from work or school was 22.7 ± 4.1. The difference was statistically significant regarding the total cost and absence from work in favor of the group of early removal and replacement by IM nail. CONCLUSION: Early removal of external fixation and replacement by intramedullary nail in treatment of infected nonunion showed more cost effectiveness. Orthopaedic society needs to show the cost effectiveness of different procedures to the community, insurance, and health authorities. PMID:25621219

Emara, Khaled Mohamed; Diab, Ramy Ahmed; Ghafar, Khaled Abd EL

2015-01-01

156

Pincer Nail Deformity in a Patient with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Although several manifestations of skin involvement in cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have been reported, the pincer nail deformity has not been previously reported in a patient with ALS. The pincer nail deformity is characterized by distortion of the shape of the nail with transverse over curvature and may be associated with systemic diseases and certain medications. We herein describe the case of a patient presenting with a pincer nail deformity associated with rapidly advancing ALS. This case suggests a potential link between quickly advancing disease and the pincer nail deformity. PMID:25568742

Fujita, Youshi; Fujita, Takehisa

2014-01-01

157

Fungal infections of the nails in Western Australia.  

PubMed

Between 1963 and 1972, 986 fungi were isolated from the nails of patients in Western Australia. Three clinical types of infections in both finger and toe nails were studied. All 3 types occurred more commonly in adults over the age of 20. Multiple infections were relatively frequent. Two hundred and fourteen of the nail infections were caused by dermatophyte fungi. Trichophyton rubrum was the predominant aetiologic agent isolated from both finger and toe nails, T. mentagrophytes and other dermatophytes were involved to a lesser degree. Paronychia of the finger nails was common and mainly caused by C. albicans. Aspergillus species were the most frequent fungi grown from superficial white onychomycosis. PMID:7219514

McAleer, R

1981-02-13

158

New Concepts in Median Nail Dystrophy, Onychomycosis, and Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Nail Pathology  

PubMed Central

Nails are underutilized as diagnostic tools, despite being involved in many dermatologic conditions. This paper explores new concepts in the treatment of median nail dystrophy (MND), onychomycosis, and the nail pathology of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). A Pubmed database literature search was conducted for MND treatment, onychomycosis treatment, and HFMD nail pathology. Only papers published after January 2008 were reviewed. The results showed that 0.1% tacrolimus ointment can be an effective treatment for MND. Early studies on laser therapy indicate that it is a safe and efficacious treatment option for onychomycosis, compared to conventional oral antifungal agents. Vicks VapoRub (The Proctor & Gamble Company, Cincinnati, OH) is effective against onychomycosis and is a reasonable option in patients who choose to forgo conventional treatments. Lastly, there is evidence to support a correlation between HFMD and onychomadesis. PMID:22462009

Hoy, Nathan Y.; Leung, Alexander K. C.; Metelitsa, Andrei I.; Adams, Stewart

2012-01-01

159

Correction of Pincer Nail Deformity Using Dermal Grafting  

PubMed Central

Pincer nail deformity is characterized by excessive curvature and distortion of the nail in the transverse dimension, and particularly at the distal part of the nail plate. This deformity leads to pinching off and loss of soft tissue in the affected digit, causing severe pain. Many treatment methods have been proposed; however, an effective long-term method preserving the nail matrix has not yet been established. We present here a case of pincer nail in the left thumb in a 49-year-old woman who was treated successfully with dermal grafting under the nail bed. We describe the surgical method and the treatment results. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in the Korean medical literature on the use of dermal grafting for the treatment of pincer nail deformity. PMID:22346262

Nam, Hyun Min; Kim, Ui Kyung; Park, Seok Don; Kim, Jeong Hee

2011-01-01

160

Treatment of Nail Psoriasis: Common Concepts and New Trends  

PubMed Central

The lifetime incidence of nail involvement in psoriatic patients is estimated to be 80–90%, and the nails can be affected in 10% to 55% of psoriatic patients. Psoriasis may also solely involve the nails, without any other skin findings, in which the treatment can be more challenging. Nail psoriasis may lead to considerable impairment in quality of life due to aesthetic concerns and more importantly limitations in daily activities resulting from the associated pain, which may be overlooked by the physicians. Several topical and systemic treatment modalities, as well as radiation and light systems, have been used in the treatment of nail psoriasis. In the last decade, the introduction of biologic agents and the utilization of laser systems have brought a new insight into the treatment of nail psoriasis. This paper focuses on the recent advances, as well as the conventional methods, in treating nail psoriasis in adults and children, in reference to an extensive literature search. PMID:23762032

Oram, Yasemin; Akkaya, A. Deniz

2013-01-01

161

Influence of the intramedullary nail preparation method on nail's mechanical properties and degradation rate.  

PubMed

When it comes to the treatment of long bone fractures, scientists are still investigating new materials for intramedullary nails and different manufacturing methods. Some of the most promising materials used in the field are resorbable polymers and their composites, especially since there is a wide range of potential manufacturing and processing methods. The aim of this work was to select the best manufacturing method and technological parameters to obtain multiphase, and multifunctional, biodegradable intramedullary nails. All composites were based on a poly(l-lactide) matrix. Either magnesium alloy wires or carbon and alginate fibres were introduced in order to reinforce the nails. The polylactide matrix was also modified with tricalcium phosphate and gentamicin sulfate. The composite nails were manufactured using three different methods: forming from solution, injection moulding and hot pressing. The effect of each method of manufacturing on mechanical properties and degradation rate of the nails was evaluated. The study showed that injection moulding provides higher uniformity and homogeneity of the particle-modified polylactide matrix, whereas hot pressing favours applying higher volume fractions of fibres and their better impregnation with the polymer matrix. Thus, it was concluded that the fabrication method should be individually selected dependently on the nail's desired phase composition. PMID:25842113

Morawska-Chochó?, Anna; Ch?opek, Jan; Szaraniec, Barbara; Domalik-Pyzik, Patrycja; Balacha, Ewa; Bogu?, Maciej; Kucharski, Rafael

2015-06-01

162

Clinical guidelines for the recognition of melanoma of the foot and nail unit  

PubMed Central

Malignant melanoma is a life threatening skin tumour which may arise on the foot. The prognosis for the condition is good when lesions are diagnosed and treated early. However, lesions arising on the soles and within the nail unit can be difficult to recognise leading to delays in diagnosis. These guidelines have been drafted to alert health care practitioners to the early signs of the disease so an early diagnosis can be sought. PMID:21040565

2010-01-01

163

A Clinical Study of 35 Cases of Pincer Nails  

PubMed Central

Background Pincer nail is a nail deformity characterized by transverse overcurvature of the nail plate. Pincer nail can affect a patient's quality of life due to its chronic, recurrent course; however, there have been no clinical studies on the pincer nail condition in Korean patients. Objective The purpose of this study was to characterize the clinical findings and treatment of pincer nail. In addition, possible etiological factors were considered, and treatment efficacy was evaluated. Methods The medical records and clinical photographs of 35 patients (12 males, 23 females) who were diagnosed with pincer nail between August 1, 2005 and July 31, 2009 were studied. Results Patient age ranged from 10 to 77 (52.09±17.26) years, and there was a predominance of female (23 out of 35 patients, F:M=2:1). The mean duration of the disorder was 7.45 years (range 0.25~40); 85% had pincer nail for at least 1 year. In addition, 40% had a history of previous treatment and recurrence. There were 82.8% patients with the common type of pincer nails. The most commonly involved nails were both great toenails. Among 35 patients, nail grinding was started in 30 patients, and 25 patients showed clinical improvement with nail grinding. The width index increased and the height index decreased after treatment. The mean follow up period was 8.42 months (range 1~27), and 7 patients showed recurrence after 8.8 months (range 2~20). Among 35 patients, 5 patients were treated with nail extraction with matricectomy, and the symptoms resolved immediately. The mean follow up period was 7.6 months (range 0~19), and recurrence was not observed. Onychomycosis was also present in 37.1% of patients, and itraconazole pulse therapy for 3 months was added. Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate the clinical features of pincer nail in Korean patients. The findings show that the common type of pincer nail was most common, and nail grinding as a conservative treatment greatly improved pincer nails despite a risk of recurrence. When onychomycosis was also present, oral antifungal therapy added to nail grinding resulted in a more rapid change in nail thickness and clinical improvement. PMID:22148007

Lee, Jae In; Lee, Young Bok; Oh, Shin Tack; Cho, Baik Kee

2011-01-01

164

Nailed wood joints under combined loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new testing apparatus was designed and a test method developed to enable the application of axial loads, lateral loads, and controlled ratios of axial to lateral loads to nailed wood joints. The effect of axial load components on ultimate lateral load, joint deformations and several slip moduli were evaluated. These load-slip parameters were determined for three species of wood,

A. Louis DeBonis; J. Bodig

1975-01-01

165

WFU Physics Demo Video: Bed of Nails  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video demonstrates that a person can stand on a bed of nails without hurting their feet due to the force being spread out over a large area. It is part of a collection of typical lecture demonstration videos put together by the physics department at Wake Forest University.

Matthews, G. Eric

166

Removal of a nail from bone after nail gun injury: a case report and utility of a classic technique.  

PubMed

Nail gun injuries are common, work-related injuries that typically involve bony impalement of an extremity with the nail. Treatment recommendations are well established, although suggestions for removing the nail itself have been lacking. In our hands, removal using typical operating room equipment has been challenging, usually resulting in nail head deformity and breakage, which makes completing the procedure even more difficult. As a result, we have revisited the tool designed solely for the purpose of nail removal, that is, a claw hammer: this tool is readily available from materials management at most hospitals, can be easily autoclaved, and is effectively used with a block or surgical pan lid to gain leverage and protect the soft tissues. We have found this method to be simple and extremely useful for nail removal for the nail-impaled patient. PMID:22382931

Dollahite, Henry; Collinge, Cory

2012-08-01

167

Intrapelvic Migration of the Lag Screw in Intramedullary Nailing  

PubMed Central

Internal fixation with intramedullary devices has gained popularity for the treatment of intertrochanteric femoral fractures, which are common injuries in the elderly. The most common complications are lag screw cut out from the femoral head and femoral fracture at the distal tip of the nail. We report here a rare complication of postoperative lag screw migration into the pelvis with no trauma. The patient was subsequently treated with lag screw removal and revision surgery with total hip arthroplasty. This case demonstrated that optimal fracture reduction and positioning of the lag screw are the most important surgical steps for decreasing the risk of medial migration of the lag screw. Furthermore, to prevent complications, careful attention should be paid to subsequent steps such as precise insertion of the set screw. PMID:25610680

Toki, Shunichi; Hamada, Daisuke; Yoshioka, Shinji; Tsutsui, Takahiko; Tamaki, Yasuaki; Sairyo, Koichi

2014-01-01

168

Bacillus cereus in personal care products: risk to consumers.  

PubMed

Bacillus cereus is ubiquitous in nature and thus occurs naturally in a wide range of raw materials and foodstuffs. B. cereus spores are resistant to desiccation and heat and able to survive dry storage and cooking. Vegetative cells produce several toxins which on ingestion in sufficient numbers can cause vomiting and/or diarrhoea depending on the toxins produced. Gastrointestinal disease is commonly associated with reheated or inadequately cooked foods. In addition to being a rare cause of several acute infections (e.g. pneumonia and septicaemia), B. cereus can also cause localized infection of post-surgical or trauma wounds and is a rare but significant pathogen of the eye where it may result in severe endophthalmitis often leading to loss of vision. Key risk factors in such cases are trauma to the eye and retained contaminated intraocular foreign bodies. In addition, rare cases of B. cereus-associated keratitis (inflammation of the cornea) have been linked to contact lens use. Bacillus cereus is therefore a microbial contaminant that could adversely affect product safety of cosmetic and facial toiletries and pose a threat to the user if other key risk factors are also present. The infective dose in the human eye is unknown, but as few as 100 cfu has been reported to initiate infection in a susceptible animal model. However, we are not aware of any reports in the literature of B. cereus infections in any body site linked with use of personal care products. Low levels of B. cereus spores may on occasion be present in near-eye cosmetics, and these products have been used by consumers for many years. In addition, exposure to B. cereus is more likely to occur through other routes (e.g. dustborne contamination) due to its ubiquity and resistance properties of spores. The organism has been recovered from the eyes of healthy individuals. Therefore, although there may be a perceived hazard, the risk of severe eye infections as a consequence of exposure through contaminated near-eye cosmetics is judged to be vanishingly small. It is unlikely that more stringent microbiological standards for near-eye cosmetics will have any impact on the risk of severe eye infections caused by B. cereus, as these are not linked to use of personal care products. PMID:25482451

Pitt, T L; McClure, J; Parker, M D; Amézquita, A; McClure, P J

2015-04-01

169

NAIL: Nucleic Acid detection using Isotachophoresis and Loop-mediated isothermal amplification.  

PubMed

Nucleic acid amplification tests are the gold standard for many infectious disease diagnoses due to high sensitivity and specificity, rapid operation, and low limits of detection. Despite the advantages of nucleic acid amplification tests, they currently offer limited point-of-care (POC) utility due to the need for complex instruments and laborious sample preparation. We report the development of the Nucleic Acid Isotachophoresis LAMP (NAIL) diagnostic device. NAIL uses isotachophoresis (ITP) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) to extract and amplify nucleic acids from complex matrices in less than one hour inside of an integrated chip. ITP is an electrokinetic separation technique that uses an electric field and two buffers to extract and purify nucleic acids in a single step. LAMP amplifies nucleic acids at constant temperature and produces large amounts of DNA that can be easily detected. A mobile phone images the amplification results to eliminate the need for laser fluorescent detection. The device requires minimal user intervention because capillary valves and heated air chambers act as passive valves and pumps for automated fluid actuation. In this paper, we describe NAIL device design and operation, and demonstrate the extraction and detection of pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 cells from whole milk samples. We use the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) limit of detection (LoD) definitions that take into account the variance from both positive and negative samples to determine the diagnostic LoD. According to the CLSI definition, the NAIL device has a limit of detection (LoD) of 1000 CFU mL(-1) for E. coli cells artificially inoculated into whole milk, which is two orders of magnitude improvement to standard tube-LAMP reactions with diluted milk samples and comparable to lab-based methods. The NAIL device potentially offers significant reductions in the complexity and cost of traditional nucleic acid diagnostics for POC applications. PMID:25666345

Borysiak, Mark D; Kimura, Kevin W; Posner, Jonathan D

2015-03-17

170

Assessment of Occupational Symptoms and Chemical Exposures for Nail Salon Technicians in Daegu City, Korea  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study aimed to evaluate occupational symptoms and chemical exposures of nail salon technicians. Methods Work-related symptoms of nail salon technicians in Daegu City were surveyed using a researcher-administered questionnaire, and responses were compared to those of non-exposed office workers as controls. Personal exposure level of airborne volatile organic compounds was also monitored using passive samplers. Results A total of 159 subjects in 120 salons were interviewed. Average work-shift concentrations of 13 chemicals were measured for 50 workers from 30 salons using personal passive samplers. The most frequently reported respiratory or neurologic symptoms by nail shop technicians compared to controls were nose irritation (odds ratio [OR], 54.0; confidence interval [CI], 21.6 to 134.8), followed by headache (OR, 9.3; CI, 4.7 to 18), and throat irritation (OR, 4.3; CI, 2.2 to 8.5). For eyes and skin, 92% of respondents complained eye irritation (OR, 13.1; CI, 5.7 to 30.1). In musculoskeletal symptoms, workers reported pain or discomfort in shoulders (OR, 20.3; CI, 7.7 to 54) and neck (OR, 19.7; CI, 8.9 to 43.6). From personal measurements, the proportion of exceeding the Korean Occupational Exposure Limit was the highest for acetone with 64%, followed by toluene (50%), butyl acetate (46%), and methyl methacrylate (12%). However, the service was being provided without a proper ventilation system in most surveyed shops. Conclusions Based on these findings, it is warranted to have appropriate local exhaust ventilation place to ensure adequate health protection of nail shop technicians as well as customers. At the same time, greater policy interests are warranted in nail care business to protect health of both workers and customers. PMID:24921020

Park, Sung-Ae; Gwak, Sugyeong

2014-01-01

171

Indoor air quality survey of nail salons in Boston.  

PubMed

Employees in nail salons, largely Vietnamese immigrant women in Boston, are exposed to a range of volatile organic chemicals from the products used in salons, including solvents, glues and polishes. Some of these chemicals have the potential to cause short and long-term adverse health effects. Only limited research has been performed on assessing occupational exposures. This project aimed to characterize total volatile organic compound (TVOC) and PM2.5 concentrations in nail salons as a function of ventilation, building characteristics, customer and employee occupancy, and type of services being performed. Students conducted sampling in 21 salons in Boston, MA from September to December, 2011. Study visits included: indoor environmental quality measurements (TVOCs, PM2.5 and carbon dioxide), site observations, and an interview. CO2 levels in 15 of 21 salons exceeded 800 ppm, suggesting that these salons may have insufficient ventilation. Higher TVOC and PM2.5 levels were found in salons with less ventilation (as estimated using CO2 concentrations). Contrary to our a priori hypothesis, average levels of TVOCs, CO2 and PM2.5 were consistent throughout salons, indicating that exposures may not be restricted to areas in the salon where work is being performed (e.g., at the manicure table). Higher TVOC concentrations were observed when tasks were being performed, yet were not dependent upon the number of tasks being performed. Improving ventilation conditions in salons to meet minimum outdoor air delivery requirements can reduce exposures to TVOCs. PMID:23765035

Goldin, Laura J; Ansher, Liza; Berlin, Ariana; Cheng, Jenny; Kanopkin, Deena; Khazan, Anna; Kisivuli, Meda; Lortie, Molly; Bunker Peterson, Emily; Pohl, Laura; Porter, Sam; Zeng, Vivian; Skogstrom, Tiffany; Fragala, Matt A; Myatt, Theodore A; Stewart, James H; Allen, Joseph G

2014-06-01

172

Ability of Hydroxypropyl Chitosan Nail Lacquer To Protect against Dermatophyte Nail Infection.  

PubMed

The development of a topical agent that would strengthen the nail, improve the natural barrier, and provide better drug penetration to the nail bed is needed. In this study, we examined the effects of a hydroxypropyl chitosan (HPCH)-based nail solution using a bovine hoof model. Following application of the nail solution, changes in the hardness of the hoof samples were measured using the Vickers method. Tensile and flexural strengths were tested by stretching or punching the samples, respectively. The ultrastructure was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and samples stained with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stain were used to determine the fungal penetration depth. The comparators included 40% urea and 70% isopropyl alcohol solutions. The HPCH nail solution increased hoof sample hardness in comparison to the untreated control sample (mean, 22.3 versus 19.4 Vickers pyramid number [HV]). Similarly, the HPCH solution increased the tensile strength (mean, 33.07 versus 28.42 MPa) and flexural strength (mean, 183.79 versus 181.20 MPa) compared to the untreated control. In contrast, the comparators had adverse effects on hardness and strength. SEM showed that the HPCH solution reduced the area of sample crumbling following abrasion compared to the untreated control (7,418 versus 17,843 pixels), and the PAS-stained images showed that the HPCH solution reduced penetration of the dermatophyte hyphae (e.g., penetration by Trichophyton mentagrophytes was <25 ?m at day 9 versus 275 ?m in the untreated control). Unlike chemicals normally used in cosmetic treatments, repeated application of the HPCH nail solution may help prevent the establishment of new or recurring fungal nail infection. PMID:25547349

Ghannoum, M A; Long, L; Isham, N; Bulgheroni, A; Setaro, M; Caserini, M; Palmieri, R; Mailland, F

2015-04-01

173

Cessation of nail growth following Bajiaolian intoxication.  

PubMed

Bajiaolian (Dysosma pleianthum), a species in the Mayapple family (Podophyllum pelatum), has been widely used as a traditional Chinese herbal medication for the remedies of snake bite, tumor growth, post-partum recovery, and acne. It has also been used in western medicine, especially topically for various skin lesions. Both oral ingestion and dermal application may result in severe toxicity. The clinical presentations reported after Bajiaolian poisoning include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, tachycardia, orthostatic hypotension, paralytic ileus, urinary retention, hepatorenal dysfunction, leukocytosis followed by leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, prolonged areflexia, prolonged paraethesia and sensory ataxia, dizziness, fever, memory impairment, hallucinations, paranoia, convulsion, fainting, and coma. There are no previous reports in the literature about the cessation of nail growth as a clinical presentation following Bajiaolian poisoning. We present a case of nail growth that was halted for more than seven years after a single case of Bajiaolian poisoning. PMID:17852156

Chou, Shang-Lin; Chou, Ming-Yueh; Kao, Wei-Fong; Yen, David H T; Huang, Chun-I; Lee, Chen-Hsen

2008-02-01

174

Taxonomic perspective of plant species yielding vegetable oils used in cosmetics and skin care products  

Microsoft Academic Search

A search conducted to determine the plants yielding vegetable oils resulted in 78 plant species with potential use in cosmetics and skin care products. The taxonomic position of these plant species is described with a description of vegetable oils from these plants and their use in cosmetics and skin care products. These species belonged to 74 genera and 45 plant

Mohammad Athar; Syed Mahmood Nasir

175

Temperature rise during reamed tibial nailing.  

PubMed

The current study determined the temperature rise during reamed tibial intramedullary nailing in vivo. Eighteen adult patients were studied. The tibial medullary canal diameter ranged from 8 to 11 mm and was reamed to at least 1.5 mm above the required nail diameter with AO reamers. Reaming of the medullary cavity ranged from 9 to 12 mm before nail insertion. Intraoperative monitoring of the heat produced during reaming of the medullary cavity was done by inserting two platinum resistance thermometer probes into the cortical bone at the short isthmic segment of the tibial shaft. The probes were connected to a data logger, and temperature readings were taken every 5 seconds during each reaming procedure. The mean tibial temperature before initiation of reaming was 35.6 degrees C (standard deviation, +/- 0.5 degrees), and peak temperatures recorded were from 36.1 degrees C to 51.6 degrees C. A direct correlation was observed between temperature elevation and amount of reaming. With reaming above 10 mm, tibias with a canal diameter of 8 mm showed a statistically higher temperature rise compared with tibias with a canal diameter of 9, 10, or 11 mm. No patients had intraoperative or postoperative complications related to skin or bone thermal necrosis, and bony healing progressed uneventfully. The small amount of reaming required to insert a nail into a normal 9-, 10-, or 11- mm tibial canal does not seem to produce a clinical problem. Reaming smaller canals (8 mm) to a larger size may induce a significant heating effect. PMID:11937890

Giannoudis, P V; Snowden, S; Matthews, S J; Smye, S W; Smith, R M

2002-02-01

176

Diagnosis and management of nail disorders in children.  

PubMed

The authors herein describe several nail conditions, which the general pediatrician is likely to encounter in the course of routine practice. Because pediatric nail disorders represent a limited component of a general pediatric practice, it can be challenging for practitioners to establish expertise in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions and to recognize when reassurance is appropriate or when referral to a specialist is necessary. This article summarizes the anatomy of the normal nail unit, as well as the evaluation and management of onychomycosis, melanonychia, trachyonychia, onychomadesis, and nail pitting. PMID:24636647

Chu, Derek H; Rubin, Adam I

2014-04-01

177

Confocal Raman spectrocopy for the analysis of nail polish evidence.  

PubMed

Nail polishes are cosmetic paints that may be susceptible of forensic analysis offering useful information to assist in a crime reconstruction. Although the nail polish appearance could allow a quick visual identification of the sample, this analysis is subjected to the perception and subjective interpretation of the forensic examiner. The chemical analysis of the nail polishes offers great deal of information not subjected to analyst interpretation. Confocal Raman spectroscopy is a well-suited technique for the analysis of paints due to its non-invasive and non-destructive nature and its ability to supply information about the organic and inorganic components of the sample. In this work, 77 regular and gel nail polishes were analyzed with confocal Raman spectroscopy using two laser wavelengths (532 and 780nm). The sample behavior under the two laser wavelengths and the differences in the spectra taken at different points of the sample were studied for each nail polish. Additionally, the spectra obtained for all the nail polishes were visually compared. The results concluded that the longer laser wavelength prevents sample burning and fluorescence effects; the similarity among the spectra collected within the sample is not directly related with the presence of glitter particles; and 64% of the samples analyzed showed a characteristic spectrum. Additionally, the use of confocal Raman spectroscopy for the forensic analysis of nail polishes evidence in the form of flakes or smudges on different surfaces were studied. The results showed that both types of evidence can be analyzed by the technique. Also, two non-invasive sampling methods for the collection of the evidence from the nails of the suspect or the victim were proposed: (i) to use acetone-soaked cotton swabs to remove the nail varnishes and (ii) to scrape the nail polish from the nail with a blade. Both approaches, each exhibiting advantages and drawbacks in terms of transport and handling were appropriate for a further chemical analysis of the samples. PMID:25863385

López-López, Maria; Vaz, Joana; García-Ruiz, Carmen

2015-06-01

178

Prognostic Factors for Predicting Outcomes After Intramedullary Nailing of the Tibia  

PubMed Central

Background: Prediction of negative postoperative outcomes after long-bone fracture treatment may help to optimize patient care. We recently completed the Study to Prospectively Evaluate Reamed Intramedullary Nails in Patients with Tibial Fractures (SPRINT), a large, multicenter trial of reamed and unreamed intramedullary nailing of tibial shaft fractures in 1226 patients. Using the SPRINT data, we conducted an investigation of baseline and surgical factors to determine any associations with an increased risk of adverse events within one year of intramedullary nailing. Methods: Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, we investigated fifteen baseline and surgical factors for any associations with an increased risk of negative outcomes. Results: There was an increased risk of negative events in patients with a high-energy mechanism of injury (odds ratio [OR] = 1.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05 to 2.35), a stainless steel compared with a titanium nail (OR = 1.52; 95% CI, 1.10 to 2.13), a fracture gap (OR = 2.40; 95% CI, 1.47 to 3.94), and full weight-bearing status after surgery (OR = 1.63; 95% CI, 1.00 to 2.64). There was no increased risk with the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, late or early time to surgery, or smoking status. Open fractures had a higher risk of events among patients treated with reamed nailing (OR = 3.26; 95% CI, 2.01 to 5.28) but not in patients treated with unreamed nailing (OR = 1.50; 95% CI, 0.92 to 2.47). Patients with open fractures who had wound management either without any additional procedures or with delayed primary closure had a decreased risk of events compared with patients who required subsequent, more complex reconstruction (OR = 0.18 [95% CI, 0.09 to 0.35] and 0.29 [95% CI, 0.14 to 0.62], respectively). Conclusions: We identified several baseline fracture and surgical characteristics that may increase the risk of adverse events in patients with tibial shaft fractures. Surgeons should consider the predictors identified in our analysis to inform patients treated for tibial shaft fractures. Level of Evidence: Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:23032589

Schemitsch, Emil H.; Bhandari, Mohit; Guyatt, Gordon; Sanders, David W.; Swiontkowski, Marc; Tornetta, Paul; Walter, Stephen D.; Zdero, Rad; Goslings, J.C.; Teague, David; Jeray, Kyle; McKee, Michael D.; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Bhandari, Mohit; Guyatt, Gordon; Sanders, David W.; Swiontkowski, Marc; Tornetta, Paul; Walter, Stephen D.; Zdero, Rad; Goslings, J.C.; Teague, David; Jeray, Kyle; McKee, Michael D.

2012-01-01

179

Study to prospectively evaluate reamed intramedually nails in patients with tibial fractures (S.P.R.I.N.T.): Study rationale and design  

PubMed Central

Background Surgeons agree on the benefits of operative treatment of tibial fractures – the most common of long bone fractures – with an intramedullary rod or nail. Rates of re-operation remain high – between 23% and 60% in prior trials – and the two alternative nailing approaches, reamed or non-reamed, each have a compelling biological rationale and strong proponents, resulting in ongoing controversy regarding which is better. Methods/Design The objective of this trial was to assess the impact of reamed versus non-reamed intramedullary nailing on rates of re-operation in patients with open and closed fractures of the tibial shaft. The study to prospectively evaluate reamed intramedullary nails in tibial fractures (S.P.R.I.N.T) was a multi-center, randomized trial including 29 clinical sites in Canada, the United States and the Netherlands which enrolled 1200 skeletally mature patients with open (Gustilo Types I-IIIB) or closed (Tscherne Types 0–3) fractures of the tibial shaft amenable to surgical treatment with an intramedullary nail. Patients received a statically locked intramedullary nail with either reamed or non-reamed insertion. The first strategy involved fixation of the fracture with an intramedullary nail following reaming to enlarge the intramedullary canal (Reamed Group). The second treatment strategy involved fixation of the fracture with an intramedullary nail without prior reaming of the intramedullary canal (Non-Reamed Group). Patients, outcome assessors, and data analysts were blinded to treatment allocation. Peri-operative care was standardized, and re-operations before 6 months were proscribed. Patients were followed at discharge, 2 weeks post-discharge, and at 6 weeks, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months post surgery. A committee, blinded to allocation, adjudicated all outcomes. Discussion The primary outcome was re-operation to promote healing, treat infection, or preserve the limb (fasciotomy for compartment syndrome after nailing). The primary outcome was a composite comprising the following re-operations: bone grafts, implant exchanges, and dynamizations, in patients with fracture gaps less than 1 cm post intramedullary nail insertion. Infections and fasciotomies were considered events irrespective of the fracture gap. We planned a priori to conduct a subgroup analysis of outcomes in patients with open and closed fractures. S.P.R.I.N.T is the largest collaborative trial evaluating alternative orthopaedic surgical interventions in patients with tibial shaft fractures. The methodological rigor will set new benchmarks for future trials in the field and its results will have important impact on patient care. The S.P.R.I.N.T trial was registered [ID NCT00038129] and received research ethics approval (REB#99-077). PMID:18573205

2008-01-01

180

Evaluating a county-based Healthy nail Salon Recognition Program  

EPA Science Inventory

To determine whether nail solons that participate in the SF recognition program have reduced measured levels of toluene, methyl methacrylate (MMA), and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC)as compared to nail salons that do not participate. We also evaluated changes in worker ...

181

Extending the Indication of Intramedullary Nailing of Tibial Fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intramedullary nailing is an effective and well-established method for the treatment of a wide spectrum of tibial fractures.\\u000a Nevertheless, the handling of metaphyseal and open fracture remains challenging. Surgical and technical advancements have\\u000a opened up new possibilities to broaden the indication of intramedullary nailing in these areas.

Sebastian Kuhn; Matthias Hansen; Pol M. Rommens

2007-01-01

182

TOXIC TRACE METALS IN MAMMALIAN HAIR AND NAILS  

EPA Science Inventory

Data have been compiled from the available world literature on the accumulation and bioconcentration of selected toxic trace metals in human hair and nails and other mammalian hair, fur, nails, claws, and hoofs. The toxic trace metals and metalloids include antimony, arsenic, bor...

183

Multiple self-inflicted nail gun head injury.  

PubMed

Penetrating brain injury resulting from nail-gun use is a well-characterized entity, one that is increasing in frequency as nail guns become more powerful and more readily available to the public. We present a case and offer management strategies for a 50-year-old male with two intracranial penetrating nail gun injuries. Nail gun brain injuries are commonly intentionally self-inflicted. Suicide should be considered when straight nails cause wounds to the chest, head, or abdomen. The primary preoperative concern is formation of a traumatic pseudoaneurism, which prompts both preoperative and follow-up cerebral angiography. Surgery for combined intracranial and extracranial injury may require the collaborative expertise of colleagues from the fields of ophthalmology, otolaryngology, and oral maxillofacial surgery. A rational management strategy should permit these patients to be discharged with no additional injury. PMID:17591316

Testerman, George M; Dacks, Laura M

2007-06-01

184

[How to diagnose and treat psoriasis of the nails].  

PubMed

Psoriasis is an inherited chronic hyper proliferative autoimmune disease. Nail involvement is common and is found in 61% of cases of cutaneous psoriasis, with lifetime incidence of 90%; 80 to 90% in patients with psoriatic arthritis. Classical manifestations on the nail apparatus are correlated with the origin site of the disease. The proximal matrix produces pitting, trachyonychia and Beau's lines, transverse grooves. The distal matrix (lunula) may appear spotted or erythematous in color. Inflammation of the mid or distal matrix causes leuconychia due to nail incorporation of parakeratotic cells. Nail bed and hyponychium can show onycholysis, oil drops (salmon patches) subungual hyperkeratosis and at the distal nail bed splinter hemorrhages. Induction or severe exacerbation of psoriasis may be due to drugs, such as ?-blockers, lithium, antimalarial agents, anti-TNF and interferon. PMID:25443636

Baran, Robert

2014-11-01

185

Expandable intramedullary nails for fixation of tibial shaft fractures.  

PubMed

Interlocking intramedullary nailing is currently the preferred treatment for most tibial fractures requiring operative treatment, with good results and a relatively low complication rate as reported in large clinical series. However, vascular and neurological complications caused by interlocking screws have been reported. In addition, insertion of distal interlocking screws can be technically demanding and may entail substantial exposure. We present the results with an expandable self-locking nail in the management of 52 AO type A and B tibial shaft fractures. The mean time to union was 15.8 weeks and the rate of union was 98%. The average surgical time was 60 minutes. Complications were those usually seen in diaphysis nailing and no complication was noted during nail expansion. Interlocking screws are not necessary, which reduces the risk of iatrogenic lesions. The expandable nail allows effective management of AO type A and B diaphyseal fractures of the tibia, a lower radiation exposure and shorter operative time. PMID:23409575

Ghafil, Dior; Ackerman, Pieter; Baillon, Renaud; Verdonk, Rene; Delince, Philippe

2012-12-01

186

Locked intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fractures.  

