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Sample records for nailed steel wire

  1. The Stainless Steel Wire-based Method of Sogawa Effectively Corrects Severe Ingrown Nails

    PubMed Central

    Oki, Koichiro; Sogawa, Hideo; Ogawa, Rei

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Ingrown nails are defined as inflammation of the lateral nail fold that is caused by penetration by the nail plate and associates with pain and/or infection. The pain associated with ingrown nail hampers walking, raises the risk of falls, and decreases the quality of life. The Sogawa method is a novel conservative medical treatment for ingrown nails that is based on stainless steel wire. It was first reported in 2012 by Sogawa, and we have found that it is very effective for ingrown nails, especially in difficult cases. Here, we show the beneficial effects of the Sogawa method in 2 extremely difficult cases where ingrown nails had recurred after partial nail ablation. We found the Sogawa method to be a quick and easy technique that rapidly improves the pain associated with ingrown nails and later produces properly configured nails. Our experience suggests that it is suitable for severe ingrown nails, such as too short ingrown nails and ingrown nails that have strong inflammation and granulation tissue formation. This is significant because it is difficult to treat such cases with conventional conservative methods, which means that the only remaining therapeutic option is surgery. Thus, the Sogawa method is a novel and highly effective ingrown nail treatment that obviates the need for invasive surgical treatment. PMID:27622114

  2. A blocking-wire technique for removal of a broken hollow intramedullary nail.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xuan-Lin; Park, Young-Chang; Kang, Dong-Hyun; Seok, Sang-Ok; Yoon, Yeo-Kwon; Yang, Kyu-Hyun

    2016-07-01

    We present a simple method to remove the distal portion of the broken nail just using the bulb-tipped guide pin and a blocking Kirschner wire. At first, we removed the proximal part of the broken nail and all interlocking screws. Next, we introduced the bulb-tipped guide wire into the distal part of the nail with fluoroscopic guidance until it passed the interlocking hole that would be used. After snugly fitting the blocking Kirschner wire into the interlocking hole of the nail, the bulb-tipped guide wire is then pulled to engage the blocking wire complex in the interlocking hole. The bulb-tipped guide wire and broken nail are removed by sequential stroke using a ram. PMID:27170540

  3. 78 FR 78382 - Steel Nails From China; Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... The Commission instituted this review on July 1, 2013 (78 FR 40172) and determined on October 21, 2013 that it would conduct an expedited review (78 FR 68472, November 14, 2013). The Commission completed... COMMISSION Steel Nails From China; Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject...

  4. 77 FR 27080 - Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ..., Washington, DC, and by publishing the notice in the Federal Register of November 23, 2011 (76 FR 72438). The... COMMISSION Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates Determination On the basis of the record \\1... certain steel nails, provided for in subheadings 7317.00.55, 7317.00.65, and 7317.00.75 of the...

  5. 76 FR 29266 - Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ..., and by publishing the notice in the Federal Register of April 6, 2011 (76 FR 19124). The conference... COMMISSION Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates Determination On the basis of the record \\1... imports from the United Arab Emirates of certain steel nails, provided for in subheadings 7317.00.55,...

  6. Nails

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections, most often due to injury, poor skin hygiene, nail biting, finger sucking or frequent exposure to ... are clean, and that the technicians wash their hands between clients. 6 Consumers who get frequent manicures ...

  7. 76 FR 56147 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results and Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ...The Department of Commerce (``Department'') is conducting an administrative review and new shipper review (``NSR'') of the antidumping duty Order \\1\\ on certain steel nails (``nails'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') for the period of review (``POR'') August 1, 2009, through July 31, 2010, and August 1, 2009, through August 5, 2010, respectively. The Department has preliminarily......

  8. 76 FR 16379 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the First Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ...On September 15, 2010, the Department of Commerce (``Department'') published the Preliminary Results of the first administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain steel nails (``steel nails'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'').\\1\\ We gave interested parties an opportunity to comment on the Preliminary Results. Based upon our analysis of the comments and information......

  9. 78 FR 40172 - Steel Nails From China; Institution of a Five-Year Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... duty order on imports of steel nails from China (73 FR 44961). The Commission is conducting a review to... employment statute for Federal employees, and Commission rule 201.15(b) (19 CFR 201.15(b)), 73 FR 24609 (May... electronic filing have been amended. The amendments took effect on November 7, 2011. See 76 FR 61937 (Oct....

  10. 76 FR 19124 - Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ..., except to the extent permitted by section 201.8 of the Commission's rules, as amended, 67 FR 68036..., 67 FR 68168, 68173 (November 8, 2002). In accordance with sections 201.16(c) and 207.3 of the rules... COMMISSION Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates AGENCY: United States International...

  11. 76 FR 52313 - Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates: Postponement of Preliminary Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... Investigation, 76 FR 23559 (April 27, 2011). The notice of initiation stated that the Department would issue its... International Trade Administration Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates: Postponement of..., DC 20230. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Postponement of Preliminary Determination On April 27, 2011,...

  12. 78 FR 7452 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... Register on August 20, 2012 (77 FR 50160) and on August 22, 2012 (77 FR 50713, corrected). The hearing was... COMMISSION Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed... imports of steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam, provided for in subheading 7326.20.00 of...

  13. 77 FR 72884 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... Register on August 20, 2012 (77 FR 50160) and on August 22, 2012 (77 FR 50713, corrected). The hearing was... COMMISSION Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... the United States is materially injured by reason of imports of steel wire garment hangers from...

  14. 77 FR 28404 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... notice in the Federal Register on November 25, 2011 (76 FR 72721). The hearing was held in Washington, DC... COMMISSION Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... retarded, by reason of imports from Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided for in subheadings...

  15. 76 FR 29266 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... notice in the Federal Register of April 7, 2011 (76 FR 19382). The conference was held in Washington, DC... COMMISSION Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... injured by reason of imports from China and Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided for in...

  16. Aluminum/steel wire composite plates exhibit high tensile strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Composite plate of fine steel wires imbedded in an aluminum alloy matrix results in a lightweight material with high tensile strength. Plates have been prepared having the strength of titanium with only 85 percent of its density.

  17. 2. Copy of Drawing, 'American Steel & Wire Company, Central ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Copy of Drawing, 'American Steel & Wire Company, Central Furnaces & Docks, General Plan of Works Showing Trestle, 1-3-39.' Drawing courtesy of United States Steel Corporation, Lorain, Ohio. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  18. 1. Copy of Drawing, 'American Steel & Wire Co., Central ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Copy of Drawing, 'American Steel & Wire Co., Central Furnace Works -- Sketch of Plant Showing Tracks & Buildings, 1913, Revised 3/10/31.' Drawing courtesy United States Steel Corporation, Lorain, Ohio. Credit Berni Rich, Score Photographs, August 1979, for photos 1 through 4 and 7 through 11. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  19. Comparative Study Using Intramedullary K-wire Fixation Over Titanium Elastic Nail in Paediatric Shaft Femur Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Tushar; Singh, Sudhir

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fracture shaft femur is common paediatric trauma leading to significant morbidity. Conservative treatments available are associated with prolonged periods of immobilization. Use of flexible intramedullary implant allows early rehabilitation in diaphyseal fractures of femur in children. Aim: The aim of the present study is to compare fixation of diaphyseal femur fracture by titanium elastic nail and intramedullary K-wires in children. Setting and Design: Prospective randomized study in a tertiary care hospital. Material and Methods: Fifty-two children between 6 years and 14 years of age with femoral shaft fracture were assigned either in Group I or Group II based on computer generated random numbers. In Group I closed percutaneous intramedullary K- wire fixation and in Group II closed percutaneous intramedullary titanium elastic nail was used to fix the fractures. Partial weight bearing was allowed after 6 weeks of surgery and full weight bearing at clinico-radiological union. Results: Average time of radiological union was 6 to 10 weeks in both groups. In both the groups two cases had entry site irritation which resolved with early implant removal. One case in both the groups had unacceptable mal-alignment. Both the groups had few cases of limb-length discrepancy, which was in acceptable limit, except two cases of TENS. There was no statistically significant difference between the results of both the groups. But, using K-wires significantly reduced the cost of treatment. Conclusion: Most of such fractures in our society are neglected because of high cost of treatment. Providing a cheaper alternative in form of K-wires may be beneficial for the patients from low socio-economic status. PMID:25584251

  20. Recrystallization and Grain Growth of 316L Stainless Steel Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiuyun; Liu, Yong; Wang, Yan; Feng, Ping; Tang, Huiping

    2014-07-01

    Recrystallization and grain growth behaviors of 316L stainless steel wires with a diameter of 12 µm were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction techniques. Heavily cold-drawn wires were isothermally held at temperatures from 1073 K to 1223 K (800 °C to 950 °C) for various holding times. Optical microscopy and TEM observations showed that recrystallization grains have irregular shape and that twins exist. The texture formed during drawing and annealing processes of the wires, as measured by X-ray methods, showed a fiber texture approximated by a <111> and a <100> component. The value of the grain growth exponent n was calculated, and the kinetic rates were plotted using the Arrhenius equation. Results show that the activation energy of the grain growth for 316L stainless steel wire was determined to be 407 kJ/mol, which was much higher than that of the bulk 316L stainless steel. The small wire diameter and the existence of texture played important roles in the increase of the activation energy for grain growth of the wire.

  1. Processing and mechanical behavior of hypereutectoid steel wires

    SciTech Connect

    Lesuer, D.R.; Syn, C.K.; Sherby, O.D.; Kim, D.K.

    1996-06-25

    Hypereutectoid steels have the potential for dramatically increasing the strength of wire used in tire cord and in other high strength wire applications. The basis for this possible breakthrough is the elimination of a brittle proeutectoid network that can form along grain boundaries if appropriate processing procedures and alloy additions are used. A review is made of work done by Japanese and other researchers on eutectoid and mildly hypereutectoid wires. A linear extrapolation of the tensile strength of fine wires predicts higher strengths at higher carbon contents. The influence of processing, alloy additions and carbon content in optimizing the strength, ductility and fracture behavior of hypereutectoid steels is presented. It is proposed that the tensile strength of pearlitic wires is dictated by the fracture strength of the carbide lamella at grain boundary locations in the carbide. Methods to improve the strength of carbide grain boundaries and to decrease the carbide plate thickness will contribute to enhancing the ultrahigh strength obtainable in hypereutectoid steel wires. 23 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Nail injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... may replace it with a special type of material. This will remain on the nail bed as it heals. Your provider may prescribe antibiotics to prevent infection. If you have a broken bone, your provider may need to place a wire ...

  3. 78 FR 68472 - Steel Nails From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... Commission determined that the domestic interested party group response to its notice of institution (78 FR... took effect on November 7, 2011. See 76 FR 61937 (October 6, 2011) and the newly revised Commission's... COMMISSION Steel Nails From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the...

  4. 76 FR 9752 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China, 73 FR 44961 (August 1, 2008... People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review, 75 FR 61132 (October 4... INFORMATION CONTACT: Ricardo Martinez, AD/CVD Operations, Office 9, Import Administration, International...

  5. 78 FR 16651 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China; Final Results of Third Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ...The Department of Commerce (``the Department'') published its Preliminary Results of the antidumping duty order on certain steel nails from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') on September 4, 2012.\\1\\ The period of review (``POR'') is August 1, 2010, through July 31, 2011. We gave interested parties an opportunity to comment on the Preliminary Results. Based upon our analysis of the......

  6. 75 FR 34425 - Certain Steel Nails from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the First New Shipper...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ...''). See Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China, 73 FR... from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Preliminary Results of the New Shipper Review, 75 FR... Final Results of the First New Shipper Review, 75 FR 14423 (March 25, 2010). On January 13, 2010,...

  7. 76 FR 30101 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... the Antidumping Duty Order: Bulk Aspirin From the People's Republic of China, 69 FR 77726 (Dec. 28... Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China, 73 FR 44961 (August 1, 2008... Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review, 76 FR 22369 (April 21, 2011) (``Initiation...

  8. 76 FR 22369 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Initiation and Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ... Order: Bulk Aspirin from the People's Republic of China, 69 FR 77726 (December 28, 2004) (``Aspirin from...: Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China, 73 FR 44961 (August 1, 2008) (``Order''). On...: Coumarin from the People's Republic of China, 69 FR 24122 (May 3, 2004) (``Coumarin from the PRC'')....

  9. 77 FR 8808 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... Shipper Review, 76 FR 56147 (September 12, 2011) (``Preliminary Results''). \\2\\ See Certain Steel Nails... Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR 77205 (December 12, 2011). Extension of Time Limit for the Final... Limit for the Final Results of the Second Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY:...

  10. Corrosion and embrittlement of high-strength steel bridge wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermaas, Garry Wayne

    Suspension bridge cable inspections have revealed severely corroded and broken wires in some main cables. Accelerated cyclic corrosion studies were conducted to assess the relative effect of corrosion on high-strength steel bridge wire. Galvanized and ungalvanized wire samples were corroded under various levels of sustained loads in a cabinet that cyclically applied an acidic salt spray, dry conditions, and 100% relative humidity at elevated temperature. Mass loss, hydrogen concentration, ultimate load, and elongation at failure were measured for corroded and uncorroded samples. Elongation measurements indicated a significant embrittlement of the wires that could not be explained only by the presence of absorbed hydrogen (hydrogen embrittlement). The main cause of reduction of wire elongation was found to be the surface irregularities induced by the corrosion process. The corrosion process in a high-strength steel wire was modeled and analyzed using finite element methods. Forty-one separate FEM tests were run and this data was compared to the experimental data. In addition, for the purpose of comparison, a previously developed hydrogen embrittlement model was analyzed and its validity was discussed in detail. SEM photographs of the fracture surfaces were taken and possible causes and mechanisms of fracture were suggested by observations of the fracture morphology. It was shown through this experimental and numerical research work that the geometry of the wire, determined by the amount of corrosion, pitting, and surface irregularities, controls the ultimate elongation of the wire sample, as also confirmed by the SEM analysis of the fracture surfaces. It was also shown that, using a generally accepted hydrogen embrittlement model, there is no evidence that hydrogen embrittlement is occurring, or at least that hydrogen evolution is not the controlling factor in the loss of wire's ductility.

  11. 77 FR 1504 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... Commission instituted this review on July 1, 2011 (76 FR 38686) and determined on October 4, 2011, that it would conduct an expedited review (76 FR 64105, October 17, 2011). The Commission transmitted its... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in...

  12. 75 FR 8113 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... subject investigations (75 FR 4104, January 26, 2010). On January 28, 2010, the Commission was notified by... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China AGENCY: United States International...

  13. 75 FR 4104 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (``HTSUS'').'' 74 FR 30536, December 23, 2009. For further... FR 68036 (November 8, 2002). Even where electronic filing of a document is permitted, certain... COMMISSION Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China AGENCY: United States International...

  14. 76 FR 19382 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ....8 of the Commission's rules, as amended, 67 FR 68036 (November 8, 2002). Even where electronic...(C) of the Commission's Handbook on Electronic Filing Procedures, 67 FR 68168, 68173 (November 8... COMMISSION Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico AGENCY: United States International Trade...

  15. 76 FR 21914 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-19

    ... schedule for the conduct of these investigations (75 FR 877, April 7, 2011). Due to scheduling conflicts... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico AGENCY: United States International Trade...

  16. Low temperature annealing of cold-drawn pearlitic steel wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Bech, J. I.; Hansen, N.

    2015-08-01

    Cold-drawn pearlitic steel wires are nanostructured and the flow stress at room temperature can reach values above 6 GPa. A typical characteristic of the nanostructured metals, is the low ductility and thermal stability. In order to optimize both the processing and application of the wires, the thermal behaviour is of interest. This has been studied by annealing the wires for 1h at temperatures from ambient temperature to 300 °C (573 K). It is expected that a raising temperature may lead to structural changes and a reduction in strength. The change in strength is however not expected to be large. For this reason we have applied a very precise technique to measure the tensile properties of the wires from a strain of 10-4 to the maximum strain of about 1-2%. The structural changes have also been followed to estimate and relate strength changes to changes in structural parameters and morphology.

  17. 78 FR 75547 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Thailand: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Not...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Thailand: Preliminary... concrete steel rail tire wire (``PC tie wire'') from Thailand is not being, or likely to be, sold in the... prestressed tendons in concrete railroad ties (``PC tie wire''). High carbon steel is defined as steel...

  18. Evolution of cementite morphology in pearlitic steel wire during wet wire drawing

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xiaodan; Godfrey, Andrew; Hansen, Niels; Huang Xiaoxu; Liu Wei; Liu Qing

    2010-01-15

    The evolution of the cementite phase during wet wire drawing of a pearlitic steel wire has been followed as a function of strain. Particular attention has been given to a quantitative characterization of changes in the alignment and in the dimensions of the cementite phase. Scanning electron microscope observations show that cementite plates become increasingly aligned with the wire axis as the drawing strain is increased. Measurements in the transmission electron microscope show that the cementite deforms plastically during wire drawing , with the average thickness of the cementite plates decreasing from 19 nm ({epsilon} = 0) to 2 nm ({epsilon} = 3.7) in correspondence with the reduction in wire diameter. The deformation of the cementite is strongly related to plastic deformation in the ferrite, with coarse slip steps, shear bands and cracks in the cementite plates/particles observed parallel to either {l_brace}110{r_brace}{sub {alpha}} or {l_brace}112{r_brace}{sub {alpha}} slip plane traces in the ferrite.

  19. The Microstructure and Hardness of Hot Dip Galvanized Steel During Wire Drawing

    SciTech Connect

    Klmaku, Snukn; Syla, Nairn; Dilo, Teuta

    2010-01-21

    The steel wire samples are hot-dip-galvanized. The zinc coating is preformed using the standard method. To recognize the behavior of the zinc coated steel wire during the submission to deformation, the wire samples are drawn on a machine designed for this aim and then investigated. In this research is represented the phase structure of the zinc coated samples. Afterwards the thickness of the layer and the hardness of the hot-dip galvanized steel depending on the drawing is represented.

  20. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... nails include systemic amyloidosis , malnutrition, vitamin deficiency, and lichen planus . Skin cancers near the nail and fingertip ... the nail bed. Chemotherapy medicines can affect nail growth. Normal aging affects the growth and development of ...

  1. 75 FR 36678 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China; Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register of February 23, 2010 (75 FR 8113). The hearing was held in... COMMISSION Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China; Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... of prestressed concrete steel wire strand (PC strand), provided for in subheading 7312.10.30 of...

  2. 78 FR 25303 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand Institution of... materially retarded, by reason of imports from prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire from China,...

  3. 77 FR 2958 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From Thailand: Correction to Notice of Opportunity To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ...; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 77 FR 83 (January 3, 2012). Subsequent to this publication, we... International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From Thailand: Correction to Notice of... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on prestressed concrete steel wire strand (``PC...

  4. 77 FR 9701 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan And Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... Commission, Washington, DC, and by publishing the notice in the Federal Register of January 6, 2012 (77 FR... COMMISSION Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan And Vietnam Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... injured by reason of imports from Taiwan and Vietnam of steel wire garment hangers, provided for...

  5. 77 FR 73424 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan: Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... Than Fair Value, 77 FR 62492 (October 15, 2012) (``Final Determination''). \\2\\ See Steel Wire Garment... Hangers from Taiwan: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less than Fair Value, 77 FR 46055 (August 2... International Trade Administration Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan: Antidumping Duty Order AGENCY:...

  6. 77 FR 806 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan and Vietnam; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ... amendments took effect on November 7, 2011. See 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the newly revised Commission's... COMMISSION Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan and Vietnam; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing... from Taiwan and Vietnam of steel wire garment hangers, provided for in subheading 7326.20 of...

  7. 77 FR 3231 - Certain Stainless Steel Wire Rods From India: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 14 (Monday, January 23, 2012)] [Notices] [Pages 3231-3232] [FR... (``Sunset'') Review, 76 FR 38613 (July 1, 2011); see also Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India; Institution..., 76 FR 38686 (July 1, 2011). \\1\\ Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Stainless Steel Wire Rods from...

  8. 77 FR 66952 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ..., 75 FR 68758, 68761 (November 9, 2010), unchanged in First Administrative Review of Steel Wire Garment... Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR 27994, 27996 (May 13, 2011). DATES: Effective November 8, 2012. FOR... Duty Order: Steel Wire Garment Hangers from the People's Republic of China, 73 FR 58111 (October...

  9. Flexible intramedullary nailing had better outcomes than kirschner wire fixation in children with distal humeral metaphyseal-diaphyseal junction fracture: a retrospective observational analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Yi-Hua; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Cai, Hai-Qing; Yang, Jie; Xu, Yun-Lan; Li, Yu-Chan

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness evaluation of flexible intramedullary nailing (FIN) and kirschner wire fixation (K-wire) used for MDJ fractures fixation have been described in multiple reports. But there have been few reports about comparison between FIN and K-wire in children with distal humeral MDJ fracture. In our retrospective study, Nineteen children received K-wire and twenty children received FIN, during the follow-up, six children in the K-wire group and one children in the FIN group was found to have postoperative cubitus varus; fixation method was an independent risk factor for postoperative cubitus varus (P = 0.001), fixation methods contributed significantly to operation time (t = 6.519, P < 0.001), surgical blood loss (t = 5.349, P < 0.001) and postoperative fracture healing time (t = 4.940, P < 0.001). We can conclude that FIN was related with lower incidence of postoperative cubitus varus, shorter operation time, less surgical blood loss and shorter fracture healing time compared to K-wire in children with MDJ fractures of the distal humerus. PMID:25419399

  10. 78 FR 8107 - Certain Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Countervailing Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... Countervailing Duty Determination and Final Affirmative Critical Circumstances Determination, 77 FR 75973... International Trade Administration Certain Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... order on certain steel wire garment hangers from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnam)....

  11. Corrosion resistance of stressed NiTi and stainless steel orthodontic wires in acid artificial saliva.

    PubMed

    Huang, Her-Hsiung

    2003-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the corrosion resistance of stressed NiTi and stainless steel orthodontic wires using cyclic potentiodynamic and potentiostatic tests in acid artificial saliva at 37 degrees C. An atomic force microscope was used to measure the 3-D surface topography of as-received wires. Scanning electron microscope observations were carried out before and after the cyclic potentiodynamic tests. The surface chemical analysis was characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy after the potentiostatic tests. The cyclic potentiodynamic test results showed that the pH had a significant influence on the corrosion parameters of the stressed NiTi and stainless steel wires (p < 0.05). The pitting potential, protection potential, and passive range of stressed NiTi and stainless steel wires decreased on decreasing pH, whereas the passive current density increased on decreasing pH. The load had no significant influence on the above corrosion parameters (p > 0.05). For all pH and load conditions, stainless steel wire showed higher pitting potential and wider passive range than NiTi wire (p < 0.001), whereas NiTi wire had lower passive current density than stainless steel wire (p < 0.001). The corrosion resistance of the stressed NiTi and stainless steel wires was related to the surface characterizations, including surface defect and passive film. PMID:12926035

  12. 76 FR 38686 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India; Institution of a Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... on imports of stainless steel wire rod from India (58 FR 63335). Following first five-year reviews by... duty order on imports of stainless steel wire rod from India (65 FR 47403). Following second five-year... antidumping duty order on imports of stainless steel wire rod from India (71 FR 45023). The Commission is...

  13. 76 FR 67672 - Certain Stainless Steel Wire Rods From India: Final Results of the Expedited Sunset Review of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ...\\ Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Stainless Steel Wire Rods from India, 58 FR 63335 (December 1, 1993). The... International Trade Administration Certain Stainless Steel Wire Rods From India: Final Results of the Expedited...) initiated the third sunset review of the antidumping duty order on certain stainless steel wire rods...

  14. 77 FR 70993 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: 2011-2012 Initiation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-28

    ... Order: Steel Wire Garment Hangers from the People's Republic of China, 73 FR 58111 (October 6, 2008). \\2... International Trade Administration Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: 2011-2012... antidumping duty order on steel wire garment hangers from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') meets...

  15. Your Nails

    MedlinePlus

    ... at the root of the nail grow, the new nail cells push out the old nail cells. These old cells flatten and harden, thanks to keratin, a protein made by these cells. The newly formed nail then slides along the nail bed, the ...

  16. Corrosion of stainless steel, nickel-titanium, coated nickel-titanium, and titanium orthodontic wires.

    PubMed

    Kim, H; Johnson, J W

    1999-02-01

    Orthodontic wires containing nickel have been implicated in allergic reactions. The potential for orthodontic wires to cause allergic reactions is related to the pattern and mode of corrosion with subsequent release of metal ions, such as nickel, into the oral cavity. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a significant difference in the corrosive potential of stainless steel, nickel titanium, nitride-coated nickel titanium, epoxy-coated nickel titanium, and titanium orthodontic wires. At least two specimens of each wire were subjected to potentiostatic anodic dissolution in 0.9% NaCl solution with neutral pH at room temperature. Using a Wenking MP 95 potentiostat and an electrochemical corrosion cell, the breakdown potential of each wire was determined. Photographs were taken of the wire speci mens using a scanning electron microscope, and surface changes were qualitatively evaluated. The breakdown potentials of stainless steel, two nickel titanium wires, nitride-coated nickel titanium, epoxy-coated nickel titanium, and titanium were 400 mV, 300 mV, 750 mV, 300 mV, 1800 mV, and >2000 mV, respectively. SEM photographs revealed that some nickel titanium and stainless steel wires were susceptible to pitting and localized corrosion. The results indicate that corrosion occurred readily in stainless steel. Variability in breakdown potential of nickel titanium alloy wires differed across vendors' wires. The nitride coating did not affect the corrosion of the alloy, but epoxy coating decreased corrosion. Titanium wires and epoxy-coated nickel titanium wires exhibited the least corrosive potential. For patients allergic to nickel, the use of titanium or epoxy-coated wires during orthodontic treatment is recommended. PMID:10022183

  17. 77 FR 53845 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results and Partial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... Duty Administrative Review: Petroleum Wax Candles from the People's Republic of China, 72 FR 52355... Industry Co., Ltd.; (8) Hebei Cangzhou New Century Foreign Trade Co., Ltd.; (9) Zhaoqing Harvest Nails Co... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Requests for Revocations in Part, 76 FR...

  18. 76 FR 73589 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Amended Preliminary Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... Determination: Galvanized Steel Wire from the People's Republic of China, 76 FR 68407 (November 4, 2011... percent of cobalt, or --0.40 percent of lead, or --1.25 percent of nickel, or --0.30 percent of...

  19. 76 FR 33242 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Preliminary Determination in the Countervailing Duty Investigation AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration,...

  20. Corrosion resistance of premodeled wires made of stainless steel used for heart electrotherapy leaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przondziono, J.; Walke, W.; Młynarski, R.; Szatka, W.

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate resistance to electrochemical corrosion of wire made of X10CrNi18-8 stainless steel designed for use in cardiology treatment. The influence of strain formed in the premodeling process and methods of wire surface preparation to corrosive resistance in artificial plasma solution were analysed. Wire corrosion tests were carried out in the solution of artificial plasma. Resistance to electrochemical corrosion was evaluated on the ground of recorded curves of anodic polarization by means of potentiodynamic method. Potentiodynamic tests carried out enabled to determine how the resistance to pitting corrosion of wire changes, depending on strain formed in the premodeling process as well as on the method of wire surface preparation. For evaluation of phenomena occurring on the surface of tested steel, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was applied. Deterioration of corrosive properties of wire along with the increase in the formed strain hardening was observed.

  1. Fiber Bragg grating sensors for steel wire monitoring in real-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Jan; Angelmahr, Martin; Schade, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    Steel wires are widely applied in industrial applications - in most cases as critical components fulfilling high safety requirements in harsh environments (e.g. dockside cranes). In this paper a technique for real-time monitoring of steel ropes applying optical strain sensors based on fiber Bragg gratings is presented. The optical sensors are integrated within the wire strand and replace the core. The strain transmission from the outer wires to the sensors is assured by the mechanical coupling between the optical fiber and the strand. The actual strain load and rope vibrations in the kilohertz range can be determined in real-time.

  2. 78 FR 37236 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... Commission, Washington, DC, and by publishing the notice in the Federal Register of April 30, 2013 (78 FR... COMMISSION Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand Determinations On the... injured by reason of imports from China, Mexico, and Thailand of prestressed concrete steel rail tie...

  3. 7 CFR 1755.370 - RUS specification for seven wire galvanized steel strand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...(a) and 1 CFR part 51 on January 19, 1990). Copies of ASTM A475-78 are available for inspection... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false RUS specification for seven wire galvanized steel... steel strand. (a) RUS incorporates by reference ASTM A475-78, Standard Specification for...

  4. 7 CFR 1755.370 - RUS specification for seven wire galvanized steel strand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...(a) and 1 CFR part 51 on January 19, 1990). Copies of ASTM A475-78 are available for inspection... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false RUS specification for seven wire galvanized steel... steel strand. (a) RUS incorporates by reference ASTM A475-78, Standard Specification for...

  5. 7 CFR 1755.370 - RUS specification for seven wire galvanized steel strand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...(a) and 1 CFR part 51 on January 19, 1990). Copies of ASTM A475-78 are available for inspection... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false RUS specification for seven wire galvanized steel... steel strand. (a) RUS incorporates by reference ASTM A475-78, Standard Specification for...

  6. 7 CFR 1755.370 - RUS specification for seven wire galvanized steel strand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...(a) and 1 CFR part 51 on January 19, 1990). Copies of ASTM A475-78 are available for inspection... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false RUS specification for seven wire galvanized steel... steel strand. (a) RUS incorporates by reference ASTM A475-78, Standard Specification for...

  7. 76 FR 66895 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Final Determination...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ..., 68 FR 54888 (September 19, 2003); and Hot-Rolled Lead and Bismuth Carbon Steel Products from Germany... Antidumping Duty Order: Steel Wire Garment Hangers from the People's Republic of China, 73 FR 58111 (October 6... Antidumping Duty Order and Extension of Final Determination, 76 FR 27007 (May 10, 2011)...

  8. 78 FR 70271 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Steel Wire Garment Hangers from the People's Republic of China, 73 FR... Administrative Review, 75 FR 68758, 68761 (November 9, 2010), unchanged in First Administrative Review of Steel... Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR 27994, 27996 (May 13, 2011) (``Hangers 1st AR''). \\3\\ See...

  9. 75 FR 21658 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Trinidad and Tobago

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... amended, 67 FR 68036 (Nov. 8, 2002). In accordance with sections 201.16(c) and 207.3 of the Commission's... COMMISSION Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Trinidad and Tobago AGENCY: United States... in the antidumping duty Investigation No. 731-TA-961 concerning carbon and certain alloy steel...

  10. High strength, low carbon, dual phase steel rods and wires and process for making same

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Gareth; Nakagawa, Alvin H.

    1986-01-01

    A high strength, high ductility, low carbon, dual phase steel wire, bar or rod and process for making the same is provided. The steel wire, bar or rod is produced by cold drawing to the desired diameter in a single multipass operation a low carbon steel composition characterized by a duplex microstructure consisting essentially of a strong second phase dispersed in a soft ferrite matrix with a microstructure and morphology having sufficient cold formability to allow reductions in cross-sectional area of up to about 99.9%. Tensile strengths of at least 120 ksi to over 400 ksi may be obtained.

  11. Radiative Properties of Implosions of Stainless Steel Wire Arrays with Application to Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Safronova, A. S.; Ouart, N. D.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Esaulov, A. A.; Safronova, U. I.; Williamson, K. M.; Shrestha, I.; Coverdale, C. A.; Jones, B.; Deeney, C.

    2009-01-21

    Experiments with different stainless steel (SS) wire loads were performed on the 1 MA Zebra Z-pinch generator at University of Nevada, Reno. The wire array loads consisted of 7.6 {mu}m SS wires and had 10 wires for the planar wire array with an interwire gap of 1 mm and 8 wires for the cylindrical wire array of a 16 mm diameter. In addition, a single-wire experiment with a 25 {mu}m SS wire was carried out. The different wire loads were used to provide a broader spectrum of plasma conditions. Time-integrated and time-gated x-ray images, as well as time-integrated, spatially-resolved and spatially-integrated x-ray spectra, were collected and analyzed. Both K-shell and L-shell radiation were recorded using LiF and KAP crystal spectrometers, respectively. Non-LTE kinetic models of Fe and Ni are employed to derive plasma parameters. For axially resolved L-shell spectra, the resulting electron temperatures are between 230 and 300 eV (higher near the cathode) and electron densities vary from 10{sup 19} to 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} dependent on the load. The advantage of using Z-pinch plasmas for astrophysical applications is highlighted.

  12. Prospects of increasing the strength of aluminum by reinforcing it with stainless steel wire (a review)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botvina, L. R.; Ivanova, V. S.; Kopev, I. M.

    1982-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental strength of aluminum reinforced with stainless steel wire is analyzed. Various methods of producing the composite material and it's static and cyclical strengths are considered. The reinforcement of aluminum with stainless steel wire was accomplished from the perspective of increasing the specific strength of aluminum and it's alloys, increasing the strength of the material with respect to high and low temperatures, as well as increasing the cyclical strength. The production of the composite aluminum-stainless steel wire material with approximated or calculated strengthening is possible by any of the considered methods. The selection of the proper production technology depends on precise details and conditions of application of the material.

  13. Clinical Variability in Arch Wires: A Preliminary Study Evaluating Mechanical and Surface Characteristics of Two Different Sized Rectangular Stainless Steel Wires

    PubMed Central

    Vena, Alessandro; Carey, Jason; Badawi, Hisham

    2007-01-01

    Experimental characterization of arch wires has been performed in many previous studies; however with the advent of new arch wire materials being introduced, some new experimental methods and characterization are required. Since literature is available for comparison, this paper examines mechanical and physical characteristics of steel arch wires to quantify their variability in engineering terms. Furthermore, the effect of wire size on properties was evaluated using two of the most common wire sizes. Finally, manufacturing consistency was verified by testing samples from different lots. PMID:19662123

  14. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Nail abnormalities are problems with the color, shape, texture, or thickness of the fingernails or toenails. ... Fungus or yeast cause changes in the color, texture, and shape of the nails. Bacterial infection may ...

  15. Mechanical behavior of ultrahigh strength ultrahigh carbon steel wire and rod

    SciTech Connect

    Lesuer, D.R.; Syn, C.K.; Sberby, O.D.; Whittenherger, W.D.

    1997-07-22

    Ultrahigh-carbon steels (UHCSS) can achieve very high strengths in wire or rod form. These high strengths result from the mechanical work introduced during wire and rod processing. These strengths have been observed to increase with carbon content. In wire form, tensile strengths approaching 6000 MPa are predicted for UHCS containing 1. 8%C. In this paper, we will discuss the influence of processing (including rapid transformation during wire patenting) and micros ct- ure on the mechanical behavior of UHCS wire. The tensile properties of as- extruded rods are described as a function of extrusion temperature and composition. For spheroidized steels, yield and ultimate tensile strength are a function of grain size, interparticle spacing and particle size. For pearlitic steels, yield and ultimate strength were found to be functions of colony size, carbide size and plate spacing and orientation. Alloying additions (such as C, Cr, Si, Al and Co) can influence the effect of processing on these microstructural features. For spheroidized steels, fracture was found to be a function of the size of coarse carbides and of composition.

  16. 78 FR 57619 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, Thailand, and the People's Republic of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... People's Republic of China, and Thailand: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations, 78 FR 29325 (May... International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, Thailand, and the... antidumping duty investigations of imports of prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire from Mexico,...

  17. 77 FR 50160 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan and Vietnam; Scheduling of the Final Phase of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... amendments took effect on November 7, 2011. See 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the newly revised Commission's... COMMISSION Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan and Vietnam; Scheduling of the Final Phase of... garment hangers and less- than-fair-value imports from Taiwan and Vietnam of steel wire garment...

  18. 77 FR 14002 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice of Postponement of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... Socialist Republic of Vietnam. See Steel Wire Garment Hangers from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Countervailing Duty Investigation, 77 FR 3737 (January 25, 2012). Currently, the preliminary... International Trade Administration Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice...

  19. 78 FR 60850 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil: Final Results of the Expedited Second Sunset...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... Alloy Steel Wire Rod from Brazil, 67 FR 55805 (August 30, 2002). \\2\\ See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 78 FR 33063 (June 3, 2013). On June 18, 2013, the Department received a notice of... International Trade Administration Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil: Final Results of...

  20. 77 FR 12553 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Final Partial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... Republic of China, 73 FR 58111 (October 6, 2008). \\2\\ See Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's... Administrative Review, 76 FR 66903 (October 28, 2011) (``Preliminary Results''). DATES: Effective Date: March 1..., 75 FR 68758, 68761 (November 9, 2010), unchanged in First Administrative Review of Steel Wire...

  1. Experimental research on stable fretting wear of stainless steel wires in transformable component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xiu-ping; Liu, Guo-quan; Zhang, Li; Bai, Hong-bai; Yang, Jian-chun

    2009-07-01

    Cool-drawn 1Cr18Ni9 stainless steel wires of φ 0.1~0.5 mm can be woven and punched to prepare transformable component which has loose, reticulate structures. When it is uploaded with vibrating force, the displacement will cause intense frictions between wires' surfaces which will dissipate abundant energy and thus it can serve as dampers like natural rubbers. Since such new type of material has double characteristics of both rubbers and metals, it is commonly called "Metal Rubber". There is certain amount of contact point/surface on wires in the transformable component and the displacements between wires are at micron levels. Experiments showed that wear course of 'fretting cell' could be plotted as four phases: polish, adherence, forming of the third bed and stabilization. The stabilization phase, in which the friction coefficients are comparatively stable, dominates the whole course. Based on data of Metal Rubber vibration fatigue experiment, φ 0.3 mm cool-drawn 1Cr18Ni9 stainless steel wires' dry fretting experiments at 10 N load are made on SRV high temperature wear tester, friction coefficients are collected and fret traces are studied by laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM). Results indicate that wire's stabilization wear phase is the circulation process of grindings' forming, concentrating to blocks of φ 20 μm, busting and discharging. Deformation induced martensite transit in wire's cool drawing has significant effects on grinding blocks' bursting performances.

  2. 75 FR 32747 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from Mexico: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ...; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 75 FR 1333 (January 11, 2010). On January 29, 2010, in.... and Deacero S.A. de C.V. See Initiation of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 9874 (March 4... INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from Mexico: Rescission of...

  3. 78 FR 75545 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... China, and Thailand: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations, 78 FR 29325, 29330 (May 20, 2013... Countervailing Duty Investigations, 76 FR 61042 (October 3, 2011). International Trade Commission (``ITC... International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From the People's Republic of...

  4. 78 FR 8105 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... Determination, 77 FR at 46054-55; and Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... Determination of Critical Circumstances, 77 FR 75980 (December 26, 2012) (``Vietnam Hangers Final Determination... Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and Postponement of Final Determination, 77 FR 46044 (August...

  5. 76 FR 78882 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Affirmative Preliminary Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... FR 65945 (October 29, 2002) (Wire Rod Order). DATES: Effective Date: December 20, 2011. FOR FURTHER... Order, 76 FR 33218 (June 8, 2011) (Initiation). On July 22, 2011, Deacero submitted its response to the... Steel Plate From Canada, 66 FR 7617, 7618 (January 24, 2001)) (Canadian Plate), and accompanying...

  6. 77 FR 46044 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... and Taiwan: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations, 77 FR 3731 (January 25, 2012) (``Initiation Notice''). \\3\\ See id., 77 FR at 3735-36. On February 13, 2012, the United States International Trade... and 731-TA-1197-1198 (Preliminary), Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan And Vietnam, 77 FR...

  7. 77 FR 17418 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... Determination, 76 FR 68407 (November 4, 2011); see also Galvanized Steel Wire From Mexico: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and Postponement of Final Determination, 76 FR 68422 (November 4... Determination and Alignment of Final Determination With Final Antidumping Determination, 76 FR 55031...

  8. 77 FR 51514 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Affirmative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Affirmative Determination of Critical Circumstances in the Antidumping Duty Investigation AGENCY: Import Administration, International...

  9. 75 FR 68758 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ... Antidumping Duty Order: Steel Wire Garment Hangers from the People's Republic of China, 73 FR 58111 (October 6... to Request Administrative Review, 74 FR 50772 (October 1, 2009). On October 30, 2009, certain PRC... and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews, 74 FR 61658 (November 25, 2009) (``Initiation...

  10. 76 FR 27007 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... of Antidumping Duty Order: Steel Wire Garment Hangers from the People's Republic of China, 73 FR... of China: Initiation of Anti-Circumvention Inquiry, 75 FR 42685 (July 22, 2010) (``Initiation Notice... Determination: Coated Free Sheet Paper from the People's Republic of China, 72 FR 30758, 30760 (June 4,...

  11. Ablation dominated implosion dynamics of aluminum and stainless steel nested cylindrical wire arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, K. M.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Esaulov, A. A.; Safronova, A. S.; Ouart, N. D.; Yilmaz, F. M.; Shrestha, I. K.; Shlyaptseva, V.; McBride, R. D.; Chalenski, D. A.; Douglass, J. D.; Greenly, J. B.; Hammer, D. A.; Kusse, B. R.

    2009-01-15

    The results of experiments with combined aluminum (Al) and stainless steel (SS) alloy 304, nested wire arrays from the 1 MA COBRA generator at Cornell University are presented. The loads studied consisted of a 6 mm diameter inner array and a 13 mm diameter outer array with a different material in each array: SS or aluminum. Al implodes before SS in all loads studied, even when Al was on the inner array. The new wire ablation dynamic model and spectroscopic modeling are used to interpret these data. The observed implosion dynamics are likely a result of the higher ablation rate of Al. These initial results suggest that combining wire materials with different ablation rates in wire array loads could be developed into a useful technique for x-ray pulse shaping and radiation yield optimization.

  12. Radiation Hydrodynamics of Stainless Steel Wire Arrays on the Z Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.; Dasgupta, A.; Thornhill, J. W.; Giuliani, J.; Clark, R. W.; Whitney, K.; Coverdale, C. A.; Lepell, D.; Jones, B.; Deeney, C.

    2009-01-21

    Experiments on the Z accelerator with nested stainless steel wire arrays produced K-shell x-ray yields exceeding 50 kJ in the energy range 5.5 to 8 keV. Stainless steel (Z = 24-28) can barely be ionized to the K-shell on Z, and the spectra are therefore sensitive to the details of the implosion. We have simulated the implosion dynamics of stainless steel wire arrays with diameters ranging from 4.5 to 8.0 centimeters using a detailed configuration non-LTE radiation hydrodynamics model. Reasonable agreement with total and K-shell experimental yields was obtained for the various array configurations. A comparison is made between the 1-D and 2-D simulations for shot Z-578.

  13. 77 FR 17430 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Final Determination of Sales at Less...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... Determination, 76 FR 68407 (November 4, 2011) (``Preliminary Determination''). \\2\\ See Galvanized Steel Wire...: Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Pipe from the People's Republic of China, 73 FR 31970, 31971-31972...-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products from the Russian Federation, 65 FR 5510, 5518 (February 4,...

  14. Formation quality optimization of laser hot wire cladding for repairing martensite precipitation hardening stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Peng; Feng, Zhenhua; Zheng, Shiqing

    2015-01-01

    Laser cladding is an advantaged repairing technology due to its low heat input and high flexibility. With preheating wire by resistance heat, laser hot wire cladding shows better process stability and higher deposition efficiency compared to laser cold wire/powder cladding. Multi-pass layer were cladded on the surface of martensite precipitation hardening stainless steel FV520B by fiber laser with ER410NiMo wire. Wire feed rate and preheat current were optimized to obtain stable wire transfer, which guaranteed good formation quality of single pass cladding. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize processing parameters and predict formation quality of multi-pass cladding. Laser power P, scanning speed Vs, wire feed rate Vf and overlap ratio η were selected as the input variables, while flatness ratio, dilution and incomplete fusion value as the responses. Optimal clad layer with flat surface, low dilution and no incomplete fusion was obtained by appropriately reducing Vf, and increasing P, Vs and η. No defect like pore or crack was found. The tensile strength and impact toughness of the clad layer is respectively 96% and 86% of those of the substrate. The clad layer showed nonuniform microstructure and was divided into quenched areas with coarse lath martensite and tempered areas with tempered martensite due to different thermal cycles in adjacent areas. The tempered areas showed similar hardness to the substrate.

  15. Worn down nails after acrylic nail removal.

    PubMed

    Wu, Timothy P; Morrison, Brian W; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Worn-down nail syndrome is a nail disorder characterized by thinning of the distal nail plate caused by repetitive chemical or mechanical trauma. We present a previously undescribed source of worn-down nail syndrome caused by trauma from nail filing after acrylic nail removal. PMID:25612131

  16. Influence of severe plastic deformation on the structure and properties of ultrahigh carbon steel wire

    SciTech Connect

    Leseur, D R; Sherby, O D; Syn, C K

    1999-07-01

    Ultrahigh-carbon steel wire can achieve very high strength after severe plastic deformation, because of the fine, stable substructures produce. Tensile strengths approaching 6000 MPa are predicted for UHCS containing 1.8%C. This paper discusses the microstructural evolution during drawing of UHCS wire, the resulting strength produced and the factors influencing fracture. Drawing produces considerable alignment of the pearlite plates. Dislocation cells develop within the ferrite plates and, with increasing strain, the size normal to the axis ({lambda}) decreases. These dislocation cells resist dynamic recovery during wire drawing and thus extremely fine substructures can be developed ({lambda} < 10 nm). Increasing the carbon content reduces the mean free ferrite path in the as-patented wire and the cell size developed during drawing. For UHCS, the strength varies as {lambda}{sup {minus}5}. Fracture of these steels was found to be a function of carbide size and composition. The influence of processing and composition on achieving high strength in these wires during severe plastic deformation is discussed.

  17. 77 FR 24462 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results of the Second...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ...: Final Results and Final Rescission of the Second Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 77 FR 12556....; (13) Kyung Dong Corp.; (14) Nanjing Dayu Pneumatic Gun Nails Co., Ltd.; (15) Rizhao Handuck...

  18. Nail-gun injuries. Accident, homicide, or suicide?

    PubMed

    McCorkell, S J; Harley, J D; Cummings, D

    1986-09-01

    It may be difficult to distinguish industrial accidents from suicide attempts or even assaults or homicide. Nail guns are relatively new industrial tools that can produce severe or fatal injuries. The configuration of the nail on patients' radiographs after such injuries can be helpful in determining the cause of injury. Steel nails that are bent are due to a ricochet and thus indicate accidental injury. Straight-nail injuries to the co-workers of nail-gun users are most likely due to over-penetration of the substance being nailed or accidental mid-air firing; however, intentional injury cannot be ruled out. Extremity injuries caused by straight steel nails in nail gun users are the result of carelessness or poor technique, but suicide should be considered when straight nails cause wounds to the chest, head, or abdomen. PMID:3788906

  19. 78 FR 75544 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... Countervailing Duty Investigations, 76 FR 61042 (October 3, 2011). International Trade Commission (``ITC... International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico: Preliminary.... SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce (``Department'') preliminarily determines that prestressed...

  20. 75 FR 1755 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Final Determination AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade...

  1. Spatially Resolved Synthetic Spectra from 2D Simulations of Stainless Steel Wire Array Implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R. W.; Giuliani, J. L.; Thornhill, J. W.; Chong, Y. K.; Dasgupta, A.; Davis, J.

    2009-01-21

    A 2D radiation MHD model has been developed to investigate stainless steel wire array implosion experiments on the Z and refurbished Z machines. This model incorporates within the Mach2 MHD code a self-consistent calculation of the non-LTE kinetics and ray trace based radiation transport. Such a method is necessary in order to account for opacity effects in conjunction with ionization kinetics of K-shell emitting plasmas. Here the model is used to investigate multi-dimensional effects of stainless steel wire implosions. In particular, we are developing techniques to produce non-LTE, axially and/or radially resolved synthetic spectra based upon snapshots of our 2D simulations. Comparisons between experimental spectra and these synthetic spectra will allow us to better determine the state of the experimental pinches.

  2. Process improvement in laser hot wire cladding for martensitic stainless steel based on the Taguchi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zilin; Wang, Gang; Wei, Shaopeng; Li, Changhong; Rong, Yiming

    2016-07-01

    Laser hot wire cladding, with the prominent features of low heat input, high energy efficiency, and high precision, is widely used for remanufacturing metal parts. The cladding process, however, needs to be improved by using a quantitative method. In this work, volumetric defect ratio was proposed as the criterion to describe the integrity of forming quality for cladding layers. Laser deposition experiments with FV520B, one of martensitic stainless steels, were designed by using the Taguchi method. Four process variables, namely, laser power (P), scanning speed (V s), wire feed rate (V f), and wire current (I), were optimized based on the analysis of signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. Metallurgic observation of cladding layer was conducted to compare the forming quality and to validate the analysis method. A stable and continuous process with the optimum parameter combination produced uniform microstructure with minimal defects and cracks, which resulted in a good metallurgical bonding interface.