PubMed

One hundred twenty-three femoral shaft fractures were treated with Grosse-Kempf slotted, locked nails and followed for a median 20 (range, 12-60) months. There were eight intraoperative and 11 postoperative complications, among them two superficial and two deep infections. Most of the intraoperative complications and some postoperatively lost reductions could have been prevented by a better operative technique and judgment of stability. Seventy-eight results were graded as excellent, 24 as good, 19 as fair, and two as poor (one 9-cm shortening and one 40 degrees external malrotation). All fractures united without further procedures during the first year. PMID:1986133

Alho, A; Strømsøe, K; Ekeland, A

1991-01-01

187

Nail DNA and Possible Biomarkers: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Nail has been a substitute DNA source for genotyping. To investigate the integrity and consistency of nail DNA amplification for biomarker study, nail clippings from 12 subjects were collected at monthly intervals. The possibility of longer amplification and existence of GAPDH RNA/protein, were also investigated with three nail samples. Methods Three primer sets were designed for quantitative amplification of nuclear and mitochondrial genes and analysis of their consistency. The mean threshold cycles in amplification of the target genes were compared to test the consistency of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) performance among individual factors including age groups, sex, family, the nail source, and by the size of the amplification segments. Results The amplification of the target genes from nail DNA showed similar integrity and consistency between the nail sources, and among the serial collections. However, nail DNA from those in their forties showed earlier threshold cycles in amplification than those in their teens or seventies. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) showed better DNA integrity and consistency in amplification of all three targets than did nuclear DNA (nucDNA). Over 9 kb of mtDNA was successfully amplified, and nested quantitative PCR showed reliable copy numbers (%) between the two loci. Reverse transcription PCR for mRNA and immunoblotting for GAPDH protein successfully reflected their corresponding amounts. Regarding the existence of RNA and protein in nails, more effective extraction and detection methods need to be set up to validate the feasibility in biomarker study. Conclusions Nail DNA might be a feasible intra-individual monitoring biomarker. Considering integrity and consistency in target amplification, mtDNA would be a better target for biomarker research than nucDNA. PMID:22880155

Park, Joshua; Liang, Debbie; Kim, Jung Woo; Luo, Yongjun; Huang, Taesheng; Kim, Soo-Young

2012-01-01

188

Yellow Nail Syndrome and Nail Lichen Planus may be Induced by a Common Culprit. Focus on Dental Restorative Substances  

PubMed Central

Different clinical appearances such as Yellow nail syndrome and Lichen planus or lichenoid reactions can originate from close or identical etiologies. They may result from dental restorative materials or metal allergy. Interestingly, the nail sometimes returns to its normal condition, months after the withdrawal of the offending agents. PMID:25593919

Baran, Léon-Robert

2014-01-01

189

Impact of a Healthy Nails Program on Nail-Biting in Turkish Schoolchildren: A Controlled Pretest-Posttest Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to examine the effect of a healthy nails program on nail-biting in Turkish schoolchildren. This quasi-experimental study was of pretest-posttest control group design. A total of 50 students of a primary school formed the intervention group, while 53 students from the same school formed the control group. Data were…

Ergun, Ayse; Toprak, Rumeysa; Sisman, Fatma Nevin

2013-01-01

190

Green Nail Syndrome (Pseudomonas aeruginosa Nail Infection): Two Cases Successfully Treated with Topical Nadifloxacin, an Acne Medication  

PubMed Central

Green nail syndrome (GNS) caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common bacterial nail infection. The treatment of GNS is challenging in many cases and recommendations based on clinical trials are lacking. We report two cases with GNS successfully treated with off-label use of topical nadifloxacin, a fluoroquinolone approved for acne and bacterial skin infections in some countries. PMID:25202260

Müller, Simon; Ebnöther, Myriam; Itin, Peter

2014-01-01

191

Frequency and longitudinal trends of household care product use Rebecca E. Moran a  

E-print Network

Frequency and longitudinal trends of household care product use Rebecca E. Moran a , Deborah H SUPERB Indoor environment d-limonene a b s t r a c t The use of household cleaning products and air have documented cleaning habits and product usage to characterize how they vary between households

Leistikow, Bruce N.

192

Usage pattern of personal care products in California households Xiangmei (May) Wu a  

E-print Network

Usage pattern of personal care products in California households Xiangmei (May) Wu a , Deborah H collected in 604 California households through a telephone interview. Pref- erences in selecting products, e use by parent and child from the same household were corre- lated. Use frequencies of products

Leistikow, Bruce N.

193

Are Older Workers Less Productive? A Case Study of Aged Care Workers in Australia &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Employers are reluctant to employ older workers. Is this because they are less productive than equivalent younger workers? This paper uses data from a 2007 census of residential aged care homes in Australia to examine the productivity differentials of workers at different ages. We estimate production functions that take into account the age profile of the workforce in each aged

ZHANG WEI; SUE RICHARDSON

2010-01-01

194

Market Evolutions in Health Care and the Emergence of Employee Wellness as a New Product Category  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the next decade employee wellness could grow to be the dominant specialty product in the health care industry. A number of market evolutions, both on the provider side (hospitals) and the reciever side (companies), have influenced this emergence of employee wellness as a substantial new product category. The product category is in the formative stages and in need of

James W. Busbin

1990-01-01

195

Skin and nail changes in children with sickle cell anemia receiving hydroxyurea therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin and nail changes from long-term hydroxyurea therapy are reported in adults. Skin and nail changes, including nail hyperpigmentation, longitudinal bands, and hyperpigmentation of the palms and other skin surfaces, developed in 7 children with sickle cell anemia after 6 to 16 weeks of hydroxyurea therapy. Cutaneous and nail changes may occur in children receiving hydroxyurea. (J Am Acad Dermatol

Erin E. O'Branski; Russell E. Ware; Neil S. Prose; Thomas R. Kinney

2001-01-01

196

ORIGINS AND RAMIFICATIONS OF PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS IN THE ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Perhaps more so than with any other class of pollutants, the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPS) in the environment highlights the immediate, intimate, and inseparable connection between the personal activities of individual citizens and their environ...

197

PHARMACEUTICAL AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS AS UBIQUITOUS POLLUTANTS FROM PERSONAL USE AND ACTIVITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Perhaps more so than with any other class of pollutants, the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPS) in the environment highlights the immediate, intimate, and inseparable connection between the individual activities of consumers and their environment. In...

198

PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS AS UBIQUITOUS POLLUTANTS FROM PERSONAL USE AND ACTIVITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Perhaps more so than with any other class of pollutants, the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPS) in the environment highlights the immediate, intimate, and inseparable connection between the individual activities of consumers and their environment. In...

199

POLLUTION FROM PERSONAL ACTIONS, ACTIVITIES, AND BEHAVIORS: PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS IN THE ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Perhaps more so than with any other class of pollutants, the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the environment highlights the immediate, intimate, and inseparable connection between the personal activities of individual citizens and their environ...

200

PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: POLLUTION FROM PERSONAL ACTIONS, ACTIVITIES, AND BEHAVIORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Perhaps more so than with any other class of pollutants, the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPS) in the environment highlights the immediate, intimate, and inseparable connection between the individual activities of consumers and their environ...

201

POLLUTION FROM PERSONAL ACTIONS, ACTIVITIES, AND BEHAVIORS: PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS IN THE ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Perhaps more so than with any other class of pollutants, the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPS) in the environment highlights the immediate, intimate, and inseparable connection between the personal activities of individual citizens and their environ...

202

POLLUTION FROM PERSONAL ACTIONS AND ACTIVITIES - PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS (PPCPS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as trace environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope of concerns continues to expand. PPCPs comprise thousands of distinct chemicals from numerous therapeutic and consumer classes. They typical...

203

PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS (PPCP'S) AS ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS: POLLUTION FROM PERSONAL ACTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as trace environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope of concerns continues to expand. PPCPs comprise thousands of distinct chemicals from numerous therapeutic and consumer classes. They typical...

204

International scientists’ priorities for research on pharmaceutical and personal care products in the environment  

EPA Science Inventory

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are widely discharged into the environment via diverse pathways. The effects of PPCPs in the environment have potentially important human and ecosystem health implications, so credible, salient, and legitimate scientific evidence...

205

PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS (PPCPS) AS ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS: POLLUTION FROM PERSONAL ACTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as trace environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope of concerns continues to expand. PPCPs comprise thousands of distinct chemicals from numerous therapeutic and consumer classes. They typicall...

206

The productivity of mental health care: an instrumental variable approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Like many other medical technologies and treatments, there is a lack of reliable evidence on treatment effectiveness of mental health care. Increasingly, data from non-experimental settings are being used to study the effect of treatment. However, as in a number of studies using non-experimental data, a simple regression of outcome on treatment shows a puzzling negative and significant impact

Mingshan Lu

1999-01-01

207

Take Care of Your Feet for a Lifetime  

MedlinePLUS

... an infection. 4 Gently rub calluses with a pumice stone. 5 5 If you can see, reach, ... to take care of your feet: nail clippers, pumice stone, emery board, skin lotion, talcum powder, plastic ...

208

Malignant melanoma masqueraded as ingrown toe nail.  

PubMed

We report a case in a 62-year-old female who presented with a year history of dull aching pain of the left big toe, which was aggravated by pressure on the nail and relieved by analgesia. Tissue biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of malignant melanoma. There was a black colour swelling about 3x8 mm in size over the medial side of the dorsum of left big toe with a scar of previous operation. Histopathological examination showed on gross section of 2 blackish area one infiltrate the bone the other the tumour not infiltrate the proximal interphalangial joint with another satellite lesion 20mm from main tumour area was found. Malignant cells were large with abundant cytoplasm, hyperchromatic nuclei and some prominent eosinophilic nucleoli. Melanin pigment was markedly seen. The big toe was amputated. We here highlight a case where the patient was diagnosed and managed as having ingrown nail of the left big toe while in actual fact she had a subungual amelanotic melanoma. PMID:24589950

Adnan, A; Bajuri, M Y; Shukur, M H; Subanesh, S; Das, S

2014-01-01

209

Nail Biting; Etiology, Consequences and Management  

PubMed Central

Nail biting (NB) is a common, but unresolved, problem in psychiatry, psychology, medicine and dentistry. While it seems that NB is a simple behavior that can be stopped easily, many of the children with NB have already tried to stop it, but they have not been successful. The frustrations due to failed attempt involve others such as parents and siblings. The present review aims at providing an overview of prevalence, co-morbidities, education and counseling, and management for NB. Overall, the reviewed literatures suggest that co-morbidities of psychiatric disorders and other stereotypic behaviors in clinical sample of children with NB is more than 80%, and more than half of the parents suffer from psychiatric disorders mainly depression. Treatment of NB, however, is not as easy as it seems. The management of NB is much more complicated than just focusing on stopping it. Nail biting cannot be managed without considering its co-morbidities, antecedents and consequences. It might be concluded form the reviewed literature that children with NB, parents, siblings, and teachers should be educated about what to do and what not to do about NB. Punishment is not effective. Moreover, clinical randomized controlled trials are required to make available evidence-based behavioral and pharmacologic treatment protocols. PMID:23358880

Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

2011-01-01

210

Nail incorporation kinetics of terbinafine in onychomycosis patients.  

PubMed

Patients with toe-nail onychomycosis were treated with terbinafine (250 mg daily, n = 20) for either 6 or 12 weeks in a randomized double-blind study. Plasma and distal nail clippings were taken before initiation of therapy and 1, 6, 12, 18, 24, 36 and 48 weeks thereafter. Analytical data of terbinafine extracted from nail clippings or plasma were obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Nail extracts and isolated HPLC terbinafine peaks were analysed using a combined gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy system (GC-MS) for unequivocal identification of the drug. Terbinafine could be detected in the distal nail in the majority of the patients within 1 week of starting therapy. Maximum terbinafine levels of 0.52 and 1.01 micrograms/g were measured after 18 weeks in the 6- and 12-week treatment groups, respectively. While plasma levels decreased rapidly after termination of therapy terbinafine was detected in the nails as long as 30 weeks (6 weeks treatment) and 36 weeks (12 weeks treatment) after termination of therapy at a range of 0.28-0.19 microgram/g. The drug concentrations measured at all time points are well above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for dermatophytes and other fungi. These data suggest that the drug reaches the nail plate rapidly and persists there for several months after cessation of active treatment. PMID:8593713

Schatz, F; Bräutigam, M; Dobrowolski, E; Effendy, I; Haberl, H; Mensing, H; Weidinger, G; Stütz, A

1995-09-01

211

Transnational family networks and ethnic minority business development : The case of Vietnamese nail-shops in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to understand the role played by transnational family networks in ethnic minority business development. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The Vietnamese nail-care sector is taken as a case study. The research involved interviews with ten owner-managers and four key informants involved in this industry in London. The analysis draws on concepts of “strong” and “weak” network ties and

Susan Bagwell

2008-01-01

212

Lichenoid drug eruption of nails induced by propylthiouracil.  

PubMed

We present the case of a patient who developed deformities of the fingernails and reddish nodules on the nail beds after administration of propylthiouracil (PTU) for 6 months to treat Grave's disease. Histological examination of the lesion revealed a lichenoid tissue reaction. After withdrawal of PTU, she noticed an improvement in the eruption and the growth of the nails. No recurrence of the eruption was detected after the withdrawal of PTU. Thus, we strongly suggest that this was a rare case of PTU-induced lichenoid drug eruption of nail. PMID:17908140

Saito, Marumi; Nakamura, Koichiro; Kaneko, Fumio

2007-10-01

213

Fungal infections of the skin and nail: new treatment options.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the currently available antifungal agents, along with clinical, microbiologic and histopathologic methods, can help the medical professional optimally manage skin and nail fungal infections. With regards to treatment of fungal disease of the skin or nail, there are a variety of systemic antifungal agents, including several newer agents that have different formulations, tolerability, adverse effect profiles and spectrum of activity. This review will highlight the clinically important fungal infections of the skin and nail and describe the activity and role of antifungal treatment. PMID:25241767

Eldridge, Matthew L; Chambers, Cindy J; Sharon, Victoria R; Thompson, George R

2014-11-01

214

6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT OUTSIDE CANAL BANK. VIEW IS TO THE WEST. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

215

78 FR 78382 - Steel Nails From China; Determination  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...filed its determination in this review on December 19, 2013. The views of the Commission are contained in USITC Publication 4442 (December 2013), entitled Steel Nails from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-1114 (Review). By order of the...

2013-12-26

216

76 FR 51038 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Cell Selection Devices for Point of Care Production of Minimally...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...2007D-0290] Draft Guidance for Industry: Cell Selection Devices for Point of Care Production...Manipulated Autologous Peripheral Blood Stem Cells; Withdrawal of Draft Guidance AGENCY...entitled ``Draft Guidance for Industry: Cell Selection Devices for Point of Care...

2011-08-17

217

A fatal nail gun injury--an unusual ricochet?  

PubMed

An 18-year-old construction worker suddenly collapsed while handling a power-actuated nail gun and died shortly after. A neat, almost circular puncture wound was found on the front of his left chest. No fire-arm residues were detected on the surrounding skin. The police stated that it was an accidental injury, at a construction site, where a nail fired from a nail gun by the deceased had deflected off the wall and struck him on the front of the chest. Since the entry wound appeared to be a neat hole, and that too on the front of the left chest overlying the heart area, there was reluctance on the part of the pathologist to accept it as an accidental injury due to a ricochet. A visit to the scene, interrogation of witnesses, examination of the alleged tool and post-mortem X-ray of the deceased were undertaken prior to autopsy. A bent nail was found in the heart. The scene visit and the subsequent autopsy revealed that the nail took a roughly circular flightpath after it had struck the wall, all the while travelling with its pointed end directed forward. Within the body too, the nail maintained the same path. Various medicolegal issues are discussed pertaining to nail-gun injuries. The importance of a visit to the scene, examination of the alleged tool, interrogation of witnesses and the X-ray of the body, all prior to autopsy, are emphasized. The conclusion was: accidental death due to the unusual ricochet of a nail. PMID:10689867

Nadesan, K

2000-01-01

218

14-year-old boy with painful nail changes.  

PubMed

Doxycycline is a classically implicated cause of phototoxic reactions. Photo-onycholysis is a rare manifestation of phototoxicity. Nail changes may typically include nail pain, subungual hemorrhages, or distal onycholysis. Self-resolution can be expected in 3 to 6 months. Patients prescribed doxycycline should be counseled about the potential for phototoxicity and the need for appropriate sun protection while taking the medication. PMID:25733769

Nag, Shudeshna; Weinstein, Miriam; Greenberg, Saul

2015-03-01

219

Biomechanical analysis of the mechanism of interlocking nail failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

From December 1986 to May 1989, 412 patients with 274 femoral and 144 tibial fractures were treated with Grosse-Kempf interlocking nails at our hospital. 324 cases (78.6%) were followed-up for at least 1 year (average 23 months). There were 13 breakages in the locking nails in femora and none in tibiae. The recorded incidence of breakage in the femur is

Chi-Chuan Wu; Chun-Hsiung Shih

1992-01-01

220

Interlocking compression nailing: a report on 402 applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nailing techniques have changed tremendously in recent years. One significant development has been the interlocking compression\\u000a nail (ICN) which provides active interfragmentary compression. Apart from its beneficial effect in the treatment of acute\\u000a fractures, allowing early weight-bearing and mobilization of the patient the ICN is useful in many types of revision operations:\\u000a resection and stabilization of pseudarthroses without cancellous bone

O. Gonschorek; G. O. Hofmann; V. Bühren

1998-01-01

221

Nail Findings in Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease.  

PubMed

Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is a common self-limited viral illness seen in the United States and around the world. Its classic features are easily recognizable; however, nail changes are not well known or characterized. This case demonstrates onychomadesis and Beau lines in a child following clinical diagnosis of hand-foot-and-mouth disease. In this setting, nail dystrophies should be reassuring to pediatricians and families. PMID:25764101

Jacobsen, Laura; Zimmerman, Sarah; Lohr, Jacob

2015-04-01

222

Suicide-related perforating injury of globe with nail gun.  

PubMed

A case is reported of nail gun injury due to suicide attempt involving both orbits, frontal lobe and abdomen, which resulted in an unusual posterior perforation of the left globe. Injury was inflicted with a total of eight nails. Three nails entered the left orbit, one of which perforated the posterior aspect of the left globe. One nail entered the right orbit involving the optic nerve and crossed the midline to finish in the left sphenoid sinus. Three nails entered the frontal lobe near the midline and the final nail pierced the left lobe of the liver. The left eye underwent primary repair, lensectomy and vitrectomy with silicone oil and achieved a visual acuity of 6/60, 3 months post removal of oil with sutured posterior chamber intraocular lens. The right eye suffered traumatic optic neuropathy and currently has a visual acuity of 6/36 due to senile cataract formation. No other serious sequelae resulted from the other injuries and the patient has recovered from his episode of depression. PMID:15932535

Rofail, Marc; Lee, Lawrence R; Lee, Graham A; Todd, Brian

2005-06-01

223

Chloronychia: green nail syndrome caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in elderly persons.  

PubMed

Green nails, also known as chloronychia or green nail syndrome, are characterized by green discoloration of the nail plate (greenish-yellow, greenish-brown, greenish-black), proximal chronic non-tender paronychia, and distolateral onycholysis. The cause is Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection of the nail plate in persons whose hands are constantly exposed to water, soaps, and detergents or are subject to mechanical trauma, especially in the elderly. Green or black coloration of the nails should raise suspicion for Pseudomonas infection and be treated with an oral quinolone (ciprofloxacin), particularly in aged patients. We present three cases of green nails in elderly persons. PMID:25609938

Chiriac, Anca; Brzezinski, Piotr; Foia, Liliana; Marincu, Iosif

2015-01-01

224

Chloronychia: green nail syndrome caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in elderly persons  

PubMed Central

Green nails, also known as chloronychia or green nail syndrome, are characterized by green discoloration of the nail plate (greenish-yellow, greenish-brown, greenish-black), proximal chronic non-tender paronychia, and distolateral onycholysis. The cause is Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection of the nail plate in persons whose hands are constantly exposed to water, soaps, and detergents or are subject to mechanical trauma, especially in the elderly. Green or black coloration of the nails should raise suspicion for Pseudomonas infection and be treated with an oral quinolone (ciprofloxacin), particularly in aged patients. We present three cases of green nails in elderly persons. PMID:25609938

Chiriac, Anca; Brzezinski, Piotr; Foia, Liliana; Marincu, Iosif

2015-01-01

225

Estrogenic personal care products in a greywater reuse system.  

PubMed

The occurrence and fate of parabens in a greywater system was assessed. The potential for removal of residual paraben concentrations in effluent greywater with chlorine dioxide was also investigated. The influent to the greywater plant was characterised by considerable variation, with concentrations from below the detection limit to 40 microg/L and the five commonly used parabens in consumer products were frequently detected. After the biological treatment only two paraben were detected with concentration from 65-120 ng/L. Chlorine dioxide treatment of the biologically treated effluent with dosages down to 0.75 mg/L resulted in more than 97% reduction of all parabens. Formation of the by-product chloroform was insignificant from the chlorine dioxide treatment. PMID:18075177

Andersen, H R; Lundsbye, M; Wedel, H V; Eriksson, E; Ledin, A

2007-01-01

226

Exposure data for personal care products: Hairspray, spray perfume, liquid foundation, shampoo, body wash, and solid antiperspirant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliable exposure information for cosmetic and other personal care products and ingredients is needed in order to conduct safety assessments. Essential information includes both the amount of product applied, and the frequency of use. To obtain current data, studies to assess consumer use practices were undertaken. Six widely used personal care product types were included in the studies. Five of

Linda Loretz; Anne Marie Api; Leila Barraj; Joel Burdick; De Ann Davis; William Dressler; Enrico Gilberti; Gwendolyn Jarrett; Steve Mann; Y. H. Laurie Pan; Thomas Re; Kevin Renskers; Carolyn Scrafford; Sally Vater

2006-01-01

227

Fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in wastewater treatment plants -Conception of a database and first results  

E-print Network

1 Fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in wastewater treatment plants - Conception of detection and removals of pharmaceutical products in wastewater treatment plants. Abstract: We created and personal care products (PPCPs) in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). From 117 scientific publications, we

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

228

Dystrophic Psoriatic Fingernails Treated with 1% 5Fluorouracil in a Nail Penetration-Enhancing Vehicle: A Double-Blind Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Topically applied nail therapeutics need to permeate the nail plate to reach the nail bed or nail matrix and exert their potential beneficial effect at these locations to obtain a therapeutic benefit. So far only topically applied 5-fluorouracil on affected nails of psoriatic patients has been shown to produce a notable clearance. Vehicle formulations enhancing nail permeation processes are

E. M. G. J. de Jong; H. E. Menke; M. C. G. van Praag

1999-01-01

229

FDA's Report on New Health Care Products Approved in 1999  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released on January 18 by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), this report highlights some of the approximately 140 medications and medical devices approved by the FDA last year. The highlighted products are listed by the groups of patients or diseases they are designed to help. The report also discusses FDA approval and application procedures. While neither extensive nor particularly easy to read, the report still contains a useful overview of the most important new drugs and treatments to enter the market in 1999.

230

Proximal humeral fractures and intramedullary nailing: Experience with a new nail system  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives:\\u000a   The goal of this study was to evaluate fracture healing and alignment as well as functional outcome and complication risks\\u000a after internal fixation with the intramedullary proximal humeral nail (PHN). This device shows promise for applications involving\\u000a the reconstruction of the humeral shaft and head with minimal soft tissue stripping and for providing a locked, fixed-angle\\u000a construct for

Jochen Blum; Matthias Hansen; Mathias Müller; Pol M. Rommens; Helmut Matuschka; Antonio Olmeda; Marek J. Radziejowski; Wolfgang Merbold; Stefan Nijs; Renzo Angeloni

2009-01-01

231

Demand and Supply–Based Operating Modes—A Framework for Analyzing Health Care Service Production  

PubMed Central

Context: The structure of organizations that provide services should reflect the possibilities of and constraints on production that arise from the market segments they serve. Organizational segmentation in health care is based on urgency and severity as well as disease type, bodily function, principal method, or population subgroup. The result is conflicting priorities, goals, and performance metrics. A managerial perspective is needed to identify activities with similar requirements for integration, coordination, and control. Methods: The arguments in this article apply new reasoning to the previous literature. Findings: The method used in this article to classify health care provision distinguishes different types of health problems that share generic constraints of production. Conclusions: The analysis leads to seven different demand-supply combinations, each with its own operational logic. These are labeled demand and supply–based operating modes (DSO modes), and constitute the managerial building blocks of health care organizations. The modes are Prevention, Emergency, One visit, Project, Elective, Cure, and Care. As analytical categories the DSO modes can be used to understand current problems. Several operating modes in one unit create managerial problems of conflicting priorities, goals, and performance metrics. The DSO modes are constructed as managerially homogeneous categories or care platforms responding to general types of demand, and supply constraints. The DSO modes bring methods of industrial management to bear on efforts to improve health care. PMID:21166870

Lillrank, Paul; Groop, P Johan; Malmström, Tomi J

2010-01-01

232

Anatomical Characteristics and Surgical Treatments of Pincer Nail Deformity  

PubMed Central

Background Pincer nail deformity is a transverse overcurvature of the nail. This study aimed to define the anatomical characteristics of pincer nail deformity and to evaluate the surgical outcomes. Methods A retrospective review was conducted on 20 cases of pincer nail deformity of the great toe. Thirty subjects without pincer nail deformity or history of trauma of the feet were selected as the control group. Width and height indices were calculated, and interphalangeal angles and base widths of the distal phalanx were measured with radiography. We chose the surgical treatment methods considering perfusion-related factors such as age, diabetes mellitus, kidney disease, and peripheral vascular disease. The zigzag nail bed flap method (n=9) and the inverted T incision method (n=11) were used to repair deformities. The outcomes were evaluated 6 months after surgery. Results The interphalangeal angle was significantly greater in the preoperative patient group (14.0°±3.6°) than in the control group (7.9°±3.0°) (P<0.05). The postoperative width and height indices were very close to the measurements in the control group, and most patients were satisfied with the outcomes. Conclusions We believe that the width and height indices are useful for evaluating the deformity and outcomes of surgical treatments. We used two different surgical methods for the two patient groups with respect to the perfusion-related factors and found that the outcomes were all satisfactory. Consequently, we recommend taking into consideration the circulatory condition of the foot when deciding upon the surgical method for pincer nail deformity. PMID:25798393

Jung, Dong Ju; Kim, Jae Hee; Lee, Hee Young; Kim, Dong Chul; Lee, Se Il

2015-01-01

233

Estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activity of off-the-shelf hair and skin care products.  

PubMed

Use of personal care products is widespread in the United States but tends to be greater among African Americans than whites. Of special concern is the possible hazard of absorption of chemicals with estrogenic activity (EA) or anti-EA (AEA) in these products. Such exposure may have adverse health effects, especially when it occurs during developmental windows (e.g., prepubertally) when estrogen levels are low. We assessed the ethanol extracts of eight commonly used hair and skin products popular among African Americans for EA and AEA using a cell proliferation assay with the estrogen sensitive MCF-7:WS8 cell line derived from a human breast cancer. Four of the eight personal care products tested (Oil Hair Lotion, Extra-dry Skin Lotion, Intensive Skin Lotion, Petroleum Jelly) demonstrated detectable EA, whereas three (Placenta Hair Conditioner, Tea-Tree Hair Conditioner, Cocoa Butter Skin Cream) exhibited AEA. Our data indicate that hair and skin care products can have EA or AEA, and suggest that laboratory studies are warranted to investigate the in vivo activity of such products under chronic exposure conditions as well as epidemiologic studies to investigate potential adverse health effects that might be associated with use of such products. PMID:24849798

Myers, Sharon L; Yang, Chun Z; Bittner, George D; Witt, Kristine L; Tice, Raymond R; Baird, Donna D

2015-05-01

234

Irradiation of advanced health care products - Tissues and biologics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation sterilization of tissues and biologics has become more common in recent years. As a result it has become critical to understand how to adapt the typical test methods and validation approaches to a tissue or biological product scenario. Also data evaluation sometimes becomes more critical than with traditional medical devices because for many tissues and biologics a low radiation dose is required. It is the intent behind this paper to provide information on adapting bioburden tests used in radiation validations such that the data can be most effectively used on tissues and biologics. In addition challenges with data evaluation are discussed, particularly the use of less-than values for bioburden results in radiation validation studies.

Winters, Martell

2014-12-01

235

In vitro antimycotic activity and nail permeation models of a piroctone olamine (octopirox) containing transungual water soluble technology.  

PubMed

Several in vitro studies with a new medical device (Myfungar) containing 0.5% of piroctone olamine (CAS 68890-66-4, octopirox) in a hydroxypropyl chitosan hydroalcoholic solution were performed. The chemical name of the active ingredient is 1-hydroxy-4-methyl-6 (2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)-2(1H)-pyridone; combination with 2-amino-ethanol (1:1). The antimycotic activity was determined in the most common fungi responsible of nail infections such as Candida parapsilosis, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis or Trichophyton rubrum. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), found by means of the broth dilution susceptibility method, ranged between 0.0003% and 0.006% for all pathogens considered. The in vitro permeation study was performed by using bovine hoof membranes inserted in a modified Gummer vertical permeation cell. The experiment showed, at 30 h, a retention of the product in the nail membranes by 11.1% of the applied dose. No piroctone permeation through bovine hoof membranes could be detected by HPLC due to the limit of quantitation of this method. On the other hand, permeation of nail membranes has been demonstrated by a biological assay: the study of in vitro permeation through bovine hoof membranes, performed by biological assay, showed dose-dependent inhibition rings of T. rubrum growth by the tested device, placed either on disks for antibiogram or on nail fragments. The placebo did not show any inhibition. In vitro experimental infection by T. rubrum showed a preventive activity of the tested device on fungal growth as well as a curative activity, as the pathogen was eradicated by the tested solution in previously infected nails. PMID:16149717

Dubini, Francesco; Bellotti, Maria Grazia; Frangi, Alessandra; Monti, Daniela; Saccomani, Luigi

2005-01-01

236

Photobiological safety evaluation of UV nail lamps.  

PubMed

We evaluated six UV nail lamps representative of major US manufacturers to evaluate radiant hazards as defined in ANSI/IESNA RP-27 Recommended Practice for Photobiological Safety. Lamps were evaluated at three positions, 1 cm above the inner surface approximating exposure to the hand and the 20 cm RP-27 non-general light source distance, oriented normal and 45° to the opening. Hazard to skin at intended use distance classified these devices into Risk Group 1 or 2 (Low to Moderate) with S(?) weighted Actinic UV ranging 1.2-1.7 ?W cm(-2) and 29.8-276.25 min permissible daily exposure. At 20 cm on center and 45° UV risk to skin and eyes were all within Exempt classification. Actinic UV ranged 0.001-0.078 ?W cm(-2) and unweighted near UV (320-400 nm) ranged 0.001-0.483 mW cm(-2). Likewise the retinal photochemical blue light hazard and retinal thermal and cornea/lens IR were also Exempt. One device had aphakic eye hazard slightly rising into Risk Group 1 (Low). There were no other photobiological risks to normal individuals. Total exposure following programmed times and steps accumulate to only a small fraction of RP-27 permissible daily occupational exposure. These risks are further mitigated in realistic nonoccupational use scenarios as it is unlikely to be a daily occurrence. PMID:23550905

Dowdy, John C; Sayre, Robert M

2013-01-01

237

Intramedullary leg lengthening with a motorized nail  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose In the last decade, intramedullary limb lengthening has become a viable alternative to traditional external systems. We retrospectively analyzed the use of an intramedullary motorized nail (Fitbone) in a consecutive series of 32 patients. Patients and methods During the period September 2006 to December 2008, 32 consecutive patients with a median age of 17 (IQR: 15–19) years were treated with a fully implantable, motorized intramedullary lengthening device (Fitbone). The median leg length discrepancy was 35 (IQR: 30–44) mm at the femur (n = 21) and 28 (IQR: 25–30) mm at the tibia (n = 11). Results Leg lengthening was successful in 30 of 32 cases, with no residual relevant discrepancy (± 5 mm). No intraoperative complications were observed. The consolidation index was significantly different (p = 0.04) between femoral lengthening (mean 35 days/cm) and tibial lengthening (mean 48 days/cm) but did not depend on age older/younger than 16 or previous operations at the affected site. 3 problems, 3 obstacles, and 4 complications (3 minor, 1 major) were encountered in 8 patients, 5 of which were implant-associated. Interpretation This technique even allows correction in patients with multiplanar deformities. Compared to external devices, intramedullary systems provide comfort and reduce complication rates, give improved cosmetic results, and lead to fast rehabilitation since percutaneous, transmuscular fixation is prevented. This results in reasonable overall treatment costs despite the relatively high costs of implants. PMID:21561309

2011-01-01

238

Withdrawal resistance of ring-shank nails embedded in Southern pine lumber  

E-print Network

resistances of ring-shank nails embedded in Southern pine lumber, 2) identifying candidate probability distributions for the withdrawal data, 3) critically evaluating currently published design values for withdrawal resistance of ring-shank nails, and 4...

Skulteti, Matthew John

1996-01-01

239

Green nail syndrome treated with the application of tobramycin eye drop.  

PubMed

Green nail syndrome (chromonychia) is a nail disorder characterized by onycholysis and green-black discoloration of the nail bed. This condition is often associated with chronic paronychia. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most commonly identified organism in cultures from the affected area. Despite the various treatment options available, removal of the nail is still necessary in many cases. A 35-year-old man presented with dark-greenish discoloration of the nail plate and onycholysis on the left thumbnail. He had been treated with oral antifungal and antibiotic agents for several months; however, the lesion showed no improvement. The diagnosis of green nail syndrome was established after a positive bacterial culture, and on the basis of the antibiotic sensitivity test result, tobramycin eye drop (Tobrex®) was then prescribed. Three weeks later, the nail discoloration almost vanished but the onycholysis remained. Herein, we recommend the application of tobramycin eye drop as an easy and safe treatment option for green nail syndrome. PMID:25143684

Bae, Youin; Lee, Gang Mo; Sim, Ji Hoon; Lee, Sanghoon; Lee, Sung Yul; Park, Young Lip

2014-08-01

240

Some Emotions May Spur Urge to Pick or Pull At Skin, Hair, Nails  

MedlinePLUS

... Spur Urge to Pick or Pull at Skin, Hair, Nails Study finds boredom, frustration, impatience fuel repetitive, ... impatience can trigger chronic skin-picking, nail-biting, hair-pulling and other repetitive behaviors in some people, ...

241

Genetics Home Reference: T-cell immunodeficiency, congenital alopecia, and nail dystrophy  

MedlinePLUS

... Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > T-cell immunodeficiency, congenital alopecia, and nail dystrophy On this ... Glossary definitions Reviewed August 2014 What is T-cell immunodeficiency, congenital alopecia, and nail dystrophy? T-cell ...

242

Green Nail Syndrome Treated with the Application of Tobramycin Eye Drop  

PubMed Central

Green nail syndrome (chromonychia) is a nail disorder characterized by onycholysis and green-black discoloration of the nail bed. This condition is often associated with chronic paronychia. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most commonly identified organism in cultures from the affected area. Despite the various treatment options available, removal of the nail is still necessary in many cases. A 35-year-old man presented with dark-greenish discoloration of the nail plate and onycholysis on the left thumbnail. He had been treated with oral antifungal and antibiotic agents for several months; however, the lesion showed no improvement. The diagnosis of green nail syndrome was established after a positive bacterial culture, and on the basis of the antibiotic sensitivity test result, tobramycin eye drop (Tobrex®) was then prescribed. Three weeks later, the nail discoloration almost vanished but the onycholysis remained. Herein, we recommend the application of tobramycin eye drop as an easy and safe treatment option for green nail syndrome. PMID:25143684

Bae, Youin; Lee, Gang Mo; Sim, Ji Hoon; Lee, Sanghoon; Lee, Sung Yul

2014-01-01

243

Basic fibroblast growth factor for treatment of onychomadesis with delayed regrowth of the nail.  

PubMed

Onychomadesis usually arises from an inflammation of the paronychium or as a result of blisters and hemorrhaging under a nail that has been struck or compressed. No documented interactions between basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and onychomadesis have hitherto been reported. This case report describes a 25-year-old woman with onychomadesis following infection of the ingrown nail of her left thumb. After ten months of observation with no treatment showed no regrowth of her left thumbnail, the external use of bFGF and antibiotic ointment was started. One month later, nail regrowth was observed up to the halfway point of the nail bed, and after treatment for three months, the regrown nail reached the top of the nail bed. Both thumbnails now looked identical. This case suggests that external use of bFGF can promote nail regrowth in cases of onychomadesis with delayed regrowth of the nail. PMID:23864965

Oji, Tomito; Yazawa, Masaki; Kishi, Kazuo

2013-01-01

244

Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor for Treatment of Onychomadesis with Delayed Regrowth of the Nail  

PubMed Central

Onychomadesis usually arises from an inflammation of the paronychium or as a result of blisters and hemorrhaging under a nail that has been struck or compressed. No documented interactions between basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and onychomadesis have hitherto been reported. This case report describes a 25-year-old woman with onychomadesis following infection of the ingrown nail of her left thumb. After ten months of observation with no treatment showed no regrowth of her left thumbnail, the external use of bFGF and antibiotic ointment was started. One month later, nail regrowth was observed up to the halfway point of the nail bed, and after treatment for three months, the regrown nail reached the top of the nail bed. Both thumbnails now looked identical. This case suggests that external use of bFGF can promote nail regrowth in cases of onychomadesis with delayed regrowth of the nail. PMID:23864965

Oji, Tomito; Yazawa, Masaki; Kishi, Kazuo

2013-01-01

245

A Novel Nonsurgical Treatment for Pincer Nail That Involves Mechanical Force Control  

PubMed Central

Summary: We hypothesize that nails have an automatic curvature feature and that their flat shape is maintained by the daily upward mechanical forces from the finger/toe pad. Thus, nail deformities, such as pincer nail, spoon nail, and koilonychias, may be caused by an imbalance between these forces and can be treated by controlling these forces. Here, we report the case of a 55-year-old man whose severe pincer nail was effectively treated by thinning the nail, which reduced the automatic curvature force. This is the first report to show that pincer nail can be treated by a nonsurgical method that reduces the automatic curvature force, thus obviating the need for surgery. This supports the notion that mechanical stimulus–based treatments have high therapeutic potential for nail deformities.

Ogawa, Rei

2015-01-01

246

Early events in the invasion of the human nail plate by Trichophyton mentagrophytes.  

PubMed

A new in vitro model for the study of nail invasion by dermatophyte fungi was developed. The dermatophyte Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and fragments of finger-nails and toe-nails were used. Arthroconidia were inoculated on the ventral surface of the nails. After 6 h, adherence and germination of arthroconidia was observed. By 16 h, small germ tubes with side branches were evident. At about 24 h, micro-colonies had become established. At 48 h, a mycelium had formed, and at about 72 h most of the nail fragment was covered with fungal growth. Nail penetration occurred from the ventral surface through the intercellular spaces, and with longer incubation all three layers were invaded by arthroconidia growing through channels. Nail invasion occurred in the absence of added nutrients. Dermatophyte fungi appeared to invade the nail by a combination of mechanical and chemical factors. The model provides a substrate to study the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of new antifungal agents in situ. PMID:8547048

Rashid, A; Scott, E; Richardson, M D

1995-12-01

247

An Alternative Instrument for Making Entry Point for Elastic Intramedullary Nail  

PubMed Central

Femoral shaft fractures are common in children and are increasingly being treated with elastic intramedullary nail. We outline an instrument we have used successfully to make an entry point for placement of elastic nail.

Sharma, P; Meena, S; Gangary, S; Chowdhury, B

2015-01-01

248

An alternative instrument for making entry point for elastic intramedullary nail.  

PubMed

Femoral shaft fractures are common in children and are increasingly being treated with elastic intramedullary nail. We outline an instrument we have used successfully to make an entry point for placement of elastic nail. PMID:25861534

Sharma, P; Meena, S; Gangary, S; Chowdhury, B

2015-01-01

249

Analysis of the error in using insurance mortality to price long term care products  

E-print Network

) pricing requires the use of underlying experience data of mortality and lapse rates of healthy insureds a prior disabled state. In LTC pricing, we need to iso- late the mortality rate of healthy insureds iAnalysis of the error in using insurance mortality to price long term care products Guy Rolland

Ravishanker, Nalini

250

Microbial decontamination of cosmetic raw materials and personal care products by irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typical levels of sporadically occurring (dynamic) microbial contamination of cosmetic raw materials: pigments, abrasives and liposomes, as well as of final products for personal care: toothpaste, crayons, shampoos, cleansers and creams, were evaluated. In most cases the contamination was dominated by a single population of microorganisms, either Gram-negative bacteria or molds. The feasibility of microbial decontamination by irradiation was studied

Branka Katusin-Razem; Branka Mihaljevic; Dušan Ražem

2003-01-01

251

Occurrence of Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) in Surface Water from Mankyung River, South Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study demonstrates the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in sur- face water from the Mankyung River, South Korea. Samples collected at 5 Sites along the Mankyung River were as- sayed using a liquid chromatograph coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer (LC\\/MS\\/MS) for 13 PPCPs. Overall, 11 out of the 13 selected PPCPs, which span a

Joon-Woo Kim; Hyo-Sang Jang; Jong-Gu Kim; Hiroshi Ishibashi; Masashi Hirano; Kazuaki Nasu; Nobuhiro Ichikawa; Yuji Takao; Ryota Shinohara; Koji Arizono

2009-01-01

252

WEBPAGE ON ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR CHEMICALS, PHARMACEUTICALS, AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS - UPDATE 6/28/02  

EPA Science Inventory

The presence of endocrine disruptors, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products in the environment and in drinking waters is a growing concern in the US. The definition of endocrine disruptors is a matter of debate, however, a simple definition is that endocrine disruptors are ...

253

Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in the Environment: What are the Big Questions?  

EPA Science Inventory

Over the past 10-15 years, a significant amount of work has been done by the scientific, regulatory and business communities into effects and risks of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the environment. It is now timely to review the current knowledge and to...

254

Nail psoriasis successfully treated with intralesional methotrexate: case report.  

PubMed

Psoriasis is a common, chronic disease which affects nearly 3% of the population. The lifetime incidence of nail involvement increases up to 80-90% for psoriatic patients. Nail psoriasis is considered a significant social problem. Many topical agents have been used for psoriatic nails with various side effects and some benefits; management is currently inconclusive. Methotrexate (MTX) is a folic acid analog, which irreversibly binds to dehydrofolate reductase and blocks deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis. It is considered a potential treatment option for rapidly growing cells and has an anti-inflammatory effect through inhibition of the polyamine pathway in autoimmune diseases. Intralesional MTX has been used successfully for various indications. We present a case successfully treated with low-dose intralesional MTX with no observed side effects in a 26-year-old female psoriatic patient suffering from nail dystrophy. In contrast, conventional topical and systemic therapies have various side effects, which limit their use. We conclude that intralesional MTX injection seems to be a safe and effective treatment option for nail psoriasis; however, large controlled studies are needed. PMID:21228554

Sar?caoglu, Hayriye; Oz, Arife; Turan, Hakan

2011-02-01

255

Interlocking nailing of humeral shaft fractures: the Oxford experience 1991 to 1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-three patients with fractures of the humeral shaft were treated by locked intermedullary nailing, using the Russell-Taylor nailing system. Overall there were few technical problems with nail insertion. Additional fracture comminution occurred in five patients but affected stability in only one case. Twenty-six nails were inserted into 22 patients with pathological fractures. The objective of fracture stabilization and pain relief

T. E. J. Hems; T. P. S. Bhullar

1996-01-01

256

A simple and practical method in treatment of ingrown nails: splinting by flexible tube  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The ingrown nail (or onychocryptosis) is a common problem that occurs mostly in the big toe and causes high amounts of morbidity in affected patients. Many therapeutic methods have been described, most of them leading to severe damage to the nail or to frequent relapses. The nail splinting technique is a successful, simple and non-invasive therapeutic method for treating

S Nazari

2006-01-01

257

Stress analysis of the distal locking screws for femoral interlocking nailing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In femoral locked nailing, the distal locking screws are vulnerable to mechanical failure. Biomechanical studies have shown that the stress on these screws is substantially affected by the fit of the nail in the medullary canal. In this study, a “closed form” mathematical model based on elastic beam-column theory was developed to investigate how the nail–cortical contact, which was simulated

Jinn Lin; Son-Jyh Lin; Po-Quang Chen; Shu-Hua Yang

2001-01-01

258

Infection of the finger-nail by Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis.  

PubMed

Infection of the finger-nail of an elderly woman by Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis is reported. The small lesion was extending slowly into the healthy nail plate. The fungus has been isolated from diseased toe-nails on two previous occasions but its extra-human habitat is unknown. PMID:7426409

English, M P

1980-07-01

259

Retrograde intramedullary nailing of supracondylar femur fractures above total knee arthroplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four supracondylar fractures of the femur in three patients with total knee arthroplasties were treated by retrograde intramedullary nailing using an interlocking reamed nail (GSH Nail, Smith and Nephew Richards, Memphis, TN) specifically designed for fractures of the distal femur. Three cases were acute fractures and one was a refracture through a screw hole of a previously plated supracondylar fracture.

Felix F. Jabczenski; Mark Crawford

1995-01-01

260

Cosmetics, skin care, and appearance in teenagers.  

PubMed

Adolescence is a period of tremendous transformation in the appearance of the body and the evolution of the mind that will eventually lead to adulthood. "Yesterday's child" will need to assume and exert control over these changes. Therefore his/her appearance becomes a means of communication, a language to express his/her pursuit of self-identity. The cosmetic industry has identified teenagers as "powerful" consumers, and offers them various toiletry and skin care products that should fulfill their needs, such as cleansing, hydrating, and photoprotective agents. Certain decorative cosmetics, especially for hair and nails, are attractive to them also. For some teenagers, the expression of individualism is through body art such as tattooing and body piercing. Areas of concern are the lack of motivation for sun protection and the risky behavior associated with body piercing and tattooing. PMID:10468044

Marcoux, D

1999-09-01

261

The Chinese Nail Murders: forensic medicine in Imperial China.  

PubMed Central

Robert van Gulik was a respected Dutch sinologist and author who first translated a collection of traditional Chinese detective stories into English and then created additional fictional stories based on the same characters and setting in the Tang dynasty. One of these stories, The Chinese Nail Murders, draws on van Gulik's professional interest in law and his knowledge of early Chinese works on forensic medicine. This novel develops a common theme in Chinese detective fiction, murder by a nail wound to the head. The difficulty in detection of this mode of violence posed a particular problem for the examining magistrate because postmortem examination was mostly limited to external observations. This essay compares the development of Chinese and Western forensic medicine in the context of the nail murder motif. PMID:11138936

Summers, W. C.

1999-01-01

262

Road Nail: Experimental Solar Powered Intelligent Road Marking System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Driving in low visibility conditions (night time, fog or heavy precipitation) is particularly challenging task with an increased probability of traffic accidents and possible injuries. Road Nail is a solar powered intelligent road marking system of wirelessly networked signaling devices that improve driver safety in low visibility conditions along hazardous roadways. Nails or signaling devices are autonomous nodes with capability to accumulate energy, exchange wireless messages, detect approaching vehicles and emit signalization light. We have built an experimental test-bed that consists of 20 nodes and a cellular gateway. Implementation details of the above system, including extensive measurements and performance evaluations in realistic field deployments are presented. A novel distributed network topology discovery scheme is proposed which integrates both sensor and wireless communication aspects, where nodes act autonomously. Finally, integration of the Road Nail system with the cellular network and the Internet is described.

Samardžija, Dragan; Tesli?, Nikola; Todorovi?, Branislav M.; Kova?, Erne; Isailovi?, ?or?e; Miladinovi?, Bojan

2012-03-01

263

O17. The development of 'time release' nail enamels.  

PubMed

In our recent studies on the effects of plasticizers on nail enamel films, we developed a high interest in a phenomenon that we named as 'internal flow'[1]. During the film forming process there is an area that develops beneath the film surface where the film components remain dynamic and mobile. The time frame during which the film maintains this status is directly related to the balance of the resins, plasticizers, polymers and solvents utilized. We found that the longer this 'internal flow' persists, the better the nail enamel wears. At Tevco, we have been able to control the rate at which the solvents and plasticizers flash off the substrate during the film forming process by regulating the interactions and the levels of film constituents. This 'time release' action is the foundation of our study. This study shows that the alkyl adipates are an integral component in controlling the film's internal flow through time release. As plasticizers, these materials, when in proper balance with other components, can create a film surface that is crack-and scuff-resistant. Finally, the substrate in this study is the human nail. The film we developed has to adhere and provide consistent performance over a wide range of temperatures, oil content and the surface abrasion of human nails. We have found that by utilizing adhesion promoters in conjunction with our optimized internal flow time release formula, our film meets all required criteria and generally outperforms conventional quick dry films. In conclusion, we have been able to optimize the film characteristics of conventional quick dry nail enamels. By controlling the internal flow of the film, we can enhance the performance criteria generally expected by consumers in nail enamels. PMID:18503467

Mui, R; Lee, C T; Candia, T; Joyce, J; Wimmer, E

2000-04-01

264

Serious Penetrating Craniocerebral Injury Caused by a Nail Gun  

PubMed Central

Penetrating cerebral injuries caused by foreign bodies occur rarely due to the substantial mechanical protection offered by the skull. Throughout most of history, the brain, residing in a "closed box" of bone, has not been vulnerable to external aggression. Recently, we encountered a serious penetrating craniocerebral injury caused by a nail gun. Total excision of the offending nail via emergency craniotomy was performed, but the patient's neurologic status was not improved in spite of aggressive rehabilitative treatment. Here, we report on this troublesome case in light of a review of the relevant literature. PMID:25628820

Jeon, Yong Hyun; Kim, Dong Min; Kim, Sung Hoon

2014-01-01

265

Complications of sodium hydroxide chemical matrixectomy: nail dystrophy, allodynia, hyperalgesia.  

PubMed

Ingrown toenails are seen most commonly in young adults, and they can seriously affect daily life. Partial nail avulsion with chemical matrixectomy, generally by using either sodium hydroxide or phenol, is one of the most effective treatment methods. Known complications of phenol matrixectomy are unpredictable tissue damage, prolonged postoperative drainage, increased secondary infection rates, periostitis, and poor cosmetic results. To our knowledge, there have been no reports about the complications related to sodium hydroxide matrixectomy. Herein, we describe three patients who developed nail dystrophy, allodynia, and hyperalgesia after sodium hydroxide matrixectomy. PMID:25514278

Bostanc?, Seher; Koçyi?it, Pelin; Güngör, Hilayda Karakök; Parlak, Nehir

2014-11-01

266

[First clinical experience with nonreamed intramedullary nailing in Lithuania].  

PubMed

Long bone diaphyseal fractures are very common. Limited choice of implants for treatment of these fractures in Lithuania often leads to unsatisfactory treatment results and complications. Unreamed intramedullary nailing is relatively simple and effective method for treatment of severely injured patients. Using this method early stabilization and rehabilitation, decreased number of complications, and shortened stay in hospital can be ensured. Indications, technique and early results of first fifty intramedullary fixations with unreamed nails performed in the Clinic of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Kaunas University of Medicine are presented. PMID:15111744

Pamerneckas, Algimantas; Petrulis, Algimantas; Pilipavicius, Giedrius; Tamulaitis, Gintaras; Toliusis, Vytautas

2004-01-01

267

The Nail as a Musculoskeletal Appendage – Implications for an Improved Understanding of the Link between Psoriasis and Arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nail is considered to be a specialised modification of the skin – an ‘epidermal appendage’. However, the phrase ‘hanging on by your fingernails’ belies a vital aspect of nail microanatomy that has been overlooked, namely that the nail is functionally integrated with the musculoskeletal system. The current article reviews how the nail is functionally linked to the distal phalanx

Dennis McGonagle; Ai Lyn Tan; Michael Benjamin

2009-01-01

268

Proximal femoral neck penetration after flexible intramedullary nailing for pediatric femur fractures: a rare complication  

PubMed Central

Flexible intramedullary nailing is a common method used to treat pediatric femur fractures. Complication rates can be high, but most complications are considered minor and do not result in additional unplanned surgeries. Proximal nail penetration is a complication that has only been described once before. The penetration may be asymptomatic, but is still best to be avoided. Two cases of proximal nail penetration of the femoral neck region during nail insertion are presented. A review of the literature with regard to complications and suggestions for avoidance of proximal nail penetration is offered. PMID:19308517

Schroeder, Frank A.

2007-01-01

269

The intelligent clinical laboratory as a tool to increase cancer care management productivity.  

PubMed

Studies of the causes of cancer, early detection, prevention or treatment need accurate, comprehensive, and timely cancer data. The clinical laboratory provides important cancer information needed for physicians which influence clinical decisions regarding treatment, diagnosis and patient monitoring. Poor communication between health care providers and clinical laboratory personnel can lead to medical errors and wrong decisions in providing cancer care. Because of the key impact of laboratory information on cancer diagnosis and treatment the quality of the tests, lab reports, and appropriate lab management are very important. A laboratory information management system (LIMS) can have an important role in diagnosis, fast and effective access to cancer data, decrease redundancy and costs, and facilitate the integration and collection of data from different types of instruments and systems. In spite of significant advantages LIMS is limited by factors such as problems in adaption to new instruments that may change existing work processes. Applications of intelligent software simultaneously with existing information systems, in addition to remove these restrictions, have important benefits including adding additional non-laboratory-generated information to the reports, facilitating decision making, and improving quality and productivity of cancer care services. Laboratory systems must have flexibility to change and have the capability to develop and benefit from intelligent devices. Intelligent laboratory information management systems need to benefit from informatics tools and latest technologies like open sources. The aim of this commentary is to survey application, opportunities and necessity of intelligent clinical laboratory as a tool to increase cancer care management productivity. PMID:24761839

Mohammadzadeh, Niloofar; Safdari, Reza

2014-01-01

270

Management of Proximal Phalangeal Fractures of the Hand Using Finger Nail Traction and a Digital Splint: A Prospective Study of 43 Cases  

PubMed Central

Background Proximal phalangeal fractures are common fractures of the hand. The fractures are difficult to treat because of vicinity of two important joints and crossing long tendons. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of nail traction technique in the management of proximal phalangeal fractures of the hand. Methods Patients (n=43) with proximal phalangeal fractures were treated by nail traction and evaluated prospectively. We assessed all the patients at the time of presentation and then followed a standard protocol for recruiting patients. After application of nail traction, the patients were initially assessed at 12th day. The outcome measures included post reduction radiographic evaluation and total active motion (TAM) in finger at the final follow-up appointment. All the patients were followed for one year. Results The post-reduction X-ray evaluation showed good reduction in 33 cases, fair reduction in 8 and poor reduction in 2 cases. At final assessment, 35 patients had good TAM score, six had fair and two had poor TAM score. Complications were noted in two patients and these included pressure necrosis in palm and stiffness in proximal interphalangeal joint. Conclusions The results of this prospective study show that with careful selection of patients, nail traction seems to be simple, safe and effective technique for managing proximal phalangeal fractures. PMID:22662302

Chandraprakasam, Thangavel; Thambiraj, Sathya

2012-01-01

271

Treatment of ingrown nail with a special device composed of shape-memory alloy.  

PubMed

Ingrown nail is a common nail problem resulting in pain and disability in daily life. Recently, a new treatment modality for an ingrown nail was reported that used a device composed of shape-memory alloy, K-D. The aim of the present study was to determine the efficacy, recurrence rate and complications of K-D. Between June 2010 and September 2012, 24 patients (31 nails) underwent treatment of symptomatic incurved nails with a K-D. Patients were evaluated at pretreatment and during every visit. The mean age of the patients involved was 43.4 years. The mean period of follow up was 161 days. The mean maintenance period was 41 days. The right first toenail was the most common site. Almost ingrown nails healed and the nail deformity was corrected after the procedure. Among the 31 nails, seven of the ingrown nails recurred during follow up (22.6% recurrence rate). The recurrence rate of the patients with stage 1, 2 and 3 ingrown nails was 22.2%, 33.3% and 14.2%, respectively. The majority of patients were very satisfied. There were no side-effects in most patients except loss of nail in one patient. K-D has some advantages such as simple application steps, no deformity after the procedure, high patient satisfaction and obvious effect compared to other non-invasive and invasive methods. PMID:24612270

Park, Se-Won; Park, Ji-Ho; Lee, Jong-Hee; Lee, Dong-Youn; Lee, Joo-Heung; Yang, Jun-Mo

2014-04-01

272

Biodegradation and removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in treatment systems: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have been the focus of much recent research as concerns rise about their\\u000a occurrence in bodies of water worldwide. In an effort to characterize the risk and determine the prevalence of these micropollutants\\u000a in lakes and rivers, many researchers are examining PPCP removal from impaired water during wastewater treatment and water\\u000a recycling (soil passage)

Kathryn M. Onesios; Jim T. Yu; Edward J. Bouwer

2009-01-01

273

Pharmaceutical and personal care products in tile drainage following land application of municipal biosolids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land application of municipal biosolids (sewage) is a common farming practice in many parts of the world. There is potential for transport of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) from agricultural fields to adjacent surface waters via tile drainage systems. In this study, liquid municipal biosolids (LMB) (total solids=11,933 mg L?1), supplemented with selected PPCPs and the fluorescent dye tracer rhodamine

D. R. Lapen; E. Topp; C. D. Metcalfe; H. Li; M. Edwards; N. Gottschall; P. Bolton; W. Curnoe; M. Payne; A. Beck

2008-01-01

274

How are pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) removed from urban wastewaters?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of bioactive trace pollutants such as pharmaceuticals and ingredients of personal care products (PPCPs) in different\\u000a environmental compartments (rivers, lakes, groundwaters, sediments, etc.) is an emerging issue due to the lack of existing\\u000a information about the potential impact associated with their occurrence, fate and ecotoxicological effects. Due to the low\\u000a PPCP concentrations reported in wastewaters (ppb or ppt)

Sonia Suárez; Marta Carballa; Francisco Omil; Juan M. Lema

2008-01-01

275

Reduction of nutrients, microbes, and personal care products in domestic wastewater by a benchtop electrocoagulation unit.  

PubMed

To preserve environmental and human health, improved treatment processes are needed to reduce nutrients, microbes, and emerging chemical contaminants from domestic wastewater prior to discharge into the environment. Electrocoagulation (EC) treatment is increasingly used to treat industrial wastewater; however, this technology has not yet been thoroughly assessed for its potential to reduce concentrations of nutrients, a variety of microbial surrogates, and personal care products found in domestic wastewater. This investigation's objective was to determine the efficiency of a benchtop EC unit with aluminum sacrificial electrodes to reduce concentrations of the aforementioned biological and chemical pollutants from raw and tertiary-treated domestic wastewater. EC treatment resulted in significant reductions (p < 0.05, ? = 0.05) in phosphate, all microbial surrogates, and several personal care products from raw and tertiary-treated domestic wastewater. When wastewater was augmented with microbial surrogates representing bacterial, viral, and protozoan pathogens to measure the extent of reduction, EC treatment resulted in up to 7-log10 reduction of microbial surrogates. Future pilot and full-scale investigations are needed to optimize EC treatment for the following: reducing nitrogen species, personal care products, and energy consumption; elucidating the mechanisms behind microbial reductions; and performing life cycle analyses to determine the appropriateness of implementation. PMID:25797885

Symonds, E M; Cook, M M; McQuaig, S M; Ulrich, R M; Schenck, R O; Lukasik, J O; Van Vleet, E S; Breitbart, M

2015-01-01

276

Reduction of nutrients, microbes, and personal care products in domestic wastewater by a benchtop electrocoagulation unit  

PubMed Central

To preserve environmental and human health, improved treatment processes are needed to reduce nutrients, microbes, and emerging chemical contaminants from domestic wastewater prior to discharge into the environment. Electrocoagulation (EC) treatment is increasingly used to treat industrial wastewater; however, this technology has not yet been thoroughly assessed for its potential to reduce concentrations of nutrients, a variety of microbial surrogates, and personal care products found in domestic wastewater. This investigation's objective was to determine the efficiency of a benchtop EC unit with aluminum sacrificial electrodes to reduce concentrations of the aforementioned biological and chemical pollutants from raw and tertiary-treated domestic wastewater. EC treatment resulted in significant reductions (p < 0.05, ? = 0.05) in phosphate, all microbial surrogates, and several personal care products from raw and tertiary-treated domestic wastewater. When wastewater was augmented with microbial surrogates representing bacterial, viral, and protozoan pathogens to measure the extent of reduction, EC treatment resulted in up to 7-log10 reduction of microbial surrogates. Future pilot and full-scale investigations are needed to optimize EC treatment for the following: reducing nitrogen species, personal care products, and energy consumption; elucidating the mechanisms behind microbial reductions; and performing life cycle analyses to determine the appropriateness of implementation. PMID:25797885

Symonds, E. M.; Cook, M. M.; McQuaig, S. M.; Ulrich, R. M.; Schenck, R. O.; Lukasik, J. O.; Van Vleet, E. S.; Breitbart, M.

2015-01-01

277

Analysis of load-slip characteristics of nailed wood joints: application of a two-dimensional geometric nonlinear analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used a two-dimensional finite element method to analyze the load-slip characteristics of nailed wooden joints sheathed with a panel. We used tests of nail bending, nail shank embedment in a wood or a panel, nail-head embedment in a face of a panel, nail withdrawing from a wood, friction between a wood and a panel, and initial axial forces of

Nobuo Nishiyama; Naoto Ando

2003-01-01

278

Treatment of Midshaft Clavicular Fractures With Elastic Titanium Nails  

PubMed Central

Background: One of the modern techniques for the treatment of clavicle fracture (Fx) is elastic titanium intramedullary nailing. But, there are different opinions about this technique. We studied this technique in 12 patients with clavicle Fx and assessed its outcome. Objectives: We aimed to study the prognosis of midshaft clavicular Fx treated via minimally invasive stable elastic intramedullary nailing. Patients and Methods: We operated on 13 clavicle Fx in 12 patients from 2008 through 2012. We used a new technique called minimally invasive titanium elastic intramedullary nailing for operating patients with midshaft clavicular Fx. Results: Clinical union was achieved 3-5 weeks after the operation with no pain over Fx sites upon physical examination. Radiologic union appeared at 6 to 12 weeks .We did not encounter nonunion or infection, but one of the comminuted Fx united 1 cm shorter; however, it had a solid union with a good score. All but two patients had good scores. Conclusions: Although controversy exist regarding intramedullary nailing of clavicle Fx, our results using this technique for minimally comminuted midshaft clavicular Fx were very good. PMID:25337513

Keihan Shokouh, Hassan; Naderi, Mohammad Nasir; Keihan Shokouh, Mahsa

2014-01-01

279

Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Skin and Nail Changes  

MedlinePLUS

... and Nail Changes Protect your skin from the sun. l Try to stay out of the sun. l When you are outside, always wear sunscreen ... me to use? 3. What should the SPF (sun protection factor) be in the sunscreen and lip ...

280

Ingrown toenails (unguis incarnatus): Nail braces/bracing treatment.  

PubMed

Nail bracing is a safe, simple, and inexpensive treatment option that avoids surgery, requires no anesthetic, requires no recovery period, allows wearing the existing shoes, offers immediate relief from pain, and allows the practice of daily activities. Braces can be used for prolonged periods of times. If recurrence occurs, reapplication of bracing is usually required. PMID:24688206

Chiriac, Anca; Solovan, Caius; Brzezinski, Piotr

2014-04-01

281

Ingrown toenails (unguis incarnatus): Nail braces/bracing treatment  

PubMed Central

Nail bracing is a safe, simple, and inexpensive treatment option that avoids surgery, requires no anesthetic, requires no recovery period, allows wearing the existing shoes, offers immediate relief from pain, and allows the practice of daily activities. Braces can be used for prolonged periods of times. If recurrence occurs, reapplication of bracing is usually required. PMID:24688206

Chiriac, Anca; Solovan, Caius

2014-01-01

282

Malrotation following reamed intramedullary nailing of closed tibial fractures  

PubMed Central

Background: Rotational malalignment after intramedullary tibial nailing is rarely addressed in clinical studies. Malrotation (especially >10°)of the lower extremity can lead to development and progression of degenerative changes in knee and ankle joints. The purpose of this study is to determine the incidence and severity of tibial malrotation after reamed intramedullary nailing for closed diaphyseal tibial fractures. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients (53 males and 7 females) with tibial diaphyseal fracture were included in this study. The mean age of the patients was 33.4±13.3 years. All fractures were manually reduced and fixed using reamed intramedullary nailing. A standard method using bilateral limited computerized tomography was used to measure the tibial torsion. A difference greater than 10° between two tibiae was defined as malrotation. Results: Eighteen (30%) patients had malrotation of more than 10°. Malrotation was greater than 15° in seven cases. Good or excellent rotational reduction was achieved in 70% of the patients. There was no statistically significant relation between AO tibial fracture classification and fibular fixation and malrotation of greater than 10°. Conclusions: Considering the high incidence rate of tibial malrotation following intramedullary nailing, we need a precise method to evaluate the torsion intraoperatively to prevent the problem. PMID:22719118

Jafarinejad, Adel Ebrahimpour; Bakhshi, Hooman; Haghnegahdar, Maryam; Ghomeishi, Nima

2012-01-01

283

Radiation exposure to the surgeon during closed interlocking intramedullary nailing  

Microsoft Academic Search

During interlocking intramedullary nailing of twenty-five femoral and five tibial fractures, the primary surgeon wore both a universal film badge on the collar of the lead apron and a thermoluminescent dosimeter ring on the dominant hand to quantify the radiation that he or she received. When distal interlocking was performed, the first ring was removed and a second ring was

PAUL E. LEVIN; ROBERT W. SCHOEN; BRUCE D. BROWNER

1987-01-01

284

Interlocking medullary nails — Radiation doses in distal targeting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distal interlocking of intramedullary nails involves the use of a fluoroscope and a targeting device. A specially designed awl makes the interlocking procedure simple and efficient. The 30-cm-long side arm of this awl protects the surgeon's hand from direct radiation, and measurements of X-ray exposure show that the protection against radiation is sufficient.

S. Skjeldal; S. Backe

1987-01-01

285

Locked intramedullary nailing for difficult nonunions of the humeral diaphysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antegrade intramedullary nailing and bone grafting was carried out for 27 patients with resistant atrophic nonunion of the humeral diaphysis. The initial fracture was open in 12 cases and closed in 15. There were ten proximal humeral fractures, 13 mid-shaft fractures and four distal humeral shaft fractures. Most had previous attempts at internal fixation with bone grafting. Fifteen cases united,

I. Ilyas; D. A. Younge

2003-01-01

286

The isolation of Botryodiplodia theobromae from a nail lesion.  

PubMed

Botryodiplodia theobromae not known to produce onychomycosis was repeatedly recovered from a healthy woman with evident lesions in a toe nail. Mycelial fragments were observed in the scales and the fungus was isolated in cycloheximide-free culture media. The report indicates that many fungi, hitherto considered non-pathogens, may still be able to colonize a vaiety of human tissues. PMID:1265567

Restrepo, A; Arango, M; Velez, H; Uribe, L

1976-03-01

287

Impact of IT on health care professionals: changes in work and the productivity paradox.  

PubMed

Health care organizations are under increasing pressure to become more efficient while at the same time maintaining or improving the quality of care. Information technology (IT), with its potential to increase efficiency, accuracy and accessibility of information, has been expected to play an important role in supporting these changes. We report the impact of patient care information systems on health care professionals in five community hospitals. The study framework incorporated both quality of care in Donabedian's elements of structure-process-outcome and Grusec's three levels of IT impact: direct substitution, proceduralization and new capabilities. The study results suggest that, for specific tasks, IT increased efficiency and productivity--a single employee was able to complete more tasks. However, this produced other consequences not predicted. Participants noted this change did not 'free up time' to spend with patients, but meant there were potentially more opportunities to provide services and more tasks to complete. Other effects included: reduced job satisfaction as more time was spent on the computer; less frequent interactions with patients and for shorter duration; and an increasingly 'visible' accountability as performance was easily monitored. There were also changes in roles and responsibilities as the computer enabled tasks to be carried out from a number of locations and by a variety of personnel. When innovations are introduced into organizations there are both expected and unexpected consequences. Increased awareness of the interactive relationship between computer users and the technology helps organizations better understand why results do, or do not, occur. One must look beyond just simply increasing productivity by replacing manual tasks with automated ones, to examining how the changes influence the nature of work and relationships within the organization. PMID:10181380

Hebert, M A

1998-05-01

288

Tolerance of natural baby skin-care products on healthy, full-term infants and toddlers  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the tolerance of baby skin-care products with at least 95% naturally derived ingredients on infants and toddlers. Materials and methods Healthy, full-term infants and toddlers aged 1–36 months were enrolled. In study 1, a lightly fragranced natural baby hair and body wash (n=30), a lightly fragranced natural baby shampoo (n=30), or a lightly fragranced natural baby lotion (n=32) were assessed over 2 weeks. In study 2, a lightly fragranced natural baby hair and body wash and a lightly fragranced natural baby lotion (n=33) were assessed as a regimen over 4 weeks. The wash and shampoo were used three or more times per week, but not more than once daily. Lotions were applied in the morning or after a bath. Clinicians assessed the arms, legs, torso, or scalp for erythema, dryness, peeling/flakiness (study 1 only), tactile roughness, edema (study 1 only), rash/irritation (study 2 only), and overall skin condition (study 2 only) at baseline, week 1, and weeks 2 or 4. Parents completed skin assessment questionnaires. In study 2, stratum corneum hydration was measured. Subjects were monitored for adverse events. Results No significant changes in clinical grading scores were observed, indicating that all products were well tolerated. By the end of each study, >90% of parents/caregivers believed each product was mild and gentle. In study 2, improvement in stratum corneum hydration was observed (+37% at week 1 and +48% at week 4, P<0.05 for both). In study 1, one baby experienced mild erythema on the neck and scalp after using the shampoo (possibly related to treatment). In study 2, there were no product-related adverse events. Conclusion The natural baby skin-care products were well tolerated by infants and toddlers when used alone or as part of a skin-care regimen. PMID:24523593

Coret, Catherine D; Suero, Michael B; Tierney, Neena K

2014-01-01

289

Partial Removal of Nail Matrix in the Treatment of Ingrown Nails: Prospective Randomized Control Study Between Curettage and Electrocauterization.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the result of electrocauterization and curettage, which can be done with basic instruments. Patients with ingrown nail were randomized to 2 groups. In the first group, nail matrix was removed by curettage, and the second group, nail matrix was removed by electrocautery. A total of 61 patients were enrolled; 32 patients were operated by curettage, and 29 patients were operated by electrocautery. Wound infections, as early complication, were found in 15.6% (5/32) of the curettage group, 10.3% (3/29) of the electrocautery group patients each (P = .710). Nonrecurrence was observed in 93.8% (30/32) and 86.2% (25/29) of the curettage and electrocautery groups, respectively, (lower limit of 1-sided 90% confidence interval = -2.3% > -15% [noninferiority margin]). To remove nail matrix, the curettage is effective as well as the electrocauterization. Further study is required to determine the differences between the procedures. PMID:25256283

Kim, Maru; Song, In-Guk; Kim, Hyung Jin

2014-09-25

290

Sun-care product advertising in parenting magazines: what information does it provide about sun protection?  