  3. Bonding Mechanisms in Resistance Microwelding of 316 Low-Carbon Vacuum Melted Stainless Steel Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. I.; Kim, J. M.; Kuntz, M. L.; Zhou, Y.

    2009-04-01

    Resistance microwelding (RMW) is an important joining process used in the fabrication of miniature instruments, such as electrical and medical devices. The excellent corrosion resistance of 316 low-carbon vacuum melted (LVM) stainless steel (SS) wire makes it ideal for biomedical applications. The current study examines the microstructure and mechanical properties of crossed resistance microwelded 316LVM wire. Microtensile and microhardness testing was used to analyze the mechanical performance of welds, and fracture surfaces were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Finally, a bonding mechanism is proposed based on optimum joint breaking force (JBF) using metallurgical observations of weld cross sections. Moreover, comparisons with RMWs of Ni, Au-plated Ni, and SUS304 SS wire are discussed.

  4. Identification of the mechanisms responsible for static strain ageing in heavily drawn pearlitic steel wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamontagne, A.; Kleber, X.; Massardier-Jourdan, V.; Mari, D.

    2014-08-01

    The microstructural changes occurring during drawing and ageing in pearlitic steel wires have been studied using the thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements combined with atom probe tomography (APT) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). APT analysis confirmed that cementite dissolution occurs during the cold-drawing process. The high sensitivity of TEP to solute atoms allowed two ageing mechanisms to be identified, both related to a redistribution of carbon atoms. The complementary use of tensile tests and DSC confirmed these results.

  5. 76 FR 67407 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Notice of Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... Alloy Steel Wire Rod from Mexico, (76 FR 45509 (July 29, 2011)). We preliminarily determine that, during..., Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and Tobago, and Ukraine, 67 FR 65945 (October 29, 2002) (Wire Rod... FR 60733 (October 1, 2010). On October 29, 2010, in accordance with 19 CFR 351.213(b), the...

  6. On mechanical properties of square and rectangular stainless steel wires tested in torsion.

    PubMed

    Meling, T R; Odegaard, J; Meling, E O

    1997-03-01

    Forty different sizes and types of square and rectangular stainless steel wires, supplied by five different manufacturers, were tested in torsion. The study simulated the situation occurring when torque is applied to an individual tooth. We used standard brackets with 0.018-inch slot heights, with an interbracket distance of 4 mm. The results show that variation in cross-sectional dimension and edge bevel leads to variable torsional play (third-order clearance). As an example 0.016 x 0.022-inch wires have a mean torsional play of as much as 18.5 degrees, with a range of 16.6 degrees to 20.4 degrees. We have shown that when 0.016 x 0.022-inch wires are used, one must apply from 24.6 degrees to 29.2 degrees of twist to get 20 Nmm of torsional moment. This variation is mostly due to a rather wide range in torsional play. As a result, the prediction by which a predetermined torsional moment can be delivered becomes uncertain. The results show that because the working range in torsion of stainless steel wires is somewhat limited, precise delivery of torsional moment, based on the condition present in the oral cavity, is difficult. Torsional stiffness varies considerable within the various dimensional groups, this being the result of variation in cross-sectional geometry and material properties. PMID:9082854

  7. Surface Preparation of Powder Metallurgical Tool Steels by Means of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatami, Sepehr; Shahabi-Navid, Mehrdad; Nyborg, Lars

    2012-09-01

    The surface of two types of powder metallurgical (PM) tool steels ( i.e., with and without nitrogen) was prepared using wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM). From each grade of tool steel, seven surfaces corresponding to one to seven passes of WEDM were prepared. The WEDM process was carried out using a brass wire as electrode and deionized water as dielectric. After each WEDM pass the surface of the tool steels was thoroughly examined. Surface residual stresses were measured by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The measured stresses were found to be of tensile nature. The surface roughness of the WEDM specimens was measured using interference microscopy. The surface roughness as well as the residual stress measurements indicated an insignificant improvement of these parameters after four passes of WEDM. In addition, the formed recast layer was characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), XRD, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The characterization investigation clearly shows diffusion of copper and zinc from the wire electrode into the work material, even after the final WEDM step. Finally, the importance of eliminating excessive WEDM steps is thoroughly discussed.

  8. Effect of microalloying on the strength of high carbon wire steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Stephanie L.

    Microalloying additions of V, Nb, and N were investigated as means of increasing strength of eutectoid steels for wire applications. In order to examine the effects of microalloying additions during several stages of wire processing, continuous cooling experiments with and without deformation as well as patenting simulations were conducted using a Gleeble® 3500 thermomechanical simulator. Continuous cooling was performed from industrial austenitizing (1093 °C) and laying head (950 °C and 880 °C) temperatures, at rates ranging from 1 50 °C/s. Deformation was induced via hot torsion testing, which was followed by continuous cooling from 950 °C at rates of 5, 10, and 25 °C/s. Industrial wire patenting was simulated by austenitizing at 1093 °C or 950 °C for 30 sec, then rapid cooling to isothermal transformation temperatures of 575, 600, 625, and 650 °C for 15 sec before cooling to room temperature. Metallography, Vickers hardness, pearlite colony size and pearlite interlamellar spacing (ILS) measurements were used to examine the effects of these treatments. Continuous cooling transformation (CCT) curves were constructed for four steels: 1080, V, V+N, and V+Nb. In the V-microalloyed steel, additional N accelerated pearlite transformation and Nb delayed pearlite transformation. Observed N effects are in agreement with the theory of VN nucleating grain boundary ferrite and accelerating pearlite transformation, proposed by Han et al. [1995], and also consistent with observations by Brownrigg and Prior [2002]. Delay of transformation temperatures has been observed due to Nb effects [De Ardo, 2009]. A larger delay observed with higher austenitizing temperatures suggests that Nb precipitates may not be as effective at delaying transformation. V strengthening effects were observed in all microalloyed steels using a model that predicted hardness of eutectoid steels by incorporating colony size and ILS measurements, with maximum strengthening observed

  9. THE EFFECTS OF POLARIZATION UPON THE STEEL WIRE-NITRIC ACID MODEL OF NERVE ACTIVITY.

    PubMed

    Bishop, G H

    1927-11-20

    The active process in a short length of steel wire passivated by 65 per cent nitric acid has been observed under the influence of a polarizing current, and the form of the potential recorded by the cathode ray oscillograph. In the passive wire, 80 per cent of the total potential drop takes place at the anode, 20 per cent at the cathode. The change from active to passive states, as measured by the potential change, is very abrupt compared to the duration of activity and the potential curve at a point on the wire is probably almost rectangular. The duration of the refractory state is decreased at the anode and increased at the cathode, as in nerve. This fact is against the idea that reactivity after passivation results from a partial reduction of an oxide layer. Soft iron wire passivated by anodal polarization repassivates after activation in acid of a dilution that fails to passivate it initially. It soon becomes rhythmic with a very short refractory phase, and then reacts continuously. Such a wire exhibits a very sharp alternation between a dark brown oxide coat during activity, and a bright clean surface during passivation. A passive steel wire in nitric acid shows many of the characteristics of an inert electrode such as platinum, and it may be inferred that, superposed upon the primary passivation potential, there exists an electrode or oxidation-reduction potential equilibrium between the effects of the various constituents of the solution. It is suggested that the phenomena of nerve-like reactivity in this system may involve an alternation between two protective coatings of the steel wire. During activity, the surface becomes mechanically coated with a brown oxide. If this coating does not adhere, due to gas convection or to rapid solution of the oxide, passivation does not result. Under sufficiently intense oxidizing conditions, a second oxide coat may form in the interstices of the first, and cover the surface as the first coating dissolves off. This

  10. Effect of heat treatment on stainless steel orthodontic wires.

    PubMed

    Cuoghi, Osmar Aparecido; Kasbergen, Geraldo Francisco; Santos, Paulo Henrique dos; Mendonça, Marcos Rogério de; Tondelli, Pedro Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of heat treatment on CrNi stainless steel orthodontic archwires. Half of forty archwires of each thickness - 0.014" (0.35 mm), 0.016" (0.40 mm), 0.018" (0.45 mm) and 0.020" (0.50 mm) (totalling 160 archwires) - were subjected to heat treatment while the remainder were not. All of the archwires had their individual thickness measured in the anterior and posterior regions using AutoCad 2000 software before and after compressive and tensile strength testing. The data was statistically analysed utilising multivariance ANOVA at a 5% significance level. All archwires without heat treatment that were subjected to tensile strength testing presented with anterior opening, which was more accentuated in the 0.020" archwires. In the posterior region, the opening produced by the tensile force was more accentuated in the archwires without heat treatment. There was greater stability in the thermally treated archwires, especially those subjected to tensile strength testing, which indicates that the heat treatment of orthodontic archwires establishes a favourable and indispensable condition to preserve the intercanine width. PMID:21359492

  11. Controlled rolling process for dual phase steels and application to rod, wire, sheet and other shapes

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, G.; Ahn, J.H.; Kim, N.J.

    1986-10-28

    An improved, energy efficient, hot rolling method for direct production of cold formable dual-phase steel is provided. The steel is heated to completely austenitize it and then continuously hot rolled and cooled down into the ferrite-austenite two phase region to a temperature which is just below the effective Ar[sub 3] temperature. The hot rolled steel is then rapidly quenched to provide an alloy containing strong, tough lath martensite (fibers) in a ductile soft ferrite matrix. The method is particularly useful for providing rods in which form the alloy is capable of being drawn into high strength wire or the like in a cold drawing operation without any intermediate annealing or patenting, and has excellent strength, ductility and fatigue characteristics. 3 figs.

  12. Controlled rolling process for dual phase steels and application to rod, wire, sheet and other shapes

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Gareth; Ahn, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Nack-Joon

    1986-01-01

    An improved, energy efficient, hot rolling method for direct production of cold formable dual-phase steel is provided. The steel is heated to completely austenitize it and then continuously hot rolled and cooled down into the ferrite-austenite two phase region to a temperature which is just below the effective Ar.sub.3 temperature. The hot rolled steel is then rapidly quenched to provide an alloy containing strong, tough lath martensite (fibers) in a ductile soft ferrite matrix. The method is particularly useful for providing rods in which form the alloy is capable of being drawn into high strength wire or the like in a cold drawing operation without any intermediate annealing or patenting, and has excellent strength, ductility and fatigue characteristics.

  13. 76 FR 68422 - Galvanized Steel Wire From Mexico: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... notified the Department of its finding. See Galvanized Steel Wire from China and Mexico, 76 FR 29266 (May... Less Than Fair Value: Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate from South Africa, 62 FR 61731, 61732-33... Investigations, 76 FR 23548 (April 27, 2011) (Initiation Notice). The Petitioners in this investigation are...

  14. 78 FR 24721 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results of the Third...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2010- 2011, 78 FR 16651 (March 18, 2013), and accompanying Issues and... Nails From the People's Republic of China, 73 FR 44961 (August 1, 2008). For a full description of the... Respondents''). See Final Results, 78 FR at 16652. Disclosure We will disclose the calculations performed...

  15. 78 FR 56861 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of the Fourth...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... Nails From the People's Republic of China, 73 FR 44961 (August 1, 2008). DATES: Effective Date... Duty Administrative Review and Final Rescission, in Part, 72 FR 58809 (October 17, 2007), and... in Certain Antidumping Proceedings: Final Modification, 77 FR 8101 (February 14, 2012). For...

  16. On the Effect of Counterface Materials on Tribo-Behavior of Steel Wire Sliding Under Dry Contact Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chee, Su Be; Al Shalabi, Ammar; Yousif, B. F.

    Steel wires are implemented in numerous systems and undergo frequent faults due to tribological loading conditions. Therefore, this paper presents a study on the tribological performance of steel wire sliding against different counterfaces, namely, aluminum alloy, stainless steel, and mild steel using a block-on-ring tribo-tester. According to common mechanisms, the tests were performed under 5 N applied load and 0.15 m/s sliding velocity under dry contact condition. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the damaged features on the worn surfaces of the steel wire. Weight loss and friction coefficient results were presented versus sliding distances (0-1.6 km). In general, the results showed that friction coefficient did not reach the steady state due to the transformation of the wear mechanism from adhesive to abrasive mode. Nevertheless, the average of friction coefficient was found to be about 0.7 ± 0.1 for stainless steel and 0.2 ± 0.1 for mild steel. Weight loss gradually increased with the increase of sliding distance. The micrographs of worn surfaces revealed that the contact mechanism was transformed from adhesive to abrasive wear mode as implied by the scars and grooves on the wire surface.

  17. Corrosion damage estimation in multi-wire steel strands using guided ultrasonic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhidzadeh, Alireza; Ebrahimkhanlou, Arvin; Salamone, Salvatore

    2015-04-01

    This study presents a nondestructive evaluation method based on guided ultrasonic waves (GUW) to estimate corrosion in steel strands. Steel strands are one of the main components in constructing prestressed structures. Hidden corrosion in these structures has become a concern for designers, owners and regulators as it can eventuate in disastrous failure. In this study, a reference-free algorithm is proposed to quantify the extent of corrosion through estimating the cross section loss using dispersion curves and the velocity of certain frequency components in the waveform. Experimental test setups were designed to accelerate corrosion on two similarly loaded steel strands. One strand was embedded in concrete (to simulate a prestressed concrete beam) and the other was free (to resemble a prestressed cable). Visual inspection, halfcell potential, and mass loss measurements were employed as supporting evidences for the state of corrosion. An uncertainty analysis was also carried out to investigate how close this method can estimate the diameter of wires in a strand. The method could reasonably estimate the diameter of the wires without a reference baseline.

  18. Prebending of a titanium elastic intramedullary nail in the treatment of distal radius fractures in children.

    PubMed

    Cai, Haoqi; Wang, Zhigang; Cai, Haiqing

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to introduce a method to treat distal radius diaphyseal metaphyseal junction fractures by prebending an elastic intramedullary nail and to evaluate the factors influencing fracture apposition. Fifty-two consecutive patients (4 to 15 years old) with a distal radius diaphyseal metaphyseal junction fracture were included. The nail was inserted and advanced into the proximal radial fragment as normal. After bending the nail distally about 90° at the site predetermined to lie at the distal segment, the elastic intramedullary nail was advanced until the prebent part completely entered the marrow cavity. The fracture angular deformity was fully corrected in anterior-posterior and lateral views. The apposition rate was 90% to 100% in lateral view, >50% in anterior-posterior view. The operation time was 16.73 ± 6.253 minutes. The average time of fracture healing was 5 months (range, 4-7 months). During 12 to 19 months of follow-up, firm fracture healing and good remodeling were observed, and there was no impaired forearm rotation function or secondary fracture. Our study showed the treatment of distal radius diaphyseal metaphyseal junction fractures by prebent intramedullary nail could make up for the deficiency of Kirschner wires and steel plates and keep the fracture stable. Fracture type and the anatomical features of the distal radius were associated with fracture apposition. PMID:24833151

  19. Arc spraying of nano-structured wire on carbon steel: examination of coating microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Al Askandarani, A.; Hashmi, M. S. J.; Yilbas, B. S.

    2011-01-17

    Arc spraying of nano-structured wire (TAFA 95MX) onto carbon steel is carried out. The workpieces coated were heat treated at temperature similar to the operating temperature of the hot-path components of power gas turbines. The morphological and microstructural changes in the coating are examined using optical and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The surface roughness and microhardness of the resulting coatings are measured. It is found that the formation of dimples like structure at surface increased the surface roughness of the coating. The microhardness of the resulting coating is significantly higher than the base material hardness. Heat treatment does not alter the microstructure and microhardness of the coating.

  20. Development of Process Maps in Two-Wire Tandem Submerged Arc Welding Process of HSLA Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiran, D. V.; Alam, S. A.; De, A.

    2013-04-01

    Appropriate selection of welding conditions to guarantee requisite weld joint mechanical properties is ever difficult because of their complex interactions. An approach is presented here to identify suitable welding conditions in typical two-wire tandem submerged arc welding (SAW-T) that involves many welding variables. First, an objective function is defined, which depicts the squared error between the mechanical properties of weld joint and of base material. A set of artificial neural network (ANN)-based models are developed next to estimate the weld joint properties as function of welding conditions using experimentally measured results. The neural network model-based predictions are used next to create a set of process map contours that depict the minimum achievable values of the objective function and the corresponding welding conditions. In typical SAW-T of HSLA steel, welding speed from 9.0 to 11.5 mm/s, leading wire current from 530 to 580 A, and trailing wire negative current from 680 to 910 A are found to be the most optimal.

  1. Parametric Optimization of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining of Powder Metallurgical Cold Worked Tool Steel using Taguchi Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhakara, Dara; Prasanthi, Guvvala

    2016-08-01

    Wire Cut EDM is an unconventional machining process used to build components of complex shape. The current work mainly deals with optimization of surface roughness while machining P/M CW TOOL STEEL by Wire cut EDM using Taguchi method. The process parameters of the Wire Cut EDM is ON, OFF, IP, SV, WT, and WP. L27 OA is used for to design of the experiments for conducting experimentation. In order to find out the effecting parameters on the surface roughness, ANOVA analysis is engaged. The optimum levels for getting minimum surface roughness is ON = 108 µs, OFF = 63 µs, IP = 11 A, SV = 68 V and WT = 8 g.

  2. Nail Fungal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... medicines can treat a fungal nail infection. Oral antifungal medicines help a new nail grow to replace ... infected nail. You might need to take the antifungal medicine for 6 to 12 weeks. It depends ...

  3. 75 FR 38977 - Pre-Stressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Amended...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... Concrete Steel Wire Strand from China: Determinations, 75 FR 36678 (June 28, 2010) (ITC Final Determination... Duty Determination, 75 FR 28557 (May 21, 2010) (Final Determination). On June 22, 2010, the ITC... Determination, 74 FR 56576 (November 2, 2009) (Preliminary Determination). In accordance with section 703(d)...

  4. 77 FR 66954 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ... Rod from Mexico: Affirmative Final Determination of Circumvention of the Antidumping Duty Order, 77 FR... of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico, 67 FR 55800..., Trinidad and Tobago, and Ukraine, 67 FR 65945 (October 29, 2002), remains dispositive. On October 1,...

  5. 78 FR 28190 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico, 67 FR 55800 (August 30, 2002). Notification to Importers This... Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2010- 2011, 77 FR 66954 (November 8, 2012) (Preliminary Results... Ukraine, 67 FR 65945 (October 29, 2002), remains dispositive. On October 1, 2012, the Department...

  6. 77 FR 13545 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... Antidumping Duty Administrative Review 76 FR 67407 (November 1, 2011) (Preliminary Results). \\2\\ We determined... Changed Circumstances Review: Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod from Mexico, 76 FR 45509 (July 29... Countervailing Duty Proceedings: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003) (Assessment...

  7. 76 FR 16607 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce....

  8. 75 FR 34424 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod from Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Spain, and Taiwan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... foreseeable future. See Stainless Steel Wire Rod From Italy, Japan, Korea, Spain, and Taiwan, 75 FR 32503... Initiation of Five- year (``Sunset'') Review, 74 FR 31412 (July 1, 2009). As a result of its reviews, the... Expedited Sunset Reviews of the Antidumping Duty Orders, 74 FR 56179 (Oct. 30, 2009). On May 14, 2010,...

  9. 77 FR 28356 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and Taiwan: Postponement of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ...: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations, 77 FR 3731 (January 25, 2012). Postponement of Preliminary... International Trade Administration Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and Taiwan... INFORMATION CONTACT: Irene Gorelik (Vietnam) or Paul Walker (Taiwan), Office 9, AD/CVD Operations,...

  10. 77 FR 75980 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Determination of Sales...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ...On August 2, 2012, the Department of Commerce (``the Department'') published its notice of preliminary determination of sales at less than fair value (``LTFV'') in the antidumping investigation of steel wire garment hangers from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'').\\1\\ We invited interested parties to comment on our Preliminary Determination of sales at LTFV. We continue to......

  11. 76 FR 68407 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Determination of Sales at...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... Mexico: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations, 76 FR 23548 (April 27, 2011) (``Initiation Notice''). \\3\\ See id., at 76 FR 23553. On May 16, 2011, the United States International Trade Commission (``ITC...), Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico, 76 FR 29266 (May 20, 2011). Period of Investigation The...

  12. 76 FR 47150 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China and Mexico: Postponement of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ..., 76 FR 23548 (April 27, 2011). The current deadline for the preliminary determinations of these... International Trade Administration Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China and Mexico... INFORMATION CONTACT: Irene Gorelik (the People's Republic of China), Office 9, or Patrick Edwards...

  13. 76 FR 34044 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Extension of Time Limits for the Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews, 75 FR 73036 (November 29, 2010) (``Initiation Notice''). The..., 70 FR 24533 (May 10, 2005). The final results continue to be due 120 days after the publication of... International Trade Administration Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Extension of Time...

  14. 77 FR 46055 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... Alloy Steel Wire Rod from Brazil, 67 FR 55792, 55794-96 (August 30, 2002). \\21\\ See SAA at 870; and, e.g..., 77 FR 3731 (January 25, 2012) (``Initiation Notice''). The Department set aside a period of time for... and Taiwan: Postponement of Preliminary Determinations of Antidumping Duty Investigations, 77 FR...

  15. 76 FR 13665 - Arcelor Mittal, Formerly Known as Mittal Steel Walker Wire, a Subsidiary of Arcelor Mittal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... workers are engaged in activities related to the warehousing and distribution of processed steel coil, bars, rods and wire. The notice was published in the Federal Register on May 28, 2010 (75 FR 30070). At... on January 26, 2009 (74 FR 4463). In order to avoid an overlap in worker group coverage,...

  16. 78 FR 76653 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... reviews were such that full reviews pursuant to section 751(c)(5) of the Act should proceed (78 FR 60316... Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and Tobago, and Ukraine Scheduling of full five-year reviews concerning the countervailing duty order on carbon and certain...

  17. 76 FR 1134 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... and Preliminary Rescission, in Part, of the First Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 68758... for Administrative Determination Deadlines Pursuant to the Tariff Act of 1930, As Amended, 70 FR 24533... International Trade Administration Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Extension...

  18. 75 FR 22739 - First Antidumping Duty Administrative Review of Steel Wire Hangers From the People's Republic of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... September 30, 2009. See Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews, 74 FR... Determination Deadlines Pursuant to the Tariff Act of 1930, As Amended, 70 FR 24533 (May 10, 2005). This notice... (``Department'') initiated the first administrative review of the antidumping duty order on steel wire...

  19. Cold Drawn Steel Wires-Processing, Residual Stresses and Ductility-Part I: Metallography and Finite Element Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Phelippeau,A.; Pommier, S.; Tsakalakos, T.; Clavel, M.; Prioul, C.

    2006-01-01

    Cold drawing steel wires lead to an increase of their mechanical strength and to a drop of their ductility. The increase of their mechanical strength has long been related to the reduction of the various material scales by plastic deformation, but the mechanisms controlling their elongation to failure have received relatively little attention. It is usually found that heavily deformed materials show a tendency to plastic strain localization and necking. However, in this paper it is shown that, though the steel wires are plastically deformed up to strain levels as high as 3.5, a significant capability of plastic deformation is preserved in as-drawn wires. This apparent contradiction is resolved by the existence of residual stresses inside the wire. Finite element analyses have been conducted in order to show that residual stresses, inherited from the drawing process, are sufficient to produce a significant hardening effect during a post-drawing tensile test, without introducing any hardening in the local material behavior. The main conclusion of this paper is that once the material has lost its hardening capabilities, residual stresses, inherited from the process, control the elongation of cold drawn wires. The finite element method allowed also the determination of the residual stress field that would lead to the best agreement between the simulated and the experimental stress strain curve of as-drawn wires.

  20. Effect of confining pressure due to external jacket of steel plate or shape memory alloy wire on bond behavior between concrete and steel reinforcing bars.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eunsoo; Kim, Dongkyun; Park, Kyoungsoo

    2014-12-01

    For external jackets of reinforced concrete columns, shape memory alloy (SMA) wires are easy to install, and they provide active and passive confining pressure; steel plates, on the other hand, only provide passive confining pressure, and their installation on concrete is not convenient because of the requirement of a special device. To investigate how SMA wires distinctly impact bond behavior compared with steel plates, this study conducted push-out bond tests of steel reinforcing bars embedded in concrete confined by SMA wires or steel plates. For this purpose, concrete cylinders were prepared with dimensions of 100 mm x 200 mm, and D-22 reinforcing bars were embedded at the center of the concrete cylinders. External jackets of 1.0 mm and 1.5 mm thickness steel plates were used to wrap the concrete cylinders. Additionally, NiTiNb SMA wire with a diameter of 1.0 mm was wound around the concrete cylinders. Slip of the reinforcing bars due to pushing force was measured by using a displacement transducer, while the circumferential deformation of specimens was obtained by using an extensometer. The circumferential deformation was used to calculate the circumferential strains of the specimens. This study assessed the radial confining pressure due to the external jackets on the reinforcing bars at bond strength from bond stress-slip curves and bond stress-circumferential strain curves. Then, the effects of the radial confining pressure on the bond behavior of concrete are investigated, and an equation is suggested to estimate bond strength using the radial confining pressure. Finally, this study focused on how active confining pressure due to recovery stress of the SMA wires influences bond behavior. PMID:25971115

  1. Effect of microalloying on pearlite transformation of high carbon wire steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Stephanie L.

    Microalloying has been shown to improve strength in eutectoid steels for wire applications, and previous work on vanadium-microalloyed eutectoid steels showed delayed pearlite transformation with additions of niobium and accelerated pearlite transformation with additional nitrogen. This study investigates the origin of the CCT shifts with microalloying additions and whether trends in hardness and microstructural feature sizes observed in continuous cooling tests persist through industrial hot rolling simulations. An industrially hot rolled 1080 wire rod with vanadium additions and three laboratory-prepared alloys were studied. The base alloy, denoted the V steel, had a composition of 0.80C-0.50Mn-0.24Si-0.20Cr-0.079V-0.0059N (wt pct). The V+N steel contained 0.0088 wt pct N, and the V+Nb steel contained an additional 0.010 wt pct Nb. All alloys were subjected to a GleebleRTM 3500 torsion hot rolling simulation based on industrial wire rod hot rolling parameters. Microstructural constituents, Vickers hardness, pearlite colony size, and pearlite interlamellar spacing (ILS) were characterized for each alloy. All alloys exhibited pearlitic microstructures with some proeutectoid ferrite at prior austenite grain boundaries, with no evidence of shear transformation products. The V steel has the lowest overall hardness, while both nitrogen and niobium additions increase hardness by approximately 15 HV, correlating to a 43 MPa increase in yield strength. Niobium additions refined ILS, with an average ILS of 92 +/- 3 nm for the V+Nb steel compared to 113 +/- 5 nm for the V steel and 113 +/- 3 nm for the V+N alloy. Vanadium additions produced precipitation strengthening for all alloys and heat treatments, and additional precipitation strengthening with nitrogen and niobium additions was not apparent based on a Taleff regression analysis. Atom probe tomography of an industrially processed wire rod with vanadium additions revealed vanadium enrichment of cementite, and vanadium

  2. 1D Scaling with Ablation for K-Shell Radiation from Stainless Steel Wire Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Giuliani, J. L.; Thornhill, J. W.; Dasgupta, A.; Davis, J.; Clark, R. W.; Jones, B.; Cuneo, M.; Coverdale, C. A.; Deeney, C.

    2009-01-21

    A 1D Lagrangian magnetohydrodynamic z-pinch simulation code is extended to include wire ablation. The plasma transport coefficients are calibrated to reproduce the K-shell yields measured on the Z generator for three stainless steel arrays of diameter 55 mm and masses ranging from 1.8 to 2.7 mg. The resulting 1D scaling model is applied to a larger SS array (65 mm and 2.5 mg) on the refurbished Z machine. Simulation results predict a maximum K-shell yield of 77 kJ for an 82 kV charging voltage. This maximum drops to 42 kJ at 75 kV charging. Neglecting the ablation precursor leads to a {approx}10% change in the calculated yield.

  3. Distributed image processing system for the monitoring of hot steel wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Leary, Paul; Weiss, Michael; Schiller, Arnulf

    2003-05-01

    In a prototype for monitoring hot steel wire different technologies are integrated to achieve a robust, flexibly configurable and scalable imaging system. It is designed as a distributed system with private network and Tuplespace communication implementable on a LINUX Server. Intelligent cameras grab and process the image data. For real time communication between the cameras and standard industrial I/O-modules (IEC-61131) MODBUS/TCP messaging is applied. A switch with integrated firewall makes services available to the supervisory control system. Results are available as XML-logfiles. The image processing defines the upper and lower edges of the material by minimum/maximum filtering of the y-gradient. Dual Grassmanian coordinates are used to fit two parallel lines to the edge points by singular value decomposition. This gives the distance between the lines and the confidence interval of each measurement simultaneously, whereas latter is used to reject poor data. Changes of the distance are analysed computing local central moments. Presently, 12 images per second are acquired. The application is able to detect spontaneous rotation of the wire around the axis of rolling directly at the rolling stands and treats also poor images (due to steam of cooling water). It indicates resulting defects, which may go undetected otherwise.

  4. Graphene coating bonded onto stainless steel wire as a solid-phase microextraction fiber.

    PubMed

    Sun, Min; Feng, Juanjuan; Bu, Yanan; Wang, Xiaojiao; Duan, Huimin; Luo, Chuannan

    2015-03-01

    A graphene coating bonded onto stainless steel wire was fabricated and investigated as a solid-phase microextraction fiber. The coating was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer. The coating with rough and crinkled structure was about 1 μm. These characteristics were helpful for promoting extraction. Using five n-alkanes (n-undecane, n-dodecane, n-tridecane, n-tetradecane and n-hexadecane) as analytes, the fiber was evaluated in direct-immersion mode by coupling with gas chromatography (GC). Through optimizing extraction and desorption conditions, a sensitive SPME-GC analytical method was established. SPME-GC method provided wide linearity range (0.2-150 μg L(-1)) and low limits of determination (0.05-0.5 μg L(-1)). It was applied to analyze rain water and a soil sample, and analytes were quantified in the range of 0.85-1.96 μg L(-1) and 0.09-3.34 μg g(-1), respectively. The recoveries of samples spiked at 10 μg L(-1) were in the range of 90.1-120% and 80.6-94.2%, respectively. The fiber also exhibited high thermal and chemical stability, due to the covalent bonds between graphene coating and wire, and the natural resistance of graphene for thermal, acid and basic conditions. PMID:25618658

  5. Real-time defect detection of steel wire rods using wavelet filters optimized by univariate dynamic encoding algorithm for searches.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jong Pil; Jeon, Yong-Ju; Choi, Doo-chul; Kim, Sang Woo

    2012-05-01

    We propose a new defect detection algorithm for scale-covered steel wire rods. The algorithm incorporates an adaptive wavelet filter that is designed on the basis of lattice parameterization of orthogonal wavelet bases. This approach offers the opportunity to design orthogonal wavelet filters via optimization methods. To improve the performance and the flexibility of wavelet design, we propose the use of the undecimated discrete wavelet transform, and separate design of column and row wavelet filters but with a common cost function. The coefficients of the wavelet filters are optimized by the so-called univariate dynamic encoding algorithm for searches (uDEAS), which searches the minimum value of a cost function designed to maximize the energy difference between defects and background noise. Moreover, for improved detection accuracy, we propose an enhanced double-threshold method. Experimental results for steel wire rod surface images obtained from actual steel production lines show that the proposed algorithm is effective. PMID:22561939

  6. Wettability behavior of special microscale ZnO nail-coated mesh films for oil-water separation.

    PubMed

    Du, Xin; Huang, Xing; Li, Xiaoyu; Meng, Xiangmin; Yao, Lin; He, Junhui; Huang, Hongwei; Zhang, Xueji

    2015-11-15

    The surface free energy and geometrical structure are two important factors to govern the surface wettability. However, the design and simple synthesis of materials with specific surface free energy and geometrical structure, and their elaborate regulations are still a key challenge. Herein, through one-step thermal evaporation method, we successfully synthesized aligned arrays of highly crystallized ZnO with modulated nail structures on the stainless steel meshes for the first time. Owing to the decoration of [0001] oriented nail structures, the wire surface of meshes were indeed enclosed by the ZnO (0002) facets, which had the lowest surface energy in wurtzite structure. Under no any further modifications, just by regulating the nail structure and density as well as the mesh pore sizes, we not only obtained ZnO nail-coated mesh with hydrophobic, oleophilic (oil penetration), and underwater oleophilic properties, but also fabricated one with hydrophilic (water penetration), oleophilic (oil penetration), and underwater superoleophobic properties. Furthermore, interestingly, the separation of oil and water mixture was realized by utilizing two ZnO-nail coated meshes with different wettability. The underlying mechanism was investigated and discussed in the work. Therefore, our study provides interesting insight into the design of novel functional films with desired surface wettability for the separation of oil-water mixture. PMID:26207588

  7. Notch toughness in hot-rolled low carbon steel wire rod

    SciTech Connect

    Baarman, M.H.

    1999-12-01

    Charpy V-notch toughness has been investigated in four hot-rolled, low carbon steels with different grain sizes and carbon contents between 0.019 and 0.057%. The raw material was wire rod designed for drawing and possible subsequent cold heading operations and manufactured from continuous cast billets. In this study, the influence of microstructure, mechanical properties, and alloying elements on the ductile-brittle transition behavior has been assessed. A particular emphasis has been given to the influence of boron with contents up to 0.0097%. As a result, transition temperatures between {minus}29 and +50 C explicated by the material properties have been obtained. The examination also shows that the transition temperature raises with circa 0.5 C for each added ppm boron most likely as a consequence of an enlargement of the ferrite grain size and the reduction of yield and tensile strength. The highest upper shelf energy and lowest transition temperature can be observed in a steel without boron additions and with maximum contents of carbon, silicon, and manganese.

  8. Median Nail Dystrophy Involving the Thumb Nail

    PubMed Central

    Kota, Rahulkrishna; Pilani, Abhishek; Nair, Pragya Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Median canaliform dystrophy of Heller is a rare entity characterized by a midline or a paramedian ridge or split and canal formation in nail plate of one or both the thumb nails. It is an acquired condition resulting from a temporary defect in the matrix that interferes with nail formation. Habitual picking of the nail base may be responsible for some cases. Histopathology classically shows parakeratosis, accumulation of melanin within and between the nail bed keratinocytes. Treatment of median nail dystrophy includes injectable triamcinalone acetonide, topical 0.1% tacrolimus, and tazarotene 0.05%, which is many a times challenging for a dermatologist. Psychiatric opinion should be taken when associated with the depressive, obsessive-compulsive, or impulse-control disorder. We report a case of 19-year-old male diagnosed as median nail dystrophy. PMID:26955129

  9. Nutrition and nail disease.

    PubMed

    Cashman, Michael W; Sloan, Steven Brett

    2010-01-01

    The nail is a specialized keratinous skin appendage that grows approximately 2 to 3 mm per month, with complete replacement achieved in 6 to 9 months. Although this structure can be easily overlooked, nail disorders comprise approximately 10% of all dermatologic conditions. This contribution first provides an overview on the basic anatomy of the nail that will delineate between the nail unit (eg, hyponychium, nail bed, proximal nail fold, and matrix) and anatomic components not part of the nail unit (eg, lateral nail folds, nail plate, and eponychium). The function of each nail structure will also be presented. The chemical profile of the normal nail plate is reviewed with a discussion of its keratin content (hair type keratin vs epithelial type keratin), sulfur content, and mineral composition, including magnesium, calcium, iron, zinc, sodium, and copper. The remainder will focus on nail manifestations seen in states of malnutrition. Virtually every nutritional deficiency can affect the growth of the nail in some manner. Finally, the discussion will include anecdotal use of nutritional and dietary supplements in the setting of brittle nail syndrome as well as a brief overview of biotin and its promising utility in the treatment of nail disorders. PMID:20620759

  10. Decompression Device Using a Stainless Steel Tube and Wire for Treatment of Odontogenic Cystic Lesions: A Technical Report

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Eun-Joo; Baek, Jin-A; Leem, Dae-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Decompression is considered an effective treatment for odontogenic cystic lesions in the jaw. A variety of decompression devices are successfully used for the treatment of keratocystic odontogenic tumors, radicular cysts, dentigerous cysts, and ameloblastoma. The purpose of these devices is to keep an opening between the cystic lesion and the oral environment during treatment. The aim of this report is to describe an effective decompression tube using a stainless steel tube and wire for treatment of jaw cystic lesions. PMID:27489852

  11. Nailing Pompeii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Roman hihstorian Pliny the Younger noted that Mount Vesuvius blew its top and destroyed Pompeii in the early afternoon of August 24, 1,918 years ago. Now, a team of scientists, tempted by the certainty of that record, has confirmed the eruption to within 7 years. The team developed and used an improved radioactive argon-argon dating technique, which they say can reliably establish the age of rocks as old as the solar system or as recent as 1,000 years old.“We nailed the date to 5% on our first attempt, so we could probably get the error down to 1% or less,” says Paul Renne, adjunct associate professor of geology and geophysics at the University of California at Berkeley and director of the private Berkeley Geochronology Center. “Dating things that are really young has always been the Holy Grail of potassium-argon [an earlier method] and argonargon dating.”

  12. Effect of Auxiliary Preheating of the Filler Wire on Quality of Gas Metal Arc Stainless Steel Claddings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahi, Amandeep S.; Pandey, Sunil

    2008-02-01

    Weld cladding is a process for producing surfaces with good corrosion resistant properties by means of depositing/laying of stainless steels on low-carbon steel components with an objective of achieving maximum economy and enhanced life. The aim of the work presented here was to investigate the effect of auxiliary preheating of the solid filler wire in mechanized gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process (by using a specially designed torch to preheat the filler wire independently, before its emergence from the torch) on the quality of the as-welded single layer stainless steel overlays. External preheating of the filler wire resulted in greater contribution of arc energy by resistive heating due to which significant drop in the main welding current values and hence low dilution levels were observed. Metallurgical aspects of the as welded overlays such as chemistry, ferrite content, and modes of solidification were studied to evaluate their suitability for service and it was found that claddings obtained through the preheating arrangement, besides higher ferrite content, possessed higher content of chromium, nickel, and molybdenum and lower content of carbon as compared to conventional GMAW claddings, thereby giving overlays with superior mechanical and corrosion resistance properties. The findings of this study not only establish the technical superiority of the new process, but also, owing to its productivity-enhanced features, justify its use for low-cost surfacing applications.

  13. Growth of ZnO Nanorods on Stainless Steel Wire Using Chemical Vapour Deposition and Their Photocatalytic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Abd Aziz, Siti Nor Qurratu Aini; Pung, Swee-Yong; Ramli, Nurul Najiah; Lockman, Zainovia

    2014-01-01

    The photodegradation efficiency of ZnO nanoparticles in removal of organic pollutants deteriorates over time as a high percentage of the nanoparticles can be drained away by water during the wastewater treatment. This problem can be solved by growing the ZnO nanorods on stainless steel wire. In this work, ZnO nanorods were successfully grown on stainless steel wire by chemical vapour deposition. The SAED analysis indicates that ZnO nanorod is a single crystal and is preferentially grown in [0001] direction. The deconvoluted O 1s peak at 531.5 eV in XPS analysis is associated with oxygen deficient, revealing that the ZnO nanorods contain many oxygen vacancies. This observation is further supported by the finding of the small Iuv/Ivis ratio, that is, ~1 in the photoluminescence analysis. The growth of ZnO nanorods on stainless steel wire was governed by vapour-solid mechanism as there were no Fe particles observed at the tips of the nanorods. The photodegradation of Rhodamine B solution by ZnO nanorods followed the first-order kinetics. PMID:24587716

  14. Growth of ZnO nanorods on stainless steel wire using chemical vapour deposition and their photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Abd Aziz, Siti Nor Qurratu Aini; Pung, Swee-Yong; Ramli, Nurul Najiah; Lockman, Zainovia

    2014-01-01

    The photodegradation efficiency of ZnO nanoparticles in removal of organic pollutants deteriorates over time as a high percentage of the nanoparticles can be drained away by water during the wastewater treatment. This problem can be solved by growing the ZnO nanorods on stainless steel wire. In this work, ZnO nanorods were successfully grown on stainless steel wire by chemical vapour deposition. The SAED analysis indicates that ZnO nanorod is a single crystal and is preferentially grown in [0001] direction. The deconvoluted O 1s peak at 531.5 eV in XPS analysis is associated with oxygen deficient, revealing that the ZnO nanorods contain many oxygen vacancies. This observation is further supported by the finding of the small I(uv)/I(vis) ratio, that is, ~1 in the photoluminescence analysis. The growth of ZnO nanorods on stainless steel wire was governed by vapour-solid mechanism as there were no Fe particles observed at the tips of the nanorods. The photodegradation of Rhodamine B solution by ZnO nanorods followed the first-order kinetics. PMID:24587716

  15. Laser-Arc Hybrid Welding of Dissimilar Titanium Alloy and Stainless Steel Using Copper Wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ming; Chen, Cong; Wang, Lei; Wang, Zemin; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2015-05-01

    Laser-arc hybrid welding with Cu3Si filler wire was employed to join dissimilar Ti6Al4V titanium alloy and AISI316 stainless steel (316SS). The effects of welding parameters on bead shape, microstructure, mechanical properties, and fracture behavior were investigated in detail. The results show that cross-weld tensile strength of the joints is up to 212 MPa. In the joint, obvious nonuniformity of the microstructure is found in the fusion zone (FZ) and at the interfaces from the top to the bottom, which could be improved by increasing heat input. For the homogeneous joint, the FZ is characterized by Fe67- x Si x Ti33 dendrites spreading on α-Cu matrix, and the two interfaces of 316SS/FZ and FZ/Ti6Al4V are characterized by a bamboo-like 316SS layer and a CuTi2 layer, respectively. All the tensile samples fractured in the hardest CuTi2 layer at Ti6Al4V side of the joints. The fracture surface is characterized by river pattern revealing brittle cleavage fracture. The bead formation mechanisms were discussed according to the melt flow and the thermodynamic calculation.

  16. Palladium-coated stainless-steel wire as a solid-phase microextraction fiber.

    PubMed

    Sun, Min; Feng, Juanjuan; Bu, Yanan; Wang, Xiaojiao; Duan, Huimi; Luo, Chuannan

    2015-05-01

    A novel palladium solid-phase microextraction coating was fabricated on a stainless-steel wire by a simple in situ oxidation-reduction process. The palladium coating exhibited a rough microscaled surface and its thickness was about 2 μm. Preparation conditions (reaction time and concentration of palladium chloride and hydrochloric acid) were optimized in detail to achieve sufficient extraction efficiency. Extraction properties of the fiber were investigated by direct immersion solid-phase microextraction of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and phthalate esters in aqueous samples. The extracted analytes were transferred into a gas chromatography system by thermal desorption. The effect of extraction and desorption conditions on extraction efficiency were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, good linearity was obtained and correlation coefficients between 0.9908 and 0.9990 were obtained. Limits of detection were 0.05-0.10 μg/L for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and 0.3 μg/L for phthalate esters. Their recoveries for real aqueous samples were in the range from 97.1 to 121% and from 89.1 to 108%, respectively. The intra- and interday tests were also investigated with three different addition levels, and satisfactory results were also obtained. PMID:25726925

  17. A direct assessment of human prion adhered to steel wire using real-time quaking-induced conversion.

    PubMed

    Mori, Tsuyoshi; Atarashi, Ryuichiro; Furukawa, Kana; Takatsuki, Hanae; Satoh, Katsuya; Sano, Kazunori; Nakagaki, Takehiro; Ishibashi, Daisuke; Ichimiya, Kazuko; Hamada, Masahisa; Nakayama, Takehisa; Nishida, Noriyuki

    2016-01-01

    Accidental transmission of prions during neurosurgery has been reported as a consequence of re-using contaminated surgical instruments. Several decontamination methods have been studied using the 263K-hamster prion; however, no studies have directly evaluated human prions. A newly developed in vitro amplification system, designated real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC), has allowed the activity of abnormal prion proteins to be assessed within a few days. RT-QuIC using human recombinant prion protein (PrP) showed high sensitivity for prions as the detection limit of our assay was estimated as 0.12 fg of active prions. We applied this method to detect human prion activity on stainless steel wire. When we put wires contaminated with human Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease brain tissue directly into the test tube, typical PrP-amyloid formation was observed within 48 hours, and we could detect the activity of prions at 50% seeding dose on the wire from 10(2.8) to 10(5.8) SD50. Using this method, we also confirmed that the seeding activities on the wire were removed following treatment with NaOH. As seeding activity closely correlated with the infectivity of prions using the bioassay, this wire-QuIC assay will be useful for the direct evaluation of decontamination methods for human prions. PMID:27112110

  18. A direct assessment of human prion adhered to steel wire using real-time quaking-induced conversion

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Tsuyoshi; Atarashi, Ryuichiro; Furukawa, Kana; Takatsuki, Hanae; Satoh, Katsuya; Sano, Kazunori; Nakagaki, Takehiro; Ishibashi, Daisuke; Ichimiya, Kazuko; Hamada, Masahisa; Nakayama, Takehisa; Nishida, Noriyuki

    2016-01-01

    Accidental transmission of prions during neurosurgery has been reported as a consequence of re-using contaminated surgical instruments. Several decontamination methods have been studied using the 263K-hamster prion; however, no studies have directly evaluated human prions. A newly developed in vitro amplification system, designated real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC), has allowed the activity of abnormal prion proteins to be assessed within a few days. RT-QuIC using human recombinant prion protein (PrP) showed high sensitivity for prions as the detection limit of our assay was estimated as 0.12 fg of active prions. We applied this method to detect human prion activity on stainless steel wire. When we put wires contaminated with human Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease brain tissue directly into the test tube, typical PrP-amyloid formation was observed within 48 hours, and we could detect the activity of prions at 50% seeding dose on the wire from 102.8 to 105.8 SD50. Using this method, we also confirmed that the seeding activities on the wire were removed following treatment with NaOH. As seeding activity closely correlated with the infectivity of prions using the bioassay, this wire-QuIC assay will be useful for the direct evaluation of decontamination methods for human prions. PMID:27112110

  19. Seismic vulnerability assessment of a steel-girder highway bridge equipped with different SMA wire-based smart elastomeric isolators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedayati Dezfuli, Farshad; Shahria Alam, M.

    2016-07-01

    Shape memory alloy wire-based rubber bearings (SMA-RBs) possess enhanced energy dissipation capacity and self-centering property compared to conventional RBs. The performance of different types of SMA-RBs with different wire configurations has been studied in detail. However, their reliability in isolating structures has not been thoroughly investigated. The objective of this study is to analytically explore the effect of SMA-RBs on the seismic fragility of a highway bridge. Steel-reinforced elastomeric isolators are equipped with SMA wires and used to isolate the bridge. Results revealed that SMA wires with a superelastic behavior and re-centering capability can increase the reliability of the bearing and the bridge structure. It was observed that at the collapse level of damage, the bridge isolated by SMA-HDRB has the lowest fragility. Findings also showed that equipping NRB with SMA wires decreases the possibility of damage in the bridge while, replacing HDRB with SMA-HDRB; or LRB with SMA-LRB increases the failure probability of the system at slight, moderate, and extensive limit states.

  20. Comparison of a multifilament stainless steel suture with FiberWire for flexor tendon repairs--an in vitro biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    McDonald, E; Gordon, J A; Buckley, J M; Gordon, L

    2013-05-01

    Our goal was to investigate and compare the mechanical properties of multifilament stainless steel suture (MFSS) and polyethylene multi-filament core FiberWire in flexor tendon repairs. Flexor digitorum profundus tendons were repaired in human cadaver hands with either a 4-strand cruciate cross-lock repair or 6-strand modified Savage repair using 4-0 and 3-0 multifilament stainless steel or FiberWire. The multifilament stainless steel repairs were as strong as those performed with FiberWire in terms of ultimate load and load at 2 mm gap. This study suggests that MFSS provides as strong a repair as FiberWire. The mode of failure of the MFSS occurred by the suture pulling through the tendon, which suggests an advantage in terms of suture strength. PMID:22745156

  1. Brittle nails (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Like the skin, the fingernails are a reflection of a person's state of health. Low levels of zinc and iron as well as thyroid problems can cause brittle nails. However, brittle nails are often a normal ...