PubMed

This study analyzed the content of sun-care product advertisements in five major U.S. parenting magazines with high circulation: Family Circle, Parents, Family Fun, Parenting (Early Years), and Parenting (School Years). The study examined what information sun-care product advertisements tell parents about skin cancer prevention and about sunscreen use for themselves or for their children based on the Health Belief Model concepts of perceived benefits and perceived barriers. Results showed that the most commonly mentioned benefit of the product was that it blocks ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB) rays. One-third of the ads promoted the product's effectiveness in overcoming four of the barriers that prevent people from using sunscreens: eye irritation, skin irritation, an unpleasant smell, and the need to reapply sunscreen too often or after physical activity. However, only a few of the ads provided information about the consequences of unprotected sun exposure or mentioned methods of sun protection or skin cancer prevention other than sunscreen use. We discuss the implications of these messages for parents' ability to understand correctly how to protect their children from damaging sun exposure. PMID:23066971

Kang, Hannah; Walsh-Childers, Kim

2014-01-01

291

Clinical Evidence for the Relationship between Nail Configuration and Mechanical Forces  

PubMed Central

Summary: Mechanobiology is an emerging field of science that focuses on the way physical forces and changes in cell or tissue mechanics contribute to development, physiology, and disease. As nails are always exposed to physical stimulation, mechanical forces may have a particularly pronounced effect on nail configuration and could be involved in the development of nail deformities. However, the role of mechanobiology in nail configuration and deformities has rarely been assessed. This review describes what is currently understood regarding the effect of mechanical force on nail configuration and deformities. On the basis of these observations, we hypothesize that nails have an automatic curvature function that allows them to adapt to the daily upward mechanical forces. Under normal conditions, the upward daily mechanical force and the automatic curvature force are well balanced. However, an imbalance between these 2 forces may cause nail deformation. For example, pincer nails may be caused by the absence of upward mechanical forces or a genetic propensity increase in the automatic curvature force, whereas koilonychias may occur when the upward mechanical force exceeds the automatic curvature force, thereby causing the nail to curve outward. This hypothesis is a new concept that could aid the development of innovative methods to prevent and treat nail deformities. PMID:25289309

Ogawa, Rei

2014-01-01

292

PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: AN OVERVIEW - POLLUTION FROM PERSONAL ACTIONS, ACTIVITES, AND BEHAVIORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Perhaps more so than with any other class of pollutants, the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the environment highlights the immediate, intimate, and inseparable connection between the personal activities of individual citizens and their environ...

293

PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: AN OVERVIEW - POLLUTION FROM PERSONAL ACTIONS, ACTIVITIES, AND BEHAVIORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Perhaps more so than with any other class of pollutants, the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPS) in the environment highlights the immediate, intimate, and inseparable connection between the personal activities of individual citizens and their...

294

PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: AN OVERVIEW - POLLUTION FROM PERSONAL ACTIONS, ACTIVITIES, AND BEHAVIORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Perhaps more so than with any other class of pollutants, the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPS) in the environment highlights the immediate, intimate, and inseparable connection between the individual activities of consumers and their environment. I...

295

Baby care product development: artificial urine in vitro assay is useful for cosmetic product assessment.  

PubMed

As a result of infants' inability to control urination, the skin of the diaper area has special needs for protection from irritating effects of urine and prevention of diaper dermatitis such as products for cleansing and protection of the skin. Several in vitro models are currently available to assess tolerance. In vitro testing using artificial urine allows the protective effects of diaper-region cosmetics to be ascertained. Thus, a new model defined as "artificial urine in vitro assay" has been added to our traditional pre-clinical in vitro testing program. IL1-? is a highly active and pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine. It plays a key role in inflammation and is the biological mirror of irritation induced by diaper dermatitis. This study determines, on human skin explants, if a cosmetic formula is (1) tolerated equally as well in the presence of artificial urine as in its absence and (2) is able to decrease IL1-? production induced by artificial urine or Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate. 31 tests including 17 in-house formulas, 10 bench-markers and 4 combinations of products were performed and data obtained are represented on a simple four-point scale (from practically non protective to very protective). It allows determination of formula-type groups that will have predictable protective properties in subsequent clinical trials and comparison with competitors' products. It is a useful aid in the formulation stage and provides readily-useable data for the cosmetic risk assessment. PMID:23850986

Degouy, Arnaud; Gomez-Berrada, Marie-Pierre; Ferret, Pierre-Jacques

2014-02-01

296

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in chicken meat and other food animal products: a market-basket pilot study.  

PubMed

Pharmaceutical drugs are extensively used in industrial food animal production. We examined whether residues of veterinary antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) were detectable in a small market-basket sample of retail chicken (n=39), ground beef (n=3) and milk (n=3) samples. High-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry were used to assess the concentration of 59 PPCPs and their residues in animal products. All samples of ground beef, milk, and 14 chickens were analyzed individually, while an additional 25 chicken samples were pooled and analyzed in groups of five. The majority of PPCPs were not detected in meat and milk samples. Caffeine was detected in two of three milk samples (0.4 ng/mL, 2.0 ng/mL) and in 10 of 19 individual and pooled chicken samples (median: 18.6 ng/g, range: 6.1-28.8 ng/g). Acetaminophen was detected in three of three milk samples (median: 1.5 ng/mL, range: 1.4-2.1 ng/mL). Antibiotics in the tetracycline class were detected in two of three milk samples (median: 1.0 ng/mL, range: 0.1-2.0 ng/mL) and did not exceed regulatory residue tolerances of 300 ng/mL. There are no regulatory residue tolerances for caffeine or acetaminophen in animal products. The acetaminophen detections in milk, however, raise questions about extra-label and unapproved use of pharmaceutical drugs in food animal production, as this drug is not approved for use in lactating dairy cattle or any other type of food animal production. Additional studies are needed to confirm our finding of PPCPs in meat and dairy products. PMID:24858227

Baron, Patrick A; Love, David C; Nachman, Keeve E

2014-08-15

297

Perceptions of glasses as a health care product: a pilot study of New Zealand baby boomers.  

PubMed

Marketers have been slow to customize their strategies for the influential consumer segment of aging baby boomers. This qualitative research provides insights on New Zealand baby boomers' perceptions of glasses as a health care product. Appearance was a dominant theme; status was not a major concern, although style and fashion were. Wearing glasses had negative associations related to aging; however, both male and female participants recognized that glasses offered improved quality of life. Data relating to the theme of expense indicated that these New Zealand baby boomers made sophisticated perceptual associations and subsequent pragmatic trade-offs between price, quality, and style. PMID:23210674

Davey, Janet; King, Chloe; Fitzpatrick, Mary

2012-01-01

298

Building a “smart nail” for penetration tests on Li-ion cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nail penetration is one safety test that Li-ion cells experience in order to simulate some aspects of an internal short circuit event. To our knowledge, nail penetration is usually performed with an ordinary steel nail. Normally, the only data gathered has been a simple pass/fail result depending on whether or not the cell emitted smoke or flame, along with a thermocouple on the surface of the cell. A “smart nail” has been developed to allow the collection of temperature versus time data at the point of nail penetration. This nail, in conjunction with a thermocouple on the cell surface and tabs on the ends to measure voltage, should provide some new insights into the behavior of cells during this type of abuse testing as well as aid in the developing of safer Li-ion cell chemistries.

Hatchard, T. D.; Trussler, S.; Dahn, J. R.

2014-02-01

299

The spectrum of nail disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection.  

PubMed

There are no known pathognomonic nail signs of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, several presentations should increase the index of suspicion. (1) Proximal white subungual onychomycosis or superficial white onychomycosis, especially of the fingernails, is present. Trichophyton rubrum appears to cause both most commonly in HIV-infected patients. Periungual dermatophyte involvement and involvement of all 10 fingernails is unusual in non-HIV-infected persons. (2) Candida is a primary pathogen of the nail bed and nail plate especially if many nails are involved. (3) A destructive, almost granulomatous-like psoriatic involvement of the nails is present. (4) Squamous cell carcinoma of the nail bed in a young adult. There are no clinical trails to confirm the efficacy of therapy mentioned in this article. The treatment suggestions are empirical and are the personal views of the authors. PMID:1619083

Daniel, C R; Norton, L A; Scher, R K

1992-07-01

300

Ocular irritation reversibility assessment for personal care products using a porcine corneal culture assay.  

PubMed

Personal care product manufacturers have used a broad spectrum of alternative ocular irritation assays during the past two decades because these tests do not require the use of live animals, they provide reliable predictive data, and they are relatively inexpensive to conduct. To complement these assays, the ex vivo Porcine Corneal Opacity Reversibility Assay (PorCORA) was recently developed using a corneal culture model to predict reversibility of ocular irritants. Three commercially available consumer products (a shampoo, a hair color glaze, and a hair colorant system containing 12% hydrogen peroxide) were each tested in two PorCORA study replicates in order to assess potential ocular damage reversibility for surfactant-, propylene carbonate-, and peroxide-based formulations, respectively. Under the exaggerated, in vitro study conditions, the surfactant-based shampoo may cause irreversible porcine corneal damage (histological changes in the epithelial squamous cell and/or basal cell layers), whereas the hair color glaze and 12% hydrogen peroxide product caused fully reversible ocular irritation (microscopic changes only in the superficial squamous cell layer). The hair color glaze and peroxide product results correlate with established in vivo data for similar compounds, but the shampoo results contradicted previous BCOP results (expected to be only a mild irritant). Therefore, although the PorCORA protocol shows promise in predicting the extent and reversibility of potential ocular damage caused by accidental consumer eye exposure to personal care products, the contradictory results for the surfactant-based shampoo indicate that more extensive validation testing of the PorCORA is necessary to definitively establish the protocol's reliability as a Draize test replacement. PMID:21172418

Donahue, Douglas A; Avalos, Javier; Kaufman, Lewis E; Simion, F Anthony; Cerven, Daniel R

2011-04-01

301

A case of ingrown toenail accompanied by extreme soft tissue hypertrophy to the extent of invisible nail.  

PubMed

Ingrown nails occur when the nail fold grows inwards into the nail bed. This condition affects daily life and causes a loss of labor, and therefore, should be meticulously tackled and immediately treated. Ingrown nail is categorized in three stages based on pain, erythema, infection, drainage, and the presence of granulation tissue. We present hypertrophic tissue excision and bilateral partial matrix excision in an unclassified case of ingrown toenail in which the bilateral side wall hypertrophy covered the entire nail; normal tissue of the nail was invisible, along with first year follow-up results. PMID:23268828

Seyfettino?lu, F?rat; Sünneli, Özgür; Dülgero?lu, Ali; Bora, Osman Arslan

2012-01-01

302

When all you have is a dermatoscope— start looking at the nails  

PubMed Central

Pigmented and non-pigmented nail alterations are a frequent challenge for dermatologists. A profound knowledge of clinical and dermatoscopic features of nail disorders is crucial because a range of differential diagnoses and even potentially life-threatening diseases are possible underlying causes. Nail matrix melanocytes of unaffected individuals are in a dormant state, and, therefore, fingernails and toenails physiologically are non-pigmented. The formation of continuous, longitudinal pigmented streaks (longitudinal melanonychia) may either be caused by a benign activation of matrix melanocytes (e.g., as a result of trauma, inflammation, or adverse drug reactions) or by a true melanocytic proliferation (e.g., in a nevus or melanoma). In general, non-continuous nail alterations, affecting only limited parts of the nail apparatus, are most frequently of non-melanocytic origin. Important and common differential diagnoses in these cases are subungual hemorrhage or onychomycosis. In addition, foreign bodies, bacterial infections, traumatic injuries, or artificial discolorations of the nail unit may less frequently cause non-continuous nail alterations. Many systemic diseases that may also show involvement of the nails (e.g., psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, lichen planus, alopecia areata) tend to induce alterations in numerous if not all nails of the hands and feet. A similar extensive and generalized alteration of nails has been reported after treatment with a number of systemic drugs, especially antibiotics and cytostatics. Benign or malignant neoplasms that may also affect the nail unit include glomus tumor, Bowen’s disease, squamous cell carcinoma, and rare collision tumors. This review aims to assist clinicians in correctly evaluating and diagnosing nail disorders with the help of dermatoscopy. PMID:25396079

Haenssle, Holger A.; Blum, Andreas; Hofmann-Wellenhof, Rainer; Kreusch, Juergen; Stolz, Wilhelm; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Zalaudek, Iris; Brehmer, Franziska

2014-01-01

303

Surgical treatment for congenital curved nail of the fourth toe.  

PubMed

Since congenital curved nail of the fourth toe (CNFT) was reported by Iwasawa et al in 1991, there have been only 19 cases of CNFT in 6 reports, which were from Japan and Taiwan. We performed surgery on 4 patients with CNFT and report here good results. There has been no previous detailed report on surgical treatment for this condition. This report will describe the treatment, mainly the surgical procedure. PMID:23797024

Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Karube, Daisuke; Saiga, Atsuomi; Akita, Shinsuke; Kubota, Yoshitaka; Kuriyama, Motone; Satoh, Kaneshige

2015-03-01

304

Impact of expanded-duty assistants on cost and productivity in dental care delivery.  

PubMed Central

Data from an experimental dental program are used to develop a linear programming model of dental care delivery that the authors use to examine the economic implications of introducing expanded-duty dental assistants (EDDA's) in three types of dental practices. The authors examine the changes in productivity and profitability that result from hiring one or more EDDAs and conclude that a dentist in solo practice can more than double his net revenue by hiring one EDDA but will not increase his productivity further by hiring additional EDDAs. Two- and three-dentist groups also can increase revenue by hiring EDDAs, but, beyond a certain point, an inverse relationship exists between the number of auxiliaries hired and net revenue generated. PMID:812848

Lipscomb, J; Scheffler, R M

1975-01-01

305

Radiation exposure to the surgeon during closed interlocking intramedullary nailing  

SciTech Connect

During interlocking intramedullary nailing of twenty-five femoral and five tibial fractures, the primary surgeon wore both a universal film badge on the collar of the lead apron and a thermoluminescent dosimeter ring on the dominant hand to quantify the radiation that he or she received. When distal interlocking was performed, the first ring was removed and a second ring was used so that a separate recording could be made for this portion of the procedure. At the conclusion of the study, all of the recorded doses of radiation were averaged. The average amount of radiation to the head and neck during the entire procedure was 7.0 millirems of deep exposure and 8.0 millirems of shallow exposure. The average dose of radiation to the dominant hand during insertion of the intramedullary nail and the proximal interlocking screw was 13.0 millirems, while the average amount during insertion of the distal interlocking nail was 12.0 millirems. Both of these averages are well within the government guidelines for allowable exposure to radiation during one-quarter (three months) of a year. Precautions that are to be observed during this procedure are recommended.

Levin, P.E.; Schoen, R.W. Jr.; Browner, B.D.

1987-06-01

306

Unusual delayed presentation of a nail gun injury through the skull base.  

PubMed

Published reports of nail gun injuries to the face are uncommon. We describe an unusual delayed presentation with injury through the infratemporal fossa and a literature review. A 55-year-old patient presented 2 weeks after an unrecognized injury with complaints of a headache. Imaging revealed a nail traversing the infratemporal fossa with intracranial extension. The nail was removed through a preauricular approach without sequelae. Nail gun missiles to the face are uncommon, dramatic, but often nonfatal because of their relative low velocity. Patients are usually diagnosed at the time of injury, evaluated with computed tomography and angiography, and treated with surgery. PMID:17440427

Lee, Alice D; Oh, Young S

2007-06-01

307

[Yellow nail syndrome. Apropos of 2 cases. Review of the literature].  

PubMed

The yellow nail syndrome is a clinical syndrome without specific biological parameters. It is characterized by the following threesome of symptoms: nail abnormalities, primary lymphedema, and pleuropulmonary manifestations. In most cases lymphography shows abnormalities of the lymphatic vessels and spirometry shows a restrictive defect and rarely obstructive disorders. Pathogenesis of this syndrome is still unknown. It is, however, remarkable that the yellow nail syndrome may occur in association with other diseases, the most frequent of which are cancer affections and immune disorders. We report two cases of the yellow nail syndrome which were associated with cancer (neoplasm of the larynx and breast). PMID:7800987

Kianzowa, M; Saraceni, O; Wilhelm, J M; Kieffer, P

1994-01-01

308

N-nitroso-N-methyldodecylamine and N-nitroso-N-methyltetradecylamine in hair-care products.  

PubMed

N-Nitroso-N-methyldodecylamine and N-nitroso-N-methyltetradecylamine, which cause urinary bladder tumours in experimental animals, were detected in several hair-care products formulated with N,N-dimethyldodecylamine oxide. Quantitative determinations were made using a gas-liquid chromatograph interfaced with a thermal energy analyser and using [1-14C]N-nitroso-N-methyldodecylamine as an internal standard. The presence of the two nitrosamines was confirmed by high-pressure liquid chromatography with a thermal energy analyser as detector, by photolysis of samples and by combined gas chromatography-mass spectometry. To test the reproducibility of the method, a single shampoo was selected for replicate analysis and was found to contain 90 +/- 8 ppb N-nitroso-N-methyldodecylamine and 37 +/- 11 ppb N-nitroso-N-methyltetradecylamine. Levels of N-nitroso-N-methyldodecylamine in other hair-care products ranged from 11 to 873 ppb and those of n-nitroso-N-methyltetradecylamine from 8 to 254 ppb. PMID:7200935

Hecht, S S; Morrison, J B; Wenninger, J A

1982-04-01

309

Care robots for the supermarket shelf: a product gap in assistive technologies.  

PubMed

The literature on the development of assistive robots is dominated by technological papers with little consideration of how such devices might be commercialised for a mass market at a price that is affordable for older people and their families as well as public services and care insurers. This article argues that the focus of technical development in this field is too ambitious, neglecting the potential market for an affordable device that is aleady in the realm of the 'adjacent possible' given current technology capabilities. It also questions on both ethical and marketing grounds the current effort to develop assistive robots with pet-like or human-like features. The marketing literature on 'really new products' has so far not appeared to inform the development of assistive robots but has some important lessons. These include using analogies with existing products and giving particular attention to the role of early adopters. Relevant analogies for care robots are not animals or humans but useful domestic appliances and personal technologies with attractive designs, engaging functionality and intuitive usability. This points to a strategy for enabling mass adoption - which has so far eluded even conventional telecare - of emphasising how such an appliance is part of older people's contemporary lifestyles rather than a sign of age-related decline and loss of independence. PMID:23729915

Blackman, Tim

2013-07-01

310

Intertemporal analysis of organizational productivity in residential aged care networks: scenario analyses for setting policy targets.  

PubMed

With an increasing ageing population, there is a growing concern about how the elderly would be looked after. The primary purpose of this paper is to develop scenario analysis using simulated data where various criteria are incorporated into modeling policy targets, and apply an intertemporal productivity analysis to observe inefficiencies as reform unfolds. The study demonstrates how dynamic network data envelopment analysis (DN-DEA) can be used to evaluate the changing productivity of residential aged care (RAC) networks over time. Results indicate that it takes 9 years for 90 % of the RAC networks to have 85 % or more of the total beds in high-level care, and an optimal bed capacity is reached by the end of year 7. Number of beds and registered nurses employed are the main sources of inefficiency. The common core inefficient cohort identified with the paper's method represents a sub-group of RAC networks more deserving of closer managerial attention because of their constantly inefficient operations over time. PMID:24293078

Avkiran, Necmi Kemal; McCrystal, Alan

2014-06-01

311

Analysis of consumer cosmetic products for phthalate esters.  

PubMed

A rapid and sensitive reverse-phase HPLC method with UV detection was developed for the quantitation of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in cosmetic preparations. Average recoveries of the phthalate esters were better than 90%. In a survey of 48 consumer cosmetic products, including hair care products, deodorants, lotions and creams, nail products, fragrances, and body washes, most products were found to contain at least one phthalate ester. DEP was detected most frequently at concentrations up to 38,663 ppm. DBP was found in fewer products, but at levels up to 59,815 ppm. Based on the available exposure and toxicity data, the FDA has concluded that there is insufficient data to conclude that a human health hazard exists from exposure to phthalate esters from cosmetic products. PMID:16688376

Hubinger, Jean C; Havery, Donald C

2006-01-01

312

[Management of onychocryptosis in primary care: A clinical case].  

PubMed

Onychocryptosis (ingrown toenail) is a condition commonly seen in Primary Care clinics. It is uncomfortable and restrictive for patients and has a high incidence in males between second and third decades of life. It is of unknown origin, with a number of predisposing triggering factors being involved. Treatment depends on the stage of the ingrown nail and the procedures may range from conservative to minor surgery that can be performed by the Primary Care physician in the health centre. We report the case of a 25-year onychocryptosis that did not respond to conservative management, and was extracted with partial matricectomy of the nail. PMID:24034767

Zavala Aguilar, K; Gutiérrez Pineda, F; Bozalongo de Aragón, E

2013-09-01

313

Japanese Quail (Coturnix) : Care, Management, Propagation.  

E-print Network

at the time the beak is being cut. The tip of the upper beak can be removed temporarily with nail clippers, figure 6. After birds are debeaked, the level of feed and water in the troughs may need to be increased. Another generally effective preventive... Extension Service. CONTENTS Pr.oinczlhation Egg Care ................ 6 ............... Isculjcztion and Hatching 8 Brooding. Care of Young Birds .......... 8 t .................... Cliro of Adult Quail 10 .................... iigh t Rey trirements 10...

Cain, J. R.; Cawley, W. O.

1974-01-01

314

Type of Evidence Behind Point-of-Care Clinical Information Products: A Bibliometric Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Point-of-care (POC) products are widely used as information reference tools in the clinical setting. Although usability, scope of coverage, ability to answer clinical questions, and impact on health outcomes have been studied, no comparative analysis of the characteristics of the references, the evidence for the content, in POC products is available. Objective The objective of this study was to compare the type of evidence behind five POC clinical information products. Methods This study is a comparative bibliometric analysis of references cited in monographs in POC products. Five commonly used products served as subjects for the study: ACP PIER, Clinical Evidence, DynaMed, FirstCONSULT, and UpToDate. The four clinical topics examined to identify content in the products were asthma, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and carbon monoxide poisoning. Four indicators were measured: distribution of citations, type of evidence, product currency, and citation overlap. The type of evidence was determined based primarily on the publication type found in the MEDLINE bibliographic record, as well as the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), both assigned by the US National Library of Medicine. MeSH is the controlled vocabulary used for indexing articles in MEDLINE/PubMed. Results FirstCONSULT had the greatest proportion of references with higher levels of evidence publication types such as systematic review and randomized controlled trial (137/153, 89.5%), although it contained the lowest total number of references (153/2330, 6.6%). DynaMed had the largest total number of references (1131/2330, 48.5%) and the largest proportion of current (2007-2009) references (170/1131, 15%). The distribution of references cited for each topic varied between products. For example, asthma had the most references listed in DynaMed, Clinical Evidence, and FirstCONSULT, while hypertension had the most references in UpToDate and ACP PIER. An unexpected finding was that the rate of citation overlap was less than 1% for each topic across all five products. Conclusions Differences between POC products are revealed by examining the references cited in the monographs themselves. Citation analysis extended to include key content indicators can be used to compare the evidence levels of the literature supporting the content found in POC products. PMID:21335319

2011-01-01

315

Caryocar brasiliense supercritical CO2 extract possesses antimicrobial and antioxidant properties useful for personal care products  

PubMed Central

Background The cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries have an increasing interest in replacing synthetic antimicrobials in dermatological products due to increased microbial resistance to conventional antimicrobial agents. Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense) is a native fruit tree of the Brazilian Cerrado, specifically used in cosmetics, in the food industry, and for medicinal purposes. Leishmanicidal and antifungal activities have been reported previously. This study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of a C. brasiliense extract obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction. Methods The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus were determined by the classical microdilution method. Antiseptic activity against these organisms was evaluated by the plate diffusion method. The antioxidant potential of the extract was evaluated using a method based on the oxidation of 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS). The extract’s chemical profile was analyzed for the presence of alkaloids, saponins, anthraquinones, steroids, tannins, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds according to standard colorimetric methods. Results The C. brasiliense supercritical CO2 extract exhibits antimicrobial activity against all bacteria tested. It also possesses antioxidant activity, when compared to a vitamin E standard. Conclusions The C. brasiliense supercritical CO2 extract may be useful for the development of personal care products, primarily for antiseptic skin products that inactivate, reduce, prevent, or arrest the growth of microorganisms with the inherent intent to mitigate or prevent disease as well as products that minimize damage caused by free radicals. PMID:24565304

2014-01-01

316

Penetration of (14C)-Efinaconazole Topical Solution, 10%, Does Not Appear to be Influenced by Nail Polish  

PubMed Central

Onychomycosis is a common nail disorder with significant medical impacts and aesthetic consequences. Patients seek treatment for several reasons, including the unsightliness of the nail(s). Even with successful management, it takes months for the diseased nail to appear cosmetically normal. Patients commonly apply nail polish to mask the appearance of the dystrophic nail, though it is contraindicated with the currently available topical lacquers for onychomycosis. The authors’ nonclinical study using a cadaver nail model showed that penetration of efinaconazole topical solution, 10%, a new antifungal being developed for the treatment of mild-to-moderate toenail onychomycosis, was not influenced by application of nail polish. Polishes showed an increase in surface tackiness with repeated efinaconazole topical solution, 10% application. The medical and aesthetic significance of the authors’ findings have yet to be assessed clinically. PMID:25276275

Gold, Linda Stein; Korotzer, Andrew

2014-01-01

317

78 FR 24721 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results of the Third...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Memorandum (``Final Results''). \\2\\ Itochu...Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China...Steel Nails from the People's Republic of China...doc.gov/frn/index.html. The signed...Amended Final Results of the Review...

2013-04-26

318

Phase distribution and removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products during anaerobic sludge digestion.  

PubMed

The fate and removal of 48 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) during anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge were investigated in four full-scale sewage treatment plants (STPs). We measured concentrations in both the liquid and solid phases of the sludge to compare the distribution ratios (Kd) between phases before and after digestion. The results showed changes in Kd values of PPCPs with carboxyl or amino functional groups, probably due to a shift of dissociation equilibrium with the increase in pH. Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim were almost completely degraded (>90%); triclosan, triclocarban, and ofloxacin were moderately degraded (around 30-50%); but carbamazepine was not eliminated. To our knowledge, this is the first report that shows (i) the occurrence and removal of several tens of PPCPs by anaerobic sludge digestion in full-scale municipal STPs and (ii) the change of distribution between the liquid and solid phases during digestion. PMID:23774781

Narumiya, Masanori; Nakada, Norihide; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki

2013-09-15

319

Removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in aquatic plant-based systems: a review.  

PubMed

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the aquatic environment are regarded as emerging contaminants and have attracted increasing concern. The use of aquatic plant-based systems such as constructed wetlands (CWs) for treatment of conventional pollutants has been well documented. However, available research studies on aquatic plant-based systems for PPCP removal are still limited. The removal of PPCPs in CWs often involves a diverse and complex set of physical, chemical and biological processes, which can be affected by the design and operational parameters selected for treatment. This review summarizes the PPCP removal performance in different aquatic plant-based systems. We also review the recent progress made towards a better understanding of the various mechanisms and pathways of PPCP attenuation during such phytoremediation. Additionally, the effect of key CW design characteristics and their interaction with the physico-chemical parameters that may influence the removal of PPCPs in functioning aquatic plant-based systems is discussed. PMID:24080393

Zhang, Dongqing; Gersberg, Richard M; Ng, Wun Jern; Tan, Soon Keat

2014-01-01

320

Low-energy treatment of colourant wastes using sponge biofilters for the personal care product industry.  

PubMed

Four trickling biofilter designs were assessed as low-energy alternatives to aerobic activated sludge (AS) for the treatment of personal care product industry wastes. The designs included partially submerged packed-media and sponge reactors with and without active aeration. Partial submergence was used to reduce active aeration needs. Simulated colourant wastes (up to COD=12,480 mg/L, TN=128 mg/L) were treated for 201 days, including wastes with elevated oxidant levels. COD and TN removal efficiencies were always >79% and >30% (even without aeration). However, aerated sponge reactors consistently had the highest removal efficiencies, especially for TN (?60%), and were most tolerant of elevated oxidants. This study shows sponge biofilters have great potential for treating colourant wastes because they achieve high treatment efficiencies and reduce energy use by >40% relative to AS systems. PMID:23294645

Ahammad, S Z; Zealand, A; Dolfing, J; Mota, C; Armstrong, D V; Graham, D W

2013-02-01

321

76 FR 68129 - Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Register Volume 76, Number 213 (Thursday...A-520-804] Certain Steel Nails From the United...investigation are steel nails specifically...faced with a large number of exporters or producers...States (HTSUS) numbers 7317.00.55...entitled ``Certain Steel Nails from the...

2011-11-03

322

The Cortical Step Sign Fails to Prevent Malrotation of a Nailed Femoral Shaft Fracture: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Intramedullary nailing has become the treatment of choice for diaphyseal femur fractures. Malrotation is a well-recognized complication of femoral nailing. Various techniques including the cortical step sign (CSS) have been described to minimize iatrogenic rotational deformity during femoral nailing. We present a case in which the use of the CSS resulted in a clinically significant malrotation requiring revision. PMID:24592344

Tung, Taranjit; Tufescu, Ted

2014-01-01

323

Comparison of a New Braid Fixation System to an Interlocking Intramedullary Nail for Tibial Osteotomy Repair in an Ovine Model  

E-print Network

Comparison of a New Braid Fixation System to an Interlocking Intramedullary Nail for Tibial) and polymethylmethacrylate bone cement with an interlocking intramedullary (IM) nail fixation in an ovine model. Study Design at 12 weeks after surgery compared with an interlocking IM nail repair. Clinical Relevance--A Nitinol

Scharer, John E.

324

Contraceptive pill-induced porphyria cutanea tarda presenting with onycholysis of the finger nails  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of porphyria cutanea tarda induced by oral contraceptive pill therapy is reported, and its unusual presenting sign of onycholysis of the finger nails is noted. Reference is made to the rarity of nail changes in porphyria and the regression of the onycholysis in the patient following therapy is outlined.

J. P. Byrne; J. M. Boss; R. P. Dawber

1976-01-01

325

Simultaneous determination of polar pharmaceuticals and personal care products in biological organs and tissues.  

PubMed

In the present study, a sensitive and accurate isotope dilution method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 17 polar pharmaceutical and personal care product (PPCP) residues (logKow=1.40-5.74), including 14 pharmaceuticals and 3 personal care products, in biological organs and tissues. The proposed method involved enzymatic hydrolysis, followed by sequential clean-up using silica gel chromatography and gel permeation chromatography, and analysis via ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. This method yielded acceptable absolute recoveries (48-88%) and internal standard-corrected recoveries (90-130%) for 17 PPCPs. Method detection limits were between 0.0092 and 3.2ngg(-1) wet weight, and the limits of quantification were between 0.020 and 8.7ngg(-1) wet weight. The method can be used to readily detect the target compounds at trace levels while minimizing the required sample volume. The developed method was applied to the determination of 17 PPCPs in the liver and kidney of 17 birds collected from Japan and also in the plasma, liver, and brain of 7 cyprinoid fish from an effluent-dominated stream in Japan. Triclosan was detected in 5 of 11 fish-eating birds but not in non-fish-eating birds, suggesting the contamination of prey fish by the chemical. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibacterial agents, and psychotropic agents were frequently detected in the fish tissues. In addition, 7 of the target compounds were found in fish brain. The median brain/plasma ratios of the psychotropic agents ranged from 1.6 (carbamazepine) to 12 (diphenhydramine), indicating high transportability to fish brain. PMID:24958034

Tanoue, Rumi; Nomiyama, Kei; Nakamura, Haruna; Hayashi, Terutake; Kim, Joon-Woo; Isobe, Tomohiko; Shinohara, Ryota; Tanabe, Shinsuke

2014-08-15

326

Witkop tooth and nail syndrome: a report of three cases in a family.  

PubMed

Witkop tooth and nail syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant ectodermal dysplasia manifested by hypodontia and nail dysplasia. Tooth shape may vary, and conical and narrow crowns are common. Mandibular incisors, second molars, and maxillary canines are the most frequently missing teeth. Nail dysplasia affects the fingernails and especially the toenails and is often more severe in childhood. Nails may be spoon-shaped, ridged, slow-growing, and easily broken. We examined an Eastern Mediterranean family in which three siblings (two girls, one boy) had this syndrome. The severity of finger and toenail anomalies varied. The children's mother had no Witkop-related abnormalities, but their father was reported to have dental and nail anomalies. Early intervention is recommended to manage orofacial disfigurement and avoid negative social consequences for these children. PMID:21054511

Memarpour, Mahtab; Shafiei, Fereshteh

2011-01-01

327

Determining water content in human nails with a portable near-infrared spectrometer.  

PubMed

The water content of human nail plates was determined using a portable near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer with an InGaAs photodiode array detector. NIR diffuse reflectance (DR) spectra were collected from 108 cut nail plates with different relative humidity and in vivo from fingernails. Partial least-squares (PLS) regression was applied to the NIR spectra in the 1115-1645 nm region to develop calibration models that determine the water content in the cut nail plates and fingernails. A good correlation was obtained between the NIR spectra and the water content measured by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) for the NIR measurement of both cut nail plates and fingernails. The results indicate that the water content in the nails can be determined very rapidly (1 s) by means of the portable NIR spectrometer and PLS regression. PMID:14658646

Egawa, Mariko; Fukuhara, Tadao; Takahashi, Motoji; Ozaki, Yukihiro

2003-04-01

328

Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) in the treatment of the femoral shaft fracture where intramedullary nailing is not indicated  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to examine the results of minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) of the femoral shaft fracture in patients where intramedullary nailing is contraindicated and evaluate the proper number of the screws for stable fixation. This was a retrospective study of 36 closed femoral shaft fractures which underwent MIPO using a conventional 4.5 broad dynamic compression plate (DCP) with 14–18 holes fixed with three or four screws in the proximal and distal fragments. Thirty-three fractures had bony union in 21.0 weeks (range, 12–28 weeks), two had delayed union that required bone graft and union at 28 and 32 weeks. Malalignment occurred in five cases. Sixty-two fragments were fixed with three screws—40 in cluster and 22 in separated positions. Ten fragments were fixed with four screws—eight in cluster and two separated. Broken screws were found in three cases; all were in the group with three screws fixed in cluster group. MIPO of the femoral shaft fracture is an alternative treatment in the patient where intramedullary nailing is contraindicated. Malalignment is the common complication that must be carefully evaluated intraoperatively. We recommend using at least three separated screws in each fragment to reduce the risk of screw breakage. PMID:18597087

Chiewcharntanakit, S.

2008-01-01

329

Nail-like targets for laser plasma interaction experiments  

SciTech Connect

The interaction of ultra-high power picosecond laser pulses with solid targets is of interest both for benchmarking the results of hybrid particle in cell (PIC) codes and also for applications to re-entrant cone guided fast ignition. We describe the construction of novel targets in which copper/titanium wires are formed into 'nail-like' objects by a process of melting and micromachining, so that energy can be reliably coupled to a 24 {micro}m diameter wire. An extreme-ultraviolet image of the interaction of the Titan laser with such a target is shown.

Pasley, J; Wei, M; Shipton, E; Chen, S; Ma, T; Beg, F N; Alexander, N; Stephens, R B; MacPhee, A G; Hey, D; Pape, S L; Patel, P; Mackinnon, A J; Key, M H; Offermann, D; Link, A; Chowdhury, E; Van-Woerkom, L D; Freeman, R R

2007-12-18

330

Contaminants in human nail dust: an occupational hazard in podiatry?  

PubMed Central

Background There has been limited literature indicating that podiatrists’ health may be at risk from exposure to human nail dust. Previous studies carried out in the UK have shown that large amounts of dust become airborne during the human nail drilling procedure and are present in the air up to 10 hours after a clinical session. This increases the risk of Respiratory Tract (RT) infection for the practitioner. Methods This study used a nasal swabbing technique and fungal culture to determine whether podiatrists (n = 50) had the same microbes present in their nasal cavities as non-podiatry health professional control group (n = 45). All swabs were cultured, counted and identified for each subject. Survey data of use and type of nail drill, type of mask used and frequency of change over a two week period. Results The results showed podiatrists had a greater range of microbes in their nasal cavities although the controls had greater overall numbers of organisms. The known pathogen and common mould, Aspergillus fumigatus was ost commonly found fungus within the podiatric group with 44% of the group having the fungus present. All nail drills used by the podiatrists had some form of dust extraction (except one). Of concern was 17% (n = 8) of the podiatrists did not use a mask at all whilst drilling and seemed unaware of any infection control issues. Simple disposable masks were the most frequently worn with only half being changed after each patient further increasing the cross infection risk Conclusion The high levels of Aspergilus contamination is a significant finding in the podiatry group as this fungus is small enough to enter the tissue of the nasal cavity and as a small particle will stay airborne in the room for up to 16 hours. Aspergilus has been shown to cause brain and soft tissue tumours in extreme cases. The high levels of upper respiratory track problems reported in the literature may well be caused by this fungal agent. The non use and use of inappropriate masks by podiatrists is clearly an occupational hazard to their health and well being. PMID:24552311

2014-01-01

331

Fatigue load of current tibial intramedullary nail designs: a simulated study.  

PubMed

Comminuted tibial shaft fractures are traditionally treated with statically locked intramedullary nailing and protected weight bearing until fracture callous is evident. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that a simulation of immediate full weight bearing following intramedullary nailing of these fractures does not result in implant failure.A comminuted fracture model was created using 2 pieces of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe. Ten-millimeter-diameter tibial nails (Synthes, Paoli, Pennsylvania; Styker, Mahwah, New Jersey; Zimmer, Warsaw, Indiana; Smith & Nephew, Memphis, Tennessee) were inserted within the PVC pipe and secured proximally and distally with 2 or 3 locking bolts. The constructs were cycled in axial compression for 500,000 cycles or until implant failure. The tests were conducted using a modified staircase method (200 N per step), and the fatigue strength was identified for each of the tibial nail designs. When 2 interlocking bolts were placed proximally and distally, the fatigue strength was between 900 and 1100 N for the Stryker nail, 1100 and 1300 N for the Zimmer nail, 1200 and 1400 N for the Synthes nail, and 1400 and 1600 N for the Smith & Nephew nail. Adding a third interlocking bolt proximally and distally to the Smith & Nephew nail increased the fatigue strength by 13% to between 1700 and 1900 N. In all cases, implant failures occurred through the proximal or distal interlocking bolts.Biomechanical tests suggest that current tibial nail designs may permit immediate full weight bearing of comminuted tibial shaft fractures with minimal risk of implant failure. This may facilitate mobilization in the early postoperative period, especially in the multiply injured patient. PMID:21667907

Wagner, Mark; Liu, Qi; Ellis, Thomas J

2011-06-01

332

Study of the transformation of two salicylates used in personal care products in chlorinated water.  

PubMed

Disinfection of swimming pool water is essential to inactivate pathogenic microorganisms. However chlorine based disinfectants, the most commonly used, are known to lead to the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs), some of which have been associated with adverse health effects. Precursors of DBPs include the organic matter present in the water used to fill the swimming pool, human body fluids and personal care products (PCPs) used by swimmers and bathers. The increased use, in the last years, of PCPs lead to an increased concern about the fate of PCPs in swimming pool waters and potential health risks of formed DBPs. In this study, the chemical transformations of two salicylates, benzyl salicylate (BzS) and phenyl salicylate (PS), incorporated in several PCPs, in chlorinated water were investigated. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV-diode-array detection (HPLC-UV-DAD) was used to follow the reaction kinetics and HPLC with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) was used to tentatively identify the major transformation by-products. Under the experimental conditions used in this work both salicylates reacted with chlorine following pseudo-first order kinetics: rate constant k = (0.0038 ± 0.0002) min(-1) and half-life t1/2 = (182 ± 10) min for BzS and rate constant k = (0.0088 ± 0.0005) min(-1) and half-life t1/2 = (79 ± 4) min for PS (mean ± standard deviation). The reactions of the two salicylates in chlorinated water led to the formation of DBPs that were tentatively identified as mono- and dichloro- substituted compounds. Most probably they result from an electrophilic substitution of one or two hydrogen atoms in the phenolic ring of both salicylates by one or two chlorine atoms. PMID:25086797

de Oliveira e Sá, Mariana M; Miranda, Margarida S; da Silva, Joaquim C G Esteves

2014-11-15

333

Linkage analysis of the Nail-patella syndrome  

SciTech Connect

Nail-patella syndrome (NPS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by dysplasia of nails and patella, decreased mobility of the elbow, iliac horns, and, in some cases, nephropathy. The disorder has been mapped to the long arm of chromosome 9, but the precise localization and identity of the NPS gene are unknown. Linkage analysis in three NPS families, using highly informative dinucleotide repeat polymorphisms on 9q33-q34, confirmed linkage of NPS to this chromosome. Recombinations were detected, by two-point linkage analysis, between NPS and the centromeric markers D9S60 and the gelsolin gene and the telomeric markers D9S64 and D9S66, in one of the families. Haplotype analysis suggested an additional recombination between NPS and the argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) gene. These results localize the NPS gene to an interval on 9q34.1, distal to D9S60 an proximal to ASS, comprising a genetic distance of {approximately}9 cM. This represents a significant refinement in the localization of the NPS gene. 25 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Campeau, E.; Watkins, D.; Rouleau, G.A. [Montreal General Hospital, Quebec (Canada); Babul, R.; Der Kaloustian, V.M. [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada); Buchanan, J.A.; Meschino, W. [North York General Hospital (Canada)

1995-01-01

334

Zn-K edge EXAFS study of human nails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy at the Zn - K edge is applied for the study of the bonding geometry of Zn in human nails. The studied nail clippings belong to healthy donors and donors who suffer from lung diseases. Fitting of the first nearest neighboring shell of Zn reveals that it is bonded with N and S, at distances that take values in the ranges 2.00-2.04 Å and 2.23-2.28Å, respectively. Zn is four - fold coordinated and the ratio of the number of sulfur and nitrogen atoms (NS/NN) in the first coordination shell ranges from 0.52 to 1. The sample that belongs to the donor who suffers from lung fibrosis, a condition that is related to keratinization of the lung tissue, is characterized by the highest number of NS/NN. Simulation, using the FEFF8 code, of the Zn - K edge EXAFS spectra with models of tetrahedrally coordinated Zn with 1 (or 2) cysteine and 3 (or 2) histidines is satisfactory.

Katsikini, M.; Mavromati, E.; Pinakidou, F.; Paloura, E. C.; Gioulekas, D.

2009-11-01

335

Analysis of human nails by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is applied to analyze human fingernails using nanosecond laser pulses. Measurements on 45 nail samples are carried out and 14 key species are identified. The elements detected with the present system are: Al, C, Ca, Fe, H, K, Mg, N, Na, O, Si, Sr, Ti as well as CN molecule. Sixty three emission lines have been identified in the spectrum that are dominated by calcium lines. A discriminant function analysis is used to discriminate among different genders and age groups. This analysis demonstrates efficient discrimination among these groups. The mean concentration of each element is compared between different groups. Correlation between concentrations of elements in fingernails is calculated. A strong correlation is found between sodium and potassium while calcium and magnesium levels are inversely correlated. A case report on high levels of sodium and potassium in patients with hyperthyroidism is presented. It is shown that LIBS could be a promising technique for the analysis of nails and therefore identification of health problems. PMID:21639580

Hosseinimakarem, Zahra; Tavassoli, Seyed Hassan

2011-05-01

336

Shielding of the patient's gonads during intramedullary interlocking femoral nailing  

SciTech Connect

Levels of exposure to radiation were recorded at sixty sites in fifteen patients during intramedullary interlocking femoral nailing. Radiation film dosimeters were placed at four gonadal sites on each subject. A standard male-gonad cup or a pelvic drape of 0.5-millimeter-thick lead-equivalent was put in place to shield the gonads. A second set of four dosimeters was placed external to the shield to approximate unprotected exposure. The total duration of the fluoroscopy averaged five minutes (range, thirty seconds to fourteen minutes). The total exposure to radiation external to the shield was 35 +/- 34 millirems at the male gonadal sites and 17 +/- 11 millirems at the female gonadal sites. With use of the gonadal shield, exposure to radiation was not measurable in thirteen of the fifteen patients. The differences between the exposures of the shielded and unshielded sites to radiation were statistically significant (p less than 0.001). The highest level of gonadal exposure was found with the treatment of proximal femoral fractures and with the use of statically locked nails. Regardless of the conditions, and for all types of fractures and locations, our results demonstrated that gonadal shielding is justified.

Kwong, L.M.; Johanson, P.H.; Zinar, D.M.; Lenihan, M.R.; Herman, M.W. (Harbor/Univ. of California, Los Angeles Medical Center, Torrance (USA))

1990-12-01

337

Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products along the West Prong Little Pigeon River in east Tennessee, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the environment has received a great attention due to their potential impacts on public health. This study examined the occurrence of PPCPs in West Prong Little Pigeon River in east Tennessee. As wastewater is a major source for environmental occurrence of PPCPs, both wastewater and river water samples were analyzed for

Chang-Ping Yu; Kung-Hui Chu

2009-01-01

338

Occurrence of endocrine disrupting compounds, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products in the Han River (Seoul, South Korea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of 31 selected endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in Korean surface waters was investigated. The area was selected since there is a lack of information in the Seoul area on the suspected contamination of rivers by micropollutants, although over 99% of drinking water is produced from surface waters in this area that

Yeomin Yoon; Jaena Ryu; Jeill Oh; Byeong-Gyu Choi; Shane A. Snyder

2010-01-01

339

ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY RESEARCH NEEDS FOR MAPPING TRENDS OF PHARMACEUTICAL AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCT POLLUTION FROM PERSONAL USE  

EPA Science Inventory

The consensus among environmental scientists and risk assessors is that the fate and effects of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPS) in the environment are poorly understood. Many classes of PPCPs have yet to be investigated. Acquisition of trends data for a suite of...

340

The new production theory for health care through clinical reengineering: a study of clinical guidelines--Part I.  

PubMed

Drucker writes that the emerging theory of manufacturing includes four principles and practices: statistical quality control, manufacturing accounting, modular organization, and systems approach. SQC is a rigorous, scientific method of identifying variation in the quality and productivity of a given production process, with an emphasis on improvement. The new manufacturing economics intends to integrate the production strategy with the business strategy in order to account for the biggest portions of costs that the old methods did not assess: time and automation. Production operations that are both standardized and flexible will allow the organization to keep up with changes in design, technology, and the market. The return on innovation in this environment is predicated on a modular arrangement of flexible steps in the process. Finally, the systems approach sees the entire process as being integrated in converting goods or services into economic satisfaction. There is now a major restructuring of the U.S. health care industry, and the incorporation of these four theories into health care reform would appear to be essential. This two-part article will address two problems: Will Drucker's theories relate to health care (Part I)? Will the "new manufacturing" in health care (practice guidelines) demonstrate cost, quality, and access changes that reform demands (Part II)? PMID:10139368

Sharp, J R

1994-12-01

341

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in surface and treated waters of Louisiana, USA and Ontario, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

A newly developed analytical method was used to measure concentrations of nine pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in samples from two surface water bodies, a sewage treatment plant effluent and various stages of a drinking water treatment plant in Louisiana, USA, and from one surface water body, a drinking water treatment plant and a pilot plant in Ontario, Canada.

Glen R. Boyd; Helge Reemtsma; Deborah A. Grimm; Siddhartha Mitra

2003-01-01

342

Beyond implementation: the role of physicians, health care professionals and consumers in the development and use of food products.  

PubMed

Physicians and consumers play an essential role in determining the ultimate success of food products. Effective communication of product efficacy and safety data to physicians, health care professionals and consumers can be a deciding factor in whether a food product is recommended or consumed. Food products deemed safe and beneficial will be further judged for cost and cost effectiveness. Physician and consumer reaction to newly launched products can be a valuable source of feedback if used to create communication plans and to reevaluate products. Long term monitoring of safety, efficacy, and consumer use patterns in the context of post-marketing surveillance studies is another potential feedback mechanism. The present review focuses on how physicians and consumers are involved in food product development and refinement, how they use the information available to make choices, and what kinds of information must be supplied to allow the public to be fully informed. PMID:10723644

Inniss, S; Bahlo, E; Kardinaal, A

1999-12-01

343

Aggregate consumer exposure to UV filter ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate via personal care products.  

PubMed

Ultraviolet (UV) filters are substances designed to protect our skin from UV-induced damage and can be found in many categories of personal care products (PCPs). The potential endocrine-disrupting effects attributed to UV filter ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC) are being debated. We evaluated the aggregate exposure of the Swiss-German population (N=1196; ages ?1-97years) to EHMC via the use of PCPs; thus we provide the first comprehensive information about the current EHMC exposure sources and aggregate exposure levels. In our probabilistic modeling method performed at an individual level, PCP use data obtained by a postal questionnaire were linked to concentration data on EHMC gained from chemical analyses of PCPs used by the questionnaire respondents. The modeled median and 99.9th percentile of the internal aggregate exposure for the general population were 0.012 and 0.873mgday(-1)kg(-1) and 0.008 and 0.122mgday(-1)kg(-1) for the summer/autumn and winter/spring period, respectively. The major contributors to internal aggregate exposure were sunscreen products in summer/autumn (females: 64%; males: 85%; children aged ?12years 93%). In winter/spring, lip care dominated for females (30%) and sunscreen for males (38%) and children aged ?12years (50%). Overall, the internal aggregate exposure estimates for the studied population are shown to be below the Derived No Effect Level (DNEL) for EHMC i.e., the level of exposure above which humans should not be exposed; however, when an intense short-term exposure via sunscreen is accounted for during a sunbathing day, at the high-end percentiles (99.9th) the predicted aggregate exposure exceeds the DNEL for thyroid-disrupting effects such as for children aged ?4years, who might be particularly susceptible to endocrine disrupting events. It is nevertheless critical to acknowledge that quantitative data on transdermal penetration of EHMC from PCPs are currently insufficient. Since long-term effects of endocrine disruptors are not known, future studies are warranted to provide accurate quantitative data on transdermal penetration of EHMC and to determine its metabolic fate in humans. PMID:25454242

Manová, Eva; von Goetz, Natalie; Hungerbuehler, Konrad

2015-01-01

344

Pharmaceutical and personal care products in tile drainage following land application of municipal biosolids.  

PubMed

Land application of municipal biosolids (sewage) is a common farming practice in many parts of the world. There is potential for transport of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) from agricultural fields to adjacent surface waters via tile drainage systems. In this study, liquid municipal biosolids (LMB) (total solids=11,933 mg L(-1)), supplemented with selected PPCPs and the fluorescent dye tracer rhodamine WT (RWT), were applied to tile drained fields using two land application approaches. Objectives included evaluating the relative benefits of land application practices with respect to reducing PPCP loadings to tile drains, evaluating PPCP persistence in tile water, and determining whether rhodamine WT can be used to estimate PPCP mass loads in tile. The PPCPs examined included an antibacterial agent used in personal care products (triclosan), a metabolite of nicotine (cotinine), and a variety of drugs including two sulfonamide antimicrobials (sulfapyridine, sulfamethoxazole), a beta-blocker (atenolol), an anti-epileptic (carbamazepine), an antidepressant (fluoxetine), analgesic/anti-inflammatories (acetaminophen, naproxen, ibuprofen), and a lipid-regulator (gemfibrozil). Maximum observed PPCP concentrations in the spiked LMB were about 10(3) ng g(-1) dry weight. PPCPs were shown to move rapidly via soil macropores to tile drains within minutes of the land application. Maximum observed PPCP concentrations in tile effluent associated with the LMB application-induced tile flow event were approximately 10(1) to 10(3) ng L(-1). PPCP mass loads, for the application-induced tile-hydrograph event, were significantly (p<0.1) higher for surface spreading over non-tilled soil (incorporation tillage occurring 20 h post-application), relative to aerating soil immediately prior to surface spreading using an AerWay slurry deposition system. PPCP concentrations that were detected above the limit of quantitation (LOQ) in tile water during several precipitation-induced tile flow events that occurred post-application, included: triclosan (max. approximately 1.5 x 10(2) ng L(-1)), carbamazepine (max. approximately 7 x 10(1) ng L(-1)), atenolol (max approximately 4 x 10(1) ng L(-1)), and cotinine (max approximately 2 x 10(1) ng L(-1)). In spite of their presence in biosolids, the other PPCPs were not observed above LOQ concentrations during these events. PPCP concentrations were predicted from RWT concentrations over a 40 day study period. Tile mass loads as a percent of PPCP mass applied to soil ranged from 4.2%+/-SD of 9.2% to 7.1%+/-10.9% for the AerWay system and surface spreading plus incorporation treatments, respectively. PMID:18455753

Lapen, D R; Topp, E; Metcalfe, C D; Li, H; Edwards, M; Gottschall, N; Bolton, P; Curnoe, W; Payne, M; Beck, A

2008-07-25

345

Nail changes in connective tissue diseases: a study of 39 cases  

PubMed Central

The objective is to identify nail unit changes associated with connective tissue diseases (CTD) and evaluate their frequency. We carried a prospective study between March 2012 and March2013 in our department. All patients with CTD were included. A clinical examination of the fingernails was done by the same dermatologist. Nail features were noted and classified and photos taken. Thirty nine patients were enrolled including: 16 systemic sclerosis, 14 lupus erythematosus (SLE), 8 dermatomyositis (DM), 1 primary Sjorgen's syndrome. The mean age was 40 years old. The mean duration of the disease was 6 years. Nail unit changes were present in 27 patients (69%). The abnormalities observed were Longitidunal ridging in 11 patients, Peri ungueal erythema in 10 patients, Peri-ungual telangiectasia in 11 patients, Ragged cuticle in 10 patients fingertips scars in 9 patients, Increase of longitudinal curvature and beaking of the nail in 4 patients, Increase in transverse curvature in 4 patients, dyschromia of the proximal nail fold in 3 patients, Subungual hyperkeratosis in 3 patients, onycholysis in 2 patients, splinter haemorrhages in 3 patients, nail plate pigmentation in 2 patients, pseudoclubbing in 1 patient, macrolunula in 1 patients, Red lunulae in one patient, bluish- black discoloration of the nail plate in one patient. The proximal nailfold was found to be most sites affected. PMID:25419288

Elmansour, Imane; Chiheb, Soumia; Benchikhi, Hakima

2014-01-01

346

Nail changes in connective tissue diseases: a study of 39 cases.  

PubMed

The objective is to identify nail unit changes associated with connective tissue diseases (CTD) and evaluate their frequency. We carried a prospective study between March 2012 and March2013 in our department. All patients with CTD were included. A clinical examination of the fingernails was done by the same dermatologist. Nail features were noted and classified and photos taken. Thirty nine patients were enrolled including: 16 systemic sclerosis, 14 lupus erythematosus (SLE), 8 dermatomyositis (DM), 1 primary Sjorgen's syndrome. The mean age was 40 years old. The mean duration of the disease was 6 years. Nail unit changes were present in 27 patients (69%). The abnormalities observed were Longitidunal ridging in 11 patients, Peri ungueal erythema in 10 patients, Peri-ungual telangiectasia in 11 patients, Ragged cuticle in 10 patients fingertips scars in 9 patients, Increase of longitudinal curvature and beaking of the nail in 4 patients, Increase in transverse curvature in 4 patients, dyschromia of the proximal nail fold in 3 patients, Subungual hyperkeratosis in 3 patients, onycholysis in 2 patients, splinter haemorrhages in 3 patients, nail plate pigmentation in 2 patients, pseudoclubbing in 1 patient, macrolunula in 1 patients, Red lunulae in one patient, bluish-black discoloration of the nail plate in one patient. The proximal nailfold was found to be most sites affected. PMID:25419288

Elmansour, Imane; Chiheb, Soumia; Benchikhi, Hakima

2014-01-01

347

Treatment of Femoral Shaft Fracture with an Interlocking Humeral Nail in Older Children and Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Purpose Rigid interlocking nailing for femoral shaft fracture is ideal for use in adolescents in terms of stability of the fracture and convenience for the patient. However, numerous authors have reported that rigid interlocking nailing has some limitations in this age group due to the risk of complications. We evaluated the results of intramedullary nailing for femoral shaft fractures with an interlocking humeral nail in older children and adolescents. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed records of patients treated with an interlocking humeral nail. Radiographs were examined for proximal femoral change and evidence of osteonecrosis. Outcomes were assessed by major or minor complications that occurred after operative treatment. Results Twenty-four femoral shaft fractures in 23 patients were enrolled. The mean age at the time of operation was 12 years and 8 months and the mean follow-up period was 21 months. Bony union was achieved in all patients without any complications related to the procedure such as infection, nonunion, malalignment and limb length discrepancy. All fractures were clinically and radiographically united within an average eight weeks. No patients developed avascular necrosis of the femoral head and coxa valga. Conclusion Intramedullary nailing through the greater trochanter using a rigid interlocking humeral nail is effective and safe for the treatment of femoral shaft fractures in older children and adolescents. PMID:22318831

Park, Hoon

2012-01-01

348

Nail gun injuries in residential carpentry: lessons from active injury surveillance  

PubMed Central

Objective: To describe circumstances surrounding injuries involving nail guns among carpenters, calculate injury rates, identify high risk groups and preventive measures. Methods and setting: Active injury surveillance was used to identify causes of injury among a large cohort of union residential and drywall carpenters. Injured carpenters were interviewed by experienced journeymen; enumeration of workers and hourworked were provided by the union. The combined data allowed definition of a cohort of carpenters, their hours worked, detailed information on the circumstances surrounding injuries, and identification of preventive measures from the perspectives of the injured worker and an experienced investigator. Results: Nail guns were involved in 14% of injuries investigated. Ninety percent of these injuries were the result of the carpenter being struck, most commonly by a nail puncturing a hand or fingers. The injury rate among apprentices was 3.7 per 200 000 hours worked (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.7 to 4.9) compared with a rate of 1.2 among journeymen (95% CI 0.80 to 1.7). While not always the sole contributing factor, a sequential trigger would have likely prevented 65% of the injuries from tools with contact trip triggers. Conclusions: Training, engineering, and policy changes in the workplace and manufacturing arena are all appropriate targets for prevention of these injuries. Use of sequential triggers would likely decrease acute injury rates markedly. Over 70% of injuries among residential carpenters were associated with through nailing tasks (such as nailing studs or blocks, trusses or joists) or toe nailing (angled, corner nailing) as opposed to flat nailing used for sheathing activities; this provides some indication that contact trip tools could be used solely for flat nailing. PMID:12642553

Lipscomb, H; Dement, J; Nolan, J; Patterson, D; Li, L

2003-01-01

349

[Infections of finger and toe nails due to fungi and bacteria].  

PubMed

Infections of the finger and the toe nails are most frequently caused by fungi, primarily dermatophytes. Causative agents of tinea unguium are mostly anthropophilic dermatophytes. Both in Germany, and worldwide, Trichophyton rubrum represents the main important causative agent of onychomycoses. Yeasts are isolated from fungal nail infections, both paronychia and onychomycosis far more often than generally expected. This can represent either saprophytic colonization as well as acute or chronic infection of the nail organ. The main yeasts causing nail infections are Candida parapsilosis, and Candida guilliermondii; Candida albicans is only in third place. Onychomycosis due to molds, or so called non-dermatophyte molds (NDM), are being increasingly detected. Molds as cause of an onychomycosis are considered as emerging pathogens. Fusarium species are the most common cause of NDM onychomycosis; however, rare molds like Onychocola canadensis may be found. Bacterial infections of the nails are caused by gram negative bacteria, usually Pseudomonas aeruginosa (recognizable because of green or black coloration of the nails) but also Klebsiella spp. and gram positive bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus. Treatment of onychomycosis includes application of topical antifungal agents (amorolfine, ciclopirox). If more than 50?% of the nail plate is affected or if more than three out of ten nails are affected by the fungal infection, oral treatment using terbinafine (in case of dermatophyte infection), fluconazole (for yeast infections), or alternatively itraconazole are recommended. Bacterial infections are treated topically with antiseptic agents (octenidine), and in some cases with topical antibiotics (nadifloxacin, gentamicin). Pseudomonas infections of the nail organ are treated by ciprofloxacin; other bacteria are treated according to the results of culture and sensitivity testing. PMID:24718510

Nenoff, P; Paasch, U; Handrick, W

2014-04-01

350

[The Gamma Nail in per- and intertrochanteric femoral fractures--alternative or supplement to the dynamic hip screw? A prospective randomized study of 100 patients with per- and intertrochanteric femoral fractures in the surgical clinic of the City Hospital of Triemli, Zurich, September 1989 - June 1990].  

PubMed

In a prospective randomised trial between September 89 and June 90 one hundred patients with per- and subtrochanteric fractures were consecutively treated by Gamma-nail or DHS. The average age of both groups was about 80 years. The operation time for Gamma-nailing was longer than for DHS-implantation and also the postoperative blood loss was higher in the Gamma-nail-group. We found no difference of intraoperative blood loss, of perioperative letality and in duration of hospital care. 90% of Gamma-nail-patients and 80% of DHS-patients were successfully able to walk four days after operation with full weight bearing on the operated limb. Six patients (12%) with DHS had to be reoperated within 6 weeks. Three patients with unstable fractures got cranial perforation of the cephalic screw after mobilisation. The other three patients had soft tissue complications. Five patients (10%) of the Gamma-nail-group were reoperated, one case because of missed distal locking, one because of cranial perforation of the cephalic screw after varus dislocation of the proximal fragment. One patient suffered intraoperatively a proximal femur shaft fracture which was corrected during operation. In one case a wound hematoma was evacuated, an other patient needed secondary wound closure. Despite technical imperfection of implant and instruments, we conclude that the Gamma-nail allows a very high percentage early and full weight bearing immediately after operation. So we consider that in the treatment of unstable pertrochanteric fractures of geriatric patients, the Gamma-nail has proven to be more efficient than the DHS. PMID:1685055

Guyer, P; Landolt, M; Keller, H; Eberle, C

1991-12-01

351

Aggregate dermal exposure to cyclic siloxanes in personal care products: implications for risk assessment.  

PubMed

Consumers who use personal care products (PCPs) are internally exposed to some of the organic components present of which some may be detected in exhaled air when eliminated. The aim of this study was the quantitative determination of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) in end-exhaled air to study dermal absorption of substances in PCPs. We exposed the forearm of fifteen healthy volunteers for 60min to pure D4 or D5 and to commercial products containing D4 and D5. Inhalation uptake was kept to a minimum by keeping the forearm in a flow cabinet during dermal exposure and supplying filtered air to the breathing zone of the volunteer during the post-exposure period. End-exhaled air was collected using a breath sampler (Bio-VOC), transferred to carbograph multi-bed adsorbent tubes and analyzed by thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). In the end-exhaled air of non-exposed volunteers background concentrations of D4 (0.8-3.5ng/L) and D5 (0.8-4.0ng/L) were observed. After exposing the volunteers, the level of D4 and D5 in end-exhaled air did not or barely exceed background concentrations. At t=90min, a sharp increase of the D4/D5 concentration in end-exhaled air was observed, which we attributed to the inhalation of the substances during a toilet visit without using inhalation protection devices. When this visit was taken out of the protocol, the sharp increase disappeared. Overall, the results of our study indicate that dermal absorption of D4 and D5 contributes only marginally to internal exposure following dermal applications. As in our study inhalation is the primary route of entry for these compounds, we conclude that its risk assessment should focus on this particular exposure route. PMID:25454240

Biesterbos, Jacqueline W H; Beckmann, Gwendolyn; van Wel, Luuk; Anzion, Rob B M; von Goetz, Natalie; Dudzina, Tatsiana; Roeleveld, Nel; Ragas, Ad M J; Russel, Frans G M; Scheepers, Paul T J

2015-01-01

352

Transfer of wastewater associated pharmaceuticals and personal care products to crop plants from biosolids treated soil.  

PubMed

The plant uptake of emerging organic contaminants such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) is receiving increased attention. Biosolids from municipal wastewater treatment have been previously identified as a major source for PPCPs. Thus, plant uptake of PPCPs from biosolids applied soils needs to be understood. In the present study, the uptake of carbamazepine, diphenhydramine, and triclocarban by five vegetable crop plants was examined in a field experiment. At the time of harvest, three compounds were detected in all plants grown in biosolids-treated soils. Calculated root concentration factor (RCF) and shoot concentration factor (SCF) are the highest for carbamazepine followed by triclocarban and diphenhydramine. Positive correlation between RCF and root lipid content was observed for carbamazepine but not for diphenhydramine and triclocarban. The results demonstrate the ability of crop plants to accumulate PPCPs from contaminated soils. The plant uptake processes of PPCPs are likely affected by their physico-chemical properties, and their interaction with soil. The difference uptake behavior between plant species could not solely be attributed to the root lipid content. PMID:22921256

Wu, Chenxi; Spongberg, Alison L; Witter, Jason D; Sridhar, B B Maruthi

2012-11-01

353

Field dissipation of four personal care products in biosolids-amended soils in North China.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the dissipation behaviors of 4 typical personal care products (PCPs)-triclocarban (TCC), triclosan (TCS), tonalide (AHTN), and galaxolide (HHCB)- in soils amended with biosolids under field conditions in North China. The results showed that the 4 target compounds were detected in all biosolids-amended soils at levels of a few nanograms per gram to thousands of nanograms per gram (dry wt). The residual concentrations of the 4 PCPs were found in the following order: TCC?>?TCS?>?AHTN?>?HHCB. Significant dissipation of the 4 PCPs was observed in the biosolids-amended soils, with half-lives ranging from 26 d to 133 d. Furthermore, repeated biosolids applications and a higher biosolids application rate could lead to higher accumulation of the 4 PCPs in the agricultural soils. Based on the detected concentrations in the field trial and limited ecotoxicity data, high risks to soil organisms are expected for TCC, whereas low to medium risks are expected in most cases for AHTN, HHCB, and TCS. PMID:25044513

Chen, Feng; Ying, Guang-Guo; Ma, Yi-Bing; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Lai, Hua-Jie

2014-11-01

354

Occurrence of 70 pharmaceutical and personal care products in Tone River basin in Japan.  

PubMed

The occurrence of 70 pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) was investigated in the Tone River. The river has the largest basin in Japan, and the water is utilized not only for farming, but also as a source of water supply. One day in both January and October 2006, surface waters in the river and its tributaries and effluents from sewage treatment plants (STPs) directly discharging into the Tone River were collected, the location of which ranged over 150 km along the river. The 70 PPCPs in the samples were concentrated by solid phase cartridge and were measured by LC-MS/MS using three analytical methods. Fifty-seven PPCPs were detected in one or more samples. Bezafibrate, caffeine, carbamazepine, clarithromycin, crotamiton and sulpiride were frequently detected. Mass flow profiles of some PPCPs (e.g., crotamiton) were comparable to cumulative inhabitants in the basin, suggesting that these PPCPs could be markers of population. Total load of each PPCP into the basin from upstream, the tributaries, and the STPs were calculated. The contribution of selected PPCPs from the tributaries with lower sewerage system coverage was dominant compared to those from upstream and the STPs, suggesting the installation of sewerage systems is necessary to reduce the load of PPCPs in the Tone River basin. PMID:18075189

Nakada, N; Komori, K; Suzuki, Y; Konishi, C; Houwa, I; Tanaka, H

2007-01-01

355

Assessment of cadmium, lead, and nickel levels in hair care products marketed in Turkey.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the content of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and nickel (Ni) in 105 hair care products commercially available in Turkey. Cd, Pb, and Ni were detected in 40%, 21.91%, and 94.29% of the samples, respectively. Maximum Cd concentrations were detected in two shampoo samples, and the highest Pb level was found in a hair conditioner, all of them were herbal-based formulations. The highest mean levels of Ni were detected in hairstyling agents. The overall results were lower than the Canadian and German regulatory limits; however, according to the European Council Directive and Turkish Cosmetic Legislation, Cd, Pb, and Ni are listed as the substances that are prohibited in any amounts in cosmetics. Moreover, Ni content of 17.14% of the samples was above the limit of allergic contact dermatitis. It is known that these toxic metals tend to accumulate in body and prolonged use of them may potentially pose threat to human health. Thus, regular market monitoring and safer limits should be seriously considered especially for susceptible groups of the population like the pediatric group. PMID:25423743

Sipahi, Hande; Charehsaz, Mohammad; Sonmez, Ipek; Soykut, Bu?ra; Erdem, Onur; Aydin, Ahmet

2014-01-01

356

Assessment of cadmium, lead, and nickel levels in hair care products marketed in Turkey.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the content of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and nickel (Ni) in 105 hair care products commercially available in Turkey. Cd, Pb, and Ni were detected in 40%, 21.91%, and 94.29% of the samples, respectively. Maximum Cd concentrations were detected in two shampoo samples, and the highest Pb level was found in a hair conditioner, all of them were herbal-based formulations. The highest mean levels of Ni were detected in hairstyling agents. The overall results were lower than the Canadian and German regulatory limits; however, according to the European Council Directive and Turkish Cosmetic Legislation, Cd, Pb, and Ni are listed as the substances that are prohibited in any amounts in cosmetics. Moreover, Ni content of 17.14% of the samples was above the limit of allergic contact dermatitis. It is known that these toxic metals tend to accumulate in body and prolonged use of them may potentially pose threat to human health. Thus, regular market monitoring and safer limits should be seriously considered especially for susceptible groups of the population like the pediatric group. PMID:25507466

Sipahi, Hande; Charehsaz, Mohammad; Sonmez, Ipek; Soykut, Bu?ra; Erdem, Onur; Aydin, Ahmet

2014-01-01

357

Removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in a membrane bioreactor wastewater treatment plant.  