  2. Biomechanical performance of retrograde nail for supracondylar fractures stabilization.

    PubMed

    Chantarapanich, Nattapon; Sitthiseripratip, Kriskrai; Mahaisavariya, Banchong; Siribodhi, Pongwit

    2016-06-01

    The study compared the biomechanical performance of retrograde nail used to stabilize supracondylar fracture (three different levels) by means of finite element analysis. Three different nail lengths (200, 260, and 300 mm) of stainless steel and titanium nails were under consideration. Intact femur model was reconstructed from Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine images of Thai cadaveric femur scanned by computed tomography spiral scanner, whereas geometry of retrograde nail was reconstructed with the data obtained from three-dimensional laser scanner. The retrograde nail was virtually attached to the femur before nodes and elements were generated for finite element model. The finite element models were analyzed in two stages, the early stage of fracture healing and the stage after fracture healing. The finding indicated that purchasing proximal locking screw in the bowing region of the femur may be at risk due to the high stresses at the implant and bone. There were no differences in stress level, elastic strain at a fracture gap, and bone stress between stainless steel and titanium implant. Since the intramedullary canal requires reaming to accommodate the retrograde nail, the length of retrograde nail should be as long as necessary. However, in case that the retrograde nail can be accommodated into the intramedullary canal without reaming, the longer retrograde nail can be used. PMID:27032932

  3. Nail care for newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001914.htm Nail care for newborns To use the sharing features on ... finger or toe instead of the nail. Baby's nails grow quickly, so you may have to cut the fingernails at least once a week. You may only need ... SG, Bedwell C, Cork MJ. Neonatal skin care and toxicology. In: Eichenfield LF, Frieden IJ, Mathes ...

  4. Evaluation of load-deflection properties of fiber-reinforced composites and its comparison with stainless steel wires

    PubMed Central

    Alavi, Shiva; Mamavi, Tayebe

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of common sized fiber-reinforced composites (FRCs) to different deflections due to bending forces and comparing it with stainless steel (SS) wires. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, two FRC groups with 0.75 mm and 1.2 mm diameters (Everstick Ortho, Stick Tech, Finland) and three SS groups with 0.016 × 0.022 inch, 0.0215 × 0.028 inch and 0.7 mm diameters (3M Uniteck, Monrovia, California, USA) were tested. Each group contained 10 samples that were tested according to a three point bending test. Each group was tested at deflections of 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mm and the data was analyzed using the repeated measure ANOVA by SPSS software (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, IBM SPSS, Inc. in Chicago, Illinois, USA). P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The highest recorded load belonged to the 1.2 mm FRC and after that 0.7 mm SS wire, 0.75 mm FRC, 0.0215 × 0.028 inch SS wire and finally 0.016 × 0.022 inch SS wire. The 0.7 mm SS wire and 0.75 mm FRC were compared as retainers and the results showed the 0.7 mm SS wire showed significantly higher load compared with 0.75 mm FRC (P < 0.05). The 1.2 mm FRC had significantly higher load compared to 0.0215 × 0.028 inch and 0.016 × 0.022 inch SS wires (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The results showed that the 1.2 mm FRC group had significantly higher load compared to SS wires and other FRC groups under the 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mm deflections. Therefore, it can be suggested that FRC can be used as an esthetic replacement for SS wires for active and passive purposes in orthodontics. PMID:24932195

  5. Selection of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining Process Parameters on Stainless Steel AISI Grade-304 using Design of Experiments Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingadurai, K.; Nagasivamuni, B.; Muthu Kamatchi, M.; Palavesam, J.

    2012-06-01

    Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) is a specialized thermal machining process capable of accurately machining parts of hard materials with complex shapes. Parts having sharp edges that pose difficulties to be machined by the main stream machining processes can be easily machined by WEDM process. Design of Experiments approach (DOE) has been reported in this work for stainless steel AISI grade-304 which is used in cryogenic vessels, evaporators, hospital surgical equipment, marine equipment, fasteners, nuclear vessels, feed water tubing, valves, refrigeration equipment, etc., is machined by WEDM with brass wire electrode. The DOE method is used to formulate the experimental layout, to analyze the effect of each parameter on the machining characteristics, and to predict the optimal choice for each WEDM parameter such as voltage, pulse ON, pulse OFF and wire feed. It is found that these parameters have a significant influence on machining characteristic such as metal removal rate (MRR), kerf width and surface roughness (SR). The analysis of the DOE reveals that, in general the pulse ON time significantly affects the kerf width and the wire feed rate affects SR, while, the input voltage mainly affects the MRR.

  6. Standard specification for steel strand, uncoated seven-wire for prestressed concrete. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A-1 on Steel, Stainless Steel and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee A01.05 on Steel Reinforcement. Current edition approved May 10, 1998. Published December 1998. Originally published as A 416-57T. Last previous edition A 416-97.

  7. VIEW SOUTHEASTBUILDING 4 NO. 1 WIRE MILL (1871) WIRE DRAWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTHEAST-BUILDING 4 NO. 1 WIRE MILL (1871) WIRE DRAWING MACHINE - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  8. Electrochemical characterization of the steel wire used as reinforcement in the conductors transmission networks electricity nitride by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro Maldonado, J. J.; Dulcé Moreno, H. J.; Aperador, W.

    2016-02-01

    The power company feature infrastructure, which are generally shaped so the transmission and distribution lines, here is why it is necessary to characterize the process of electrochemical corrosion of these components. In this case the steel wire coated with zinc or aluminium, as it is undergoes the rigor of corrosive environments. Given the geographical diversity and different climatic environments, atmospheric corrosion carried affecting service life of structures. For example in very humid environments such as coasts and high altitudes, wetting time (TOW), parameter that meets the conditions of temperature and relative humidity, it affects large proportion, accelerating the corrosion of ferrous materials. Given the importance of establishing mechanisms that lessen the impact on degradation in transmission and distribution lines of both the reliability and the availability of the same. This paper presents the implementation in nitride steels as an alternative or complement to zinc coating.

  9. Unlocked and locked elastic stable intramedullary nailing in an ovine tibia fracture model: a biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Berger, Leopold; Fischerauer, Stefan; Weiß, Barbara; Celarek, Anna; Castellani, Christoph; Weinberg, Annelie-Martina; Tschegg, Elmar

    2014-07-01

    In the present study, four different systems of elastic stable intramedullary nails (unlocked, Ender stainless steel nails locked with 3-mm screws, titanium nails locked with end caps, titanium nails locked with plugs and 3-mm screws) were implanted in cadaveric ovine tibiae. Fractures were simulated by a transverse diaphyseal osteotomy. The specimens were subjected to simultaneous axial and torsional fatigue loading of 5000 and 1000 cycles, respectively. The unlocked systems failed at an axial load of 200 N peak amplitude. End caps systems withstood axial loads up to 800 N for 1000 cycles, and ender nails and plugs lasted up to 1000 N for 1000 cycles. All systems showed a decrease of axial stiffness with higher loads and endured cycles. Ender nails and nails locked with plugs failed by penetration of the distal epiphysis rather than by loosening of the interlocking system. Overall, the titanium nails locked with plugs and 3-mm screws exhibited superior test results. PMID:24857493

  10. Subtrochanteric fractures after retrograde femoral nailing.

    PubMed

    Mounasamy, Varatharaj; Mallu, Sathya; Khanna, Vishesh; Sambandam, Senthil

    2015-10-18

    Secondary fractures around femoral nails placed for the management of hip fractures are well known. We report, two cases of a fracture of the femur at the interlocking screw site in the subtrochanteric area after retrograde femoral nailing of a femoral shaft fracture. Only a few reports in the existing literature have described these fractures. Two young men after sustaining a fall presented to us with pain, swelling and deformity in the upper thigh region. On enquiring, examining and radiographing them, peri-implant fractures of subtrochanteric nature through the distal interlocking screws were revealed in both patients who also had histories of previous falls for which retrograde intramedullary nailing was performed for their respective femora. Both patients were managed with similar surgical routines including removal of the existing hardware, open reduction and ace cephallomedullary antegrade nailing. The second case did show evidence of delayed healing and was additionally stabilized with cerclage wires. Both patients had uneventful postoperative outcomes and union was evident at the end of 6 mo postoperatively with a good range of motion at the hip and knee. Our report suggests that though seldom reported, peri-implant fractures around the subtrochanteric region can occur and pose a challenge to the treating orthopaedic surgeon. We suggest these be managed, after initial stabilization and resuscitation, by implant removal, open reduction and interlocking intramedullary antegrade nailing. Good results and progression to union can be expected in these patients by adhering to basic principles of osteosynthesis. PMID:26495251

  11. Ordered mesoporous polymers in situ coated on a stainless steel wire for a highly sensitive solid phase microextraction fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Juan; Liang, Yeru; Liu, Shuqin; Ding, Yajuan; Shen, Yong; Luan, Tiangang; Zhu, Fang; Jiang, Ruifen; Wu, Dingcai; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2015-07-01

    Development of facile and effective methods for fabrication of high-performance solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibres remains a great challenge. Herein, a new class of ordered mesoporous polymers (OMPs) in situ coated on a stainless steel wire were successfully developed and utilized as a highly sensitive and stable SPME fibre for the first time. Because of the highly ordered mesoporous structure of its OMP coating, the π-π interactions and the dispersion forces, the OMP-coated SPME fibre exhibited much better extraction properties as compared to the commercial PDMS fibre. The findings could provide a new benchmark for preparing well-defined porous materials for the SPME application.Development of facile and effective methods for fabrication of high-performance solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibres remains a great challenge. Herein, a new class of ordered mesoporous polymers (OMPs) in situ coated on a stainless steel wire were successfully developed and utilized as a highly sensitive and stable SPME fibre for the first time. Because of the highly ordered mesoporous structure of its OMP coating, the π-π interactions and the dispersion forces, the OMP-coated SPME fibre exhibited much better extraction properties as compared to the commercial PDMS fibre. The findings could provide a new benchmark for preparing well-defined porous materials for the SPME application. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, Fig. S1-S3 and Tables S1-S3. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02674a

  12. Influence of the intramedullary nail preparation method on nail's mechanical properties and degradation rate.

    PubMed

    Morawska-Chochół, Anna; Chłopek, Jan; Szaraniec, Barbara; Domalik-Pyzik, Patrycja; Balacha, Ewa; Boguń, Maciej; Kucharski, Rafael

    2015-06-01

    When it comes to the treatment of long bone fractures, scientists are still investigating new materials for intramedullary nails and different manufacturing methods. Some of the most promising materials used in the field are resorbable polymers and their composites, especially since there is a wide range of potential manufacturing and processing methods. The aim of this work was to select the best manufacturing method and technological parameters to obtain multiphase, and multifunctional, biodegradable intramedullary nails. All composites were based on a poly(l-lactide) matrix. Either magnesium alloy wires or carbon and alginate fibres were introduced in order to reinforce the nails. The polylactide matrix was also modified with tricalcium phosphate and gentamicin sulfate. The composite nails were manufactured using three different methods: forming from solution, injection moulding and hot pressing. The effect of each method of manufacturing on mechanical properties and degradation rate of the nails was evaluated. The study showed that injection moulding provides higher uniformity and homogeneity of the particle-modified polylactide matrix, whereas hot pressing favours applying higher volume fractions of fibres and their better impregnation with the polymer matrix. Thus, it was concluded that the fabrication method should be individually selected dependently on the nail's desired phase composition. PMID:25842113

  13. A rapid determination of brass composition and plating weight on brass-plated steel wire and cord by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.

    PubMed

    van Lingen, R L; Schuurs, H E; Veenstra, G J; Roes, J M; Loef, E C

    1980-08-01

    A rapid and simple means for determination of the brass composition and plating weight on brass-plated steel wire and cord is described. The sample preparation procedure is very simple; wires can be mounted as such, and cords can be mounted either as such or as unstranded single wires. The copper content of the brass and the plating weight are determined by measuring the intensities of the different elements by sequential X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). There is good agreement between the results obtained by XRF and those obtained by differential pulse polarography or spectrophotometry/ complexometry; the precision is even better. PMID:18962748

  14. [Cosmetic nail products].

    PubMed

    Baran, R; Goettmann, S; André, J

    2016-05-01

    Cosmetic embellishment of fingernails involves the use of substance that harden either after the evaporation of solvents (varnishes) or after polymerisation (artificial acrylic nails, gel tips, glue-on artificial nails). Pathological reactions to cosmetics usually occur at a remote site for varnishes, and, most commonly, in situ with polymerising substances. Unvarnished artificial nails do not affect pulse oximetry readings, and in theory, patients are not required to remove them. However, a real problem of contamination via artificial nails exists. Increased carriage of pathological Gram-negative organisms and of Staphylococcus aureus and yeasts has been noted among nursing staff wearing artificial nails, both before and after fingernail cleaning. Fingernail fragility manifests itself through a number of different physical signs such as soft, breaking nails, with longitudinal or transverse fissures, showing distal doubling or friability. In some subjects, excessive manicuring with metal instruments or manicure sticks results in rolled onycholysis, of evocative appearance, or transverse onycholysis. PMID:26988380

  15. Nail Deformities and Injuries.

    PubMed

    Tucker, James Rory J

    2015-12-01

    A variety of nail deformities commonly presents in the primary care office. An understanding of nail anatomy coupled with inspection of the nails at routine office visits can reveal undetected disorders. Some problems are benign, and treatment should be attempted by the primary care provider, such as onychomycosis, paronychia, or ingrown toenails. For conditions such as benign melanonychia, longitudinal ridges, isolated Beau lines, and onycholysis, clinicians may offer reassurance to patients who are concerned about the change in their nails. For deformities such as early pterygium or clubbing, a thorough evaluation and referral to an appropriate specialist may be warranted. PMID:26612379

  16. 7 CFR 1755.702 - Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of ANSI/ICEA S-89-648-1993 are available for inspection during... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service..., ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.702 Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR)...

  17. 7 CFR 1755.702 - Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of ANSI/ICEA S-89-648-1993 are available for inspection during... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service..., ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.702 Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR)...

  18. 7 CFR 1755.702 - Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of ANSI/ICEA S-89-648-1993 are available for inspection during... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service..., ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.702 Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR)...

  19. 7 CFR 1755.702 - Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of ANSI/ICEA S-89-648-1993 are available for inspection during... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service..., ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.702 Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR)...

  20. The Corrosion Resistance of Composite Arch Wire Laser-Welded By NiTi Shape Memory Alloy and Stainless Steel Wires with Cu Interlayer in Artificial Saliva with Protein

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Sun, Xinhua; Hou, Xu; Li, Hongmei; Sun, Daqian

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the corrosion resistance of laser-welded composite arch wire (CoAW) with Cu interlayer between NiTi shape memory alloy and stainless steel wire in artificial saliva with different concentrations of protein was studied. It was found that protein addition had a significant influence on the corrosion behavior of CoAW. Low concentration of protein caused the corrosion resistance of CoAW decrease in electrochemical corrosion and immersion corrosion tests. High concentration of protein could reduce this effect. PMID:23801895

  1. Fungal nail infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... on the side of the nail Exams and Tests Your health care provider will look at your nails to find ... for toenails; a shorter time for fingernails. Your health care provider will do lab tests to check for liver damage while you are ...

  2. Trimming Your Baby's Nails

    MedlinePlus

    ... However, if you're hesitant to try baby nail scissors or clippers and your baby will stay still long enough to cooperate, you can use an emery board to file the nails down without the risk of giving your little ...

  3. 7 CFR 1755.702 - Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of ANSI/ICEA S-89-648-1993 are available for inspection during... conductors and between each conductor of the completed CCSR aerial service wire and the surrounding water... test specified in ANSI/ICEA S-89-648-1993, paragraph 8.1.8. (g) Environmental requirements—(1)...

  4. 76 FR 55031 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Affirmative Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ..., 76 FR 23564 (April 27, 2011) (Initiation Notice), and accompanying Initiation Checklist. Public...'' (Entry Data Memorandum), dated April 21, 2011. On May 3, 2011, Shanghai Bao Zhang Industry Co. Ltd. (SBZ... Zhang Metal Products Co., Ltd. (ABZ) and B&Z Galvanized Wire Industry filed comments on...

  5. Effect of Post Weld Heat Treatment on Mechanical and Corrosion Behaviors of NiTi and Stainless Steel Laser-Welded Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirshekari, G. R.; Saatchi, A.; Kermanpur, A.; Sadrnezhaad, S. K.

    2016-06-01

    Effects of post weld heat treatment (PWHT) on mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of NiTi shape memory wire, laser welded to the 304 stainless steel wire were investigated. The results showed that PWHT at 200 °C increased corrosion resistance and tensile strength of the joint up to ~1.8 times that of the as-weld joint, with no heat treatment. On the contrary, precipitation of neoteric intermetallic compounds like Fe2Ti, Cr2Ti, FeNi, Ni3Ti, and Ti2Ni in the welded region deteriorated these properties, when PWHT was conducted at 400 °C. Due to the vital effects of the PWHT performed after the laser welding, careful control of the PWHT temperature was found to be a prerequisite for achievement of desirable properties in the dissimilar NiTi-304 stainless steel laser-welded wires.

  6. Effect of Post Weld Heat Treatment on Mechanical and Corrosion Behaviors of NiTi and Stainless Steel Laser-Welded Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirshekari, G. R.; Saatchi, A.; Kermanpur, A.; Sadrnezhaad, S. K.

    2016-04-01

    Effects of post weld heat treatment (PWHT) on mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of NiTi shape memory wire, laser welded to the 304 stainless steel wire were investigated. The results showed that PWHT at 200 °C increased corrosion resistance and tensile strength of the joint up to ~1.8 times that of the as-weld joint, with no heat treatment. On the contrary, precipitation of neoteric intermetallic compounds like Fe2Ti, Cr2Ti, FeNi, Ni3Ti, and Ti2Ni in the welded region deteriorated these properties, when PWHT was conducted at 400 °C. Due to the vital effects of the PWHT performed after the laser welding, careful control of the PWHT temperature was found to be a prerequisite for achievement of desirable properties in the dissimilar NiTi-304 stainless steel laser-welded wires.

  7. Atomic scale investigation of redistribution of alloying elements in pearlitic steel wires upon cold-drawing and annealing.

    PubMed

    Li, Y J; Choi, P; Goto, S; Borchers, C; Raabe, D; Kirchheim, R

    2013-09-01

    A local electrode atom probe has been employed to analyze the redistribution of alloying elements including Si, Mn, and Cr in pearlitic steel wires upon cold-drawing and subsequent annealing. It has been found that the three elements undergo mechanical mixing upon cold-drawing at large strains, where Mn and Cr exhibit a nearly homogeneous distribution throughout both ferrite and cementite, whereas Si only dissolves slightly in cementite. Annealing at elevated temperatures leads to a reversion of the mechanical alloying. Si atoms mainly segregate at well-defined ferrite (sub)grain boundaries formed during annealing. Cr and Mn are strongly concentrated in cementite adjacent to the ferrite/cementite interface due to their lower diffusivities in cementite than in ferrite. PMID:23237772

  8. Microstructure and mechanical properties of hot wire laser clad layers for repairing precipitation hardening martensitic stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Peng; Cai, Zhipeng; Feng, Zhenhua; Wang, Gang

    2015-12-01

    Precipitation hardening martensitic stainless steel (PH-MSS) is widely used as load-bearing parts because of its excellent overall properties. It is economical and flexible to repair the failure parts instead of changing new ones. However, it is difficult to keep properties of repaired part as good as those of the substrate. With preheating wire by resistance heat, hot wire laser cladding owns both merits of low heat input and high deposition efficiency, thus is regarded as an advantaged repairing technology for damaged parts of high value. Multi-pass layers were cladded on the surface of FV520B by hot wire laser cladding. The microstructure and mechanical properties were compared and analyzed for the substrate and the clad layer. For the as-cladded layer, microstructure was found non-uniform and divided into quenched and tempered regions. Tensile strength was almost equivalent to that of the substrate, while ductility and impact toughness deteriorated much. With using laser scanning layer by layer during laser cladding, microstructure of the clad layers was tempered to fine martensite uniformly. The ductility and toughness of the clad layer were improved to be equivalent to those of the substrate, while the tensile strength was a little lower than that of the substrate. By adding TiC nanoparticles as well as laser scanning, the precipitation strengthening effect was improved and the structure was refined in the clad layer. The strength, ductility and toughness were all improved further. Finally, high quality clad layers were obtained with equivalent or even superior mechanical properties to the substrate, offering a valuable technique to repair PH-MSS.

  9. Heat treatment induced intermetallic phase transition of arc-sprayed coating prepared by the wires combination of aluminum-cathode and steel-anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yongxiong; Liang, Xiubing; Wei, Shicheng; Liu, Yan; Xu, Binshi

    2009-07-01

    A method to prepare intermetallic composite coatings employing the cost-efficient electric arc spraying twin wires assistant with suitable heat treatment was developed. In this study, a Fe-Al composite coating was produced by spraying twin wires, i.e. a carbon steel wire as the anode and an aluminum wire as the cathode. The inter-deposited Fe-Al coating was transformed in-situ to Fe-Al intermetallic composite coating after a post annealing treatment. The effect of annealing treatment conditions on phase composition, microstructure and mechanical properties of the coating was investigated by using XRD, SEM, EDS and OM as well as microhardness tester. The results show that the desirable intermetallic phases such as Fe 2Al 5, FeAl and Fe 3Al are obtained under the annealing condition. The main oxide in the coating is FeO which can partially transform to Fe 3O 4 up to the annealing condition.

  10. 2D Radiation MHD K-shell Modeling of Single Wire Array Stainless Steel Experiments on the Z Machine

    SciTech Connect

    Thornhill, J. W.; Giuliani, J. L.; Apruzese, J. P.; Chong, Y. K.; Davis, J.; Dasgupta, A.; Whitney, K. G.; Clark, R. W.; Jones, B.; Coverdale, C. A.; Ampleford, D. J.; Cuneo, M. E.; Deeney, C.

    2009-01-21

    Many physical effects can produce unstable plasma behavior that affect K-shell emission from arrays. Such effects include: asymmetry in the initial density profile, asymmetry in power flow, thermal conduction at the boundaries, and non-uniform wire ablation. Here we consider how asymmetry in the radiation field also contributes to the generation of multidimensional plasma behavior that affects K-shell power and yield. To model this radiation asymmetry, we have incorporated into the MACH2 r-z MHD code a self-consistent calculation of the non-LTE population kinetics based on radiation transport using multi-dimensional ray tracing. Such methodology is necessary for modeling the enhanced radiative cooling that occurs at the anode and cathode ends of the pinch during the run-in phase of the implosion. This enhanced radiative cooling is due to reduced optical depth at these locations producing an asymmetric flow of radiative energy that leads to substantial disruption of large initial diameter (>5 cm) pinches and drives 1D into 2D fluid (i.e., Rayleigh-Taylor like) flows. The impact of this 2D behavior on K-shell power and yield is investigated by comparing 1D and 2D model results with data obtained from a series of single wire array stainless steel experiments performed on the Z generator.

  11. Stainless steel wire mesh-supported ZnO for the catalytic photodegradation of methylene blue under ultraviolet irradiation.

    PubMed

    Vu, Tan T; del Río, Laura; Valdés-Solís, Teresa; Marbán, Gregorio

    2013-02-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the activity of catalysts formed by nanostructured zinc oxide supported on stainless steel wire mesh for the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue under UV irradiation. Catalysts prepared by means of different low temperature synthesis methods, as described in a previous work (Vu et al., Mater. Res. Bull. 47 (2012) 1577-1586) were tested. A new activity parameter was introduced in order to compare the catalytic activity of the different catalysts. The best catalyst showed a catalytic activity higher than that of the reference material TiO(2) P25 (Degussa-Evonik). This high activity is attributed to a higher quantum yield derived from the small particle length of the ZnO deposited on the wire mesh. The photocatalytic degradation kinetics of methylene blue fitted a potential model with n orders ranging from 0.5 to 6.9. Reaction orders over 1 were attributed to catalyst deactivation during the reaction resulting from the photocorrosion of ZnO. PMID:23291337

  12. In vitro comparative study on the friction of stainless steel wires with and without Orthospeed® (JAL 90458) on an inclined plane

    PubMed Central

    Claros-Stucchi, Miguel; Albaladejo, Alberto; Iglesias-Conde, Carmen; Alvarado-Lorenzo, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Background During the treatment of orthodontics, in the mechanics of slide, there takes place friction, which they reduce the slide of the arch across bracket. Therefore, clinical there takes place an increase of the time of treatment. There are different the technologies that try to reduce this friction, as the self-ligating braces. The purpose of this study was to research the in vitro behavior of JAL 90458 as a buffering agent which reduces friction between brackets and stainless steel arch wires of different cross sections and sizes. Material and Methods Three types of stainless steel wires with different cross sections and three types of ligatures were used with and without JAL 90458 to measure the friction according to the time and distance traveled by the brackets on an inclined plane with two angulations. The Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance by ranks was applied to determine the degree of friction between the group using and the group not using the product (P ≤ .05). Results Separate analysis of the arch wires, ligatures and angulation with and without the compound revealed statistically significant differences between the groups, showing that friction was reduced significantly when JAL 90458 was used (P ≤ .01). The 0.021x0.025” arch wires and the arch wires attached using elastic ligatures produce the least resistance to sliding among all of those analyzed when the product was not used (P ≤ .05). Conclusions The results show that JAL 90458 reduces friction independently of arch wire cross section, type of ligature and angulation of the measuring instrument. Key words:Friction, JAL 90458, arch wires, ligatures, in vitro. PMID:27034753

  13. Skin or nail culture

    MedlinePlus

    Mucosal culture; Culture - skin; Culture - mucosal; Nail culture; Culture - fingernail; Fingernail culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria, ...

  14. Bacterial Nail Infection (Paronychia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... in people who work in the health care industry. Chronic paronychia is most common in adult women and those who work in places where their hands are kept moist, such as food handlers. Signs and Symptoms Bacterial nail infection most ...

  15. Capillary nail refill test

    MedlinePlus

    ... nail. This should not cause discomfort. Why the Test is Performed Tissues need oxygen to survive. Oxygen is carried to various parts of the body by the blood (vascular) system. This test measures how well the vascular system works in ...

  16. Fungal Nail Infection (Onychomycosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... vinegar, vitamin E oil, Vicks® VapoRub®, or tea tree oil. When to Seek Medical Care Fungal nail ... Trusted Links Related diseases: Psoriasis View all diseases Community: Discussion Forum Skinmatters Blog About Us | Terms of ...

  17. Nail Lifting (Onycholysis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... brush the nail and surrounding tissue with plain soap and water once daily, rinsing carefully, and then ... mild cleanser as an alternative to water and soap. When to Seek Medical Care See your doctor ...

  18. Nail Splitting (Onychoschizia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... other skin diseases, such as lichen planus and psoriasis, as well as people taking oral medications made ... nail plate may be seen in people with psoriasis or lichen planus or in people who use ...

  19. Comparative Evaluation of Friction Resistance of Titanium, Stainless Steel, Ceramic and Ceramic with Metal Insert Brackets with Varying Dimensions of Stainless Steel Wire: An In vitro Multi-center Study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, B Sunil; Miryala, Suresh; Kumar, K Kiran; Shameem, K; Regalla, Ravindra Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Background: The orthodontist seeks an archwire–bracket combination that has both good biocompatibility and low friction. Hence, the aim of this multicenter in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the frictional resistance generated between titanium (Ti), stainless steel (SS), ceramic and ceramic with metal insert (CMI) brackets with SS wires of varying dimensions in a specially designed apparatus. Materials and Methods: The material used in this study were Ti, SS, Ceramic and CMI with 0.018″ slot manufactured with zero degree tip and −7° torque premolar brackets (3M, Unitek) and SS wires of varying dimensions (0.016″ round, 0.016 × 0.016″ square, 0.016 × 0.022″ rectangular and 0.017 × 0.025″ rectangular) used. The frictional resistance was measured using Instron Universal testing machine (Model no. 4301). The specimen population in each center composed each of 160 brackets and wires. Differences among the all bracket/wire combinations were tested using (one-way) ANOVA, followed by the student Newman Keuls multiple comparisons of means ranking (at P < 0.05) for the determination of differences among the groups. Results: Ti bracket in combination with 0.017 × 0.025″ SS rectangular wire produced significant force levels for an optimum orthodontic movement with least frictional resistance. Conclusion: Ti brackets have least resistance and rectangular wires produced significant force. These can be used to avoid hazards of Nickel. SS brackets revealed higher static frictional force values as the wire dimension increased and showed lower static friction than Ti brackets for all wires except the thicker wire. Our study recommends the preclusion of brackets with rough surface texture (Ti brackets) with SS ligature wire for ligating bracket and archwire are better to reduce friction. PMID:25395796

  20. Allergic reaction to stainless steel sternotomy wires requiring removal: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Lopez, J; Sachithanandan, A; Leow, M

    2016-06-01

    Hypersensitivity to stainless steel sternal sutures are an uncommon occurrence. We present a case of such a patient who developed chronic tissue overgranulation over a sternotomy wound eight weeks post-operatively. Primary suspicion was infection, a more common complication however radiological and laboratory investigation showed otherwise. Conservative management provided limited ephemeral success. After ensuring adequate sternal bone healing, the sutures and granulation tissue were eventually surgically removed without complication and the reoperated wound healed well. PMID:27495890

  1. Formation Mechanism of SiO2-Type Inclusions in Si-Mn-Killed Steel Wires Containing Limited Aluminum Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kunpeng; Jiang, Min; Wang, Xinhua; Wang, Ying; Zhao, Haoqian; Cao, Zhanmin

    2015-10-01

    The origin, formation mechanism, and evolution of SiO2-type inclusions in Si-Mn-killed steel wires were studied by pilot trials with systematical samplings at the refining ladle, casting tundish, as-cast bloom, reheated bloom, and hot-rolled rods. It was found that the inclusions in tundish were well controlled in the low melting point region. By contrast, MnO-SiO2-Al2O3 inclusions in the as-cast bloom were with compositions located in the primary region of SiO2, and most CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MnO inclusions lied in primary phase region of anorthite. Therefore, precipitation of SiO2 particles in MnO-SiO2-Al2O3 inclusions can be easier than in CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MnO inclusions to form dual-phase inclusions in the as-cast bloom. Thermodynamic calculation by the software FactSage 6.4 (CRCT-ThermFact Inc., Montréal, Canada) showed that mass transfer between liquid steel and inclusions resulted in the rise of SiO2 content in inclusions from tundish to as-cast bloom and accelerated the precipitation of pure SiO2 phase in the formed MnO-SiO2-Al2O3 inclusions. As a result, the inclusions characterized by dual-phase structure of pure SiO2 in MnO-SiO2-Al2O3 matrix were observed in both as-cast and reheated blooms. Moreover, the ratio of such dual-phase SiO2-type inclusions witnessed an obvious increase from 0 to 25.4 pct before and after casting, whereas it changed little during the reheating and rolling. Therefore, it can be reasonably concluded that they were mainly formed during casting. Comparing the evolution of the inclusions composition and morphology in as-cast bloom and rolled products, a formation mechanism of the SiO2-type inclusions in wire rods was proposed, which included (1) precipitation of SiO2 in the formed MnO-SiO2-Al2O3 inclusion during casting and (2) solid-phase separation of the undeformed SiO2 precipitation from its softer MnO-SiO2-Al2O3 matrix during multipass rolling.

  2. Drug-induced nail disorders.

    PubMed

    2014-07-01

    Nail disorders are defined according to their appearance and the part of the nail affected: the nail plate, the tissues that support or hold the nail plate in place, or the lunula. The consequences of most nail disorders are purely cosmetic. Other disorders, such as ingrown nails, inflammation, erythema, abscesses or tumours, cause functional impairment or pain. The appearance of the lesions is rarely indicative of their cause. Possible causes include physiological changes, local disorders or trauma, systemic conditions, toxic substances and drugs. Most drug-induced nail disorders resolve after discontinuation of the drug, although complete resolution sometimes takes several years. Drugs appear to induce nail disorders through a variety of mechanisms. Some drugs affect the nail matrix epithelium, the nail bed or the nail folds. Some alter nail colour. Other drugs induce photosensitivity. Yet others affect the blood supply to the nail unit. Nail abnormalities are common during treatment with certain cytotoxic drugs: taxanes, anthracyclines, fluorouracil, EGFR, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, etc. Some drugs are associated with a risk of serious and painful lesions, such as abscesses. When these disorders affect quality of life, the benefits of withdrawing the drug must be weighed against the severity of the condition being treated and the drug's efficacy, taking into account the harm-benefit balance of other options. Various anti-infective drugs, including tetracyclines, quinolones, clofazimine and zidovudine, cause the nail plate to detach from the nail bed after exposure to light, or cause nail discoloration. Psoralens and retinoids can also have the same effects. PMID:25162091

  3. Nitrogen implantation into steel wire coated with zinc used as reinforcement in power transmission conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Maldonado, J. J.; Dulcé-Moreno, H. J.; V-Niño, E. D.

    2013-11-01

    In tropical environments, diversity of climatic factors such as temperature, relative humidity, deposition of environmental contaminants (such as sulfates and chlorides) affect a large proportion of materials exposed to the weather, and electrochemical corrosion is one of the phenomena that occur in the case of metals and alloys [1, 2]. It is therefore particularly important to study this behavior in the Zinc-coated steel, since this material is used for its economy in the industry specifically in the area of transport of electricity.

  4. Influence of Nb Additions on Microstructural Evolution of a V-Microalloyed High-Carbon Wire Steel During Patenting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Stephanie L.; de Moor, Emmanuel

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of microalloying strategies for improving the strength of high-carbon wire products subjected to industrial patenting heat treatments for two eutectoid steels: a 0.8C-0.5Mn-0.2Cr-0.08 V alloy (wt.%) and the same composition with an additional 100 ppm Nb. A Gleeble 3500 thermomechanical simulator (Dynamic Systems Inc., Poestenkill, NY, USA) was used to perform heat treatments consisting of a 30 s austenitization at 1093 °C, 950 °C, or 880 °C followed by a 15 s isothermal transformation step at 650 °C, 625 °C, 600 °C, or 575 °C. Vickers hardness, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and pearlite interlamellar spacing measurements were conducted to assess the effects of the heat treatments. Niobium microalloying additions were found to provide no hardness increase, but they extended the pearlitic regime to lower isothermal transformation temperatures.

  5. CNT-TiO2 coating bonded onto stainless steel wire as a novel solid-phase microextraction fiber.

    PubMed

    Sun, Min; Feng, Juanjuan; Qiu, Huamin; Fan, Lulu; Li, Xiangjun; Luo, Chuannan

    2013-09-30

    A novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber based on carbon nanotubes-titanium oxide (CNT-TiO2) composite coating bonded onto stainless steel wire was prepared via electroless plating and sol-gel techniques. The SPME coating was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Raman microscopy. Coupled to gas chromatography (GC), the fiber was investigated with seven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in direct-immersion mode. The SPME-GC analytical method was evaluated under optimized extraction conditions. Compared with other reports, higher sensitivity (LODs, 0.002-0.004 μg L(-1)) and better linear range (0.01-100 and 0.01-200 μg L(-1)) were obtained by the proposed method. The fiber exhibited high thermal stability to 300 °C and excellent durability in HCl and NaOH solutions. The as-established SPME-GC method was used to analyze the real water samples and satisfactory results were obtained. PMID:23953442

  6. Internal impedance of twisted steel-aluminum wires at an industrial frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkushev, A. G.; Elagin, I. A.

    2015-06-01

    A simplified mathematical model is suggested that describes the harmonic electromagnetic field distribution in high-voltage steel-core twisted cables with a single-layer winding at an industrial frequency. As a physical idealization, the twisted strands are represented in the form of an anisotropically conducting layer. When twisting is taken into consideration, an axial magnetic field arises, which substantially influences losses in the cables. Using the model, the dependences of the internal impedance on the core's magnetic permeability are derived for AS-70 cable at three winding angles of the external strands. These dependences are compared with results obtained in terms of a hollow cylinder model and with calculation data carried out in the complete statement of the problem with the finite element method.

  7. Defect Recovery in Severely Deformed Ferrite Lamellae During Annealing and Its Impact on the Softening of Cold-Drawn Pearlitic Steel Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. Z.; Csiszár, G.; Cizek, J.; Shi, X. H.; Borchers, C.; Li, Y. J.; Liu, F.; Kirchheim, R.

    2016-02-01

    Cold-drawn pearlitic steel wires with a drawing true strain of 3 were annealed at temperatures ( T ann) ranging from 423 K to 723 K (150 °C to 450 °C) with an interval of 50 K. Recovery of the lattice defects in the severely deformed ferrite lamellae were characterized by means of high-energy X-ray diffraction and positron annihilation techniques (including positron annihilation spectroscopy and coincidence Doppler broadening spectroscopy). Accordingly, the impact of defect recovery on the softening of the annealed wires was investigated. It is found that at low temperatures [ T ann ≤ 523 K (250 °C)], the recovery of the lattice defects in ferrite lamellae is dominated by the agglomeration and annihilation of vacancy clusters, while at T ann > 523 K (250 °C), the recovery process is controlled by the annihilation of dislocations. Further analyses on the softening of the annealed wires indicate that the evolutions of dislocation density and concentration of vacancy clusters, and the strain age hardening in ferrite lamellae play important roles in changing the strength of the wires. The strain aging hardening leads to a maximum strength at 473 K (150 °C). Above 523 K (250 °C), the annihilations of vacancy clusters and dislocations in ferrite lamellae cause a continuous softening of the wires, where the decrease in dislocation density plays a major role.

  8. Crossed-Wire Laser Microwelding of Pt-10 Pct Ir to 316 Low-Carbon Vacuum Melted Stainless Steel: Part I. Mechanism of Joint Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, G. S.; Huang, Y. D.; Pequegnat, A.; Li, X. G.; Khan, M. I.; Zhou, Y.

    2012-04-01

    The excellent biocompatibility and corrosion properties of Pt alloys and 316 low-carbon vacuum melted (LVM) stainless steel (SS) make them attractive for biomedical applications. With the increasing complexity of medical devices and in order to lower costs, the challenge of joining dissimilar materials arises. In this study, laser microwelding (LMW) of crossed Pt-10 pct Ir to 316 LVM SS wires was performed and the weldability of these materials was determined. The joint geometry, joining mechanism, joint breaking force (JBF), and fracture modes were investigated using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and microtensile testing. It was shown that the mechanisms of joint formation transitioned from (1) brazing, (2) a combination of brazing and fusion welding, and (3) fusion welding with increasing pulsed laser energy. The joints demonstrated various tensile failure modes including (1) interfacial failure below a peak power of 0.24 kW, (2) partial interfacial failure that propagated into the Pt-Ir wire, (3) failure in the Pt-Ir wire, and (4) failure in the SS wire due to porosity and severe undercutting caused by overwelding. During this study, the optimal laser peak power range was identified to produce joints with good joint geometry and 90 pct of the tensile strength of the Pt-10 pct Ir wire.

  9. Intramedullary fixation of forearm fractures with new locked nail

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Himanshu

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lack of availability of interlocked nails made plate osteosynthesis the first choice of treatment of forearm fractures inspite of more surgical exposure, periosteal stripping and big skin incision subsequent scar along with higher risk of refracture on implant removal. We hereby report the first 12 cases with 19 forearm bone fractures internally fixed by indegenous interlocked nail. Materials and Methods: Existing square nails were modified to have a broad proximal end of 5.5 mm with a hole for locking screw of 2.5 mm. The nail has a distal hole of 1/1.2/1.5 mm in 2.5/3/3.5 mm diameter nail, respectively. A new method of distal locking with a clip made of k wire is designed. The clip after insertion into the bone and hole in nail and opposite cortex snuggly fits the bone providing a secure locking system. Twelve skeletally mature patients, mean age 32 years (range 24-45 years) with 19 diaphyseal fractures of the forearm were treated with this indigenously made new nail. The patient were evaluated for fracture union, functional recovery and complications. The functional outcome was assessed by disabilities of arm, shoulder and hand questionnaire (DASH score). Results: Time to radiographic union ranged between 12 and 28 weeks, with a 100% union rate. Complications were minimal, with mild infection in open fracture (n=1) and delayed union (n=1) in patient with comminuted fracture of the ulna only. The clinical results were excellent. The DASH score ranged between 0 and 36 points. Conclusion: This new interlocking nail may be considered as an alternative to plate osteosynthesis for fractures of the forearm in adults. The advantages are benefit of closed reduction, smaller residual scar, reduced cost and early union with allowance of immediate movements. PMID:21886921

  10. Fatigue resistance, debonding force, and failure type of fiber-reinforced composite, polyethylene ribbon-reinforced, and braided stainless steel wire lingual retainers in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Foek, Dave Lie Sam; Özcan, Mutlu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the fatigue resistance, debonding force, and failure type of fiber-reinforced composite, polyethylene ribbon-reinforced, and braided stainless steel wire lingual retainers in vitro. Methods Roots of human mandibular central incisors were covered with silicone, mimicking the periodontal ligament, and embedded in polymethylmethacrylate. The specimens (N = 50), with two teeth each, were randomly divided into five groups (n = 10/group) according to the retainer materials: (1) Interlig (E-glass), (2) everStick Ortho (E-glass), (3) DentaPreg Splint (S2-glass), (4) Ribbond (polyethylene), and (5) Quad Cat wire (stainless steel). After the recommended adhesive procedures, the retainers were bonded to the teeth by using flowable composite resin (Tetric Flow). The teeth were subjected to 10,00,000 cyclic loads (8 Hz, 3 - 100 N, 45° angle, under 37 ± 3℃ water) at their incisoproximal contact, and debonding forces were measured with a universal testing machine (1 mm/min crosshead speed). Failure sites were examined under a stereomicroscope (×40 magnification). Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance. Results All the specimens survived the cyclic loading. Their mean debonding forces were not significantly different (p > 0.05). The DentaPreg Splint group (80%) showed the highest incidence of complete adhesive debonding, followed by the Interlig group (60%). The everStick Ortho group (80%) presented predominantly partial adhesive debonding. The Quad Cat wire group (50%) presented overlying composite detachment. Conclusions Cyclic loading did not cause debonding. The retainers presented similar debonding forces but different failure types. Braided stainless steel wire retainers presented the most repairable failure type. PMID:24015388

  11. Experimental Evaluation of a New Single Wire Stainless Steel Fishscale Coronary Stent (Freedomª).

    PubMed

    Wang; Verbeken; Mukherjee; Zhou; De Scheerder IK

    1996-10-01

    Recent randomized clinical trials revealed a significant reduction in angiographic restenosis rates when adjunctive stenting was performed after conventional coronary balloon angioplasty. Current approved coronary stents are however hampered by their rigidity, limiting their trackability in tortuous vessels and furthermore, needing high pressure deployment for optimal vessel apposition. New coronary stents are currently under development, using more biocompatible metal alloys and/or designs which better align to the vessel wall at moderate deployment pressures. We evaluated the safety, efficacy, angiographic and histological effect of a new stainless steel fishscale designed stent (Freedomª, Global Therapeutics, Co., USA) in a porcine coronary and peripheral artery model. Implantation in the right coronary artery was successful in all 20 pigs. Control angiograms at 6 weeks follow-up demonstrated patent vessels and morphologic evaluation showed only a mild fibromuscular neointimal response resulting in an area stenosis of 28.7 +/- 0.18% and a mean neointimal hyperplasia of 0.18 +/- 0.25 mm. Comparison with the Palmaz-Schatzª coronary stent in a porcine peripheral artery model demonstrated similar quantitative angiographic and morphologic vessel analysis results. Also the morphometric data were comparable. Area stenosis: Palmaz-Schatz: 37 +/- 0.24%, Freedom: 21 +/- 0.14%, p = 0.07. Mean neointimal hyperplasia: Palmaz-Schatz: 0.33 +/- 0.24 mm, Freedom: 0.18 +/- 0.08 mm, p = 0.08. CONCLUSION: Freedom coronary stent implantation in a porcine model resulted in a high procedural success without subacute thrombotic occlusions, despite no further anticoagulation nor antiplatelet therapy. Six weeks histopathological and morphometric evaluation demonstrated only a mild fibromuscular neointimal hyperplasia. PMID:10785732

  12. Effects of thermal aging and neutron irradiation on the mechanical properties of three-wire stainless steel weld overlay cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Haggag, F.M.; Nanstad, R.K.

    1997-05-01

    Thermal aging of three-wire series-arc stainless steel weld overlay cladding at 288{degrees}C for 1605 h resulted in an appreciable decrease (16%) in the Charpy V-notch (CVN) upper-shelf energy (USE), but the effect on the 41-J transition temperature shift was very small (3{degrees}C). The combined effect of aging and neutron irradiation at 288{degrees}C to a fluence of 5 x 10{sup 19} neutrons/cm{sup 2} (> 1 MeV) was a 22% reduction in the USE and a 29{degrees}C shift in the 41-J transition temperature. The effect of thermal aging on tensile properties was very small. However, the combined effect of irradiation and aging was an increase in the yield strength (6 to 34% at test temperatures from 288 to {minus}125{degrees}C) but no apparent change in ultimate tensile strength or total elongation. Neutron irradiation reduced the initiation fracture toughness (J{sub Ic}) much more than did thermal aging alone. Irradiation slightly decreased the tearing modulus, but no reduction was caused by thermal aging alone. Other results from tensile, CVN, and fracture toughness specimens showed that the effects of thermal aging at 288 or 343{degrees}C for 20,000 h each were very small and similar to those at 288{degrees}C for 1605 h. The effects of long-term thermal exposure time (50,000 h and greater) at 288{degrees}C will be investigated as the specimens become available in 1996 and beyond.

  13. Comparing the Knotless Tension Band and the Traditional Stainless Steel Wire Tension Band Fixation for Medial Malleolus Fractures: A Retrospective Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Downey, Michael W.; Duncan, Kyle; Kosmopoulos, Victor; Motley, Travis A.; Carpenter, Brian B.; Ogunyankin, Fadeke; Garrett, Alan

    2016-01-01

    The traditional stainless steel wire tension band (WTB) has been popularized for small avulsion fractures at the medial malleolus. Despite the tension band principle creating a stable construct, complications continue to arise utilizing the traditional stainless steel WTB with patients experiencing hardware irritation at the tension band site and subsequent hardware removal. Coupled with hardware irritation is fatigue failure with the wire. The goal of this investigation was to retrospectively compare this traditional wire technique to an innovative knotless tension band (KTB) technique in order to decrease costly complications. A total of 107 patients were reviewed with a minimum follow-up of 1 year. Outcome measures include descriptive data, fracture classification, results through economic costs, and fixation results (including hardware status, healing status, pain status, and time to healing). The KTB group had a 13% lower true cost as compared to the WTB group while the fixation results were equivocal for the measured outcomes. Our results demonstrate that the innovative KTB is comparable to the traditional WTB while offering a lower true cost, an irritation free reduction all without the frustration of returning to the operating room for additional hardware removal, which averages approximately to $8,288. PMID:27293969

  14. Intramedullary nailing of the femur with an inflatable self-locking nail: comparison with locked nailing.

    PubMed

    Lepore, Luciano; Lepore, Stefano; Maffulli, Nicola

    2003-01-01

    We report a comparative study between an inflatable expandable nail and a traditional locked intramedullary implant in closed fractures of the femoral shaft. We matched each of 43 patients who had undergone intramedullary fixation with an inflatable expandable nail with a patient of the same sex, age (within 2 years), and fracture who had undergone statically locked intramedullary fixation with traditional nails. The mean duration of surgery was significantly shorter in the patients who were treated with the inflatable expandable nail. There were no differences in average blood loss, transfusion requirements, or hospitalization. Five of the patients who underwent traditional nailing required dynamization to achieve union. The inflatable expandable nail allows effective management of diaphyseal fractures of the femur. Interlocking is not necessary, operative times are reduced, and exposure to ionizing radiation is minimized. At present, however, the inflatable expandable nail used in the this investigation is markedly more expensive than traditional devices. PMID:14648267

  15. What's Wrong with Biting My Nails?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Butterflies? Read This Chloe & Nurb Meet The Brain (Movie) Quiz: Do You Need a Flu Shot? Got ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Movie: Nails Your Nails Activity: The Nails Taking Care ...

  16. The nail in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Baran, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Treating elderly patients has become common in daily clinical practice. Consequently, it is important to focus our interest on a neglected region: the nail area. Anatomy and physiology are indispensable for a good comprehension of some phenomenons. Histopathology of senile changes may explain some pathologic situations and is indispensable for diagnosing uncommon tumors. Chemical composition shows that a normal nail contains 18% water. The rate of linear nail decreases as age advances. Ridging is a normal finding on fingernails, with color varying from shades of yellow to grey. The most common disorders, however, are linked to repeated trauma, with sometimes ingrowing toenails with different appearances. Tumors in the nail area are relatively frequent. Nail fungal infection may be isolated or associated with conditions such as psoriasis and diabetes. The management of the main nail disorders observed in the elderly are presented. PMID:21146733

  17. [Therapy of nail mycoses].

    PubMed

    Büchner, S A

    1998-08-01

    Onchomycosis is the most common nail disease, accounting for approximately 30% of all cutaneous fungal infections. The treatment approach needs to take into account the location and extent of onychomycosis, sensitivity of drug to fungal organism, adverse-effects profile, dosage schedule, duration of therapy, concomitant medical conditions, and concurrent medications. To confirm the diagnosis, it is important to correctly select the appropriate site for specimen collection used for both direct microscopy and fungal culture. Topical antifungal agents may be considered for the treatment of early onychomycosis, in the absence of nail matrix involvement. The newer generation of oral antifungal agents for the treatment of onychomycosis are terbinafine, itraconazole and fluconazole. These drugs used alone, or in combination with topical antifungals, are providing the basis for effective treatment of onychomycosis in a large proportion of patients. PMID:9757817

  18. Burns and beauty nails

    PubMed Central

    Bélanger, Richard E; Marcotte, Marie-Eve; Bégin, François

    2013-01-01

    A case involving a five-month-old girl brought to the emergency department with burns over her abdomen is described. The child was reported to have spilled two small bottles of beauty nail adhesive on her clothes while her mother was preparing dinner. After undressing the infant, the mother discovered several lesions on the child’s abdomen and quickly sought medical attention. Given the unusual circumstances of the presentation, the child was hospitalized for both treatment and supervision. The beauty nail adhesive contained cyanoacrylate. In addition to its well-appreciated adhesive capacity, cyanoacrylate, in the presence of cotton or other tissues, is known to produce an exothermic reaction that may cause burns. Cyanoacrylate-based products, due to their possible adverse effects, should be kept away from children as advised. Odd injuries should always raise concerns about the possibility of inflicted injury. PMID:24421671

  19. Estimation of changes in nickel and chromium content in nickel-titanium and stainless steel orthodontic wires used during orthodontic treatment: An analytical and scanning electron microscopic study

    PubMed Central

    Kararia, Vandana; Jain, Pradeep; Chaudhary, Seema; Kararia, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The biocompatibility of orthodontic dental alloys has been investigated over the past 20 years, but the results have been inconclusive. The study compares standard 3 M Unitek nickel-titanium (NiTi) and stainless steel archwires with locally available JJ orthodontics wires. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) study of surface changes and complexometric titration to study compositional change was performed. Materials and Methods: Ten archwires each of group 1–3 M 0.016” NiTi, group 2-JJ 0.016” NiTi, group 3–3 M 0.019” *0.025” SS and group 4-JJ SS contributed a 10 mm piece of wire for analysis prior to insertion in the patient and 6 weeks post insertion. SEM images were recorded at ×2000, ×4000 and ×6000 magnification. The same samples were subjected to complexiometric titration using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid to gauge the actual change in the composition. Observations and Results: The SEM images of all the archwires showed marked changes with deep scratches and grooves and dark pitting corrosion areas post intraoral use. 3M wires showed an uniform criss-cross pattern in as received wires indicating a coating which was absent after intraoral use. There was a significant release of Nickel and Chromium from both group 3 and 4. Group 2 wires released ions significantly more than group 1 (P = 0.0). Conclusion: Extensive and stringent trials are required before certifying any product to be used in Orthodontics. PMID:25684911

  20. Nail-like targets for laser plasma interaction experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Pasley, J; Wei, M; Shipton, E; Chen, S; Ma, T; Beg, F N; Alexander, N; Stephens, R B; MacPhee, A G; Hey, D; Pape, S L; Patel, P; Mackinnon, A J; Key, M H; Offermann, D; Link, A; Chowdhury, E; Van-Woerkom, L D; Freeman, R R

    2007-12-18

    The interaction of ultra-high power picosecond laser pulses with solid targets is of interest both for benchmarking the results of hybrid particle in cell (PIC) codes and also for applications to re-entrant cone guided fast ignition. We describe the construction of novel targets in which copper/titanium wires are formed into 'nail-like' objects by a process of melting and micromachining, so that energy can be reliably coupled to a 24 {micro}m diameter wire. An extreme-ultraviolet image of the interaction of the Titan laser with such a target is shown.

  1. Analysis of Radiation from Implosions of Stainless Steel Wire Arrays on Zebra and Comparison with Laser Plasma Experiments on Leopard at UNR*.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safronova, A. S.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Shrestha, I.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Weller, M. E.; Osborne, G. C.; Williamson, K. M.; Stafford, A.; Keim, S. F.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Esaulov, A. A.; Wiewior, P.; Legalloudec, N.; Paudel, Y.; Coverdale, C. A.; Chuvatin, A. S.

    2011-10-01

    The implosions of Stainless Steel (SS) Wire Arrays are extensively studied at SNL and also have applications in astrophysics. The analysis of radiation from low-number-wire SS Single and Nested Cylindrical, and Planar Wire Array experiments on the 1 MA Zebra is presented. The major focus is on x-ray imaging and spectra, total radiation yields, and fast, filtered x-ray detector data. The results of Leopard laser experiments with a flat 25 μm Fe target in the nanosecond (ns) and 350 femtosecond (fs) pulse regimes are discussed and compared with Z-pinch data. This comparison focuses mainly on L-shell Fe radiation and provides an excellent benchmark to the Z-pinch results. Good agreement with laser data is demonstrated in the ns regime, but a substantial difference is observed for the fs pulse. This work was supported by NNSA under DOE Coop. Agreements DE-FC52-06NA27588, 27586, and 27616. SNL is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corp., a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Co., for the U.S. DOE under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  2. Scabies of the nail unit.

    PubMed

    Oh, Susan; Vandergriff, Travis

    2014-01-01

    Scabies limited to the nail unit is quite unusual, but may persist after treatment of crusted scabies. We present a man with a history of crusted scabies that resolved with treatment, but later the patient reported a chronic problem with crumbly, thickened nails, which were found to be harboring scabies mites. PMID:25526011

  3. Comparative Evaluation of Microleakage of Lingual Retainer Wires Bonded with Three Different Lingual Retainer Composites: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Anna; Patil, Pravinkumar G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate microleakage when two types of retainer wires were bonded with two light cured and a self cured lingual retainer composites. Materials and Methods: Total 120 freshly extracted human mandibular incisor teeth were collected and separated into six subgroups of 20 teeth each. Two different wires, a 0.036 inch hard round stainless steel (HRSS) wire sandblasted at the ends and 0.0175 inch multistranded wire bonded onto the lingual surfaces of the incisors with three different types of composite resins of 3M company; Concise Orthodontic (self-cure), Transbond XT (light-cure) and Transbond LR (light-cure). Specimens were further sealed with a nail varnish, stained with 0.5% basic fuchsine for 24 hours, sectioned and examined under a stereomicroscope, and scored for microleakage for the enamel-composite and wire-composite interfaces. Statistical analysis was performed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests. Results: For HRSS wire, at the enamel-composite interface, the microleakage was least with Transbond LR followed by Concise Orthodontic and greatest for Transbond XT (p<0.05). At the wire composite interface too, the microleakage was in order of Transbond LRwire, at the enamel-composite interface, the microleakage was least with Transbond LR followed by Concise Orthodontic and Transbond XT (p<0.05). At the wire composite interface too, it was seen that microleakage was the least with Transbond LR followed by Concise Orthodontic and Transbond XT. Conclusion: Transbond LR in combination with 0.0175 inch multistranded wire showed least microleakage amongst the groups studied. PMID:25584325

  4. Nail as a window of systemic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Singal, Archana; Arora, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Certain nail changes are specific for various dermatological disorders. In addition, examination of nails may also provide an insight into more sinister systemic manifestations in the form of both subtle as well as specific changes. These findings may present as a defect of various anatomical components of the nail unit; nail matrix, nail plate and/or nail bed or vasculature. This article is an attempt to equip the dermatologists with a foresight to suspect and diagnose the unapparent systemic connotations that may be possible by a simple but detailed nail examination. PMID:25821724

  5. VIEW NORTHEASTLEFTBUILDING 9 NO 3 WIRE MILL (1876) RIGHTBUILDING 4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTHEAST-LEFT-BUILDING 9 NO 3 WIRE MILL (1876) RIGHT-BUILDING 4 NO 1 WIRE MILL (1871) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  6. VIEW WESTLEFTNO 1 WIRE MILL BUILDING 4 (1871) RIGHTNO 3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW WEST-LEFT-NO 1 WIRE MILL BUILDING 4 (1871) RIGHT-NO 3 WIRE MILL BUILDING 9 (1876) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  7. 76 FR 33218 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Initiation of Anti-Circumvention Inquiry of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... and Tobago, and Ukraine, 67 FR 65945 (October 29, 2002) (Wire Rod Order). Alternatively, petitioners... Determination of Circumvention of the Antidumping Duty Order, 71 FR 32033, 32037 (June 2, 2006) (Wax Candles... Determination of Circumvention of the Anti- Dumping Duty Order, 71 FR 59076-59076 (October 6, 2006) (Wax...

  8. 78 FR 28803 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... Review, 2010-2011, 77 FR 66952 (November 8, 2012) (``Preliminary Results''), and accompanying Decision... Wire Garment Hangers from the People's Republic of China, 73 FR 58111 (October 6, 2008). Analysis of... Rescission, in Part, of the First Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 68758, 68761 (November...

  9. 78 FR 33103 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... (``Commerce'') issued a countervailing duty order on imports of wire rod from Brazil (67 FR 64871). On October..., Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and Tobago, and Ukraine (67 FR 65944-65947). Following the five-year reviews by..., Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and Tobago, and Ukraine (73 FR 44218). The Commission is now conducting...

  10. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Fe-Ni-Cr-Al steel wires produced by in-rotating-water spinning method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, A.; Tomioka, H.; Masumoto, T.

    1985-02-01

    Nonequilibrium austenite, γ, or duplex austenite + lath martensite,γ + α' L, phase wires with high strengths and large elongation have been produced in Fe-Ni-Cr-Al-C alloy system by the in-rotating-water spinning method in which a melt stream is ejected into a rotating water layer. These wires have a circular cross section and a white luster, and the wire diameter is in the range of 80 to 180 µm. The γ phase has a grain size as small as about 1 to 4 µm. The yield strength, Σy, tensile fracture strength, ay, and elongation, ɛp, are about 340 to 655 MPa, 440 to 975 MPa, and 12 to 22 pct for the γ single phase wires and about 465 to 865 MPa, 640 to 1350 MPa, and 2 to 18 pct for the α'L+ γ duplex phase wires. A cold drawing causes significant increases in Σy and Σf, and the attained values are about 3200 MPa and 4030 MPa for Fe-8Ni-12.5Cr-2.5Al-3C wire drawn to about 95 pct reduction in area owing to the formation of a strain-induced α'L phase and a remarkable work-hardening ability of γ and α'L phases. On the subsequent low-temperature annealing around 673 K, the Σy and Σf increase further to 4000 MPa and 4240 MPa, respectively, probably because of the enhancement of the interaction between dislocations and interstitial carbon atoms. Around the temperature (≃800 K) where the γ phase decomposes into a stable mixed structure of α + ordered bec compound + M7C3 on annealing, the ɛp decreases drastically and the fracture surface morphology changes from a dimple pattern to a cleavage pattern. It has been therefore inferred that the high strengths and good ductility of the melt-quenched y and γ + α'L wires are due to the suppression of the phase transformation of y to a mixed structure of γ + ordered bec compound + M7C3 carbide by the melt-quenching technique.

  11. In situ hydrothermal growth of ytterbium-based metal-organic framework on stainless steel wire for solid-phase microextraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiu-Lin; Wang, Xia; Chen, Xiang-Feng; Wang, Ming-Lin; Zhao, Ru-Song

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we report the use of a porous ytterbium-based metal-organic framework (Yb-MOF) coating material with good thermal stability for the headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from environmental samples. The Yb-MOF thin films, grown in situ on stainless steel wire in solution, exhibited high selectivity and sensitivity toward PAHs. Under the optimal conditions, the novel fibers achieved large enrichment factors (130-2288), low limits of detection (0.07-1.67ngL(-1)), and wide range of linearity (10-1000ngL(-1)) for 16 PAHs in the tested samples. The novel fiber was successfully used in the analysis of PAHs in real environmental samples. These results demonstrated that Yb-MOF is a promising coating material for the SPME of PAHs at trace levels from environmental samples. PMID:26346186

  12. Crossed-Wire Laser Microwelding of Pt-10 Pct Ir to 316 LVM Stainless Steel: Part II. Effect of Orientation on Joining Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. D.; Pequegnat, A.; Zou, G. S.; Feng, J. C.; Khan, M. I.; Zhou, Y.

    2012-04-01

    With the increasing complexity of medical devices and with efforts to reduce manufacturing costs, challenges arise in joining dissimilar materials. In this study, the laser weldability of dissimilar joints between Pt-10 pct Ir and 316 low-carbon vacuum melted (LVM) stainless steel (SS) crossed wires was investigated by characterizing the weld geometry, joint strength, morphology of weld cross sections, and differences in joining behavior, depending on which material is subject to the incident laser beam. With the Pt-Ir alloy on top, a significant amount of porosity was observed on the surface of the welds as well as throughout the weld cross sections. This unique form of porosity is believed to be a result of preferential vaporization of 316 LVM SS alloying elements that become mixed with the molten Pt-10 pct Ir during welding. The joining mechanism documented in micrographs of cross-sectioned welds was found to transition from laser brazing to fusion welding. It is inferred that the orientation of the two dissimilar metals ( i.e., which material is subject to the incident laser beam) plays an important role in weld quality of crossed-wire laser welds.

  13. Electrodeposition of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) on a stainless steel wire for solid phase microextraction and GC determination of some esters with high boiling points.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuyu; Zhao, Faqiong; Zeng, Baizhao

    2013-01-30

    In this work, 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) emulsion is prepared by ultrasonication agitation and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) coating is fabricated on a stainless steel wire by electrochemical method from a 0.10M sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate aqueous solution containing EDOT. The coating is characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry, and it presents cauliflower-like structure. When the resulted PEDOT/steel fiber is used for the headspace solid phase-microextraction of some esters (i.e. methyl anthranilate, dimethyl phthalate, ethyl-o-aminobenzoate, methyl laurate and diethyl phthalate) and their GC detection, the limits of detection (LOD) are ca. 7.8-31 ng L(-1) (S/N=3) and the linear ranges are 0.25-800 μg L(-1). The fiber shows high thermal stability (up to 320 °C), good reproducibility and long lifetime (more than 183 times). It also has good chemical stability. After it is immersed in acid, alkali and dichloromethane for 4h its extraction efficiency remains almost unchanged. Besides esters the fiber also exhibits high extraction efficiency for alcohols and aromatic compounds. PMID:23597884

  14. Physics of nail conditions: why do ingrown nails always happen in the big toes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauch, Cyril; Cherkaoui-Rbati, Mohammed

    2014-12-01

    Although surgical treatment of nail conditions can be traced back centuries to the writings of Paul Aegineta (625-690 AC), little is known about the physical laws governing nail growth. Such a poor understanding together with the increasing number of nail salons in the high street should raise legitimate concerns regarding the different procedures applied to nails. An understanding of the physics of nail growth is therefore essential to engage with human medicine and to understand the aetiology of nail conditions. In this context, a theory of nail plate adhesion, including a physical description of nail growth can be used to determine the transverse and longitudinal curvatures of the nail plate that are so important in the physical diagnosis of some nail conditions. As a result physics sheds light on: (a) why/how nails/hooves adhere strongly, yet grow smoothly; (b) why hoof/claw/nail growth rates are similar across species; (c) potential nail damage incurred by poor trimming; (d) the connection between three previously unrelated nail conditions, i.e. spoon-shaped, pincer and ingrown nails and; last but not least, (e) why ingrown nails occur preferentially in the big toes.

  15. Nail psoriasis: a review of the literature*

    PubMed Central

    Schons, Karen Regina Rosso; Knob, Cristiane Faccin; Murussi, Nádia; Beber, André Avelino Costa; Neumaier, Walter; Monticielo, Odirlei André

    2014-01-01

    Nails are considered epidermal appendages, and as such, are commonly affected in patients with psoriasis, 80% of whom are likely to develop nail psoriasis as a result of their condition. Two patterns of nail disorders have been shown to be caused by psoriasis. Nail matrix involvement can result in features such as leukonychia, pitting (punctures or cupuliform depressions), red spots in the lunula and crumbling. Nail bed involvement, on the other hand, can cause onycholysis, salmon or oil-drop patches, subungual hyperkeratosis and splinter hemorrhages. Nail disease causes aesthetic and functional impairment, and is indicative of more severe forms of psoriasis as well as of joint involvement. The treatment for nail psoriasis involves behavioral interventions, topical medications, or systemic therapy in case of extensive skin or joint involvement. This article presents a review of the main features of nail psoriasis, its clinical presentation, diagnostic and assessment methods, clinical repercussions, and of its available treatment options. PMID:24770509

  16. Defining the role of intramedullary nailing for fractures of the distal radius: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jordan, R W; Saithna, A

    2015-10-01

    This article is a systematic review of the published literature about the biomechanics, functional outcome and complications of intramedullary nailing of fractures of the distal radius. We searched the Medline and EMBASE databases and included all studies which reported the outcome of intramedullary (IM) nailing of fractures of the distal radius. Data about functional outcome, range of movement (ROM), strength and complications, were extracted. The studies included were appraised independently by both authors using a validated quality assessment scale for non-controlled studies and the CONSORT statement for randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The search strategy revealed 785 studies, of which 16 were included for full paper review. These included three biomechanical studies, eight case series and five randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The biomechanical studies concluded that IM nails were at least as strong as locking plates. The clinical studies reported that IM nailing gave a comparable ROM, functional outcome and grip strength to other fixation techniques. However, the mean complication rate of intramedullary nailing was 17.6% (0% to 50%). This is higher than the rates reported in contemporary studies for volar plating. It raises concerns about the role of intramedullary nailing, particularly when comparative studies have failed to show that it has any major advantage over other techniques. Further adequately powered RCTs comparing the technique to both volar plating and percutaneous wire fixation are needed. PMID:26430012

  17. Tips to diagnose uncommon nail disorders.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Samantha L; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-04-01

    This article reviews 6 nail disorders that, although easy to diagnose, are misdiagnosed frequently by dermatologists and general practitioners. Diagnostic clues are emphasized to familiarize readers with features that indicate the correct diagnosis. We focus on two common tumors (onychomatricoma and onychopapilloma), two rare genetic conditions that can be diagnosed owing to nail changes (Darier disease and nail patella syndrome), and two uncommon acquired disorders (the yellow nail syndrome and lichen striatus). PMID:25828712

  18. Yellow nails following hemodialysis in chronic renal failure: is it yellow nail syndrome or a variant?

    PubMed

    Mehta, Vandana; Vasanth, Vani; Balachandran, C

    2008-01-01

    Yellow nail syndrome (YNS) is triad of yellow nails, lymphedema, and respiratory tract involvement. The exact pathogenesis of nail changes in YNS is unknown. We present a case of yellow nails and localized lymphedema secondary to artificial AV fistula in a 55-year-old chronic renal failure patient on hemodialysis for 5 years. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of yellow nail syndrome reported in association with artificial AV fistula. PMID:19094857

  19. Nail abnormalities in patients with vitiligo*

    PubMed Central

    Topal, Ilteris Oguz; Gungor, Sule; Kocaturk, Ozgur Emek; Duman, Hatice; Durmuscan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary skin disorder affecting 0.1-4% of the general population. The nails may be affected in patients with an autoimmune disease such as psoriasis, and in those with alopecia areata. It has been suggested that nail abnormalities should be apparent in vitiligo patients. Objective We sought to document the frequency and clinical presentation of nail abnormalities in vitiligo patients compared to healthy volunteers. We also examined the correlations between nail abnormalities and various clinical parameters. Methods This study included 100 vitiligo patients and 100 healthy subjects. Full medical histories were collected from the subjects, who underwent thorough general and nail examinations. All nail changes were noted. In the event of clinical suspicion of a fungal infection, additional mycological investigations were performed. Results Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in the patients (78%) than in the controls (55%) (p=0.001). Longitudinal ridging was the most common finding (42%), followed by (in descending order): leukonychia, an absent lunula, onycholysis, nail bed pallor, onychomycosis, splinter hemorrhage and nail plate thinning. The frequency of longitudinal ridging was significantly higher in patients than in controls (p<0.001). Conclusions Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in vitiligo patients than in controls. Systematic examination of the nails in such patients is useful because nail abnormalities are frequent. However, the causes of such abnormalities require further study. Longitudinal ridging and leukonychia were the most common abnormalities observed in this study. PMID:27579738

  20. Influence of different brazing and welding methods on tensile strength and microhardness of orthodontic stainless steel wire.

    PubMed

    Bock, Jens Johannes; Fraenzel, Wolfgang; Bailly, Jacqueline; Gernhardt, Christian Ralf; Fuhrmann, Robert Andreas Werner

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the mechanical strength and microhardness of joints made by conventional brazing and tungsten inert gas (TIG) and laser welding. A standardized end-to-end joint configuration of the orthodontic wire material in spring hard quality was used. The joints were made using five different methods: brazing (soldering > 450 degrees C) with universal silver solder, two TIG, and two laser welders. Laser parameters and welding conditions were used according to the manufacturers' guidance. The tensile strengths were measured with a universal testing machine (Zwick 005). The microhardness measurements were carried out with a hardness tester (Zwick 3202). Data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni's post hoc correction (P < 0.05). In all cases, brazing joints ruptured at low levels of tensile strength (198 +/- 146 MPa). Significant differences (P < 0.001) between brazing and TIG or laser welding were found. The highest means were observed for TIG welding (699-754 MPa). Laser welding showed a significantly lower mean tensile strength (369-520 MPa) compared with TIG welding. Significant differences (P < 0.001) were found between the original orthodontic wire and the mean microhardness at the centre of the welded area. The mean microhardness differed significantly between brazing (1.99 GPa), TIG (2.22-2.39 GPa) and laser welding (2.21-2.68 GPa). For orthodontic purposes, laser and TIG welding are solder-free alternatives to joining metal. TIG welding with a lower investment cost is comparable with laser welding. However, while expensive, the laser technique is a sophisticated and simple method. PMID:18617503

  1. In Vivo Evaluation of the Effects of Gravitational Force (+Gz) on Over-the-Wire Stainless Steel Greenfield Inferior VenaCava Filter in Swine

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, P.M. Soares, G.M.; Dick, E.J.; Harroff, H.H.

    2003-08-15

    This study was done to determine the effect of exposure to gravitational force (acceleration stress) on invivo over-the-wire stainless steel Greenfield inferior vena cavafilters. Fifteen pigs underwent venous cut down and placement of a stainless steel Greenfield filter. A 4-week observation period simulated realistic convalescence and allowed sufficient time for epithelialization. Ten pigs were exposed to acceleration stress in a centrifuge (3G run for 15 sec followed by rest until return to baseline heart rate, then a 9G run for 15 sec), with inertial loading in ahead-to-tail direction (+Gz). Fluoroscopy during acceleration stress allowed assessment for filter migration. Five pigs were not exposed to acceleration stress. AP and lateral abdominal radiographs were obtained at post-filter placement, convalescence, and centrifuge exposure to determine the position and integrity of the filter. All 15 IVCs were resected and evaluated for gross or histological injury to the vessel wall. IVC filter placement was technically successful in all 15 pigs.Radiographic measurements were limited secondary to differences in pig positioning. Fluoroscopy showed no filter migration. All filters were securely attached to the vena cava by the hooks without gross evidence of perforation or hemorrhage. There were varying degrees of fibroplasia involving the hooks and tip of the filters in both the control and experimental groups. Histologically, there was evidence of prior hemorrhage at the level of the hooks, which was similar between the control and experimental groups. It is concluded that Greenfield filter position and vena caval integrity at the implantation site is unaffected by high acceleration stress.

  2. Nail Disease for the Primary Care Provider.

    PubMed

    Biesbroeck, Lauren K; Fleckman, Philip

    2015-11-01

    Nail disorders are a common presenting complaint for both the primary care physician and the dermatologist. Nail diagnoses are broad in scope and include infectious, inflammatory, and neoplastic conditions. Onychomycosis is an especially common nail condition, and treatment should always be preceded by appropriate fungal studies for confirmation of diagnosis. Inflammatory conditions of the nail unit can mimic onychomycosis, and a dermatologist can assist with diagnosis and treatment recommendations. Likewise, subungual tumors often require biopsy, and should be evaluated by a dermatologist who is experienced in nail evaluation and treatment. PMID:26476249

  3. Basic Wiring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltwasser, Stan; And Others

    This module is the first in a series of three wiring publications; it serves as the foundation for students enrolled in a wiring program. It is a prerequisite to either "Residential Wiring" or "Commercial and Industrial Wiring." The module contains 16 instructional units that cover the following topics: occupational introduction; general safety;…

  4. Nail Psoriasis: The Journey So Far

    PubMed Central

    Dogra, Alka; Arora, Amanjot Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Nail involvement is an extremely common feature of psoriasis and affects approximately 10-78% of psoriasis patients with 5-10% of patients having isolated nail psoriasis. However, it is often an overlooked feature in the management of nail psoriasis, despite the significant burden it places on the patients as a result of functional impairment of manual dexterity, pain, and psychological stress. Affected nail plates often thicken and crumble, and because they are very visible, patients tend to avoid normal day-to-day activities and social interactions. Importantly, 70-80% of patients with psoriatic arthritis have nail psoriasis. In this overview, we review the clinical manifestations of psoriasis affecting the nails, the common differential diagnosis of nail psoriasis, Nail Psoriasis Severity Index and the various diagnostic aids for diagnosing nail psoriasis especially, the cases with isolated nail involvement. We have also discussed the available treatment options, including the topical, physical, systemic, and biological modalities, in great detail in order to equip the present day dermatologist in dealing with a big clinical challenge, that is, management of nail psoriasis. PMID:25071247

  5. Life-threatening nail gun injuries.

    PubMed

    Beaver, A C; Cheatham, M L

    1999-12-01

    The use of pneumatic and explosive cartridge-activated nail guns is common in the construction industry. The ease and speed of nailing these tools afford enhance productivity at the cost of increased potential for traumatic injury. Although extremity injuries are most common, life-threatening injuries to the head, neck, chest, or abdomen and pelvis may occur. During a 20-month period, eight potentially life-threatening nail gun injuries were admitted to a Level I trauma center, including injuries to the brain, eye, neck, heart, lung, and femoral artery. Mechanism of injury included nail ricochet, nail gun misuse due to inadequate training, and successful suicide. Nail guns have significant potential for causing severe debilitating injury and death. These findings indicate a need for improved safety features and user education. The various types of nail guns, their ballistic potential, and techniques for operative management are discussed. PMID:10597056

  6. Lengthening Over an Existing Intramedullary Nail In Cases of Post-traumatic Femoral Shortening. Technical Note. Case Series Study

    PubMed Central

    Boutsiadis, Achilleas; Iosifidou, Eirini; Nikolaos, Xilouris; Hatzokos, Ippokratis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intramedullary (IM) nailing is the method of choice for the treatment of most femoral shaft fractures. However, despite successful solid union, great initial fracture comminution can lead to significant leg length discrepancy affecting normal gait mechanics. Femoral osteotomy and distraction osteogenesis over the pre-existing IM nail could restore this limb inequality. Methods: Five patients with an average post-traumatic femoral shortening of 3.83 cm were presented in our department with the nail in situ. Limb lengthening was achieved with the application of a distal hybrid external rail frame over the pre-existing nail. We assumed that the choice of a distal external fixator ring with wires could facilitate the procedure and minimize the possibility of friction–contact problems with the large diameter nail. Results: The amount of length discrepancy, calculated preoperatively, was restored in all patients. The mean time in frame was 57.6 days and the external fixator index 16.978 d/cm. The mean time of total healing was 152.6 days and the average bone-healing index 44.9d/cm. No deep infection or hardware loosening was observed. One superficial pin track infection was treated successfully with oral antibiotics. Conclusion: This technique utilizes the principles and advantages of lengthening over an IM nail, avoids the necessity of nail removal and minimizes the complication rates and the overall time for complete recovery. PMID:27053972

  7. [Key messages in nail disease].

    PubMed

    Goettmann, Sophie

    2014-11-01

    Nail diseases are varied, and their diagnosis is often difficult. Misdiagnosis can result in failure to recognize a severe disease in urgent need of treatment and in the prescription of treatments that are inappropriate, long, ineffective, and expensive. Acute paronychia must be managed rapidly, treated with antiseptics several times a day, and closely monitored. Nail lichen must be recognized early and treated rapidly and appropriately to prevent permanent scarring. All chronic pain (to shocks or cold) of the tip of a finger or toe should suggest a glomus tumor. Any unexplained persistent single-finger onychopathy should in principle cause the physician to suspect a tumor, carcinoma, or melanoma and to order a histologic examination. An onychopathy must not be treated as an onychomycosis without diagnostic certainty. Repeated microtraumas of the toenails cause injuries that absolutely must be differentiated from onychomycosis. In growth of the big toenail can often be avoided by appropriate cutting of the nails, leaving in place the lateral parts of the nail plate. PMID:25451634

  8. Onycholysis induced by nail hardener.

    PubMed

    Helsing, Per; Austad, Joar; Talberg, Hans Jørgen

    2007-10-01

    Nail hardeners appeared in the market during the 1960s. They were basically solutions of formaldehyde. The first adverse effects were published in 1966 (1). Reactions were onycholysis, chromonychia, subungual haemorrhage, and hyperkeratosis. Onycholysis may be non-inflammatory or inflammatory, and is accompanied by throbbing pain. Inflammatory reactions are followed by paronychia and occasional dermatitis on the digital pulpa. PMID:17868227

  9. Comparative anatomy of mouse and human nail units.

    PubMed

    Fleckman, Philip; Jaeger, Karin; Silva, Kathleen A; Sundberg, John P

    2013-03-01

    Recent studies of mice with hair defects have resulted in major contributions to the understanding of hair disorders. To use mouse models as a tool to study nail diseases, a basic understanding of the similarities and differences between the human and mouse nail unit is required. In this study we compare the human and mouse nail unit at the macroscopic and microscopic level and use immunohistochemistry to determine the keratin expression patterns in the mouse nail unit. Both species have a proximal nail fold, cuticle, nail matrix, nail bed, nail plate, and hyponychium. Distinguishing features are the shape of the nail and the presence of an extended hyponychium in the mouse. Expression patterns of most keratins are similar. These findings indicate that the mouse nail unit shares major characteristics with the human nail unit and overall represents a very similar structure, useful for the investigation of nail diseases and nail biology. PMID:23408541

  10. Stress relaxation of grouted entirely large diameter B-GFRP soil nail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guo-wei; Ni, Chun; Pei, Hua-fu; Ge, Wan-ming; Ng, Charles Wang Wai

    2013-08-01

    One of the potential solutions to steel-corrosion-related problems is the usage of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) as a replacement of steel bars. In the past few decades, researchers have conducted a large number of experimental and theoretical studies on the behavior of small size glass fiber reinforce polymer (GFRP) bars (diameter smaller than 20 mm). However, the behavior of large size GFRP bar is still not well understood. Particularly, few studies were conducted on the stress relaxation of grouted entirely large diameter GFRP soil nail. This paper investigates the effect of stress levels on the relaxation behavior of GFRP soil nail under sustained deformation ranging from 30% to 60% of its ultimate strain. In order to study the behavior of stress relaxation, two B-GFRP soil nail element specimens were developed and instrumented with fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensors which were used to measure strains along the B-GFRP bars. The test results reveal that the behavior of stress relaxation of B-GFRP soil nail element subjected to pre-stress is significantly related to the elapsed time and the initial stress of relaxation procedure. The newly proposed model for evaluating stress relaxation ratio can substantially reflect the influences of the nature of B-GFRP bar and the property of grip body. The strain on the nail body can be redistributed automatically. Modulus reduction is not the single reason for the stress degradation.

  11. Nail-Gun Injuries to the Hand

    PubMed Central

    Pierpont, Yvonne N.; Pappas-Politis, Effie; Naidu, Deepak K.; Salas, R. Emerick; Johnson, Erika L.; Payne, Wyatt G.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The nail gun is a commonly utilized tool in carpentry and construction. When used properly with appropriate safety precautions, it can facilitate production and boost efficiency; however, this powerful tool also has the potential to cause serious injury. The most common site of nail-gun injuries in both industrial and nonoccupational settings is the hand. Materials and Methods: We report on two patients with nail-gun injuries to the hand. A review of the literature and discussion of clinical evaluation and treatment of nail-gun injuries to the hand are presented. Results: Two patients present with soft tissue injuries to the hand with the nail embedded and intact at the injury site. Operative removal of the nail and wound care resulted in successful treatment in both cases. Nail-gun injuries to the hand vary in severity on the basis of the extent of structural damage. Treatment is based on the severity of injury and the presence and location of barbs on the penetrating nail. Conclusion: Healthcare providers must understand and educate patients on the prevention mechanics of nail-gun injuries. Nail-gun injuries to the hand necessitate appropriate evaluation techniques, understanding of surgical management versus nonsurgical management, and awareness of potential pitfalls in treatment. PMID:19079574

  12. Fatigue strength of common tibial intramedullary nail distal locking screws

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Lanny V; Harris, Robert M; Zubak, Joseph J

    2009-01-01

    Background Premature failure of either the nail and/or locking screws with unstable fracture patterns may lead to angulation, shortening, malunion, and IM nail migration. Up to thirty percent of all unreamed nail locking screws can break after initial weight bearing is allowed at 8–10 weeks if union has not occurred. The primary problem this presents is hardware removal during revision surgery. The purposes of our study was to evaluate the relative fatigue resistance of distal locking screws and bolts from representative manufacturers of tibial IM nail systems, and develop a relative risk assessment of screws and materials used. Evaluations included quantitative and qualitative measures of the relative performance of these screws. Methods Fatigue tests were conducted to simulate a comminuted fracture that was treated by IM nailing assuming that all load was carried by the screws. Each screw type was tested ten times in a single screw configuration. One screw type was tested an additional ten times in a two-screw parallel configuration. Fatigue tests were performed using a servohydraulic materials testing system and custom fixturing that simulated screws placed in the distal region of an appropriately sized tibial IM nail. Fatigue loads were estimated based on a seventy-five kilogram individual at full weight bearing. The test duration was one million cycles (roughly one year), or screw fracture, whichever occurred first. Failure analysis of a representative sample of titanium alloy and stainless steel screws included scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and quantitative metallography. Results The average fatigue life of a single screw with a diameter of 4.0 mm was 1200 cycles, which would correspond roughly to half a day of full weight bearing. Single screws with a diameter of 4.5 mm or larger have approximately a 50 percent probability of withstanding a week of weight bearing, whereas a single 5.0 mm diameter screw has greater than 90 percent probability of

  13. Intramedullary nailing of tibial shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Kyrö, A; Lamppu, M; Böstman, O

    1995-01-01

    Sixty-four displaced tibial shaft fractures were treated using intramedullary nailing, either primarily or after an attempt at conservative treatment, which consisted of closed reduction under anaesthesia and immobilisation in a long-leg plaster cast. There were 37 closed and 27 open fractures. Three patients had a fracture of both tibiae. The median time period from the intramedullary nailing of the closed solitary fractures to union was about the same after primary nailing as after delayed nailing. Although the fractures were different in these groups, it is possible that the time spent in conservative treatment before intramedullary nailing brings no additional benefits. The incidence of deep infection in open fractures after primary nailing was 1/16. The fractures, in which an acceptable position could not be maintained using conservative methods, were mainly spiral in configuration and located in the distal third or at the junction of the middle and distal thirds of the tibia. PMID:7645911

  14. Nail toxicities induced by systemic anticancer treatments.

    PubMed

    Robert, Caroline; Sibaud, Vincent; Mateus, Christina; Verschoore, Michèle; Charles, Cécile; Lanoy, Emilie; Baran, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Patients treated with systemic anticancer drugs often show changes to their nails, which are usually well tolerated and disappear on cessation of treatment. However, some nail toxicities can cause pain and functional impairment and thus substantially affect a patient's quality of life, especially if they are given taxanes or EGFR inhibitors. These nail toxicities can affect both the nail plate and bed, and might present as melanonychia, leukonychia, onycholysis, onychomadesis, Beau's lines, or onychorrhexis, as frequently noted with conventional chemotherapies. Additionally, the periungual area (perionychium) of the nail might be affected by paronychia or pyogenic granuloma, especially in patients treated with drugs targeting EGFR or MEK. We review the nail changes induced by conventional chemotherapies and those associated with the use of targeted anticancer drugs and discuss preventive or curative options. PMID:25846098

  15. VIEW SOUTHSOUTH CLINTON AVENUE BUILDING 35 CLINTON ST. WIRE MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTH-SOUTH CLINTON AVENUE BUILDING 35 CLINTON ST. WIRE MILL (1899) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  16. VIEW NORTHEAST, LEFT BUILDING 40 WIRE WAREHOUSE (1915) RIGHT BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTHEAST, LEFT BUILDING 40 WIRE WAREHOUSE (1915) RIGHT BUILDING 42 ROPE SHOP (1910) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  17. BUILDING 25NOW 2 WIRE MILLPATTERNS STORED ON THIRD FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BUILDING 25-NOW 2 WIRE MILL-PATTERNS STORED ON THIRD FLOOR - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  18. VIEW NORTHWESTBUILDING 35 CLINTON STREET WIRE MILL (1899) John ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTHWEST-BUILDING 35 CLINTON STREET WIRE MILL (1899) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  19. VIEW NORTHWEST ACROSS HUDSON STREET BUILDING 67 INSULATED WIRE DIVISION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTHWEST ACROSS HUDSON STREET BUILDING 67 INSULATED WIRE DIVISION STORE HOUSE (1897) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  20. VIEW NORTHBUILDING 67 INSULATED WIRE DIVISION STORE HOUSE (1897) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTH-BUILDING 67 INSULATED WIRE DIVISION STORE HOUSE (1897) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  1. VIEW NORTHHUDSON STREET BUILDING 67INSULATED WIRE DEPT. STORAGE (1897) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTH-HUDSON STREET BUILDING 67-INSULATED WIRE DEPT. STORAGE (1897) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  2. Fabrication and application of zinc-zinc oxide nanosheets coating on an etched stainless steel wire as a selective solid-phase microextraction fiber.

    PubMed

    Song, Wenlan; Guo, Mei; Zhang, Yida; Zhang, Min; Wang, Xuemei; Du, Xinzhen

    2015-03-01

    A novel zinc-zinc oxide (Zn-ZnO) nanosheets coating was directly fabricated on an etched stainless steel wire substrate as solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber via previous electrodeposition of robust Zn coating. The scanning electron micrograph of the Zn-ZnO nanosheets coated fiber exhibits a flower-like nanostructure with high surface area. The SPME performance of as-fabricated fiber was investigated for the concentration and determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates and ultraviolet (UV) filters coupled to high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC-UV). It was found that the Zn-ZnO nanosheets coating exhibited high extraction capability, good selectivity and rapid mass transfer for some UV filters. The main parameters affecting extraction performance were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration graphs were linear over the range of 0.1-200μgL(-1). The limits of detection of the proposed method were 0.052-0.084μgL(-1) (S/N=3). The single fiber repeatability varied from 5.18% to 7.56% and the fiber-to-fiber reproducibility ranged from 6.74% to 8.83% for the extraction of spiked water with 50μgL(-1) UV filters (n=5). The established SPME-HPLC-UV method was successfully applied to the selective concentration and sensitive determination of target UV filters from real environmental water samples with recoveries from 85.8% to 105% at the spiking level of 10μgL(-1) and 30μgL(-1). The relative standard deviations were below 9.7%. PMID:25662065

  3. Investigation of Human Nail Microstructure with Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeva, A. R.; Bakulin, E. Y.; Denisova, L. A.; Maev, R. Gr.

    Investigation of a human fingernail and the extraction of the data on its microstructure and elastic properties is important in three main aspects. First of all, various diseases of the nail can be differentiated more precisely; second of all, it is possible to non-invasively track during time the effects of a cosmetic product upon the nail; third of all, because various processes in the organism have a strong influence upon the nail plate growth, the monitoring of the nail morphology and its mechanical properties may be used as additional information for the diagnosis of a number of medical disorders, such as systemic sclerosis, psoriasis, chronic hand eczema, anemia etc. The aim of the present study was to carry out a detailed ultrasound investigation in the high-frequency range (25-50 MHz) of a human nail including micro-anatomical structure imaging and ultrasound velocity evaluation, using B-scans obtained with a scanning acoustic microscope. On the images, exact topology of the nail, nail matrix and the underlying bone have been revealed. Additionally, a certain type of inclined internal layering along the nails of some individuals has been found, which was not reported in previous ultrasonic studies of the nail.

  4. Water diffusivity in human nail plate.

    PubMed

    Gunt, Hemali B; Miller, Matthew A; Kasting, Gerald B

    2007-12-01

    The diffusivity of water in human nail at 32 degrees C was determined for cadaveric, human finger nails having water contents ranging from 0.536 g H(2)O/g dry nail to 0.035 g H(2)O/g dry nail by measuring the desorption of tritiated water from nails suspended in water or in the vapor phase above salt solutions yielding a range of relative humidities (RH). Diffusivity increased with increasing RH from (7.7 +/- 1.3) x 10(-10) cm(2) s(-1) at 15% RH to (3.2 +/- 1.1) x 10(-7) cm(2) s(-1) in the liquid phase study at 100% RH, a more than 400-fold increase. The diffusivity values, which may be understood in terms of the equilibrium water content of the nail and a free volume theory for diffusion in hydrophilic polymers, were consistent with water diffusivities measured in other keratinized tissues including wool, horn and the corneocyte phase of stratum corneum. Analysis of the tritium desorption data was complicated by a tritium exchange process between (3)H(2)O and nail keratin, the kinetics of which are presented in part. The combination of the concentration-dependent water diffusivity with the natural water activity gradient in nail in vivo leads to the prediction of a nonlinear steady-state water concentration profile in human nail in vivo which, in turn, has implications for ungual drug delivery. PMID:17786922

  5. Double Nail of the Little Toe

    PubMed Central

    Haneke, Eckart

    2016-01-01

    A rudimentary accessory or double nail of the little toe is not rare, although only described three times before. Most cases are accidentally detected and only few patients seek help because they have discomfort or pain. Some have a positive family history, but most patients cannot give any information concerning heredity. Clinically, the nail of the little toe is abnormally wide and is split or shows a longitudinal depression corresponding to a slight protuberance of the cuticle. Histopathology shows a complete though short nail. The treatment of choice is segmental excision of the entire accessory nail unit with mobilization of the lateral skin and primary suture. PMID:27386457

  6. Severe Nail Fold Psoriasis Extending from Nail Psoriasis Resolved with Ustekinumab: Suggestion of a Cytokine Overflow Theory in the Nail Unit

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Sang Young; Kim, Bo Ri; Choi, Jae Woo

    2016-01-01

    Because nail psoriasis is difficult to treat, therapy with many biological drugs has been attempted. Ustekinumab is approved for chronic plaque psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA), with some trials reporting nail improvement using this agent. A 51-year-old man with severe chronic plaque psoriasis had severe involvement of all fingernails and toenails, with accompanying nail fold psoriasis. He also had PsA of the small joints of the fingers. Despite multiple conventional therapies, the nail lesions did not improve, and his nail psoriasis severity index score was 97. After a fourth ustekinumab injection, most of the fingernail psoriasis was resolved, and only hyperkeratosis remained on both large toenails. Because the nail plate, nail fold, and small joints of the fingers are closely apposed structures within a small area, cytokines produced from the nail units overflow to the nail fold and small joints and can induce nail fold psoriasis and PsA. PMID:26848225

  7. Cosmetically Induced Disorders of the Nail with Update on Contemporary Nail Manicures

    PubMed Central

    Tosti, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    The nail carries a significant cosmetic impact and plays an integral role in the multi-billion dollar salon industry. This review focuses on nail disorders that are induced by nail cosmetics via procedures, equipment, or materials that are intended to beautify or adorn the nail. The authors give specific attention to clinical presentations that are common, novel, and underreported, but may be misdiagnosed easily by the competent dermatologist. They also provide an update on the controversies surrounding contemporary nail cosmetic procedures, such as acrylic and gel manicures. PMID:27462387

  8. Correction of pincer nail deformity with dermal flap: a new technique in pincer nail deformity surgery.

    PubMed

    Altun, Serdar; Gürger, Murat; Arpacı, Enver; İnözü, Emre

    2016-01-01

    Pincer nail deformity is the extreme, transverse, proximal-to-distal overcurvature of the finger, caused by osteophyte of the distal phalanx, and causing clamp effect on soft tissues and nail ingrowth. We report a new technique consisting of removal of the osteophyte causing clamp effect. Depressed areas of both side of the nail bed (lateral nail fold) were corrected with dermal flaps prepared from the side. Depressed areas were filled by these flaps, creating a smooth surface for the nail bed, and adequate correction was obtained. PMID:27130395

  9. Cosmetically Induced Disorders of the Nail with Update on Contemporary Nail Manicures.

    PubMed

    Rieder, Evan A; Tosti, Antonella

    2016-04-01

    The nail carries a significant cosmetic impact and plays an integral role in the multi-billion dollar salon industry. This review focuses on nail disorders that are induced by nail cosmetics via procedures, equipment, or materials that are intended to beautify or adorn the nail. The authors give specific attention to clinical presentations that are common, novel, and underreported, but may be misdiagnosed easily by the competent dermatologist. They also provide an update on the controversies surrounding contemporary nail cosmetic procedures, such as acrylic and gel manicures. PMID:27462387

  10. Advanced interlocking systems to improve heavy-load-bearing characteristics of flexible intramedullary nailing.

    PubMed

    Berger, Leopold; Eichler, Johannes; Ryll, E Jonathan S; Fischerauer, Stefan; Raschke, Michael J; Kolbitsch, Andreas; Castellani, Christoph; Weinberg, Annelie-Martina

    2016-11-01

    Flexible intramedullary nailing (FIN) is a minimally invasive and widespread standard method for osteosynthesis of pediatric long bone fractures. In the case of unstable fractures of the lower extremity, interlocking systems need to be used to prevent axial shortening and subsequent perforation of the nail at its insertion site. In the present study, four different screw-fixed interlocking systems for FINs (Hofer TwinPlug with two 3-mm titanium interlocking screws, Hofer FixPlug with 3-mm titanium interlocking screw, Hofer Plug with 3.5-mm titanium interlocking screw, and Hofer Plug with 3-mm titanium interlocking screw) in comparison with the commonly used Ender stainless steel nails (locked with 3.5-mm screw) were experimentally investigated in cadaveric lamb tibiae, regarding their load characteristics and failure modes in the case of heavy loading. The specimens were subjected to sequential axial cyclic loading of 5000cycles with stepwise increase of the load amplitude until failure. Migration of locking screws and internal damage of bone tissue was quantified by micro-computed tomography (CT) imaging. Ender nails failed on average at a peak load of 800 N, TwinPlugs at 1367 N, FixPlugs at 1222 N, Plugs 3.5mm at 1225 N and Plugs 3.0mm at 971 N. TwinPlugs, FixPlugs, and Plugs 3.5mm failed in a slow manner over several hundred loading cycles, whereas Ender nails and Plugs 3.0mm exhibited abrupt failure without any prior indication. Our results confirm that axial stability of FIN can be further improved by screw-fixed plugs by simultaneously avoiding shortcomings of an eye-locked system, which the Ender nails are. Considering biomechanical results, plug interlocking systems with 3.5-mm screws should be favored over conventional Ender nails and plugs with 3-mm screws. PMID:27524031

  11. Development of an interlocked nail for segmental defects in the rabbit tibia.

    PubMed

    LeCronier, David J; Papakonstantinou, John S; Gheevarughese, Vineetha; Beran, Casey D; Walter, Norman E; Atkinson, Patrick J

    2012-04-01

    Previous animal models have been developed to study intramedullary nailing for challenging segmental defects in the tibia. In large animals, interlocked nail fixation created a stable environment suitable to study new bone growth technologies placed in the defect. To our knowledge, there are no comparable interlocked tibial defect models for the rabbit in which new technologies could be evaluated. Such a model would be helpful since the rabbit is a popular initial model for orthopedic research studies owing to its wide availability and low cost. While numerous studies have nailed the rabbit tibia, all were non-locked implants that allowed some degree of instability between the fracture fragments. In addition, the non-locked nails were constructed of stainless steel, whereas human nails are increasingly made from titanium alloy. In the current study, an interlocked titanium nail was developed for the rabbit tibia. It was implanted in cadaver tibiae and subjected to fatigue cycling in combined compression and bending at physiologic levels to 21,061 cycles. This duration is estimated to represent 12 weeks of gait by the animal. Before and after fatigue cycling, monotonic testing was performed in compression and bending at physiologic levels. The intact contralateral limbs served as controls. All limbs completed the cycling; the instrumented limbs exhibited interfragmentary cyclic strain amplitudes during fatigue (616 +/- 139 micro-strain), which was significantly greater than the control limbs (136 +/- 35 microstrain). Monotonic strain amplitudes for the test limbs in bending and compression were 4839 +/- 1028 and 542 +/- 122 microstrain, respectively; corresponding values for the control bones were 407 +/- 118 and 95 +/- 38 microstrain, respectively. These data are similar to those presented in prior studies in larger bone models. The current study presents one method for interlocked nail fixation for this complex tibial shaft fracture in a small animal. PMID

  12. Development of a one-handed nail clipper for stroke survivors.

    PubMed

    Carhart, Christopher; Ciechowski, Rafal; Groat, Doug; Stevans, Alyson

    2008-01-01

    Due to the physical effects of stroke, many stroke survivors experience difficulty clipping their nails. Much of this difficulty is due to weakness in the upper extremities, loss of dexterity, spasticity, and vision problems. Our goal was to design a device that would help stroke survivors shorten their finger nails, providing increased independence, convenience, comfort, and safety compared to their current method of cutting nails. From user interviews and observations, we developed several prototypes to solve this problem. The final design, the Step 'n Snip, consists of a finger nail clipper mounted on an inclined, rotatable metal rod. The clipper is attached to a foot pedal with a long steel bike brake cable, which the pedal then uses to actuate the clipper. The pedal is mounted on a base that is shaped such that it provides a nesting space for the clipper frame during storage; the two parts are kept together by a swiveling clip. The clipper itself is at a convenient height for users and is fitted with a nail clippings collection system. PMID:18430684

  13. Intramedullary locking femoral nails. Experience with the AO nail.

    PubMed Central

    Fogarty, A. B.; Yeates, H. A.