PubMed

Ninety-nine pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) were analyzed in influent, final effluent, and biosolids samples from a wastewater treatment plant employing a membrane bioreactor (MBR). High concentrations in influent were found for acetaminophen, caffeine, metformin, 2-hydroxy-ibuprofen, paraxanthine, ibuprofen, and naproxen (10(4)-10(5) ng/L). Final effluents contained clarithromycin, metformin, atenolol, carbamazepine, and trimethoprim (>500 ng/L) at the highest concentrations, while triclosan, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, triclocarban, metformin, caffeine, ofloxacin, and paraxanthine were found at high concentrations in biosolids (>10(3) ng/g dry weight). PPCP removals varied from -34% to >99% and 23 PPCPs had ?90% removal. Of the studied PPCPs, 26 compounds have been rarely or never studied in previous membrane bioreactor (MBR) investigations. The removal pathway showed that acetaminophen, 2-hydroxy-ibuprofen, naproxen, ibuprofen, codeine, metformin, enalapril, atorvastatin, caffeine, paraxanthine, and cotinine exhibited high degradation/transformation. PPCPs showing strong sorption to solids included triclocarban, triclosan, miconazole, tetracycline, 4-epitetracycline, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, paroxetine, and ofloxacin. Trimethoprim, oxycodone, clarithromycin, thiabendazole, hydrochlorothiazide, erythromycin-H2O, carbamazepine, meprobamate, and propranolol were not removed during treatment, and clarithromycin was even formed during treatment. This investigation extended our understanding of the occurrence and fate of PPCPs in an MBR process through the analysis of the largest number of compounds in an MBR study to date. PMID:24901615

Kim, M; Guerra, P; Shah, A; Parsa, M; Alaee, M; Smyth, S A

2014-01-01

358

Treated wastewater irrigation: uptake of pharmaceutical and personal care products by common vegetables under field conditions.  

PubMed

Global water shortage is placing an unprecedented pressure on water supplies. Treated wastewater is a valuable water resource, but its reuse for agricultural irrigation faces a roadblock: the public concern over the potential accumulation of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) into human diet. In the present study, we measured the levels of 19 commonly occurring pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in 8 vegetables irrigated with treated wastewater under field conditions. Tertiary treated wastewater without or with a fortification of each PPCP at 250 ng/L, was used to irrigate crops until harvest. Plant samples at premature and mature stages were collected. Analysis of edible tissues showed a detection frequency of 64% and 91% in all vegetables from the treated wastewater and fortified water treatments, respectively. The edible samples from the two treatments contained the same PPCPs, including caffeine, meprobamate, primidone, DEET, carbamazepine, dilantin, naproxen, and triclosan. The total concentrations of PPCPs detected in edible tissues from the treated wastewater and fortified irrigation treatments were in the range of 0.01-3.87 and 0.15-7.3 ng/g (dry weight), respectively. Annual exposure of PPCPs from the consumption of mature vegetables irrigated with the fortified water was estimated to be only 3.69 ?g per capita. Results from the present study showed that the accumulation of PPCPs in vegetables irrigated with treated wastewater was likely limited under field conditions. PMID:25211705

Wu, Xiaoqin; Conkle, Jeremy L; Ernst, Frederick; Gan, Jay

2014-10-01

359

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in a mesoscale subtropical watershed and their application as sewage markers.  

PubMed

This study comprehensively analyzed 23 classes of 51 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the two major prongs of Jiulong River and its estuary in southeast China, where the levels of the targeted PPCPs were mostly unknown. For both Jiulong River and its estuary, nine PPCPs were detected with 100% detection frequencies including two anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs (ketoprofen and diclofenac acid), a stimulant (caffeine), a plasticizer (bisphenol A), two preservatives (methyl paraben and propyl paraben), two antimicrobials (triclosan and triclocarban) and a ?-blocks (metoprolol), among which bisphenol A and caffeine accounted for more than 60% in concentrations. PPCPs generally had higher concentrations in dry season than normal season and wet season, while certain PPCPs, such as UV filters, showed higher concentrations in wet season, which were presumed to be related to their usage patterns. The concentrations of PPCPs were significantly correlated to several quality parameters of the surface water. The selected sewage markers were also used to track sewage in the studied river and the ratios of easily removed markers and conservative markers were used to identify the contribution of raw or treated sewage input. From our result, Jiulong River and its estuary were likely polluted by potential discharge of raw sewage. PMID:25232652

Lv, Min; Sun, Qian; Hu, Anyi; Hou, Liyuan; Li, Jiangwei; Cai, Xiang; Yu, Chang-Ping

2014-09-15

360

Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in the Environment: What Are the Big Questions?  

PubMed Central

Background: Over the past 10–15 years, a substantial amount of work has been done by the scientific, regulatory, and business communities to elucidate the effects and risks of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the environment. Objective: This review was undertaken to identify key outstanding issues regarding the effects of PPCPs on human and ecological health in order to ensure that future resources will be focused on the most important areas. Data sources: To better understand and manage the risks of PPCPs in the environment, we used the “key question” approach to identify the principle issues that need to be addressed. Initially, questions were solicited from academic, government, and business communities around the world. A list of 101 questions was then discussed at an international expert workshop, and a top-20 list was developed. Following the workshop, workshop attendees ranked the 20 questions by importance. Data synthesis: The top 20 priority questions fell into seven categories: a) prioritization of substances for assessment, b) pathways of exposure, c) bioavailability and uptake, d) effects characterization, e) risk and relative risk, f?) antibiotic resistance, and g) risk management. Conclusions: A large body of information is now available on PPCPs in the environment. This exercise prioritized the most critical questions to aid in development of future research programs on the topic. PMID:22647657

Rudd, Murray A.; Brooks, Bryan W.; Caldwell, Daniel J.; Choi, Kyungho; Hickmann, Silke; Innes, Elizabeth; Ostapyk, Kim; Staveley, Jane P.; Verslycke, Tim; Ankley, Gerald T.; Beazley, Karen F.; Belanger, Scott E.; Berninger, Jason P.; Carriquiriborde, Pedro; Coors, Anja; DeLeo, Paul C.; Dyer, Scott D.; Ericson, Jon F.; Gagné, François; Giesy, John P.; Gouin, Todd; Hallstrom, Lars; Karlsson, Maja V.; Larsson, D. G. Joakim; Lazorchak, James M.; Mastrocco, Frank; McLaughlin, Alison; McMaster, Mark E.; Meyerhoff, Roger D.; Moore, Roberta; Parrott, Joanne L.; Snape, Jason R.; Murray-Smith, Richard; Servos, Mark R.; Sibley, Paul K.; Straub, Jürg Oliver; Szabo, Nora D.; Topp, Edward; Tetreault, Gerald R.; Trudeau, Vance L.; Van Der Kraak, Glen

2012-01-01

361

Personal care product use and urinary phthalate metabolite and paraben concentrations during pregnancy among women from a fertility clinic  

PubMed Central

Parabens and phthalates are potential endocrine disruptors frequently used in personal care/beauty products, and the developing fetus may be sensitive to these chemicals. We measured urinary butyl-paraben (BP), methyl-paraben (MP), propyl-paraben (PP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), and monoethyl phthalate (MEP) concentrations up to three times in 177 pregnant women from a fertility clinic in Boston MA. Using linear mixed models, we examined the relationship between self-reported personal care product use in the previous 24 hours and urinary paraben and phthalate metabolite concentrations. Lotion, cosmetic, and cologne/perfume use were associated with the greatest increases in the molar sum of phthalate metabolite and paraben concentrations, although the magnitude of individual biomarker increases varied by product used. For example, women who used lotion had BP concentrations 111% higher (95% confidence interval [CI]:41%, 216%) than non-users, while their MBP concentrations were only 28% higher (CI:2%, 62%). Women using/cologne/perfume had MEP concentrations 167% (CI:98%, 261%) higher than non-users, but BP concentrations were similar. We observed a monotonic dose-response relationship between the total number of products used and urinary paraben and phthalate metabolite concentrations. These results suggest that questionnaire data may be useful for assessing exposure to a mixture of chemicals from personal care products during pregnancy. PMID:24149971

Braun, Joe M.; Just, Allan C.; Williams, Paige L.; Smith, Kristen W.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Hauser, Russ

2014-01-01

362

Personal care product use and urinary phthalate metabolite and paraben concentrations during pregnancy among women from a fertility clinic.  

PubMed

Parabens and phthalates are potential endocrine disruptors frequently used in personal care/beauty products, and the developing fetus may be sensitive to these chemicals. We measured urinary butyl-paraben (BP), methyl-paraben, propyl-paraben, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), and monoethyl phthalate (MEP) concentrations up to three times in 177 pregnant women from a fertility clinic in Boston, MA. Using linear mixed models, we examined the relationship between self-reported personal care product use in the previous 24?h and urinary paraben and phthalate metabolite concentrations. Lotion, cosmetic, and cologne/perfume use were associated with the greatest increases in the molar sum of phthalate metabolite and paraben concentrations, although the magnitude of individual biomarker increases varied by product used. For example, women who used lotion had BP concentrations 111% higher (95% confidence interval (CI): 41%, 216%) than non-users, whereas their MBP concentrations were only 28% higher (CI: 2%, 62%). Women using cologne/perfume had MEP concentrations 167% (CI: 98%, 261%) higher than non-users, but BP concentrations were similar. We observed a monotonic dose-response relationship between the total number of products used and urinary paraben and phthalate metabolite concentrations. These results suggest that questionnaire data may be useful for assessing exposure to a mixture of chemicals from personal care products during pregnancy. PMID:24149971

Braun, Joe M; Just, Allan C; Williams, Paige L; Smith, Kristen W; Calafat, Antonia M; Hauser, Russ

2014-01-01

363

Delayed presentation of right and left ventricle perforation due to suicidal nail gun injury.  

PubMed

We describe a case of delayed presentation of attempted suicide with a nail gun that penetrated both the right and left ventricle. Nearly invisible entry point of the nail did not reflect the gravity of the injury. A prompt and accurate history along with chest X-ray and bedside transthoracic echocardiography facilitated localization of the nails and helped assess the damage. Despite cardiac arrest after induction of general anesthesia, the patient had a successful outcome. Issues related to the injury site, modalities of investigation and management strategies in a patient with cardiac tamponade are discussed. PMID:19602739

Tuladhar, Sampurna; Eltayeb, Abdalla; Lakshmanan, Suresh; Yiu, Patrick

2009-01-01

364

Successful treatment of pediatric nail psoriasis with periodic pustular eruption using topical indigo naturalis oil extract.  

PubMed

Psoriasis of the nail greatly affects quality of life because of the difficulty in achieving long-lasting remission. Pustular psoriasis of the nail apparatus is characterized by the formation of sterile pustules, starting on one or two fingers or less often on the toes, and spontaneous improvement has rarely been observed. This case presents a girl with refractory nail psoriasis accompanied by periodic pustular eruption that responded well to topical treatment with indigo naturalis oil extract drops, achieving a remission of longer than 1 year. PMID:22471655

Liang, Chung-Yu; Lin, Tung-Yi; Lin, Yin-Ku

2013-01-01

365

Use of inherent anteversion of an intramedullary nail to avoid malrotation in femur fractures.  

PubMed

Rotational malalignment after intramedullary (IM) nailing of femoral fractures remains a significant problem. A technique using intraoperative fluoroscopy and the anteversion inherent to the IM nail for obtaining appropriate femoral rotational alignment is presented. The technique is advocated as a simple alternative to more complex methods for estimation of femoral anteversion during placement of femoral IM nails. This method is simple and requires intraoperative fluoroscopy on the injured extremity alone. It reliably sets the femoral anteversion within a normal physiologic range with minimal additional intraoperative steps and without preoperative measurements. PMID:23689227

Espinoza, Chris; Sathy, Ashoke K; Moore, Daniel S; Starr, Adam J; Reinert, Charles M

2014-02-01

366

Minimizing the complications of intramedullary nailing for distal third tibial shaft and metaphyseal fractures  

PubMed Central

Background The complications of intramedullary nailing of distal third tibial shaft and metaphyseal fractures have a direct impact on ankle and hind foot function. Methods We retrospectively evaluated 28 patients. Unreamed nail was negotiated across the well reduced fracture till subchondral bone and fixed with 2 to 3 distal locking screws in different planes. Results Fracture union rate was 85%. Three out of 28 patients had malalignment. Mean ankle, hindfoot functional score was 85. Conclusion Complications can be minimized by impacting the unreamed nail till the subchondral bone while maintaining the fracture well reduced and by using multiple distal locking screws in different planes. PMID:24719527

Yaligod, Vishwanath; Rudrappa, Girish H.; Nagendra, Srinivas; Shivanna, Umesh M.

2013-01-01

367

Safety assessment of personal care products/cosmetics and their ingredients  

SciTech Connect

We attempt to review the safety assessment of personal care products (PCP) and ingredients that are representative and pose complex safety issues. PCP are generally applied to human skin and mainly produce local exposure, although skin penetration or use in the oral cavity, on the face, lips, eyes and mucosa may also produce human systemic exposure. In the EU, US and Japan, the safety of PCP is regulated under cosmetic and/or drug regulations. Oxidative hair dyes contain arylamines, the most chemically reactive ingredients of PCP. Although arylamines have an allergic potential, taking into account the high number of consumers exposed, the incidence and prevalence of hair dye allergy appears to be low and stable. A recent (2001) epidemiology study suggested an association of oxidative hair dye use and increased bladder cancer risk in consumers, although this was not confirmed by subsequent or previous epidemiologic investigations. The results of genetic toxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity studies suggest that modern hair dyes and their ingredients pose no genotoxic, carcinogenic or reproductive risk. Recent reports suggest that arylamines contained in oxidative hair dyes are N-acetylated in human or mammalian skin resulting in systemic exposure to traces of detoxified, i.e. non-genotoxic, metabolites, whereas human hepatocytes were unable to transform hair dye arylamines to potentially carcinogenic metabolites. An expert panel of the International Agency on Research of Cancer (IARC) concluded that there is no evidence for a causal association of hair dye exposure with an elevated cancer risk in consumers. Ultraviolet filters have important benefits by protecting the consumer against adverse effects of UV radiation; these substances undergo a stringent safety evaluation under current international regulations prior to their marketing. Concerns were also raised about the safety of solid nanoparticles in PCP, mainly TiO{sub 2} and ZnO in sunscreens. However, current evidence suggests that these particles are non-toxic, do not penetrate into or through normal or compromised human skin and, therefore, pose no risk to human health. The increasing use of natural plant ingredients in personal care products raised new safety issues that require novel approaches to their safety evaluation similar to those of plant-derived food ingredients. For example, the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) is a promising tool to assess the safety of substances present at trace levels as well as minor ingredients of plant-derived substances. The potential human systemic exposure to PCP ingredients is increasingly estimated on the basis of in vitro skin penetration data. However, new evidence suggests that the in vitro test may overestimate human systemic exposure to PCP ingredients due to the absence of metabolism in cadaver skin or misclassification of skin residues that, in vivo, remain in the stratum corneum or hair follicle openings, i.e. outside the living skin. Overall, today's safety assessment of PCP and their ingredients is not only based on science, but also on their respective regulatory status as well as other issues, such as the ethics of animal testing. Nevertheless, the record shows that today's PCP are safe and offer multiple benefits to quality of life and health of the consumer. In the interest of all stakeholders, consumers, regulatory bodies and producers, there is an urgent need for an international harmonization on the status and safety requirements of these products and their ingredients.

Nohynek, Gerhard J., E-mail: gnohynec@rd.loreal.co [L'OREAL R and D, Global Safety Evaluation, 92600 Asnieres (France); Antignac, Eric [L'OREAL R and D, Global Safety Evaluation, 92600 Asnieres (France); Re, Thomas [L'Oreal USA, Research and Development, Clark, NJ 07066 (United States); Toutain, Herve [L'OREAL R and D, Global Safety Evaluation, 92600 Asnieres (France)

2010-03-01

368

Modification of elastic stable intramedullary nailing with a 3rd nail in a femoral spiral fracture model – results of biomechanical testing and a prospective clinical study  

PubMed Central

Background Elastic stable intramedullary nailing (ESIN) is the standard treatment for displaced diaphyseal femoral fractures in children. However, high complication rates (10-50%) are reported in complex fractures. This biomechanical study compares the stiffness with a 3rd nail implanted to that in the classical 2C-shaped configuration and presents the application into clinical practice. Methods For each of the 3 configurations of ESIN-osteosynthesis with titanium nails eight composite femoral grafts (Sawbones®) with an identical spiral fracture were used: 2C configuration (2C-shaped nails, 2 × 3.5 mm), 3CM configuration (3rd nail from medial) and 3CL configuration (3rd nail from lateral). Each group underwent biomechanical testing in 4-point bending, internal/external rotation and axial compression. Results 2C and 3CM configurations showed no significant differences in this spiroid type fracture model. 3CL had a significantly higher stiffness during anterior-posterior bending, internal rotation and 9° compression than 2C, and was stiffer in the lateral-medial direction than 3CM. The 3CL was less stable during p-a bending and external rotation than both the others. As biomechanical testing showed a higher stability for the 3CL configuration in two (a-p corresponding to recurvation and 9° compression to shortening) of three directions associated with the most important clinical problems, we added a 3rd nail in ESIN-osteosynthesis for femoral fractures. 11 boys and 6 girls (2.5-15 years) were treated with modified ESIN of whom 12 were ‘3CL’; due to the individual character of the fractures 4 patients were treated with ‘3CM’ (third nail from medial) and as an exception 1 adolescent with 4 nails and one boy with plate osteosynthesis. No additional stabilizations or re-operations were necessary. All patients achieved full points in the Harris-Score at follow-up; no limb length discrepancy occurred. Conclusion The 3CL configuration provided a significantly higher stiffness than 2C and 3CM configurations in this biomechanical model. These results were successfully transmitted into clinical practice. All children, treated by 3CL or 3CM according to the individual character of each fracture, needed no additional stabilization and had no Re-Do operations. As a consequence, at our hospital all children with femoral diaphyseal fractures with open physis are treated with this modified ESIN-technique. PMID:24397612

2014-01-01

369

DOI 10.1007/s12011-010-8828-5 Titanium, Sinusitis, and the Yellow Nail Syndrome  

E-print Network

Abstract Yellow nail syndrome is characterized by nail changes, respiratory disorders, and lymphedema. In a yellow nail patient with a skeletal titanium implant and with gold in her teeth, we found high levels of titanium in nail clippings. This study aims to examine the possible role of titanium in the genesis of the yellow nail syndrome. Nail clippings from patients with one or more features of the yellow nail syndrome were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. Titanium was regularly found in finger nails in patients but not in control subjects. Visible nail changes were present in only half of the patients. Sinusitis with postnasal drip and cough was the most common complaint. The dominant source of titanium ions was titanium implants in the teeth or elsewhere. The titanium ions were released through the galvanic action of dental gold or amalgam or through the oxidative action of fluorides. In other patients the titanium was derived from titanium dioxide in drugs and confectionary. Stopping galvanic release of titanium ions or canceling exposure to titanium dioxide led to recovery. In one patient with a titanium implant, the symptoms recurred after renewed exposure to titanium. Yellow nail syndrome is caused by titanium

Fredrik Berglund; Björn Carlmark

2010-01-01

370

Keratinophilic and saprophytic fungi isolated from students' nails in Egypt.  

PubMed

In order to determine the presence of dermatophytes and saprophytes in healthy toe and finger nails, 120 students (60 male and 60 female) from preparatory schools at Sohag Governorate (Upper Egypt) were studied. 54 species in addition to 3 varieties belonging to 17 genera were isolated. Six species of true dermatophytes were collected: Microsporum audouinii var. rivalieri, M. cookei, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. simii, T. terrestre and T. verrucosum. Chrysosporium, a well-known keratinophilic genus, was prevalent and represented by 7 species (C. asperatum, C. indicum, C. keratinophilum, C. luteum, C. pannorum, C. tropicum and Chrysosporium state of Thielavia sepedonium). The commonest saprophytes in order of frequency were members of the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria, Scopulariopsis, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, Chaetomium, Syncephalastrum, Mucor, Rhizopus and Acremonium. PMID:2338622

Abdel-Hafez, A I; el-Sharouny, H M

1990-01-01

371

Fusarium Solani: A Causative Agent of Skin and Nail Infections  

PubMed Central

Fusarium spp are non-dermatophytic hyaline moulds found as saprophytes and plant pathogens. Human infections are probably a result of various precipitating predisposing factors of impaired immune status. Immunocompetent individuals of late are also vulnerable to various unassuming saprophytic and plant pathogens. To stress the need to identify correctly and institute appropriate antifungal therapy in newly emerging human fungal infectious agents. Repeated mycological sampling of the skin and nails of the suspected fungal infection were processed as per the standard format including direct microscopy and fungal culture on Sabouraud's dextrose agar. The fungus was isolated as Fusarium solani. Fusarium is an important plant pathogen and soil saprophyte. Infection is acquired by direct inoculation or inhalation of spores. It is associated with a variety of diseases like keratitis, onychomycosis, eumycetoma, skin lesions and disseminated diseases. PMID:22837572

Kuruvilla, Thomas S; Dias, Meena

2012-01-01

372

Predictors of failure for cephalomedullary nailing of proximal femoral fractures.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to identify factors that predict implant cut-out after cephalomedullary nailing of intertrochanteric and subtrochanteric hip fractures, and to test the significance of calcar referenced tip-apex distance (CalTAD) as a predictor for cut-out. We retrospectively reviewed 170 consecutive fractures that had undergone cephalomedullary nailing. Of these, 77 met the inclusion criteria of a non-pathological fracture with a minimum of 80 days radiological follow-up (mean 408 days; 81 days to 4.9 years). The overall cut-out rate was 13% (10/77). The significant parameters in the univariate analysis were tip-apex distance (TAD) (p < 0.001), CalTAD (p = 0.001), cervical angle difference (p = 0.004), and lag screw placement in the anteroposterior (AP) view (Parker's ratio index) (p = 0.003). Non-significant parameters were age (p = 0.325), gender (p = 1.000), fracture side (p = 0.507), fracture type (AO classification) (p = 0.381), Singh Osteoporosis Index (p = 0.575), lag screw placement in the lateral view (p = 0.123), and reduction quality (modified Baumgaertner's method) (p = 0.575). In the multivariate analysis, CalTAD was the only significant measurement (p = 0.001). CalTAD had almost perfect inter-observer reliability (interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.901). Our data provide the first reported clinical evidence that CalTAD is a predictor of cut-out. The finding of CalTAD as the only significant parameter in the multivariate analysis, along with the univariate significance of Parker's ratio index in the AP view, suggest that inferior placement of the lag screw is preferable to reduce the rate of cut-out. PMID:25086117

Kashigar, A; Vincent, A; Gunton, M J; Backstein, D; Safir, O; Kuzyk, P R T

2014-08-01

373

Surveillance of nail gun injuries by journeymen carpenters provides important insight into experiences of apprentices.  

PubMed

Experienced journeymen conducted detailed surveillance interviews with injured apprentice carpenters (n = 413). Nail gun injuries commonly occurred due to inadvertent discharge, ricocheting or projectile nails, and penetration of the wood surface. Framing nailers with contact trip triggers were most often involved; these triggers allow nail discharge anytime the trigger and nose piece are both depressed including following recoil of the tool after firing. Injured workers made concrete and practical suggestions for prevention. Scenarios were identified where changes in work practice, safer triggers, and thoughtful training could prevent injuries. Most injuries were not reported through workers' compensation; this was often due to perceived lack of injury severity, but also involved subtle as well as overt pressures on apprentices not to report. These case-based analyses are consistent with reports that many injuries from nail guns could be prevented with existing safer trigger mechanisms and training. Efforts should also focus on improved injury reporting. PMID:20359994

Lipscomb, Hester; Nolan, James; Patterson, Dennis; Dement, John M

2010-01-01

374

New Technique: A Novel Femoral Derotation Osteotomy for Malrotation following Intramedullary Nailing  

PubMed Central

A 19-year-old female patient sustained a closed spiral midshaft femoral fracture and subsequently underwent femoral intramedullary nail insertion. At followup she complained of difficulty in walking and was found to have a unilateral in-toeing gait. CT imaging revealed 30 degrees of internal rotation at the fracture site, which had healed. A circumferential osteotomy was performed distal to the united fracture site using a Gigli saw with the intramedullary femoral nail in situ. The static distal interlocking screws were removed and the malrotation was corrected. Two further static distal interlocking screws were inserted to secure the intramedullary nail in position. The osteotomy went on to union and her symptoms of pain, walking difficulty, and in-toeing resolved. Our paper is the first to describe a technique for derotation osteotomy following intramedullary malreduction that leaves the intramedullary nail in situ. PMID:23198226

Jagernauth, S.; Tindall, A. J.; Kohli, S.; Allen, P.

2012-01-01

375

Intramedullary nailing in fracture treatment: history, science and Küntscher's revolutionary influence in Vienna, Austria.  

PubMed

Although the first intermedullary fixation technique was already reported in 1886, successfully inter-medullary nailing did not start until November 1939 when Küntscher's revolutionary technique was applied for the first time. Whereas Küntscher initially stated that his "marrow nail" was suitable for almost every fracture type as well as for other procedures including fixation of osteotomies, joint arthrodesis and pseudarthro-sis treatment he tried to develop an own nail for every possible fracture type through the years. Undoubtedly, Küntscher has to be considered one of the most influential surgeons. Nevertheless, he was never offered a university position and a lot of people did not acknowledge his brilliancy until his death in 1972. Only in Vienna the willingness to seize Küntscher's ideas was high. Therefore, in addition to a historic overview and to fundamental knowledge referring to reamed and unreamed respectively to static and dynamic nailing Küntscher's influence on Viennese researchers is presented in our paper. PMID:21939796

Vécsei, Vilmos; Hajdu, Stefan; Negrin, Lukas L

2011-09-01

376

Comparative uptake and translocation of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) by common vegetables.  

PubMed

Reuse of treated wastewater to irrigate agricultural crops is increasing in many arid and semi-arid areas around the world. The presence of numerous pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in treated wastewater and their potential transfer into food produce such as vegetables poses an unknown human health risk. The goal of this study was to identify PPCPs that have a comparatively high potential for plant uptake and translocation. A total of 20 frequently-occurring PPCPs were compared for their accumulation into four staple vegetables (lettuce, spinach, cucumber, and pepper) grown in nutrient solutions containing PPCPs at 0.5 or 5?gL(-1). Triclocarban, fluoxetine, triclosan, and diazepam were found at high levels in roots, while meprobamate, primidone, carbamazepine, dilantin, and diuron exhibited more active translocation from roots to leaves. Root uptake of neutral PPCPs was positively correlated with the pH adjusted log Kow(i.e., log Dow), and was likely driven by chemical adsorption onto the root surfaces. In contrast, translocation from roots to leaves was negatively related to log Dow, suggesting hydrophilicity-regulated transport via xylems. Compounds preferentially sorbed to roots should be further evaluated for their uptake in tuber vegetables (e.g., carrot, radish) under field conditions, while those easily translocated into leaves (e.g., carbamazepine, dilantin) merit focused consideration for leafy and other vegetables (e.g., lettuce, cucumber). However, estimation of dietary intake by humans suggested the implied risks from exposure to PPCPs via wastewater irrigation to be negligible. PMID:23973619

Wu, Xiaoqin; Ernst, Frederick; Conkle, Jeremy L; Gan, Jay

2013-10-01

377

Personal care product preservatives: Risk assessment and mixture toxicities with an industrial wastewater.  

PubMed

The aquatic toxicity of eight preservatives frequently used in personal care products (PCPs) (iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, bronopol, diazolidinyl urea, benzalkonium chloride, zinc pyrithione, propylparaben, triclosan and a mixture of methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone) was assessed by means of two different approaches: a battery of bioassays composed of single species tests of bacteria (Vibrio fischeri and Pseudomonas putida) and protozoa (Tetrahymena thermophila), and a whole biological community resazurin-based assay using activated sludge. The tested preservatives showed considerable toxicity in the studied bioassays, but with a marked difference in potency. In fact, all biocides except propylparaben and diazolidinyl urea had EC50 values lower than 1 mg L(-1) in at least one assay. Risk quotients for zinc pyrithione, benzalkonium chloride, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate and triclosan as well as the mixture of the studied preservatives exceeded 1, indicating a potential risk for the process performance and efficiency of municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs). These four single biocides explained more than 95% of the preservative mixture risk in all bioassays. Each individual preservative was also tested in combination with an industrial wastewater (IWW) from a cosmetics manufacturing facility. The toxicity assessment was performed on binary mixtures (preservative + IWW) and carried out using the median-effect principle, which is a special case of the concept of Concentration Addition (CA). Almost 70% of all experiments resulted in EC50 values within a factor of 2 of the values predicted by the median-effect principle (CI values between 0.5 and 2). The rest of the mixtures whose toxicity was mispredicted by CA were assessed with the alternative concept of Independent Action (IA), which showed higher predictive power for the biological community assay. Therefore, the concept used to accurately predict the toxicity of mixtures of a preservative with a complex industrial wastewater depends on degree of biological complexity. PMID:25585550

Carbajo, Jose B; Perdigón-Melón, Jose A; Petre, Alice L; Rosal, Roberto; Letón, Pedro; García-Calvo, Eloy

2015-04-01

378

Multi-residue determination of pharmaceutical and personal care products in vegetables.  

PubMed

Treated wastewater irrigation and biosolid amendment are increasingly practiced worldwide and contamination of plants, especially produces that may be consumed raw by humans, by pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), is an emerging concern. A sensitive method was developed for the simultaneous measurement of 19 frequently-occurring PPCPs in vegetables using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) for detection, combined with ultrasonic extraction and solid phase extraction (SPE) cleanup for sample preparation. Deuterated standards were used as surrogates to quantify corresponding analytes. The corrected recoveries ranged between 87.1 and 123.5% for iceberg lettuce, with intra- and inter-day variations less than 20%, and the method detection limits (MDLs) in the range of 0.04-3.0 ng g?¹ dry weight (dw). The corrected recoveries were equally good when the method was used on celery, tomato, carrot, broccoli, bell pepper and spinach. The method was further applied to examine uptake of PPCPs by iceberg lettuce and spinach grown in hydroponic solutions containing each PPCP at 500 ng L?¹. Twelve PPCPs were detected in lettuce leaves with concentrations from 0.2 to 28.7 ng g?¹ dw, while 11 PPCPs were detected in spinach leaves at 0.04-34.0 ng g?¹ dw. Given the diverse chemical structures of PPCPs considered in this study, this method may be used for screening PPCP residues in vegetables and other plants impacted by treated wastewater or biosolids, and to estimate potential human exposure via dietary uptake. PMID:22867843

Wu, Xiaoqin; Conkle, Jeremy Landon; Gan, Jay

2012-09-01

379

Presence and effects of pharmaceutical and personal care products on the Baca National Wildlife Refuge, Colorado.  

PubMed

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have raised concerns due to their potential effects to aquatic organisms. These chemicals appear in mixtures at very low concentrations thus making their detection and quantification difficult. Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) concentrate trace levels of chemicals over time increasing method sensitivity and thus represent a cost-effective screening tool for biomonitoring studies. The Baca National Wildlife Refuge (BNWR), Colorado, is home for several endemic fish species, including Rio Grande chub (Gila pandora). The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the types and concentrations of PPCPs in the Refuge, (2) compare and contrast two methods (grab and POCIS) for the quantification of PPCPs from surface water, and (3) determine effects due to PPCP exposure in fish. Between 2011 and 2013, 141 PPCPs were quantified using a combination of grab samples and POCIS. Although no PPCPs were detected from the grab samples, high concentrations of N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) and triclosan were detected in all fish sampling sites with POCIS. Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and Rio Grande chubs of both sexes were collected in 2011 and 2012. Several biological responses were observed in both species from creeks contaminated with PPCPs; however the presence of PPCPs in the reference site did not allow for valid data comparison and interpretation. We conclude that POCIS is a sensitive method for the detection and quantification of PPCPs and for identification of reference sites and that appropriate "reference" sites need to be identified at the BNWR for follow-up studies with native fish. PMID:25465958

Zenobio, Jenny E; Sanchez, Brian C; Leet, Jessica K; Archuleta, Laura C; Sepúlveda, Maria S

2015-02-01

380

Occurrence and removal of selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products in three wastewater-treatment plants.  