    1991-01-01

    The AO interlocking nail was introduced to the Ulster Hospital, Dundonald in 1988 and since then has been used in over 50 patients with femoral shaft fractures. We have reviewed 45 patients with 46 femoral shaft fractures treated between June 1988 and April 1990. These included four compound fractures and 13 comminuted fractures. The results compare favourably with other series. The union rate was 98% and there were no instances of deep infection. The alternative treatment methods available are discussed along with a review of the relevant literature. Images Fig 3 Fig 5 PMID:1785145

  14. Chinese NiTi wire--a new orthodontic alloy.

    PubMed

    Burstone, C J; Qin, B; Morton, J Y

    1985-06-01

    Chinese NiTi wire was studied by means of a bending test to determine wire stiffness, springback, and maximum bending moments. Chinese NiTi wire has an unusual deactivation curve (unlike steel and nitinol wires) in which relatively constant forces are produced over a long range of action. The characteristic flexural stiffness of NiTi wire is determined by the amount of activation. At large activations NiTi wires has a stiffness of only 7% that of a comparable stainless steel wire, and at small activations 28% of steel wire. For the same activation at large deflections, the forces produced are 36% that of a comparable nitinol wire. Chinese NiTi wire demonstrates phenomenal springback. It can be deflected 1.6 times as far as nitinol wire or 4.4 times as far as stainless steel wire without appreciable permanent deformation. NiTi wire is highly useful in clinical situations that require a low-stiffness wire with an extremely large springback. PMID:3890554

  15. Genetics Home Reference: nail-patella syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... are usually the most severely affected. In many people with this condition, the areas at the base of the nails (lunulae) are triangular instead of the usual crescent shape. Individuals with nail-patella ... of the patella is common. Some people with this condition may not be able to ...

  16. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Nail Biting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufrene, Brad A.; Watson, T. Steuart; Kazmerski, Jennifer S.

    2008-01-01

    This study applied functional analysis methodology to nail biting exhibited by a 24-year-old female graduate student. Results from the brief functional analysis indicated variability in nail biting across assessment conditions. Functional analysis data were then used to guide treatment development and implementation. Treatment included a…

  17. Nail Involvement in Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Macpherson, Melanie; Hohendorf-Ansari, Parinaz; Trüeb, Ralph Michel

    2015-01-01

    A case of frontal fibrosing alopecia with nail involvement is presented. Nail involvement provides evidence for underlying lichen planus, and that the disease represents a rather generalized than localized process. Favorable response of the scalp condition to oral dutasteride points to an inflammatory reaction on the background of androgenetic alopecia. PMID:26180450

  18. Nail Involvement in Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, Melanie; Hohendorf-Ansari, Parinaz; Trüeb, Ralph Michel

    2015-01-01

    A case of frontal fibrosing alopecia with nail involvement is presented. Nail involvement provides evidence for underlying lichen planus, and that the disease represents a rather generalized than localized process. Favorable response of the scalp condition to oral dutasteride points to an inflammatory reaction on the background of androgenetic alopecia. PMID:26180450

  19. Onychomatricoma: A Rare Tumor of Nail Matrix.

    PubMed

    Joo, Hong Jin; Kim, Mi Ri; Cho, Baik Kee; Yoo, Gyeol; Park, Hyun Jeong

    2016-04-01

    Onychomatricoma is a rare tumor of the nail matrix. Until now, few cases of onychomatricoma have been reported in the literature. Immunohistochemically, CD10, a marker of the onychodermis, is expressed in the stroma of the onychomatricoma. In the present case, a 27-year-old woman presented with an 8-year history of a yellowish, thickened, and overcurved nail plate of the right index finger, mimicking onychomycosis. She had been treated for 4 years with antifungal agents by general physicians, without improvement. The nail was surgically removed, and the tumor at the nail matrix was excised. The nail plate continued to grow in the 2 months after the excision. This is a case of onychomatricoma in South Korea, which was initially misdiagnosed as onychomycosis. In addition, we present a review of the literature regarding clinical, sonographic, and histological features, differential diagnoses, and treatment of onychomatricoma. PMID:27081273

  20. Onychomatricoma: A Rare Tumor of Nail Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Hong Jin; Kim, Mi Ri; Cho, Baik Kee; Yoo, Gyeol

    2016-01-01

    Onychomatricoma is a rare tumor of the nail matrix. Until now, few cases of onychomatricoma have been reported in the literature. Immunohistochemically, CD10, a marker of the onychodermis, is expressed in the stroma of the onychomatricoma. In the present case, a 27-year-old woman presented with an 8-year history of a yellowish, thickened, and overcurved nail plate of the right index finger, mimicking onychomycosis. She had been treated for 4 years with antifungal agents by general physicians, without improvement. The nail was surgically removed, and the tumor at the nail matrix was excised. The nail plate continued to grow in the 2 months after the excision. This is a case of onychomatricoma in South Korea, which was initially misdiagnosed as onychomycosis. In addition, we present a review of the literature regarding clinical, sonographic, and histological features, differential diagnoses, and treatment of onychomatricoma. PMID:27081273

  1. Anode wire aging tests with selected gases

    SciTech Connect

    Kadyk, J.; Wise, J.; Hess, D.; Williams, M. )

    1990-04-01

    As a continuation of earlier wire aging investigations, additional candidates for wire chamber gas and wire have been tested. These include the gases: argon/ethane, HRS gas, dimethyl ether, carbon dioxide/ethane, and carbon tetrafluoride/isobutane. Wires used were: gold- plated tungsten, Stablohm, Nicotin, and Stainless Steel. Measurements were made of the effects upon wire aging of impurities from plumbing materials or contamination from various types of oil. Attempts were made to induce wire aging by adding measured amounts of oxygen and halogen (methyl chloride) with negative results. In this paper, the possible role of electronegativity in the wire aging process is discussed, and measurements of electronegativity are made with several single carbon Freons, using both an electron capture detector and a wire chamber operating with dimethyl ether.

  2. Interlocked Intramedullary Nail Without Fluoroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zirkle, Lewis G; Shahab, Faseeh; Shahabuddin

    2016-01-01

    Surgical Implant Generation Network (SIGN) was founded 15 years ago to create equality of fracture care throughout the world. This is done by education and supply of the appropriate implants and instruments to implement the education. SIGN implants have been used in 150,000 long bone fractures in developing countries. The same implants and instruments are used to provide intramedullary nail interlocking screw fixation in the tibia, femur, and humerus. The design of SIGN implants and the surgical technique are described. PMID:26614921

  3. 6. INTERIOR VIEW, HIGH CARBON HOT ROLLED SHEET STEEL FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. INTERIOR VIEW, HIGH CARBON HOT ROLLED SHEET STEEL FOR NAIL PLATE BEING LOADED ON THE CRADLE USED DURING THE PICKLING PROCESS - LaBelle Iron Works, Thirtieth & Wood Streets, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

  4. 5. INTERIOR VIEW, HIGH CARBON HOT ROLLED SHEET STEEL FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR VIEW, HIGH CARBON HOT ROLLED SHEET STEEL FOR NAIL PLATE BEING REMOVED FROM THE CRADLE USED DURING THE PICKLING PROCESS - LaBelle Iron Works, Thirtieth & Wood Streets, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

  5. Severe Onychodystrophy due to Allergic Contact Dermatitis from Acrylic Nails

    PubMed Central

    Mattos Simoes Mendonca, Marcela; LaSenna, Charlotte; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Acrylic nails, including sculptured nails and the new ultraviolet-curable gel polish lacquers, have been associated with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). We report 2 cases of ACD to acrylic nails with severe onychodystrophy and psoriasiform changes including onycholysis and subungual hyperkeratosis. In both cases, the patients did not realize the association between the use of acrylate-based manicures and nail changes. One patient had been previously misdiagnosed and treated unsuccessfully for nail psoriasis. The informed clinician should elicit a history of acrylic manicure in patients with these nail changes, especially in cases of suspected nail psoriasis refractory to treatment. Patch testing is a useful tool in confirming diagnosis. PMID:27170940

  6. The aging of wire chambers filled with dimethyl ether: wire and construction materials and freon impurities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jibaly, Mohammed; Majewski, Stan; Chrusch, Peter; Wojcik, Randolph; Sauli, Fabio; Gaudaen, Jan

    1989-11-01

    This is a complete summary of our study of the aging of different types of wire chambers, with a variety of construction materials and wires, filled with dimethyl ether (DME) of varying degrees of purity. The resistive Nicotin and Stablohm wires were corroded by DME, producing fast aging. The moderately resistive stainless steel wires were able to withstand extended irradiation (up to 1 C/cm) in high-purity DME without any apparent damage; and gold-plated tungsten and molybdenum wires exhibited a comparable behavior. Many construction materials were tested and recommendations are thus reached as to what kinds of materials are safe in building DME-operated wire chambers. Among many different Freon and hydrocarbon impurities detected in DME by means of gas chromatography (GC), Freon-11 was found to be mostly responsible for the aging, even with noncorrosive stainless steel or gold-plated wires. The availability and feasibility of obtaining Freon-free DME is reported as well.

  7. Application of Hansen Solubility Parameters to predict drug-nail interactions, which can assist the design of nail medicines.

    PubMed

    Hossin, B; Rizi, K; Murdan, S

    2016-05-01

    We hypothesised that Hansen Solubility Parameters (HSPs) can be used to predict drug-nail affinities. Our aims were to: (i) determine the HSPs (δD, δP, δH) of the nail plate, the hoof membrane (a model for the nail plate), and of the drugs terbinafine HCl, amorolfine HCl, ciclopirox olamine and efinaconazole, by measuring their swelling/solubility in organic liquids, (ii) predict nail-drug interactions by comparing drug and nail HSPs, and (iii) evaluate the accuracy of these predictions using literature reports of experimentally-determined affinities of these drugs for keratin, the main constituent of the nail plate and hoof. Many solvents caused no change in the mass of nail plates, a few solvents deswelled the nail, while others swelled the nail to varying extents. Fingernail and toenail HSPs were almost the same, while hoof HSPs were similar, except for a slightly lower δP. High nail-terbinafine HCl, nail-amorolfine HCl and nail-ciclopirox olamine affinities, and low nail-efinaconazole affinities were then predicted, and found to accurately match experimental reports of these drugs' affinities to keratin. We therefore propose that drug and nail Hansen Solubility Parameters may be used to predict drug-nail interactions, and that these results can assist in the design of drugs for the treatment of nail diseases, such as onychomycosis and psoriasis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the application of HSPs in ungual research. PMID:26924329

  8. Residential Wiring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mark

    The second in a series of three curriculum packages on wiring, these materials for a five-unit course were developed to prepare postsecondary students for entry-level employment in the residential wiring trade. The five units are: (1) blueprint reading and load calculations; (2) rough-in; (3) service; (4) trim out and troubleshooting; and (5) load…

  9. Wire chamber

    DOEpatents

    Atac, Muzaffer

    1989-01-01

    A wire chamber or proportional counter device, such as Geiger-Mueller tube or drift chamber, improved with a gas mixture providing a stable drift velocity while eliminating wire aging caused by prior art gas mixtures. The new gas mixture is comprised of equal parts argon and ethane gas and having approximately 0.25% isopropyl alcohol vapor.

  10. Ultrasound-mediated nail drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Abadi, Danielle; Zderic, Vesna

    2011-12-01

    A novel ultrasound-mediated drug delivery system has been developed for treatment of a nail fungal disorder (onychomycosis) by improving delivery to the nail bed using ultrasound to increase the permeability of the nail. The slip-in device consists of ultrasound transducers and drug delivery compartments above each toenail. The device is connected to a computer, where a software interface allows users to select their preferred course of treatment. In in vitro testing, canine nails were exposed to 3 energy levels (acoustic power of 1.2 W and exposure durations of 30, 60, and 120 seconds). A stereo -microscope was used to determine how much of a drug-mimicking compound was delivered through the nail layers by measuring brightness on the cross section of each nail tested at each condition, where brightness level decreases coincide with increases in permeability. Each of the 3 energy levels tested showed statistical significance when compared to the control (P < .05) with a permeability factor of 1.3 after 30 seconds of exposure, 1.3 after 60 seconds, and 1.5 after 120 seconds, where a permeability factor of 1 shows no increase in permeability. Current treatments for onychomycosis include systemic, topical, and surgical. Even when used all together, these treatments typically take a long time to result in nail healing, thus making this ultrasound-mediated device a promising alternative. PMID:22124008

  11. Intra-articular risks of suprapatellar nailing.

    PubMed

    Beltran, Michael J; Collinge, Cory A; Patzkowski, Jeanne C; Masini, Brendan D; Blease, Robert E; Hsu, Joseph R

    2012-12-01

    To determine the risks to local anatomy near the starting point for tibial nailing during suprapatellar nailing, 15 fresh-frozen hemipelvis specimens were nailed using a suprapatellar technique. After nail passage, the menisci and articular surfaces, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) insertion, intermeniscal ligament, and fat pad were assessed for injury. The distance from the entry portal to the menisci, articular surfaces, and ACL insertion was determined. Medial meniscus injury occurred in 1 (6.7%) specimen and medial articular injury in 2 (13%). Nails passed through the fat pad in all specimens; intermeniscal ligament injury occurred in 3 (20%) specimens. The ACL insertion and lateral structures were not injured in any specimen. The distance from the entry portal margin to the lateral and medial menisci was 6.46±2.47 mm and 4.74±3.17 mm, respectively. The distances to the lateral and medial articular margins measured 10.33±3.62 mm and 6.54±3.57 mm, respectively. The distance to the ACL insertion averaged 5.80±3.94 mm. Suprapatellar nailing is associated with a risk of injury to anterior knee structures comparable to other nailing techniques. Additional clinical studies are warranted to further define the role of this technique in the management of tibial fractures. PMID:23550286

  12. [A study of mechanical properties of orthodontic wires in tension].

    PubMed

    Konstantellos, B; Lagoudakis, M; Toutountzakis, N

    1990-12-01

    Orthodontic forces are applied to the teeth basically by means of different types of orthodontic wires. Knowledge of the mechanical properties of such wires are very helpful to the clinician in design and application of optimal force systems during orthodontic treatment. The basic mechanical properties were studied for 17 types of orthodontic wires (all rectangular and of the same size), in tension. Modulus of elasticity (E), yield strength (YS) and maximum elastic strain (Springback) (YS/E) were calculated for each type of wires. Stainless steel wires have demonstrated higher modulus of elasticity (and yield strength) in comparison with wires of nickel-titanium and beta titanium alloys. B-titanium wires showed higher modulus of elasticity than nickel-titanium ones. In addition stainless steel wires were found to have higher values for springback than cobalt-chromium ones and lower values (for the same variable) than nickel-titanium and B-titanium wires. PMID:2129597

  13. Intramedullary nailing and pulmonary embolism: does unreamed nailing prevent embolization? An in vivo study in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Heim, D; Regazzoni, P; Tsakiris, D A; Aebi, T; Schlegel, U; Marbet, G A; Perren, S M

    1995-06-01

    Pulmonary embolism in reamed femoral nailing has been reported and discussed over recent years. Does an unreamed nailing technique with a solid nail prevent this rare but serious complication of intramedullary fixation? In an animal model in rabbits, we studied the pathophysiologic impact on pulmonary function and the impact on hemostasis of reamed and unreamed nailing of intact femora and tibiae, and of femoral fracture in relation to intramedullary pressure. No statistical difference of PaO2, PaCO2, and PCO2et was found in the femur whether a reamed or unreamed procedure was performed. Two of six animals with unreamed femoral nailing, one of six animal with reamed femoral nailing, and one of five animals with a femoral fracture fulfilled four of four or three of four criteria for embolization (increase of the difference of PaCO2 and PCO2et, decrease of PaO2, increase of blast cells in central-venous blood and bone marrow/fat in histologic section of the lungs and bone). Tibial nailing did not alter pulmonary function in either group. Intramedullary pressure was increased in all animals with perioperative impairment of pulmonary function (375 to 676 mbar). Analysis of the hemostatic results showed a significant difference of platelet activation in reamed versus unreamed nailing of the femur 1 hour after nailing (p < 0.01) and a significant decrease of fibrinogen and antithrombin III (p < 0.001/p < 0.01) in reamed femoral nailing. We conclude that unreamed nailing of the femur with a solid rod may also cause bone marrow embolization with alteration of pulmonary function as long as an important increase of the intramedullary pressure is generated during the nailing procedure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7602632

  14. Suprapatellar nailing of tibial fractures: surgical hints

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Intramedullary nailing of the tibia with suprapatellar entry and semi-extended positioning makes it technically easier to nail the proximal and distal fractures. The purpose of this article was to describe a simple method for suprapatellar nailing (SPN). A step-by-step run through of the surgical technique is described, including positioning of the patient. There are as yet only a few clinical studies that illustrate the complications with this method, and there has been no increased frequency of intraarticular damage. Within the body of the manuscript, information is included about intraarticular damage and comments with references about anterior knee pain. PMID:27340503

  15. Intramedullary nailing of pediatric femoral shaft fracture.

    PubMed

    Hosalkar, Harish S; Pandya, Nirav K; Cho, Robert H; Glaser, Diana A; Moor, Molly A; Herman, Martin J

    2011-08-01

    Intramedullary nail fixation of pediatric long bone fracture, particularly femoral shaft fracture, has revolutionized the care and outcome of these complex injuries. Nailing is associated with a high rate of union and a low rate of complications. Improved understanding of proximal femoral vascularity has led to changes in nail insertion methodology. Multiple fixation devices are available; selection is based on fracture type, patient age, skeletal maturity, and body mass index. A thorough knowledge of anatomy and biomechanics is required to achieve optimal results without negatively affecting skeletal development. PMID:21807915

  16. Nail Alterations in Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma: A Case Series and Review of Nail Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Brian E.; Wulkan, Adam; Kerdel, Francisco; El-Shabrawi-Caelen, Laila; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Background Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) encompasses a broad range of lymphoproliferative diseases affecting the skin and can be clinically misleading due to its variable presentation. Nail alterations commonly appear in advanced-stage mycosis fungoides and true Sézary syndrome; however, they may be present in any stage of the disease. Although proper recognition of nail involvement in CTCL has both clinical and therapeutic value, specific nail findings have been infrequently described in the current literature. Observations We describe 4 patients with CTCL who presented with clinically significant nail alterations. The most common findings were nail discoloration, thickening, crumbling, onycholysis, and onychomadesis. Other notable findings included splinter hemorrhages, subungual hyperkeratosis, and anonychia. Conclusions and Message The described cases illustrate many of the documented nail findings associated with CTCL and emphasize the variable nature of nail manifestations. The presence of specific nail alterations should increase the clinical suspicion of CTCL – especially in patients with concomitant systemic and/or cutaneous manifestations – and early biopsy specimens should be taken for diagnosis. Nail alterations should also be accurately described and monitored in all patients with biopsy-confirmed CTCL to help identify treatment response and detect disease recurrence. PMID:27170938

  17. [Pleuritis in yellow nail syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kossakowski, C A; Schmiegelow, P; Müller, K-M

    2012-03-01

    A 76-year-old man presented clinically with coughing and shortness of breath and was diagnosed radiologically to have massive pleural effusion as a combined feature of yellow nail syndrome. A lung biopsy was taken and revealed histologically: chronic non-specific inflammation in the pleuropulmonary border, intrapleural edema with eightfold pleural thickening in comparison to normal, angiogenesis in both the nutritive and functional intrapleural blood vessels, no abnormalities of lymphatic vessels with normal topographical distribution as detected by immunohistochemistry for antibody D2-40, granulomatous chronic foreign body reaction as a consequence of pleural effusion therapy by talcum pleurodesis.The histopathological findings of chronic non-specific pleuritis with angiogenesis and increased permeability of blood vessels led to massive intrapleural edema with pleural effusion. Abnormalities of lymphatic vessels could not be confirmed. Considering the features of this disease, they are probably secondary to chronic r infectious or immunological inflammation or paraneoplastic complications with angiogenesis (in about 19%). PMID:22048329

  18. Wire Wise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanquist, Barry

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how today's technology is encouraging schools to invest in furnishings that are adaptable to computer use and telecommunications access. Explores issues concerning modularity, wiring management, ergonomics, durability, price, and aesthetics. (GR)

  19. Femoral lengthening with a motorized intramedullary nail

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Joachim; Grimsrud, Øyvind; Dagsgard, Anita Hoddevik; Huhnstock, Stefan; Steen, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We assessed whether an intramedullary lengthening device would reduce the problems normally associated with the external fixation technique. We also wanted to determine whether it is a reliable construct for limb lengthening and deformity correction in the femur. Patients and methods We conducted a matched-pair comparison of 30 femoral lengthenings, 15 with a motorized intramedullary nail (the nail group) and 15 lengthenings with an external ring fixator (the fixator group). The patients were matched based on age, sex, amount of lengthening, and the etiology of leg length discrepancy. Mean lengthening was 35 (25–55) mm in the nail group and 38 (15–75) mm in the fixator group. Outcome measures were: lengthening and alignment achieved, consolidation index, knee range of motion (ROM), and complications. Results The pairs in this matched-pair study were similar in terms of age, sex, diagnosis, and amount of lengthening. The planned amount of lengthening was achieved in all patients in both groups and axis correction was considered sufficient. The mean radiographic consolidation index in the nail group, at 1.5 (0.9–3.0) months/cm, was better than the mean value for the fixator group (1.9 (0.9–3.4) months/cm) (p = 0.01). Knee ROM was better in the nail group during the lengthening, 6 weeks after lengthening was completed, and 6 months after lengthening was completed (p < 0.001). A larger number of complications were observed in the fixator group than in the nail group. Interpretation A lengthening nail may be superior to external fixation in femoral lengthening, when the anatomical conditions and the complexity of the deformity allow the use of an intramedullary nail. PMID:25191936

  20. Femoral midshaft fractures: expandable versus locked nailing.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhen-Tao; Song, Yu-Chen; Zhou, Xiao-Zhong; Zhou, Hai-Bin; Luo, Zong-Ping; Dong, Qi-Rong

    2015-04-01

    Femoral midshaft fracture is one of the most common clinical injuries and is often caused by high-energy traffic accidents. Intramedullary nailings, plates, and external fixators are all used as treatment alternatives for a variety of patients depending on fracture location, displacement, comminution, soft tissue condition, and local tradition. Locked intramedullary nailing is currently the preferred treatment method for most diaphyseal fractures and has good clinical results. The goal of this study was to compare expandable and locked intramedullary nailing for the treatment of AO type 32A and 32B1 femoral midshaft fractures. The authors performed a retrospective analysis of 46 patients (33 men and 13 women; mean age, 32.3 years; range, 22-52 years) with femoral midshaft fractures who were divided into 2 groups-one treated with an expandable intramedullary nailing method and the other with a conventional locked intramedullary nailing. The 2 groups were compared with respect to operation time, fluoroscopic time, amount of estimated blood loss, hospitalization time, healing time, and complications. Patients were followed for at least 1 year. The results of this study showed that all of the patients achieved bone union within 12 to 24 months. Expandable nailing performed better than locked nailing in operation time, fluoroscopic time, amount of estimated blood loss, and healing time (P<.001). There was no difference in hospitalization time and no visible shortening or severe complications were observed in either group. Based on the results of this study, the expandable intramedullary nailing is an easy and effective treatment for AO type 32A and 32B1 diaphyseal femoral fractures. PMID:25901625

  1. Modeling the Evolution of Strength During Wire Drawing

    SciTech Connect

    Lesuer, D R; Syn, C K; Sherby, O D

    2002-08-05

    Extensive plastic deformation during wire drawing is commonly used to produce steel wires with very high strengths. Typically these steels are eutectoid and hypereutectoid steels and drawing strains up to 4 are used during processing. The resulting materials can have tensile strengths in excess of 4000 MPa. The evolution of microstructure and the strengthening mechanisms resulting from wire drawing have been studied for eutectoid and hypereutectoid steels. Strength has been shown to be a function of pearlite colony size, interlamellar spacing and the size of the stable dislocation cells that are produced during wire drawing. The results have been used to model the evolution of strength during wire drawing. Model predictions for the evolution of tensile strength with drawing strain show excellent agreement with data derived from a number of eutectoid and hyperectectoid steels as a function of drawing strain.

  2. Utility of Gel Nails in Improving the Appearance of Cosmetically Disfigured Nails: Experience with 25 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Nanda, Soni; Grover, Chander

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gel nails are a commonly used cosmetic procedure, though their use by dermatologists has not been evaluated. These can be used to improve the appearance of cosmetically disfigured nails where other treatment options have failed; the condition is self-limiting or irreversible; or to camouflage the dystrophy until healing. Materials and Methods: A prospective, uncontrolled, open-label study on 25 participants presenting with cosmetically disfigured nails was undertaken. Mycologically negative, consenting patients with various nail plate surface abnormalities like trachyonychia (n =8); superficial pitting (n =6); onychorrhexis (n =4); superficial pitting with onychoschizia (n =3); Beau's lines (n =3) and pterygium (n =1) were included. The patients received gel nail application using Ranara gel nail kit®. Extra care was taken to avoid any damage to cuticle. Standard pre- and post-treatment photographs were taken to assess improvement. Patient satisfaction score (1-10); Global assessment score of improvement (no improvement to excellent improvement) and any side effects reported were recorded. Results: The average age of treated patients was 30.44±11.39 years (range 18-60 years). A total of 69 nails were treated (average of 2.76 per patient). Post-procedure, the average patient satisfaction score was 9.08 ± 0.86 (range 7-10). The Global assessment showed excellent improvement (40% cases); good improvement (56% cases) and mild improvement in the single case of pterygium treated. Conclusions: The use of Gel nails in patients with cosmetically disfiguring nail plate surface abnormalities (like trachyonychia, onychoschizia, pitting, etc.) was found to produce good to excellent improvement in most of the cases. The patient satisfaction with the procedure was rated as high. This, coupled with absence of side effects, make gel nails a valuable tool in improving cosmesis and satisfaction among patients presenting with nail plate surface abnormalities. Further

  3. Mechanical properties and clinical applications of orthodontic wires.

    PubMed

    Kapila, S; Sachdeva, R

    1989-08-01

    This review article describes the mechanical properties and clinical applications of stainless steel, cobalt-chromium, nickel-titanium, beta-titanium, and multistranded wires. The consolidation of this literature will provide the clinician with the basic working knowledge on orthodontic wire characteristics and usage. Mechanical properties of these wires are generally assessed by tensile, bending, and torsional tests. Although wire characteristics determined by these tests do not necessarily reflect the behavior of the wires under clinical conditions, they provide a basis for comparison of these wires. The characteristics desirable in an orthodontic wire are a large springback, low stiffness, good formability, high stored energy, biocompatibility and environmental stability, low surface friction, and the capability to be welded or soldered to auxiliaries. Stainless steel wires have remained popular since their introduction to orthodontics because of their formability, biocompatibility and environmental stability, stiffness, resilience, and low cost. Cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) wires can be manipulated in a softened state and then subjected to heat treatment. Heat treatment of Co-Cr wires results in a wire with properties similar to those of stainless steel. Nitinol wires have a good springback and low stiffness. This alloy, however, has poor formability and joinability. Beta-titanium wires provide a combination of adequate springback, average stiffness, good formability, and can be welded to auxiliaries. Multistranded wires have a high springback and low stiffness when compared with solid stainless steel wires. Optimal use of these orthodontic wires can be made by carefully selecting the appropriate wire type and size to meet the demands of a particular clinical situation. PMID:2667330

  4. Transungual delivery of terbinafine by iontophoresis in onychomycotic nails.

    PubMed

    Nair, Anroop B; Vaka, Siva Ram Kiran; Murthy, S Narasimha

    2011-10-01

    Trans-nail permeability is limited due to the innate nature of the nail plate and the recent investigations indicated the potential of iontophoresis in enhancing the transungual drug delivery in normal nails. However, the onychomycotic nails differ from the normal nails with respect to the anatomical and biological features. The current study investigated the effect of iontophoresis (0.5 mA/cm(2) for 1 h) on the transungual delivery of terbinafine in onychomycotic finger and toe nails. The presence of fungi in the onychomycotic nails was diagnosed by potassium hydroxide (KOH) microscopy. Passive and iontophoretic delivery of terbinafine across the infected nail was studied in Franz diffusion cell. Further, the release profile of terbinafine from the drug-loaded nails was investigated by agar diffusion method. KOH microscopy confirmed the presence of fungi in all the nails used. The amount of drug permeated across the nail plate was enhanced significantly during iontophoresis over passive delivery, that is, by 21-fold in case of finger and 37-fold in case of toe nails. Further, the total drug load in the onychomycotic nail was enhanced by ~12-fold (in both finger and toe nails) due to iontophoresis. Release of terbinafine from the iontophoresis-loaded nails into agar plates exhibited two phases, a rapid phase followed by a steady release, which extended >2 months. This study concluded that the drug delivery in onychomycotic nails did not differ significantly when compared with normal nails, although the extent of drug permeation and drug load differs between finger and toe nails. PMID:21457120

  5. Lateral drug diffusion in human nails.

    PubMed

    Palliyil, Biji B; Li, Cong; Owaisat, Suzan; Lebo, David B

    2014-12-01

    The main objective of the current work is to demonstrate the process of passive lateral diffusion in the human nail plate and its effect on the passive transungual permeation of antifungal drug ciclopirox olamine (CPO). A water soluble dye, methyl red sodium salt (MR) was used to visualize the process of lateral diffusion using a novel suspended nail experiment. The decline in concentration of CPO correlates with that of concentration of MR from the proximal to the distal end of the nail in suspended nail study. Three toenails each were trimmed to 5 mm × 5 mm (25 mm(2)), 7 mm × 7 mm (49 mm(2)), and 9 mm × 9 mm (81 mm(2)) to study the extent and effect of lateral diffusion of the CPO on its in vitro transungual permeation. The permeation flux of CPO decreased as the surface area of the toenail increased. There was a positive correlation between the concentrations of CPO and MR in the area of application and in the peripheral area of the toenails of the three surface areas, confirming the findings in the suspended nail experiment. Profound lateral diffusion of CPO was demonstrated and shown to reduce the in vitro passive transungual drug permeation and prolong the lag-time in human toenails. The study data implies that during passive in vitro transungual permeation experiments, the peripheral nail around the area of drug application has to be kept to a minimum, in order to get reliable data which mimics the in vivo situation. PMID:24970585

  6. Heat profiles of laser-irradiated nails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paasch, Uwe; Nenoff, Pietro; Seitz, Anna-Theresa; Wagner, Justinus A.; Kendler, Michael; Simon, Jan C.; Grunewald, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    Onychomycosis is a worldwide problem with no tendency for self-healing, and existing systemic treatments achieve disease-free nails in only 35 to 76% of cases. Recently, treatment of nail fungus with a near-infrared laser has been introduced. It is assumed that fungal eradication is mediated by local heat. To investigate if laser treatment has the potential to eradicate fungal hyphae and arthrospores, laser heat application and propagation needs to be studied in detail. This study aimed to measure nail temperatures using real-time videothermography during laser irradiation. Treatment was performed using 808- and 980-nm linear scanning diode lasers developed for hair removal, enabling contact-free homogeneous irradiation of a human nail plate in one pass. Average and peak temperatures increased pass by pass, while the laser beam moved along the nail plates. The achieved mean peak temperatures (808 nm: 74.1 to 112.4°C, 980 nm: 45.8 to 53.5°C), as well as the elevation of average temperatures (808 nm: 29.5 to 38.2°C, 980 nm: 27.1 to 32.6°C) were associated with pain that was equivalent to that of hair removal procedures and was not significantly different for various wavelengths. The linear scanning laser devices provide the benefits of contact-free homogeneous heating of the human nail while ensuring adequate temperature rises.

  7. VIEW SOUTHEAST LEFTBUILDING 25NO 2 WIRE MILL (c. 1853) CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTHEAST LEFT-BUILDING 25-NO 2 WIRE MILL (c. 1853) CENTER BUILDING 27 PATTERN SHOP (c.1853) NEXT BUILDING 28 BLACKSMITH SHOP (1885) NEXT BUILDING 32 MACHINE SHOP (1890) EXTREME RIGHT-DOBBINS BUILDING (NOT AM STEEL & WIRE) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  8. Iontophoresis across the proximal nail fold to target drugs to the nail matrix.

    PubMed

    Manda, Prashanth; Sammeta, Srinivasa M; Repka, Michael A; Murthy, S Narasimha

    2012-07-01

    The main objective of the present study was to investigate the plausibility of iontophoretic delivery of drugs to the nail matrix via proximal nail fold. The in vitro drug transport studies were performed in Franz diffusion cells across folded epidermis, which is used as a model for the proximal nail fold. The amount of drug transported into the receiver compartment following iontophoresis for 3 h at 0.5 mA/cm(2) was 150-fold higher than the control (0.008 ± 0.002 μg/cm(2)). The amount of drug present in the skin after iontophoresis (0.45 ± 0.12 μg/mg) was approximately fivefold higher as compared with that of the control (0.08 ± 0.01 μg/mg). Iontophoresis of terbinafine across the proximal nail fold was assessed using excised cadaver toe model as well. A custom-designed foam-pad-type patch system was used for iontophoresis in cadaver toes. The amount of the drug delivered into the nail matrix following iontophoresis for 3 h was significantly higher than the minimum inhibition concentration of terbinafine. However, on the contrary, passive delivery for about 24 h did not result in any detectable drug levels in the nail matrix. Iontophoresis across the proximal nail fold could be developed as a potential method to target drugs to nail matrix. PMID:22487899

  9. [A new locking nail for proximal humerus fractures: the Telegraph nail, technique and preliminary results].

    PubMed

    Cuny, C; Pfeffer, F; Irrazi, M; Chammas, M; Empereur, F; Berrichi, A; Metais, P; Beau, P

    2002-02-01

    We present a new nail, the telegraph nail, designed for the treatment of proximal fractures of the humerus. This nail has a new locking system providing a self-stabilization of the cancelous screws inserted in small fragments. We discuss the surgical technique and present preliminary results. The anterolateral approach and nail insertion through the medial and well vascularized part of the cuff is described for simple fractures. With the cup and ball technique, this nail can also be used for complex fractures of the proximal humerus with three or four fragments and major displacement. With this method, the nail is inserted before reduction and locked in the distal humerus before fixation of the head and tuberosities around the head once the targeting device removed. We report results for the first 64 nails inserted in our unit during the first year (1998-1999). Outcome was assessed at 11 months mean follow-up using the Constant score. Outcome was favorable, including in patients with complex fractures involving 3 or 4 separate displaced fragments. Besides providing an anatomically stable reconstruction, the telegraph nail has the advantage of allowing early mobilization of the shoulder joint. This method is a useful alternative to prosthetic reconstruction for traumatic fractures of the proximal humerus. PMID:11973536

  10. [Taking a biopsy, treating ingrown nails. Minor nail surgery in general practice].

    PubMed

    Haneke, E

    2003-09-18

    Prior to any surgical operation on fingernails or toenails a diagnosis, or at least a suspected diagnosis, must be established. Suitable material for histopathology can be obtained by various methods: lateral longitudinal biopsy, matrix biopsy, and nail bed or nail wall biopsy. Of the surgical options, nail extraction is rarely indicated, and if at all, should be only partial. In the presence of trauma, a careful examination should be made for fracture of the terminal phalanx; where necessary, the matrix and bed must be sutured. Advanced onychogryposis is treated by applying carbolic acid to the matrix. In the case of ingrown toenails and, where applicable, "tubular nails", surgical nail paring is indicated whenever conservative measures fail. PMID:14603681

  11. [Anatomy, biology, physiology and basic pathology of the nail organ].

    PubMed

    Haneke, E

    2014-04-01

    The nail is the largest skin appendage. It grows continuously through life in a non-cyclical manner; its growth is not hormone-dependent. The nail of the middle finger of the dominant hand grows fastest with approximately 0.1 mm/day, whereas the big toe nail grows only 0.03-0.05 mm/d. The nails' size and shape vary characteristically from finger to finger and from toe to toe, for which the size and shape of the bone of the terminal phalanx is responsible. The nail apparatus consists of both epithelial and connective tissue components. The matrix epithelium is responsible for the production of the nail plate whereas the nail bed epithelium mediates firm attachment. The hyponychium is a specialized structure sealing the subungual space and allowing the nail plate to physiologically detach from the nail bed. The proximal nail fold covers most of the matrix. Its free end forms the cuticle which seals the nail pocket or cul-de-sac. The dermis of the matrix and nail bed is specialized with a morphogenetic potency. The proximal and lateral nail folds form a frame on three sides giving the nail stability and allowing it to grow out. The nail protects the distal phalanx, is an extremely versatile tool for defense and dexterity and increases the sensitivity of the tip of the finger. Nail apparatus, finger tip, tendons and ligaments of the distal interphalangeal joint form a functional unit and cannot be seen independently. The nail organ has only a certain number of reaction patterns that differ in many respects from hairy and palmoplantar skin. PMID:24718505

  12. Gold-functionalized stainless-steel wire and tube for fiber-in-tube solid-phase microextraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Bu, Yanan; Feng, Juanjuan; Sun, Min; Zhou, Changli; Luo, Chuannan

    2016-03-01

    A fiber-in-tube solid-phase microextraction device based on a gold-functionalized stainless-steel wire and tube was developed and characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. In combination with high-performance liquid chromatography, it was evaluated using six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as model analytes. Important parameters including sampling rate, sample volume, organic solvent content and desorption time were investigated. Under optimized conditions, an online analysis method was established. The linearity was in the range of 0.15-50 μg/L with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9989 to 0.9999, and limits of detection ranged from 0.05 to 0.1 μg/L. The method was applied to determine model analytes in mosquito-repellent incense ash and river water samples, with recoveries in the range of 85-120%. PMID:26681645

  13. Electrodeposition of gold nanoparticles onto an etched stainless steel wire followed by a self-assembled monolayer of octanedithiol as a fiber coating for selective solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yaoxia; Li, Yi; Liu, Haixia; Wang, Xuemei; Du, Xinzhen

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, a novel approach for rapid electrodeposition on an etched stainless steel (SS) wire followed by self-assembled monolayer (SAM) was proposed for the fabrication of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber. The etched SS wire offers a rough surface structure for subsequent electrochemical deposition of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). As a result, uniform AuNPs coating was tightly attached to the etched SS wire substrate. After SAM of 1,8-octanedithiol onto AuNPs coating via Au-S bonding, a unique floccular structure with extremely large surface area was obtained for the fabricated fiber. The mercaptooctyl groups modified AuNPs coated etched SS fiber (C8-S-AuNPs/SS) was then assessed for SPME of phthalate esters (PAEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorophenols (CPs), ultraviolet (UV) filters, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and substituted anilines coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. This fiber exhibits higher extraction capability and better selectivity for some PCBs, CPs, UV filters and PAHs. Extraction conditions were investigated and optimized for SPME performance of UV filters. Under the optimized conditions, the developed method showed good linearity between 0.10 and 400μgL(-1) with corresponding coefficients in the range of 0.9989-0.9998. The limits of detection ranged from 0.025 to 0.056μgL(-1). The relative standard deviation for fiber-to-fiber reproducibility of five fabricated fibers was less than 9.4%. The developed method was successfully applied to the preconcentration and determination of trace UV filters from environmental water samples. Furthermore the fabrication of the C8-S-AuNPs/SS fiber can be performed in a highly reproducible manner. This fabricated fiber exhibits good stability and long lifetime, and could be a potential alternative for the conventional fused silica fiber. PMID:25465004

  14. Routes of drug delivery into the nail apparatus: Implications for the efficacy of topical nail solutions in onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya K; Simpson, Fiona C

    2016-01-01

    The route of antifungal drug entry into the nail plate and the underlying nail bed plays an important role in determining the efficacy of therapy. Oral antifungal agents reach the nail bed and nail plate by being ingested and achieving antifungal levels in the blood stream that are well in excess of the minimum inhibitory concentration. The reticular circulation at the distal end of the digit enables the drug to reach the nail bed, the proximal matrix and the lateral nail folds. The drug then diffuses into the proximal, ventral and lateral nail plate. The primary route of drug delivery for topical lacquers is transungual, with drug applied to the dorsal aspect of the nail plate and penetrating to the underlying nail bed. The new topical agents approved in the US for the treatment of onychomycosis are solutions with lower viscosity and increased nail penetration characteristics; therefore, these agents penetrate through the transungual route, but also through the space between the nail plate and the nail bed. This subungual route is an important method of drug delivery and is able to in part circumvent the thickness of the nail plate. PMID:25983025

  15. 42. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE NAIL HARDENER USED TO HARDEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE NAIL HARDENER USED TO HARDEN AND TEMPER THE NAILS; WEST TUBES IN FOREGRPUND AND DRAWBACK TUBE IN THE CENTER - LaBelle Iron Works, Thirtieth & Wood Streets, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

  16. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Skin and Nail Changes

    MedlinePlus

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Skin and Nail Changes “I was glad to ... human services national institutes of health Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Skin and Nail Changes Protect your skin from ...

  17. [Partial onychectomy and plastic surgery as treatment of ingrown nails].

    PubMed

    Briziarelli, P; Moretti, M; Barbetti, G; Pasquini, F

    1982-05-26

    The Authors report on a technique for a preserving treatment of the ingrowing nail, by means of partial onycectomy associated with plastic repair of soft tissues of the surrounding nail bed. PMID:7088382

  18. Nail psoriasis masqueraded by secondary infection with Rhodotorula mucilaginosa.

    PubMed

    Martini, K; Müller, H; Huemer, H P; Höpfl, R

    2013-11-01

    A 38-year-old man presented with whitish nail changes on all fingers as the sole symptom. The condition had developed within a few days and led to dystrophy of the proximal part of the nail plates. As microscopic examination of nail scrapings demonstrated budding hyphae and the patient working as a teacher reported frequent use of a wet sponge, antifungal therapy was initiated. Subsequent cultures and molecular typing identified Rhodotorula mucilaginosa (formerly R. rubra). This environmental yeast was repeatedly isolated despite of therapy with itraconazole. As no improvement was achieved and testing of the biological activity of the fungus revealed only marginal keratolytic activity, it was considered as a coloniser of a destructed nail matrix. Finally, a biopsy of the nail bed confirmed the diagnosis of nail psoriasis, which rapidly responded to treatment with acitretin and topical calcipotriol/betamethasone cream. Fungal growth in destructed nails masqueraded the underlying disease and may have triggered the psoriatic nail reaction. PMID:23691938

  19. VIEW EASTLEFTBUILDING 4NO 1 WIRE MILL (1871) RIGHTBUILDING 25NO 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW EAST-LEFT-BUILDING 4-NO 1 WIRE MILL (1871) RIGHT-BUILDING 25-NO 2 WIRE MILL (c.1853) RIGHT-BUILDING 23 WIRE MILL & PATENTING (1853 & 1900)-BEHIND 25 CENTER-PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE (C.1873) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  20. Clinical and Educational Gaps in Diagnosis of Nail Disorders.

    PubMed

    Hare, Anna Q; Rich, Phoebe

    2016-07-01

    Dermatologists care for skin, hair, and nails, yet many dermatologists find nail disorders challenging. Practice gaps in knowledge, skill, and attitude in clinical practice and resident education are sometimes impediments to timely medical and surgical diagnosis of nail disorders. Limited resident exposure to diagnosis and management of complicated nail disorders and lack of experience performing diagnostic and surgical procedures impairs progress toward surmounting these gaps. PMID:27363883

  1. Unusual manifestation of the yellow nail syndrome - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Papaiordanou, Francine; Epstein, Marina Gabrielle; Miyaoka, Mariana Yumi; Yang, Jeane Jeong Hoon; Pires, Mario Cezar

    2014-01-01

    The yellow nail syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by the classic triad of yellow and dystrophic nails, lymphedema and pleural effusion. We report in this paper a case of yellow nail syndrome, presenting the classic triad of the disease, associated with an unusual lymph accumulation in the abdomen region. PMID:24937826

  2. No Wires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLoughry, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    The University of California at Santa Cruz has completed a successful test of a wireless computer network that would enable students and professors to get on line from anywhere on campus. The network, linked by radio waves, could save millions of dollars in campus wiring costs and would better meet student and faculty information needs. (MSE)

  3. Novel unbreakable solid-phase microextraction fibers on stainless steel wire and application for the determination of oxadiargyl in environmental and agricultural samples in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Es-Haghi, Ali; Baghernejad, Masoud; Bagheri, Habib

    2014-10-01

    Sol-gel based solid-phase microextraction fibers supported by a stainless steel wire were fabricated and employed for GC-MS determination of oxadiargyl in real samples. The fibers were based on four compounds with different polarity: polar and non-polar (end-capped) poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and poly(ethylene-propyleneglycol)-monobutyl ether (UCON). For this purpose, the surface of the stainless steel was initially modified by (3-mercaptopropyl) trimethoxysilane. The results of the modification procedure were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. After the modification, four different sol-gel based SPME fibers with different values of polarity, polar and non-polar PDMS, PEG, and UCON have been prepared and investigated. They are supposed to be employed to determinate oxadiargyl in agricultural and environmental samples prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Most important parameters that affect the extraction efficiency were also optimized. Under optimized conditions, the proposed method was found to be linear for the concentrations ranging from 100 ng L(-1) to 2 mg L(-1) with R(2)=0.997. Limit of detection (LOD) of 40 ng L(-1) and relative standard deviation of less than 10% were obtained. Relative recovery in environmental and agricultural samples was in the range of 73-96%. PMID:25059153

  4. VIEW SOUTH, LEFT BUILDING 40WIRE WAREHOUSE (1915) CENTER BUILDING 42ROPE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTH, LEFT- BUILDING 40-WIRE WAREHOUSE (1915) CENTER- BUILDING 42-ROPE SHOP (1910) RIGHT- BUILDING 32; MACHINE SHOP (1890) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  5. VIEW SOUTHLEFTBUILDING 102 ELMER STREET ROPE SHOP (1917) CENTERBUILDING 27WIRE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTH-LEFT-BUILDING 102 ELMER STREET ROPE SHOP (1917) CENTER-BUILDING 27-WIRE ROPE WAREHOUSE (1929) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  6. Metallurgical investigation of wire breakage of tyre bead grade

    PubMed Central

    Palit, Piyas; Das, Souvik; Mathur, Jitendra

    2015-01-01

    Tyre bead grade wire is used for tyre making application. The wire is used as reinforcement inside the polymer of tyre. The wire is available in different size/section such as 1.6–0.80 mm thin Cu coated wire. During tyre making operation at tyre manufacturer company, wire failed frequently. In this present study, different broken/defective wire samples were collected from wire mill for detailed investigation of the defect. The natures of the defects were localized and similar in nature. The fracture surface was of finger nail type. Crow feet like defects including button like surface abnormalities were also observed on the broken wire samples. The defect was studied at different directions under microscope. Different advanced metallographic techniques have been used for detail investigation. The analysis revealed that, white layer of surface martensite was formed and it caused the final breakage of wire. In this present study we have also discussed about the possible reason for the formation of such kind of surface martensite (hard-phase). PMID:26973808

  7. Manganese accumulation in nail clippings as a biomarker of welding fume exposure and neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Sriram, Krishnan; Lin, Gary X; Jefferson, Amy M; Roberts, Jenny R; Andrews, Ronnee N; Kashon, Michael L; Antonini, James M

    2012-01-27

    Occupational exposure to welding fumes (WF) is thought to cause Parkinson's disease (PD)-like neurological dysfunction. An apprehension that WF may accelerate the onset of PD also exists. Identifying reliable biomarkers of exposure and neurotoxicity are therefore critical for biomonitoring and neurological risk characterization of WF exposure. Manganese (Mn) in welding consumables is considered the causative factor for the neurological deficits seen in welders. Hence, we sought to determine if Mn accumulation in blood or nail clippings can be a marker for adverse exposure and neurotoxicity. To model this, rats were exposed by intratracheal instillation to dissolved or suspended fume components collected from gas metal arc-mild steel (GMA-MS) or manual metal arc-hard surfacing (MMA-HS) welding. Trace element analysis revealed selective Mn accumulation in dopaminergic brain areas, striatum (STR) and midbrain (MB), following exposure to the two fumes. This caused dopaminergic abnormality as evidenced by loss of striatal tyrosine hydroxylase (Th; 25-32% decrease) and Parkinson disease (autosomal recessive, early onset) 7 (Park7; 25-46% decrease) proteins. While blood Mn was not detectable, Mn levels in nails strongly correlated with the pattern of Mn accumulation in the striatum (R(2)=0.9386) and midbrain (R(2)=0.9332). Exposure to manganese chloride (MnCl(2)) caused similar Mn accumulation in STR, MB and nail. Our findings suggest that nail Mn has the potential to be a sensitive and reliable biomarker for long-term Mn exposure and associated neurotoxicity. The non-invasive means by which nail clippings can be collected, stored, and transported with relative ease, make it an attractive surrogate for biomonitoring WF exposures in occupational settings. PMID:22085607

  8. Controversies in the Treatment of Ingrown Nails

    PubMed Central

    Haneke, Eckart

    2012-01-01

    Ingrown toenails are one of the most frequent nail disorders of young persons. They may negatively influence daily activities, cause discomfort and pain. Since more than 1000 years, many different treatments have been proposed. Today, conservative and surgical methods are available, which, when carried out with expertise, are able to cure the disease. Packing, taping, gutter treatment, and nail braces are options for relatively mild cases whereas surgery is exclusively done by physicians. Phenolisation of the lateral matrix horn is now the safest, simplest, and most commonly performed method with the lowest recurrence rate. Wedge excisions can no longer be recommended PMID:22675345

  9. Comparative study on corrosion behaviour of Nitinol and stainless steel orthodontic wires in simulated saliva solution in presence of fluoride ions.