PubMed

Residues of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have been detected in surface waters. Incomplete removal of these compounds by wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs) results in their presence in effluents and finally in surface waters. The occurrence and removal of four PPCPs was investigated in three WWTPs in Mississippi, USA, during a period of 1 year. Influent and effluent were sampled from the three WWTPs. Upstream and downstream samples of the WWTPs were also collected. All four PPCPs were detected in all influents where sulfamethoxazole showed the highest concentration levels with a median concentration of 1,640 ng/L, and carbamazepine was detected at the lowest level with a median concentration of 132 ng/L. Different PPCPs were removed to different extents varying from 99 to 100 %. Gemfibrozil showed the highest removal rates (73-100 %), whereas carbamazepine showed the lowest (-99 to -30 %). Secondary activated sludge in oxidation-ditch process showed remarkable PPCP-specific removal rates. Galaxolide was removed more than the other PPCPs, and sulfamethoxazole showed the least removal. Galaxolide was found to be a predominant PPCP in effluent among the PPCPs studied, and it was detected in all downstream (14.1-428.2 ng/L) and upstream (4.1-60.0 ng/L) samples. Sulfamethoxazole was removed more during the summer than the winter season. A clear increase of PPCP concentrations was observed in most downstream samples compared with upstream samples suggesting that discharges from WWTPs are the major source of PPCPs in surface waters. PMID:24357097

Kwon, Jeong-Wook; Rodriguez, Jose M

2014-05-01

381

Removal of selected pharmaceuticals, personal care products and artificial sweetener in an aerated sewage lagoon.  

PubMed

A sewage lagoon serving the small municipality of Lakefield in Ontario, Canada was monitored in the summer, fall and winter to determine removals of carbamazepine, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, ibuprofen, gemfibrozil, triclosan, sucralose, HHCB and AHTN. Concentrations of these compounds in untreated and treated wastewater were estimated by deploying POCIS and SPMD passive samplers in the sewage lagoon. Passive samplers were also deployed at several points upstream and downstream of the point of discharge from the lagoon into the Otonabee River. LC-MS/MS and GC-MS were utilized to determine the concentrations of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and sucralose, an artificial sweetener. Among PPCPs sampled by POCIS, the highest estimated concentration in untreated wastewater was ibuprofen sampled during the fall, at an estimated concentration of 60.3 ng/L. The estimated average concentration of sucralose was 13.6 ng/L in the untreated wastewaters. Triclosan, HHCB and AHTN in SPMDs were highest during fall season, at 30, 1677 and 109 ng/L, respectively. For all compounds except gemfibrozil, carbamazepine and sucralose, removals were highest in the summer (83.0 to 98.8%) relative to removals in the fall (48.4 to 91.4%) and winter (14.0 to 78.3%). Finally, the estimated concentrations of carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, triclosan and HHCB were compared with predicted values obtained through application of the WEST® modeling tool, with a new model based on the River Water Quality Model No. 1 and extended with dynamic mass balances describing the fate of chemicals of emerging concern subject to a variety of removal pathways. The model was able to adequately predict the fate of these four compounds in the lagoon in summer and winter, but the model overestimated removals of three of the four test compounds in the fall sampling period. This lagoon was as effective at removing PPCPs as many conventional WWTPs, but removals were better during the summer. PMID:24393598

Hoque, M Ehsanul; Cloutier, Frédéric; Arcieri, Carlo; McInnes, Mark; Sultana, Tamanna; Murray, Craig; Vanrolleghem, Peter A; Metcalfe, Chris D

2014-07-15

382

Exploring How Pain Leads to Productivity Loss in Primary Care Consulters for Osteoarthritis: A Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Osteoarthritis pain has become a leading cause of decreased productivity and work disability in older workers, a major concern in primary care. How osteoarthritis pain leads to decreased productivity at work is unclear; the aim of this study was to elucidate causal mechanisms and thus identify potential opportunities for intervention. Methods Population-based prospective cohort study of primary care consulters with osteoarthritis. Path analysis was used to test proposed mechanisms by examining the association between pain at baseline, and onset of work productivity loss at three years for mediation by physical limitation, depression, poor sleep and poor coping mechanisms. Results High pain intensity was associated with onset of work productivity loss (Adjusted Odds Ratio 2.5; 95%CI 1.3, 4.8). About half of the effect of pain on work productivity was a direct effect, and half was mediated by the impact of pain on physical function. Depression, poor sleep quality and poor coping did not mediate the association between high pain intensity and onset of work productivity loss. Conclusions As pain is a major cause of work productivity loss, results suggest that decreasing pain should be a major focus. However, successfully improving function may have an indirect effect by decreasing the impact of pain on work productivity, especially important as significant pain reduction is often difficult to achieve. Although depression, sleep problems, and coping strategies may be directly related to work productivity loss, addressing these issues may not have much effect on the significant impact of pain on work productivity. PMID:25849594

Wilkie, Ross; Hay, Elaine M.; Croft, Peter; Pransky, Glenn

2015-01-01

383

Shear creep and mechanosorptive behavior of nail-plate-jointed laminated-veneer lumber  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to evaluate the mechanosorptive deflection of shear creep of nail-plate-jointed laminated-veneer\\u000a lumber. The joint was composed of steel gusset and nails, 40 mm in length and 2.8 mm in diameter (Zn40). The specimens were\\u000a loaded parallel (PA) and perpendicular (PE) to the grain. Shearing loads applied were 50 and 100kgf, and the load levels

Soon-I. Hong; Takanori Arima

1998-01-01

384

Docetaxel-induced palmoplantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome and long-lasting multiple nail changes.  

PubMed

Palmoplantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome (PPES) and nail changes are common presentations of cutaneous toxicity of docetaxel chemotherapy, which deteriorate the quality of life of patients. Herein, we describe a female patient who developed PPES and multiple nail changes due to docetaxel treatment for infiltrative ductal carcinoma. Cold application and elevation of extremities during docetaxel infusion, potent topical steroids and oral pyridoxine increased the tolerance to chemotherapy and provided regression of painful cutaneous lesions without cessation of the treatment. PMID:24741199

Akoglu, Gulsen

2014-01-01

385

Docetaxel-induced palmoplantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome and long-lasting multiple nail changes  

PubMed Central

Palmoplantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome (PPES) and nail changes are common presentations of cutaneous toxicity of docetaxel chemotherapy, which deteriorate the quality of life of patients. Herein, we describe a female patient who developed PPES and multiple nail changes due to docetaxel treatment for infiltrative ductal carcinoma. Cold application and elevation of extremities during docetaxel infusion, potent topical steroids and oral pyridoxine increased the tolerance to chemotherapy and provided regression of painful cutaneous lesions without cessation of the treatment. PMID:24741199

Akoglu, Gulsen

2014-01-01

386

Classic nail versus DHS. A prospective randomised study on operative fixation of trochanteric femur fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a The intramedullary hip screw system Classic-Nail and the Dynamic Hip Screw (DHS) were evaluated in a prospective-randomized\\u000a clinical trial for operative treatment of trochanteric femur fractures. Hundred and ten geriatric patients (mean age 82 years)\\u000a were runningly included in the study (56 Classic Nail, 54 DHS). No significant differences between the two study groups were\\u000a observed with regard to

R. Hoffmann; G. Schmidmaier; R. Schulz; M. Schütz; N. P. Südkamp

1999-01-01

387

Investigation of different formulations for drug delivery through the nail plate.  

PubMed

Topical therapies for nail diseases are limited by keratinized cells in the human nail plate. An optimal permeation enhancer would not only improve drug delivery through the nail plate, but would also open new possibilities for treating neighboring target sites if systemic circulation is reached. The aim of the present work was to identify permeation enhancers and to improve the understanding of physicochemical parameters that influence drug permeation. Caffeine served as the model drug, and formulations were prepared in water and 20% (v/v) ethanol/water solutions. Tested enhancers were urea, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), methanol, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), docusate sodium salt (DSS), boric acid, and fungal proteins, such as hydrophobins. Permeability studies employed cadaver nails in modified Franz-type diffusion cells. The permeability coefficient of caffeine in ethanol/water was determined to be 1.56 E-08 cm/s and was improved to 2.27 E-08 cm/s by the addition of NAC. Formulations containing either methanol or DMSO showed the highest permeability coefficients in the range of 5-7.5 E-08 cm/s. Enhancers could be classified according to their permeation enhancement: methanol>class II hydrophobins>DMSO>followed by class I hydrophobins and urea. Ethanol at a concentration of 20% (v/v) in water did not influence swelling of nail samples. Hydrophobins are suggested to be efficient in drug delivery through the nail plate. PMID:19941943

Vejnovic, Ivana; Simmler, Linda; Betz, Gabriele

2010-02-15

388

Biomechanical strain analysis of the proximal femur following retrograde intramedullary nailing  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of proximal retrograde intramedullary nail position on proximal femoral strain, since stress risers occurring at the end of an implant can increase fracture risk. Methods Proximal femoral strains during axial and torsional loading were measured in composite Sawbone femurs after placement of retrograde intramedullary nails that ended at three different locations (2 cm proximal, 4 cm distal, and at the level of the lesser trochanter). Results No statistically significant difference was found between the axial or torsional strain observed in the intact femur and that seen after placement of a retrograde femoral nail ending at any of the three positions. Gages proximal to the nail tip demonstrated higher strains than the strains for the intact femur when compared with gages distal to the nail tip. Conclusion The ending location of a retrograde nail in the proximal femur does not appear to significantly alter strain in the proximal femur under the axial and torsional loading methods used in the study. PMID:21151706

Hak, David J.; Neiman, Rafael; Hazelwood, Scott

2010-01-01

389

Improving Care for Children With Complex Needs  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Medically Complex Children; Care Coordination; Case Manager; Care Manager; Collaborative Care; Disease Management; Patient Care Team or Organization; Managed Care; Children With Chronic Conditions; Children With Special Health Care Needs; Shared Care Plan; Patient Care Plan; Health Care and Resource Utilization; Adherence to Care; Functional Status and Productivity; Health Related Quality of Life; Satisfaction With Care; Care Coordinator; Family Experience of Care; Quality Health Care

2014-11-18

390

Rapid determination of parabens in personal care products by stable isotope GC-MS/MS with dynamic selected reaction monitoring.  

PubMed

In this study, a rapid and sensitive analytical method for the determination of methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, and butyl esters of para-hydroxy benzoic acid (parabens) in personal care products was developed and fully validated. Test portions were extracted with methanol followed by vortexing, sonication, centrifugation, and filtration without derivatization. The four parabens were quantified by GC-MS/MS in the electron ionization mode. Four corresponding isotopically labeled parabens were selected as internal standards, which were added at the beginning of the sample preparation and used to correct for recovery and matrix effects. Sensitivity, extraction efficiency, and recovery of the respective analytes were evaluated. The coefficients of determination (r(2)) were all greater than 0.995 for the four parabens investigated. The recoveries ranged from 97 to 107% at three spiked levels and a one-time (single) extraction efficiency greater than 97% was obtained. This method has been applied to screen 26 personal care products. This is the first time that a unique GC-MS/MS method with dynamic selected reaction monitoring and confirmation of analytes has been used to determine these parabens in cosmetic personal care products. PMID:23494853

Wang, Perry G; Zhou, Wanlong

2013-06-01

391

Successful repair of an intracranial nail-gun injury involving the parietal region and the superior sagittal sinus. Case report.  

PubMed

Intracranial nail injuries to the brain are rare. Various techniques for the removal of penetrating nails have been reported, but to date successful nail extraction following an injury involving the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) has not been reported. The authors report the case of a nail-gun injury to the midline parietal region with penetration of the SSS. They describe an original surgical technique involving the use of a graft patch of temporal fascia and muscle to repair the SSS following extraction of the nail. The procedure resulted in preservation of distal flow across the sinus and a good neurological outcome. Technical considerations in the repair of penetrating posterior SSS injuries are discussed. Penetrating nail injuries to the brain involving the SSS can be successfully repaired with maintenance of sinus patency. PMID:16235693

Sani, Sepehr; Jobe, Kirk W; Byrne, Richard W

2005-09-01

392

Retrograde Intramedullary Nailing with a Blocking Pin Technique for Reduction of Periprosthetic Supracondylar Femoral Fracture after Total Knee Arthroplasty: Technical Note with a Compatibility Chart of the Nail to Femoral Component  

PubMed Central

Periprosthetic fractures after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) present a clear management challenge, and retrograde intramedullary nails have recently gained widespread acceptance in treatment of these fractures. In two cases, we found a blocking screw technique, first reported by Krettek et al., was useful in the reduction of the fractures. Both patients attained preinjury mobility after intramedullary nailing. Moreover, we present a chart summarizing the notch designs of various femoral components because some prosthetic knee designs are not amenable to retrograde nailing. We hope this will be helpful in determining indications for retrograde nailing in periprosthetic fractures after TKA. PMID:25574411

Hamada, Daisuke; Takasago, Tomoya; Tsutsui, Takahiko; Suzue, Naoto; Sairyo, Koichi

2014-01-01

393

Skin care and incontinence  

MedlinePLUS

Incontinence - skin care ... in a wheelchair, regular chair, or bed TAKING CARE OF THE SKIN Using diapers and other products ... skin. Over time, the skin breaks down. Special care must be taken to keep the skin clean ...

394

Comparative Study Using Intramedullary K-wire Fixation Over Titanium Elastic Nail in Paediatric Shaft Femur Fractures  

PubMed Central

Background: Fracture shaft femur is common paediatric trauma leading to significant morbidity. Conservative treatments available are associated with prolonged periods of immobilization. Use of flexible intramedullary implant allows early rehabilitation in diaphyseal fractures of femur in children. Aim: The aim of the present study is to compare fixation of diaphyseal femur fracture by titanium elastic nail and intramedullary K-wires in children. Setting and Design: Prospective randomized study in a tertiary care hospital. Material and Methods: Fifty-two children between 6 years and 14 years of age with femoral shaft fracture were assigned either in Group I or Group II based on computer generated random numbers. In Group I closed percutaneous intramedullary K- wire fixation and in Group II closed percutaneous intramedullary titanium elastic nail was used to fix the fractures. Partial weight bearing was allowed after 6 weeks of surgery and full weight bearing at clinico-radiological union. Results: Average time of radiological union was 6 to 10 weeks in both groups. In both the groups two cases had entry site irritation which resolved with early implant removal. One case in both the groups had unacceptable mal-alignment. Both the groups had few cases of limb-length discrepancy, which was in acceptable limit, except two cases of TENS. There was no statistically significant difference between the results of both the groups. But, using K-wires significantly reduced the cost of treatment. Conclusion: Most of such fractures in our society are neglected because of high cost of treatment. Providing a cheaper alternative in form of K-wires may be beneficial for the patients from low socio-economic status. PMID:25584251

Anand, Tushar; Singh, Sudhir

2014-01-01

395

International scientists' priorities for research on pharmaceutical and personal care products in the environment.  

PubMed

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are widely discharged into the environment via diverse pathways. The effects of PPCPs in the environment have potentially important human and ecosystem health implications, so credible, salient, and legitimate scientific evidence is needed to inform regulatory and policy responses that address potential risks. A recent "big questions" exercise with participants largely from North America identified 22 important research questions around the risks of PPCP in the environment that would help address the most pressing knowledge gaps over the next decade. To expand that analysis, we developed a survey that was completed by 535 environmental scientists from 57 countries, of whom 49% identified environmental or analytical chemistry as their primary disciplinary background. They ranked the 22 original research questions and submitted 171 additional candidate research questions they felt were also of high priority. Of the original questions, the 3 perceived to be of highest importance related to: 1) the effects of long-term exposure to low concentrations of PPCP mixtures on nontarget organisms, 2) effluent treatment methods that can reduce the effects of PPCPs in the environment while not increasing the toxicity of whole effluents, and 3) the assessment of the environmental risks of metabolites and environmental transformation products of PPCPs. A question regarding the role of cultural perspectives in PPCP risk assessment was ranked as the lowest priority. There were significant differences in research orientation between scientists who completed English and Chinese language versions of the survey. We found that the Chinese respondents were strongly orientated to issues of managing risk profiles, effluent treatment, residue bioavailability, and regional assessment. Among English language respondents, further differences in research orientation were associated with respondents' level of consistency when ranking the survey's 15 comparisons. There was increasing emphasis on the role of various other stressors relative to PPCPs and on risk prioritization as internal decision making consistency increased. Respondents' consistency in their ranking choices was significantly and positively correlated with SETAC membership, authors' number of publications, and longer survey completion times. Our research highlighted international scientists' research priorities and should help inform decisions about the type of hazard and risk-based research needed to best inform decisions regarding PPCPs in the environment. Disciplinary training of a scientist or engineer appears to strongly influence preferences for research priorities to understand PPCPs in the environment. Selection of participants and the depth and breadth of research prioritization efforts thus have potential effects on the outcomes of research prioritization exercises. Further elucidation of how patterns of research priority vary between academic and government scientists and between scientists and other government and stakeholders would be useful in the future and provide information that helps focus scientific effort on socially relevant challenges relating to PPCPs in the environment. It also suggests the potential for future collaborative research between industry, government, and academia on environmental contaminants beyond PPCPs. PMID:24954797

Rudd, Murray A; Ankley, Gerald T; Boxall, Alistair B A; Brooks, Bryan W

2014-10-01

396

Assessing Occupational Exposure in Nail Salons Margaret Back, Katherine Chin, Morgan Dashko, Alisa Feinswog, Aliza Heeren, Tasneem Islam, Benjamin Krause, Molly Pearlman, Maia Rodriguez-Semp, Madeline Rosenberg, Emily Scharf, Shanlai Shangguan, Emily Weis  

E-print Network

Assessing Occupational Exposure in Nail Salons Margaret Back, Katherine Chin, Morgan Dashko, Alisa, James Stewart, Laura Goldin, Brett Aronson Conclusions Introduction The nail salon industry has become

Fraden, Seth

397

Characterization and quantitation of polyolefin microplastics in personal-care products using high-temperature gel-permeation chromatography.  

PubMed

In recent years, the development of reliable methods for the quantitation of microplastics in different samples, including evaluating the particles' adverse effects in the marine environment, has become a great concern. Because polyolefins are the most prevalent type of polymer in personal-care products containing microplastics, this study presents a novel approach for their quantitation. The method is suitable for aqueous and hydrocarbon-based products, and includes a rapid sample clean-up involving twofold density separation and a subsequent quantitation with high-temperature gel-permeation chromatography. In contrast with previous procedures, both errors caused by weighing after insufficient separation of plastics and matrix and time-consuming visual sorting are avoided. In addition to reliable quantitative results, in this investigation a comprehensive characterization of the polymer particles isolated from the product matrix, covering size, shape, molecular weight distribution and stabilization, is provided. Results for seven different personal-care products are presented. Recoveries of this method were in the range of 92-96 %. PMID:25410643

Hintersteiner, Ingrid; Himmelsbach, Markus; Buchberger, Wolfgang W

2015-02-01

398

Overall well-being as a predictor of health care, productivity, and retention outcomes in a large employer.  

PubMed

Employers struggle with the high cost of health care, lost productivity, and turnover in their workforce. The present study aims to understand the association between overall well-being and these employer outcomes. In a sample of 11,700 employees who took the Well-being Assessment, the authors used multivariate linear and logistic regression to investigate overall well-being as a predictor of health care outcomes (total health care expenditure, emergency room visits, hospitalizations), productivity outcomes (unscheduled absence, short-term disability leave, presenteeism, job performance ratings), and retention outcomes (intention to stay, voluntary turnover, involuntary turnover). Testing this hypothesis both cross-sectionally and longitudinally, the authors investigated the association between baseline well-being and these outcomes in the following year, and the relationship between change in overall well-being and change in these outcomes over 1 year. The results demonstrated that baseline overall well-being was a significant predictor of all outcomes in the following year when holding baseline employee characteristics constant. Change in overall well-being over 1 year also was significantly associated with the change in employer outcomes, with the exception that the relationship to change in manager-rated job performance was marginally significant. The relationships between overall well-being and outcomes suggest that implementing a well-being improvement solution could have a significant bottom and top line impact on business performance. PMID:23480368

Sears, Lindsay E; Shi, Yuyan; Coberley, Carter R; Pope, James E

2013-12-01

399

Overall Well-Being as a Predictor of Health Care, Productivity, and Retention Outcomes in a Large Employer  

PubMed Central

Abstract Employers struggle with the high cost of health care, lost productivity, and turnover in their workforce. The present study aims to understand the association between overall well-being and these employer outcomes. In a sample of 11,700 employees who took the Well-being Assessment, the authors used multivariate linear and logistic regression to investigate overall well-being as a predictor of health care outcomes (total health care expenditure, emergency room visits, hospitalizations), productivity outcomes (unscheduled absence, short-term disability leave, presenteeism, job performance ratings), and retention outcomes (intention to stay, voluntary turnover, involuntary turnover). Testing this hypothesis both cross-sectionally and longitudinally, the authors investigated the association between baseline well-being and these outcomes in the following year, and the relationship between change in overall well-being and change in these outcomes over 1 year. The results demonstrated that baseline overall well-being was a significant predictor of all outcomes in the following year when holding baseline employee characteristics constant. Change in overall well-being over 1 year also was significantly associated with the change in employer outcomes, with the exception that the relationship to change in manager-rated job performance was marginally significant. The relationships between overall well-being and outcomes suggest that implementing a well-being improvement solution could have a significant bottom and top line impact on business performance. (Population Health Management 2013;16:397–405) PMID:23480368

Shi, Yuyan; Coberley, Carter R.; Pope, James E.

2013-01-01

400

The Effects of Simultaneous Use of Careful Online Planning and Task Repetition on Accuracy, Complexity, and Fluency in EFL Learners' Oral Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a study that was primarily aimed at investigating the effects of simultaneous use of careful online planning and task repetition on accuracy, complexity, and fluency in the oral production of learners of English as a foreign language (EFL). The effects of four planning and task repetition conditions (i.e. careful online…

Ahmadian, Mohammad Javad; Tavakoli, Mansoor

2011-01-01

401

The Effects of Guided Careful Online Planning on Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency in Intermediate EFL Learners' Oral Production: The Case of English Articles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study reported in this article was twofold: First, to see whether guided careful online planning assists intermediate learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) in accurate oral production of English articles ("an/a" and "the"); and, second, to see whether guided careful online planning has any effects on global complexity…

Ahmadian, Mohammad Javad

2012-01-01

402

Vulvar Care  

MedlinePLUS

... care professionals to share with clients. Any other reproduction is sub- ject to the Journal of Midwifery & ... jelly keeps the area moist and soft . For Sexual Activity • Some birth control products you can get ...

403

Drug delivery to the nail: therapeutic options and challenges for onychomycosis.  

PubMed

Onychomycosis is one of the most common nail disorders. It affects 10-30% of the world population and is caused by dermatophytes, non-dermatophytes, molds, and yeasts. Present treatment methods of onychomycosis include oral therapy, topical therapy, and a combination of both; they have mild-to-moderate efficacy, with a relapse and reinfection rate of 20-25%. For oral therapy, newer antifungal compounds (azole class and allylamine class) are being investigated to increase efficacy and minimize side effects. Oral therapy with antifungal agents have severe side effects, with lesser bioavailability and longer duration of treatment. By contrast, topical therapy of onychomycosis is associated with greater patient compliance and fewer systemic side effects and drug interactions. Current topical treatment options of onychomycosis are nail lacquers, ointments, lotions, solutions, and gels, but these formulations have been unsuccessful due to poor penetration and distribution of drugs at the infected site. Therefore, novel therapeutic options are constantly being researched to improve the efficacy of onychomycosis treatment by enhancing the permeation of the drug across the nail to reach the infected site. Various physical and chemical enhancement methods have been studied to increase the permeation of drugs across the nail plate to the nail bed. Device-based therapeutic options have also been investigated to increase the antifungal drug concentration and its effects in the onychomycotic nail. Randomized clinical trials of these novel therapies have demonstrated better efficacy. The present review discusses the anatomy of the human nail, onychomycosis and its types, onycholysis, and conventional and novel therapies. We also review patents granted as well as design challenges facing optimal drug formulation for onychomycosis treatment. PMID:25271773

Barot, Bhavesh S; Parejiya, Punit B; Patel, Hetal K; Mehta, Dharmik M; Shelat, Pragna K

2014-01-01

404

The use of immunohistochemistry in the evaluation of the nail matrix in biopsies of ingrown toenails.  

PubMed

The success of surgical approaches to ingrown toenails depends on the extraction (either partial or total) of the nail matrix. The identification of the nail matrix in specimens taken from ingrown toenails is not always easy because of the fragmentation of the biopsies, difficulties in matrix orientations and the heavy inflammatory infiltrate. In biopsies taken from polydactyly surgeries, the matrix shows a peculiar pattern of expression of the CD10 and CD34 markers that differs from the one shown by the lateral nail fold. We investigated whether such a pattern was also found in biopsies from ingrown toenails, which can be greatly distorted through inflammation and fibrosis. We examined 15 biopsies from cases of ingrown toenails at different clinical stages. We performed routine Hematoxylin-Eosin studies, as well as immunohistochemical studies with CD10, CD34, HMB-45 and Melan-A. The morphologic changes in all cases were typical of those found in ingrown toenails and their intensities correlated with the clinical stages. Matrical keratinization was identified in all of the biopsies. Morphologic features that are compatible with the lateral nail fold were also seen in seven of the 15 biopsies. In five cases, an intermediate area of transition between matrix and lateral nail folds was heavily distorted by inflammatory changes. Melanocytic markers showed scattered intra-epidermal cells in all but one case. HMB-45 and Melan-A were equally good in demonstrating the melanocytic population. We concluded that the expression of CD10 and CD34 in cases of ingrown toenails is preserved and it follows the pattern described in nails from polydactyly. Therefore, both markers can be useful in fragmented specimens taken from surgeries for ingrown toenails, in order to confirm the removal of the nail matrix. PMID:23771067

Fernandez-Flores, A; Martínez-Nova, A

2013-01-01

405

A longitudinal study to identify the influence of quality of chronic care delivery on productive interactions between patients and (teams of) healthcare professionals within disease management programmes  

PubMed Central

Objective The chronic care model is an increasingly used approach to improve the quality of care through system changes in care delivery. While theoretically these system changes are expected to increase productive patient–professional interaction empirical evidence is lacking. This study aims to identify the influence of quality of care on productive patient–professional interaction. Setting Longitudinal study in 18 Dutch regions. Participants Questionnaires were sent to all 5076 patients participating in 18 Disease Management Programmes (DMPs) in 2010 (2676 (53%) respondents). One year later (T1), 4693 patients still participating in the DMPs received a questionnaire (2191 (47%) respondents) and 2?years later (in 2012; T2) 1722 patients responded (out of 4350; 40% response). Interventions DMPs Primary outcome measure Patients’ perceptions of the productivity of interactions (measured as relational coordination/coproduction of care) with professionals. Patients were asked about communication dimensions (frequent, accurate, and problem-solving communication) and relationship dimensions (shared goals and mutual respect). Findings After controlling for background characteristics these results clearly show that quality of chronic care (T0), first-year changes in quality of chronic care (T1—T0) and second-year changes in quality of chronic care (T2—T1) predicted productive interactions between patients and professionals at T2 (all at p?0.001). Furthermore, we found a negative relationship between lower educational level and productive interactions between patients and professionals 2?years later. Conclusions We can conclude that successfully dealing with the consequences of chronic illnesses requires proactive patients who are able to make productive decisions together with their healthcare providers. Since patients and professionals share responsibility for management of the chronic illness, they must also share control of interactions and decisions. The importance of patient-centeredness is growing and this study reports a first example of how quality of chronic care stimulates productive interactions between patients and professionals. PMID:25239294

Cramm, Jane Murray; Nieboer, Anna Petra

2014-01-01

406

Combining high-resolution gross domestic product data with home and personal care product market research data to generate a subnational emission inventory for Asia.  

PubMed

Environmental risk assessment of chemicals is reliant on good estimates of product usage information and robust exposure models. Over the past 20 to 30 years, much progress has been made with the development of exposure models that simulate the transport and distribution of chemicals in the environment. However, little progress has been made in our ability to estimate chemical emissions of home and personal care (HPC) products. In this project, we have developed an approach to estimate subnational emission inventory of chemical ingredients used in HPC products for 12 Asian countries including Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam (Asia-12). To develop this inventory, we have coupled a 1?km grid of per capita gross domestic product (GDP) estimates with market research data of HPC product sales. We explore the necessity of accounting for a population's ability to purchase HPC products in determining their subnational distribution in regions where wealth is not uniform. The implications of using high resolution data on inter- and intracountry subnational emission estimates for a range of hypothetical and actual HPC product types were explored. It was demonstrated that for low value products (<500 US$ per capita/annum required to purchase product) the maximum deviation from baseline (emission distributed via population) is less than a factor of 3 and it would not result in significant differences in chemical risk assessments. However, for other product types (>500 US$ per capita/annum required to purchase product) the implications on emissions being assigned to subnational regions can vary by several orders of magnitude. The implications of this on conducting national or regional level risk assessments may be significant. Further work is needed to explore the implications of this variability in HPC emissions to enable the HPC industry and/or governments to advance risk-based chemical management policies in emerging markets. PMID:23913410

Hodges, Juliet Elizabeth Natasha; Vamshi, Raghu; Holmes, Christopher; Rowson, Matthew; Miah, Taqmina; Price, Oliver Richard

2014-04-01

407

Outcome of one-stage correction of deformities of the ankle and hindfoot and fusion in Charcot neuroarthropathy using a retrograde intramedullary hindfoot arthrodesis nail.  

PubMed

We report the outcomes of 20 patients (12 men, 8 women, 21 feet) with Charcot neuro-arthropathy who underwent correction of deformities of the ankle and hindfoot using retrograde intramedullary nail arthrodesis. The mean age of the patients was 62.6 years (46 to 83); their mean BMI was 32.7 (15 to 47) and their median American Society of Anaesthetists score was 3 (2 to 4). All presented with severe deformities and 15 had chronic ulceration. All were treated with reconstructive surgery and seven underwent simultaneous midfoot fusion using a bolt, locking plate or a combination of both. At a mean follow-up of 26 months (8 to 54), limb salvage was achieved in all patients and 12 patients (80%) with ulceration achieved healing and all but one patient regained independent mobilisation. There was failure of fixation with a broken nail requiring revision surgery in one patient. Migration of distal locking screws occurred only when standard screws had been used but not with hydroxyapatite-coated screws. The mean American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Foot and Ankle (AAOS-FAO) score improved from 50.7 (17 to 88) to 65.2 (22 to 88), (p = 0.015). The mean Short Form (SF)-36 Health Survey Physical Component Score improved from 25.2 (16.4 to 42.8) to 29.8 (17.7 to 44.2), (p = 0.003) and the mean Euroqol EQ?5D?5L score improved from 0.63 (0.51 to 0.78) to 0.67 (0.57 to 0.84), (p = 0.012). Single-stage correction of deformity using an intramedullary hindfoot arthrodesis nail is a good form of treatment for patients with severe Charcot hindfoot deformity, ulceration and instability provided a multidisciplinary care plan is delivered. PMID:25568417

Siebachmeyer, M; Boddu, K; Bilal, A; Hester, T W; Hardwick, T; Fox, T P; Edmonds, M; Kavarthapu, V

2015-01-01

408

Mom and Baby Skin Care  

MedlinePLUS

... and baby skin care Mom and baby skin care Skin care concerns during and after pregnancy Melasma Also known ... chilled product can help alleviate the itch. Hair care concerns during and after pregnancy Excessive hair growth ...

409

Constructing Men Who Teach: Research into Care and Gender as Productive of the Male Primary Teacher  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues that in order to begin loosening the ties that bind care and gender in primary education, we need to re-examine the knowledge sought and found by educational research about teachers. The focus is primarily on how we understand men who teach. Through an examination of two scholarly texts -- Ashley, M., and J. Lee [2003.…

Pulsford, Mark

2014-01-01

410

Palliative care teaching in medical residency: a review of two POGO-e teaching products.  

PubMed

This is a comparison review of GeriaSims and Care of the Aging Medical Patient (CHAMP) modules addressing issues in palliative and hospice medicine found in the Portal of Geriatric Online Education, a free on-line repository of geriatric educational materials for medical educators. GeriaSims is a self-directed teaching module designed to systematically address many of the important questions involved in caring for individuals with chronic progressive and life-limiting illnesses. It is well suited for physicians, particularly medical residents and fellows in-training, who provide care for medically complicated elderly and terminally ill individuals. The CHAMP module is designed to familiarize physician educators with palliative and hospice medicine basics to teach residents and fellows through didactic slides, although it can probably be adapted for use by residents and fellows if audio commentary accompanies the slides. Both modules address practical approaches to addressing palliative care in patients and their families. They are useful teaching tools that address an important learning need and can be readily used to supplement current residency curriculum in hospice and palliative medicine. PMID:22642506

Lim, Lionel S; Kandavelou, Karthikeyan; Khan, Nabeela

2012-06-01

411

Glycation of Nail Proteins: From Basic Biochemical Findings to a Representative Marker for Diabetic Glycation-Associated Target Organ Damage  

PubMed Central

Background Although assessment of glycated nail proteins may be a useful marker for monitoring of diabetes, their nature and formation are still poorly understood. Besides a detailed anatomical analysis of keratin glycation, the usefulness of glycated nail protein assessment for monitoring diabetic complications was investigated. Methods 216 patients (94 males, 122 females; mean age ± standard deviation: 75.0 ± 8.7 years) were enrolled. Glycation of nail and eye lens proteins was assessed using a photometric nitroblue tetrazolium-based assay. Following chromatographic separation of extracted nail proteins, binding and nonbinding fractions were analyzed using one-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Using a hand piece containing a latch-type-bur, a meticulous cutting of the nail plate into superficial and deep layers was performed, followed by a differential analysis of fructosamine. Results Using SDS PAGE, four and two bands were identified among the nonglycated and glycated nail fraction respectively. Significantly lower fructosamine concentrations were found in the superficial nail layer (mean: 2.16 ± 1.37 ?mol/g nails) in comparison with the deep layer (mean: 4.36 ± 2.55 ?mol/g nails) (P<0.05). A significant higher amount of glycated eye lens proteins was found in diabetes mellitus patients (mean: 3.80 ± 1.57 ?mol/g eye lens) in comparison with nondiabetics (mean: 3.35 ± 1.34 ?mol/g eye lens) (P<0.05). A marked correlation was found between glycated nail and glycated eye lens proteins [y (glycated nail proteins) = 0.39 + 0.99 x (eye lens glycated proteins); r2 = 0.58, P<0.001]. The concentration of glycated eye lens proteins and the HbA1c level were found to be predictors of the concentration of glycated nail proteins. Conclusions Glycation of nail proteins takes place in the deep layer of finger nails, which is in close contact with blood vessels and interstitial fluid. Glycation of nail proteins can be regarded as a representative marker for diabetic glycation-associated target organ damage. PMID:25781337

Kishabongo, Antoine Sadiki; Katchunga, Philippe; Van Aken, Elisabeth H.; Speeckaert, Reinhart; Lagniau, Sabrina; Coopman, Renaat; Speeckaert, Marijn M.; Delanghe, Joris R.