    PubMed

    Mirjalili, M; Momeni, M; Ebrahimi, N; Moayed, M H

    2013-05-01

    Localized corrosion and effects of pre-passivation treatment of Nitinol and SS304 orthodontic wires in simulated saliva solution in the presence and absence of fluoride ions were investigated by means of potentiodynamic and potentiostatic polarisations. Results revealed that Nitinol does not show pitting corrosion in saliva solution however, SS304 shows pitting corrosion. Meanwhile fluoride ion has deteriorative effect on pitting corrosion of Nitinol, while its effect on SS304 was marginally constructive. Additionally, the presence of artificial crevice has no effect on corrosion behaviour in the presence of fluoride. Pre-passivation treatment has positive influence on pitting corrosion of both alloys in the presence of F(-) ions. PMID:23498236

  10. Modeling and optimization of cylindrical wire electro discharge machining of AISI D3 tool steel using non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golshan, Abolfazl; Gohari, Soheil; Ayob, Amran

    2011-10-01

    In this study the influence of Cylindrical Wire Electro Discharge Machining on surface roughness and material removal rate is conducted. From experimental DOE method and mathematical modeling, the importance and correlation between corresponding parameters and process output characterization are studied. The investigated input parameters include electrical current, pulse-off time, voltage, rotation speed and cone angle. The Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm is then applied on the outputs to generate appropriate optimized models. The optimization procedure shows that the suggested method results in a high performance problem solving.

  11. An aging study of wire chambers with dimethyl ether

    SciTech Connect

    Jibaly, M.; Chrusch, P. Jr.; Hilgenberg, G.; Majewski, S.; Wojcik, R.; Sauli, F.; Gaudaen, J.

    1989-02-01

    The authors report results on the aging of different types of resistive and non-resistive wires in wire chambers filled with dimethyl ether (DME) of varying degrees of purity. Among the Freon impurities detected in our DME batches, only Freon-11 was found to contribute to the aging process. Of the resistive wires, Nicotin and Stablohm produced fast aging, whereas stainless steel withstood extended irradiation in purified DME (up to 1 C/cm) without any apparent damage. Gold-plated tungsten and molybdenum wires produced results comparable to those of the stainless steel.

  12. In vivo evaluation of Zr-based bulk metallic glass alloy intramedullary nails in rat femora.

    PubMed

    Imai, Kazuhiro; Hiromoto, Sachiko

    2014-03-01

    Zr-based bulk metallic glasses (BMG) show high corrosion resistance in vitro and higher strength and lower Young's modulus than crystalline alloys with the similar composition. This study aimed to perform an in vivo evaluation of Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu17.5 BMG. Osteotomy of the femur was done in rats and stabilized with intramedullary nails made of Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu17.5 BMG, Ti-6Al-4V alloy, or 316L stainless steel. Systemic and local effects of each type of nail were evaluated by measuring the levels of Cu and Ni in the blood and the surrounding soft tissue. Changes of the surface of each nail were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Healing of the osteotomy was evaluated by peripheral quantitative computed tomography and mechanical testing. No increase of Cu and Ni levels was recognized. Surface of the BMG showed no noticeable change, while Ti-6Al-4V alloy showed Ca and P deposition and 316L stainless steel showed surface irregularities and pitting by SEM observation. The stress strain index, maximum torque, torsional stiffness, and energy absorption values were larger for the BMG than those for Ti-6Al-4V alloy, although there was no significant difference. The Zr-based BMG can promote osteotomy healing as fast as Ti-6Al-4V alloy, with the possible advantage of the Zr-based BMG that bone bonding is less likely, allowing easier nail removal compared with Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The Zr-based BMG is promising for the use in osteosynthetic devices that are eventually removed. PMID:24281655

  13. Dermatologic Manifestations of the Lower Extremity: Nail Surgery.

    PubMed

    Jellinek, Nathaniel J; Vélez, Nicole F

    2016-07-01

    Nail surgery is a fundamental component of podiatric surgery. Nail disorders are common and may cause significant morbidity and occasionally mortality. Diagnosis of inflammatory and infectious conditions, and of benign or malignant tumors, often requires a biopsy of the nail unit. Excisional surgery may also be curative for certain tumors. This article reviews key elements of nail anatomy, surgical preparation, local anesthesia, and methods to achieve and maintain a bloodless field. A familiarity with these concepts should allow clinicians to develop a surgical plan and approach when patients present with a nail disorder requiring biopsy or surgical treatment. PMID:27215154

  14. Effect of electrical spot welding on load deflection rate of orthodontic wires

    PubMed Central

    Alavi, Shiva; Abrishami, Arezoo

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the methods used for joining metals together is welding, which can be carried out using different techniques such as electric spot welding. This study evaluated the effect of electric spot welding on the load deflection rate of stainless steel and chromium-cobalt orthodontic wires. Materials and Methods: In this experimental-laboratory study, load deflection rate of 0.016 × 0.022 inch stainless steel and chromium cobalt wires were evaluated in five groups (n =18): group one: Stainless steel wires, group two: chromium-cobalt wires, group three: stainless steel wires welded to stainless steel wires, group four: Stainless steel wires welded to chromium-cobalt wires, group five: chromium-cobalt wire welded to chromium-cobalt wires. Afterward, the forces induced by the samples in 0.5 mm, 1 mm, 1.5 mm deflection were measured using a universal testing machine. Then mean force measured for each group was compared with other groups. The data were analyzed using repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA), one-way ANOVA, and paired t-test by the SPSS software. The significance level was set as 0.05. Results: The Tukey test showed that there were significant differences between the load deflection rates of welded groups compared to control ones (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Considering the limitation of this study, the electric spot welding process performed on stainless steel and chromium-cobalt wires increased their load deflection rates. PMID:26604957

  15. Membrane separation cuts disposal costs for wire-products maker

    SciTech Connect

    Nichele, V.B.

    1996-03-01

    To reduce disposal and maintenance costs associated with alkaline washing stations, a manufacturer of wire-welded products installed a membrane-separation wastewater treatment system. The Missouri-based company produces welded-wire products, such as shelves, closet conversions, wire baskets, display racks and coat hangers. The steel parts undergo an extensive cleaning process that consists of five spray-washing stages. An alkaline solution first washes oil and solids from the steel parts, then is washed off the parts. A phosphatizing solution etches the steel parts. Finally, the parts are rinsed thoroughly with potable water before they are powder coated.

  16. In vitro human nail penetration and kinetics of panthenol.

    PubMed

    Hui, X; Hornby, S B; Wester, R C; Barbadillo, S; Appa, Y; Maibach, H

    2007-08-01

    The in vitro absorption of panthenol into and through the human nail was examined in this study. Panthenol, the alcohol form of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), is believed to act as a humectant and improve the flexibility and strength of nails. A liquid nail treatment formulated with panthenol (2%) was compared to a solution of panthenol (2%) in water. Fingernail specimens were dosed daily for 7 days with either the nail treatment (non-lacquer film forming) formulation or aqueous solution with sampling performed every 24 h. Panthenol concentrations were determined in the dorsal surface, interior (by drilling and removal) and in the supporting bed under the human nail. Panthenol levels in the dorsal nail (R(2) = 0.87; P < 0.001), nail interior (R(2) = 0.94; P < 0.001) and nail supporting bed (R(2) = 0.79; P < 0.003) showed a significant linear increase with each day of dosing. Significantly more panthenol was delivered into the interior nail and supporting bed by a nail treatment formulation than from an aqueous solution. The film acts not only as a reservoir of panthenol, but also acts to increase the hydration of the nail and the thermodynamic activity of panthenol as well, thereby enhancing diffusion. PMID:18489355

  17. 1st meeting on topical drug delivery to the nail.

    PubMed

    Murdan, Sudaxshina

    2007-07-01

    The first ever symposium dedicated solely to drug delivery to the nail following topical application was held on the 2nd April 2007, in London, UK, organised by Dr Clive Roper (Charles River Laboratories, Scotland) and Dr Sudaxshina Murdan (School of Pharmacy, University of London, UK), under the auspices of Skin Forum. The 1-day meeting was attended by approximately 35 delegates from industry, academia and hospitals, and provided a much-needed forum for the presentation and discussion of research and problems in this emerging field. Topical drug delivery is especially suitable for onychomycosis (fungal infections of the nail plate and/or nail bed) and nail psoriasis, which affect 2 - 13 and 1 - 3% of the general population, respectively, and make up the bulk of nail disorders. Topical therapy would avoid the adverse events and drug interactions of systemic antifungal agents and the pain of injection when antipsoriatic agents are injected into affected nail folds. However, successful topical therapy is extremely challenging due to the very low permeability of the nail plate. Five speakers spoke about various aspects of topical drug delivery to the nail, including review of the nail plate structure, function, diseases, their existing therapies (systemic and topical), limitations and global sales. The need for effective topical drug delivery to the nail to overcome the problems associated with present treatment, and the fact that there are few topical formulations available for the treatment of nail fungal infections and psoriasis, and the even fewer effective formulations, was highlighted. PMID:17683257

  18. Onychomycosis: Potential of Nail Lacquers in Transungual Delivery of Antifungals.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Nida; Sharma, Hemlata; Pathak, Kamla

    2016-01-01

    Onychomycosis constitutes the most common fungal infection of the nail (skin beneath the nail bed) that affects the finger as well as toe nails. It is an infection that is initiated by yeasts, dermatophytes, and nondermatophyte molds. Nail lacquers are topical solutions intended only for use on fingernails as well as toenails and have been found to be useful in the treatment of onychomycosis. Thus, in the present review an attempt has been made to focus on the treatment aspects of onychomycosis and the ungual delivery of antifungals via nail lacquer. Several patents issued on nail lacquer till date have also been discussed. Penetration efficiency was assessed by several researchers across the human nail plate to investigate the potentiality of nail lacquer based formulations. Various clinical trials have also been conducted in order to evaluate the safety and efficacy of nail lacquers in delivering antifungal agents. Thus, it can be concluded that nail lacquer based preparations are efficacious and stable formulations. These possess tremendous potential for clinical topical application to the nail bed in the treatment of onychomycosis. PMID:27123362

  19. Onychomycosis: Potential of Nail Lacquers in Transungual Delivery of Antifungals

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Hemlata; Pathak, Kamla

    2016-01-01

    Onychomycosis constitutes the most common fungal infection of the nail (skin beneath the nail bed) that affects the finger as well as toe nails. It is an infection that is initiated by yeasts, dermatophytes, and nondermatophyte molds. Nail lacquers are topical solutions intended only for use on fingernails as well as toenails and have been found to be useful in the treatment of onychomycosis. Thus, in the present review an attempt has been made to focus on the treatment aspects of onychomycosis and the ungual delivery of antifungals via nail lacquer. Several patents issued on nail lacquer till date have also been discussed. Penetration efficiency was assessed by several researchers across the human nail plate to investigate the potentiality of nail lacquer based formulations. Various clinical trials have also been conducted in order to evaluate the safety and efficacy of nail lacquers in delivering antifungal agents. Thus, it can be concluded that nail lacquer based preparations are efficacious and stable formulations. These possess tremendous potential for clinical topical application to the nail bed in the treatment of onychomycosis. PMID:27123362

  20. Treatment of Nail Psoriasis: Common Concepts and New Trends

    PubMed Central

    Oram, Yasemin; Akkaya, A. Deniz

    2013-01-01

    The lifetime incidence of nail involvement in psoriatic patients is estimated to be 80–90%, and the nails can be affected in 10% to 55% of psoriatic patients. Psoriasis may also solely involve the nails, without any other skin findings, in which the treatment can be more challenging. Nail psoriasis may lead to considerable impairment in quality of life due to aesthetic concerns and more importantly limitations in daily activities resulting from the associated pain, which may be overlooked by the physicians. Several topical and systemic treatment modalities, as well as radiation and light systems, have been used in the treatment of nail psoriasis. In the last decade, the introduction of biologic agents and the utilization of laser systems have brought a new insight into the treatment of nail psoriasis. This paper focuses on the recent advances, as well as the conventional methods, in treating nail psoriasis in adults and children, in reference to an extensive literature search. PMID:23762032

  1. Twenty-Nail Dystrophy and Darier's (Darier-White) Disease.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Chatterjee, Kingshuk; Chaudhuri, Anita; Verma, Prashant; Sharma, Sonal

    2015-01-01

    A 35-year-old married man presented with progressive distortion of all the nails of the hands and toes for the past 30 years. Initially, his parents noticed yellowish discoloration and roughness of the thumb nail at the age of 5 years. Since then, the changes have been insidious to involve the other nails. Currently, the nails are lusterless, rough, ridged, and difficult to trim. In addition, the patient has had dark, dirty-looking raised eruptions over the skin, attended by generalized itching, corresponding to the onset of the nail lesions. His mother experienced similar disease. Examination of the nails was marked by alternating elevation and depression (ridging) and/or pitting, lack of luster, roughening, sandpaper texture, and splitting, along with muddy, grayish white discoloration. Dystrophy of the nails was prominent. The changes were bilateral and symmetrical, affecting all 10 fingers and 10 toes (Figure 1). PMID:26861433

  2. Matrix based system of isotretinoin as nail lacquer to enhance transungal delivery across human nail plate.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Monika; Sharma, Vijay; Pathak, Kamla

    2015-01-15

    The project was aimed at development of isotretinoin nail lacquer and assessment of its penetration efficiency across human nail plate. Preliminary studies (hydration enhancement factor and SEM) aided the selection of thioglycolic acid as permeation and eugenol was selected as local anesthetic in the formulation. The nail lacquer was optimized by 3(2) factorial design and a total of nine formulations were prepared and screened. In vitro adhesion and ex vivo permeation (cumulative drug permeation per unit area (CDP/A) = 6.61 ± 0.57 mg/cm(2)) across bovine hoof guided the selection of F3 as optimized formulation that was improvised. Viscosity adjustments to improve handling characteristics were affected by incorporation of ethyl cellulose (6%; F3M1) that scaled the viscosity to 312.681 cp and insignificantly (p > 0.05) affected CDP/A (6.32 ± 0.45 mg/cm(2)). In comparison to marketed preparation (Retino-A cream) F3M1 afforded two fold increase in CDP/A. The permeation characteristics were defined by Higuchi model (r(2) = 0.964) and flux value of 176 μg/cm(2)/h. Confocal laser scanning microscopy, after 72 h of nail lacquer application, revealed extensive distribution of the fluorescent tracer across the human nail plate in comparison to control that was confined to the top layer. Conclusively, an efficacious and stable nail lacquer of isotretinoin was developed for potential clinical topical use to target the drug to nail bed in treatment of nail psoriasis. PMID:25445993

  3. Mechanical properties of orthodontic wires in tension, bending, and torsion.

    PubMed

    Drake, S R; Wayne, D M; Powers, J M; Asgar, K

    1982-09-01

    The mechanical properties of three sizes of stainless steel (SS), nickel-titanium (NT), and titanium-molybdenum (TM) orthodontic wires were studied in tension, bending, and torsion. The wires (0.016 inch, 0.017 by 0.025 inch, and 0.019 by 0.025 inch) were tested in the as-received condition. Tensile testing and stiffness testing machines along with a torsional instrument were used. Mean values and standard deviations of properties were computed. The data were analyzed statistically by analysis of variance using a factorial design. Means were ranked by a Tukey interval calculated at the 95 percent level of confidence. In tension, the stainless steel wires had the least maximum elastic strain or springback, whereas the titanium-molybdenum wires had the most. Higher values of springback indicate the capacity for an increased range of activation clinically. In bending and torsion, the stainless steel wires had the least stored energy at a fixed moment, whereas the nickel-titanium wires had the most. Spring rates in bending and torsion, however, were highest for stainless steel wires and lowest for nickel-titanium wires. A titanium-molybdenum teardrop closing loop delivered less than one half the force of a comparable stainless steel loop for similar activations. PMID:6961793

  4. Precision wire feeder for small diameter wire

    DOEpatents

    Brandon, E.D.; Hooper, F.M.; Reichenbach, M.L.

    1992-08-11

    A device for feeding small diameter wire having a diameter less than 0.04 mm (16 mil) to a welding station includes a driving wheel for controllably applying a non-deforming driving force to the wire to move the free end of the wire towards the welding station; and a tension device such as a torque motor for constantly applying a reverse force to the wire in opposition to the driving force to keep the wire taut. 1 figure.

  5. Precision wire feeder for small diameter wire

    DOEpatents

    Brandon, Eldon D.; Hooper, Frederick M.; Reichenbach, Marvin L.

    1992-01-01

    A device for feeding small diameter wire having a diameter less than 0.04 mm (16 mil) to a welding station includes a driving wheel for controllably applying a non-deforming driving force to the wire to move the free end of the wire towards the welding station; and a tension device such as a torque motor for constantly applying a reverse force to the wire in opposition to the driving force to keep the wire taut.

  6. Short-term isotretinoin-induced elkonyxis and median nail dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Alli, Nuran; Dogan, Sibel

    2016-03-01

    Elkonyxis and median nail distrophy are very rare nail fold disorders due to the damage in nail matrix and proximal nail fold. Herein, we report a patient with both elkonyxis and median nail distrophy occured two months into a treatment course of isotretinoin that is to our knowledge for the first time. PMID:25799213

  7. Bifunctional ectodermal stem cells around the nail display dual fate homeostasis and adaptive wounding response toward nail regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Yvonne; Kandyba, Eve; Chen, Yi-Bu; Ruffins, Seth; Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Kobielak, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of adult stem cells (SCs) is fundamental for organ maintenance and tissue regeneration. On the body surface, different ectodermal organs exhibit distinctive modes of regeneration and the dynamics of their SC homeostasis remain to be unraveled. A slow cycling characteristic has been used to identify SCs in hair follicles and sweat glands; however, whether a quiescent population exists in continuously growing nails remains unknown. Using an in vivo label retaining cells (LRCs) system, we detected an unreported population of quiescent cells within the basal layer of the nail proximal fold, organized in a ring-like configuration around the nail root. These nail LRCs express the hair stem cell marker, keratin 15 (K15), and lineage tracing show that these K15-derived cells can contribute to both the nail structure and peri-nail epidermis, and more toward the latter. Thus, this stem cell population is bifunctional. Upon nail plucking injury, the homeostasis is tilted with these SCs dominantly delivering progeny to the nail matrix and differentiated nail plate, demonstrating their plasticity to adapt to wounding stimuli. Moreover, in vivo engraftment experiments established that transplanted nail LRCs can actively participate in functional nail regeneration. Transcriptional profiling of isolated nail LRCs revealed bone morphogenetic protein signaling favors nail differentiation over epidermal fate. Taken together, we have found a previously unidentified ring-configured population of bifunctional SCs, located at the interface between the nail appendage organ and adjacent epidermis, which physiologically display coordinated homeostatic dynamics but are capable of rediverting stem cell flow in response to injury. PMID:25277970

  8. Fabrication of FFTF fuel pin wire wrap

    SciTech Connect

    Epperson, E.M.

    1980-06-01

    Lateral spacing between FFTF fuel pins is required to provide a passageway for the sodium coolant to flow over each pin to remove heat generated by the fission process. This spacing is provided by wrapping each fuel pin with type 316 stainless steel wire. This wire has a 1.435mm (0.0565 in.) to 1.448mm (0.0570 in.) diameter, contains 17 +- 2% cold work and was fabricated and tested to exacting RDT Standards. About 500 kg (1100 lbs) or 39 Km (24 miles) of fuel pin wrap wire is used in each core loading. Fabrication procedures and quality assurance tests are described.

  9. Fabrication of ciprofloxacin molecular imprinted polymer coating on a stainless steel wire as a selective solid-phase microextraction fiber for sensitive determination of fluoroquinolones in biological fluids and tablet formulation using HPLC-UV detection.

    PubMed

    Mirzajani, Roya; Kardani, Fatemeh

    2016-04-15

    A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) fiber on stainless steel wire using ciprofloxacin template with a mild template removal condition was synthetized and evaluated for fiber solid phase microextraction (SPME) of fluoroquinolones (FQs) from biological fluids and pharmaceutical samples, followed by high performance liquid chromatography analysis with UV detection (HPLC-UV). The developed MIP fiber exhibited high selectivity for the analytes in complex matrices. The coating of the fibers were inspected using fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry, thermogaravimetric analysis, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy as well as by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The fiber shows high thermal stability (up to 300°C), good reproducibility and long lifetime. The composite coating did not swell in organic solvents nor did it strip off from the substrate. It was also highly stable and extremely adherent to the surface of the stainless steel fiber. The fabricated fiber exclusively exhibited excellent extraction efficiency and selectivity for some FQs. The effective parameters influencing the microextraction efficiency such as pH, extraction time, desorption condition, and stirring rate were investigated. Under optimized conditions, the limits of detection of the four FQs ranged from 0.023-0.033 μg L(-1) (S/N=5) and the calibration graphs were linear in the concentration range from 0.1-40 μg L(-1), the inter-day and intraday relative standard deviations (RSD) for various FQs at three different concentration level (n=5) using a single fiber were 1.1-4.4% and the fiber to fiber RSD% (n=5) was 4.3-6.7% at 5 μg L(-1) of each anlyetes. The method was successfully applied for quantification of FQs in real samples including serum, plasma and tablet formulation with the recoveries between 97 to 102%. PMID:26852159

  10. Ability of hydroxypropyl chitosan nail lacquer to protect against dermatophyte nail infection.

    PubMed

    Ghannoum, M A; Long, L; Isham, N; Bulgheroni, A; Setaro, M; Caserini, M; Palmieri, R; Mailland, F

    2015-04-01

    The development of a topical agent that would strengthen the nail, improve the natural barrier, and provide better drug penetration to the nail bed is needed. In this study, we examined the effects of a hydroxypropyl chitosan (HPCH)-based nail solution using a bovine hoof model. Following application of the nail solution, changes in the hardness of the hoof samples were measured using the Vickers method. Tensile and flexural strengths were tested by stretching or punching the samples, respectively. The ultrastructure was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and samples stained with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stain were used to determine the fungal penetration depth. The comparators included 40% urea and 70% isopropyl alcohol solutions. The HPCH nail solution increased hoof sample hardness in comparison to the untreated control sample (mean, 22.3 versus 19.4 Vickers pyramid number [HV]). Similarly, the HPCH solution increased the tensile strength (mean, 33.07 versus 28.42 MPa) and flexural strength (mean, 183.79 versus 181.20 MPa) compared to the untreated control. In contrast, the comparators had adverse effects on hardness and strength. SEM showed that the HPCH solution reduced the area of sample crumbling following abrasion compared to the untreated control (7,418 versus 17,843 pixels), and the PAS-stained images showed that the HPCH solution reduced penetration of the dermatophyte hyphae (e.g., penetration by Trichophyton mentagrophytes was <25 μm at day 9 versus 275 μm in the untreated control). Unlike chemicals normally used in cosmetic treatments, repeated application of the HPCH nail solution may help prevent the establishment of new or recurring fungal nail infection. PMID:25547349

  11. Finite element simulation of impact response of wire mesh screens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Caizheng; Shankar, Krishna; Fien, Alan

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, the response of wire mesh screens to low velocity impact with blunt objects is investigated using finite element (FE) simulation. The woven wire mesh is modelled with homogeneous shell elements with equivalent smeared mechanical properties. The mechanical behaviour of the woven wire mesh was determined experimentally with tensile tests on steel wire mesh coupons to generate the data for the smeared shell material used in the FE. The effects of impacts with a low mass (4 kg) and a large mass (40 kg) providing the same impact energy are studied. The joint between the wire mesh screen and the aluminium frame surrounding it is modelled using contact elements with friction between the corresponding elements. Damage to the screen of different types compromising its structural integrity, such as mesh separation and pulling out from the surrounding frame is modelled. The FE simulation is validated with results of impact tests conducted on woven steel wire screen meshes.

  12. Corrosion behavior, biocompatibility and biomechanical stability of a prototype magnesium-based biodegradable intramedullary nailing system.

    PubMed

    Krämer, Manuel; Schilling, Markus; Eifler, Rainer; Hering, Britta; Reifenrath, Janin; Besdo, Silke; Windhagen, Henning; Willbold, Elmar; Weizbauer, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Implants made of degradable magnesium alloys are a potential alternative to conventional orthopaedic implant materials, e.g. stainless steel or titanium. Intramedullary nails made of the magnesium alloy LAE442 were subjected to cyclic fatigue tests in both distilled water and Hank's Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) at 37.5°C until implant failure or a limit of 500,000cycles was reached. In distilled water, four of the five nails were still intact after the end of the biomechanical test. In HBSS, a breakage within the first 70,000 bending cycles was observed. Additionally, the degradation rate of this alloy was determined in HBSS according to the weight loss method (0.24±0.12mmyear(-1)) and based on gas release (0.21±0.03mmyear(-1)) with a standard eudiometer. A cytotoxicity test with L929 cells was carried out in accordance with EN ISO 10993-5/12. This test demonstrated sufficient cell viability of the diluted extracts (50%, 25% and 12.5%). The relative metabolic activity of the 100% extract was reduced slightly below 70%, which is classified as a threshold value for cytotoxicity. In conclusion, this in vitro study indicates that intramedullary nails made of LAE442 may not have the required fatigue resistance for load-bearing applications and the development of a corrosion-protective coating may be necessary to prevent early failure of the implant. PMID:26652357

  13. METHOD OF MAKING WIRE FUEL ELEMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Zambrow, J.L.

    1960-08-01

    A method is given for making a nuclear reactor fuel element in the form of a uranium-bearing wire clad with zirconium. A uranium bar is enclosed in a zirconium sheath which is coated with an oxide of magnesium, beryllium, or zirconium. The sheathed bar is then placed in a steel tube and reduced to the desired diameter by swaging at 800 to 900 deg C, after which the steel and oxide are removed.

  14. Development of a precision wire feeder for small-diameter wire

    SciTech Connect

    Brandon, E.D.

    1995-03-01

    At Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, the author designed and fabricated a precision wire feeder to be used with high energy density (electron beam and laser beam) welding for weld joints where filler wire might be needed to fill a gap or to adjust the chemical composition so that a crack-free weld could be made. The wire feeder incorporates a 25,000 step-per-revolution motor to power a urethane-coated drive roll. A microprocessor-based controller provides precise control of the motor and allows both continuous and pulsed feeding of the wire. A unidirectional 0.75-in.-dia ball bearing is used to press the wire against the drive roll. A slight constant backward tension is maintained on the wire spool by a Bodine torque motor. A Teflon tube is used to guide the wire from the drive roll to the vicinity of the weld, where a hypodermic needle is used to aim the wire into the weld pool. The operation of the wire feeder was demonstrated by feeding a 10-mil-dia, Type 304 stainless steel wire into a variety of CO{sub 2} laser beam welds. The resulting welds are smooth and continuous, and the welds are considered to be completely satisfactory for a variety of applications.

  15. Prognostic Factors for Predicting Outcomes After Intramedullary Nailing of the Tibia

    PubMed Central

    Schemitsch, Emil H.; Bhandari, Mohit; Guyatt, Gordon; Sanders, David W.; Swiontkowski, Marc; Tornetta, Paul; Walter, Stephen D.; Zdero, Rad; Goslings, J.C.; Teague, David; Jeray, Kyle; McKee, Michael D.; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Bhandari, Mohit; Guyatt, Gordon; Sanders, David W.; Swiontkowski, Marc; Tornetta, Paul; Walter, Stephen D.; Zdero, Rad; Goslings, J.C.; Teague, David; Jeray, Kyle; McKee, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prediction of negative postoperative outcomes after long-bone fracture treatment may help to optimize patient care. We recently completed the Study to Prospectively Evaluate Reamed Intramedullary Nails in Patients with Tibial Fractures (SPRINT), a large, multicenter trial of reamed and unreamed intramedullary nailing of tibial shaft fractures in 1226 patients. Using the SPRINT data, we conducted an investigation of baseline and surgical factors to determine any associations with an increased risk of adverse events within one year of intramedullary nailing. Methods: Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, we investigated fifteen baseline and surgical factors for any associations with an increased risk of negative outcomes. Results: There was an increased risk of negative events in patients with a high-energy mechanism of injury (odds ratio [OR] = 1.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05 to 2.35), a stainless steel compared with a titanium nail (OR = 1.52; 95% CI, 1.10 to 2.13), a fracture gap (OR = 2.40; 95% CI, 1.47 to 3.94), and full weight-bearing status after surgery (OR = 1.63; 95% CI, 1.00 to 2.64). There was no increased risk with the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, late or early time to surgery, or smoking status. Open fractures had a higher risk of events among patients treated with reamed nailing (OR = 3.26; 95% CI, 2.01 to 5.28) but not in patients treated with unreamed nailing (OR = 1.50; 95% CI, 0.92 to 2.47). Patients with open fractures who had wound management either without any additional procedures or with delayed primary closure had a decreased risk of events compared with patients who required subsequent, more complex reconstruction (OR = 0.18 [95% CI, 0.09 to 0.35] and 0.29 [95% CI, 0.14 to 0.62], respectively). Conclusions: We identified several baseline fracture and surgical characteristics that may increase the risk of adverse events in patients with tibial shaft fractures. Surgeons should consider the

  16. Development of a solid-phase microextraction fiber by the chemical binding of graphene oxide on a silver-coated stainless-steel wire with an ionic liquid as the crosslinking agent.

    PubMed

    Sun, Min; Feng, Juanjuan; Bu, Yanan; Duan, Huimin; Wang, Xiaojiao; Luo, Chuannan

    2014-12-01

    Graphene oxide was bonded onto a silver-coated stainless-steel wire using an ionic liquid as the crosslinking agent by a layer-by-layer strategy. The novel solid-phase microextraction fiber was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Raman microscopy. A multilayer graphene oxide layer was closely coated onto the supporting substrate. The thickness of the coating was about 4 μm. Coupled with gas chromatography, the fiber was evaluated using five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (fluorene, anthracene, fluoranthene, 1,2-benzophenanthrene, and benzo(a)pyrene) as model analytes in direct-immersion mode. The main conditions (extraction time, extraction temperature, ionic strength, and desorption time) were optimized by a factor-by-factor optimization. The as-established method exhibited a wide linearity range (0.5-200 μg/L) and low limits of determination (0.05-0.10 μg/L). It was applied to analyze environmental water samples of rain and river water. Three kinds of the model analytes were quantified and the recoveries of samples spiked at 10 μg/L were in the range of 92.3-120 and 93.8-115%, respectively. The obtained results indicated the fiber was efficient for solid-phase microextraction analysis. PMID:25283136

  17. Sarcoidosis: radiographic manifestations in the nails and distal phalanges.

    PubMed

    Albers, Brittany K; Sluzevich, Jason C; Garner, Hillary W

    2016-05-01

    Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease which can affect multiple organ systems. Clinical and radiologic manifestations depend on the organ system involved and the chronicity of disease. Nail involvement in sarcoidosis is rare, but is clinically relevant as it indicates chronic systemic disease. Nail abnormalities can be identified radiographically, and when seen in patients with known or suspected sarcoidosis, should prompt careful evaluation of the underlying bone for osseous involvement. We describe a case of sarcoidosis with radiographic findings in the nails and distal phalangeal tufts, which were indicative of nail and osseous sarcoid involvement and strongly supported the presence of chronic systemic disease. Although the nail findings resolved clinically and on radiographs after treatment, the osseous findings showed only minimal improvement. To our knowledge, the radiographic findings of nail sarcoidosis have not been previously addressed in the literature. PMID:26768259

  18. VIEW EASTLEFTNO 1 WIRE MILL BUILDING 4 (1871) POWER HOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW EAST-LEFT-NO 1 WIRE MILL BUILDING 4 (1871) POWER HOUSE BUILDING 3 (1880) BOILER HOUSE BUILDING 2 (1872)-3 STORY MAIN OFFICE BUILDING 1 (1879) CENTER-PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE (c.1873) RIGHT-NO 2 WIRE MILL BUILDING 25 (c.1853) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  19. Titanium-niobium, a new finishing wire alloy.

    PubMed

    Dalstra, M; Denes, G; Melsen, B

    2000-02-01

    The mechanical properties of the newly introduced titanium-niobium finishing wires were investigated. Both in bending and torsional loading mode, the stiffness, yield point, post-yield behavior, and springback of titanium-niobium wires were experimentally determined and compared to those of equally sized stainless steel wires. The experimentally obtained values were also validated with theoretical values from engineering formulas of cantilever deformations. The ratios for these parameters for the two materials proved to be different in bending and torsion. The stiffness of titanium-niobium in bending is roughly half of that of stainless steel, whereas in torsion it is roughly one-third. These characteristics enable the clinician to use titanium-niobium for creative bends without the excessive force levels of steel wires. The springback of titanium-niobium in bending is 14% lower than that of steel, whereas in torsion it is about the same or even slightly higher than that of steel, thus making it possible to utilize the wire for even major third-order corrections. Finally, the weldability of titanium-niobium wires was found to be good, so it is possible to weld wires of different dimensions together for the generation of differentiated force systems. PMID:11168279

  20. VIEW NORTHLEFTBUILDING 27 WIRE ROPE WAREHOUSE (1929) CENTERBUILDING 102 ELMER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTH-LEFT-BUILDING 27 WIRE ROPE WAREHOUSE (1929) CENTER-BUILDING 102 ELMER STREET ROPE SHOP (1917) RIGHT-BUILDING 101 CLARK STREET ROPE SHOP (1917) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  1. Nail Gun Induced Open Head Injury: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hyun Ho; Kim, Young; Park, Sung Choon; Ha, Young Soo; Lee, Kyu Chang

    2014-10-01

    Increasing use of the nail gun has led to higher injury rates from the use of tools with sequential actuation. Nail gun injury can occur to various parts of the body. Very deep penetration in the brain can have fatal results. A 46-year-old male fired shots from a nail gun into his brain in a suicide attempt. This case demonstrated successful surgical management of the resultant open head injury. PMID:27169051

  2. Canine nail bed keratoacanthoma diagnosed by immunohistochemical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Chang-Bum; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Lee, A-Jin; Suh, Hyun-Jung; Yoo, Saejong; Sur, Jung-Hyang; Eom, Ki Dong

    2015-01-01

    A 10-year-old, Shih Tzu dog was presented with an enlarged, curled 2nd nail in the left forelimb. Digital amputation was performed and the mass was diagnosed as a nail bed keratoacanthoma (infundibular keratinizing acanthoma) histopathologically. There was no recurrence postoperatively. This is the first case report of a canine nail bed keratoacanthoma diagnosed by histologic and immunohistochemical examination including Ki-67 and p53 expression. PMID:26538676

  3. OSTEOSYNTHESIS WITH INTRAMEDULLARY NAILS IN CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Alvachian Fernandes, Helio Jorge; Saad, Eduardo Abdalla; Reis, Fernando Baldy dos

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a comprehensive review of the literature emphasizing the use of flexible intramedullary nails in the treatment of fractures in children, focusing the treatment of femoral shaft and forearm fractures and emphasizing the importance of the non-surgical approach. Children's age and weight threshold are not well defined for the use of the method. The removal of implants is a controversial matter in the literature, with a trend towards keeping the implants. PMID:27004183

  4. Insights into drug delivery across the nail plate barrier.

    PubMed

    Saner, Manish V; Kulkarni, Abhijeet D; Pardeshi, Chandrakantsing V

    2014-11-01

    Topical therapy is at the forefront in treating nail ailments (especially onychomycosis and nail psoriasis) due to its local effects, which circumvents systemic adverse events, improves patient compliance and reduces treatment cost. However, the success of topical therapy has been hindered due to poor penetration of topical therapeutics across densely keratinized nail plate barrier. For effective topical therapy across nail plate, ungual drug permeation must be enhanced. Present review is designed to provide an insight into prime aspects of transungual drug delivery viz. nail structure and physiology, various onychopathies, techniques of nail permeation enhancement and in vitro models for trans-nail drug permeation studies. Updated list of drug molecules studied across the nail plate and key commercial products have been furnished with sufficient depth. Patents pertinent to, and current clinical status of transungual drug delivery have also been comprehensively reviewed. This is the first systematic critique encompassing the detailed aspects of transungual drug delivery. In our opinion, transungual drug delivery is a promising avenue for researchers to develop novel formulations, augmenting pharmaceutical industries to commercialize the products for nail disorders. PMID:24964054

  5. Fetal phenytoin exposure, hypoplastic nails, and jitteriness.

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, S W; Robertson, I G; Donnai, D; Mawer, G

    1991-01-01

    In a prospective study infants born to mothers with epilepsy (n = 61) were found to have an unexpectedly high incidence of congenital anomalies (26/61, 43%) and neonatal conditions (26/61, 43%) compared with controls (0/62, and 6/62, 10%, respectively). There were two neonatal deaths in the study group but none among the controls. Hypoplasia of the finger or toenails was a common congenital anomaly in those infants whose mothers had received phenytoin alone or in combination with other anticonvulsant drugs (11 of 40, 28%). The mean serum phenytoin concentration was higher among mothers of infants with hypoplastic nails than among those with normal nails. Jitteriness was a common neonatal condition affecting infants of epileptic mothers (11 of 61, 18%) but not controls The mean cord serum phenytoin concentrations were similar among jittery and non-jittery infants. At follow up (after excluding one infant with Down's syndrome from the study group) the infants seemed to have developed normally, though one had serious learning difficulties at school. We suggest that hypoplasia of the nails is related to high maternal serum concentrations of phenytoin, and though 18% of infants born to epileptic mothers were jittery compared with no control infants this may not be the result of withdrawal of the drug in all cases. PMID:2025009

  6. New Technique for Removal of the Ulnar Intramedullary Nail Failed to Remove: Broken Assembly Piece in the Nail

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Jin Woong; Kim, Sang-Bum; Heo, Youn Moo; Kim, Tae Gyun; Kim, Doo Hyun; Jung, You Sun

    2016-01-01

    Methods about removal of intramedullary nail in complicated cases were reported in some literatures but there are no reports about nail removal in the ulna. The authors would like to report such a case and the technique. We removed bone of the inlet site and created another bony window using an osteotome to expose the interlocking screw holes. Only a bony window the size of 2 inter-interlocking holes at the most proximal part of the nail can be used to remove the nail with minimal damage of the triceps brachii tendon and soft tissue. PMID:27247748

  7. VIEW SOUTHBUILDING 25LEFTNO 2 WIRE MILL (c. 1853) BUILDING 40CENTERWIRE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTH-BUILDING 25-LEFT-NO 2 WIRE MILL (c. 1853) BUILDING 40-CENTER-WIRE WAREHOUSE (1915) BUILDING 27-RIGHT-PATTERN SHOP (1853) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  8. VIEW WESTBUILDING 23WIRE MILL & PATENTING (c.1853 & c.1900)CENTER BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW WEST-BUILDING 23-WIRE MILL & PATENTING (c.1853 & c.1900)-CENTER BUILDING 25- NO 2 WIRE MILL (c.1853) BEHIND 23 TO RIGHT - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  9. Windows: Life after Wire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razwick, Jerry

    2003-01-01

    Although wired glass is extremely common in school buildings, the International Building Code adopted new standards that eliminate the use of traditional wired glass in K-12 schools, daycare centers, and athletic facilities. Wired glass breaks easily, and the wires can cause significant injuries by forming dangerous snags when the glass breaks.…

  10. Stretched Wire Mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Bowden, Gordon; /SLAC

    2005-09-06

    Stretched wires are beginning to play an important role in the alignment of accelerators and synchrotron light sources. Stretched wires are proposed for the alignment of the 130 meter long LCLS undulator. Wire position technology has reached sub-micron resolution yet analyses of perturbations to wire straightness are hard to find. This paper considers possible deviations of stretched wire from the simple 2-dimensional catenary form.

  11. Distal Femoral Complications Following Antegrade Intramedullary Nail Placement

    PubMed Central

    Fantry, Amanda J.; Elia, Gregory; Vopat, Bryan G.; Daniels, Alan H.

    2015-01-01

    While antegrade nailing for proximal and diaphyseal femur fractures is a commonly utilized fixation method with benefits including early mobilization and high rates of fracture union, both intraoperative and postoperative complications may occur. Intraoperative errors include leg length discrepancy, anterior cortical perforation, malreduction of the fracture, and neurovascular injury, and postoperative complications include nonunion, malunion, infection, and hardware failure. This case series reviews complications affecting the distal femur after intramedullary nailing including fracture surrounding a distal femoral interlocking screw (Case #1), nonunion after dynamization with nail penetration into the knee joint (Case #2), and anterior cortical perforation (Case #3). Prevention of intraoperative and postoperative complications surrounding intramedullary nailing requires careful study of the femoral anatomy and nail design specifications (radius of curvature), consideration of the necessity of distal interlocking screws, the need for close radiographic follow-up after nail placement with X-rays of the entire length of the nail, and awareness of possible nail penetration into the knee joint after dynamization. PMID:25874066

  12. Iontophoretically enhanced ciclopirox delivery into and across human nail plate.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jinsong; Smith, Kelly A; Li, S Kevin

    2009-10-01

    Transungual delivery of antifungal drugs is hindered by the low permeability of human nail plates, and as such, repeated dosing over a long period of time is necessary for effective treatment. The objectives of this study were to explore the possibilities of (a) enhancing the delivery of ciclopirox (CIC) across human nail plates and (b) sustaining CIC delivery from the larger resultant drug depot in the nail plates with constant voltage iontophoresis. In vitro passive and 9 V cathodal iontophoretic transport experiments of CIC across human nails were performed. Transungual CIC delivery with Penlac was the control. The amounts of CIC released from and deposited in the nails were determined in drug release and extraction experiments, respectively. Iontophoresis increased the flux of CIC permeated across the nail approximately 10 times compared to passive delivery from the same formulation or from Penlac. A significant amount of CIC was loaded into and released from the nails; the CIC concentrations were estimated to be above the minimum inhibitory concentrations of CIC for dermatophytic molds. The apparent transport lag time decreased in iontophoretic transport. The results demonstrate that iontophoresis was able to deliver an effective amount of CIC into and across the nails, and this suggests the feasibility of a constant voltage battery-powered transungual iontophoretic device. PMID:19117048

  13. Staying Out of Trouble Performing Intramedullary Nailing of Forearm Fractures.

    PubMed

    Wall, Lindley B

    2016-06-01

    Pediatric diaphyseal forearm fractures occur commonly and often require reduction with stabilization. Intramedullary flexible nails provide an effective method for stabilizing and maintaining reduction of these fractures. There are a few specific technical pearls that can be implemented to improve efficiency of nail placement and minimize postoperative complications, such as painful hardware and compartment syndrome. PMID:27078233

  14. TOXIC TRACE METALS IN MAMMALIAN HAIR AND NAILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data have been compiled from the available world literature on the accumulation and bioconcentration of selected toxic trace metals in human hair and nails and other mammalian hair, fur, nails, claws, and hoofs. The toxic trace metals and metalloids include antimony, arsenic, bor...

  15. Evaluating a county-based Healthy nail Salon Recognition Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine whether nail solons that participate in the SF recognition program have reduced measured levels of toluene, methyl methacrylate (MMA), and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC)as compared to nail salons that do not participate. We also evaluated changes in worker ...

  16. Ten self-inflicted intracranial penetrating nail gun injuries

    PubMed Central

    Yuh, Sung-Joo; Alaqeel, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Penetrating craniocerebral injuries from nail gun use are rare. We describe a case of 10 self-inflicted nail gun injuries with intracranial penetrations. We also review the literature and discuss management strategies of such craniocerebral trauma. A 33-year-old male with a long-standing history of severe depression took a nail gun and sustained 10 penetrating intracranial injuries. Initial neuroimaging revealed 10 penetrating nails, all sparing the major cerebral vasculature. Immediate surgical removal was undertaken in the surgical suite using a combination of craniotomies, craniectomies, and blind removal. Intracranial injuries from self-inflicted nail gun misuse is becoming increasingly more frequent. Initial appropriate clinical decision-making are critical in preventing further cortical or vascular damage. PMID:26166596

  17. A chemical mixer with dark-green nails.

    PubMed

    Leung, Lawrence K; Harding, John

    2015-01-01

    Nails are integral extensions of the skin and they together form the largest organ of the human body. Changes in nail appearance can be due to external insults or internal pathologies, and nail signs have to be interpreted in light of a good history. We present an interesting case of a man who developed dark-green discolouration of his nails over a short period of time. His work as a chemical mixer rendered him susceptible to hazardous chemical exposure. A notification was filed and the local Occupational Health Department discovered insufficient protective gear and lack of protocols regarding hazards of isocyanate-based resin. The patient also reported washing utensils with bare hands. Based on the meniscal demarcation borders between the discoloured and normal areas, plus a positive bacterial culture from nail clippings, the final diagnosis of isocyanate-resin-induced onycholysis with secondary Pseudomonas infection remained as the most likely clinical diagnosis. PMID:26040827

  18. Distribution of Luliconazole in Nail Plate by In Vitro Permeation and Efficacy by Zone of Inhibition Test after Treatment of Luliconazole Nail Solution.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, Tsuyoshi; Miyamae, Akiko; Arai, Masakazu; Minemura, Aya; Nozawa, Akira; Kubota, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    To clarify the character of luliconazole nail solution we have developed, we investigated luliconazole distribution and antifungal activity in nail plate. An in vitro permeation study which measured luliconazole concentration of sliced nail in the transverse direction after treatment of luliconazole nail solution was conducted to investigate for concentration dependency and the influences of nail thickness and treatment duration. When 0.2, 1, 3, 5, and 7.5% luliconazole nail solutions were used, luliconazole was detected in the all the layers of nail and there was a concentration gradient from the dorsal side to deep nail layers. The luliconazole concentration was almost same after 14-day treatment with 5% luliconazole nail solution when using nails of different thicknesses. And we confirmed that concentration of luliconazole into the nail was increased depending on the treatment duration. In zone of inhibition test after 14-day treatment, 5% luliconazole nail solution showed statistically high formation rate of zones of inhibition compared to 8% ciclopirox nail lacquer. Above all, these data suggested that 5% luliconazole nail solution has the potential to show high therapeutic effect for onychomycosis. PMID:26936348

  19. Dosimetry during intramedullary nailing of the tibia

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Intramedullary nailing under fluoroscopic guidance is a common operation. We studied the intraoperative radiation dose received by both the patient and the personnel. Patients and methods 25 intramedullary nailing procedures of the tibia were studied. All patients suffered from tibial fractures and were treated using the Grosse-Kempf intramedullary nail, with free-hand technique for fixation of the distal screws, under fluoroscopic guidance. The exposure, at selected positions, was recorded using an ion chamber, while the dose area product (DAP) was measured with a DAP meter, attached to the tube head. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were used to derive the occupational dose to the personnel, and also to monitor the surface dose on the gonads of some of the patients. Results The mean operation time was 101 (48–240) min, with a mean fluoroscopic time of 72 seconds and a mean DAP value of 75 cGy·cm2. The surface dose to the gonads of the patients was less than 8.8 mGy during any procedure, and thus cannot be considered to be a contraindication for the use of this technique. Occupational dose differed substantially between members of the operating personnel, the maximum dose recorded being to the operator of the fluoroscopic equipment (0.11 mSv). Interpretation Our findings underscore the care required by the primary operator not to exceed the dose constraint of 10 mSv per year. The rest of the operating personnel, although they do not receive very high doses, should focus on the dose optimization of the technique. PMID:19916691

  20. Impact of a Healthy Nails Program on Nail-Biting in Turkish Schoolchildren: A Controlled Pretest-Posttest Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ergun, Ayse; Toprak, Rumeysa; Sisman, Fatma Nevin

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of a healthy nails program on nail-biting in Turkish schoolchildren. This quasi-experimental study was of pretest-posttest control group design. A total of 50 students of a primary school formed the intervention group, while 53 students from the same school formed the control group. Data were…

  1. Yellow Nail Syndrome and Nail Lichen Planus may be Induced by a Common Culprit. Focus on Dental Restorative Substances

    PubMed Central

    Baran, Léon-Robert

    2014-01-01

    Different clinical appearances such as Yellow nail syndrome and Lichen planus or lichenoid reactions can originate from close or identical etiologies. They may result from dental restorative materials or metal allergy. Interestingly, the nail sometimes returns to its normal condition, months after the withdrawal of the offending agents. PMID:25593919

  2. Concealed wire tracing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receivers position with respect to the wiring. The receivers audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receivers coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring's concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest.