2015-01-01

412

The Association of Reamed Intramedullary Nailing and Long-Term Cognitive Impairment  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the association of reamed intramedullary nailing (IMN) and long-term cognitive impairment in trauma intensive care unit (TICU) survivors. Design Prospective observational cohort. Setting Academic Level-1 Trauma Center. Patients 173 patients with multiple trauma (Injury Severity Score (ISS) >15) who presented to a Level I TICU from July 2006 to July 2007 without evidence of intrancranial hemorrhage (ICH) Intervention None Main Outcome Measure Twelve-month cognitive impairment defined a priori as 2 neuropsychological test scores 1.5 SD below the mean or 1 neuropsychological test score 2 SD below the mean. Results 108/173 patients (62.4%) were evaluated 12-months after injury with a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests. There were 18 patients who received a reamed IMN and 14/18 (78%) of these patients had cognitive deficit at follow-up. Fracture treatment with a reamed IMN was associated with long-term impairment (27.4% vs. 8.2%, p= 0.03). Multivariable logistic regression found that a reamed IMN (OR: 3.2, 95% CI: 0.95-10.9; p=0.06) was a moderate risk factor for the development of cognitive impairment 12-months after injury, after controlling for ISS, level of education, intra-operative hypotension, and duration of mechanical ventilation. Conclusions Fracture fixation with a reamed IMN is moderately associated with cognitive impairment in this cohort of multiple trauma patients without ICH at 1-year post-injury. Orthopaedic trauma research should continue to investigate a potential association of acute fracture management and long-term cognitive outcome. PMID:22089759

Richards, Justin E; Guillamondegui, Oscar D; Archer, Kristin R; Jackson, James C; Ely, E Wesley; Obremskey, William T

2013-01-01

413

Trichophyton onychocola sp. nov. isolated from human nail.  

PubMed

A previously undescribed Trichophyton species was isolated from the nail of a 33-year-old man with a history of probable distal lateral subungual onychomycosis (without confirmation by mycological examination). The infection occurred for the first time five years earlier (in 2006) and affected the right great toenail, with complete clinical remission after treatment with ciclopirox olamine. This undescribed species was isolated during probable relapse in 2011, but its etiological significance was not confirmed, that is, direct microscopy was negative and additional clinical samples were not collected. The species is probably geophilic based on phylogenetic analysis (internal transcribed spacer [ITS] rDNA) and is most closely related to the anamorphic T. thuringiense, homothallic Arthroderma ciferrii (anamorph T. georgiae), and heterothallic A. melis. The new species is characterized by yellowish colonies, red reverse on several media, positive urease test, negative hair-perforation test, absence of growth at 34°C, absence of macroconidia, formation of one-celled clavate microconidia, and spiral hyphae. The species grows well on sterilized human hairs placed on agar medium without any additional nutrients and forms gymnothecium-like structures covered by peridial hyphae. The combination of unique micro- and macromorphological features and physiological and sequence data from four unlinked loci (ITS, benA, RPB2, and act1 gene) justified the proposal of a new species T. onychocola sp. nov. PMID:24577005

Hubka, Vit; Cmokova, Adela; Skorepova, Magdalena; Mikula, Peter; Kolarik, Miroslav

2014-04-01

414

Incidence of intramedullary nail removal after femoral shaft fracture healing  

PubMed Central

Introduction There are limited data on hardware removal after femoral fracture healing. We determined the incidence of intramedullary nail (IMN) removal after midshaft femoral fractures. We also studied demographic factors influencing IMN removal. Methods The senior author reviewed all adult femoral fractures with IMN placement in the trauma practice between July 1990 and November 2003. There were a total of 74 IMNs in 68 subjects with midshaft fractures. The incidence of hardware removal was the primary outcome measure. We also analyzed age, sex, body mass index (BMI), mechanism of injury, IMN dimensions, occupation, and Workers' Compensation Board (WCB) insurance and litigation involvement. Results Overall incidence of IMN removal was 20% (15 of 74 fractures). No significant difference was found with age (p = 0.965), sex (p = 0.086), BMI (p = 0.423), occupation (p = 0.341), insurance involvement (p = 0.229), WCB involvement (p = 0.663) or IMN dimensions (width, p = 0.752; length, p = 0.312). Litigants had the highest incidence of IMN removal (p = 0.004). Discussion All hardware was removed for pain or irritation. These results suggest that litigants require hardware removal more often than nonlitigants. A larger study is needed to identify specific criteria for hardware removal and to determine whether secondary gains affect the incidence of femoral removal. PMID:17391610

Hui, Catherine; Jorgensen, Ian; Buckley, Richard; Fick, Gordon

2007-01-01

415

State of the art in nail dosimetry: free radicals identification and reaction mechanisms.  

PubMed

Until very recently, analysis of bone biopsies by means of the method of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) collected after surgery or amputation has been considered as the sole reliable method for radiation dose assessment in hands and feet. EPR measurements in finger- and toenail have been considered for accident dosimetry for a long time. Human nails are very attractive biophysical materials because they are easy to collect and pertinent to whole body irradiation. Information on the existence of a radiation-induced signal in human nails has been reported almost 25 years ago. However, no practical application of EPR dosimetry on nails is known to date because, from an EPR perspective, nails represent a very complex material. In addition to the radiation-induced signal (RIS), parasitic and intense signals are induced by the mechanical stress caused when collecting nail samples (mechanically induced signals-MIS). Moreover, it has been demonstrated that the RIS stability is strongly influenced not only by temperature but also by humidity. Most studies of human nails were carried out using conventional X-band microwave band (9 GHz). Higher frequency Q-band (37 GHz) provides higher spectral resolution which allows obtaining more detailed information on the nature of different radicals in human nails. Here, we present for the first time a complete description of the different EPR signals identified in nails including parasitic, intrinsic and RIS. EPR in both X- and Q-bands was used. Four different MIS signals and five different signals specific to irradiation with ionizing radiation have been identified. The most important outcome of this work is the identification of a stable RIS component. In contrast with other identified (unstable) RIS components, this component is thermally and time stable and not affected by the physical contact of fingernails with water. A detailed description of this signal is provided here. The discovery of stable radiation-induced radical(s) associated with the RIS component mentioned opens a way for broad application of EPR dosimetry in human nails. Consequently, several recent dosimetry assessments of real accident cases have been performed based on the described measurements and analyses of this component. PMID:24469226

Trompier, F; Romanyukha, A; Reyes, R; Vezin, H; Queinnec, F; Gourier, D

2014-05-01

416

Stress relaxation of grouted entirely large diameter B-GFRP soil nail  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the potential solutions to steel-corrosion-related problems is the usage of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) as a replacement of steel bars. In the past few decades, researchers have conducted a large number of experimental and theoretical studies on the behavior of small size glass fiber reinforce polymer (GFRP) bars (diameter smaller than 20 mm). However, the behavior of large size GFRP bar is still not well understood. Particularly, few studies were conducted on the stress relaxation of grouted entirely large diameter GFRP soil nail. This paper investigates the effect of stress levels on the relaxation behavior of GFRP soil nail under sustained deformation ranging from 30% to 60% of its ultimate strain. In order to study the behavior of stress relaxation, two B-GFRP soil nail element specimens were developed and instrumented with fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensors which were used to measure strains along the B-GFRP bars. The test results reveal that the behavior of stress relaxation of B-GFRP soil nail element subjected to pre-stress is significantly related to the elapsed time and the initial stress of relaxation procedure. The newly proposed model for evaluating stress relaxation ratio can substantially reflect the influences of the nature of B-GFRP bar and the property of grip body. The strain on the nail body can be redistributed automatically. Modulus reduction is not the single reason for the stress degradation.

Li, Guo-wei; Ni, Chun; Pei, Hua-fu; Ge, Wan-ming; Ng, Charles Wang Wai

2013-08-01

417

More intramedullary nails and arthroplasties for treatment of hip fractures in Sweden  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose The surgical methods for treatment of femoral neck fractures and trochanteric hip fractures vary. We describe the changes in Sweden over the period 1998–2007 and the regional differences in treatment. Patients and methods Data on 144,607 patients were drawn from the National Patient Register. Results The proportion of femoral neck fractures treated with arthroplasty increased from 10% in 1998 to 52% in 2007. The use of intramedullary (IM) nails for pertrochanteric fractures increased from 5% to 20%, at the expense of the use of different sliding hip screws. In subtrochanteric fractures, the use of IM nails increased from 32% to 72%. Re-admissions within 180 days due to hip complications were more common after internal fixation for femoral neck fractures than after arthroplasty, and more common after intramedullary nailing of pertrochanteric fractures than after use of sliding hip screws. Treatment varied substantially within Sweden, particularly regarding the use of IM nails. Interpretation An increase in arthroplasties reflects an evidence-based treatment rationale for femoral neck fractures, whereas the increase in use of IM nails in pertrochanteric fractures lacks scientific support. The geographic variations call for national treatment guidelines. Further clinical trials are needed to solve the treatment issues regarding per- and subtrochanteric fractures. PMID:20860442

2010-01-01

418

Meta-analysis of reamed versus unreamed intramedullary nailing for open tibial fractures  

PubMed Central

Background Open fractures of the tibial diaphysis are usually caused by high-energy trauma and associated with severe bone and soft tissue injury. Reamed and unreamed intramedullary nailing are often used for treatment of tibial injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical efficacy of reamed versus unreamed intramedullary nailing for open tibial fractures (OTF). Methods A meta-analysis was conducted according to the guidelines of the Cochrane Collaboration using databases containing the Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMbase, Chinese Biomedical Database, Chinese VIP information, and WanFang Database. Randomized and semi-randomized controlled clinical trials of both reamed and unreamed intramedullary nailing for OTF treatment were analyzed using Reviewer Manager (RevMan5.0) software. Results A total of 695 references were initially identified from the selected databases. However, only four studies were assessed, matching all the eligibility criteria conducted by two independent reviewers. The result showed that there was no statistical difference in healing rate, secondary surgery rate, implant failure rate, osteofascial compartment syndrome, and infection during the postoperative period between reamed and unreamed nails in OTF. Conclusions Findings of this study suggest that there was no statistical difference between reamed and unreamed intramedullary nailing in clinical treatment of OTF. However, the result of this meta-analysis should be cautiously accepted due to some limitations, and further studies are still needed. PMID:25149501

2014-01-01

419

Numerical investigation of mechanical effects caused by various fixation positions on a new radius intramedullary nail.  

PubMed

Fracture of the radius diaphysis is an unusual injury in adults. Open reduction and plate osteosynthesis has been recommended by most of the authors. However, this trend has started to change with the recent introduction of newly designed interlocking intramedullary (IM) nails. New generation of IM nails are developed in order to utilise the advantages of IM nails against plates. Because of its anatomical structure, the radius bone has a complex geometry. Therefore, the callus structure, which forms during the healing period, should not be affected from external effects, such as excessive loads or motion. In this study, effects of radial styloid process (RSP), dorsal side and ulnar notch edge fixations of a new design radius IM nail on the healing period were numerically investigated. A three-dimensional solid model of radius was obtained from computed tomography images of a volunteer and callus structure model, was placed accordingly and different fixations of implants were performed. The models were analysed under axial loads transferring from the wrist to the radius bone using finite element method. As a result of the analysis, fixation of IM nail from RSP was found to be beneficial on healing period in terms of both callus motion and emerging stresses. PMID:23682815

Çelik, A; Kovac?, H; Saka, G; Kaymaz, ?

2015-01-01

420

The potential application of functionally graded material for proximal femoral nail antirotation device.  

PubMed

Proximal femoral nail antirotation (PFNA) device is an intramedullary nail system designing for the treatment of trochanteric fractures. It is composed of a helical neck blade, a nail and a distal locking bolt. There were some reports of femoral shaft fractures even after the fractures were healed. The stress shielding effects of the PFNA device made of stiff titanium alloy on the bone-remodeling behavior of the host femur and the uneven distribution of interface shear stress may contribute to this complication. Recently, a new class of composite called functionally graded material (FGM) was developed, that consisted a gradual pattern of material composition and/or microstructures, and was introduced in dental implant and cementless hip stem. Accordingly, in this paper, we hypothesized that FGM might be used as the material of the nail in PFNA device with the material composition of the nail gradually shifting from more stiff at the proximal side of the femur to more flexible 'iso-elastic' towards the distal side. This hypothesis can be evaluated from the long-term remodeling behavior of host femur and the stress distributions in the PFNA device and bone. PMID:22781926

Gong, He; Wang, Lizhen; Zheng, Dong; Fan, Yubo

2012-09-01

421

Retrospective exposure data for baby and children care products: an analysis of 48 clinical studies.  

PubMed

To conduct a reliable safety assessment, accurate exposure information for cosmetic products and ingredients is needed. The aim of the present retrospective study was to determine the amount per application and the daily exposure for some of the most commonly used baby cosmetic products. Consumption data from 48 clinical studies performed on 1481 babies and children (from 0 to 10 years old) were reviewed and used to conduct a probabilistic evaluation of dermal exposure. Six categories of products were reviewed: rinseoff products for hair and body; rinse-off products for the whole body; leave-on products for face and body; cleansers for face and body; diaper dermatitis treatment products; shampoos. Subjects were provided with products and recorded detailed daily usage information over a 1-4-week period, depending on the study. Products were weighed at the start and upon completion of each study in order to determine the total amount of product used. The mean, median, standard deviation and 95th percentile were calculated for daily consumption and exposure, for several age groups from 0 to 10 years old. This study provides current baby cosmetic exposure information for commonly used products which will be useful for risk assessment purposes. PMID:23562927

Gomez-Berrada, Marie-Pierre; Gautier, Florian; Parent-Massin, Dominique; Ferret, Pierre-Jacques

2013-07-01

422

Mycobacterium cosmeticum sp. nov., a novel rapidly growing species isolated from a cosmetic infection and from a nail salon.  

PubMed

Four isolates of a rapidly growing Mycobacterium species had a mycolic acid pattern similar to that of Mycobacterium smegmatis, as determined by HPLC analyses. Three of the isolates were from footbath drains and a sink at a nail salon located in Atlanta, GA, USA; the fourth was obtained from a granulomatous subdermal lesion of a female patient in Venezuela who was undergoing mesotherapy. By random amplified polymorphic DNA electrophoresis and PFGE of large restriction fragments, the three isolates from the nail salon were shown to be the same strain but different from the strain from the patient in Venezuela. Polymorphisms in regions of the rpoB, hsp65 and 16S rRNA genes that were shown to be useful for species identification matched for the two strains but were different from those of other Mycobacterium species. The 16S rRNA gene sequence placed the strains in a taxonomic group along with Mycobacterium frederiksbergense, Mycobacterium hodleri, Mycobacterium diernhoferi and Mycobacterium neoaurum. The strains produced a pale-yellow pigment when grown in the dark at the optimal temperature of 35 degrees C. Biochemical testing showed that the strains were positive for iron uptake, nitrate reduction and utilization of d-mannitol, d-xylose, iso-myo-inositol, l-arabinose, citrate and d-trehalose. The strains were negative for d-sorbitol utilization and production of niacin and 3-day arylsulfatase, although arylsulfatase activity was observed after 14 days. The isolates grew on MacConkey agar without crystal violet but not on media containing 5 % (w/v) NaCl or at 45 degrees C. They were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, amikacin, tobramycin, cefoxitin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, sulfamethoxazole and imipenem. The name Mycobacterium cosmeticum sp. nov. is proposed for this novel species; two strains, LTA-388(T) (=ATCC BAA-878(T)=CIP 108170(T)) (the type strain) and 2003-11-06 (=ATCC BAA-879=CIP 108169) have been designated, respectively, for the strains of the patient in Venezuela and from the nail salon in Atlanta, GA, USA. PMID:15545488

Cooksey, Robert C; de Waard, Jacobus H; Yakrus, Mitchell A; Rivera, Ismar; Chopite, Marina; Toney, Sean R; Morlock, Glenn P; Butler, W Ray

2004-11-01

423

DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF TWO TYPES OF OPTICAL FIBER SENSORS FOR MONITORING SOIL NAILS DURING PULL-OUT TESTING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing techniques for soil nail monitoring have limitations. This paper presents recent research works of the development of special optical fibre sensors and associated devices for measuring strains of soil nails. The optical fibre sensors have advantages: (i) reliable, (ii) high resolution, (iii) low-cost; and (iv) robust and convenient to use. Two types of optical fibre sensors with special protection

Jian-Hua YIN; Hong-Hu ZHU; Wei JIN

2007-01-01

424

Effects of Topical Alkane Vapocoolant Spray on Pain Intensity Prior to Digital Nerve Block for Ingrown Nail Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Needle penetration and local anesthetic infiltration are 2 painful steps that cause considerable stress and anxiety during digital nerve block, which is the most frequently used regional anesthesia for ingrown nail surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of topical alkane vapocoolant spray in decreasing pain during digital nerve block for ingrown nail surgery. The authors

Ozkan Kose; Sedat Saylan; Naim Ediz; Seyhmus Yigit

2010-01-01

425

Reducing radiation exposure in intra-medullary nailing procedures: Intra-medullary endo-transilluminating (iMET)  

E-print Network

the distal interlocking screw holes.19,25,8,1,37 This is because the nail is embedded in the medullary cavity the subsequent placing of the interlocking screw. Applicability of TADs is further impaired by the fact that nail the positioning of intra-medullary interlocking screws. Biological tissues are translucent to light over

426

Frecuencia de micosis en la quinta uña distrófica del pie Frequency of onichomycosis in the dystrophic fifth toes nail  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Onychomycoses are infectious diseases caused by fungus in the nails of hands and feet which are produced by dermatophytes, yeasts and or molds. Dystrophy refers to the degeneration or misdevelopement of any part of the body —in this article we refer to lesions of the nails— caused by various reasons, amongst them those of traumatic and\\/or fungal origin. We

Cristina Balderrama Vargas; Jorge Mayorga Rodríguez; J. Antonio; Barba Borrego; Víctor M. Tarango Martínez

427

Penetrating trauma to the head and neck from a nail gun: a unique mechanism of injury.  

PubMed

Published reports of nail gun injuries to the head and neck are rare. We describe the cases of three patients who sustained nail gun injuries to the head and who were managed at our institution. All patients were treated successfully and all recovered with minimal morbidity. Any physician who is called on to manage a nail gun injury to the head or neck should understand that most likely the patient will have sustained a surprisingly limited amount of tissue injury, owing to the relatively low velocity of the projectile compared with that delivered by firearms. Computed tomography and selective angiography can play a vital role in assessing the integrity of relevant vascular structures. Moreover, catheter angiography with embolization can be a most useful nonsurgical adjunct to control the extent of vascular injury. PMID:12472032

Buchalter, Gregory M; Johnson, Leland P; Reichman, Mark V; Jacobs, John

2002-11-01

428

A unique nail gun injury to the heart with a delayed presentation.  

PubMed

We describe a 24-year-old construction worker who was unaware that he had been shot by a pneumatic nail gun in the chest during work. After returning home, he felt some palpitations and mild shortness of breath, and in the mirror discovered a non-bleeding pinpoint skin wound in his upper chest. He admitted himself to the emergency department of a local hospital and, after a detailed history and a chest X-ray had been taken, he was surprisingly diagnosed with a penetrating nail injury to the heart and was referred to our center. Transthoracic echocardiography and chest computed tomography were done, and the patient was transported to the operating room. After the nail had been removed and the mitral valve repaired, the patient was discharged on the fifth postoperative day without any complications. PMID:21636580

Jodati, Ahmadreza; Safaei, Naser; Toufan, Mehrnoush; Kazemi, Babak

2011-09-01

429

Density determination of nail polishes and paint chips using magnetic levitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trace evidence is often small, easily overlooked, and difficult to analyze. This study describes a nondestructive method to separate and accurately determine the density of trace evidence samples, specifically nail polish and paint chip using magnetic levitation (MagLev). By determining the levitation height of each sample in the MagLev device, the density of the sample is back extrapolated using a standard density bead linear regression line. The results show that MagLev distinguishes among eight clear nail polishes, including samples from the same manufacturer; separates select colored nail polishes from the same manufacturer; can determine the density range of household paint chips; and shows limited levitation for unknown paint chips. MagLev provides a simple, affordable, and nondestructive means of determining density. The addition of co-solutes to the paramagnetic solution to expand the density range may result in greater discriminatory power and separation and lead to further applications of this technique.

Huang, Peggy P.

430

A severe case of erythrodermic psoriasis associated with advanced nail and joint manifestations: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Erythrodermic psoriasis is a rare generalized clinical presentation of psoriasis in children and adults. Its systemic involvement and a diverse range of clinical findings in the joint and nails are commonly described. A high index of suspicion and an exhaustive differential diagnosis involving other causes of erythroderma should be initially considered. Case presentation We present the case of a 9-year-old native Hispanic girl with severe erythrodermic psoriasis associated with uncommon advanced nail and joint manifestations. Our patient showed an excellent response to methotrexate medication. Conclusion This case shows clinical features not commonly described or reported in severe cases of erythrodermic psoriasis, including severe and rare nail and arthritic findings in a pediatric scenario. PMID:20550707

2010-01-01

431

Determination of cocaine and benzoylecgonine in nails by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Nails and hair are a biological matrix which can be analyzed to confirm the use of a xenobiotic even several months after intake. Results of nail analysis can be used, for example, as evidence in civil and criminal law cases in which a history of drug use can influence the court's decision. The paper presents results of analysis of a nail sample taken from a man who was suspected of trafficking cocaine. The suspect pleaded guilty to the possession of the drug for his own use because, as he claimed, he was addicted to cocaine. A nail sample was taken. Detection and quantification were carried out using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). The concentration of cocaine in nails was found to be 47 ng/mg, and benzoylecgonine - 14 ng/mg. PMID:25693174

Sykutera, M; Piotrowski, P; Bloch-Bogus?awska, E

2014-01-01

432

Counting outputs, capital inputs and caring labor: Estimating gross household product  

Microsoft Academic Search

The estimation of Gross Household Product, the economic value added by the unpaid work and own capital of households outside the boundary of the System of National Accounts, should be addressed through household input-output satellite accounts which count household outputs, value them at market prices, and include an allowance for capital as a factor of production. This paper uses internationally

Duncan Ironmonger

1996-01-01

433

Perishable Product Supply Chains in Health Care: Models, Analysis, and Computations  

E-print Network

of Management University of Massachusetts Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 Royal Institute of Technology -- KTH On In This Talk The Pharmaceutical Industry and Issues A Generalized Network Oligopoly Model for Pharmaceutical Product Supply Chains #12;The Pharmaceutical Industry and Issues Anna Nagurney Perishable Product Supply

Nagurney, Anna

434

Perishable Product Supply Chains in Health Care: Models, Analysis, and Computations  

E-print Network

of Management University of Massachusetts Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 Chalmers University of Technology On In This Talk The Pharmaceutical Industry and Issues A Generalized Network Oligopoly Model for Pharmaceutical Product Supply Chains #12;The Pharmaceutical Industry and Issues Anna Nagurney Perishable Product Supply

Nagurney, Anna

435

Product line management for health care system: Theoretic capacity planning over various resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hospitals can be viewed as service enterprises, whose products are specific sets of medical services provided to individual patients. It indicates that a hospital in theory has a product line as extensive as the number of patients it serves, however, each patient has certain diagnosis and therapeutic attributes in common with some other patients. Thus, patients with similar medical attributes

Guangfu Tai; Peter Williams

2008-01-01

436

Nail projectiles propelled by a mason's lacing cord: an experimental approach.  

PubMed

The recent clinical observation of two unintentional penetrating ocular and cerebral injuries due to 90-mm construction nails gave occasion to an experimental study to check the alleged trauma mechanism for plausibility. Both casualties reported that they had attached a mason's lacing cord to the masonry using a nail as anchoring when suddenly the nail was yanked from its moorings and propelled like a missile by the overstretched lacing cord. As to the best of the authors' knowledge, this mechanism of injury has not yet been reported in any of the literature; it was the aim to find an experimental approach to review the plausibility of the alleged sequence of events leading to the accidents. The tensile strength at break and strain at break of different mason's lacing cords (diameter of 1 and 2 mm) were measured according to DIN EN ISO 2062 by using a tensile testing machine. Based on the maximum spring energy of the lacing cords, which was determined 174.9 J for the 1-mm cord (length 10 m) and 747.4 J for the 2-mm cord (length 10 m), the maximum possible velocity of the nails as projectiles was calculated to be 243.5 m/s for the 1-mm cord and 503.4 m/s for the 2-mm cord. The critical elongation a cord of a certain length has to be stretched to deliver enough kinetic energy to a 90-mm nail to surpass the threshold velocity for skin penetration, which was investigated by Sellier (1977) to be approximately 18 m/s, was also calculated. To conclude, the energy delivered by the cords is high enough to surpass the rather low threshold velocity of nails. The details of how these accidents occurred, which seemed questionable at first, can be reasonably explained by trauma biomechanics. PMID:22562442

Frank, Matthias; Grossjohann, Rico; Schikorr, Wolfgang; Tesch, Ralf; Lange, Jörn; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Langner, Sönke; Bockholdt, Britta; Tost, Frank

2013-01-01

437

Field dissipation and risk assessment of typical personal care products TCC, TCS, AHTN and HHCB in biosolid-amended soils.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial agents triclocarban (TCC) and triclosan (TCS) and synthetic musks AHTN (Tonalide) and HHCB (Galaxolide) are widely used in many personal care products. These compounds may release into the soil environment through biosolid application to agricultural land and potentially affect soil organisms. This paper aimed to investigate accumulation, dissipation and potential risks of TCC, TCS, AHTN and HHCB in biosolid-amended soils of the three field trial sites (Zhejiang, Hunan and Shandong) with three treatments (CK: control without biosolid application, T1: single biosolid application, T2: repeated biosolid application every year). The one-year monitoring results showed that biosolids application could lead to accumulation of these four chemicals in the biosolid-amended soils, with the residual concentrations in the following order: TCC>TCS>AHTN>HHCB. Dissipation of TCC, TCS, AHTN and HHCB in the biosolid-amended soils followed the first-order kinetics model. Half-lives for TCC, TCS, AHTN and HHCB under the field conditions of Shandong site were 191, 258, 336 and 900 days for T1, and 51, 106, 159 and 83 days for T2, respectively. Repeated applications of biosolid led to accumulation of these personal care products and result in higher ecological risks. Based on the residual levels in the trial sites and limited toxicity data, high risks to soil organisms are expected for TCC and TCS, while low-medium risks for AHTN and HHCB. PMID:24239829

Chen, Feng; Ying, Guang-Guo; Ma, Yi-Bing; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Lai, Hua-Jie; Peng, Feng-Jiao

2014-02-01

438

Variations in mature market consumer behavior within a health care product: implications for marketing strategy.  

PubMed

America is undergoing a profound age shift in its demographic make-up with people 55 and over comprising an increasing proportion of the population. Marketers may need to increase their response rate to this shift, especially in refining the application of marketing theory and practice to older age consumers. To this end, a survey of older couple buying behavior for health insurance coverage is reported here. Results clarify evaluative criteria and the viability of multiple market segmentation for health care coverage among older consumers as couples. Commentary on the efficacy of present health coverage marketing programs is provided. PMID:10143892

Hopper, J A; Busbin, J W

1995-01-01

439

Proximal femoral nail antirotation (PFNA) for treatment of osteoporotic proximal femoral fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Unstable trochanteric fractures have been an enigma for the orthopedic surgeon in the community because of unpredictable results.\\u000a Cephalic intramedullary nails with proximal antirotation device are the treatment of choice for such patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose  To report outcomes of 36 consecutive patients treated with a proximal femoral nail (PFNA) for osteoporotic trochanteric femoral\\u000a fractures.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The patients included 20 men and 16 women,

A. Raviraj; Ashish Anand; Murali Chakravarthy; Sanjay Pai

440

Management of distal femur fractures with modern plates and nails: state of the art.  

PubMed

Fractures of the distal femur, even those with articular extension, are well suited to surgical fixation with modern precontoured anatomic plates and nails. Numerous adjuvant techniques are available to the treating surgeon to obtain and maintain reduction while preserving fracture biology. Yet despite their proven track record and benefits over older implants, technical errors are common and must be overcome with proper preoperative planning and intraoperative attention to detail. This review summarizes the current state of the art regarding distal femur fractures, with an emphasis on relevant modern plate and nail surgical techniques, tempered by our current understanding of implant biomechanics, fracture healing, and long-term outcomes. PMID:25793566

Beltran, Michael J; Gary, Joshua L; Collinge, Cory A

2015-04-01

441

Intramedullary nail fixation of fibular fractures associated with tibial shaft and pilon fractures.  

PubMed

Treatment of distal tibial fractures is technically challenging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of distally locked retrograde Ender nail fixation of axially stable fibular fractures associated with these distal tibia fractures. During a 4-year span, we treated 23 fibular fractures, associated with either distal tibial metaphyseal or articular fractures, with a retrograde 3.5-mm Ender nail. The surgical protocol along with radiographic and clinical outcomes is presented. Using this technique, we have achieved excellent fibular union with minimal complications. PMID:23609789

Stewart, Christopher M; Kiner, Dirk; Nowotarski, Peter

2013-05-01

442

Speckle-correlation analysis of the microcapillary blood circulation in nail bed  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of the experimental studies of the possibility of monitoring the blood microcirculation in human finger nail bed with application of speckle-correlation analysis, based on estimating the contrast of time-averaged dynamic speckles. The hemodynamics at normal blood circulation and under conditions of partially suppressed blood circulation is analysed. A microscopic analysis is performed to visualise the structural changes in capillaries that are caused by suppressing blood circulation. The problems and prospects of speckle-correlation monitoring of the nail bed microhemodynamics under laboratory and clinical conditions are discussed. (optical technologies in biophysics and medicine)

Vilenskii, M A; Agafonov, D N; Zimnyakov, D A; Tuchin, Valerii V; Zdrazhevskii, R A

2011-04-30

443

The Care and Nurture of Employees (Or Greasing the Path to Productivity).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The task of the personnel manager is to create an environment that produces commitment and motivation in employees. Motivation is greatest when the employee knows that efficient and productive behavior will lead to satisfaction. (JN)

Williams, John G.

1980-01-01

444

Rapid LC-MS method for the detection of common fragrances in personal care products without sample preparation.  

PubMed

An LC-MS method for the analysis of personal care and household products without sample preparation is presented. The method takes advantage of the Direct-electron ionization (EI) LC-MS interface for the quantitation of principal components, as well as for the identification of unknown or undeclared ingredients. The technique has proven its inertness toward matrix effects and the electron ionization allows quantitation and library identification. Commercially available products (shower gel, perfume, and hand cream) were diluted with methanol and injected directly into a nano-LC column. Limonene, linalool, and citral were selected as target compounds because of their use as fragrances in toiletry and detergent products. These and all other fragrances are commonly determined with GC-MS analysis, prior to sample cleanup, a procedure that can lead to analytes loss. The selected compounds are not detected with ESI because of their poor or very low response. Figures of merit and validation studies were executed and special attention was devoted to matrix-effects evaluation, because a sample preparation procedure is not involved. No matrix effects were observed, and the repeatability was excellent even after several weeks of operation. Products composition was investigated in full scan mode to determine the presence of unknown or not listed ingredients. PMID:24273185

Famiglini, Giorgio; Termopoli, Veronica; Palma, Pierangela; Capriotti, Fabiana; Cappiello, Achille

2014-05-01

445

Care of the Nails (Course Outline) Cosmetology 2: 9207.01.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An outline of the materials, equipment, and implements used for manicuring and pedicuring is presented in this course program. A guide to the services in the cosmetology field is laid out in a number of time blocks which cover: the Fingernails (3 hours), Manicure Supplies (2 hours), Manicure Techniques (20 hours), Pedicuring (5 hours), Basic…

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

446

Elastic robust intramedullary nailing for forearm fracture in children  

PubMed Central

Background Forearm fractures are the most common fractures in children (23% of all fractures). Basically there are two treatment options available for diaphyseal forearm fractures in children: closed reduction with cast immobilisation (conservative therapy) and the elastic stable intramedullary nailing (ESIN). Treatment decision is influenced by the doctor's estimation of fracture instability. Stable fractures can be treated conservatively whereas instable forearm shaft fractures can be treated according the following three treatment strategies: conservative therapy in an outpatient setting conservative therapy in the operating room in attendance to change to ESIN in case that no stabilisation can be achieved with cast immobilisation immediate treatment with ESIN in the operating room. Objectives Aim of this Health Technology Assessment (HTA) report is to assess and report the published evidence concerning effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of ESIN as a treatment option for diaphyseal forearm fractures in children and to identify future research need. Important parameters for the assessment of effectiveness are objective parameters (axis deviation, losses of motion, and numbers of reductions in case of redislocations) and subjective parameters (pain or impairment in quality of life). Furthermore, a health economic evaluation shall be done which refers to the costs of the different therapy strategies. Methods An extensive, systematic literature search in medical, economic, and HTA literature databases was performed. Relevant data were extracted and synthesised. Results Three cohort studies and seven case series have been identified. Controlled clinical studies, systematic reviews and/or HTA reports that gave evidence to answer the own study question have not been found. The identified studies partly differed in respect of defined indication for ESIN, study population and treatment strategies. For that reason comparability of results was limited. In the majority of cases the publications reported a successful consolidation of fractures treated with ESIN. The cohort studies reported no differences in mobility after treatment with ESIN compared to patients who were treated conservatively. No publications that argue health economic aspects of the ESIN in children could be identified in the literature search. A cost data assessment conducted by the authors of this report showed that ESIN is associated with higher costs compared to the other treatment strategies (without considering long term costs due to reduction in case of redisplacement). Conclusions Little evidence for a dominance of ESIN in treating forearm shaft fractures of children compared to conservative therapy could be found. Accomplishment of ESIN without complications causes more costs than conservative therapy both in outpatient and in inpatient setting. However, if fracture stabilisation cannot be achieved by conservative therapy, further interventions will be necessary. They will result in a burden for the patients and higher costs. PMID:21289953

Aidelsburger, Pamela; Grabein, Kristin; Huber, Alois; Hertlein, Hans; Wasem, Jürgen

2006-01-01

447

Caring Teachers and Symbolic Violence: Engaging the Productive Struggle in Practice and Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Symbolic violence may not be a desirable theory to apply to public schooling--its structuralist limitations render it deterministic, lacking in human agency, and unpalatable to researchers and educators who see schools as viable and productive sites of social transformation. Perhaps for these reasons, it seems little has been written about…

Scott, Brigitte C.

2012-01-01

448

Regulation of disinfection by-products — a need for careful consideration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbiological contamination of drinking water is a major public health problem. In many countries it has been largely solved by water treatment processes incorporating disinfectants such as chlorine and ozone. However, these substances inevitably react with other naturally occurring contaminants to produce unwanted by-products. Some of these have been shown to be carcinogenic in laboratory animals and there is epidemiological

JOHN FAWELL; W. YOUNG

1995-01-01

449