  3. Experimental observations of transport of picosecond laser generated electrons in a nail-like target

    SciTech Connect

    Pasley, J.; Wei, M.; Shipton, E.; Chen, S.; Ma, T.; Beg, F. N.; Alexander, N.; Stephens, R.; MacPhee, A. G.; Hey, D.; Le Pape, S.; Patel, P.; Mackinnon, A.; Key, M.; Offermann, D.; Link, A.; Chowdhury, E.; Van-Woerkom, L.; Freeman, R. R.

    2007-12-15

    The transport of relativistic electrons, generated by the interaction of a high intensity (2x10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}) laser, has been studied in a nail-like target comprised of a 20 {mu}m diameter solid copper wire, coated with {approx}2 {mu}m of titanium, with an 80 {mu}m diameter hemispherical termination. A {approx}500 fs, {approx}200 J pulse of 1.053 {mu}m laser light produced by the Titan Laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was focused to a {approx}20 {mu}m diameter spot centered on the flat face of the hemisphere. K{sub {alpha}} fluorescence from the Cu and Ti regions was imaged together with extreme ultraviolet (XUV) emission at 68 and 256 eV. Results showed a quasiexponential decline in K{sub {alpha}} emission along the wire over a distance of a few hundred microns from the laser focus, consistent with bulk Ohmic inhibition of the relativistic electron transport. Weaker K{sub {alpha}} and XUV emission on a longer scale length showed limb brightening suggesting a transition to enhanced transport at the surface of the wire.

  4. In vitro investigation into the biological assessment of orthodontic wires.

    PubMed

    Rose, E C; Jonas, I E; Kappert, H F

    1998-01-01

    The alloys used in orthodontics are subject in the moist environment of the oral cavity to various corrosion processes. If the products of the corrosion are introduced into a biological system they may cause changes. In the present investigation the corrosion rate of 23 different orthodontic wires (preformed arch wires and straight wires) made from 5 different alloys were examined in a nutrient medium by ICP-AES analysis, and the influence of the corrosion products on the cytotoxicity of a fibroblast culture was investigated using Mosmann's MTT test. The nickel-titanium wires Nitinol, Sentalloy and Original Chinese Wire and the beta-titanium alloy TMA had no effect on the rate of cell proliferation. Nor did stainless steel wires inhibit growth significantly, with the exception of Australian Wire and Wildcat Wire. The manganese-steel alloys Noninium h and Mezanium caused significant reductions in growth rate, which were attributed to the manganese ions released by the corrosion. The most severe growth inhibition was caused by the Co-Cr-Ni alloy Elgiloy, and this reaction is independent of the 4 levels of resilience. The degree of growth inhibition depended upon the concentration of corrosive cobalt and nickel ions in the eluate. In spite of the differences observed, all the orthodontic wires examined are graded under ISO-standard 10993-5 as "non-cytotoxic". The degree of toxicity was found to be determined essentially by the corrosion rate of the alloy and the cytotoxic characteristics of the resulting trace elements. PMID:9800440

  5. Mechanism of wire breaking due to sparks in proportional or drift chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roderburg, E.; Walsh, S.

    1993-09-01

    The mechanism of wire breaking due to sparks is examined by a setup allowing for a fast change of mechanical wire tension and for optical and electronical registration of sparks. It is shown, that it is possible to choose a wire tension dependant on the capacitance (between the high voltage and ground) so that the wire will not be damaged by sparks. The effect of sparks to wires are compared between tungsten and steel wires and between two chamber gases (argon-methane and pure isobutane).

  6. The 80 kV electrostatic wire septum for AmPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderlinden, A.; Bijleveld, J. H. M.; Rookhuizen, H. Boer; Bruinsma, P. J. T.; Heine, E.; Lassing, P.; Prins, E.

    The characteristics of the wire septum for the Amsterdam Pulse Stretcher (AmPS) are summarized. In the extraction process of the AmPS the extracted beam is intercepted from the circulating beam by the 1 m long electrostatic wire septum. For a bending angle of 4.4 mrad, the maximum anode voltage is 80 kV. The system developed consists of a wire spacing of 0.65 mm between tungsten wires of 50 micrometers diameter. Stainless steel spring wires, bent in a half cylindrical carrier, stretch the septum wires two by two. Prototype tests were successful up to an anode voltage of 120 kV.

  7. Micro Wire-Drawing: Experiments And Modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Berti, G. A.; Monti, M.; Bietresato, M.; D'Angelo, L.

    2007-05-17

    In the paper, the authors propose to adopt the micro wire-drawing as a key for investigating models of micro forming processes. The reasons of this choice arose in the fact that this process can be considered a quasi-stationary process where tribological conditions at the interface between the material and the die can be assumed to be constant during the whole deformation. Two different materials have been investigated: i) a low-carbon steel and, ii) a nonferrous metal (copper). The micro hardness and tensile tests performed on each drawn wire show a thin hardened layer (more evident then in macro wires) on the external surface of the wire and hardening decreases rapidly from the surface layer to the center. For the copper wire this effect is reduced and traditional material constitutive model seems to be adequate to predict experimentation. For the low-carbon steel a modified constitutive material model has been proposed and implemented in a FE code giving a better agreement with the experiments.

  8. Wire Test Grip Fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    Wire-testing issues, such as the gripping strains imposed on the wire, play a critical role in obtaining clean data. In a standard test frame fitted with flat wedge grips, the gripping action alone creates stresses on the wire specimen that cause the wire to fail at the grip location. A new test frame, which is outfitted with a vacuum chamber, negated the use of any conventional commercially available wire test fixtures, as only 7 in. (17.8 cm) existed between the grip faces. An innovative grip fixture was designed to test thin gauge wire for a variety of applications in an existing Instron test frame outfitted with a vacuum chamber.

  9. Is there a bone-nail specific entry point? Automated fit quantification of tibial nail designs during the insertion for six different nail entry points.

    PubMed

    Amarathunga, J P; Schuetz, M A; Yarlagadda, K V D; Schmutz, B

    2015-04-01

    Intramedullary nailing is the standard fixation method for displaced diaphyseal fractures of tibia. Selection of the correct nail insertion point is important for axial alignment of bone fragments and to avoid iatrogenic fractures. However, the standard entry point (SEP) may not always optimise the bone-nail fit due to geometric variations of bones. This study aimed to investigate the optimal entry for a given bone-nail pair using the fit quantification software tool previously developed by the authors. The misfit was quantified for 20 bones with two nail designs (ETN and ETN-Proximal Bend) related to the SEP and 5 entry points which were 5 mm and 10 mm away from the SEP. The SEP was the optimal entry point for 50% of the bones used. For the remaining bones, the optimal entry point was located 5 mm away from the SEP, which improved the overall fit by 40% on average. However, entry points 10 mm away from the SEP doubled the misfit. The optimised bone-nail fit can be achieved through the SEP and within the range of a 5 mm radius, except posteriorly. The study results suggest that the optimal entry point should be selected by considering the fit during insertion and not only at the final position. PMID:25666401

  10. [Sliding centro-medullary nailing. Application to the treatment of severe forms of osteogenesis imperfecta].

    PubMed

    Metaizeau, J P

    1987-01-01

    In osteogenesis Imperfecta, the bowing of bones concures to increase their fragility. In order to avoid bowing of bones, Sofield, followed by Bailey have proposed centro medullary nailing. The pins used by Sofield do not expand and repeated changes are necessary. The expanding rods used by Bailey are to large and they can't be used in neonates. The author describe a new technique of bipolar centro medullary pinning. Two bowed K. Wires are introduced in the centromedullary canal, the first one through the proximal epiphysis, the second one through the distal epiphysis. During growth, each pin migrates distally and the osteosynthesis expand regularly. The technique can be used in the neonates and protects their bone from progressive bowing. PMID:3442930

  11. Nail Biting; Etiology, Consequences and Management

    PubMed Central

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Nail biting (NB) is a common, but unresolved, problem in psychiatry, psychology, medicine and dentistry. While it seems that NB is a simple behavior that can be stopped easily, many of the children with NB have already tried to stop it, but they have not been successful. The frustrations due to failed attempt involve others such as parents and siblings. The present review aims at providing an overview of prevalence, co-morbidities, education and counseling, and management for NB. Overall, the reviewed literatures suggest that co-morbidities of psychiatric disorders and other stereotypic behaviors in clinical sample of children with NB is more than 80%, and more than half of the parents suffer from psychiatric disorders mainly depression. Treatment of NB, however, is not as easy as it seems. The management of NB is much more complicated than just focusing on stopping it. Nail biting cannot be managed without considering its co-morbidities, antecedents and consequences. It might be concluded form the reviewed literature that children with NB, parents, siblings, and teachers should be educated about what to do and what not to do about NB. Punishment is not effective. Moreover, clinical randomized controlled trials are required to make available evidence-based behavioral and pharmacologic treatment protocols. PMID:23358880

  12. Failure analysis of explanted sternal wires.

    PubMed

    Shih, Chun-Ming; Su, Yea-Yang; Lin, Shing-Jong; Shih, Chun-Che

    2005-05-01

    To classify and understand the mechanisms of surface damages and fracture mechanisms of sternal wires, explanted stainless steel sternal wires were collected from patients with sternal dehiscence following open-heart surgery. Surface alterations and fractured ends of sternal wires were examined and analyzed. Eighty fractured wires extracted from 25 patients from January 1999 to December 2003, with mean implantation interval of 55+/-149 days (range 5-729 days) after cardiac surgery, were studied by various techniques. The extracted wires were cleaned and the fibrotic tissues were removed. Irregularities and fractured ends were assayed by a scanning electron microscopy. After stereomicroscopy and documentation, the explants were cleaned with 1% sodium hypochlorite to remove the blood and tissues and was followed by cleaned with deionized water and alcohol. The explants were examined by stereomicroscopy, and irregularities on surface and fracture surfaces of sternal wires were assayed by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and X-ray mapping. The explants with surrounding fibrotic tissue were stained and examined with stereomicroscopy and transmission electronic microscopy. Corrosion pits were found on the surface of explanted sternal wires. EDAX and X-ray mapping examinations revealed diminution of nickel concentration in the severely corroded pits on sternal wires. A feature of transgranular cracking was observed for stress corrosion cracking and striation character for typical corrosion fatigue was also identified. TEM examination of tissue showed the metallic particles in phagolysosomes of macrophages inside the surrounding sternal tissue. The synergic effect of hostile environment and the stress could be the precursors of failures for sternal wires. PMID:15576179

  13. Transcatheter wiring of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, P.; Simonetti, G.; Passariello, R.; Stipa, S.; Cavallaro, A.

    1983-04-01

    A new technique of transcatheder wiring of unresectable aortic aneurysm is described that provides simultaneous transcatheder occlusion of both common iliac arteries followed by exillofemoral bypass. The spring coil used for aortic aneurysm wiring was of our own making. The outer portion of a movable core stainless steel guidewire was bent in a coil shape and introduced into the aneurysm through a 7 French Teflon catheder via the right femoral artery. The same catheder was also used for coil embolus occlusion of both iliac arteries.

  14. Enhancing the nail permeability of topically applied drugs.

    PubMed

    Murdan, Sudaxshina

    2008-11-01

    The topical therapy of nail diseases, especially of onychomycosis, and to a smaller extent, of nail psoriasis, is desirable to avoid the side effects associated with their systemic therapy, to increase patient compliance and reduce the cost of treatment. Systemic therapy is however the mainstay of treatment due to the poor permeability of the nail plate to topically applied drugs. For effective topical therapy, ungual drug permeation must be enhanced. This can be achieved by disrupting the nail plate using physical techniques or chemical agents. Alternatively, drug permeation into the intact nail plate may be encouraged, for example, by iontophoresis or by formulating the drug within a vehicle which enables high drug partition out of the vehicle and into the nail plate. The physical techniques (manual and electrical nail abrasion, acid etching, ablation by lasers, microporation, application of low-frequency ultrasound and electric currents) and chemicals (thiols, sulphites, hydrogen peroxide, urea, water, enzymes) that have shown ungual enhancer activity are discussed in this review. Optimal drug formulation, while crucial to ungual drug delivery, is only briefly reviewed due to the limited literature. PMID:18976136

  15. Finger Tendon Travel Associated with Sequential Trigger Nail Gun Use

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Brian; Albers, James; Hudock, Stephen; Krieg, Edward

    2015-01-01

    TECHNICAL ABSTRACT Background Pneumatic nail guns used in wood framing are equipped with one of two triggering mechanisms. Sequential actuation triggers have been shown to be a safer alternative to contact actuation triggers because they reduce traumatic injury risk. However, the sequential actuation trigger must be depressed for each individual nail fired as opposed to the contact actuation trigger, which allows the trigger to be held depressed as nails are fired repeatedly by bumping the safety tip against the workpiece. As such, concerns have been raised about risks for cumulative trauma injury, and reduced productivity, due to repetitive finger motion with the sequential actuation trigger. Purpose This study developed a method to predict cumulative finger flexor tendon travel associated with the sequential actuation trigger nail gun from finger joint kinematics measured in the trigger actuation and productivity standards for wood-frame construction tasks. Methods Finger motions were measured from six users wearing an instrumented electrogoniometer glove in a simulation of two common framing tasks–wall building and flat nailing of material. Flexor tendon travel was calculated from the ensemble average kinematics for an individual nail fired. Results Finger flexor tendon travel was attributable mostly to proximal interphalangeal and distal interphalangeal joint motion. Tendon travel per nail fired appeared to be slightly greater for a wall-building task than a flat nailing task. The present study data, in combination with construction industry productivity standards, suggest that a high-production workday would be associated with less than 60 m/day cumulative tendon travel per worker (based on 1700 trigger presses/day). Conclusion and Applications These results suggest that exposure to finger tendon travel from sequential actuation trigger nail gun use may be below levels that have been previously associated with high musculoskeletal disorder risk. PMID

  16. Cable Bundle Wire Derating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, Ray A.; Leidecker, Henning

    1998-01-01

    The allowable operating currents of electrical wiring when used in the space vacuum environment is predominantly determined by the maximum operating temperature of the wire insulation. For Kapton insulated wire this value is 200 C. Guidelines provided in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Preferred Parts List (PPL) limit the operating current of wire within vacuum to ensure the maximum insulation temperature is not exceeded. For 20 AWG wire, these operating parameters are: 3.7 amps per wire, bundle of 15 or more wires, 70 C environment, and vacuum of 10(exp -5) torr or less. To determine the behavior and temperature of electrical wire at different operating conditions, a thermal vacuum test was performed on a representative electrical harness of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) power distribution system. This paper describes the test and the results.

  17. Cable Bundle Wire Derating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, Ray A.; Leidecker, Henning

    1998-01-01

    The allowable operating currents of electrical wiring when used in the space vacuum environment is predominantly determined by the maximum operating temperature of the wire insulation. For Kapton insulated wire this value is 200 C. Guidelines provided in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Preferred Parts List (PPL) limit the operating current of wire within vacuum to ensure the maximum insulation temperature is not exceeded. For 20 AWG wire, these operating parameters are: (1) 3.7 amps per wire; (2) bundle of 15 or more wires; (3) 70 C environment: and (4) vacuum of 10(exp -5) torr or less. To determine the behavior and temperature of electrical wire at different operating conditions, a thermal vacuum test was performed on a representative electrical harness of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) power distribution system. This paper describes the test and the results.

  18. Cable Bundle Wire Derating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, Ray A.; Leidecker, Henning

    1999-01-01

    The allowable operating currents of electrical wiring when used in the space vacuum environment is predominantly determined by the maximum operating temperature of the wire insulation. For Kapton insulated wire this value is 200 degree C. Guidelines provided in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Preferred Parts List (PPL) limit the operating current of wire within vacuum to ensure the maximum insulation temperature is not exceeded. For 20 AWG wire, these operating parameters are: (1) 3.7 amps per wire (2) bundle of 15 or more wires (3) 70 C environment (4) vacuum of 10(exp -5) torr or less To determine the behavior and temperature of electrical wire at different operating conditions, a thermal vacuum test was performed on a representative electrical harness of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) power distribution system. This paper describes the test and the results.

  19. Fractures of the neck of the fifth metacarpal bone, treated by percutaneous intramedullary nailing: surgical technique, radiological and clinical results study (28 cases).

    PubMed

    Boussakri, Hassan; Elidrissi, Mohamad; Azarkane, Mohamad; Bensaad, Soufiane; Bachiri, Mohammed; Shimi, Mohamed; Elibrahimi, Abdelhalim; Elmrini, Abdelmajid

    2014-01-01

    This study report the results in 28 patients affected by closed fractures of the neck of the fifth metacarpal bone (boxer's fracture), treated with percutaneous elastic intramedullary nailing using a single wire, to verify the effectiveness of this surgical treatment. We reviewed the results of 28 patients treated with A single Kirschner wire (K-wire) pre-bent in a lazy-S fashion with a mild bend at approximately 5 millimeters, The K-wire is inserted blunt end first in an antegrade manner and the fracture reduced as the wire is passed across the fracture site The wire is usually removed with pliers post-operatively at four weeks in the fracture clinic. The follow-up period averaged of 20,75 months. The parameters evaluated included angulation, rotational alignment, postoperative metacarpophalangeal (MCP) range of motion, and time to union. We opted for this treatment in all cases, regardless volar angulation of the metacarpal head, malrotation of the fifth finger and associated or/no with a severe swelling of the hand. All the patients were reviewed clinically and radiologically at an average of 20,75 months after surgery. At the final follow-up, no patient reported residual pain and All fractures proceeded to bony union but we have one fracture had to be revised for failed fixation and three superficial wound infections needed antibiotic treatment. We recommend that this minimally invasive: percutaneous intramedullary nailing using a single k-wire in all metacarpal neck fracture (boxers' fractures), especially when severe swelling of the hand is present, with good functional results and low morbidity. PMID:25419314

  20. Fungal infections of the skin and nail: new treatment options.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, Matthew L; Chambers, Cindy J; Sharon, Victoria R; Thompson, George R

    2014-11-01

    Knowledge of the currently available antifungal agents, along with clinical, microbiologic and histopathologic methods, can help the medical professional optimally manage skin and nail fungal infections. With regards to treatment of fungal disease of the skin or nail, there are a variety of systemic antifungal agents, including several newer agents that have different formulations, tolerability, adverse effect profiles and spectrum of activity. This review will highlight the clinically important fungal infections of the skin and nail and describe the activity and role of antifungal treatment. PMID:25241767

  1. Ciclopirox vs amorolfine: in vitro penetration into and permeation through human healthy nails of commercial nail lacquers.

    PubMed

    Monti, Daniela; Tampucci, Silvia; Chetoni, Patrizia; Burgalassi, Susi; Mailland, Federico

    2014-02-01

    One of the pre-requisite for a successful topical antifungal drug indicated for onychomycosis is its bioavailability into the nail unit for achieving fungal eradication and clinical benefit. The aim of this study was to compare in vitro permeation/penetration through and into human nails of amorolfine (MRF) from a 5% anhydrous commercial formulation (Loceryl®) and ciclopirox (CPX) from the 8% aqueous formulation in hydroxypropyl chitosan (HPCH) technology (Onytec®). The ability of the active ingredient to reach efficacious concentrations to inhibit nail pathogens was also evaluated. The amounts of drug permeated and retained in human healthy nails were determined using a suitably modified diffusion apparatus. HPLC analysis of the samples was performed. The HPCH-based CPX formulation demonstrated an efficient penetration into and permeation through the nail plates. Conversely, Loceryl® produced an amount of MRF permeated through and penetrated into the human toenails significantly lower than CPX. The evaluation of the efficacy index showed a higher potential efficacy of Onytec® with respect to Loceryl® on nail pathogens. The present work not only reinforced the previous results on different experimental substrates, but pointed out the superiority of HPCH-based Onytec® formulation containing CPX with respect to Loceryl® commercial product with MRF, both in terms of higher permeation through and penetration into the human nail, and for the efficacy towards the most common ungual pathogens. PMID:24509963

  2. Antifungal activity, experimental infections and nail permeation of an innovative ciclopirox nail lacquer based on a water-soluble biopolymer.

    PubMed

    Togni, Giuseppe; Mailland, Federico

    2010-05-01

    P-3051 is an innovative 8% ciclopirox nail lacquer, based on hydroxypropyl chitosan (HPCH) as a film-forming agent. The authors' aim was to investigate P-3051's in vitro antifungal activity, as well as its in vitro and in vivo nail permeation. The dilution susceptibility tests performed for Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum) and Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis) showed that the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of P-3051, as percent of ciclopirox, was for both fungi < or = 0.0015% (equivalent to a concentration of 15.6 mg/ ml). In the biological assay of in vitro nail permeation and fungal inhibition, the authors observed that P-3051 permeated well through bovine hoof membranes and produced dose-dependent inhibitory effects on dermatophyte, yeast and mold strains. Moreover, the inhibition effects were higher than those obtained by equal amounts of the ciclopirox reference nail lacquer. P-3051 and the reference showed the same protective activity in experimental infections with strains of dermatophytes isolated from clinical samples. The amount of ciclopirox remained in cut fingernails washed six hours after in vivo application of P-3051 ranged between 18 and 35% of the applied dose. After in vitro application to cut human nails, 40-50% of the applied ciclopirox penetrated during the first six hours, independent of nails being infected or uninfected, intact or filed. In both experiments, the concentration of ciclopirox is largely higher (three to four orders of magnitude) than the MICs for nail pathogens. PMID:20480796

  3. Laser Wire Stripper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    NASA-developed space shuttle technology is used in a laser wire stripper designed by Raytheon Company. Laser beams cut through insulation on a wire without damaging conductive metal, because laser radiation that melts plastic insulation is reflected by the metal. The laser process is fast, clean, precise and repeatable. It eliminates quality control problems and the expense of rejected wiring.

  4. Broken wires diagnosis method numerical simulation based on smart cable structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sheng; Zhou, Min; Yang, Yan

    2014-12-01

    The smart cable with embedded distributed fiber optical Bragg grating (FBG) sensors was chosen as the object to study a new diagnosis method about broken wires of the bridge cable. The diagnosis strategy based on cable force and stress distribution state of steel wires was put forward. By establishing the bridge-cable and cable-steel wires model, the broken wires sample database was simulated numerically. A method of the characterization cable state pattern which can both represent the degree and location of broken wires inside a cable was put forward. The training and predicting results of the sample database by the back propagation (BP) neural network showed that the proposed broken wires diagnosis method was feasible and expanded the broken wires diagnosis research area by using the smart cable which was used to be only representing cable force.

  5. 6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT OUTSIDE CANAL BANK. VIEW IS TO THE WEST. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  6. Penetrating Cardiac Nail Gun Injury in a Child.

    PubMed

    Kulaylat, Afif N; Chesnut, Charles H; Patel, Sunil; Rocourt, Dorothy V; Clark, Joseph B

    2016-08-01

    Nail gun injuries primarily occur in the extremities of adult males as a consequence of accidental occupational trauma. Such injury involving the thorax is much less common, and penetrating cardiac injury secondary to pneumatic nail gun discharge is rare. Although potentially lethal, most cases with cardiac trauma are survivable with expedient surgical intervention. Despite improvements in engineered safety mechanisms, the incidence of nail gun injuries has risen as use of the devices has increased. The widespread availability of these tools to nonprofessional consumers exposes a broader population to the potential hazards associated with these devices. We describe the presentation and successful management of the first reported case of penetrating cardiac nail gun injury in a young child. PMID:27018525

  7. Fossilized Nail Plate after Remote Trauma: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Dehdashtian, Amir; Amirlak, Bardia

    2016-02-01

    The authors describe a case of retained sterile matrix in a 38-year-old Hispanic man with a history of remote trauma and soft-tissue coverage with a groin flap 13 years before presentation. The patient presented with a slowly enlarging, vertically growing dorsal thumb mass with occasional drainage. The patient had minimal functional impairment, and radiographic imaging showed a radiolucent mass projecting dorsally over the distal phalanx. Surgical exploration revealed an approximately 2 × 2 cm keratinized mass attached to a retained nail bed. The keratinized nail plate was removed, along with an ellipse of soft tissue around the draining tract. To the authors' knowledge, this case is the largest reported vertically growing, retained, and cornified nail bed with an unusual size and shape. Physicians should consider the possibility of retained nail plates in patients who present with unusual large growths after trauma or surgery. PMID:27014549

  8. Allergies Less Common in Kids Who Suck Thumb, Bite Nails

    MedlinePlus

    ... Who Suck Thumb, Bite Nails Findings boost 'hygiene hypothesis,' study authors suggest To use the sharing features ... to Hancox, it all relates to the "hygiene hypothesis." The theory is that exposure to bacteria and ...

  9. Retrograde nailing for distal femur fractures in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Giddie, Jasdeep; Sawalha, Seif; Parker, Martyn

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We report the results of treating a series of 56 fractures in 54 elderly patients with a distal femur fracture with a retrograde femoral nail. Methods: Fifty-four of the nails were inserted percutaneously with a closed reduction. After surgery all patients were allowed to weight bear as tolerated. Four fractures were supported in a temporary external splint. Results: The mean age of patients was 80.6 years (range 51–103 years), 52/54 (96%) were females. There were no cases of nail related complications and no re-operations were required. One patient was lost to follow up. The 30-day mortality was 5/54 (9.3%) and the one year mortality was 17/54 (31.5%). Conclusions: Distal femoral nail fixation provides a good method of fixation allowing immediate mobilisation for this group of patients. PMID:27163086

  10. 14. Detail view of the old rotating nail case and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Detail view of the old rotating nail case and glass display cases now located in the second floor meeting room; looking southeast. - Horsepasture Store, U.S. Route 58 & State Route 687, Horse Pasture, Henry County, VA

  11. The functional results of tibial shaft fractures treated with intramedullary nail compressed by proximal tube.

    PubMed

    Karaarslan, Ahmet Adnan; Acar, Nihat; Aycan, Hakan; Sesli, Erhan

    2016-04-01

    Nailing of tibial shaft fractures is considered the gold standard surgical method by many surgeons. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate and compare the clinical outcome of tibial shaft fractures treated with intramedullary nails compressed by proximal tube and conventional intramedullary interlocking nails. Fifty-seven patients with tibial shaft fractures, treated with intramedullary nails compressed by proximal tube (n = 32) and the conventional interlocking nails (n = 25), were reviewed. All fractures except for one were united without any additional surgical intervention in the proximal compression tube nail group, whereas in the conventional interlocking nail group, six patients needed dynamization surgery (p = 0.005) and three cases of nonunion were recorded. In the proximal compression tube nail group, faster union occurred in 20 ± 2 (16-24) weeks (mean ± SD; range) without failure of locking screws and proximal nail migration, whereas in the conventional interlocking nail group, union occurred in 22 ± 2.5 (17-27) weeks (p = 0.001) with two failures of locking screws and two proximal nail migration. The proximal compression tube nail system is safer than the conventional nailing methods for the treatment for transverse and oblique tibial shaft fractures with a less rate of nonunion, proximal locking screw failure and proximal nail migration. PMID:26837377

  12. Nail surgery: best way to obtain effective anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Jellinek, Nathaniel J; Vélez, Nicole F

    2015-04-01

    Nail procedures require an effective and reliable approach to anesthesia of the distal digit. Several techniques have been described in the literature. Herein, the relevant anatomy of the nail unit, pain pathways, anesthetic options, and several injection approaches to achieve complete anesthesia are reviewed. Also considered are the potential pitfalls and complications and their management. Ultimately, the physician's approach must be individualized to the patient, procedure, and setting. PMID:25828716

  13. Dermoscopy and Onychomycosis: guided nail abrasion for mycological samples*

    PubMed Central

    Bet, Diego Leonardo; dos Reis, Ana Lucia; Chiacchio, Nilton Di; Belda Junior, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Mycological examination is still the cornerstone for the diagnosis of onychomycosis for many dermatologists, but sampling technique interferes on its sensitivity and specificity. Nail abrasion may be used to reach the most proximal part of the lesion and can be easily accomplished with an electric abrasor. We suggest nail plate dermoscopy to identify the best location for localized abrasion to obtain adequate samples for mycological examination. PMID:26734877

  14. Dermoscopy and Onychomycosis: guided nail abrasion for mycological samples.

    PubMed

    Bet, Diego Leonardo; Reis, Ana Lucia dos; Di Chiacchio, Nilton; Belda Junior, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Mycological examination is still the cornerstone for the diagnosis of onychomycosis for many dermatologists, but sampling technique interferes on its sensitivity and specificity. Nail abrasion may be used to reach the most proximal part of the lesion and can be easily accomplished with an electric abrasor. We suggest nail plate dermoscopy to identify the best location for localized abrasion to obtain adequate samples for mycological examination. PMID:26734877

  15. A fatal nail gun injury--an unusual ricochet?

    PubMed

    Nadesan, K

    2000-01-01

    An 18-year-old construction worker suddenly collapsed while handling a power-actuated nail gun and died shortly after. A neat, almost circular puncture wound was found on the front of his left chest. No fire-arm residues were detected on the surrounding skin. The police stated that it was an accidental injury, at a construction site, where a nail fired from a nail gun by the deceased had deflected off the wall and struck him on the front of the chest. Since the entry wound appeared to be a neat hole, and that too on the front of the left chest overlying the heart area, there was reluctance on the part of the pathologist to accept it as an accidental injury due to a ricochet. A visit to the scene, interrogation of witnesses, examination of the alleged tool and post-mortem X-ray of the deceased were undertaken prior to autopsy. A bent nail was found in the heart. The scene visit and the subsequent autopsy revealed that the nail took a roughly circular flightpath after it had struck the wall, all the while travelling with its pointed end directed forward. Within the body too, the nail maintained the same path. Various medicolegal issues are discussed pertaining to nail-gun injuries. The importance of a visit to the scene, examination of the alleged tool, interrogation of witnesses and the X-ray of the body, all prior to autopsy, are emphasized. The conclusion was: accidental death due to the unusual ricochet of a nail. PMID:10689867

  16. Role of Titanium in the Development of Yellow Nail Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Decker, Ashley; Daly, Deborah; Scher, Richard K

    2015-03-01

    Yellow nail syndrome (YNS) is characterized by the triad of nail changes, lymphedema and respiratory tract involvement. Several hypotheses have been postulated to explain the findings in YNS including lymphatic drainage abnormalities along with microvasculopathy. The most recent hypothesis, proposed by Berglund and Calmark [Biol Trace Elem Res 2011;143:1-7], suggests a role of titanium dioxide in the development of YNS. This study showed elevated titanium levels (ranging from 1.1 to 170 μg/g of nail plate) in nail clippings or pieces of shed nail from 30 patients with YNS. Titanium was not found in the nails of healthy patients. Complete resolution was seen in 4 patients after removal of their titanium implants. Titanium dioxide is commonly found in cosmetics, sunscreens, medications, confectionaries and joint implants. Exposure to titanium can lead to its ions being released by galvanic action of dental gold or amalgam through the oxidative stress of fluorides. It is hypothesized that this galvanic interaction may lead to the yellow discoloration. At this point, cause and effect is speculative, but titanium may play a role in a subgroup of patients with YNS. PMID:27172293

  17. Application of high strength grooved wire in fiber protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamata, Y.; Niijima, M.; Kawazoe, H.; Ogai, M.; Ninomiya, T.

    1986-11-01

    V Grooves were successfully machined on the high strength steel wire of around 3 mm diameter. Eight of thin coated fibers were protected in these grooves against pulling force of greater than 150kg (allowing 0.2% strain) and lateral pressure of greater 400kg/5cm. Many applications of this high strength grooved wire can be expected in design of optical fiber cable.

  18. Chloronychia: green nail syndrome caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in elderly persons

    PubMed Central

    Chiriac, Anca; Brzezinski, Piotr; Foia, Liliana; Marincu, Iosif

    2015-01-01

    Green nails, also known as chloronychia or green nail syndrome, are characterized by green discoloration of the nail plate (greenish-yellow, greenish-brown, greenish-black), proximal chronic non-tender paronychia, and distolateral onycholysis. The cause is Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection of the nail plate in persons whose hands are constantly exposed to water, soaps, and detergents or are subject to mechanical trauma, especially in the elderly. Green or black coloration of the nails should raise suspicion for Pseudomonas infection and be treated with an oral quinolone (ciprofloxacin), particularly in aged patients. We present three cases of green nails in elderly persons. PMID:25609938

  19. Chloronychia: green nail syndrome caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in elderly persons.

    PubMed

    Chiriac, Anca; Brzezinski, Piotr; Foia, Liliana; Marincu, Iosif

    2015-01-01

    Green nails, also known as chloronychia or green nail syndrome, are characterized by green discoloration of the nail plate (greenish-yellow, greenish-brown, greenish-black), proximal chronic non-tender paronychia, and distolateral onycholysis. The cause is Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection of the nail plate in persons whose hands are constantly exposed to water, soaps, and detergents or are subject to mechanical trauma, especially in the elderly. Green or black coloration of the nails should raise suspicion for Pseudomonas infection and be treated with an oral quinolone (ciprofloxacin), particularly in aged patients. We present three cases of green nails in elderly persons. PMID:25609938

  20. Laser Wire Deposition (WireFeed) for Fully Dense Shapes LDRD

    SciTech Connect

    GRIFFITH,MICHELLE L.; ENSZ,MARK T.; GREENE,DONALD L.; RECKAWAY,DARYL E.; MORIN,JACOB A.; BUCHHEIT,THOMAS E.; LAVAN,DAVID A.; CRENSHAW,THOMAS B.; TIKARE,VEENA; ROMERO,JOSEPH A.

    1999-11-01

    Direct metal deposition technologies produce complex, near net shape components from Computer Aided Design (CAD) solid models. Most of these techniques fabricate a component by melting powder in a laser weld pool, rastering the weld bead to form a layer, and additively constructing subsequent layers. This report will describe anew direct metal deposition process, known as WireFeed, whereby a small diameter wire is used instead of powder as the feed material to fabricate components. Currently, parts are being fabricated from stainless steel alloys. Microscopy studies show the WireFeed parts to be filly dense with fine microstructural features. Mechanical tests show stainless steel parts to have high strength values with retained ductility. A model was developed to simulate the microstructural evolution and coarsening during the WireFeed process. Simulations demonstrate the importance of knowing the temperature distribution during fabrication of a WireFeed part. The temperature distribution influences microstructural evolution and, therefore, must be controlled to tailor the microstructure for optimal performance.

  1. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003... Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003... Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires...

  4. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and...

  5. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003... Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003... Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires...

  8. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and...

  9. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003... Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires...

  11. Thin wire pointing method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, G.; Mattauch, R. J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for forming sharp tips on thin wires, in particular phosphor bronze wires of diameters such as one-thousandth inch used to contact micron size Schottky barrier diodes, which enables close control of tip shape and which avoids the use of highly toxic solutions. The method includes dipping an end of a phosphor bronze wire into a dilute solution of sulfamic acid and applying a current through the wire to electrochemically etch it. The humidity in the room is controlled to a level of less than 50%, and the voltage applied between the wire and another electrode in the solutions is a half wave rectified voltage. The current through the wire is monitored, and the process is stopped when the current falls to a predetermined low level.

  12. Towards slide enhancement with the titanium-molybdenum wire?

    PubMed

    Thiry, Pol; Barthélémi, Stéphane

    2010-12-01

    This study aims to improve the tribological properties of titanium-molybdenum wire. Following an analysis of the wire/bracket/ligation friction parameters and an overview of the technological research into means of reducing such friction,we set up several types of surface treatment in the laboratory by physical deposition in the vapor phase and using cold plasma technology. The specimens obtained underwent two types of tribological tests and were then subjected to traction and bending tests in order to determine the variations in their mechanical properties induced by the different types of treatment. For purposes of comparison, all the tests were conducted on untreated wire, TMA® Low-friction® wire and stainless steel wire and with two types of elastomeric ties. We were able to demonstrate some remarkable slide performances obtained using cold plasma nitriding while preserving the mechanical properties. A significant difference was observed relative to the other surface treatments. PMID:21094102

  13. Wire Cloth as Porous Material for Transpiration-cooled Walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, E R G; Kinsler, Martin R; Cochran, Reeves B

    1951-01-01

    The permeability characteristics and tensile strength of a porous material developed from stainless-steel corduroy wire cloth for use in transpiration-cooled walls where the primary stresses are in one direction were investigated. The results of this investigation are presented and compared with similar results obtained with porous sintered metal compacts. A much wider range of permeabilities is obtainable with the wire cloth than with the porous metal compacts considered and the ultimate tensile strength in the direction of the primary stresses for porous materials produced from three mesh sizes of wire cloth are from two to three times the ultimate tensile strengths of the porous metal compacts.

  14. Sintered wire annode

    DOEpatents

    Falce, Louis R.; Ives, R. Lawrence

    2007-12-25

    A plurality of high atomic number wires are sintered together to form a porous rod that is parted into porous disks which will be used as x-ray targets. A thermally conductive material is introduced into the pores of the rod, and when a stream of electrons impinges on the sintered wire target and generates x-rays, the heat generated by the impinging x-rays is removed by the thermally conductive material interspersed in the pores of the wires.

  15. Zinc wired rebar

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.G.; Hwang, J.

    1997-02-01

    A novel method for corrosion protection of rebar in concrete is reported wherein it is galvanically protected by attaching a zinc wire along its length. The self-corrosion and galvanic-corrosion loss of the zinc wire is dependent on the water/cement ratio, the size of the cathode, and the concrete cover thickness. The wire acts as a sacrificial anode when the rebar embedded in concrete is exposed to corrosive environments.

  16. Intramedullary nailing: evolutions of femoral intramedullary nailing: first to fourth generations.

    PubMed

    Russell, Thomas A

    2011-12-01

    Intramedullary femoral nailing is the gold standard for femoral shaft fixation but only in the past 27 years. This rapid replacement of closed traction and cast techniques in North America was a controversial and contentious evolution in surgery. As we enter the fourth generation of implant design, capabilities, and surgical technique, it is important to understand the driving forces for this technology. These forces included changes in radiographic imaging capabilities, biomaterial design and computer-assisted manufacturing, and the recognition of the importance of mobilization of the trauma patient to avoid systemic complications and optimize functional recovery. PMID:22089849

  17. Corrosion behavior of 2205 duplex stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Platt, J A; Guzman, A; Zuccari, A; Thornburg, D W; Rhodes, B F; Oshida, Y; Moore, B K

    1997-07-01

    The corrosion of 2205 duplex stainless steel was compared with that of AISI type 316L stainless steel. The 2205 stainless steel is a potential orthodontic bracket material with low nickel content (4 to 6 wt%), whereas the 316L stainless steel (nickel content: 10 to 14 wt%) is a currently used bracket material. Both stainless steels were subjected to electrochemical and immersion (crevice) corrosion tests in 37 degrees C, 0.9 wt% sodium chloride solution. Electrochemical testing indicates that 2205 has a longer passivation range than 316L. The corrosion rate of 2205 was 0.416 MPY (milli-inch per year), whereas 316L exhibited 0.647 MPY. When 2205 was coupled to 316L with equal surface area ratio, the corrosion rate of 2205 reduced to 0.260 MPY, indicating that 316L stainless steel behaved like a sacrificial anode. When 316L is coupled with NiTi, TMA, or stainless steel arch wire and was subjected to the immersion corrosion test, it was found that 316L suffered from crevice corrosion. On the other hand, 2205 stainless steel did not show any localized crevice corrosion, although the surface of 2205 was covered with corrosion products, formed when coupled to NiTi and stainless steel wires. This study indicates that considering corrosion resistance, 2205 duplex stainless steel is an improved alternative to 316L for orthodontic bracket fabrication when used in conjunction with titanium, its alloys, or stainless steel arch wires. PMID:9228844

  18. Concealed wire tracing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    An apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface is disclosed. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receivers position with respect to the wiring. The receivers audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receivers coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring's concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest. 4 figs.

  19. Weld Wire Investigation Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, M.A.

    1999-03-22

    After GTA welding reservoir A production/process prove-in assemblies, X-ray examination detected a lack of sidewall fusion. After examining several possible causes, it was determined that the weld wire filler metal was responsible, particularly the wire cleaning process. The final conclusion was that the filler wire must be abrasively cleaned in a particular manner to perform as required. The abrasive process was incorporated into the wire material specification, ensuring consistency for all reservoir GTA welding at AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (FM and T).

  20. Wire-inhomogeneity detector

    DOEpatents

    Gibson, G.H.; Smits, R.G.; Eberhard, P.H.

    1982-08-31

    A device for uncovering imperfections in electrical conducting wire, particularly superconducting wire, by detecting variations in eddy currents. Eddy currents effect the magnetic field in a gap of an inductor, contained in a modified commercial ferrite core, through which the wire being tested is passed. A small increase or decrease in the amount of conductive material, such as copper, in a fixed cross section of wire will unbalance a bridge used to measure the impedance of the inductor, tripping a detector and sounding an alarm.

  1. 1998 wire development workshop proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This report consists of vugraphs of the presentations at the conference. The conference was divided into the following sessions: (1) First Generation Wire Development: Status and Issues; (2) First Generation Wire in Pre-Commercial Prototypes; (3) Second Generation Wire Development: Private Sector Progress and Issues; (4) Second Generation Wire Development: Federal Laboratories; and (5) Fundamental Research Issues for HTS Wire Development.

  2. Computed modeling of humeral mid-shaft fracture treated by bundle nailing.

    PubMed

    Obruba, Petr; Capek, Lukas; Henys, Petr; Kopp, Lubomir

    2016-10-01

    Elastic bundle nailing is a method for simple humeral mid-shaft fracture osteosynthesis. The aim of our subsequent numerical simulations was to find out torsional and bending stiffness of an elastic bundle nailed humerus. Parametrical 3D numerical model was developed. The diameter of nails was the varying parameter of 1.8, 2.5, 3 and 4 mm. From our results can be seen that the bending stiffness in bundle nailing technique does not depend on nail diameter. On the contrary the torsional stiffness does highly depend on nail diameter. The dependency of the maximal stress on a nail diameter during bending and torsion of the humerus is non-linear. It can be seen that the higher diameter is used the higher stress occurs. Achieved results allow us for the recommendation of optimal nail diameter for this method, which lies between 2 and 3 mm. PMID:26828368

  3. Enhancing transungual delivery and spreading of efinaconazole under the nail plate through a unique formulation approach.

    PubMed

    Kircik, Leon H

    2014-12-01

    Onychomycosis is a very common nail disorder seen in dermatological practice. It is difficult to treat successfully for a multitude of reasons, and although topical antifungal therapy might be considered ideal for mild to moderate onychomycosis, efficacy has been limited by poor nail penetration of active ingredient through the nail plate into the nail bed and nail matrix to the site of infection. The intrinsic properties of an antifungal and its vehicle formulation are both considered important contributors to effective treatment. Here we review the formulation approach to efinaconazole topical solution, 10% an effective and well-tolerated treatment for onychomycosis. We demonstrate that the low surface tension formulation affords better penetration of efinaconazole through the nail plate, and also to the site of infection by spreading into the space between the nail and nail bed. PMID:25607788

  4. Antifungal Activity of Luliconazole Nail Solution on in vitro and in vivo Onychomycosis Model.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, Tsuyoshi; Hasegawa, Nami; Kubota, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated luliconazole nail solution, originally generated formulation, for the topical treatment of onychomycosis by two infection models. First, a suspension of Trichophyton mentagrophytes was dropped onto the ventral layer of human nail plate and these nails were set in Franz diffusion cells. After 9-day culture, luliconazole nail solutions (1, 3, and 5%) were applied to the dorsal surface of the nails once a day for 7 days. After application, fungal viability was assessed by measuring the ATP contents of the samples. The dose-dependent efficacy was confirmed, with 3% and 5% luliconazole nail solutions producing significantly lower ATP levels at 7-day treatment. When 3% and 5% luliconazole nail solutions were evaluated in a rabbit model of onychomycosis, both concentrations completely inhibited the recovery of fungi on culture after 4-week treatment. We therefore think these results indicate that 5% luliconazole nail solution is sufficiently potent for treatment of onychomycosis. PMID:26936347

  5. Wire Array Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner-Evans, Dan

    Over the past five years, the cost of solar panels has dropped drastically and, in concert, the number of installed modules has risen exponentially. However, solar electricity is still more than twice as expensive as electricity from a natural gas plant. Fortunately, wire array solar cells have emerged as a promising technology for further lowering the cost of solar. Si wire array solar cells are formed with a unique, low cost growth method and use 100 times less material than conventional Si cells. The wires can be embedded in a transparent, flexible polymer to create a free-standing array that can be rolled up for easy installation in a variety of form factors. Furthermore, by incorporating multijunctions into the wire morphology, higher efficiencies can be achieved while taking advantage of the unique defect relaxation pathways afforded by the 3D wire geometry. The work in this thesis shepherded Si wires from undoped arrays to flexible, functional large area devices and laid the groundwork for multijunction wire array cells. Fabrication techniques were developed to turn intrinsic Si wires into full p-n junctions and the wires were passivated with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H. Single wire devices yielded open circuit voltages of 600 mV and efficiencies of 9%. The arrays were then embedded in a polymer and contacted with a transparent, flexible, Ni nanoparticle and Ag nanowire top contact. The contact connected >99% of the wires in parallel and yielded flexible, substrate free solar cells featuring hundreds of thousands of wires. Building on the success of the Si wire arrays, GaP was epitaxially grown on the material to create heterostructures for photoelectrochemistry. These cells were limited by low absorption in the GaP due to its indirect bandgap, and poor current collection due to a diffusion length of only 80 nm. However, GaAsP on SiGe offers a superior combination of materials, and wire architectures based on these semiconductors were investigated for multijunction

  6. Photobiological safety evaluation of UV nail lamps.

    PubMed

    Dowdy, John C; Sayre, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated six UV nail lamps representative of major US manufacturers to evaluate radiant hazards as defined in ANSI/IESNA RP-27 Recommended Practice for Photobiological Safety. Lamps were evaluated at three positions, 1 cm above the inner surface approximating exposure to the hand and the 20 cm RP-27 non-general light source distance, oriented normal and 45° to the opening. Hazard to skin at intended use distance classified these devices into Risk Group 1 or 2 (Low to Moderate) with S(λ) weighted Actinic UV ranging 1.2-1.7 μW cm(-2) and 29.8-276.25 min permissible daily exposure. At 20 cm on center and 45° UV risk to skin and eyes were all within Exempt classification. Actinic UV ranged 0.001-0.078 μW cm(-2) and unweighted near UV (320-400 nm) ranged 0.001-0.483 mW cm(-2). Likewise the retinal photochemical blue light hazard and retinal thermal and cornea/lens IR were also Exempt. One device had aphakic eye hazard slightly rising into Risk Group 1 (Low). There were no other photobiological risks to normal individuals. Total exposure following programmed times and steps accumulate to only a small fraction of RP-27 permissible daily occupational exposure. These risks are further mitigated in realistic nonoccupational use scenarios as it is unlikely to be a daily occurrence. PMID:23550905

  7. Intramedullary leg lengthening with a motorized nail

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose In the last decade, intramedullary limb lengthening has become a viable alternative to traditional external systems. We retrospectively analyzed the use of an intramedullary motorized nail (Fitbone) in a consecutive series of 32 patients. Patients and methods During the period September 2006 to December 2008, 32 consecutive patients with a median age of 17 (IQR: 15–19) years were treated with a fully implantable, motorized intramedullary lengthening device (Fitbone). The median leg length discrepancy was 35 (IQR: 30–44) mm at the femur (n = 21) and 28 (IQR: 25–30) mm at the tibia (n = 11). Results Leg lengthening was successful in 30 of 32 cases, with no residual relevant discrepancy (± 5 mm). No intraoperative complications were observed. The consolidation index was significantly different (p = 0.04) between femoral lengthening (mean 35 days/cm) and tibial lengthening (mean 48 days/cm) but did not depend on age older/younger than 16 or previous operations at the affected site. 3 problems, 3 obstacles, and 4 complications (3 minor, 1 major) were encountered in 8 patients, 5 of which were implant-associated. Interpretation This technique even allows correction in patients with multiplanar deformities. Compared to external devices, intramedullary systems provide comfort and reduce complication rates, give improved cosmetic results, and lead to fast rehabilitation since percutaneous, transmuscular fixation is prevented. This results in reasonable overall treatment costs despite the relatively high costs of implants. PMID:21561309

  8. Diffusion of uncharged solutes through human nail plate.

    PubMed

    Baswan, Sudhir M; Li, S Kevin; Kasting, Gerald B

    2016-01-01

    Passive diffusion data for uncharged solutes in hydrated human nail plate are collected and compared to the predictions of two theories for diffusion of uncharged solutes in dense keratin matrices. Quantitative agreement between the experimental data and the theories examined is poor. Concerns with both the experiments and the theories are identified and discussed. It is evident from the analysis that magnitude of the experimental nail permeability data may be questioned, as may the extrapolation procedures used to estimate the properties of dense fiber arrays from more dilute systems. Despite these caveats, it can be inferred that the microstructure of the nail plate is more complex than that assumed in the described models. The influence of residual lipids is implicated. More rigorous experiments and theoretical analysis of mass transport in the nail plate system are warranted. Successful completion of these tasks could lead not only to better predictions of transungual drug delivery, but also to better models of skin permeability, if hydrated nail plate can indeed serve as a model for the corneocyte phase of (partially hydrated) stratum corneum. PMID:25518727

  9. Intramedullary nailing of the proximal humerus: evolution, technique, and results.

    PubMed

    Dilisio, Matthew F; Nowinski, Robert J; Hatzidakis, Armodios M; Fehringer, Edward V

    2016-05-01

    Proximal humerus fractures are the third most common fracture in the elderly. Although most fractures can be treated conservatively with acceptable outcomes, certain fracture patterns are at high risk for progression to humeral malunions, nonunions, stiffness, and post-traumatic arthrosis. The goal of antegrade humeral nailing of proximal humerus fractures is to provide stability to a reduced fracture that allows early motion to optimize patient outcomes. Certain technical pearls are pivotal in managing these difficult fractures with nails; these include rotator cuff management, respect of the soft tissues, anatomic tuberosity position, blood supply maintenance, knowledge of the deforming forces on the proximal humerus, fracture reduction, and rehabilitation strategies. Modern proximal humeral nail designs and techniques assist the surgeon in adhering to these principles and have demonstrated promising outcomes. Humeral nail designs have undergone significant innovation during the past 40 years and now can provide stable fixation in the humeral shaft distally as well as improved stability in the head and tuberosity fragments, which were the common site of fixation failure with earlier generation implants. Compared with other fixation strategies, such as locking plate fixation, no compelling evidence exists to suggest one technique over another. The purpose of this review is to describe the history, results, new designs, and techniques that make modern intramedullary nailing of proximal humerus fractures a viable treatment option. PMID:26895601

  10. Commercial and Industrial Wiring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary

    This module is the third in a series of three wiring publications, includes additional technical knowledge and applications required for job entry in the commercial and industrial wiring trade. The module contains 15 instructional units that cover the following topics: blueprint reading and load calculations; tools and equipment; service;…

  11. 2016 MOST WIRED.

    PubMed

    Barr, Paul; Butcher, Lola; Hoppszallern, Suzanna

    2016-07-01

    This year's IT survey shows that hospitals are aggressively fighting cyber crime and looking for ways to use data to help in the transition to value-based care. Find out who made the 2016 lists of Most Wired, Most Advanced, Most Improved and Most Wired-Small and Rural. PMID:27526506

  12. The exploding wire phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspden, H.

    1985-02-01

    Graneau's recent interpretation of the exploding wire phenomenon as an electrodynamic effect verifying Ampère's classical formulation is questioned. Instead, it is shown that the rupturing force arising from the imbalance of the self-induced electromotive force and the ohmic potential during an explosive current surge will account for the wire breaking into several segments, as is observed.

  13. Water Desalination with Wires.

    PubMed

    Porada, S; Sales, B B; Hamelers, H V M; Biesheuvel, P M

    2012-06-21

    We show the significant potential of water desalination using a novel capacitive wire-based technology in which anode/cathode wire pairs are constructed from coating a thin porous carbon electrode layer on top of electrically conducting rods (or wires). By alternately dipping an array of electrode pairs in freshwater with and in brine without an applied cell voltage, we create an ion adsorption/desorption cycle. We show experimentally how in six subsequent cycles we can reduce the salinity of 20 mM feed (brackish) water by a factor of 3, while application of a cation exchange membrane on the cathode wires makes the desalination factor increase to 4. Theoretical modeling rationalizes the experimental findings, and predicts that system performance can be significantly enhanced by material modifications. To treat large volumes of water, multiple stacks of wire pairs can be used simultaneously in a "merry-go-round" operational mode. PMID:26285717

  14. International space station wire program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Todd

    1995-01-01

    Hardware provider wire systems and current wire insulation issues for the International Space Station (ISS) program are discussed in this viewgraph presentation. Wire insulation issues include silicone wire contamination, Tefzel cold temperature flexibility, and Russian polyimide wire insulation. ISS is a complex program with hardware developed and managed by many countries and hundreds of contractors. Most of the obvious wire insulation issues are known by contractors and have been precluded by proper selection.

  15. The Chinese Nail Murders: forensic medicine in Imperial China.

    PubMed Central

    Summers, W. C.

    1999-01-01

    Robert van Gulik was a respected Dutch sinologist and author who first translated a collection of traditional Chinese detective stories into English and then created additional fictional stories based on the same characters and setting in the Tang dynasty. One of these stories, The Chinese Nail Murders, draws on van Gulik's professional interest in law and his knowledge of early Chinese works on forensic medicine. This novel develops a common theme in Chinese detective fiction, murder by a nail wound to the head. The difficulty in detection of this mode of violence posed a particular problem for the examining magistrate because postmortem examination was mostly limited to external observations. This essay compares the development of Chinese and Western forensic medicine in the context of the nail murder motif. PMID:11138936

  16. The physical basis of cosmetic defects of the nail plate.

    PubMed

    de Berker, David

    2002-01-01

    Cosmetic defects of the nail cover a range of changes. Some are variants of normal which are considered unattractive, others are part of the normal ageing process and some changes are manifestations of local or systemic disease. Interpretation of these changes relies on recognition of the specific characteristics in question and an understanding of the anatomy and biology of nails. In many instances, therapies are limited and explanation of the changes represents one of the most useful contributions the professional can make to the affected individual. This article covers some of the most common cosmetic defects of nail involving colour, surface, brittleness and behaviour of surrounding tissues. Understanding of the physical basis of these defects is limited in many cases, but current thinking is recorded. PMID:17134450

  17. Distal Humeral Fixation of an Intramedullary Nail Periprosthetic Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Divecha, Hiren M.; Marynissen, Hans A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Distal humeral periprosthetic fractures below intramedullary nail devices are complex and challenging to treat, in particular due to the osteopenic/porotic nature of bone found in these patients. Fixation is often difficult to satisfactorily achieve around the intramedullary device, whilst minimising soft tissue disruption. Descriptions of such cases in the current literature are very rare. We present the case of a midshaft humeral fracture treated with a locking compression plate that developed a nonunion, in a 60-year old female. This went on to successful union after exchange for an intramedullary humeral nail. Unfortunately, the patient developed a distal 1/5th humeral periprosthetic fracture, which was then successfully addressed with a single-contoured, extra-articular, distal humeral locking compression plate (Synthes) with unicortical locking screws and cerclage cables proximally around the distal nail tip region. An excellent postoperative range of motion was achieved. PMID:23662231

  18. Road Nail: Experimental Solar Powered Intelligent Road Marking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samardžija, Dragan; Teslić, Nikola; Todorović, Branislav M.; Kovač, Erne; Isailović, Đorđe; Miladinović, Bojan

    2012-03-01

    Driving in low visibility conditions (night time, fog or heavy precipitation) is particularly challenging task with an increased probability of traffic accidents and possible injuries. Road Nail is a solar powered intelligent road marking system of wirelessly networked signaling devices that improve driver safety in low visibility conditions along hazardous roadways. Nails or signaling devices are autonomous nodes with capability to accumulate energy, exchange wireless messages, detect approaching vehicles and emit signalization light. We have built an experimental test-bed that consists of 20 nodes and a cellular gateway. Implementation details of the above system, including extensive measurements and performance evaluations in realistic field deployments are presented. A novel distributed network topology discovery scheme is proposed which integrates both sensor and wireless communication aspects, where nodes act autonomously. Finally, integration of the Road Nail system with the cellular network and the Internet is described.

  19. Trace Elements in Nails as Biomarkers in Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    He, Ka

    2010-01-01

    Background The importance of trace elements in relation to human health has been increasingly recognized. Accurate and adequate quantification of trace elements are crucial in clinical research. Design This review was to discuss the rationale of using nail trace elements as biomarkers in clinical studies. Results For most trace elements, dietary instruments can not appropriately capture the intakes because of the minimal amounts and wide variations in the same foods grown in different area as well as the non-dietary exposures. Therefore, biomarkers may be essential in studying trace elements. Although there are notable differences among trace elements in the availability of biomarkers, increasing evidence supports that nail particularly toenail concentrations of most trace elements are useful biomarkers of exposure in which a single sample is assumed to represent long-term exposure. Conclusions As compared to other potential biomarkers of trace elements, nail measurement has certain advantages in clinical research. PMID:20813017

  20. Influence of aluminum oxide film on thermocompression bonding of gold wire to evaporated aluminum film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwata, S.; Ishizaka, A.; Yamamoto, H.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of Al surface condition on the thermocompression bonding of Au wires to Al electrodes for integrated electric circuits was studied. Au wires were connected to Al electrodes by nail-head bonding after various Al surface treatments. Bonding was evaluated by measuring the wire pull strength and fraction of the number of failures at Au-Al bonds to the total number of failures. Dependence of the fraction on applied load was derived theoretically with a parameter named critical load to take into consideration the differences in Al surface condition. The relation also held explicately for various surface treatments. Characterization of the Al surface was carried out by electron microscopy for chemical analysis.

  1. The human nail--barrier characterisation and permeation enhancement.

    PubMed

    Walters, Kenneth A; Abdalghafor, Haydar M; Lane, Majella E

    2012-10-01

    The human nail remains one of the most challenging membranes for formulation scientists to target and for clinicians to heal. Its formidable barrier properties are the primary reason that oral therapy remains the primary approach to manage ungual infections. This article considers the major structural properties underlying the excellent barrier function of the nail, with particular emphasis on the role of biophysical methods in advancing our knowledge of this appendage. Formulations currently available for management of ungual disease are discussed and their therapeutic efficacy is assessed. Finally, experimental strategies to enhance ungual permeation are reviewed and prospects for future developments in the field are considered. PMID:22521879

  2. A case of nail-patella syndrome associated with thyrotoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Haras, B; Vulpoi, F; Onose, Gh

    2012-02-22

    Nail-patella syndrome, also known as hereditary onycho-osteodystrophy, is a rare autosomal dominant disorder with pleiotropic phenotypic expression.The present report is of a nail-patella syndrome patient, a 26-year-old female, admitted to our NeuroMuscular Rehabilitation Clinic Division for neurological symptoms, secondary to a severe spondylolysthesis with bilateral L5 pedicle fracture. During hospitalization, she was also diagnosed with mild thyrotoxicosis, but interestingly enough, the bone mineral density, assessed at multiple sites, was quasi-normal. PMID:22574102

  3. Complications of sodium hydroxide chemical matrixectomy: nail dystrophy, allodynia, hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Bostancı, Seher; Koçyiğit, Pelin; Güngör, Hilayda Karakök; Parlak, Nehir

    2014-11-01

    Ingrown toenails are seen most commonly in young adults, and they can seriously affect daily life. Partial nail avulsion with chemical matrixectomy, generally by using either sodium hydroxide or phenol, is one of the most effective treatment methods. Known complications of phenol matrixectomy are unpredictable tissue damage, prolonged postoperative drainage, increased secondary infection rates, periostitis, and poor cosmetic results. To our knowledge, there have been no reports about the complications related to sodium hydroxide matrixectomy. Herein, we describe three patients who developed nail dystrophy, allodynia, and hyperalgesia after sodium hydroxide matrixectomy. PMID:25514278

  4. Next Generation Wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Petro; Jolley, Scott; Fitzpatrick, Lilliana; Vinje, Rubiela; Williams, Martha; Clayton, LaNetra; Roberson, Luke; Smith, Trent; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo

    2007-01-01

    Wiring is a major operational component on aerospace hardware that accounts for substantial weight and volumetric space. Over time wire insulation can age and fail, often leading to catastrophic events such as system failure or fire. The next generation of wiring must be reliable and sustainable over long periods of time. These features will be achieved by the development of a wire insulation capable of autonomous self-healing that mitigates failure before it reaches a catastrophic level. In order to develop a self-healing insulation material, three steps must occur. First, methods of bonding similar materials must be developed that are capable of being initiated autonomously. This process will lead to the development of a manual repair system for polyimide wire insulation. Second, ways to initiate these bonding methods that lead to materials that are similar to the primary insulation must be developed. Finally, steps one and two must be integrated to produce a material that has no residues from the process that degrades the insulating properties of the final repaired insulation. The self-healing technology, teamed with the ability to identify and locate damage, will greatly improve reliability and safety of electrical wiring of critical systems. This paper will address these topics, discuss the results of preliminary testing, and remaining development issues related to self-healing wire insulation.

  5. Jumbo Cutter for Removal of A Bent Femoral Interlocking Nail: A Cost Effective Method.

    PubMed

    Dhanda, Manjeet Singh; Madan, Harnam Singh; Sharma, Sansar C; Ali, Nadeem; Bhat, Abedullah

    2015-06-01

    Closed diaphyseal femoral shaft fractures can be treated with multiple surgical options. It is more challenging to remove a bent nail than a broken one because it is difficult to retrieve the bent nail through the intramedullary canal. Various authors have published their techniques for removal of bent femoral interlocking nail. This article describes a simple technique using Jumbo cutter for sectioning and removal of bent interlocking nail. This technique will help orthopaedic surgeons to remove bent nail without using any specialised metal cutting instruments. PMID:26266173

  6. Jumbo Cutter for Removal of A Bent Femoral Interlocking Nail: A Cost Effective Method

    PubMed Central

    Dhanda, Manjeet Singh; Sharma, Sansar C; Ali, Nadeem; Bhat, Abedullah

    2015-01-01

    Closed diaphyseal femoral shaft fractures can be treated with multiple surgical options. It is more challenging to remove a bent nail than a broken one because it is difficult to retrieve the bent nail through the intramedullary canal. Various authors have published their techniques for removal of bent femoral interlocking nail. This article describes a simple technique using Jumbo cutter for sectioning and removal of bent interlocking nail. This technique will help orthopaedic surgeons to remove bent nail without using any specialised metal cutting instruments. PMID:26266173

  7. Orbiter Kapton wire operational requirements and experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, R. V.

    1994-01-01

    The agenda of this presentation includes the Orbiter wire selection requirements, the Orbiter wire usage, fabrication and test requirements, typical wiring installations, Kapton wire experience, NASA Kapton wire testing, summary, and backup data.

  8. Comparison of frictional forces between aesthetic orthodontic coated wires and self-ligation brackets

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yunmi; Cha, Jung-Yul; Hwang, Chung-Ju; Tahk, Seon Gun

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of polymer- and rhodium-coated wires compared to uncoated wires by measuring the frictional forces using self-ligation brackets. Methods 0.016-inch nickel titanium (NiTi) wires and 0.017 × 0.025-inch stainless steel (SS) wires were used, and the angulations between the brackets and wires were set to 0°, 5°, and 10°. Upper maxillary premolar brackets (Clippy-C®) with a 0.022-inch slot were selected for the study and a tensile test was performed with a crosshead speed of 5 mm/min. The maximum static frictional forces and kinetic frictional forces were recorded and compared. Results The maximum static frictional forces and the kinetic frictional forces of coated wires were equal to or higher than those of the uncoated wires (p < 0.05). The maximum static frictional forces of rhodium-coated wires were significantly higher than those of polymer-coated wires when the angulations between the brackets and wires were set to (i) 5° in the 0.016-inch NiTi wires and (ii) all angulations in the 0.017 × 0.025-inch SS wires (p < 0.05). The kinetic frictional forces of rhodium-coated wires were higher than those of polymer-coated wires, except when the angulations were set to 0° in the 0.016-inch NiTi wires (p < 0.05). Conclusions Although the frictional forces of the coated wires with regards to aesthetics were equal to or greater than those of the uncoated wires, a study under similar conditions regarding the oral cavity is needed in order to establish the clinical implications. PMID:25133130

  9. Distal humeral plating of an intramedullary nail periprosthetic fracture using a miss-a-nail technique: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ravi; Corbett, Steven A

    2009-01-01

    The treatment of distal humeral periprosthetic fractures is not widely described in the literature. We present a difficult clinical scenario of a 72-year-old man who sustained a displaced distal humeral periprosthetic fracture about a Polarus Plus intramedullary nail. In this case, stable fixation was achieved using bicondylar Acumed Mayo congruent Plates using a miss-a-nail technique. Four months following the post operative period, the patient regained satisfactory range of movement with full function and no further complications up to 18 months post fixation. Treatment of such complex periprosthetic fractures is technically achievable and with potentially good results. PMID:19829846

  10. [The long-term fracture resistance of orthodontic nickel-titanium wires].

    PubMed

    Drescher, D; Bourauel, C; Sonneborn, W; Schmuth, G P

    1994-01-01

    This study reports on the long-term fracture resistance of orthodontic nickel titanium wires, a material property that has not been investigated thoroughly, yet. A computer-controlled apparatus was designed to perform long-term bending tests. The investigated material comprised 9 nickel titanium wires (dimensions 0.016", round and 0.016" x 0.022", rectangular) as well as a stainless steel and a beta-titanium wire that were included as reference. Compared with the steel wire, the nickel titanium wires exhibited 2- to 5-fold higher yield forces in bending. At a specified deflection angle, the generated bending forces of the nickel titanium wires reached one half to one fourth of the values of steel. The fracture resistance under longterm loading was determined using the Wöhler-method. After 10(5) loadings, 0.016" nickel titanium wires were subject to break failure, if forces exceed values greater than 1.2 to 3.1 N. Steel and TMA wires could be loaded with forces of up to 4.4 and 3.7 N, respectively. The 0.016" x 0.022"-rectangular wires allowed forces of approximately twice this magnitude. Elastic fatigue of the superelastic specimens "Memorywire", "Rematitan Lite", and "Sentalloy medium" showed up as hardening of the wire by up to 70%. Material degradation lead to a severe deformation of the hysteresis loop and to plastic deformation. Work-hardened martensitic NiTi wires did not show these effects to this extent. PMID:8023109

  11. Brushes and picks used on nails during the surgical scrub to reduce bacteria: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Tanner, J; Khan, D; Walsh, S; Chernova, J; Lamont, S; Laurent, T

    2009-03-01

    Though brushes are no longer used on the hands and forearms during the surgical scrub, they are still widely used on the nails. The aim of this study was to determine whether nail picks and nail brushes are effective in providing additional decontamination during a surgical hand scrub. A total of 164 operating department staff were randomised to undertake one of the following three surgical hand-scrub protocols: chlorhexidine only; chlorhexidine and a nail pick; or chlorhexidine and a nail brush. Bacterial hand sampling was conducted before and 1h after scrubbing using a modified version of the glove juice method. No statistically significant differences in bacterial numbers were found between any two of the three intervention groups. Nail brushes and nail picks used during surgical hand scrubs do not decrease bacterial numbers and are unnecessary. PMID:19162371

  12. Dual wire weld feed proportioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nugent, R. E.

    1968-01-01

    Dual feed mechanism enables proportioning of two different weld feed wires during automated TIG welding to produce a weld alloy deposit of the desired composition. The wires are fed into the weld simultaneously. The relative feed rates of the wires and the wire diameters determine the weld deposit composition.

  13. Psoriatic nail involvement and its relationship with distal interphalangeal joint disease.

    PubMed

    Lai, T L; Pang, H T; Cheuk, Y Y; Yip, M L

    2016-08-01

    Psoriatic nail disease and distal interphalangeal (DIP) arthritis both are common manifestations of psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Several clinical characteristics are allegedly associated with DIP joint damage, particularly nail psoriasis. However, there is little evidence to substantiate this phenomenon. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between DIP involvement, nail psoriasis and other parameters. A cross-sectional study involved 45 patients from local rheumatology clinic. Four hundred fifty psoriatic fingernails scored, and the radiographs of all these fingers were reviewed to define PsA DIP arthritic changes. 64.4 % patients had nail psoriasis and 35.6 % had DIP arthritis. Univariate analysis identified that swollen joint-count, digits with chronic dactylitis, HLA-B27 status and nail psoriasis were associated with DIP arthritis. Regression model supported that nail disease was the most significant associated factor of DIP arthritis (OR 9.7, p = 0.05). Nail psoriasis was identified in 40.2 % of digits. Pitting (29.6 %), onycholysis (15.1 %), crumbling (8.2 %), nail bed hyperkeratosis (2.0 %) were noted with the mean modified Nail Psoriasis Severity Index of 0.95 +/-1.68. Among all digits, 57 had DIP arthritis while 393 did not. Within DIP joints with PsA radiological change, 59.6 % had nail disease. Chi-square test with the Bonferroni correction further supported an association between nail psoriasis and DIP involvement with p value of 0.001. Two specific nail subtypes-crumbling and onycholysis-were found to be significantly associated with DIP disease. A significant proportion of PsA patients had nail involvement and DIP arthritis. PsA patients with nail changes may be more susceptible to DIP disease. PMID:27251673

  14. A comparison of wire- and Kevlar-reinforced provisional restorations.

    PubMed

    Powell, D B; Nicholls, J I; Yuodelis, R A; Strygler, H

    1994-01-01

    Stainless steel wire 0.036 inch in diameter was compared with Kevlar 49 polyaramid fiber as a means of reinforcing a four-unit posterior provisional fixed restoration with 2 pontics. Three reinforcement patterns for wire and two for Kevlar 49 were evaluated and compared with the control, which was an unreinforced provisional restoration. A central tensile load was placed on the cemented provisional restoration and the variables were measured: (1) the initial stiffness; (2) the load at initial fracture; and (3) the unit toughness, or the energy stored in the beam at a point where the load had undergone a 1.0-mm deflection. Statistical analysis showed (1) the bent wire configuration had a significantly higher initial stiffness (P < or = .05), (2) there was no difference between designs for load at initial fracture, and (3) the bent wire had a significantly higher unit toughness value (P < or = .05). PMID:8179789

  15. The SIGN nail for knee fusion: technique and clinical results

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Duane Ray; Anderson, Lucas Aaron; Haller, Justin M.; Feyissa, Abebe Chala

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluate the efficacy of using the SIGN nail for instrumented knee fusion. Methods: Six consecutive patients (seven knees, three males) with an average age of 30.5 years (range, 18–50 years) underwent a knee arthrodesis with SIGN nail (mean follow-up 10.7 months; range, 8–14 months). Diagnoses included tuberculosis (two knees), congenital knee dislocation in two knees (one patient), bacterial septic arthritis (one knee), malunited spontaneous fusion (one knee), and severe gout with 90° flexion contracture (one knee). The nail was inserted through an anteromedial entry point on the femur and full weightbearing was permitted immediately. Results: All knees had clinical and radiographic evidence of fusion at final follow-up and none required further surgery. Four of six patients ambulated without assistive device, and all patients reported improved overall physical function. There were no post-operative complications. Conclusion: The technique described utilizing the SIGN nail is both safe and effective for knee arthrodesis and useful for austere environments with limited fluoroscopy and implant options. PMID:27163095

  16. An electrochemical modeling of lithium-ion battery nail penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Kuan-Cheng; Lin, Chi-Hao; Yeh, Sheng-Fa; Lin, Yu-Han; Chen, Kuo-Ching

    2014-04-01

    Nail penetration into a battery pack, resulting in a state of short-circuit and thus burning, is likely to occur in electric car collisions. To demonstrate the behavior of a specific battery when subject to such incidents, a standard nail penetration test is usually performed; however, conducting such an experiment is money consuming. The purpose of this study is to propose a numerical electrochemical model that can simulate the test accurately. This simulation makes two accurate predictions. First, we are able to model short-circuited lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) via electrochemical governing equations so that the mass and charge transfer effect could be considered. Second, the temperature variation of the cell during and after nail penetration is accurately predicted with the help of simulating the temperature distribution of thermal runaway cells by thermal abuse equations. According to this nail penetration model, both the onset of battery thermal runaway and the cell temperature profile of the test are obtained, both of which are well fitted with our experimental results.

  17. Detection of Drugs in Nails: Three Year Experience.

    PubMed

    Shu, Irene; Jones, Joseph; Jones, Mary; Lewis, Douglas; Negrusz, Adam

    2015-10-01

    Nails (fingernails and toenails) are made of keratin. As the nail grows, substances incorporate into the keratin fibers where they can be detected 3-6 months after use. Samples are collected by clipping of 2-3 mm of nail from all fingers (100 mg). We present drug testing results from 10,349 nail samples collected from high-risk cases during a 3-year period of time. Samples were analyzed by validated analytical methods. The initial testing was performed mostly using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, but by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) as well. Presumptive positive samples were subjected to confirmatory testing with sample preparation procedures including washing, pulverizing, digestion and extraction optimized for each drug class. The total of 7,799 samples was analyzed for amphetamines. The concentrations ranged from 40 to 572,865 pg/mg (median, 100-3,687) for all amphetamine analytes. Amphetamine and methamphetamine were present in 14% of the samples, 22 samples were positive for 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (0.3%), 7 for methylenedioxyamphetamine (0.09%) and 4 for 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (0.05%). Cocaine and related analytes were found in 5% samples (7,787 total), and the concentration range was 20-265,063 pg/mg (median 84-1,768). Opioids overall ranged from 40 to 118,229 pg/mg (median 123-830). The most prevalent opioid was oxycodone (15.1%) and hydrocodone (11.4%) compared with 1.0-3.6% for the others, including morphine, codeine, hydromorphone, methadone, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine and oxymorphone. Carboxy-Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol positivity rate was 18.1% (0.04-262 pg/mg, median 6.41). Out of 3,039 samples, 756 were positive (24.9%) for ethyl glucuronide (20-3,754 pg/mg, median 88). Other drugs found in nails included barbiturates, benzodiazepines, ketamine, meperidine, tramadol, zolpidem, propoxyphene, naltrexone and buprenorphine. Nail analyses have become a reliable way of determining

  18. Localized corrosion behaviour in simulated human body fluids of commercial Ni-Ti orthodontic wires.

    PubMed

    Rondelli, G; Vicentini, B

    1999-04-01

    The corrosion performances in simulated human body fluids of commercial equiatomic Ni-Ti orthodontic wires having various shape and size and produced by different manufacturers were evaluated; for comparison purposes wires made of stainless steel and of cobalt-based alloy were also examined. Potentiodynamic tests in artificial saliva at 40 degrees C indicated a sufficient pitting resistance for the Ni-Ti wires, similar to that of cobalt-based alloy wire; the stainless steel wire, instead, exhibited low pitting potential. Potentiodynamic tests at 40 degrees C in isotonic saline solution (0.9% NaCl) showed, for Ni-Ti and stainless steel wires, pitting potential values in the range approximately 200-400 mV and approximately 350 mV versus SCE, respectively: consequently, according to literature data (Hoar TP, Mears DC. Proc Roy Soc A 1996;294:486-510), these materials should be considered potentially susceptible to pitting; only the cobalt-based alloy should be immune from pitting. The localized corrosion potentials determined in the same environment by the ASTM F746 test (approximately 0-200 mV and 130 mV versus SCE for Ni-Ti and stainless steel, respectively) pointed out that for these materials an even higher risk of localized corrosion. Slight differences in localized corrosion behaviour among the various Ni-Ti wires were detected. PMID:10353661

  19. Splicing Wires Permanently With Explosives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Kushnick, Anne C.

    1990-01-01

    Explosive joining process developed to splice wires by enclosing and metallurgically bonding wires within copper sheets. Joints exhibit many desirable characteristics, 100-percent conductivity and strength, no heat-induced annealing, no susceptibility to corrosion in contacts between dissimilar metals, and stability at high temperature. Used to join wires to terminals, as well as to splice wires. Applicable to telecommunications industry, in which millions of small wires spliced annually.

  20. Randomized controlled trial of a water-soluble nail lacquer based on hydroxypropyl-chitosan (HPCH), in the management of nail psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Cantoresi, Franca; Caserini, Maurizio; Bidoli, Antonella; Maggio, Francesca; Marino, Raffaella; Carnevale, Claudia; Sorgi, Paola; Palmieri, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Background Nail psoriasis occurs in up to 50% of patients affected by psoriasis, with a significant impact on quality of life that leads to a real clinical need for new therapeutic options. Aim To confirm whether the strengthening and hardening properties of the hydroxypropyl-chitosan (HPCH) nail lacquer could improve the structure of the nail plates on psoriatic nails. Materials and methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, parallel-group trial was carried out to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a hydrosoluble nail lacquer containing HPCH, Equisetum arvense, and methylsulfonylmethane on nail psoriasis. The test product or a placebo was applied once daily for 24 weeks to all fingernails. Efficacy assessments were performed on the target fingernail by means of the modified Nail Psoriasis Severity Index score. A cut-off score of 4 was considered to define the clinical cure rate (ie, Cure ≤4, Failure >4). Results After 24 weeks, the clinical cure rate showed the statistically significant superiority of the HPCH nail lacquer compared to placebo in both the intention-to-treat (Fisher’s exact test, P=0.0445) and the per protocol population (Fisher’s exact test, P=0.0437). This superiority was already present after 16 weeks of treatment. Moreover, the analysis of the modified Nail Psoriasis Severity Index-50 showed a statistically significant clinical improvement after 12 weeks of treatment in comparison to the results obtained after 8 weeks (Fisher’s exact test, P<0.05). Conclusion The trial showed that HPCH nail lacquer could be a new, valid, effective, and safe option for decreasing the signs of nail dystrophy in psoriatic patients. PMID:24904219

  1. Investigation of mechanical properties of cryogenically treated music wire.

    PubMed

    Heptonstall, A; Waller, M; Robertson, N A

    2015-08-01

    It has been reported that treating music wire (high carbon steel wire) by cooling to cryogenic temperatures can enhance its mechanical properties with particular reference to those properties important for musical performance. We use such wire for suspending many of the optics in Advanced LIGO, the upgrade to LIGO—the Laser Interferometric Gravitational-Wave Observatory. Two properties that particularly interest us are mechanical loss and breaking strength. A decrease in mechanical loss would directly reduce the thermal noise associated with the suspension, thus enhancing the noise performance of mirror suspensions within the detector. An increase in strength could allow thinner wire to be safely used, which would enhance the dilution factor of the suspension, again leading to lower suspension thermal noise. In this article, we describe the results of an investigation into some of the mechanical properties of music wire, comparing untreated wire with the same wire which has been cryogenically treated. For the samples we studied, we conclude that there is no significant difference in the properties of interest for application in gravitational wave detectors. PMID:26329213

  2. Investigation of mechanical properties of cryogenically treated music wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heptonstall, A.; Waller, M.; Robertson, N. A.

    2015-08-01

    It has been reported that treating music wire (high carbon steel wire) by cooling to cryogenic temperatures can enhance its mechanical properties with particular reference to those properties important for musical performance. We use such wire for suspending many of the optics in Advanced LIGO, the upgrade to LIGO—the Laser Interferometric Gravitational-Wave Observatory. Two properties that particularly interest us are mechanical loss and breaking strength. A decrease in mechanical loss would directly reduce the thermal noise associated with the suspension, thus enhancing the noise performance of mirror suspensions within the detector. An increase in strength could allow thinner wire to be safely used, which would enhance the dilution factor of the suspension, again leading to lower suspension thermal noise. In this article, we describe the results of an investigation into some of the mechanical properties of music wire, comparing untreated wire with the same wire which has been cryogenically treated. For the samples we studied, we conclude that there is no significant difference in the properties of interest for application in gravitational wave detectors.

  3. Engineering task plan and status of 241-S-106 Enraf level gauge wire break

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, T.L.

    1994-09-01

    This report discusses the findings of a task team which was formed which identified the need for short-term actions to re-establish tank waste level monitoring and to permanently address wire failure. The failed wire was removed and sent to Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for analysis. It was determined that the cause of the wire failure was due to chloride ion stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the 316 stainless steel (SS) wire. Radiation induced breakdown of the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) riser liners is suspected to be the source of the chloride ions.

  4. 76 FR 45509 - Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... Circumstances Review: Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod from Mexico, 75 FR 67685 (November 3, 2010... of the Antidumping Duty and Countervailing Duty Orders, and Intent To Revoke Orders in Part, 68 FR...: Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico, 71 FR 27989 (May 15, 2006). Notification This...

  5. Time-Dependent Electrical Properties of Human Nail Upon Hydration In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    HAO, JINSONG; SMITH, KELLY A.; LI, S. KEVIN

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of hydration and solution ion concentration on the electrical properties of human nail in vivo and compare these in vivo results with those in vitro. In vivo electrical resistance measurements on the nail were conducted with a three-electrode system in phosphate buffered saline of 0.01–0.6 M. The effect of electric current on nail resistance and possible adverse effects were studied under 1.5- and 9-V iontophoresis in vivo. The electrical resistance of the nail plate was measured in vitro in side-by-side diffusion cells under the same conditions and compared with those in vivo. The in vivo electrical resistance decreased significantly upon 2-h nail hydration and then slowly decreased to a constant value, showing the same pattern as that in vitro. No significant effect of the applied voltage upon the nail electrical resistance was observed. Higher current densities caused moderate sensation and slight changes in nail appearance after iontophoresis. The observed decrease in nail resistance demonstrates the significance of nail hydration in transungual iontophoresis. The in vitro and in vivo correlation suggests that the in vitro nail plate can be a model in the research and development of transungual iontophoretic delivery. PMID:19462425

  6. An investigation of how fungal infection influences drug penetration through onychomycosis patient’s nail plates

    PubMed Central

    McAuley, W.J.; Jones, S.A.; Traynor, M.J.; Guesné, S.; Murdan, S.; Brown, M.B.

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of onychomycosis remains problematic even though there are several potent antifungal agents available for patient use. The aim of this investigation was to understand whether the structural modifications that arise when a patient’s nail become infected plates influences the permeation of drugs into the nail following topical application. It was hoped that through improving understanding of the nail barrier in the diseased state, the development of more effective topical treatments for onychomycosis could be facilitated. The permeation of three compounds with differing hydrophobicities, caffeine, terbinafine and amorolfine (clog D at pH 7.4 of −0.55, 3.72 and 4.49 respectively), was assessed across both healthy and onychomycosis infected, full thickness, human nail plate sections. Transonychial water loss (TOWL) measurements performed on the healthy and diseased nails supported previous observations that the nail behaves like a porous barrier given the lack of correlation between TOWL values with the thicker, diseased nails. The flux of the more hydrophilic caffeine was twofold greater across diseased in comparison with the healthy nails, whilst the hydrophobic molecules terbinafine and amorolfine showed no statistically significant change in their nail penetration rates. Caffeine flux across the nail was found to correlate with the TOWL measurements, though no correlation existed for the more hydrophobic drugs. These data supported the notion that the nail pores, opened up by the infection, facilitated the passage of hydrophilic molecules, whilst the keratin binding of hydrophobic molecules meant that their transport through the nail plate was unchanged. Therefore, in order to exploit the structural changes induced by nail fungal infection it would be beneficial to develop a small molecular weight, hydrophilic antifungal agent, which exhibits low levels of keratin binding. PMID:26969264

  7. An investigation of how fungal infection influences drug penetration through onychomycosis patient's nail plates.

    PubMed

    McAuley, W J; Jones, S A; Traynor, M J; Guesné, S; Murdan, S; Brown, M B

    2016-05-01

    The treatment of onychomycosis remains problematic even though there are several potent antifungal agents available for patient use. The aim of this investigation was to understand whether the structural modifications that arise when a patient's nail become infected plates influences the permeation of drugs into the nail following topical application. It was hoped that through improving understanding of the nail barrier in the diseased state, the development of more effective topical treatments for onychomycosis could be facilitated. The permeation of three compounds with differing hydrophobicities, caffeine, terbinafine and amorolfine (clogD at pH 7.4 of -0.55, 3.72 and 4.49 respectively), was assessed across both healthy and onychomycosis infected, full thickness, human nail plate sections. Transonychial water loss (TOWL) measurements performed on the healthy and diseased nails supported previous observations that the nail behaves like a porous barrier given the lack of correlation between TOWL values with the thicker, diseased nails. The flux of the more hydrophilic caffeine was twofold greater across diseased in comparison with the healthy nails, whilst the hydrophobic molecules terbinafine and amorolfine showed no statistically significant change in their nail penetration rates. Caffeine flux across the nail was found to correlate with the TOWL measurements, though no correlation existed for the more hydrophobic drugs. These data supported the notion that the nail pores, opened up by the infection, facilitated the passage of hydrophilic molecules, whilst the keratin binding of hydrophobic molecules meant that their transport through the nail plate was unchanged. Therefore, in order to exploit the structural changes induced by nail fungal infection it would be beneficial to develop a small molecular weight, hydrophilic antifungal agent, which exhibits low levels of keratin binding. PMID:26969264

  8. Death due to disruption of sternal fixation wire--a rare complication after open heart surgery through sternotomy: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Chang, H; Hung, C R

    1989-04-01

    Following sternotomy for open heart surgery, a 57-year-old man had the sternum closed in the usual manner with six No.22 gauge stainless steel wire sutures. Twenty-four days later, sternum disruption occurred with only one wire suture in place, 3 wire sutures cutting through the bone, and 2 wire sutures fractured. A lacerating injury over the anterior surface of the right ventricle was rendered by these 2 fractured wires followed by fatal outcome. To our knowledge, death induced by fractured wires has not been reported. We report in this communication what we believe to be the first case in the literature. PMID:2794943

  9. Wire brush fastening device

    SciTech Connect

    Meigs, R.A.

    1993-08-31

    A fastening device is provided which is a variation on the conventional nut and bolt. The bolt has a longitudinal axis and threading helically affixed thereon along the longitudinal axis. A nut having a bore extending therethrough is provided. The bore of the nut has a greater diameter than the diameter of the bolt so the bolt can extend through the bore. An array of wire bristles are affixed within the bore so as to form a brush. The wire bristles extend inwardly from the bore and are constructed and arranged of the correct size, length and stiffness to guide the bolt within the bore and to restrain the bolt within the bore as required. A variety of applications of the wire brush nut are disclosed, including a bolt capture device and a test rig apparatus.

  10. Wire brush fastening device

    DOEpatents

    Meigs, Richard A.

    1995-01-01

    A fastening device is provided which is a variation on the conventional nut and bolt. The bolt has a longitudinal axis and threading helically affixed thereon along the longitudinal axis. A nut having a bore extending therethrough is provided. The bore of the nut has a greater diameter than the diameter of the bolt so the bolt can extend through the bore. An array of wire bristles are affixed within the bore so as to form a brush. The wire bristles extend inwardly from the bore and are constructed and arranged of the correct size, length and stiffness to guide the bolt within the bore and to restrain the bolt within the bore as required. A variety of applications of the wire brush nut are disclosed, including a bolt capture device and a test rig apparatus.

  11. Wire brush fastening device

    DOEpatents

    Meigs, R.A.

    1995-09-19

    A fastening device is provided which is a variation on the conventional nut and bolt. The bolt has a longitudinal axis and threading helically affixed thereon along the longitudinal axis. A nut having a bore extending therethrough is provided. The bore of the nut has a greater diameter than the diameter of the bolt so the bolt can extend through the bore. An array of wire bristles are affixed within the bore so as to form a brush. The wire bristles extend inwardly from the bore and are constructed and arranged of the correct size, length and stiffness to guide the bolt within the bore and to restrain the bolt within the bore as required. A variety of applications of the wire brush nut are disclosed, including a bolt capture device and a test rig apparatus. 13 figs.

  12. Dielectric coated wire antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, J. H.; Newman, E. H.

    1976-01-01

    An electrically thin dielectric insulating shell on an antenna composed of electrically thin circular cylindrical wires is examined. A moment method solution is obtained, and the insulating shell is modeled by equivalent volume polarization currents. These polarization currents are related in a simple manner to the surface charge density on the wire antenna. In this way the insulating shell causes no new unknowns to be introduced, and the size of the impedance matrix is the same as for the uninsulated wires. The insulation is accounted for entirely through a modification of the symmetric impedance matrix. This modification influences the current distribution, impedance, efficiency, field patterns, and scattering properties. The theory is compared with measurement for dielectric coated antennas in air.

  13. 2. TYPICAL OVERHEAD WIRE CONSTRUCTION CURVE GUY WIRE ARRANGEMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. TYPICAL OVERHEAD WIRE CONSTRUCTION - CURVE GUY WIRE ARRANGEMENT (ABANDONED WEST LEG OF WYE AT SIXTH AVENUE AND PINE STREET) - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Trackage, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  14. A biomechanical study of 3 different types of sublaminar wire used for constructs in the thoracic spine.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Hideki; Yamazaki, Ken; Attallah-Wasif, Emad S; Tsai, Kai-Jow; Shimamura, Tadashi; Hutton, William C

    2006-08-01

    A biomechanical study was carried out on 3 different types of sublaminar wire used in constructs to secure the thoracic spine: stainless steel monofilament wire (steel wire), titanium cable (cable), and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene tape (tape). Two experiments were carried out. Experiment 1: Thirty-one fresh human thoracic vertebrae classified as osteoporotic (bone mineral density of <0.8 g/cm2) were used. The steel wire, cable, or tape was placed sublaminarly and a tensile force was applied until the steel wire, cable, or tape cut 5 mm through the lamina, and the force at this point was noted. Experiment 2: Seven fresh human thoracic spines (T7-T10) were biomechanically tested as follows: axial compression (250 N), flexion (7.5 Nm), extension (7.5 Nm), left lateral bending (7.5 Nm), right lateral bending (7.5 Nm), left axial torsion (10 Nm), and right axial torsion (10 Nm). This sequence was applied to the intact spine. The spine was then de-stabilized and then restabilized using one or other of the 3 different types of sublaminar wires. The biomechanical testing was then repeated on the restabilized spine and stiffness curves were generated. In the laminar cut-through test, the cut-through force for tape was higher than that for either steel wire or cable. In the biomechanical stiffness testing, there was no significant difference between the 3 different sublaminar wiring constructs in any of the loading modes tested. The results of both experiments suggest that tape is as good, if not better, than steel wire or cable as a sublaminar wiring construct material. PMID:16891981

  15. Flying wires at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Gannon, J.; Crawford, C.; Finley, D.; Flora, R.; Groves, T.; MacPherson, M.

    1989-03-01

    Transverse beam profile measurement systems called ''Flying Wires'' have been installed and made operational in the Fermilab Main Ring and Tevatron accelerators. These devices are used routinely to measure the emittance of both protons and antiprotons throughout the fill process, and for emittance growth measurements during stores. In the Tevatron, the individual transverse profiles of six proton and six antiproton bunches are obtained simultaneously, with a single pass of the wire through the beam. Essential features of the hardware, software, and system operation are explained in the rest of the paper. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Identifying Health and Safety Concerns in Southeast Asian Immigrant Nail Salon Workers.

    PubMed

    White, Hannah; Khan, Khalid; Lau, Christine; Leung, Holden; Montgomery, Dede; Rohlman, Diane S

    2015-01-01

    Nail salon workers are exposed to a variety of toxic chemicals at levels that remain unreported and have undetermined health consequences. The objective of the study was to gather information about the hazards in nail salons along with safety practices and health concerns of nail salon workers. A survey was conducted on 65 nail salon workers who were immigrants from Southeast Asia in Oregon, USA. More than 20% of the participants reported nose irritation and allergies as the most common health problems. Rare and no use of gloves and mask were reported among 72% and 32% of the participants, respectively. A significantly higher number of participants with "fair" or "poor" self-reported general health condition was found among the workers who applied acrylic nails compared with those who were not involved in this application. Findings of the study emphasize the need for more research to determine the relationship between chemical exposures in nail salons and health outcomes. PMID:25965322

  17. Perception of brittle nails in dermatologic patients: a cross-sectional study*

    PubMed Central

    Gequelim, Giulio Cesar; Kubota, Cynthia Yone; Sanches, Sarah; Dranka, Daniela; Mejia, Marcelo Murilo; Sumiya, Fernando Mitsuo; Schmitt, Juliano Vilaverde

    2013-01-01

    Brittle Nails Syndrome is characterized by fragility of the nail plate, affecting 27% of women. We evaluated dermatology patients in a cross-sectional study about perception of nail fragility. One hundred and thirtyeight women were included, with median age of 36.5 years. Nail examination showed changes in 57% and 49% reported nail fragility. The first three fingernails were the most affected. Onychoschizia was related to onychophagia (OR = 3.29), housework (OR = 2.95) and water contact (OR = 2.44). Onychorrhexis had the strongest association with nail fragility perception (OR = 17.89). The fragility was more perceived by those who were black, of mixed race and atopic, and was associated with depressed mood. PMID:24474124

  18. Management of a Low-Energy Penetrating Brain Injury Caused by a Nail

    PubMed Central

    Aguiar, G. B.; Vitorino-Araujo, J. L.; Badke, G. L.; Veiga, J. C. E.

    2016-01-01

    Low-energy penetrating nail injury to the brain is an extremely rare neurosurgical emergency. The most common cause of nail gun injury is work related accidents; other causes result from accidental firing of a nail gun, suicide attempts by firing nail guns into the brain, and bomb blasts containing pieces of nails. Neurosurgical treatment performed by craniotomy still seems to be the safest one; there are reports of complications such as subdural hematoma and intraparenchymal hemorrhages following the blind removal of foreign bodies leading to suggestions that all penetrating foreign bodies should be removed under direct vision. We report a rarely described neurosurgical approach for removal of a penetrating nail from the brain and skull without evidence of associated hematoma and other brain lesions. PMID:27429815

  19. Full thickness burns caused by cyanoacrylate nail glue: A case series.

    PubMed

    Kelemen, Noemi; Karagergou, Eleni; Jones, Sarah L; Morritt, Andrew N

    2016-06-01

    Artificial (acrylic) nails are popular cosmetic enhancements that provide the user with the appearance of manicured nails, do not chip or crack, and are generally considered very safe to apply. We report three cases where full thickness thermal burns were sustained from nail glue adhesive (cyanoacrylate) during the application of artificial nails. All three cases underwent surgical debridement and split skin graft reconstruction. We carried out an experiment to characterize the exothermic reaction between nail glue and cotton leggings. The average high temperature produced was 68°C which was sustained for 12.2s which is more than sufficient to cause full thickness burns on skin. We report these cases to increase both professional and public awareness of this serious potential complication associated with the application of artificial nails. PMID:26777605

  20. Management of a Low-Energy Penetrating Brain Injury Caused by a Nail.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, V R; Aguiar, G B; Vitorino-Araujo, J L; Badke, G L; Veiga, J C E

    2016-01-01

    Low-energy penetrating nail injury to the brain is an extremely rare neurosurgical emergency. The most common cause of nail gun injury is work related accidents; other causes result from accidental firing of a nail gun, suicide attempts by firing nail guns into the brain, and bomb blasts containing pieces of nails. Neurosurgical treatment performed by craniotomy still seems to be the safest one; there are reports of complications such as subdural hematoma and intraparenchymal hemorrhages following the blind removal of foreign bodies leading to suggestions that all penetrating foreign bodies should be removed under direct vision. We report a rarely described neurosurgical approach for removal of a penetrating nail from the brain and skull without evidence of associated hematoma and other brain lesions. PMID:27429815